WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface insulation materials

  1. Reusable Surface Insulation Tile Thermal Protection Materials: Past, Present and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Stewart, David A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Silica (LI-900) Reusable Surface Insulation (RSI) tile have been used on the majority of the Shuttle since its initial flight. Its overall performance with Reaction Cured Glass (RCG) coating applied will be reviewed. Improvements in insulations, Fibrous Refractory Composite Insulation (FRCI-12) and Alumina Enhanced Thermal Barrier (AETB-8) and coatings/surface treatments such as Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation (TUFI) have been developed and successfully applied. The performance of these enhancements on the Shuttle Orbiters over the past few years along with the next version of tile materials, High Efficiency Tantalum-based Ceramic (HETC) with even broader applicability will also be discussed.

  2. Sound absorption of low-temperature reusable surface insulation candidate materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Sound absorption data from tests of four candidate low-temperature reusable surface insulation materials are presented. Limitations on the use of the data are discussed, conclusions concerning the effective absorption of the materials are drawn, and the relative significance to Vibration and Acoustic Test Facility test planning of the absorption of each material is assessed.

  3. A simple approach to measure the surface resistivity of insulating materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Wang, Qian

    2011-01-01

    or 250V DC signal. The probe assembly is constructed according to Danish Standard (DS/EN 1149-1:2006). The multi-meter (Agilent 3440 1A 6½) is used to measure the micro voltage over a known resistor which is serially connected with electrodes in the probe assembly. In order to obtain reliable...... for different materials, source voltages, and serially connected resistors. The testing results showed that the developed system and methods can provide a reasonably accurate measurement of surface resistivity of insulating materials in a robust and economic manner....

  4. Conducting and insulating materials

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotinha, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Conducting materials may be classified into three groups: conductors, semiconductors and imperfect insulators. This section will cover only conductors. In general, metals and alloys are conductors of electricity. The most common metals used in electricity are copper, aluminium and their alloys. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

  5. Lessons learned from the development and manufacture of ceramic reusable surface insulation materials for the space shuttle orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, R. P.; Elgin, D. R.; Cordia, E. R.; Nickel, K. N.; Gzowski, E. R.; Aguiler, L.

    1983-01-01

    Three ceramic, reusable surface insulation materials and two borosilicate glass coatings were used in the fabrication of tiles for the Space Shuttle orbiters. Approximately 77,000 tiles were made from these materials for the first three orbiters, Columbia, Challenger, and Discovery. Lessons learned in the development, scale up to production and manufacturing phases of these materials will benefit future production of ceramic reusable surface insulation materials. Processing of raw materials into tile blanks and coating slurries; programming and machining of tiles using numerical controlled milling machines; preparing and spraying tiles with the two coatings; and controlling material shrinkage during the high temperature (2100-2275 F) coating glazing cycles are among the topics discussed.

  6. Thermal insulation blanket material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusch, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted to provide a tailorable advanced blanket insulation based on a woven design having an integrally woven core structure. A highly pure quartz yarn was selected for weaving and the cells formed were filled with a microquartz felt insulation.

  7. Evaluation of thermal insulation materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbers, O. J.; Conti, J. C.; Mcgee, J. V.; Mcpherson, J. I.

    1973-01-01

    Data was obtained on silicone-bonded fiberglass, isocyanurate foam, and two dozen other insulators. Materials were selected to withstand heat sterilization, outer space, and the Martian atmosphere. Significant environmental parameters were vibration, landing shock, and launch venting.

  8. Surface electrical resistivity of insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senn, B. C.; Liesegang, J.

    1996-01-01

    A method is presented here for measuring surface charge decay, and theory has been developed so as to produce determinations of resistivity in the surface region of insulator films or wafers. This method incorporates the use of a coaxial cylindrical capacitor arrangement and an electrometer interfaced to a PC. The charge transport theory given here is based on Mott-Gurney diffusion, and allows easy interpretation of the experimental data, especially for the initial phase of surface charge decay. Resistivity measurements are presented for glass, mica, perspex and polyethylene, covering a range of 10 9 to 10 18 Ωm, as an illustration of the useful range of the instrument for static and antistatic materials, particularly in film or sheet form. Values for the surface charge diffusion constants of the materials are also presented. The charge transport theory has also been extended to allow the experimental and computational theoretical comparison of surface charge decay not only over the initial phase of charge decay, but also over longer times. The theoretical predictions show excellent agreement with experiment using the values for the diffusion constants referred to above

  9. Status of surface conduction in topological insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barua, Sourabh; Rajeev, K. P.

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we scrutinize the thickness dependent resistivity data from the recent literature on electrical transport measurements in topological insulators. A linear increase in resistivity with increase in thickness is expected in the case of these materials since they have an insulating bulk and a conducting surface. However, such a trend is not seen in the resistivity versus thickness data for all the cases examined, except for some samples, where it holds for a range of thickness

  10. Ion flooding to precharge insulating materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacArthur, D.; Steadman, P.; Bounds, J.; Whitley, C.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The collection of ions created by alpha particles in air is a powerful technique for detecting the presence of alpha-emitting radioactive contamination. These ions have a relatively long lifetime (greater than 5 seconds) in air so the ions can travel much longer distances than the alpha particles themselves. However, such ion detection is difficult when the object being surveyed is an insulating material. An insulating object does not release ions generated until the surface of the object has completely discharged. Thus, there are significant response-time problems with contamination on insulating objects. This project sought to investigate the technique of {open_quotes}flooding{close_quotes} the suspect object with ions prior to the actual contamination detection measurement. Our preliminary conclusion is that such flooding will enhance detection speed on insulating objects.

  11. High temperature structural insulating material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.Y.

    1984-07-27

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800/sup 0/C), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m/sup 0/C), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800/sup 0/C, a diameter within the range of 20-200 ..mu..m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2 to 4 ..mu..m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  12. Thermal performance of FRSI/graphite epoxy materials for the Orbiter TPS application. [Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, I.; Ritrivi, C. A.; Tillian, D. J.; Maraia, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Radiant tests have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (FRSI) when bonded to Graphite/Epoxy (G/E) honeycomb sandwich structures. The results from this study indicate reasonable agreement with the baseline FRSI properties that existed prior to this test program. An updated Thermal Math Model (TMM) prediction technique was developed, with the use of the well-defined boundary conditions, which appears to be valid in analyzing the complex heat transfer associated with the honeycomb structure. The updated TM analysis of flight data resulted in good agreement of predicted temperatures with flight data for bondline responses of Orbiter FRSI/GE TPS applications.

  13. Insulation materials for advanced water storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2005-01-01

    sections different insulation materials are described with respect to material characteristics and some comments on the easiness of application for tank insulation. The material properties listed in this paper are typical values, which gives an idea of the possibilities but in case of a specific design...

  14. Neutron shielding heat insulation material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Susumu; Asaumi, Hiroshi; Take, Shigeo; Miyakoshi, Jun-ichi; Takemoto, Hiroshi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve decceleration and absorption of neutrons by incorporating neutron moderators and neutron absorbers in asbestos to thereby increase hydrogen concentration. Constitution: A mixture consisting of crysotile asbestos, surface active agent and water is well stirred and compounded to open the crysotile asbestos filaments and prepare a high viscosity slurry. After adding hydroxides such as magnesium hydroxide, hydrated salts such as magnesium borate hydrate or water containing minerals such as alumina cement hydrate, or boron compound to the slurry, the slurry is charged in a predetermined die, and dried and compressed to prepare shielding heat insulation products. The crysotile asbestos has 18 - 15 wt.% of water of crystallinity in the structure and contains a considerably high hydrogen concentration that acts as neutron moderators. (Kawakami, Y.)

  15. Unconventional Fermi surface in an insulating state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Neil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tan, B. S. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Hsu, Y. -T. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Zeng, B. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Hatnean, M. Ciomaga [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Zhu, Z. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hartstein, M. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kiourlappou, M. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Srivastava, A. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Johannes, M. D. [Center for Computational Materials Science, Washington, DC (United States); Murphy, T. P. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Park, J. -H. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Balicas, L. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Lonzarich, G. G. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Balakrishnan, G. [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Sebastian, Suchitra E. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-17

    Insulators occur in more than one guise; a recent finding was a class of topological insulators, which host a conducting surface juxtaposed with an insulating bulk. Here, we report the observation of an unusual insulating state with an electrically insulating bulk that simultaneously yields bulk quantum oscillations with characteristics of an unconventional Fermi liquid. We present quantum oscillation measurements of magnetic torque in high-purity single crystals of the Kondo insulator SmB6, which reveal quantum oscillation frequencies characteristic of a large three-dimensional conduction electron Fermi surface similar to the metallic rare earth hexaborides such as PrB6 and LaB6. As a result, the quantum oscillation amplitude strongly increases at low temperatures, appearing strikingly at variance with conventional metallic behavior.

  16. External insulation with cellular plastic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Nielsen, Anker

    2014-01-01

    External thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS) can be used as extra insulation of existing buildings. The system can be made of cellular plastic materials or mineral wool. There is a European Technical guideline, ETAG 004, that describe the tests that shall be conducted on such systems...

  17. Thermophysical investigations of nanotechnological insulation materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Ákos

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, to sufficiently reduce the heat loss through the wall structures with the so-called traditional insulations (polystyrene and fibrous slabs), huge thicknesses (20 - 25 cm) must be applied. In some cases there is no place for their applications e.g.: historical or heritage builfings, since the use of nano-insulation materials (aerogel, vacuum ceramic paints) takes place. They are said to be much more efficient insulations than the above mentioned ones, since they should be used in thinner forms. In this article the thermal insulating capability of solid brick wall covered with a silica-aerogel slab with 1.3 cm, moreover with a vacuum ceramic hollow contained paint with 2 mm thick are investigated. As well as a literature review about the thermal conductivity of nano-technological insulation materials will be given. Comparison of the atomic and thermal diffusion will be also presented.

  18. 14 CFR 25.856 - Thermal/Acoustic insulation materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Thermal/Acoustic insulation materials. 25....856 Thermal/Acoustic insulation materials. (a) Thermal/acoustic insulation material installed in the.../acoustic insulation materials (including the means of fastening the materials to the fuselage) installed in...

  19. Insulating materials resistance in intense radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oproiu, Constantin; Martin, Diana; Scarlat, Florin; Timus, Dan; Brasoveanu, Mirela; Nemtanu, Monica

    2002-01-01

    The paper emphasizes the main changes of the mechanical and electrical properties of some organic insulating materials exposed to accelerated electron beams. These materials are liable to be used in nuclear plants and particle accelerators. The principal mechanical and electrical properties analyzed were: tensile strength, fracture strength, tearing on fracture, dielectric strength, electrical resistivity, dielectric constant and tangent angle of dielectric losses. (authors)

  20. Synthesis and characterization of innovative insulation materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skaropoulou Aggeliki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulation elements are distinguished in inorganic fibrous and organic foamed materials. Foamed insulation materials are of great acceptance and use, but their major disadvantage is their flammability. In case of fire, they tend to transmit the flame producing toxic gases. In this paper, the synthesis and characterization of innovative inorganic insulation materials with properties competitive to commercial is presented. Their synthesis involves the mixing of inorganic raw material and water with reinforcing agent or/and foaming agent leading to the formation of a gel. Depending on raw materials nature, the insulation material is produced by freeze drying or ambient drying techniques of the gel. The raw material used are chemically benign and abundantly available materials, or industrial by-products and the final products are non-toxic and, in some cases, non-flammable. Their density and thermal conductivity was measured and found 0.02-0.06 g/cm3 and 0.03-0.04 W/mK, respectively.

  1. Aerogel Blanket Insulation Materials for Cryogenic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, B. E.; Fesmire, J. E.; White, S.; Gould, G.; Augustynowicz, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aerogel blanket materials for use in thermal insulation systems are now commercially available and implemented by industry. Prototype aerogel blanket materials were presented at the Cryogenic Engineering Conference in 1997 and by 2004 had progressed to full commercial production by Aspen Aerogels. Today, this new technology material is providing superior energy efficiencies and enabling new design approaches for more cost effective cryogenic systems. Aerogel processing technology and methods are continuing to improve, offering a tailor-able array of product formulations for many different thermal and environmental requirements. Many different varieties and combinations of aerogel blankets have been characterized using insulation test cryostats at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Detailed thermal conductivity data for a select group of materials are presented for engineering use. Heat transfer evaluations for the entire vacuum pressure range, including ambient conditions, are given. Examples of current cryogenic applications of aerogel blanket insulation are also given. KEYWORDS: Cryogenic tanks, thermal insulation, composite materials, aerogel, thermal conductivity, liquid nitrogen boil-off

  2. Thermal/acoustical aircraft insulation material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzik, E. A.; Kunz, R.; Lin, R.

    1975-01-01

    Attempts made to improve the acoustical properties of low density Fiberfrax foam, an aircraft insulation material, are reported. Characterizations were also made of the physical and thermal properties. Two methods, optimization of fiber blend composition and modification of the foam fabrication process, were examined as possible means of improving foam acoustics. Flame impingement tests were also made; results show performance was satisfactory.

  3. Study on Insulating Material by Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Yasuyuki; Kurosumi, Akihiro; Ishikawa, Keita

    Under circumstances such as global warming caused by carbon dioxide and other green house gas and crisis of depletion of fossil resources, recyclable resources such as biomass have captured the world's attention as reproducible resources alternative to petroleum. Therefore the technologies such to manufacture chemicals from recyclable resources have been developed for the achievement of measures for controlling global warming and the low carbon society. Recently, the bioplastic such as polylactic resin is applied to the home appliances and the automobile interior part as substitution of general-purpose plastic Moreover, the insulation oil from the vegetable oil has been put to practical use. The application of recyclable resources is extending in an electric field. In this paper, we introduce the characteristic and the problem of the insulating material made from recyclable resources in the field of the solid insulation.

  4. Nanoscale processes on insulating surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gnecco, Enrico; Szymoński, Marek

    2009-01-01

    ... the group of Prof. Ernst Meyer in Basel, where he investigated friction processes on alkali halide surfaces in ultra high vacuum (UHV). The main result was the observation of a logarithmic velocity dependence of atomic friction, which was interpreted within a combination of the classical Tomlinson and Eyring models. After his Ph.D. he joined the ...

  5. Moisture buffer capacity of different insulation materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing focus on the possibilities of utilizing the absorptive ability of porous materials to create passive control of humidity variations in the indoor air. These variations result in peaks in the indoor air humidity due to moisture production, or in the exterior building envelope...... lead to more durable constructions. In this paper, a large range of very different thermal insulation materials have been tested in specially constructed laboratory facilities to determine their moisture buffer capacity. Both isothermal and nonisothermal experimental set-ups have been used...... are discussed, and different ways are presented how to determine the moisture buffer capacity of the materials using partly standard material parameters and partly parameters determined from the actual measurements. The results so far show that the determination of moisture buffer capacity is very sensitive...

  6. Some characteristics of metal migration in or on the surface of insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, R.B.

    1978-03-01

    This report reviews the migration of metals, principally silver, in or on the surface of insulating materials, by electrolytic processes. These processes are described for various metals, insulating materials and physical conditions, with numerous examples from the literature. While it is concluded that the only sure way to prevent degradation of insulation due to metal migration is to avoid the use of migration-prone metals, some other measures are mentioned which have been reported to reduce the extent of the growth. (author)

  7. Radiation degradation of insulating materials under stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, T.; Kusama, Y.; Itoh, M.; Kawakami, W.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of stress on the radiation degradation of insulating and jacketing materials of electric wires were studied. Dumbbell-shaped samples of four kinds of insulating and jacketing materials such as chlorosulfonated polyethylene CSM, ethylene-propylene rubber EPR, chloroprene CR and silicone rubber SiR were exposed to various conditions of irradiation under stress. Stress were added by straining the samples from O to 100% of the initial length. Tensile properties were measured by using Shimazu Autograph with a cross head speed of 200 mm/min, and the breaking energy was calculated from the stress-strain curves. The tension set was not seen without irradiation, but observed to increase with the dose and initial strain for all materials and not to depend on irradiation conditions. Those of EPR and SiR become equal to the initial strain above 1.0 MGy. These tension sets are not annealed by heating at 100-120 0 C for 24 hours. The elongation and strength at break decrease with the dose and initial strain. And the influence of the initial strain on the degradation is seen more clearly in the elongation for CSM and CR, and in the tensile strength for EPR and SiR, respectively. The influence of the initial strain was also examined by the value D 50% which is defined as a dose at which the breaking energy calculated from the stress-strain curve becomes to 50% of the unirradiated sample's value

  8. Standard Practice for Evaluating Thermal Insulation Materials for Use in Solar Collectors

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 This practice sets forth a testing methodology for evaluating the properties of thermal insulation materials to be used in solar collectors with concentration ratios of less than 10. Tests are given herein to evaluate the pH, surface burning characteristics, moisture adsorption, water absorption, thermal resistance, linear shrinkage (or expansion), hot surface performance, and accelerated aging. This practice provides a test for surface burning characteristics but does not provide a methodology for determining combustibility performance of thermal insulation materials. 1.2 The tests shall apply to blanket, rigid board, loose-fill, and foam thermal insulation materials used in solar collectors. Other thermal insulation materials shall be tested in accordance with the provisions set forth herein and should not be excluded from consideration. 1.3 The assumption is made that elevated temperature, moisture, and applied stresses are the primary factors contributing to the degradation of thermal insulation mat...

  9. On-surface synthesis on a bulk insulator surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Antje; Floris, Andrea; Bechstein, Ralf; Kantorovich, Lev; Kühnle, Angelika

    2018-04-01

    On-surface synthesis has rapidly emerged as a most promising approach to prepare functional molecular structures directly on a support surface. Compared to solution synthesis, performing chemical reactions on a surface offers several exciting new options: due to the absence of a solvent, reactions can be envisioned that are otherwise not feasible due to the insolubility of the reaction product. Perhaps even more important, the confinement to a two-dimensional surface might enable reaction pathways that are not accessible otherwise. Consequently, on-surface synthesis has attracted great attention in the last decade, with an impressive number of classical reactions transferred to a surface as well as new reactions demonstrated that have no classical analogue. So far, the majority of the work has been carried out on conducting surfaces. However, when aiming for electronic decoupling of the resulting structures, e.g. for the use in future molecular electronic devices, non-conducting surfaces are highly desired. Here, we review the current status of on-surface reactions demonstrated on the (10.4) surface of the bulk insulator calcite. Besides thermally induced C-C coupling of halogen-substituted aryls, photochemically induced [2  +  2] cycloaddition has been proven possible on this surface. Moreover, experimental evidence exists for coupling of terminal alkynes as well as diacetylene polymerization. While imaging of the resulting structures with dynamic atomic force microscopy provides a direct means of reaction verification, the detailed reaction pathway often remains unclear. Especially in cases where the presence of metal atoms is known to catalyze the corresponding solution chemistry reaction (e.g. in the case of the Ullmann reaction), disclosing the precise reaction pathway is of importance to understand and generalize on-surface reactivity on a bulk insulator surface. To this end, density-functional theory calculations have proven to provide atomic

  10. Nonlinear optical and optoelectronic studies of topological insulator surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, James W.

    Since their experimental discovery in 2008, topological insulators have been catapulted to the forefront of condensed matter physics research owing to their potential to realize both exciting new technologies as well as novel electronic phases that are inaccessible in any other material class. Their exotic properties arise from a rare quantum organization of its electrons called "topological order,'' which evades the conventional broken symmetry based-classification scheme used to categorize nearly every other state of ordered matter. Instead, topologically ordered phases are classified by topological invariants, which characterize the phase of an electron's wavefunction as it moves through momentum space. When a topologically ordered phase is interfaced with an ordinary phase, such as the vacuum, a novel metallic state appears at their shared boundary. In topological insulators, this results in the formation of a two-dimensional metallic state that spans all of its surfaces. The surface state electronic spectrum is characterized by a single linearly dispersing and helically spin-polarized Dirac cone that is robust against disorder. The helical nature of the surface Dirac cone is highly novel because the Dirac electrons carry a net magnetic moment and are capable of transporting 100% spin-polarized electrical currents, which are the long-sought electronic properties needed for many spin-based electronic applications. However, owing to the small bulk band gap and intrinsic electronic doping inherent to these materials, isolating the surface electronic response from the bulk has proven to be a major experimental obstacle. In this thesis, we demonstrate the means by which light can be used to isolate and study the surface electronic response of topological insulators using optoelectronic and nonlinear optical techniques. In chapter 1, we overview the physics of topological order and topological insulators. In chapter 2, we show how polarized light can be used to

  11. The spectral function for Mott insulating surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Manuel, L O; Feiguin, A E; Trumper, A E

    2003-01-01

    We show theoretically the fingerprints of short-range spiral magnetic correlations in the photoemission spectra of the Mott insulating ground states realized in the sq root 3 x sq root 3 triangular silicon surfaces K/Si(111)-B and SiC(0001). The calculated spectra present low-energy features of magnetic origin with a reduced dispersion approx 10-40 meV compared with the centre-of-mass spectra bandwidth approx 0.2-0.3 eV. Remarkably, we find that the quasiparticle (QP) signal survives only around the magnetic Goldstone modes. Our findings position these silicon surfaces as new candidates for investigation in the search for non-conventional QP excitations.

  12. The spectral function for Mott insulating surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel, L O [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET) and Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Boulevard 27 de Febrero 210 bis (2000) Rosario (Argentina); Gazza, C J [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET) and Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Boulevard 27 de Febrero 210 bis (2000) Rosario (Argentina); Feiguin, A E [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA (United States); Trumper, A E [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET) and Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Boulevard 27 de Febrero 210 bis (2000) Rosario (Argentina)

    2003-05-07

    We show theoretically the fingerprints of short-range spiral magnetic correlations in the photoemission spectra of the Mott insulating ground states realized in the {radical}3 x{radical} 3 triangular silicon surfaces K/Si(111)-B and SiC(0001). The calculated spectra present low-energy features of magnetic origin with a reduced dispersion {approx}10-40 meV compared with the centre-of-mass spectra bandwidth {approx}0.2-0.3 eV. Remarkably, we find that the quasiparticle (QP) signal survives only around the magnetic Goldstone modes. Our findings position these silicon surfaces as new candidates for investigation in the search for non-conventional QP excitations.

  13. The spectral function for Mott insulating surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuel, L O; Gazza, C J; Feiguin, A E; Trumper, A E

    2003-01-01

    We show theoretically the fingerprints of short-range spiral magnetic correlations in the photoemission spectra of the Mott insulating ground states realized in the √3 x√ 3 triangular silicon surfaces K/Si(111)-B and SiC(0001). The calculated spectra present low-energy features of magnetic origin with a reduced dispersion ∼10-40 meV compared with the centre-of-mass spectra bandwidth ∼0.2-0.3 eV. Remarkably, we find that the quasiparticle (QP) signal survives only around the magnetic Goldstone modes. Our findings position these silicon surfaces as new candidates for investigation in the search for non-conventional QP excitations

  14. Electromagnetic Nondestructive Evaluation of Wire Insulation and Models of Insulation Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Nicola; Kessler, Michael R.; Li, Li; Hondred, Peter R.; Chen, Tianming

    2012-01-01

    Polymers have been widely used as wiring electrical insulation materials in space/air-craft. The dielectric properties of insulation polymers can change over time, however, due to various aging processes such as exposure to heat, humidity and mechanical stress. Therefore, the study of polymers used in electrical insulation of wiring is important to the aerospace industry due to potential loss of life and aircraft in the event of an electrical fire caused by breakdown of wiring insulation. Part of this research is focused on studying the mechanisms of various environmental aging process of the polymers used in electrical wiring insulation and the ways in which their dielectric properties change as the material is subject to the aging processes. The other part of the project is to determine the feasibility of a new capacitive nondestructive testing method to indicate degradation in the wiring insulation, by measuring its permittivity.

  15. Nanometric holograms based on a topological insulator material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zengji; Xue, Gaolei; Liu, Juan; Wang, Yongtian; Gu, Min

    2017-05-01

    Holography has extremely extensive applications in conventional optical instruments spanning optical microscopy and imaging, three-dimensional displays and metrology. To integrate holography with modern low-dimensional electronic devices, holograms need to be thinned to a nanometric scale. However, to keep a pronounced phase shift modulation, the thickness of holograms has been generally limited to the optical wavelength scale, which hinders their integration with ultrathin electronic devices. Here, we break this limit and achieve 60 nm holograms using a topological insulator material. We discover that nanometric topological insulator thin films act as an intrinsic optical resonant cavity due to the unequal refractive indices in their metallic surfaces and bulk. The resonant cavity leads to enhancement of phase shifts and thus the holographic imaging. Our work paves a way towards integrating holography with flat electronic devices for optical imaging, data storage and information security.

  16. THE PROSPECTS OF CREATION OF A MODIFIED INSULATING INORGANIC MATERIAL BASED ON SILICA AND ALUMINA MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the analysis of use of heat insulation materials inUkraineis given. The advantages of creation of heat insulation inorganic material on the basis of aluminum silicate raw material compared to the heat insulation materials utilized today are shown.

  17. Spoilt for choice. Insulation materials; Qual der Wahl. Daemmstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    The large number of supplied insulation materials is not made easy for the customers to make a choice: Products from renewable raw materials have an excellent quality in the competition. Conventional products also perform well.

  18. Outgassing of solid material into vacuum thermal insulation spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pao-Lien

    1994-01-01

    Many cryogenic storage tanks use vacuum between inner and outer tank for thermal insulation. These cryogenic tanks also use a radiation shield barrier in the vacuum space to prevent radiation heat transfer. This shield is usually constructed by using multiple wraps of aluminized mylar and glass paper as inserts. For obtaining maximum thermal performance, a good vacuum level must be maintained with the insulation system. It has been found that over a period of time solid insulation materials will vaporize into the vacuum space and the vacuum will degrade. In order to determine the degradation of vacuum, the rate of outgassing of the insulation materials must be determined. Outgassing rate of several insulation materials obtained from literature search were listed in tabular form.

  19. Investigation of Vacuum Insulator Surface Dielectric Strength with Nanosecond Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunnally, W.C.; Krogh, M.; Williams, C.; Trimble, D.; Sampayan, S.; Caporaso, G.

    2003-01-01

    The maximum vacuum insulator surface dielectric strength determines the acceleration electric field gradient possible in a short pulse accelerator. Previous work has indicated that higher electric field strengths along the insulator-vacuum interface might be obtained as the pulse duration is decreased. In this work, a 250 kV, single ns wide impulse source was applied to small diameter, segmented insulators samples in a vacuum to evaluate the multi-layer surface dielectric strength of the sample construction. Resonances in the low inductance test geometry were used to obtain unipolar, pulsed electric fields in excess of 100 MV/m on the insulator surface. The sample construction, experimental arrangement and experimental results are presented for the initial data in this work. Modeling of the multi-layer structure is discussed and methods of improving insulator surface dielectric strength in a vacuum are proposed

  20. Local Thermal Insulating Materials For Thermal Energy Storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal insulation is one of the most important components of a thermal energy storage system. In this paper the thermal properties of selected potential local materials which can be used for high temperature insulation are presented. Thermal properties of seven different samples were measured. Samples consisted of: ...

  1. Energy Consumption of Insulated Material Using Thermal Effect Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzil M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wall is one of the structures elements that resist direct heat from the atmosphere. Modification on several structures is relevance to reduce filtrate thermal movement on wall. Insulation material seems to be suitable to be implemented since its purpose meets the heat resistance requirement. Insulation material applied as to generate positive impact in energy saving through reduction in total building energy consumption. Fiberglass is one of the insulation materials that can be used to insulate a space from heat and sound. Fiberglass is flammable insulation material with R Value rated of R-2.9 to R-3.8 which meets the requirement in minimizing heat transfer. Finite element software, ABAQUS v6.13 employed for analyze non insulated wall and other insulated wall with different wall thicknesses. The several calculations related to overall heat movement, total energy consumption per unit area of wall, life cycle cost analysis and determination of optimal insulation thickness is calculated due to show the potential of the implementation in minimize heat transfer and generate potential energy saving in building operation. It is hoped that the study can contribute to better understanding on the potential building wall retrofitting works in increasing building serviceability and creating potential benefits for building owner.

  2. Foam/Aerogel Composite Materials for Thermal and Acoustic Insulation and Cryogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); Sass, Jared P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The invention involves composite materials containing a polymer foam and an aerogel. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability, good acoustic insulation, and excellent physical mechanical properties. The composite materials can be used, for instance, for heat and acoustic insulation on aircraft, spacecraft, and maritime ships in place of currently used foam panels and other foam products. The materials of the invention can also be used in building construction with their combination of light weight, strength, elasticity, ability to be formed into desired shapes, and superior thermal and acoustic insulation power. The materials have also been found to have utility for storage of cryogens. A cryogenic liquid or gas, such as N.sub.2 or H.sub.2, adsorbs to the surfaces in aerogel particles. Thus, another embodiment of the invention provides a storage vessel for a cryogen.

  3. Environmental safety providing during heat insulation works and using thermal insulation materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velichko Evgeny

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the negative effect of thermal insulating materials and products on human health and environment pollution, particularly in terms of the composition of environmentally hazardous construction products. The authors have analyzed the complex measures for providing ecological safety, sanitary and epidemiological requirements, rules and regulations both during thermal insulation works and throughout the following operation of buildings and premises. The article suggests the protective and preventive measures to reduce and eliminate the negative impact of the proceeding of thermal insulation works on the natural environment and on human health.

  4. High Temperature Electrical Insulation Materials for Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art high temperature insulation materials of which higher working temperature, high...

  5. Thermal insulation materials for inside applications: Hygric and thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Miloš; Černý, Robert

    2017-11-01

    Two thermal insulation materials suitable for the application on the interior side of historical building envelopes, namely calcium silicate and polyurethane-based foam are studied. Moisture diffusivity and thermal conductivity of both materials, as fundamental moisture and heat transport parameters, are measured in a dependence on moisture content. The measured data will be used as input parameters in computer simulation studies which will provide moisture and temperature fields necessary for an appropriate design of interior thermal insulation systems.

  6. Measuring Thermal Conductivity and Moisture Absorption of Cryo-Insulation Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    NASA is seeking to develop thermal insulation material systems suitable for withstanding both extremely high temperatures encountered during atmospheric re-entry heating and aero- braking maneuvers, as well as extremely low temperatures existing in liquid fuel storage tanks. Currently, materials used for the high temperature insulation or Thermal Protection System (TPS) are different from the low temperature, or cryogenic insulation. Dual purpose materials are necessary to the development of reusable launch vehicles (RLV). The present Space Shuttle (or Space Transportation System, STS) employs TPS materials on the orbiter and cryo-insulation materials on the large fuel tank slung under the orbiter. The expensive fuel tank is jettisoned just before orbit is achieved and it burns up while re-entering over the Indian Ocean. A truly completely reusable launch vehicle must store aR cryogenic fuel internally. The fuel tanks will be located close to the outer surface. In fact the outer skin of the craft will probably also serve as the fuel tank enclosure, as in jet airliners. During a normal launch the combined TPS/cryo-insulation system will serve only as a low temperature insulator, since aerodynamic heating is relatively minimal during ascent to orbit. During re-entry, the combined TPS/cryo-insulation system will serve only as a high temperature insulator, since all the cryogenic fuel will have been expended in orbit. However, in the event of an.aborted launch or a forced/emergency early re-entry, the tanks will still contain fuel, and the TPS/cryo-insulation will have to serve as both low and high temperature insulation. Also, on long duration missions, such as to Mars, very effective cryo-insulation materials are needed to reduce bod off of liquid propellants, thereby reducing necessary tankage volume, weight, and cost. The conventional approach to obtaining both low and high temperature insulation, such as is employed for the X-33 and X-34 spacecraft, is to use

  7. Symmetric-gapped surface states of fractional topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Gil Young; Teo, Jeffrey C. Y.; Fradkin, Eduardo

    2017-10-01

    We construct the symmetric-gapped surface states of a fractional topological insulator with an electromagnetic θ angle θem=π/3 and a discrete Z3 gauge field. They are the proper generalizations of the T-Pfaffian state and Pfaffian/antisemion state and feature an extended periodicity compared with their "integer" topological band insulator counterparts. We demonstrate that the surface states have the correct anomalies associated with time-reversal symmetry and charge conservation.

  8. Insulating materials from renewable raw materials. 4. ed.; Daemmstoffe aus nachwachsenden Rohstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandhorst, Joerg; Spritzendorfer, Josef; Gildhorn, Kai; Hemp, Markus

    2012-03-27

    The thermal insulation has become a central issue in the construction and renovation of buildings. The question of healthy building materials and appropriate construction follows the desire of a comfartable and allergy-free living. Due to these developments, insulation materials from renewable resources increasingly has raised the consciousness. The brochure under consideration describes the dynamic market of insulation materials consisting of renewable raw materials. Wood fibers, wood wool, sheep wool, flax, hemp, reeds, meadow grass, cork, cellulose, seaweed and bulrushes are considered as renewable raw materials for insulating materials.

  9. Growing and testing mycelium bricks as building insulation materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yangang; Brewer, Matthew; El-Gharabawy, Hoda; Griffith, Gareth; Jones, Phil

    2018-02-01

    In order to improve energy performance of buildings, insulation materials (such as mineral glass and rock wools, or fossil fuel-based plastic foams) are being used in increasing quantities, which may lead to potential problem with materials depletions and landfill disposal. One sustainable solution suggested is the use of bio-based, biodegradable materials. A number of attempts have been made to develop biomaterials, such as sheep wood, hemcrete or recycled papers. In this paper, a novel type of bio insulation materials - mycelium is examined. The aim is to produce mycelium materials that could be used as insulations. The bio-based material was required to have properties that matched existing alternatives, such as expanded polystyrene, in terms of physical and mechanical characteristics but with an enhanced level of biodegradability. The testing data showed mycelium bricks exhibited good thermal performance. Future work is planned to improve growing process and thermal performance of the mycelium bricks.

  10. Comparative study of hygrothermal properties of five thermal insulation materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Ducoulombier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to carry out a comparative study of the main hygrothermal properties of five thermal insulation materials for buildings. These properties are necessary for a correct prediction of heat and moisture transfers through the walls and the selection of the most appropriate materials according to the specific buildings. The studied materials were glass wool, rock wool, expanded polystyrene, wood fiberboard and polyester fiberfill. The article is divided into three parts. The first part presents the phenomena of hygrothermal transfers in walls in order to understand the need for determining specific properties of the insulating materials. The second part describes in details the five studied insulating materials and the methods used for the characterization and identification of their main properties. Finally, the last part presents the experimental results and makes comparisons between materials. The differences between the insulating materials are brought out, such as the strong dependence of the thermal conductivity of polystyrene on temperature, or the good permeability of fibrous insulating materials to water vapor. A detailed analysis of the obtained results is presented.

  11. Investigation of deterioration mechanism of electrical ceramic insulating materials under high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Yoshinobu; Ito, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Tatsuki; Kumazawa, Ryoji; Aizawa, Rie; Moriyama, Hideshige

    2000-01-01

    It is thought that ceramic insulator can be applied to electric power equipments that are under high temperature not to be able use organic materials. Our research has suggested components of mica-alumina combined insulation. As the results of and carried out temperature accelerating test, combined insulation life is expected long term over 40 years at over 500-Celsius degrees. However to construct high reliable insulating system, it is clarified deterioration mechanism on combined insulation and evaluates life of that. Therefore we carried out metal behavior test and voltage aging test using mica-sheet and alumina-cloth that are components of combined insulation under high temperature in nitrogen gas atmosphere. It is cleared two metal behavior mechanisms: One is that the opening of insulator are filled up with copper that is oxidized, the other is the metal diffuses in alumina-cloth through surface. And distance of metal behavior is able to be estimated at modulate temperature and in modulate time. It is also cleared that alumina-cloth is deteriorated by metal behavior into alumina-cloth. These results indicate that combined insulation is deteriorated from electrode side by metal behavior and is finally broken down through alumina-cloth. (author)

  12. Zeeman Field-``Rotated'' Transitions for Surface Chern Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, E. J.; Zhang, Fan; Li, Xiao; Feng, Ji; Kane, C. L.

    2014-03-01

    Mirror symmetric surfaces of a topological crystalline insulator (e.g. SnTe) host even number of Dirac surface states. A surface Zeeman field generically gaps these states leading to a quantized anomalous Hall effect. Varying the direction of Zeeman field induces transitions between different surface insulating states with any two Chern numbers between -4 and 4. In the crystal frame the phase boundaries occur for field orientations which are great circles with (111)-like normals on a sphere. [arXiv:1309.7682

  13. Material-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1996-10-08

    A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls. 25 figs.

  14. Investigation of the Hygrothermal Performance of Alternative Insulation Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Kristiansen, Finn Harken; Rasmussen, Niels T.

    1999-01-01

    is determined for the different materials with a guarded hot plate apparatus in which different vapour pressure conditions can be maintained over the specimens. The apparatus and some results are presented.2. Computational analysis of the hygrothermal performance of constructions with alternative insulation......The paper gives an account of hygrothermal investigations carried out on some insulation products which are "alternative" to the ones that are traditionally used in Danish constructions. The alternative products are claimed to be friendly both to the environment and to the labour force...... products.The hygrothermal performance of constructions with alternative insulation products is analysed with a computational model for combined heat and moisture transfer. The analysis concerns both traditional wall and roof constructions with the alternative insulation products, and some alternative...

  15. Water absorption and desorption in shuttle ablator and insulation materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, A. F.; Smith, C. F.; Wooden, V. A.; Cothren, B. E.; Gregory, H.

    1982-01-01

    Shuttle systems ablator and insulation materials underwent water soak with subsequent water desorption in vacuum. Water accumulation in these materials after a soak for 24 hours ranged from +1.1% for orbiter tile to +161% for solid rocket booster MSA-1. After 1 minute in vacuum, water retention ranged from none in the orbiter tile to +70% for solid rocket booster cork.

  16. 24 CFR 3280.207 - Requirements for foam plastic thermal insulating materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mineral fiber insulation or an equivalent thermal barrier; or (3) The foam plastic insulating material has... thermal insulating materials. 3280.207 Section 3280.207 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.207 Requirements for foam plastic thermal insulating materials. (a...

  17. Modeling thermal performance of exterior walls retrofitted from insulation and modified laterite based bricks materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wati, Elvis; Meukam, Pierre; Damfeu, Jean Claude

    2017-12-01

    Uninsulated concrete block walls commonly found in tropical region have to be retrofitted to save energy. The thickness of insulation layer used can be reduced with the help of modified laterite based bricks layer (with the considerably lower thermal conductivity than that of concrete block layer) during the retrofit building fabrics. The aim of this study is to determine the optimum location and distribution of different materials. The investigation is carried out under steady periodic conditions under the climatic conditions of Garoua in Cameroon using a Simulink model constructed from H-Tools (the library of Simulink models). Results showed that for the continuous air-conditioned space, the best wall configuration from the maximum time lag, minimum decrement factor and peak cooling transmission load perspective, is dividing the insulation layer into two layers and placing one at the exterior surface and the other layer between the two different massive layers with the modified laterite based bricks layer at the interior surface. For intermittent cooling space, the best wall configuration from the minimum energy consumption depends on total insulation thickness. For the total insulation thickness less than 8 cm approximately, the best wall configuration is placing the half layer of insulation material at the interior surface and the other half between the two different massive layers with the modified earthen material at the exterior surface. Results also showed that, the optimum insulation thickness calculated from the yearly cooling transmission (estimated only during the occupied period) and some economic considerations slightly depends on the location of that insulation.

  18. Composition and process for making an insulating refractory material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, A.; Swansiger, T.G.

    1998-04-28

    A composition and process are disclosed for making an insulating refractory material. The composition includes calcined alumina powder, flash activated alumina powder, an organic polymeric binder and a liquid vehicle which is preferably water. Starch or modified starch may also be added. A preferred insulating refractory material made with the composition has a density of about 2.4--2.6 g/cm{sup 3} with reduced thermal conductivity, compared with tabular alumina. Of importance, the formulation has good abrasion resistance and crush strength during intermediate processing (commercial sintering) to attain full strength and refractoriness.

  19. Disorder enabled band structure engineering of a topological insulator surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yishuai; Chiu, Janet; Miao, Lin; He, Haowei

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional topological insulators are bulk insulators with Z 2 topological electronic order that gives rise to conducting light-like surface states. These surface electrons are exceptionally resistant to localization by non-magnetic disorder, and have been adopted as the basis for a wide range of proposals to achieve new quasiparticle species and device functionality. Recent studies have yielded a surprise by showing that in spite of resisting localization, topological insulator surface electrons can be reshaped by defects into distinctive resonance states. Here we use numerical simulations and scanning tunnelling microscopy data to show that these resonance states have significance well beyond the localized regime usually associated with impurity bands. Lastly, at native densities in the model Bi 2 X 3 (X=Bi, Te) compounds, defect resonance states are predicted to generate a new quantum basis for an emergent electron gas that supports diffusive electrical transport.

  20. CERTIFICATION OF THE RADIATION RESISTANCE OF COIL INSULATION MATERIAL

    CERN Document Server

    Polinski, J; Bogdan, P

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the WP 7.2.1 sub-task of the EuCARD program has been to determine the Nb$_{3}$Sn based accelerator magnet coil electrical insulation resistance against irradiation, which will occur in future accelerators. The scope of the certification covers determination of mechanical, electrical and thermal properties changes due to irradiation. The report presents a selection of the insulation material candidates for future accelerator magnets as well as the definition of the radiation certification methodology with respect of radiation type, energy, doses and irradiation conditions. The test methods and results of the electrical and mechanical insulation materials properties degradation due to irradiation are presented. Thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance at temperature range from 1.5 K to 2.0 K (superfluid helium conditions) are given.

  1. Comparative study of hygrothermal properties of five thermal insulation materials

    OpenAIRE

    Laure Ducoulombier; Zoubeir Lafhaj

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this article is to carry out a comparative study of the main hygrothermal properties of five thermal insulation materials for buildings. These properties are necessary for a correct prediction of heat and moisture transfers through the walls and the selection of the most appropriate materials according to the specific buildings. The studied materials were glass wool, rock wool, expanded polystyrene, wood fiberboard and polyester fiberfill. The article is divided into three pa...

  2. Accelerated Aging Effect on Epoxy-polysiloxane Polymeric Insulator Material with Rice Husk Ash Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochmadi .

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The performances of outdoor polymeric insulators are influenced by environmental conditions. This paper presents the effect of artificial tropical climate on the hydrophobicity, equivalent salt deposit density (ESDD, surface leakage current, flashover voltage, and surface degradation on epoxy-polysiloxane polymeric insulator materials with rice husk ash (RHA. Test samples are made at room temperature vulcanized (RTV of various composition of epoxy-polysiloxane with rice husk ash as filler. The aging was carried out in test chamber at temperature from 50oC to 62oC, relative humidity of 60% to 80%, and ultraviolet (UV  radiation 21.28 w/cm2 in daylight conditions for 96 hours. The experiment results showed that the flashover voltage fluctuates from 34.13 kV up to 40.92 kV and tends to decrease on each variation of material composition. The surface leakage current fluctuates and tends to increase. Test samples with higher filler content result greater hydrophobicity, smaller equivalent salt deposit density, and smaller critical leakage current, which caused the increase of the flashover voltage. Insulator material (RTVEP3 showed the best performance in tropical climate environment. Artificial tropical aging for short duration gives less effect to the surface degradation of epoxy-polysiloxane insulator material.

  3. Ionization by ion impact at grazing incidence on insulator surface

    CERN Document Server

    Martiarena, M L

    2003-01-01

    We have calculated the energy distribution of electrons produced by ionization of the ionic crystal electrons in grazing fast ion-insulator surface collision. The ionized electrons originate in the 2p F sup - orbital. We observe that the binary peak appears as a double change in the slope of the spectra, in the high energy region. The form of the peak is determined by the initial electron distribution and its position will be affected by the binding energy of the 2p F sup - electron in the crystal. This BEP in insulator surfaces will appear slightly shifted to the low energy side with respect the ion-atom one.

  4. Effects of environmental exposure on cryogenic thermal insulation materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmley, R. T.; Smith, F. J.; Glassford, A. P.; Coleman, J.; Stevenson, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Investigation was made to optimize selection of insulation materials for reusable space vehicles which will be repeatedly operated over periods of up to ten years. Results of study are summarized in two reports. Volume I describes tests and significant findings. In Volume II, extensive test data obtained are organized in handbook form.

  5. Workshop on technical assessment of industrial thermal insulation materials: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.

    1976-07-01

    Over 80 participants representing 50 organizations met to discuss the report, Industrial Thermal Insulation--An Assessment, ORNL/TM-5283. Presentations on the performance of available materials, economic considerations, and measurement problems were followed by discussion. A final wrap-up session concluded that the report was valuable in pointing the direction for needed effort in the area, confirmed the indicated actions needed to further industrial application of insulation, and called for future meetings to continue the dialogue between the various facets of the industry

  6. Polysilsesquioxanes for Gate-Insulating Materials of Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiro Matsukawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Printable organic thin-film transistor (O-TFT is one of the most recognized technical issues nowadays. Our recent progress on the formation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin films consists of polymethylsilsesquioxane (PMSQ, and its applications for the gate-insulating layer of O-TFTs are introduced in this paper. PMSQ synthesized in toluene solution with formic acid catalyst exhibited the electric resistivity of higher than 1014 Ω cm after thermal treatment at 150°C, and the very low concentration of residual silanol groups in PMSQ was confirmed. The PMSQ film contains no mobile ionic impurities, and this is also important property for the practical use for the gate-insulating materials. In the case of top-contact type TFT using poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT with PMSQ gate-insulating layer, the device properties were comparable with the TFTs having thermally grown SiO2 gate-insulating layer. The feasibility of PMSQ as a gate-insulating material for O-TFTs, which was fabricated on a flexible plastic substrate, has been demonstrated. Moreover, by the modification of PMSQ, further functionalities, such as surface hydrophobicity, high permittivity that allows low driving voltage, and photocurability that allows photolithography, could be appended to the PMSQ gate-insulating layers.

  7. Overview of thermal conductivity models of anisotropic thermal insulation materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurikhin, A. V.; Kostanovsky, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Currently, the most of existing materials and substances under elaboration are anisotropic. It makes certain difficulties in the study of heat transfer process. Thermal conductivity of the materials can be characterized by tensor of the second order. Also, the parallelism between the temperature gradient vector and the density of heat flow vector is violated in anisotropic thermal insulation materials (TIM). One of the most famous TIM is a family of integrated thermal insulation refractory material («ITIRM»). The main component ensuring its properties is the «inflated» vermiculite. Natural mineral vermiculite is ground into powder state, fired by gas burner for dehydration, and its precipitate is then compressed. The key feature of thus treated batch of vermiculite is a package structure. The properties of the material lead to a slow heating of manufactured products due to low absorption and high radiation reflection. The maximum of reflection function is referred to infrared spectral region. A review of current models of heat propagation in anisotropic thermal insulation materials is carried out, as well as analysis of their thermal and optical properties. A theoretical model, which allows to determine the heat conductivity «ITIRM», can be useful in the study of thermal characteristics such as specific heat capacity, temperature conductivity, and others. Materials as «ITIRM» can be used in the metallurgy industry, thermal energy and nuclear power-engineering.

  8. Investigation of Insulation Materials for Future Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Peggy A.; Hurwitz, Frances I.; Ellis, David L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Technology Advancement Project is developing next generation high-temperature insulation materials that directly benefit thermal management and improve performance of RPS for future science missions. Preliminary studies on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) for Stirling convertors used on the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) have shown the potential benefits of MLI for space vacuum applications in reducing generator size and increasing specific power (W/kg) as compared to the baseline Microtherm HT (Microtherm, Inc.) insulation. Further studies are currently being conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center on candidate MLI foils and aerogel composite spacers. This paper presents the method of testing of foils and spacers and experimental results to date.

  9. Investigation of Insulation Materials for Future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Peggy A.; Hurwitz, Frances I.; Ellis, David L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power System (RPS) Technology Advancement Project is developing next generation high temperature insulation materials that directly benefit thermal management and improve performance of RPS for future science missions. Preliminary studies on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) for Stirling convertors used on the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) have shown the potential benefits of MLI for space vacuum applications in reducing generator size and increasing specific power (W/kg) as compared to the baseline Microtherm HT (Microtherm, Inc.) insulation. Further studies are currently being conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) on candidate MLI foils and aerogel composite spacers. This paper presents the method of testing of foils and spacers and experimental results to date.

  10. Transport and screen blockage characteristics of reflective metallic insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocard, D.N.

    1984-01-01

    In the event of a LOCA within a nuclear power plant, it is possible for insulation debris to be generated by the break jet. Such debris has the potential for PWR sump screen (or BWR RHR suction inlet) blockage and thus can affect the long-term recirculation capability. In addition to the variables of break jet location and orientation, the types and quantities of debris which could be generated are dependent on the insulation materials employed. This experimental investigation was limited to reflective metallic insulation and components thereof. The study was aimed at determining the flow velocities needed to transport the insulation debris to the sump screens and the resulting modes of screen blockage. The tests revealed that thin metallic foils (0.0025 in. and 0.004 in.) could transport at low flow velocities, 0.2 to 0.5 ft/sec. Thicker foils (0.008 in.) transported at higher velocities, 0.4 to 0.8 ft/sec, and as fabricated half cylinder insulation units required velocities in excess of 1.0 ft/sec for transport. The tests also provided information on screen blockage patterns that showed blockage could occur at the lower portion of the screen as foils readily flipped on the screen when reaching it

  11. Fermi surface in the absence of a Fermi liquid in the Kondo insulator SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartstein, M.; Toews, W. H.; Hsu, Y.-T.; Zeng, B.; Chen, X.; Hatnean, M. Ciomaga; Zhang, Q. R.; Nakamura, S.; Padgett, A. S.; Rodway-Gant, G.; Berk, J.; Kingston, M. K.; Zhang, G. H.; Chan, M. K.; Yamashita, S.; Sakakibara, T.; Takano, Y.; Park, J.-H.; Balicas, L.; Harrison, N.; Shitsevalova, N.; Balakrishnan, G.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Hill, R. W.; Sutherland, M.; Sebastian, Suchitra E.

    2018-02-01

    The search for a Fermi surface in the absence of a conventional Fermi liquid has thus far yielded very few potential candidates. Among promising materials are spin-frustrated Mott insulators near the insulator-metal transition, where theory predicts a Fermi surface associated with neutral low-energy excitations. Here we reveal another route to experimentally realize a Fermi surface in the absence of a Fermi liquid by the experimental study of a Kondo insulator SmB6 positioned close to the insulator-metal transition. We present experimental signatures down to low temperatures (thermal conductivity well below the charge gap energy scale. Thus, the weight of evidence indicates that despite an extreme instance of Fermi liquid breakdown in Kondo insulating SmB6, a Fermi surface arises from novel itinerant low-energy excitations that couple to magnetic fields, but not weak DC electric fields.

  12. Insulating materials from renewable raw materials. 3. upd. ed.; Daemmstoffe aus nachwachsenden Rohstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandhorst, Joerg; Spritzendorfer, Josef; Gildhorn, Kai; Hemp, Markus

    2009-07-01

    Due to increasing energy prices, obligations to climatic protection and the desire for comfortable, allergy-free living, the thermal insulation is a central question with building and sanitation. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration describes the very dynamic market of the insulating materials from renewable raw materials and deals with the questions of the users. In particular, the following raw materials are considered in the production of insulating materials: Wood fibre, wood chips, wood wool, sheep wool, flax, hemp, reeds, straw, cellulose.

  13. Guiding of charged particles through capillaries in insulating materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolterfoht, Nikolaus, E-mail: nico@stolterfoht.com [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Yamazaki, Yasunori [Atomic Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2016-04-29

    Studies of charged particle guiding through capillaries in insulating materials, performed during the last decade, are reviewed in a comprehensive manner. First, the principles of capillary guiding of slow highly charged ions are introduced describing the self-organized formation of charge patches. Basic quantities are defined, such as the guiding power characterizing a capillary. Challenges of the guiding experiments are pointed out. Then, experiments are described with emphasis on the guiding of highly charged ions in the keV energy range. Samples with an array of nanocapillaries as well as single macrocapillaries are treated. Emission profiles of transmitted ions are analyzed to establish scaling laws for the guiding angle, which quantifies the guiding power. Oscillations of the mean ion emission angle reveal the temporal dynamics of the charge patch formation. Next, experiments with ions of high (MeV) energies are focused on single tapered capillaries allowing for the production of a microbeam for various applications. Experiments concerning electrons are presented showing that apart from being elastically scattered these negative particles may enter into the capillary surface where they suffer energy losses. Finally, theoretical concepts of the capillary guiding are discussed. Simulations based on different charge transport methods clearly support the understanding of the guiding mechanisms. Altogether, capillary guiding involves several novel phenomena for which understanding have progressed far beyond their infancy.

  14. He atom-surface scattering: Surface dynamics of insulators, overlayers and crystal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Investigations in this laboratory have focused on the surface structure and dynamics of ionic insulators and on epitaxial growth onto alkali halide crystals. In the later the homoepitaxial growth of NaCl/NaCl(001) and the heteroepitaxial growth of KBr/NaCl(001), NaCl/KBr(001) and KBr/RbCl(001) have been studied by monitoring the specular He scattering as a function of the coverage and by measuring the angular and energy distributions of the scattered He atoms. These data provide information on the surface structure, defect densities, island sizes and surface strain during the layer-by-layer growth. The temperature dependence of these measurements also provides information on the mobilities of the admolecules. He atom scattering is unique among surface probes because the low-energy, inert atoms are sensitive only to the electronic structure of the topmost surface layer and are equally applicable to all crystalline materials. It is proposed for the next year to exploit further the variety of combinations possible with the alkali halides in order to carry out a definitive study of epitaxial growth in the ionic insulators. The work completed so far, including measurements of the Bragg diffraction and surface dispersion at various stages of growth, appears to be exceptionally rich in detail, which is particularly promising for theoretical modeling. In addition, because epitaxial growth conditions over a wide range of lattice mismatches is possible with these materials, size effects in growth processes can be explored in great depth. Further, as some of the alkali halides have the CsCl structure instead of the NaCl structure, we can investigate the effects of the heteroepitaxy with materials having different lattice preferences. Finally, by using co-deposition of different alkali halides, one can investigate the formation and stability of alloys and even alkali halide superlattices

  15. Study on application of concrete sandwich insulation material in library building insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zengzhang

    2017-06-01

    Energy shortage is the short slab that restricts the development of social economy, and the rational and effective use of energy is the principle of sustainable development. Building energy consumption accounts for about 30% of total social energy consumption, and this ratio has continued to rise, so the energy saving potential is great in the construction sector. In view of the building energy consumption problem, we produce green insulation building materials with the crop straw, and improve the construction of hot and humid environment. In this paper, we take concrete sandwich straw blocks in library building as the research object, through the experiment to test its winter heat consumption and summer power consumption indicators, carry out experimental study on thermal insulation performance, and explore the overall thermal and energy saving performance of concrete sandwich straw blocks in library building.

  16. Topological insulator materials and nanostructures for future electronics, spintronics and energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantser, Valeriu

    2011-01-01

    Two fundamental electrons attributes in materials and nanostructures - charge and spin - determine their electronic properties. The processing of information in conventional electronic devices is based only on the charge of the electrons. Spin electronics, or spintronics, uses the spin of electrons, as well as their charge, to process information. Metals, semiconductors and insulators are the basic materials that constitute the components of electronic devices, and these have been transforming all aspects of society for over a century. In contrast, magnetic metals, half-metals, magnetic semiconductors, dilute magnetic semiconductors and magnetic insulators are the materials that will form the basis for spintronic devices. Materials with topological band structure attributes and having a zero-energy band gap surface states are a special class of these materials that exhibit some fascinating and superior electronic properties compared to conventional materials allowing to combine both charge and spin functionalities. This article reviews a range of topological insulator materials and nanostructures with tunable surface states, focusing on nanolayered and nanowire like structures. These materials and nanostructures all have intriguing physical properties and numerous potential practical applications in spintronics, electronics, optics and sensors.

  17. Single atom anisotropic magnetoresistance on a topological insulator surface

    KAUST Repository

    Narayan, Awadhesh

    2015-03-12

    © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft. We demonstrate single atom anisotropic magnetoresistance on the surface of a topological insulator, arising from the interplay between the helical spin-momentum-locked surface electronic structure and the hybridization of the magnetic adatom states. Our first-principles quantum transport calculations based on density functional theory for Mn on Bi2Se3 elucidate the underlying mechanism. We complement our findings with a two dimensional model valid for both single adatoms and magnetic clusters, which leads to a proposed device setup for experimental realization. Our results provide an explanation for the conflicting scattering experiments on magnetic adatoms on topological insulator surfaces, and reveal the real space spin texture around the magnetic impurity.

  18. Electrospinning onto Insulating Substrates by Controlling Surface Wettability and Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, WooSeok; Kim, Geon Hwee; Shin, Jung Hwal; Lim, Geunbae; An, Taechang

    2017-11-28

    We report a simple method for electrospinning polymers onto flexible, insulating substrates by controlling the wettability of the substrate surface. Water molecules were adsorbed onto the surface of a hydrophilic polymer substrate by increasing the local humidity around the substrate. The adsorbed water was used as the ground electrode for electrospinning. The electrospun fibers were deposited only onto hydrophilic areas of the substrate, allowing for patterning through wettability control. Direct writing of polymer fiber was also possible through near-field electrospinning onto a hydrophilic surface.

  19. Survey and evaluation of available thermal insulation materials for use on solar heating and cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This is the final report of a survey and evaluation of insulation materials for use with components of solar heating and cooling systems. The survey was performed by mailing questionnaires to manufacturers of insulation materials and by conducting an extensive literature search to obtain data on relevant properties of various types of insulation materials. The study evaluated insulation materials for active and passive solar heating and cooling systems and for multifunction applications. Primary and secondary considerations for selecting insulation materials for various components of solar heating and cooling systems are presented.

  20. Reentry thermal protection from Pioneer F RTG insulation material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorreiter, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Ablation tests were performed on the insulation material used in the Pioneer F radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) in the Ames Arc-Heated Planetary-Gas Wind Tunnel. Test results indicate that the material, trade name Min-K 1301, should experience little ablation for heat transfer rates below 40 BTU/sq ft-sec. If the current design were to be changed so that the various pieces of Min-K were fastened or interlocked together the total amount of heat delivered to the RTG heat source during an earth orbital decay reentry would be reduced by at least 22.7%.

  1. Compilation of radiation damage test data cable insulating materials

    CERN Document Server

    Schönbacher, H; CERN. Geneva

    1979-01-01

    This report summarizes radiation damage test data on commercially available organic cable insulation and jacket materials: ethylene- propylene rubber, Hypalon, neoprene rubber, polyethylene, polyurethane, polyvinylchloride, silicone rubber, etc. The materials have been irradiated in a nuclear reactor to integrated absorbed doses from 5*10/sup 5/ to 5*10/sup 6/ Gy. Mechanical properties, e.g. tensile strength, elongation at break, and hardness, have been tested on irradiated and non-irradiated samples. The results are presented in the form of tables and graphs, to show the effect of the absorbed dose on the measured properties. (13 refs).

  2. BUILDING MATERIALS WITH INSULATING PROPERTIES BASED ON RICE HUSK)

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, J., Veras, J.

    2014-01-01

    [EN]This work within the research projeci "Material, Technologies and Low Cosí Housing Prototypes" has the purpose lo obiain a bu i Id i ng material based on cemení and treated rice husk, for iis use as ihermal insulator The performance of different dosages was analyzed and according to the results two dosages were choosen to make standard panels ofóO X 90 X 6cm which were testedfor bending, and the thermal conductiviiy valúes were determined, valué of\\ which fluciuaie...

  3. Verification of the behavior of insulating materials under ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Joao C. Marques dos; Rezende, Aurimar de P.; Menzel, Silvio C.

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the behavior of specifics electrical insulating materials and components under ionizing radiation, a test program was developed to verify the overall effects of general electrical equipment under high radiation fields conditions. The main objective is for maintenance purposes, in the substitution of electrical components installed in the reactor building of the Angra 1 nuclear power plant. Knowing the characteristics of electrical insulating materials available in the country and determining by tests their ability to withstand the ionizing radiation effects, is feasible to implement specific maintenance services of electrical equipment, maintaining the same level of quality and safety for the specified application. This procedure reduces the time and also costs of maintenance services, in comparison with materials acquired or services performed abroad. The isolating materials and components of electrical equipment should be specified, manufactured and qualified to withstand aggressive environmental conditions in the reactor building during the normal operation and postulated accident. Additional tests should be conducted to verify the conditions of the aged material by ionizing radiation. Examples of additional tests: dielectric strength, tensile strength and elongation and impact resistance. (author)

  4. Newly developed foam ceramic body shows promise as thermal insulation material at 3000 deg F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocker, E. W.; Paul, R. D.

    1967-01-01

    Optimized zirconia foam ceramic body shows promise for use as a thermal insulation material. The insulating media displays low density and thermal conductivity, good thermal shock resistance, high melting point, and mechanical strength.

  5. Test Method To Quantify The Wicking Properties Of Porous Insulation Materials Designed To Prevent Interstitial Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Andrea; Zirkelbach, Daniel; Künzel, Hartwig

    2010-05-01

    Applying an interior insulation often is the only option for a thermal retrofit, especially when heritage buildings are concerned. In doing so, the original construction becomes colder in winter and interstitial condensation may occur. The common way to avoid harmful condensation beneath the interior insulation of the external wall is the installation of a vapor barrier. Since such a barrier works both ways, it may adversely affect the drying potential of the wall during the warmer seasons. One way to avoid the problems described is the installation of an interior insulation system without a vapor barrier to the inside. Here, the effect of capillary transport in porous hydrophilic media is used to conduct condensing moisture away from the wall/insulation interface back to the surface in contact with the indoor air. Following an increasing demand, several water wicking insulation materials (e.g. Calcium-silicate, Autoclave Aerated Concrete based mineral foam, hydrophilic Glass fiber, Cellulose fiber) have appeared on the market. In the past, different methods have been developed to measure and describe the liquid transport properties of hydrophilic porous media. However, the evaluation of the moisture transport mechanisms and their efficiency in this special field of implementation is very complex because of the interacting vapor- and liquid moisture transfer processes. Therefore, there is no consensus yet on its determination and quantification.

  6. Electric controlling of surface metal-insulator transition in the doped BaTiO3 film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on first-principles calculations, the BaTiO3(BTO film with local La-doping is studied. For a selected concentration and position of doping, the surface metal-insulator transition occurs under the applied electric field, and the domain appears near the surface for both bipolar states. Furthermore, for the insulated surface state, i.e., the downward polarization state in the doped film, the gradient bandgap structure is achieved, which favors the absorption of solar energy. Our investigation can provide an alternative avenue in modification of surface property and surface screening effect in polar materials.

  7. Electric controlling of surface metal-insulator transition in the doped BaTiO3 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Wei; Hao, Xiang; Pan, Tao; Zhong, Jia-Lin; Ma, Chun-Lan; Hou, Fang; Wu, Yin-Zhong

    2017-07-01

    Based on first-principles calculations, the BaTiO3(BTO) film with local La-doping is studied. For a selected concentration and position of doping, the surface metal-insulator transition occurs under the applied electric field, and the domain appears near the surface for both bipolar states. Furthermore, for the insulated surface state, i.e., the downward polarization state in the doped film, the gradient bandgap structure is achieved, which favors the absorption of solar energy. Our investigation can provide an alternative avenue in modification of surface property and surface screening effect in polar materials.

  8. Surfaces and slabs of fractional topological insulator heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sharmistha; Sirota, Alexander; Cho, Gil Young; Teo, Jeffrey C. Y.

    2017-10-01

    Fractional topological insulators (FTIs) are electronic topological phases in (3 +1 ) dimensions enriched by time reversal (TR) and charge U (1 ) conservation symmetries. We focus on the simplest series of fermionic FTIs, whose bulk quasiparticles consist of deconfined partons that carry fractional electric charges in integral units of e*=e /(2 n +1 ) and couple to a discrete Z2 n +1 gauge theory. We propose massive symmetry preserving or breaking FTI surface states. Combining the long-ranged entangled bulk with these topological surface states, we deduce the novel topological order of quasi-(2 +1 ) -dimensional FTI slabs as well as their corresponding edge conformal field theories.

  9. Performance-based methodology for the fire safe design of insulation materials in energy efficient buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo-Medina, Juan Patricio

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents a methodology to determine failure criteria of building insulation materials in the event of a fire that is specific to each typology of insulation material used. This methodology is based on material characterisation and assessment of fire performance of the most common insulation materials used in construction. Current methodologies give a single failure criterion independent of the nature of the material – this can lead to uneven requirements when addres...

  10. Electrospray deposition of organic molecules on bulk insulator surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinaut, Antoine; Pawlak, Rémy; Meyer, Ernst; Glatzel, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    Large organic molecules are of important interest for organic-based devices such as hybrid photovoltaics or molecular electronics. Knowing their adsorption geometries and electronic structures allows to design and predict macroscopic device properties. Fundamental investigations in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) are thus mandatory to analyze and engineer processes in this prospects. With increasing size, complexity or chemical reactivity, depositing molecules by thermal evaporation becomes challenging. A recent way to deposit molecules in clean conditions is Electrospray Ionization (ESI). ESI keeps the possibility to work with large molecules, to introduce them in vacuum, and to deposit them on a large variety of surfaces. Here, ESI has been successfully applied to deposit triply fused porphyrin molecules on an insulating KBr(001) surface in UHV environment. Different deposition coverages have been obtained and characterization of the surface by in-situ atomic force microscopy working in the non-contact mode shows details of the molecular structures adsorbed on the surface. We show that UHV-ESI, can be performed on insulating surfaces in the sub-monolayer regime and to single molecules which opens the possibility to study a variety of complex molecules.

  11. Plasma etching to enhance the surface insulating stability of alumina for fusion applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant increase in the surface electrical conductivity of alumina, considered one of the most promising insulating materials for numerous applications in fusion devices, has been observed during ion bombardment in vacuum due to oxygen loss by preferential sputtering. Although this is expected to cause serious limitations to insulating components functionality, recent studies showed it is possible to restore the damaged lattice by oxygen reincorporation during thermal treatments in air. These studies also revealed a correlation between conductivity and ion beam induced luminescence, which is being used to monitor surface electrical conductivity degradation and help qualify the post irradiation recovery. Work now carried out for Wesgo alumina considers oxygen implantation and plasma etching as additional methods to improve recovered layer depth and quality. Both conductivity and luminescence results indicate the potential use of plasma etching not only for damage recovery, but also as a pre-treatment to enhance material stability during irradiation.

  12. FOREWORD International Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Mário Ernesto Giroldo; Jackson, R. A.

    2010-11-01

    These proceedings represent a sample of the scientific works presented during ICDIM2008, the 16th International Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials, held at the Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, Brazil from 24-29 August 2008. The conference was the latest in a series which began at Argonne in 1956, and which has been held most recently in Riga, Latvia (2004) and Johannesburg, South Africa (2000). The conference was also related scientifically to the EURODIM series, which have been held most recently in Milan, Italy (2006), Wroclaw, Poland (2002) and Pecs, Hungary (2010). The aim of the conference was to bring together physicists, chemists and materials scientist to discuss defects in insulating materials and their effect on materials, including their optical, mass/charge transport, energy storage and sensor properties. The conference featured 6 plenary lectures, 60 contributed lectures and about 130 posters. The posters were displayed for the whole conference, but discussed in two three-hour sessions. We are grateful to the International Advisory Committee for suggesting invited speakers and to the Programme Committee for their help in refereeing all the abstracts and choosing the contributed oral contributions. We would also like to thank the Local Organising Committee and the Brazilian Physical Society for their help with local organisation and the online registration/payment process respectively. The chairpersons would like to specially thanks all the sponsors listed below for financial support. The Federal University of Sergipe, one of the public and 'free tuition' Universities of the Country, run by the Brazilian Ministry of Education, were pleased to host this 16th meeting, the first one in Latin America. Mario E G Valerio Conference Chair Robert A Jackson Programme Chair Conference Scope Scope of the Conference was the presentation of the latest investigations on point and extended defects in bulk materials and thin films. Technological

  13. Electric Field and Potential Distributions along Surface of Silicone Rubber Polymer Insulators Using Finite Element Method

    OpenAIRE

    B. Marungsri; W. Onchantuek; A. Oonsivilai

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the simulation the results of electric field and potential distributions along surface of silicone rubber polymer insulators. Near the same leakage distance subjected to 15 kV in 50 cycle salt fog ageing test, alternate sheds silicone rubber polymer insulator showed better contamination performance than straight sheds silicone rubber polymer insulator. Severe surface ageing was observed on the straight sheds insulator. The objective of this work is to ...

  14. Origin and evolution of surface spin current in topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankert, André; Bhaskar, Priyamvada; Khokhriakov, Dmitrii; Rodrigues, Isabel H.; Karpiak, Bogdan; Kamalakar, M. Venkata; Charpentier, Sophie; Garate, Ion; Dash, Saroj P.

    2018-03-01

    The Dirac surface states of topological insulators offer a unique possibility for creating spin polarized charge currents due to the spin-momentum locking. Here we demonstrate that the control over the bulk and surface contribution is crucial to maximize the charge-to-spin conversion efficiency. We observe an enhancement of the spin signal due to surface-dominated spin polarization while freezing out the bulk conductivity in semiconducting Bi1.5Sb0.5Te1.7Se1.3 below 100 K . Detailed measurements up to room temperature exhibit a strong reduction of the magnetoresistance signal between 2 and100 K , which we attribute to the thermal excitation of bulk carriers and to the electron-phonon coupling in the surface states. The presence and dominance of this effect up to room temperature is promising for spintronic science and technology.

  15. Quantum oscillations in insulators with neutral Fermi surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodemann, Inti; Chowdhury, Debanjan; Senthil, T.

    2018-02-01

    We develop a theory of quantum oscillations in insulators with an emergent Fermi sea of neutral fermions minimally coupled to an emergent U(1 ) gauge field. As pointed out by Motrunich [Phys. Rev. B 73, 155115 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevB.73.155115], in the presence of a physical magnetic field the emergent magnetic field develops a nonzero value leading to Landau quantization for the neutral fermions. We focus on the magnetic field and temperature dependence of the analog of the de Haas-van Alphen effect in two and three dimensions. At temperatures above the effective cyclotron energy, the magnetization oscillations behave similarly to those of an ordinary metal, albeit in a field of a strength that differs from the physical magnetic field. At low temperatures, the oscillations evolve into a series of phase transitions. We provide analytical expressions for the amplitude and period of the oscillations in both of these regimes and simple extrapolations that capture well their crossover. We also describe oscillations in the electrical resistivity of these systems that are expected to be superimposed with the activated temperature behavior characteristic of their insulating nature and discuss suitable experimental conditions for the observation of these effects in mixed-valence insulators and triangular lattice organic materials.

  16. Fatigue effects in insulation materials for fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenkranz, P.

    2000-12-01

    The mechanical properties of insulation materials for the superconducting magnets of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and future fusion plants, i.e. woven fiber reinforced composites, have been identified as an area of concern for the long-term operation of such magnets. The magnets will be subjected to fast neutron and γ-radiation over their lifetime, which influence the mechanical properties of the insulation materials. The ultimate tensile strength and, above all, the interlaminar shear strength and their performance under dynamic load, corresponding to the pulsed operation of a TOKAMAK-confinement system, are sensitive indicators of material failure in fiber-reinforced laminates especially at cryogenic temperatures. To simulate these conditions, low frequency fatigue measurements at 10 Hz were made at 77 K up to one million cycles. Tension-tension fatigue tests were performed according to ASTM D3479. However, due to the space limitations in all irradiation facilities, the tests have to be done on samples, which are considerably smaller than those required for standard test conditions. The influence of the specimen geometry on the ultimate tensile strength under static and dynamic load conditions was, therefore, investigated on fiber-reinforced plastics. They did not show any systematic trends as long as the sample thickness does not exceed the thickness recommended in ASTM D3479. The double lap shear test method was chosen for the shear experiments because of the symmetry of the specimen geometry under tensile load and the suitability for fatigue tests. Like almost every existing test procedure for the interlaminar shear strength, this test method does not provide for a completely uniform interlaminar shear stress distribution over a sizable region in the test section of the specimen. A scaling program combined with FE-simulations was, therefore, initiated to assess the influence of the length of the test section and of the sample

  17. Imaging prototypical aromatic molecules on insulating surfaces: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann-Vogel, R.

    2018-01-01

    Insulating substrates allow for in-plane contacted molecular electronics devices where the molecule is in contact with the insulator. For the development of such devices it is important to understand the interaction of molecules with insulating surfaces. As substrates, ionic crystals such as KBr, KCl, NaCl and CaF2 are discussed. The surface energies of these substrates are small and as a consequence intrinsic properties of the molecules, such as molecule–molecule interaction, become more important relative to interactions with the substrates. As prototypical molecules, three variants of graphene-related molecules are used, pentacene, C60 and PTCDA. Pentacene is a good candidate for molecular electronics applications due to its high charge carrier mobility. It shows mainly an upright standing growth mode and the morphology of the islands is strongly influenced by dewetting. A new second flat-lying phase of the molecule has been observed. Studying the local work function using the Kelvin method reveals details such as line defects in the center of islands. The local work function differences between the upright-standing and flat-lying phase can only be explained by charge transfer that is unusual on ionic crystalline surfaces. C60 nucleation and growth is explained by loosely bound molecules at kink sites as nucleation sites. The stability of C60 islands as a function of magic numbers is investigated. Peculiar island shapes are obtained from unusual dewetting processes already at work during growth, where molecules ‘climb’ to the second molecular layer. PTCDA is a prototypical semiconducting molecule with strong quadrupole moment. It grows in the form of elongated islands where the top and the facets can be molecularly resolved. In this way the precise molecular arrangement in the islands is revealed.

  18. Air-Filled Nanopore Based High-Performance Thermal Insulation Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Gangåssæter, Haakon Fossen; Jelle, Bjørn Petter; Alex Mofid, Sohrab; Gao, Tao

    2017-01-01

    State-of-the-art thermal insulation solutions like vacuum insulation panels (VIP) and aerogels have low thermal conductivity, but their drawbacks may make them unable to be the thermal insulation solutions that will revolutionize the building industry regarding energy-efficient building envelopes. Nevertheless, learning from these materials may be crucial to make new and novel high-performance thermal insulation products. This study presents a review on the state-of-the-art air-filled thermal...

  19. Comparative investigation of surface transfer doping of hydrogen terminated diamond by high electron affinity insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verona, C.; Marinelli, Marco; Verona-Rinati, G. [Dip. di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata,” Via del Politecnico 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Ciccognani, W.; Colangeli, S.; Limiti, E. [Dip. di Ingegneria Elettronica, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata,” Via del Politecnico 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy)

    2016-07-14

    We report on a comparative study of transfer doping of hydrogenated single crystal diamond surface by insulators featured by high electron affinity, such as Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, WO{sub 3}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and MoO{sub 3}. The low electron affinity Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was also investigated for comparison. Hole transport properties were evaluated in the passivated hydrogenated diamond films by Hall effect measurements, and were compared to un-passivated diamond films (air-induced doping). A drastic improvement was observed in passivated samples in terms of conductivity, stability with time, and resistance to high temperatures. The efficiency of the investigated insulators, as electron accepting materials in hydrogenated diamond surface, is consistent with their electronic structure. These surface acceptor materials generate a higher hole sheet concentration, up to 6.5 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2}, and a lower sheet resistance, down to 2.6 kΩ/sq, in comparison to the atmosphere-induced values of about 1 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} and 10 kΩ/sq, respectively. On the other hand, hole mobilities were reduced by using high electron affinity insulator dopants. Hole mobility as a function of hole concentration in a hydrogenated diamond layer was also investigated, showing a well-defined monotonically decreasing trend.

  20. Irradiation effect on electrical properties of polyimide insulating material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisova, M.Eh.; Kojkov, S.N.; Skornyakov, Yu.A.; Stepanov, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on electric strength, dielectric properties and conductivity of polyimide glass varnished cloth LSN-180, suggested as electric insulation for the T-15 thermonuclear facility winding, is investigated. The effect of Co 60 source γ-radiation with 1.4 MeV quanta on the processes of electric aging of glass varnished cloth LSN-180 has been studied for the first time. It is shown that the effect of ionizing radiation results in the decrease of the glass varnished cloth lifetime. Lifetimes of preliminarily irradiated samples are 7-8 times lower, and in the case of simultaneous effect of γ-radiation and alternating electric field are approximately 20 times lower than the lifetime of initial glass varnished cloth. No decrease in the lifetime of glass varnished cloth as a result of irradiation in direct electric field was detected. Evaluation of serviceability of electric insulation intended for the operation in radiation effect zone, should be made according to the results of material resource tests inder conditions of simultaneous effect ofelectric field and radiation. No correlation between the change in short-term electric strength and service life of glass varnished cloth as a result of irradiation is observed. The absence of partial discharges in the process of electric field levelling in a sample using semiconducting coatings testifies to the good quality of impregnation by polyimide varnishes of the initial glass varnished cloth

  1. Acoustic parameters of sound insulating materials investigation in small reverberation rooms on rubber plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.О. Козлітін

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available  The new method of sound insulating materials acoustic characteristics investigation in small reverberation rooms was elaborated. The research of sound insulating materials on rubber plates was done. The analysis of obtained results of acoustic parameters of materials being a part of the composite real structures of airplane was carried out.

  2. Investigation of potential waste material insulating properties at different temperature for thermal storage application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, T. Z. S.; Rosli, A. B.; Gan, L. M.; Billy, A. S.; Farid, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal energy storage system (TES) is developed to extend the operation of power generation. TES system is a key component in a solar energy power generation plant, but the main issue in designing the TES system is its thermal capacity of storage materials, e.g. insulator. This study is focusing on the potential waste material acts as an insulator for thermal energy storage applications. As the insulator is used to absorb heat, it is needed to find suitable material for energy conversion and at the same time reduce the waste generation. Thus, a small-scale experimental testing of natural cooling process of an insulated tank within a confined room is conducted. The experiment is repeated by changing the insulator from the potential waste material and also by changing the heat transfer fluid (HTF). The analysis presented the relationship between heat loss and the reserved period by the insulator. The results show the percentage of period of the insulated tank withstands compared to tank insulated by foam, e.g. newspaper reserved the period of 84.6% as much as foam insulated tank to withstand the heat transfer of cooking oil to the surrounding. The paper finally justifies the most potential waste material as an insulator for different temperature range of heat transfer fluid.

  3. Synthesis of Macroporous Silica Particles by Continuous Generation of Droplets for Insulating Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Sang; Lee, Dokyoung

    2018-09-01

    We report on the synthesis of porous silica particles by self-assembly routes in a continuous manner for application to thermal insulators. A continuous process was employed to produce tiny droplets containing precursor materials such as silica and organic templates for self-organization to fabricate particles with well defined pores. A rotating cylinder system or a spray drying process was adopted to form emulsions or aerosol droplets as micro-reactors for self-assembly, and the physical properties including the thermal conductivity of the resulting porous particles were compared between the two methods. The porous particles could be coated as a thick film by solution dripping, and the fluorination treatment using a silane coupling agent was performed to produce superhydrophobic surfaces of insulating layers by a lotus effect.

  4. Thermoelectric Transport by Surface States in Bi2Se3-Based Topological Insulator Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Long-Long; Xu Wen

    2015-01-01

    We develop a tractable theoretical model to investigate the thermoelectric (TE) transport properties of surface states in topological insulator thin films (TITFs) of Bi 2 Se 3 at room temperature. The hybridization between top and bottom surface states in the TITF plays a significant role. With the increasing hybridization-induced surface gap, the electrical conductivity and electron thermal conductivity decrease while the Seebeck coefficient increases. This is due to the metal-semiconductor transition induced by the surface-state hybridization. Based on these TE transport coefficients, the TE figure-of-merit ZT is evaluated. It is shown that ZT can be greatly improved by the surface-state hybridization. Our theoretical results are pertinent to the exploration of the TE transport properties of surface states in TITFs and to the potential application of Bi 2 Se 3 -based TITFs as high-performance TE materials and devices. (paper)

  5. Radiation tests on selected electrical insulating materials for high-power and high voltage application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liptak, G.; Schuler, R.; Haberthuer, B.; Mueller, H.; Zeier, W.; Maier, P.; Schoenbacher, H.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents a comprehensive set of test results on the irradiation of insulating materials and systems used for the windings of rotating machines, dry-type transformers, and magnet coils. The materials were: Novolac, bisphenol-A, and cycloaliphatic types of epoxy; saturated and unsaturated polyesterimide; silicone, phenolic, and acrylic resins. The reinforcement consisted of glass mat, glass roving, glass cloth, mica paper, polyester mat, polyester roving, polyester cloth, aromatic polyamide paper, or combinations thereof. The materials were irradiated in an 8 MW pool reactor up to integrated doses of 10 8 Gy. On most samples, flexural properties were examined as recommended by IEC Standard 544. For tapes and varnishes, the breakdown voltage was measured. The adhesion of copper bars glued together with an epoxy resin was examined by means of a lap-shear test. A cupping test by means of the Erichsen apparatus was used to measure the flexibility of varnishes. The results are presented in tables and graphs for each of the materials tested. Those from mechanical tests show that the radiation resistance of composite resin-rich insulations depends not only on the base resin combination and the reinforcement material but, to a large degree, also on the adhesion between the two. It appears that better adhesion, and consequently higher radiation resistance, is obtained by special surface treatments of glass fibres. For laminates, higher radiation resistance is obtained with glass mat and resin combinations than with glass cloth as reinforcing materials. The breakdown voltage tests show that the application of mechanical stress to most irradiated samples causes the insulation layer to crack, resulting in lower dielectric strength. For a number of materials, the critical properties of flexural strength and breakdown voltage are above 50% of the initial value at doses between 10 7 and 10 8 Gy, i.e. a radiation index of 7 to 8 at 10 5 Gy/h. (orig.)

  6. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy studies of metallic surface and interface states of oxide insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, Nicholas C.; Radović, Milan

    2017-11-01

    Over the last decade, conducting states embedded in insulating transition metal oxides (TMOs) have served as gateways to discovering and probing surprising phenomena that can emerge in complex oxides, while also opening opportunities for engineering advanced devices. These states are commonly realized at thin film interfaces, such as the well-known case of LaAlO3 (LAO) grown on SrTiO3 (STO). In recent years, the use of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to investigate the k-space electronic structure of such materials led to the discovery that metallic states can also be formed on the bare surfaces of certain TMOs. In this topical review, we report on recent studies of low-dimensional metallic states confined at insulating oxide surfaces and interfaces as seen from the perspective of ARPES, which provides a direct view of the occupied band structure. While offering a fairly broad survey of progress in the field, we draw particular attention to STO, whose surface is so far the best-studied, and whose electronic structure is probably of the most immediate interest, given the ubiquitous use of STO substrates as the basis for conducting oxide interfaces. The ARPES studies provide crucial insights into the electronic band structure, orbital character, dimensionality/confinement, spin structure, and collective excitations in STO surfaces and related oxide surface/interface systems. The obtained knowledge increases our understanding of these complex materials and gives new perspectives on how to manipulate their properties.

  7. A protocol for lifetime energy and environmental impact assessment of building insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Som S.; Biswas, Kaushik; Desjarlais, Andre O.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a proposed protocol that is intended to provide a comprehensive list of factors to be considered in evaluating the direct and indirect environmental impacts of building insulation materials, as well as detailed descriptions of standardized calculation methodologies to determine those impacts. The energy and environmental impacts of insulation materials can generally be divided into two categories: (1) direct impact due to the embodied energy of the insulation materials and other factors and (2) indirect or environmental impacts avoided as a result of reduced building energy use due to addition of insulation. Standards and product category rules exist, which provide guidelines about the life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials, including building insulation products. However, critical reviews have suggested that these standards fail to provide complete guidance to LCA studies and suffer from ambiguities regarding the determination of the environmental impacts of building insulation and other products. The focus of the assessment protocol described here is to identify all factors that contribute to the total energy and environmental impacts of different building insulation products and, more importantly, provide standardized determination methods that will allow comparison of different insulation material types. Further, the intent is not to replace current LCA standards but to provide a well-defined, easy-to-use comparison method for insulation materials using existing LCA guidelines. - Highlights: • We proposed a protocol to evaluate the environmental impacts of insulation materials. • The protocol considers all life cycle stages of an insulation material. • Both the direct environmental impacts and the indirect impacts are defined. • Standardized calculation methods for the ‘avoided operational energy’ is defined. • Standardized calculation methods for the ‘avoided environmental impact’ is defined

  8. Ceramics Porcelain Based Electric Solid Insulator Using Local Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Indiani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractElectric solid insulator based on ceramics porcelain had been made by using local raw materials: 68% feldspar, 10% kaolinite and 22% quartz, and also added 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% cullet (From total mass. The forming process of the porcelain was conducted by milling the raw materials using ball mill and screened using 200 mesh screening. The samples were formed by using the dry-press method with the pressure of 50MPa, then the samples is sintered at temperature of 1000oC, 1050oC, 1100oC, 1150oC for 2 hours. The properties of the samples had been analyzed for their shrinkage, density, bending strength and resistivity. The result of the experiment showed that the optimum value was reached by ceramic which was added by 15% cullet and sintered at temperature of 1100oC. This ceramic had shrinkage of 9,70%, density of 2,44 g/cm3, bending strength of 86,73 MPa and the resistivity at 25oC is 2,32x108 Ωcm.

  9. Organic Insulation Materials, the Effect on Indoor Humidity, and the Necessity of a Vapor Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Examples of organic insulation products are cellulose fiber, other plant fiber, and animal wool. These materials, which are all very hygroscopic, are associated with certain assertions about their building physical behavior that need to be verified.Examples of such assertions are: "A vapor barrier...... is not needed when using organic insulation materials" and "Organic insulation materials have a stabilizing effect on the indoor humidity".The paper presents some numerical analyses of the hygrothermal behavior of wall constructions and the occupied spaces they surround when an organic insulation material...... is used. The following two main problems are analyzed:· The risk of interstitial condensation in typical building constructions with different vapor retarders when either conventional or organic insulation materials are used.· The influence on diurnal and seasonal indoor humidity variations when using...

  10. Surface structural changes of naturally aged silicone and EPDM composite insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlastos, A.E. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, S-412 96 Gothenburg (SE)); Gubanski, S.M. (Royal Inst. of Technology, S-100 44 Stockholm (SE))

    1991-04-01

    In a long-term outdoor test with high direct and alternating voltages, silicone and EPDM rubber composite insulators have, at the beginning, shown a superior performance to that of glass and porcelain insulators. In the long-term test, however, the silicone rubber composite insulator has, in spite of the ageing of both insulator types, kept its good performance, while the performance of the EPDM rubber composite insulator was drastically deteriorated. In order to get a better insight into results obtained, the wettability and the surface structural changes of the insulators were studied by the drop deposition method (using a goniometer) and by advanced techniques such as SEM, ESCA, FTIR and SIMS respectively. The results show that the differences in performance have to be found in the differences in the surface structural changes and in the dynamic ability of the surface to compensate the ageing.

  11. Effect of Mn/Ti surface treatment on voltage-holdoff performance of alumina insulators in vaccum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, H.C.; Furno, E.J.

    1978-01-01

    The treatment of the surface of an alumina insulator with a Mn/Ti coating significantly increases its voltage-holdoff capability. Insulators treated with this coating had vacuum-holdoff voltages about 25% higher than did untreated insulators. During processing (quasimetallizing) the coating penetrates into the alumina, so it is fairly insensitive to damage by abrasion or electrical breakdown. The quasimetallized coatings is also comparable with subsequent metallizing and brazing of the alumina insulator. We conclude that the coating (1) decreases the surface resistivity of the insulator, (2) decreases the insulator's secondary-electron-emission yield, and (3) makes the surface of the insulator dielectrically more uniform

  12. Development of Highly Repellent Silica Particles for Protection of Hemp Shiv Used as Insulation Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion A. Bourebrab

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New bio-materials have recently gained interest for use in insulation panels in walls, but wider adoption by the building industry is hindered by their intrinsic properties. The fact that such materials are mainly composed of cellulose makes them combustible, and their hydrophilic surface presents a high water uptake, which would lead to faster biodegradation. A hydrophobic treatment with silica particles was successfully synthesised via Stöber process, characterised, and deposited on hemp shiv. The surface of hemp shiv coated several times with 45 and 120 nm particles were uniformly covered, as well as extensively water repellent. Those samples could withstand in humidity chamber without loss of their hydrophobic property and no sign of mould growth after 72 h of exposure.

  13. Characterization of an Integral Thermal Protection and Cryogenic Insulation Material for Advanced Space Transportation Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, L. J.; White, S. M.; Helvensteijn, B. P. M.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's planned advanced space transportation vehicles will benefit from the use of integral/conformal cryogenic propellant tanks which will reduce the launch weight and lower the earth-to-orbit costs considerably. To implement the novel concept of integral/conformal tanks requires developing an equally novel concept in thermal protection materials. Providing insulation against reentry heating and preserving propellant mass can no longer be considered separate problems to be handled by separate materials. A new family of materials, Superthermal Insulation (STI), has been conceiving and investigated by NASA's Ames Research Center to simultaneously provide both thermal protection and cryogenic insulation in a single, integral material.

  14. Insulated gate and surface passivation structures for GaN-based power transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatabe, Zenji; Asubar, Joel T.; Hashizume, Tamotsu

    2016-10-01

    Recent years have witnessed GaN-based devices delivering their promise of unprecedented power and frequency levels and demonstrating their capability as an able replacement for Si-based devices. High-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs), a key representative architecture of GaN-based devices, are well-suited for high-power and high frequency device applications, owing to highly desirable III-nitride physical properties. However, these devices are still hounded by issues not previously encountered in their more established Si- and GaAs-based devices counterparts. Metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures are usually employed with varying degrees of success in sidestepping the major problematic issues such as excessive leakage current and current instability. While different insulator materials have been applied to GaN-based transistors, the properties of insulator/III-N interfaces are still not fully understood. This is mainly due to the difficulty of characterizing insulator/AlGaN interfaces in a MIS HEMT because of the two resulting interfaces: insulator/AlGaN and AlGaN/GaN, making the potential modulation rather complicated. Although there have been many reports of low interface-trap densities in HEMT MIS capacitors, several papers have incorrectly evaluated their capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics. A HEMT MIS structure typically shows a 2-step C-V behavior. However, several groups reported C-V curves without the characteristic step at the forward bias regime, which is likely to the high-density states at the insulator/AlGaN interface impeding the potential control of the AlGaN surface by the gate bias. In this review paper, first we describe critical issues and problems including leakage current, current collapse and threshold voltage instability in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Then we present interface properties, focusing on interface states, of GaN MIS systems using oxides, nitrides and high-κ dielectrics. Next, the properties of a variety of AlGaN/GaN MIS

  15. Surface Chemistry in Nanoscale Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Jürgen; Wittstock, Arne; Baumann, Theodore F.; Weissmüller, Jörg; Bäumer, Marcus; Hamza, Alex V.

    2009-01-01

    Although surfaces or, more precisely, the surface atomic and electronic structure, determine the way materials interact with their environment, the influence of surface chemistry on the bulk of the material is generally considered to be small. However, in the case of high surface area materials such as nanoporous solids, surface properties can start to dominate the overall material behavior. This allows one to create new materials with physical and chemical properties that are no longer determined by the bulk material, but by their nanoscale architectures. Here, we discuss several examples, ranging from nanoporous gold to surface engineered carbon aerogels that demonstrate the tuneability of nanoporous solids for sustainable energy applications.

  16. Surface Chemistry in Nanoscale Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex V. Hamza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Although surfaces or, more precisely, the surface atomic and electronic structure, determine the way materials interact with their environment, the influence of surface chemistry on the bulk of the material is generally considered to be small. However, in the case of high surface area materials such as nanoporous solids, surface properties can start to dominate the overall material behavior. This allows one to create new materials with physical and chemical properties that are no longer determined by the bulk material, but by their nanoscale architectures. Here, we discuss several examples, ranging from nanoporous gold to surface engineered carbon aerogels that demonstrate the tuneability of nanoporous solids for sustainable energy applications.

  17. Development of a thermal acoustical aircraft insulation material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R. Y.; Struzik, E. A.

    1974-01-01

    A process was developed for fabricating a light weight foam suitable for thermal and acoustical insulation in aircraft. The procedures and apparatus are discussed, and the foam specimens are characterized by numerous tests and measurements.

  18. State of the art on historic building insulation materials and retrofit strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blumberga, Andra; Kass, Kristaps; Kamendere, Edite

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an analysis and evaluation of a state-of-the-art of internal insulation materials and methods for application in historic buildings, and review on methods, tools and guidelines used as decision making tools for implementation of internal insulation in historic buildings...

  19. Role of oxidation on surface conductance of the topological insulator Bi2Te2Se

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jin Heui; Park, Joonbum; Kwon, Sangku; Kim, Jun Sung; Park, Jeong Young

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the effect of surface oxides on charge transport properties in a topological insulator (Bi2Te2Se) using conductive probe atomic force microscopy in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. Uniform distribution of the measured friction and current were observed over a single quintuple layer terrace after exposure to the ambient environment, which is an indication of uniform surface oxide coverage. An oxide-free topological insulator surface was exposed using tip-induced etching. By comparing surface conduction on a fresh surface versus a surface exposed to air, we observed a minor change in resistance when surface oxide was present. The current density varied with applied load on the oxidized surface, which implies that the topological surface states respond to tip-induced pressure even though surface oxide is present. From these results, we conclude that surface oxidation in air has a negligible effect on surface conductance in topological insulators.

  20. Unconventional pairing in three-dimensional topological insulators with a warped surface state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenko, A. S.; Golubov, A. A.; Silkin, V. M.; Chulkov, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of the Fermi surface anisotropy (hexagonal warping) on the superconducting pair potential, induced in a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) by proximity with an s-wave superconductor (S) in presence of a magnetic moment of a nearby ferromagnetic insulator (FI). In the

  1. Investigation of electrical characteristics of no-insulation coil wound with surface-processed HTS tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Haeryong; Lee, Woo Seung; Kim, Jinsub; Baek, Geonwoo; Jeon, Sangsu; Yoon, Yong Soo; Ko, Tae Kuk

    2017-08-01

    This paper deals with the electrical characteristics of no-insulation coil wound with surface-processed HTS tape. The bypassing current path through turn-to-turn contacts within a coil is formed in the no-insulation coil, and this bypassing current path determines two characteristics: 1) self-protection and 2) charge-discharge delay. The amplitude of bypassing current is determined by contact resistance between the turn-to-turn contacts of the no-insulation coil. The surface roughness of the HTS tape is one of the parameters to change the contact resistance. The HTS tapes were processed to roughen by bead blast and abrasive paper, and the no-insulation coil is fabricated using processed HTS tape. We have studied the charge-discharge delay and self-protecting characteristic of each no-insulation coil by 1) sudden discharge tests and 2) overcurrent tests. The FEM simulations of contact resistance of no-insulation coil were carried out. The contact surface resistance of a case processed by abrasive paper has almost three times larger than that of reference no-insulation coil, and a case processed by bead blast presents almost same contact surface resistance with reference no-insulation coil.

  2. Chemical interactions of insulator materials in CTR environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    The stringent demands for materials performance in an operational CTR power system require careful consideration and planning to avoid unacceptable deletorious interactions between components. Efforts have begun to identify potential problem areas and experiments are in progress to understand the fundamental aspects of these new materials problems. Two long-term experiments are in progress to study these interactions, specifically reactor irradiations of refractory metal/ceramic interfaces and the atomic hydrogen erosion problem. A high-purity polycrystalline alumina probe directly exposed to a deuterium plasma was examined to determine the effects of the plasma bombardment. Though the surface was altered through erosion or flash melting, the probe surface was intact and exhibited no signs of mechanical or electrical failure

  3. High temperature insulation materials for reradiative thermal protection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    Results are presented of a two year program to evaluate packaged thermal insulations for use under a metallic radiative TPS of a shuttle orbiter vehicle. Evaluations demonstrated their survival for up to 100 mission reuse cycles under shuttle acoustic and thermal loads with peak temperatures of 1000 F, 1800 F, 2000 F, 2200 F and 2500 F. The specimens were composed of low density refractory fiber felts, packaged in thin gage metal foils. In addition, studies were conducted on the venting requirements of the packages, salt spray resistance of the metal foils, and the thermal conductivity of many of the insulations as a function of temperature and ambient air pressure. Data is also presented on the radiant energy transport through insulations, and back-scattering coefficients were experimentally determined as a function of source temperature.

  4. Irradiation effect of the insulating materials for fusion superconducting magnets at cryogenic temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Koji; Akiyama, Yoko; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2017-09-01

    In ITER, superconducting magnets should be used in such severe environment as high fluence of fast neutron, cryogenic temperature and large electromagnetic forces. Insulating material is one of the most sensitive component to radiation. So radiation resistance on mechanical properties at cryogenic temperature are required for insulating material. The purpose of this study is to evaluate irradiation effect of insulating material at cryogenic temperature by gamma-ray irradiation. Firstly, glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) and hybrid composite were prepared. After irradiation at room temperature (RT) or liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT, 77 K), interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) and glass-transition temperature (Tg) measurement were conducted. It was shown that insulating materials irradiated at room temperature were much degraded than those at cryogenic temperature.

  5. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  6. Insulated gate and surface passivation structures for GaN-based power transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatabe, Zenji; Asubar, Joel T; Hashizume, Tamotsu

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed GaN-based devices delivering their promise of unprecedented power and frequency levels and demonstrating their capability as an able replacement for Si-based devices. High-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs), a key representative architecture of GaN-based devices, are well-suited for high-power and high frequency device applications, owing to highly desirable III-nitride physical properties. However, these devices are still hounded by issues not previously encountered in their more established Si- and GaAs-based devices counterparts. Metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) structures are usually employed with varying degrees of success in sidestepping the major problematic issues such as excessive leakage current and current instability. While different insulator materials have been applied to GaN-based transistors, the properties of insulator/III-N interfaces are still not fully understood. This is mainly due to the difficulty of characterizing insulator/AlGaN interfaces in a MIS HEMT because of the two resulting interfaces: insulator/AlGaN and AlGaN/GaN, making the potential modulation rather complicated. Although there have been many reports of low interface-trap densities in HEMT MIS capacitors, several papers have incorrectly evaluated their capacitance–voltage ( C – V ) characteristics. A HEMT MIS structure typically shows a 2-step C – V behavior. However, several groups reported C – V curves without the characteristic step at the forward bias regime, which is likely to the high-density states at the insulator/AlGaN interface impeding the potential control of the AlGaN surface by the gate bias. In this review paper, first we describe critical issues and problems including leakage current, current collapse and threshold voltage instability in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Then we present interface properties, focusing on interface states, of GaN MIS systems using oxides, nitrides and high- κ dielectrics. Next, the properties of a

  7. THERMAL INSULATION PROPERTIES RESEARCH OF THE COMPOSITE MATERIAL WATER GLASS–GRAPHITE MICROPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gostev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Research results for the composite material (CM water glass–graphite microparticles with high thermal stability and thermal insulation properties are given. A composition consisting of graphite (42 % by weight, water glass Na2O(SiO2n (50% by weight and the hardener - sodium silicofluoric Na2SiF6 (8% by weight. Technology of such composition receipt is suggested. Experimental samples of the CM with filler particles (graphite and a few microns in size were obtained. This is confirmed by a study of samples by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The qualitative and quantitative phase analysis of the CM structure is done. Load limit values leading to the destruction of CM are identified. The character of the rupture surface is detected. Numerical values of specific heat and thermal conductivity are defined. Dependence of the specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity on temperature at monotonic heating is obtained experimentally. Studies have confirmed the increased thermal insulation properties of the proposed composition. CM with such characteristics can be recommended as a coating designed to reduce heat losses and resistant to high temperatures. Due to accessibility and low cost of its components the proposed material can be produced on an industrial scale.

  8. Research on insulating material affecting the property of gas ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liqiang; Wang Zhentao; Zheng Jian

    2014-01-01

    The insulating material in ionization chamber affects the internal gas pressure and ionic pulse shape in the research process of the ion drift velocity in high pressure gas ionization chamber. It will affect the ion drift velocity measurement. It is required to isolate by insulating material between electrode to electrode and between electrodes to the shell of gas ionization chamber. Insulating material in gas ionization chamber is indispensable. Therefore it needs to carefully study the insulating material affecting the performance of gas ionization chamber. First of all, it is found that Teflon can slowly adsorb the working gas in ionization chamber, and the gas pressure in it is reduced when we measure the sensitivity of gas ionization chamber over time. It is verified by experiment that insulating materials absorbing and releasing gas is dynamically reversible process. Then the adsorbing gas property of 95% aluminium oxide ceramic and Teflon is studied through experimental comparision. Gas adsorption equilibrium time of ceramic material is faster, generally it is about a few hours, and the gas adsorption capacity is relatively less. Gas adsorption equilibrium time of Teflon is slower, it is about a few days, and the gas adsorption capacity is relatively more. It is found that Teflon will release part of the gas at higher temperature through experimental research on the influence of Teflon adsorbing gas. Finally it is studied that the distribution of insulation in ionization chamber affects the time response speed of ionization chamber by measuring the signal pulse shape of ionization chamber under the pulse X-ray. Through these experimental research, it is presented that it need to pay attention to select insulation material and to design the internal structure and arrangement of insulating material when we design gas ionization chamber. (authors)

  9. Modeling electronic structure and spectroscopy in correlated materials and topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yung Jui

    Current major topics in condensed matter physics mostly focus on the investigation of materials having exotic quantum phases. For instance, Z 2 topological insulators have novel quantum states, which are distinct from ordinary band insulators. Recent developments show that these nontrivial topological phases may provide a platform for creating new types of quasiparticles in real materials, such as Majorana fermions. In correlated systems, high-T c superconducting cuprates are complicated due to the richness of their phase diagram. Surprisingly, the discovery of iron pnictides demonstrates that high-Tc superconductivity related phenomena are not unique to copper oxide compounds. Many people believe that the better the understanding of the electronic structure of cuprates and iron pnictides, the higher chances to unveil the high temperature superconductivity mystery. Despite the fact that silicon is a fundamental element in modern semiconductor electronics technology, the chemical bonding properties of liquid silicon phase still remain a puzzle. A popular approach to investigate electronic structure of complex materials is combining the first principles calculation with an experimental light scattering probe. Particularly, Compton scattering probes the many body electronic ground state in the bulk of materials in terms of electron momentum density projected along a certain scattering direction, and inelastic x-ray scattering measures the dynamic structure factor S(q, o) which contains information about electronic density-density correlations. In this thesis, I study several selected materials based on first principles calculations of their electronic structures, the Compton profiles and the Lindhard susceptibility within the framework of density functional theory. Specifically, I will discuss the prediction of a new type of topological insulators in quaternary chalcogenide compounds of compositions I2-II-IV-VI 4 and in ternary famatinite compounds of compositions I3

  10. Hydrogen interactions with silicon-on-insulator materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivera de Mena, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    The booming of microelectronics in recent decades has been made possible by the excellent properties of the Si/SiO2 interface in oxide on silicon systems.. This semiconductor/insulator combination has proven to be of great value for the semiconductor industry. It has made it possible to continuously

  11. Surface modification by metal ion implantation forming metallic nanoparticles in an insulating matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadori, M.C.; Teixeira, F.S.; Sgubin, L.G.; Cattani, M.; Brown, I.G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Metal nanoparticles can be produced through metallic ion implantation in insulating substrate, where the implanted metal self-assembles into nanoparticles. • The nanoparticles nucleate near the maximum of the implantation depth profile, that can be estimated by computer simulation using the TRIDYN. • Nanocomposites, obtained by this way, can be produced in different insulator materials. More specifically we have studied Au/PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate), Pt/PMMA, Ti/alumina and Au/alumina systems. • The nanocomposites were characterized by measuring the resistivity of the composite layer as function of the dose implanted, reaching the percolation threshold. • Excellent agreement was found between the experimental results and the predictions of the theory. - Abstract: There is special interest in the incorporation of metallic nanoparticles in a surrounding dielectric matrix for obtaining composites with desirable characteristics such as for surface plasmon resonance, which can be used in photonics and sensing, and controlled surface electrical conductivity. We have investigated nanocomposites produced by metal ion implantation into insulating substrates, where the implanted metal self-assembles into nanoparticles. The nanoparticles nucleate near the maximum of the implantation depth profile (projected range), which can be estimated by computer simulation using the TRIDYN code. TRIDYN is a Monte Carlo simulation program based on the TRIM (Transport and Range of Ions in Matter) code that takes into account compositional changes in the substrate due to two factors: previously implanted dopant atoms, and sputtering of the substrate surface. Our study show that the nanoparticles form a bidimentional array buried a few nanometers below the substrate surface. We have studied Au/PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate), Pt/PMMA, Ti/alumina and Au/alumina systems. Transmission electron microscopy of the implanted samples show that metallic nanoparticles form in

  12. The advantage of selection of mineral thermal insulation materials with the structural properties for thermal insulation in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janžekovič Ines M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of energy efficiency in Serbia. It gives a general overview of the energy losses and focuses on energy losses in buildings, which is recognized as one of the most problematic sectors as the energy losses concerns. By the very fact there is a need for more efficient implementation of measures to reduce energy losses through education and increased awareness of citizens about the proper ways of performing thermal protection of buildings. The paper points out the problems that arise when selecting the inadequate solutions of performing thermal insulation of buildings and suggests some solutions for the proper selection of materials for thermal insulation and in setting the appropriate requirements for thermal envelope for buildings.

  13. Impact of external wall insulation thickness on internal surface temperature behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponechal Radoslav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, the concept of low-energy buildings based on high insulation levels becomes the reality. The aim of this paper is to assess some alternatives of insulated and uninsulated external walls with respect of thermal inertia. The thermal damping factor, phase shift, together with the daily courses of indoor surface temperature of the external wall have been analysed. Analysed surface temperatures show the ability of constructions to accumulate heat gains, which can arise during the day.

  14. Alternative Hybrid Core Material For Vacuum Insulation Panels Silica-Fly Ash-Glass Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desire Emefa Awuye

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum insulation panels one of the most promising insulation materials consisting of an evacuated core material an air tight envelope and in special cases an absorbent known as getter. However despite its outstanding properties it faces some challenges such as relatively high cost and quite a short service life which can be attributed to the core material used. In this paper Hybrid core materials HCM consisting of various percentages of fly ash fumed silica and glass fiber were used as a core material for vacuum insulation panels and the composition ratio vs thermal conductivity were investigated to ascertain the optimum composition ratio that showed the lowest thermal conductivity and best insulation properties. This was to produce VIPs at a relatively cheaper cost. The optimum ratio of the HCM that showed the best insulation properties including lower thermal conductivity is that of 65 fly ash FA 30 fumed silica FS and 5 glass fiber GF. The HCM produced exhibited similar qualities as that of silica powder core VIPs. Even though produced at a relatively lower cost the insulation properties were not compromised. Furthermore the thermal conductivity of each of the VIPs from the HCMs prepared were measured after undergoing a temperature stress of 60 C for 6 months.

  15. Heat Transfer Measurement and Modeling in Rigid High-Temperature Reusable Surface Insulation Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Knutson, Jeffrey R.; Cunnington, George R.

    2011-01-01

    Heat transfer in rigid reusable surface insulations was investigated. Steady-state thermal conductivity measurements in a vacuum were used to determine the combined contribution of radiation and solid conduction components of heat transfer. Thermal conductivity measurements at higher pressures were then used to estimate the effective insulation characteristic length for gas conduction modeling. The thermal conductivity of the insulation can then be estimated at any temperature and pressure in any gaseous media. The methodology was validated by comparing estimated thermal conductivities with published data on a rigid high-temperature silica reusable surface insulation tile. The methodology was also applied to the alumina enhanced thermal barrier tiles. Thermal contact resistance for thermal conductivity measurements on rigid tiles was also investigated. A technique was developed to effectively eliminate thermal contact resistance on the rigid tile s cold-side surface for the thermal conductivity measurements.

  16. Massive Dirac Fermion on the Surface of a Magnetically Doped Topological Insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.L.; Chu, J.-H.; Analytis, J.G.; Liu, Z.K.; Igarashi, K.; Kuo, H.-H.; Qi, X.L.; Mo, S.K.; Moore, R.G.; Lu, D.H.; Hashimoto, M.; Sasagawa, T.; Zhang, S.C.; Fisher, I.R.; Hussain, Z.; Shen, Z.-X.; /SLAC

    2011-05-20

    Topological insulators are characterized by a massless Dirac surface state and a bulk energy gap. An insulating massive Dirac fermion state is predicted to occur if the breaking of the time reversal symmetry opens an energy gap at the Dirac point, provided that the Fermi-energy resides inside both the surface and bulk gaps. By introducing magnetic dopants into the three dimensional topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} to break the time reversal symmetry, we observed the formation of a massive Dirac fermion on the surface; simultaneous magnetic and charge doping furthermore positioned the Fermi-energy inside the Dirac gap. The insulating massive Dirac Fermion state thus obtained may provide a tool for studying a range of topological phenomena relevant to both condensed matter and particle physics.

  17. A Difference in Using Atomic Layer Deposition or Physical Vapour Deposition TiN as Electrode Material in Metal-Insulator-Metal and Metal-Insulator-Silicon Capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, A.W.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    In this work, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) and metal-insulator-silicon (MIS) capacitors are studied using titanium nitride (TiN) as the electrode material. The effect of structural defects on the electrical properties on MIS and MIM capacitors is studied for various electrode configurations. In the

  18. Teaching Acoustic Properties of Materials in Secondary School: Testing Sound Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, M. I.; Couso, D.; Pinto, R.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching the acoustic properties of materials is a good way to teach physics concepts, extending them into the technological arena related to materials science. This article describes an innovative approach for teaching sound and acoustics in combination with sound insulating materials in secondary school (15-16-year-old students). Concerning the…

  19. Evaluation of cryogenic insulation materials and composites for use in nuclear radiation environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The following subjects are studied: (1) composite materials tests; (2) test of liquid level sensors and fission couples; (3) test of valve-seal materials; (4) boron epoxy composites; (5) radiation analysis of explosive materials and bifuels for RNS applications; and (6) test of thermal insulation.

  20. Impact of surface roughness on the effective dielectric constants and subwavelength image resolution of metal-insulator stack lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivanand; Ludwig, Alon; Webb, Kevin J

    2012-10-15

    The effective parallel and perpendicular dielectric constants for a multilayer metal–insulator stack are obtained from numerical simulations and compared with analytical homogenization results as a function of wavelength and number of periods. The influence of inevitable film surface roughness on the homogenized dielectric constants, determined from numerical scattered field calculations, is evaluated as a function of roughness. The impact of this roughness on resolution in a subwavelength imaging application gives smoothness guidelines for material deposition.

  1. Intrinsic conduction through topological surface states of insulating Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} epitaxial thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefer, Katharina; Becker, Christoph; Rata, Diana; Thalmeier, Peter; Tjeng, Liu Hao [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); Swanson, Jesse [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Topological insulators represent a new state of matter that open up new opportunities to create unique quantum particles. Many exciting experiments have been proposed by theory, yet, the main obstacle for their execution is material quality and cleanliness of the experimental conditions. The presence of tiny amounts of defects in the bulk or contaminants at the surface already mask these phenomena. We present the preparation, structural and spectroscopic characterisation of MBE-grown Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films that are insulating in the bulk. Moreover, temperature dependent four-point-probe resistivity measurements of the Dirac states on surfaces that are intrinsically clean were conducted. The total amount of surface charge carries is in the order of 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} and mobilities up to 4600 cm{sup 2}/Vs are observed. Importantly, these results are achieved by carrying out the preparation and characterisation all in-situ under ultra-high-vacuum conditions.

  2. Development of insulation material for DC cables -- Space charge properties of metallocene catalyzed polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.; Fujita, Michitomo; Tanimoto, Gen; Aida, Fumio; Fujiwara, Yasutaka [Showa Electric Wire and Cable Co., Ltd., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Applicability of polyethylene polymerized using a metallocene catalyst to an insulation material for DC power cables has been investigated. The accumulation properties of space charge in a range from room temperature to 90 C was examined using the pulse electroacoustic method. The result indicated that hetero-charge was observed in the vicinity of the surface of sample at increased temperature, and that hetero-space charge produced by activation of an antioxidant added to the sample was increased or decreased with the increase of the temperature of sample. A hetero-charge absorber was added for controlling the hetero-space charge. As a result, hetero-charge was not observed on the sample in a high electric field extending from room temperature to high temperature. It was confirmed that the volume resistivity of sample was increased at high temperature.

  3. Material science experience gained from the space nuclear rocket program: Insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.

    1992-07-01

    Although Rover reactors are viewed as the ultimate in high-temperature operating systems, many of the materials used in these reactors (for example, support rods, control drums, and the reflector) have to be held at relatively low temperatures while the reactor operates, in order to maintain their structural integrity. Thus the insulators needed to separate these temperature domains are crucial to the reactor's ultimate operating times and temperatures. All of the reactors that were tested used pyrolytic graphite as the primary insulator. However, it had been long planned to replace the graphite with zirconium carbide and a lengthy and intensive effort to develop the zirconium carbide insulators had been made at the time Rover was terminated. This report details research and development and the experience we gained with both these insulator materials

  4. Prediction of Long Term Degradation of Insulating Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Canada. Pielichowski, K, P. Czub, and J. Pielichowski. 2000. “The kinetics of cure of epoxides and related sulphur compounds studied by dynamic DSC... analysis of these data indicates that: (1) for aerogel blankets with polyester binder, R0 =9.2, Rf = 7.5, EA= 177J/mole, and (2) for closed cell... analysis called “TTS Theory” as mentioned early in this chapter. 4.2.2 Nonwoven composite insulation liner (3M™ Thinsulate™) results Both Thinsulate™ and

  5. Towards aging mechanisms of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable insulation materials in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shuaishuai; Fifield, Leonard S.; Bowler, Nicola

    2016-12-19

    Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable insulation material undergoes simultaneous, accelerated thermal and gamma-radiation aging to simulate the long-term aging environment within nuclear power plants (NPPs). A variety of materials characterization tests, including scanning electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, oxidation induction time, gel-fraction and dielectric properties measurement, are conducted on pristine and differently aged XLPE samples. A preliminary model of one possible aging mechanism of XLPE cable insulation material under gamma radiation at elevated temperature of 115 °C is suggested.

  6. Bio-susceptibility of materials and thermal insulation systems used for historical buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterflinger, Katja; Ettenauer, Joerg; Pinar, Guadalupe

    2013-04-01

    In historical buildings of Northern countries high levels of energy are necessary to reach comfortable temperatures especially during the cold season. For this reason historical buildings are now also included in country specific regulations and ordinances to enhance the "energy - efficiency". Since an exterior insulation - as it is commonly used for modern architecture - is incompatible with monument protection, several indoor insulation systems based on historical and ecological materials, are on the market that should improve the thermic performance of a historical building. However, using organic materials as cellulose, loam, weed or wood, bears the risk of fungal growth and thus may lead to health problems in indoor environments. For this reason 5 different ecological indoor insulations systems were tested for their bio-susceptibility against various fungi both under natural conditions - after 2 years of installation in an historical building - and under laboratory conditions with high levels of relative humidity. Fungal growth was evaluated by classical isolation and cultivation as well as by molecular methods. The materials turned out to have a quite different susceptibility towards fungal contamination. Whereas insulations made of bloated Perlite (plaster and board) did not show any fungal growth after 2 years of exposition, the historical insulation made of loam and weed had high cell counts of various fungi. In laboratory experiments wooden softboard represented the best environment for fungal growth. As a result from this study, plaster and board made of bloated Perlite are presented as being the most appropriate materials for thermal insulation at least from the microbiological and hygienic point of view. For future investigations and for the monitoring of fungi in insulation and other building materials we suggest a molecular biology approach with a common protocol for quantitative DNA-extraction and amplification.

  7. Identification of electrical discharge on electric insulation material using acoustic emission method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainggolan, J. M.; Garniwa MK, I.; Raharjo, A.

    2017-04-01

    Insulation system is essential to be equipped on high voltage equipment. One of the tests on insulation system is the electrical discharge test. In this work, the electrical discharge detected using an acoustic emission method to find out the characteristic of the discharge. Epoxy resin was taken as the insulation material, whereas one to two artificial holes were made inside the insulation. An AE sensor placed at a distance of 24 mm and 36 mm away from holes or discharge source. The main frequency component of the detected AE signal on single hole test was approximately 975 kHz. Meanwhile, test on double holes caused two main frequency component; i.e. 63 kHz and 930 Khz. For single hole test and sensor distance of 36 m, the AE signal intensity tends to be worth 40% from the AE signal at a distance of 24 mm.

  8. Flight Performance of an Advanced Thermal Protection Material: Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Gordon, Michael P.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The flight performance of a new class of low density, high temperature thermal protection materials (TPM) is described and compared to "standard" Space Shuttle TPM. This new functionally gradient material designated as Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation (TUFI), was bonded on a removable panel attached to the base heat shield of Orbiter 105, Endeavour.

  9. Nonlinear processes of magnons in insulating ferromagnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, C.B. de.

    1975-04-01

    The representation of coherent states is used to investigate the excitation of magnons by 'parallel pumping', 'perpendicular pumping' and 'phonon pumping'. The stationary regime of the processes is studied with respect to the magnon population and the statistic behavior of the system below and just above the threshold. Particular attention is given to the thermodynamic and the coherence properties of the parametric states. The results show that just above the threshold the generated states become coherent. Also, it is shown that the non-linear processes have characteristics of a second-order phase transition with the pumping power as the 'reservoir variable' and the transverse dynamical magnetization as the 'order parameter'. Finally, the possibilities to extend the theory, its experimental check, and its convenience to study the other nonlinear processes of magnons and phonons in magnetic insulators are discussed. (author) [pt

  10. Two-dimensional lattice model for the surface states of topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Feng; Jiang, Hua; Xie, X. C.; Sun, Qing-Feng

    2017-06-01

    The surface states in three-dimensional (3D) topological insulators can be described by a two-dimensional (2D) continuous Dirac Hamiltonian. However, there exists the fermion doubling problem when putting the continuous 2D Dirac equation into a lattice model. In this paper, we introduce a Wilson term with a zero bare mass into the 2D lattice model to overcome the difficulty. By comparing with a 3D Hamiltonian, we show that the modified 2D lattice model can faithfully describe the low-energy electrical and transport properties of surface states of 3D topological insulators. So this 2D lattice model provides a simple and cheap way to numerically simulate the surface states of 3D topological-insulator nanostructures. Based on the 2D lattice model, we also establish the wormhole effect in a topological-insulator nanowire by a magnetic field along the wire and show the surface states being robust against disorder. The proposed 2D lattice model can be extensively applied to study the various properties and effects, such as the transport properties, Hall effect, universal conductance fluctuations, localization effect, etc. So, it paves a way to study the surface states of the 3D topological insulators.

  11. Semi-insulating LEC GaAs as a material for radiation detectors: materials science issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markov, A.V.; Mezhennyi, M.V.; Polyakov, A.Y. E-mail: polyakov@mail.girmet.ru; Smirnov, N.B.; Govorkov, A.V.; Eremin, V.K.; Verbitskaya, E.M.; Gavrin, V.N.; Kozlova, Y.P.; Veretenkin, Y.P.; Bowles, T.J

    2001-06-21

    Semi-insulating (SI) GaAs is now being reconsidered as a promising material for radiation detectors, mostly due to greatly improved quality of the material. In this paper we shall describe the properties of the state-of-the-art SI GaAs crystals grown by LEC method as relevant for such applications. Specifically, we shall concentrate on the assessment of the spectra and density of residual impurities, on the measurements of deep levels spectra and on studying the impact of these centers on material parameters. The spectra of deep centers as studied by PICTS and DLTS indicate that, in LEC crystals grown from stoichiometric melts, besides the most prominent EL2 center, other electron and hole traps are usually observed. By comparing the DLTS and PICTS results we show that PICTS often tends to overestimate the relative contributions of traps shallower than EL2. Two approaches to decreasing EL2 concentration in LEC grown crystals have been proposed in literature: to grow crystals from Ga-rich melts and to anneal the material at high temperatures. We have studied the changes in deep level spectra and transport parameters for both cases. In annealing experiments the possibility of thick samples modification by arsenic diffusion was also investigated.

  12. Two-dimensional Fermi surfaces in Kondo insulating SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang

    There has been renewed interest in Samarium Hexaboride, which is a strongly correlated heavy Fermion material. Hybridization between itinerant electrons and localized orbitals lead to an opening of charge gap at low temperature. However, the resistivity of SmB6 does not diverge at low temperature. Former studies suggested that this residual conductance is contributed by various origins. Recent theoretical developments suggest that the particular symmetry of energy bands of SmB6 may host a topologically non-trivial surface state, i.e., a topological Kondo insulator. To probe the Fermiology of the possible metallic surface state, we use sensitive torque magnetometry to detect the de Haas van Alphen (dHvA) effect due to Landau level quantization on flux-grown crystals, down to He-3 temperature and up to 45 Tesla. Our angular and temperature dependent data suggest two-dimensional Fermi Surfaces lie in both crystalline (001) and (101) surface planes of SmB6.

  13. Dirac-Screening Stabilized Surface-State Transport in a Topological Insulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Brüne

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report magnetotransport studies on a gated strained HgTe device. This material is a three-dimensional topological insulator and exclusively shows surface-state transport. Remarkably, the Landau-level dispersion and the accuracy of the Hall quantization remain unchanged over a wide density range (3×10^{11}  cm^{−2}surface-state dominated, where bulk transport would have been expected to coexist already. Moreover, the density dependence of the Dirac-type quantum Hall effect allows us to identify the contributions from the individual surfaces. A k·p model can describe the experiments but only when assuming a steep band bending across the regions where the topological surface states are contained. This steep potential originates from the specific screening properties of Dirac systems and causes the gate voltage to influence the position of the Dirac points rather than that of the Fermi level.

  14. Stress-Dependent Voltage Offsets From Polymer Insulators Used in Rock Mechanics and Material Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, G. G.; Dahlgren, Robert; Gray, Amber; Vanderbilt, V. C.; Freund, F.; Johnston, M. J.; Dunson, C.

    2013-01-01

    Dielectric insulators are used in a variety of laboratory settings when performing experiments in rock mechanics, petrology, and electromagnetic studies of rocks in the fields of geophysics,material science, and civil engineering. These components may be used to electrically isolate geological samples from the experimental equipment, to perform a mechanical compliance function between brittle samples and the loading equipment, to match ultrasonic transducers, or perform other functions. In manyexperimental configurations the insulators bear the full brunt of force applied to the sample but do not need to withstand high voltages, therefore the insulators are often thin sheets of mechanically tough polymers. From an instrument perspective, transduction from various types of mechanical perturbation has beenqualitatively compared for a number of polymers [1, 2] and these error sources are readily apparent duringhigh-impedance measurements if not mitigated. However even when following best practices, a force dependent voltage signal still remains and its behavior is explored in this presentation. In this experimenttwo thin sheets (0.25 mm) of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) were set up in a stack, held alternatelybetween three aluminum bars; this stack was placed on the platen of a 60T capacity hydraulic testingmachine. The surface area, A, over which the force is applied to the PE sheets in this sandwich is roughly 40 square cm, each sheet forming a parallel-plate capacitor having roughly 320 pF [3], assuming therelative dielectric permittivity of PE is approximately 2.3. The outer two aluminum bars were connected to the LO input ofthe electrometer and the central aluminum bar was connected to the HI input of a Keithley model 617 electrometer. Once the stack is mechanically well-seated with no air gaps, the voltage offset is observed tobe a linear function of the baseline voltage for a given change in applied force. For a periodically appliedforce of 66.7 kN the

  15. RESEARCHES REGARDING USE OF TEXTILE MATERIALS FOR THERMAL INSULATION AT NEGATIVE TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOSUB Andrei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Using thermal insulation in negative temperature acts to reduce heat flow to the cooled space or to objects that have a temperature below ambient temperature. To achieve economic operation of the space to be cooled insulation thickness and quality is an important factor. In this article we want to compare three products used in thermal insulation at negative temperatures: expanded polystyrene, non-woven and wool coats. The materials will be tested with a mechanical vapor compression refrigerator capable of producing temperatures in the range +4 .. -35 ° C, managed by a programmer Dixel capable of recording values between +40. .. -60 °C. Refrigeration insulation enclosure was made with 100 mm expanded polystyrene. On one side of the enclosure will be a cut of 250 * 250 mm, chosen in a central position where the material will be introduced to be tested. The dimensions of the samples are 250 * 250 * 60 mm. To check the insulation properties of materials it will be used a temperature logger capable of recording with two probes temperatures between +125...-40° C. One of the probes will be inserted inside the refrigerator and the second probe will be positioned to the outside of the test material adhered to an aluminum plate, in order to read a average temperature. The difference in thickness of the insulation shall be filled with non-woven material. Hardening the assembly will be made using a 6 mm thick OSB board. The materials will be tested in an identical ambient temperature and humidity.

  16. Key Elements of and Materials Performance Targets for Highly Insulating Window Frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Grynning, Steinar; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Goudey, Howdy

    2011-03-28

    The thermal performance of windows is important for energy efficient buildings. Windows typically account for about 30-50 percent of the transmission losses though the building envelope, even if their area fraction of the envelope is far less. The reason for this can be found by comparing the thermal transmittance (U-factor) of windows to the U-factor of their opaque counterparts (wall, roof and floor constructions). In well insulated buildings the U-factor of walls, roofs an floors can be between 0.1-0.2 W/(m2K). The best windows have U-values of about 0.7-1.0. It is therefore obvious that the U-factor of windows needs to be reduced, even though looking at the whole energy balance for windows (i.e. solar gains minus transmission losses) makes the picture more complex.In high performance windows the frame design and material use is of utmost importance, as the frame performance is usually the limiting factor for reducing the total window U-factor further. This paper describes simulation studies analyzing the effects on frame and edge-of-glass U-factors of different surface emissivities as well as frame material and spacer conductivities. The goal of this work is to define materials research targets for window frame components that will result in better frame thermal performance than is exhibited by the best products available on the market today.

  17. Materials characterization and fracture mechanics of a space grade dielectric silicone insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, A. I.; Tweedie, A. T.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the DC 93-500 high voltage silicone insulation material employed to pot the gun and the collector end of a traveling wave tube (TWT) used on the Landsat D Satellite. The fracture mechanics behavior of the silicone resin was evaluated by measuring the slow crack velocity as a function of the opening mode of the stress intensity factor at +25 and -10 C, taking into account various uniaxial discrete strain values. It was found that the silicone resins slow crack growth is faster than that for a high voltage insulation polyurethane material at the same stress intensity factor value and room temperature.

  18. Opportunities in chemistry and materials science for topological insulators and their nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Kong, Desheng

    2011-10-24

    Electrical charges on the boundaries of topological insulators favour forward motion over back-scattering at impurities, producing low-dissipation, metallic states that exist up to room temperature in ambient conditions. These states have the promise to impact a broad range of applications from electronics to the production of energy, which is one reason why topological insulators have become the rising star in condensed-matter physics. There are many challenges in the processing of these exotic materials to use the metallic states in functional devices, and they present great opportunities for the chemistry and materials science research communities. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  19. Insulation commonality assessment (phase 1). Volume 2: Section 7.0 through 16.0. [evaluation of materials used for spacecraft thermal insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The heat transfer characteristics of various materials used for the thermal insulation of spacecraft are discussed. Techniques for conducting thermal performance analysis, structural performance analysis, and dynamic analysis are described. Processes for producing and finishing the materials are explained. The methods for determining reliability, system safety, materials tests, and design effectiveness are explained.

  20. Layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride for surface passivation in quantum dot solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugam, Mariyappan; Jain, Nikhil; Jacobs-Gedrim, Robin; Yu, Bin; Xu, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Single crystalline, two dimensional (2D) layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), is demonstrated as an emerging material candidate for surface passivation on mesoporous TiO 2 . Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dot based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell employed h-BN passivated TiO 2 as an electron acceptor exhibits photoconversion efficiency ∼46% more than BHJ employed unpassivated TiO 2 . Dominant interfacial recombination pathways such as electron capture by TiO 2 surface states and recombination with hole at valence band of CdSe are efficiently controlled by h-BN enabled surface passivation, leading to improved photovoltaic performance. Highly crystalline, confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, dangling bond-free 2D layered h-BN with self-terminated atomic planes, achieved by chemical exfoliation, enables efficient passivation on TiO 2 , allowing electronic transport at TiO 2 /h-BN/CdSe interface with much lower recombination rate compared to an unpassivated TiO 2 /CdSe interface

  1. Second crossover energy of insulating materials using stationary electron beam under normal incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, E.I. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology of Russian Academy of Science, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow District (Russian Federation)], E-mail: rau@phys.msu.ru; Fakhfakh, S. [LaMaCop, Faculte des Sciences, Route Soukra km 3, BP 802, CP 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Andrianov, M.V.; Evstafeva, E.N. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology of Russian Academy of Science, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow District (Russian Federation); Jbara, O. [UTAP/LASSI, EA 3802, Faculte des Sciences, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)], E-mail: omar.jbara@univ-reims.fr; Rondot, S.; Mouze, D. [UTAP/LASSI, EA 3802, Faculte des Sciences, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of this paper is to give some aspects of charging effects on dielectric materials submitted to continuous electron beam irradiation in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). When the dielectric is irradiated continuously, the so-called total yield approach (TYA) used to predict the sign of the charge appeared on electron irradiated insulators fails because the charge accumulated in the dielectric interferes with the electrons emission processes. Based on previous experimental and theoretical works found in the literature, an analysis of the evolution of the electron yield curves {sigma} = f(E{sub 0}) of insulators during irradiation is given. The aim of this work is firstly to determine experimentally the second crossover energy E{sub 2C} under continuous electron irradiation (charging conditions) and secondly to demonstrate that the charge balance occurs at this beam energy and not at E{sub 2} the energy deduced from non-charging conditions (pulse primary electron beam experiments) as commonly asserted. It is however possible to apply the TYA by substituting the critical energy E{sub 2} for E{sub 2C}. The experimental procedure is based on simultaneous time dependent measurements of surface potential, leakage current and displacement current. The study underlines the difference between the landing energy of primary electrons E{sub L} at the steady state and the second crossover energy, E{sub 2C}, for charged samples. Some preliminary results are also obtained concerning the influence of the incident beam density on the energy E{sub 2C}. The samples used for this study are PMMA, polycrystalline silicone dioxide (p-SiO{sub 2}), polycrystalline alumina (p-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and soda lime glass (SLG)

  2. Second crossover energy of insulating materials using stationary electron beam under normal incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, E.I.; Fakhfakh, S.; Andrianov, M.V.; Evstafeva, E.N.; Jbara, O.; Rondot, S.; Mouze, D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give some aspects of charging effects on dielectric materials submitted to continuous electron beam irradiation in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). When the dielectric is irradiated continuously, the so-called total yield approach (TYA) used to predict the sign of the charge appeared on electron irradiated insulators fails because the charge accumulated in the dielectric interferes with the electrons emission processes. Based on previous experimental and theoretical works found in the literature, an analysis of the evolution of the electron yield curves σ = f(E 0 ) of insulators during irradiation is given. The aim of this work is firstly to determine experimentally the second crossover energy E 2C under continuous electron irradiation (charging conditions) and secondly to demonstrate that the charge balance occurs at this beam energy and not at E 2 the energy deduced from non-charging conditions (pulse primary electron beam experiments) as commonly asserted. It is however possible to apply the TYA by substituting the critical energy E 2 for E 2C . The experimental procedure is based on simultaneous time dependent measurements of surface potential, leakage current and displacement current. The study underlines the difference between the landing energy of primary electrons E L at the steady state and the second crossover energy, E 2C , for charged samples. Some preliminary results are also obtained concerning the influence of the incident beam density on the energy E 2C . The samples used for this study are PMMA, polycrystalline silicone dioxide (p-SiO 2 ), polycrystalline alumina (p-Al 2 O 3 ) and soda lime glass (SLG)

  3. Laboratory studies of electrical properties of insulating materials. [thermal insulation of spacecraft dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanevicz, J. E.; Adamo, R. C.; Grier, N.

    1978-01-01

    The characteristics of satellites are influenced by the electrical properties of the dielectric exterior. It was found in simulated space environment tests that the electrical conductivities of dielectrics are affected as the result of interactions with various components of the environment. The degree to which the conductivity was affected varied with material. In some instances the changes found to occur could be used to advantage, particularly if they could be enhanced. For example, the increased electrical conductivity of Kapton resulting from solar illumination could be used to advantage to eliminate the charge storage leading to electrical breakdown during magnetic substorms. Similarly the relative immunity of FEP Teflon to change from response to the space environment makes it a logical choice as a solar cell cover in a high-voltage solar array.

  4. Nanocellular polymer foams as promising high performance thermal insulation materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shanqiu; Duvigneau, Joost; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2015-01-01

    Low density, nanocellular polymer nanocomposite foams are considered as a promising new class of materials with many promising applications, for example to passively enhance the energy efficiency of buildings. This paper discusses recent developments in this field of polymer materials science.

  5. Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijun; Liu, Chao-Xing; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2009-06-01

    Topological insulators are new states of quantum matter in which surface states residing in the bulk insulating gap of such systems are protected by time-reversal symmetry. The study of such states was originally inspired by the robustness to scattering of conducting edge states in quantum Hall systems. Recently, such analogies have resulted in the discovery of topologically protected states in two-dimensional and three-dimensional band insulators with large spin-orbit coupling. So far, the only known three-dimensional topological insulator is BixSb1-x, which is an alloy with complex surface states. Here, we present the results of first-principles electronic structure calculations of the layered, stoichiometric crystals Sb2Te3, Sb2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3. Our calculations predict that Sb2Te3, Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 are topological insulators, whereas Sb2Se3 is not. These topological insulators have robust and simple surface states consisting of a single Dirac cone at the Γ point. In addition, we predict that Bi2Se3 has a topologically non-trivial energy gap of 0.3eV, which is larger than the energy scale of room temperature. We further present a simple and unified continuum model that captures the salient topological features of this class of materials.

  6. 2006/07 Field Testing of Cellulose Fiber Insulation Enhanced with Phase Change Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Yarbrough, David W [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Petrie, Thomas [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Syed, Azam M [ORNL

    2008-12-01

    Most recent improvements in building envelope technologies suggest that in the near future, residences will be routinely constructed to operate with very low heating and cooling loads. In that light, the application of novel building materials containing active thermal components (e.g., phase change materials [PCMs,] sub-venting, radiant barriers, and integrated hydronic systems) is like a final step in achieving relatively significant heating and cooling energy savings from technological improvements in the building envelope. It is expected that optimized building envelope designs using PCMs for energy storage can effectively bring notable savings in energy consumption and reductions in peak hour power loads. During 2006/07, a research team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed a series of laboratory and field tests of several wall and roof assemblies using PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation. This report summarizes the test results from the perspective of energy performance. The ORNL team is working on both inorganic and organic PCMs; this report discusses only paraffinic PCMs. A limited economical analysis also is presented. PCMs have been tested as a thermal mass component in buildings for at least 40 years. Most of the research studies found that PCMs enhanced building energy performance. In the case of the application of organic PCMs, problems such as high initial cost and PCM leaking (surface sweating) have hampered widespread adoption. Paraffinic hydrocarbon PCMs generally performed well, with the exception that they increased the flammability of the building envelope.

  7. Quantum and Classical Optics of Plasmonic Systems: 3D/2D Materials and Photonic Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani Gangaraj, Seyyed Ali

    analysis of the Green's function for the surface plasmonic wave contribution of the Sommerfeld integral. The Sommerfeld integral form of the Green's function can be time-consuming to evaluate, and here, it has been shown that for the surface waves, this integral can be evaluated efficiently as a mixture of continuous and discrete spectrums associated to the radiation of the source into the ambient space and energy coupled to the SPPs. Graphene strip arrays provide directive surface waves in the low THz regime, and unperturbed black phosphorus provides a similar response for higher frequency ranges. All plasmonic devices are impacted by SPP diffraction at surface defects and discontinuities. In particular, for reciprocal materials a surface defect/discontinuity can both scatter a forward mode into a backward mode (and vice versa) and cause significant radiation/diffraction of the SPP. The presence of a backward state comes from time reversal (TR) symmetry; when broken, a backward state may be absent, and reflection at a discontinuity can be suppressed. As a result, surface energy becomes unidirectional and follows the contour of the interface. This type of system can be broadly classified as a photonic topological insulators (PTIs). The properties of PTIs are quantified by the Berry phase, Berry connection, and an invariant known as the Chern number. Also the physical meaning of the Berry phase, connection, and curvature, how these quantities arise in electromagnetic problems, and the significance of Chern numbers for unidirectional, scattering-immune surface wave propagation are discussed. The Chern numbers for the electromagnetic modes supported by a biased plasma have been calculated. It has been demonstrated that the modes supported by biased plasmas indeed possess non-trivial Chern numbers, which leads to the propagation of a topologically protected and unidirectional surface modes (energy) at the interface between the biased plasma and topologically trivial material

  8. Surface properties of topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoparticles separated by impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong Min; Lee, Kyu Won; Jeon, Gi Wan; Kim, Do Wan; Lee, Cheol Eui

    2017-06-01

    We have separated the surface and bulk electrical properties of the Bi2Se3 nanoparticles by means of impedance spectroscopy. An equivalent circuit analysis of the complex impedance data comprising two separate resistance components, RB and RS, and two separate inductance components, LB and LS, enabled us to separate the bulk and surface properties of the topological insulator. One of the resistance components, RS, attributed to the surface, showed no temperature dependence, whereas the other, RB, attributed to the bulk, showed a weak metallic behavior. With increasing surface-to-bulk ratio by mixing with insulating Al2O3 nanoparticles up to the ratio of 1:1, the surface resistivity showed decrease up to ˜70%, whereas the bulk resistivity showed increase up to ˜150%. While the bulk state showed increasing electrical resistivity up to 200% with aging up to 30 days, the surface state resistivity did not show an aging effect.

  9. Uncertainty relations and topological-band insulator transitions in 2D gapped Dirac materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romera, E; Calixto, M

    2015-05-08

    Uncertainty relations are studied for a characterization of topological-band insulator transitions in 2D gapped Dirac materials isostructural with graphene. We show that the relative or Kullback-Leibler entropy in position and momentum spaces, and the standard variance-based uncertainty relation give sharp signatures of topological phase transitions in these systems.

  10. The Effect of Moisture and Fungus on Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Plastic Insulating Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-10-01

    0110 106 280000 46000 7.6 30000 6.2 27000 4.2 24000 1.2 10000 Samples and eleotrode arrangement were humidity exposure tests« aa...VARIOUS INSULATING MATERIALS TEMPERATURE 25°C.; RELATIVE HUMIDITY 979b; EXCEPT WHERE NOTED OTHERWISE 140 160 ISO 200 220 240 260 270

  11. Two-dimensional simulation research of secondary electron emission avalanche discharge on vacuum insulator surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Libing; Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Xiangqin; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Dianhui

    2015-01-01

    Based on the secondary electron emission avalanche (SEEA) model, the SEEA discharge on the vacuum insulator surface is simulated by using a 2D PIC-MCC code developed by ourselves. The evolutions of the number of discharge electrons, insulator surface charge, current, and 2D particle distribution are obtained. The effects of the strength of the applied electric field, secondary electron yield coefficient, rise time of the pulse, length of the insulator on the discharge are investigated. The results show that the number of the SEEA electrons presents a quadratic dependence upon the applied field strength. The SEEA current, which is on the order of Ampere, is directly proportional to the field strength and secondary electron yield coefficient. Finally, the electron-stimulated outgassing is included in the simulation code, and a three-phase discharge curve is presented by the simulation, which agrees with the experimental data.

  12. Two-dimensional simulation research of secondary electron emission avalanche discharge on vacuum insulator surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Libing; Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Xiangqin; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Dianhui

    2015-01-01

    Based on the secondary electron emission avalanche (SEEA) model, the SEEA discharge on the vacuum insulator surface is simulated by using a 2D PIC-MCC code developed by ourselves. The evolutions of the number of discharge electrons, insulator surface charge, current, and 2D particle distribution are obtained. The effects of the strength of the applied electric field, secondary electron yield coefficient, rise time of the pulse, length of the insulator on the discharge are investigated. The results show that the number of the SEEA electrons presents a quadratic dependence upon the applied field strength. The SEEA current, which is on the order of Ampere, is directly proportional to the field strength and secondary electron yield coefficient. Finally, the electron-stimulated outgassing is included in the simulation code, and a three-phase discharge curve is presented by the simulation, which agrees with the experimental data

  13. Linear magnetoresistance and surface to bulk coupling in topological insulator thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sourabh; Gopal, R K; Sarkar, Jit; Pandey, Atul; Patel, Bhavesh G; Mitra, Chiranjib

    2017-12-20

    We explore the temperature dependent magnetoresistance of bulk insulating topological insulator thin films. Thin films of Bi 2 Se 2 Te and BiSbTeSe 1.6 were grown using the pulsed laser deposition technique and subjected to transport measurements. Magnetotransport measurements indicate a non-saturating linear magnetoresistance (LMR) behavior at high magnetic field values. We present a careful analysis to explain the origin of LMR taking into consideration all the existing models of LMR. Here we consider that the bulk insulating states and the metallic surface states constitute two parallel conduction channels. Invoking this, we were able to explain linear magnetoresistance behavior as a competition between these parallel channels. We observe that the cross-over field, where LMR sets in, decreases with increasing temperature. We propose that this cross-over field can be used phenomenologically to estimate the strength of surface to bulk coupling.

  14. Effect of surface hybridization on RKKY coupling in ferromagnet/topological insulator/ferromagnet trilayer system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Son Ho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We theoretically investigate the RKKY exchange coupling between two ferromagnets (FM separated by a thin topological insulator film (TI. We find an unusual dependence of the RKKY exchange coupling Φex on the TI thickness (tTI. First, when tTI decreases, the coupling amplitude increases at first and reaches its maximum value at some critical thickness, below which the amplitude turns to diminish. This trend is attributed to the hybridization between surfaces of the TI film, which opens a gap below critical thickness and thus turns the surfaces into insulating state from semi-metal state. In insulating phase, diamagnetism induced by the gap-opening compensates paramagnetism of Dirac state, resulting in a diminishing magnetic susceptibility and RKKY coupling. For typical parameters, the critical thickness in Bi2Se3 thin film is estimated to be in the range of 3-5 nm.

  15. Advanced insulation Materials for Cryogenic Propellant Storage Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Materials Technology, Inc (AMTI) responds to the Topic X9 entitled "Propulsion and Propellant Storage" under subtopic X9.01, "Long Term Cryogenic Propellant...

  16. Advanced Insulation Materials for Cryogenic Propellant Storage Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Materials Technology, Inc responds to the NASA solicitation Topic X9 entitled "Propulsion and Propellant Storage" under subtopic X9-01, "Long Term Cryogenic...

  17. Surface mobilities on solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binh, V.T.

    1983-01-01

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Surface Mobilities on Solid Materials held in France in 1981. The goal of the two-week meeting was to review up-to-date knowledge on surface diffusion, both theoretical and experimental, and to highlight those areas in which much more knowledge needs to be accumulated. Topics include theoretical aspects of surface diffusion (e.g., microscopic theories of D at zero coverage; statistical mechanical models and surface diffusion); surface diffusion at the atomic level (e.g., FIM studies of surface migration of single adatoms and diatomic clusters; field emission studies of surface diffusion of adsorbates); foreign adsorbate mass transport; self-diffusion mass transport (e.g., different driving forces for the matter transport along surfaces; measurements of the morphological evolution of tips); the role of surface diffusion in some fundamental and applied sciences (e.g. adatomadatom pair interactions and adlayer superstructure formation; surface mobility in chemical reactions and catalysis); and recent works on surface diffusion (e.g., preliminary results on surface self-diffusion measurements on nickel and chromium tips)

  18. Field experiments on the use of phase changing materials, insulation materials and passive solar radiation in the built environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Brouwers, Jos; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; McCarthy, J.; Foliente, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an experimental research facility to assess the effectiveness of Phase Change Materials (PCM), that can be used for passive solar heating. Four test boxes are constructed representing the conventional and future Dutch building practices regarding insulation

  19. Low emissivity insulating glazing materials: principle and examples; Les vitrages isolants a basse emissivite: principe et exemples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, A. [Saint-Gobain Recherche, 93 - Aubervilliers (France)

    1996-12-31

    One of the stakes of flat glass industry is the limitation of thermal losses from indoor to outdoor through glass walls (K coefficient) in order to increase energy savings. Thermal insulation performances of a double glazing can be reinforced by the application of a highly reflective (low emissive) film with respect to thermal infrared radiation. The low emissive character is obtained with the use of surface-deposited materials that can be described using the Drude model: vacuum pulverization of metals, and vacuum pulverization or pyrolysis deposition of doped semi-conductor oxides. (J.S.)

  20. Aerogels: transparent and super-insulating materials; Les aerogels: isolants transparent-super isolants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melka, S.; Rigacci, A.; Achard, P.; Bezian, J.J. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, 06 - Sophia-Antipolis (France); Sallee, H.; Chevalier, B. [Centre des Sciences et Techniques du Batiment, 38 - Saint-Martin-d`Heres (France)

    1996-12-31

    Recent studies have demonstrated the super-insulating properties of silica aerogel in its monolithic or finely divided state. In its monolithic state, this material conciliates excellent thermal insulation performances, a good transmission of visible light and interesting acoustic properties. Also its amazing structural characteristics (lightness, high global porosity, small diameter of pores) are particularly interesting for its use in double glazing windows as transparent insulating spacer. The aim of the work carried out by the Energetic Centre of the Ecole des Mines of Paris is to understand the thermal transfer phenomena in all forms of silica aerogel. In this paper, the main steps of the synthesis process of monolithic silica aerogel is presented with the thermal conductivities obtained. Then, a model is built to describe the thermal transfer mechanisms in finely divided aerogel beds. Finally, the hot wire thermal characterization method is presented and the results obtained on silica aerogels are discussed. (J.S.) 16 refs.

  1. Irradiation and testing of compact ignition tokamak toroidal field coil insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemoto, G.K.; Sherick, M.J.; Sparks, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    This report documents the results of an irradiation and testing program performed on behalf of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. in support of the Compact Ignition Tokamak Research and Development program. The purpose of the irradiation and testing program was to determine the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on the mechanical and electrical properties of candidate toroidal field coil insulation materials. Insulation samples were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in a large I-hole. The insulation samples were irradiated within a lead shield to reduce exposure to gamma radiation to better approximate the desired ration of neutron to gamma exposure. Two different exposure levels were specified for the insulation samples. To accomplish this, the samples were encapsulated in two separate aluminum capsules; the capsules positioned at the ATR core mid-plane and at the top of the fueled region to take advantage of the axial cosine distribution of the neutron and gamma flux; and by varying the length of irradiation time of the two capsules. Disassembly of the irradiated capsules and testing of the insulation samples were performed at the Test Reactor Area (TRA) Hot Cell Facilities. Testing of the samples included shear compression static, shear compression fatigue, flexure static, and electrical resistance measurements

  2. Surface coupling effects on the capacitance of thin insulating films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamali, Tayeb; Farahani, S. Vasheghani; Jannesar, Mona; Palasantzas, Georgios; Jafari, G. R.

    2015-01-01

    A general form for the surface roughness effects on the capacitance of a capacitor is proposed. We state that a capacitor with two uncoupled rough surfaces could be treated as two capacitors in series which have been divided from the mother capacitor by a slit. This is in contrast to the case where

  3. Cryogenic Thermal Performance Testing of Bulk-Fill and Aerogel Insulation Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtens, B. E.; Fesmire, J. E.; Sass, J. P.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Heckle, K. W.

    2007-01-01

    The research testing and demonstration of new bulk-fill materials for cryogenic thermal insulation systems was performed by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at NASA Kennedy Space Center. Thermal conductivity testing under actual-use cryogenic conditions is a key to understanding the total system performance encompassing engineering, economics, and materials factors. A number of bulk fill insulation materials, including aerogel beads, glass bubbles, and perlite powder, were tested using a new cylindrical cryostat. Boundary temperatures for the liquid nitrogen boil-off method were 293 K and 78 K. Tests were performed as a function of cold vacuum pressure from high vacuum to no vacuum conditions. Results are compared with other complementary test methods in the range of 300 K to 20 K. Various testing techniques are shown to be required to obtain a complete understanding of the operating performance of a material and to provide data for answers to design engineering questions.

  4. Efficient systems of sound insulating floors. [multilayer soundproofing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgiu, I. I.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments are summerized on dwelling houses with a view to the creation of efficient warm floors. The experiments concern the types of floors built in Rumania with currently produced materials. At the present time experiments are continuing with solutions based on concrete slabs equipped with a PVC carpet and placed on an elastic layer.

  5. Characterization of the environmental performance of the insulating materials in the enveloping of the building.

    OpenAIRE

    Carabaño Rodriguez, Rocio; Bedoya Frutos, Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Insulating materials in buildings are one of the main factors that should be taken into account when talking about sustainability since with a correct application it could imply important savings for the citizens. In the course of its life, a building requires a series of supplies to perform the duties it has been built for, generating an impact on the environment. The selection of one material or another will establish partly the global environmental impact of the building. Choosing the righ...

  6. Cryogenic Properties of Inorganic Insulation Materials for ITER Magnets: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, N.J.

    1994-01-01

    Results of a literature search on the cryogenic properties of candidate inorganic insulators for the ITER TF magnets are reported. The materials investigated include: Al 2 O 3 , AlN, MgO, porcelain, SiO 2 , MgAl 2 O 4 , ZrO 2 , and mica. A graphical presentation is given of mechanical, elastic, electrical, and thermal properties between 4 and 300 K. A companion report reviews the low temperature irradiation resistance of these materials

  7. RESTORING A DAMAGED 16-YEAR -OLD INSULATING POLYMER CONCRETE DIKE OVERLAY: REPAIR MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this program was to design and formulate organic polymer-based material systems suitable for repairing and restoring the overlay panels of insulating lightweight polymer concrete (ILPC) from the concrete floor and slope wall of a dike at KeySpan liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, NY, just over sixteen years ago. It also included undertaking a small-scale field demonstration to ensure that the commercial repairing technologies were applicable to the designed and formulated materials.

  8. Fabrication of Al2O3 Nano-Structure Functional Film on a Cellulose Insulation Polymer Surface and Its Space Charge Suppression Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose insulation polymer (paper/pressboard has been widely used in high voltage direct current (HVDC transformers. One of the most challenging issues in the insulation material used for HVDC equipment is the space charge accumulation. Effective ways to suppress the space charge injection/accumulation in insulation material is currently a popular research topic. In this study, an aluminium oxide functional film was deposited on a cellulose insulation pressboard surface using reactive radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering. The sputtered thin film was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The influence of the deposited functional film on the dielectric properties and the space charge injection/accumulation behaviour was investigated. A preliminary exploration of the space charge suppression effect is discussed. SEM/EDS, XPS, and XRD results show that the nano-structured Al2O3 film with amorphous phase was successfully fabricated onto the fibre surface. The cellulose insulation pressboard surface sputtered by Al2O3 film has lower permittivity, conductivity, and dissipation factor values in the lower frequency (<103 Hz region. The oil-impregnated sputtered pressboard presents an apparent space-charge suppression effect. Compared with the pressboard sputtered with Al2O3 film for 90 min, the pressboard sputtered with Al2O3 film for 60 min had a better space charge suppression effect. Ultra-small Al2O3 particles (<10 nm grew on the surface of the larger nanoparticles. The nano-structured Al2O3 film sputtered on the fibre surface could act as a functional barrier layer for suppression of the charge injection and accumulation. This study offers a new perspective in favour of the application of insulation pressboard with a nano-structured function surface against space charge injection/accumulation in HVDC equipment.

  9. Non-isothermal Moisture Transport Through Insulation Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2008-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in order to draw some conclusions on the magnitude of moisture transport due to temperature gradient on a range of porous light-weight building materials. A special constructed non-isothermal set-up allowed the creation of a temperature gradient of 10K...... and given humidity gradient over the sample. The resulting moisture ux as well as the hygrothermal states around and within the material were monitored. The hypothesis of relative humidity being a driving force for non-isothermal moisture transport already in the hygroscopic range could not be confirmed....... On the contrary, indications exist that the temperature gradient itself is driving the moisture from the warm side towards the cold side. An attempt to identify and quantify the single contributions of the different transport forms involved is also presented. The diferent results gave, however, diverging...

  10. On-surface covalent linking of organic building blocks on a bulk insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelmann, Markus; Rahe, Philipp; Nimmrich, Markus; Hauke, Christopher M; Gourdon, André; Kühnle, Angelika

    2011-10-25

    On-surface synthesis in ultrahigh vacuum provides a promising strategy for creating thermally and chemically stable molecular structures at surfaces. The two-dimensional confinement of the educts, the possibility of working at higher (or lower) temperatures in the absence of solvent, and the templating effect of the surface bear the potential of preparing compounds that cannot be obtained in solution. Moreover, covalently linked conjugated molecules allow for efficient electron transport and are, thus, particularly interesting for future molecular electronics applications. When having these applications in mind, electrically insulating substrates are mandatory to provide sufficient decoupling of the molecular structure from the substrate surface. So far, however, on-surface synthesis has been achieved only on metallic substrates. Here we demonstrate the covalent linking of organic molecules on a bulk insulator, namely, calcite. We deliberately employ the strong electrostatic interaction between the carboxylate groups of halide-substituted benzoic acids and the surface calcium cations to prevent molecular desorption and to reach homolytic cleavage temperatures. This allows for the formation of aryl radicals and intermolecular coupling. By varying the number and position of the halide substitution, we rationally design the resulting structures, revealing straight lines, zigzag structures, and dimers, thus providing clear evidence for the covalent linking. Our results constitute an important step toward exploiting on-surface synthesis for molecular electronics and optics applications, which require electrically insulating rather than metallic supporting substrates.

  11. Radiation hardness of superconducting magnet insulation materials for FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, Tim

    2013-03-01

    This thesis focuses on radiation degradation studies of polyimide, polyepoxy/glass-fiber composites and other technical components used, for example, in the superconducting magnets of new ion accelerators such as the planned International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at the GSI Helmholtz Center of Heavy Ion Research (GSI) in Darmstadt. As accelerators are becoming more powerful, i.e., providing larger energies and beam intensities, the potential risk of radiation damage to the components increases. Reliable data of the radiation hardness of accelerator materials and components concerning electrical, thermal and other technical relevant properties are of great interest also for other facilities such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of CERN. Dependent on the position of the different components, induced radiation due to beam losses consists of a cocktail of gammas, neutrons, protons, and heavier particles. Although the number of heavy fragments of the initial projectiles is small compared to neutrons, protons, or light fragments (e.g. ? particles), their large energy deposition can induce extensive damage at rather low fluences (dose calculations show that the contribution of heavy ions to the total accumulated dose can reach 80 %). For this reason, defined radiation experiments were conducted using different energetic ion beams (from protons to uranium) and gamma radiation from a Co-60 source. The induced changes were analyzed by means of in-situ and ex-situ analytical methods, e.g. ultraviolet-visible and infrared spectroscopy, residual gas analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis, dielectric strength measurements, measurements of low temperature thermal properties, and performance tests. In all cases, the radiation induces a change in molecular structure as well as loss of functional material properties. The amount of radiation damage is found to be sensitive to the used type of ionizing radiation and the long term stability of the materials is

  12. Insulation Cork Boards—Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of an Organic Construction Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José D. Silvestre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Envelope insulation is a relevant technical solution to cut energy consumption and reduce environmental impacts in buildings. Insulation Cork Boards (ICB are a natural thermal insulation material whose production promotes the recycling of agricultural waste. The aim of this paper is to determine and evaluate the environmental impacts of the production, use, and end-of-life processing of ICB. A “cradle-to-cradle” environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA was performed according to International LCA standards and the European standards on the environmental evaluation of buildings. These results were based on site-specific data and resulted from a consistent methodology, fully described in the paper for each life cycle stage: Cork oak tree growth, ICB production, and end-of-life processing-modeling of the carbon flows (i.e., uptakes and emissions, including sensitivity analysis of this procedure; at the production stage—the modeling of energy processes and a sensitivity analysis of the allocation procedures; during building operation—the expected service life of ICB; an analysis concerning the need to consider the thermal diffusivity of ICB in the comparison of the performance of insulation materials. This paper presents the up-to-date “cradle-to-cradle” environmental performance of ICB for the environmental categories and life-cycle stages defined in European standards.

  13. Insulation Cork Boards-Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of an Organic Construction Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, José D; Pargana, Nuno; de Brito, Jorge; Pinheiro, Manuel D; Durão, Vera

    2016-05-20

    Envelope insulation is a relevant technical solution to cut energy consumption and reduce environmental impacts in buildings. Insulation Cork Boards (ICB) are a natural thermal insulation material whose production promotes the recycling of agricultural waste. The aim of this paper is to determine and evaluate the environmental impacts of the production, use, and end-of-life processing of ICB. A "cradle-to-cradle" environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was performed according to International LCA standards and the European standards on the environmental evaluation of buildings. These results were based on site-specific data and resulted from a consistent methodology, fully described in the paper for each life cycle stage: Cork oak tree growth, ICB production, and end-of-life processing-modeling of the carbon flows ( i.e. , uptakes and emissions), including sensitivity analysis of this procedure; at the production stage-the modeling of energy processes and a sensitivity analysis of the allocation procedures; during building operation-the expected service life of ICB; an analysis concerning the need to consider the thermal diffusivity of ICB in the comparison of the performance of insulation materials. This paper presents the up-to-date "cradle-to-cradle" environmental performance of ICB for the environmental categories and life-cycle stages defined in European standards.

  14. Comparison of the insulation property of an innovative material and a traditional one by infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barizza, A.; Bison, P.; Boldrini, S.; Bortolin, A.; Cadelano, G.; Colla, L.; Ferrarini, G.

    2015-05-01

    An innovative ceramic material has been developed as a possible substitute of the traditional rock-wool as thermal insulating material. It should be used in the future inside a machine working at a temperature greater than 200 °C. The effect of exposition to this temperature for several hours has been evaluated to check if a degradation of the insulating properties can be measured. Experiments did not show any evidence of degradation. Nonetheless the value of the thermal conductivity measured both at high and ambient temperature was not so good as expected. At the same time, the same measurements on rock-wool (the traditional choice for insulation in this machinery) revealed to be very difficult as it is not possible to prepare samples to be tested in a laser flash. To overcome this problem in the measurement of the performance at high temperature a new experiment was prepared by heating one side of the material by means of an electric heater and by looking and comparing (at least qualitatively) the temperature increase on the other side. On the purpose, two parallel-piped samples of the two rival materials, with the same thickness have been prepared and put in contact with the electric heater plate. The temperature evolution of the side facing the ambient has been measured by means of a thermographic camera for almost one hour. The experiment shows that the traditional material owns better insulation performance than the innovative one. Attention has been paid on the properties of the innovative material that, being highly hygroscopic, can maintain a low temperature during the drying process due to the very high value of the latent heat of water when changing from liquid to gas phase.

  15. Fire Test Program to Verify the Calculation Method of Determining the A-30 and A-15 Thickness of Approved Deck and Bulkhead Insulation Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parker, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    ...) or to change existing policy regarding structural insulation materials. Historically, the USCG has required testing of insulation materials at the thickness needed for use in a class A-6O assembly (i.e...

  16. Insulating wall materials for MHD electric power generating channels, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kazuo; Okubo, Tsutomu; Maeda, Minoru

    1984-01-01

    The various kinds of ceramic specimens were soaked in molten K 2 SO 4 at 1300 0 C for 300 hrs, the changes in porosity, volume and weight before and after the tests (hereafter, referred as the amount of change) were measured and the corrosion resistance was examined from the calculated corrosion velocity. 1) MgO and MgO-Al 2 O 3 System. Reaction products were not found, the amount of change was small, and the electrical resistivity and corrosion resistance were good. 2) MgO-BN, ZrO 2 -BN and MgO-SrZrO 3 -BN System. Of all these systems, BN in the specimens disappeared, and it turned into B 2 O 3 or other boron compounds. This reaction caused the cracking and collapse of the specimens. 3) MgO-Si 3 N 4 and MgAl 2 O 4 -Si 3 N 4 System. The specimens were attacked by molten K 2 SO 4 , resulting in the large amount of change, and the reaction layer was formed on the surface. 4) Al 2 O 3 -AlN-Si 3 N 4 System. Although the specimens were attacked by molten K 2 SO 4 , the dense specimens with about 40 mol % Si 3 N 4 showed a very small amount of change, and the deterioration of electrical resistivity was small. The durability of MHD power generating operation might be improved by further controlling the production process and composition. (author)

  17. Surface potential measurement of insulators in negative-ion implantation by secondary electron energy-peak shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagumo, Shoji; Toyota, Yoshitaka; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo; Sakai, Shigeki; Tanjyo, Masayasu; Matsuda, Kohji.

    1993-01-01

    Negative-ion implantation is expected to realize charge-up free implantation. In this article, about a way to specify surface potential of negative-ion implanted insulator by secondary-electron-energy distribution, its principle and preliminary experimental results are described. By a measuring system with retarding field type energy analyzer, energy distribution of secondary electron from insulator of Fused Quartz in negative-carbon-ion implantation was measured. As a result the peak-shift of its energy distribution resulted according with the surface potential of insulator. It was found that surface potential of insulator is negatively charged by only several volts. Thus, negative-ion implanted insulator reduced its surface charge-up potential (without any electron supply). Therefore negative-ion implantation is considered to be much more effective method than conventional positive-ion implantation. (author)

  18. Surface and Bulk Nanostructuring of Insulators by Ultrashort Laser Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-05

    photoionization yield in diamond. More recently, it was experimentally found that high-harmonic generation in bulk solids [30] is char - acteristic of...Such experimental studies were devoted to the design and fabrication of bio -sensors, employing the biocompatibility of the material, by ablative...HHG. Experimental and theoretical study of HHG spectra from rare-gas solids [17] exposed char - acteristic features of HHG in solids: abrupt appearance

  19. Study on ablation behavior of silicone rubber based insulation material under the condition of boron oxide particles erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, B. L.; Shi, Y. A.; Wang, J. J.; Su, Q. D.

    2018-01-01

    Self-designed oxygen-kerosene ablation system was employed to study the ablation characteristics of silicone rubber based thermal insulation materials under the condition of boron oxide particles erosion. The ablation test was designed with a mass fraction of 1.69% boron oxide particles and particles-free, the microstructure and elemental analysis of the specimens before and after ablation were carried out by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersion Spectrum (EDS). Experiment results show that the average mass ablation rate of the materials was 0.0099 g•s‑1 and the average ablation rate was -0.025 mm•s‑1 under the condition of pure gas phase ablation; and the average mass ablation rate of the multiphase ablation test group was 0.1775 g•s‑1, whose average ablation rate was 0.437 mm•s‑1 during the ablation process, the boron oxide particles would adhere a molten layer on the flame contact surface of the specimen, which covering the pores on the material surface, blocking the infiltration channel for the oxidizing component and slowing down the oxidation loss rate of the material below the surface, but because the particles erosion was the main reason for material depletion, the combined effect of the above both led to the upward material ablation rates of Silicone Rubber.

  20. CMUTs with High-K Atomic Layer Deposition Dielectric Material Insulation Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Toby; Tekes, Coskun; Degertekin, F. Levent

    2014-01-01

    Use of high-κ dielectric, atomic layer deposition (ALD) materials as an insulation layer material for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) is investigated. The effect of insulation layer material and thickness on CMUT performance is evaluated using a simple parallel plate model. The model shows that both high dielectric constant and the electrical breakdown strength are important for the dielectric material, and significant performance improvement can be achieved, especially as the vacuum gap thickness is reduced. In particular, ALD hafnium oxide (HfO2) is evaluated and used as an improvement over plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silicon nitride (SixNy) for CMUTs fabricated by a low-temperature, complementary metal oxide semiconductor transistor-compatible, sacrificial release method. Relevant properties of ALD HfO2 such as dielectric constant and breakdown strength are characterized to further guide CMUT design. Experiments are performed on parallel fabricated test CMUTs with 50-nm gap and 16.5-MHz center frequency to measure and compare pressure output and receive sensitivity for 200-nm PECVD SixNy and 100-nm HfO2 insulation layers. Results for this particular design show a 6-dB improvement in receiver output with the collapse voltage reduced by one-half; while in transmit mode, half the input voltage is needed to achieve the same maximum output pressure. PMID:25474786

  1. Treeing phenomenon of thermoplastic polyethylene blends for recyclable cable insulation materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunzhi Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Owing to its good recyclability and low processing energy consumption, non-crosslinked polyethylene blends (e.g. LLDPE-HDPE blends are considered as one of potential environmental-friendly substitutions for crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE as cable insulation material. Although extensive work has been performed for measuring the basic dielectric properties, there is a lack of the investigations on the aging properties for such a material system, which hinders the evaluation of reliability and lifetime of the material for cable insulation. In this paper, we study the electric aging phenomenon of 0.7LLDPE-0.3HDPE blending material by investigating the treeing behavior, and its comparison with XLPE and LLDPE. Treeing tests show that the 0.7LLDPE-0.3HDPE blends have lower probability for treeing as well as smaller treeing dimensions. Further thermal analysis and microstructure study results suggest that the blends exhibit larger proportion of thick lamellae and higher crystallinity with homogeneously-distributed amorphous region, which is responsible for good anti-treeing performance. Our finding provides the evidence that the 0.7LLDPE-0.3HDPE blends exhibits better electric-aging-retardance properties than XLPE, which may result in a potential application for cable insulation.

  2. Interplay of Dirac surface states and magnetic fluctuations in topological insulator heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Hilary M.; Efimkin, Dmitry K.; Galitski, Victor

    We consider the proximity effect between Dirac states at the surface of a topological insulator and a ferromagnet with easy plane anisotropy, which is described by the XY-model and undergoes a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition. Classical magnetic fluctuations interacting with the surface states of a topological insulator can be described by an effective gauge field. This model can be mapped onto the problem of Dirac fermions in a random magnetic field, however this analogy is only partial in the presence of electron-hole asymmetry or warping of the Dirac dispersion which results in screening of magnetic fluctuations. We show that this proximity coupling leads to anomalous transport behavior of the surface states near the BKT transition temperature.

  3. He atom surface scattering: Surface dynamics of insulators, overlayers and crystal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Investigations have focused primarily on surface structure and dynamics of ionic insulators, epitaxial growth onto alkali halide crystals and multiphoton studies. The surface dynamics of RbCl has been re-examined. We have developed a simple force constant model which provides insight into the dynamics of KBr overlayers on NaCl(001), a system with a large lattice mismatch. The KBr/NaCl(001) results are compared to Na/Cu(001) and NaCl/Ge(001). We have completed epitaxial growth experiments for KBr onto RbCl(001). Slab dynamics calculations using a shell model for this system with very small lattice mismatch are being carried out in collaboration with Professor Manson of Clemson University and with Professor Schroeder in Regensburg, Germany. Extensive experiments on multiphoton scattering of helium atoms onto NaCl and, particularly, LiF have been carried out and the theory has been developed to a rather advanced stage by Professor Manson. This work will permit the extraction of more information from time-of-flight spectra. It is shown that the theoretical model provides a very good description of the multiphoton scattering from organic films. Work has started on self-assembling organic films on gold (alkyl thiols/Au(111)). We have begun to prepare and characterize the gold crystal; one of the group members has spent two weeks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory learning the proper Au(111) preparation techniques. One of our students has carried out neutron scattering experiments on NiO, measuring both bulk phonon and magnon dispersion curves

  4. Magnesia base insulating material for high voltage cables in severe environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gressus, C.; Fauge, C.; Bach, P.; Blaise, G.

    1992-01-01

    An insulating material is claimed for high voltage cable working at high temperature and under radiations. It is made of magnesium oxide with particle size < 1 micrometer and distributed in annular cylindrical zones concentric to the central conductor with an increasing content toward the center of chromium or titanium or manganese oxide (doping can be obtained by ion implantation). Filling is improved by irradiation with gamma rays, at about 1,000 rads, which decrease the friction between particles

  5. Incorporation of Polymers into Calcined Clays as Improved Thermal Insulating Materials for Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Serina; Jelle, Bjørn Petter

    2017-01-01

    Calcined clay is a Type Q supplementary cementing material according to EN197-1:2000. It possesses lower thermal conductivity than cement. To further improve its thermal insulation property, polymer-calcined clay complexes (PCCs) were produced in a one-pot synthesis. Two contrasting polymers, polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG), were employed. The hydrophilicity of the polymers influenced the thermal conductivity of PCC. Hydrophilic PEG entrapped more water molecules on clay layers...

  6. Investigation of cryogenic irradiation influence on mechanical and physical properties of ITER magnetic system insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, A.V.; Scherbacov, E.N.; Dudchenko, N.A.; Shihalev, V.S.; Bedin, V.V.; Paltusov, N.A.; Korsunskiy, V.E.

    1998-01-01

    A set of methods of cryogenic irradiation influence test on mechanical and physical properties of insulation of ITER magnetic system are presented in this paper. Investigations are carried out without intermediate warming up of samples. A Russian insulating composite material was irradiated in the IVV-2M reactor. The ratio of energy absorbed by insulation materials from neutron irradiation to that from gamma irradiation can be varied from ∝(25:75)% to ∝(50:50)% in the reactor. The test results on the thermal expansion, thermal conductivity and gas evolution of the above material are presented. It was shown, that cryogenic irradiation up to the fluence ∝2 x 10 22 n/m 2 (E ≥ 0.1 MeV) leads to 0.27% linear size changes along layers of fiber-glass, the thermal conductivity coefficient is decreased on 15% at 100 k in perpendicular direction to fiber-glass plane, and thermal coefficient of linear expansion (TCLE) has anomalous temperature dependence. (orig.)

  7. High-Resolution Faraday Rotation and Electron-Phonon Coupling in Surface States of the Bulk-Insulating Topological Insulator Cu_{0.02}Bi_{2}Se_{3}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liang; Tse, Wang-Kong; Brahlek, M; Morris, C M; Aguilar, R Valdés; Koirala, N; Oh, S; Armitage, N P

    2015-11-20

    We have utilized time-domain magnetoterahertz spectroscopy to investigate the low-frequency optical response of the topological insulator Cu_{0.02}Bi_{2}Se_{3} and Bi_{2}Se_{3} films. With both field and frequency dependence, such experiments give sufficient information to measure the mobility and carrier density of multiple conduction channels simultaneously. We observe sharp cyclotron resonances (CRs) in both materials. The small amount of Cu incorporated into the Cu_{0.02}Bi_{2}Se_{3} induces a true bulk insulator with only a single type of conduction with a total sheet carrier density of ~4.9×10^{12}/cm^{2} and mobility as high as 4000 cm^{2}/V·s. This is consistent with conduction from two virtually identical topological surface states (TSSs) on the top and bottom of the film with a chemical potential ~145 meV above the Dirac point and in the bulk gap. The CR broadens at high fields, an effect that we attribute to an electron-phonon interaction. This assignment is supported by an extended Drude model analysis of the zero-field Drude conductance. In contrast, in normal Bi_{2}Se_{3} films, two conduction channels were observed, and we developed a self-consistent analysis method to distinguish the dominant TSSs and coexisting trivial bulk or two-dimensional electron gas states. Our high-resolution Faraday rotation spectroscopy on Cu_{0.02}Bi_{2}Se_{3} paves the way for the observation of quantized Faraday rotation under experimentally achievable conditions to push the chemical potential in the lowest Landau level.

  8. Metal-insulator transition and superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond and related materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achatz, Philipp

    2009-05-15

    During this PhD project, the metal-insulator transition and superconductivity of highly boron-doped single crystal diamond and related materials have been investigated. The critical boron concentration n{sub c} for the metal-insulator transition was found to be the same as for the normal-superconductor transition. All metallic samples have been found to be superconducting and we were able to link the occurence of superconductivity to the proximity to the metal-insulator transition. For this purpose, a scaling law approach based on low temperature transport was proposed. Furthermore, we tried to study the nature of the superconductivity in highly boron doped single crystal diamond. Raman spectroscopy measurements on the isotopically substituted series suggest that the feature occuring at low wavenumbers ({approx} 500 cm{sup -1}) is the A1g vibrational mode associated with boron dimers. Usual Hall effect measurements yielded a puzzling situation in metallic boron-doped diamond samples, leading to carrier concentrations up to a factor 10 higher than the boron concentration determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The low temperature transport follows the one expected for a granular metal or insulator, depending on the interplay of intergranular and intragranular (tunneling) conductance. The metal-insulator transition takes place at a critical conductance g{sub c}. The granularity also influences significantly the superconducting properties by introducing the superconducting gap {delta} in the grain and Josephson coupling J between superconducting grains. A peak in magnetoresistance is observed which can be explained by superconducting fluctuations and the granularity of the system. Additionally we studied the low temperature transport of boron-doped Si samples grown by gas immersion laser doping, some of which yielded a superconducting transition at very low temperatures. Furthermore, preliminary results on the LO-phonon-plasmon coupling are shown for the

  9. Dirac spin-orbit torques and charge pumping at the surface of topological insulators

    KAUST Repository

    Ndiaye, Papa Birame

    2017-07-07

    We address the nature of spin-orbit torques at the magnetic surfaces of topological insulators using the linear-response theory. We find that the so-called Dirac torques in such systems possess a different symmetry compared to their Rashba counterpart, as well as a high anisotropy as a function of the magnetization direction. In particular, the damping torque vanishes when the magnetization lies in the plane of the topological-insulator surface. We also show that the Onsager reciprocal of the spin-orbit torque, the charge pumping, induces an enhanced anisotropic damping. Via a macrospin model, we numerically demonstrate that these features have important consequences in terms of magnetization switching.

  10. Surface states of topological insulators: the Dirac fermion in curved two-dimensional spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dung-Hai

    2009-11-06

    The surface of a topological insulator is a closed two-dimensional manifold. The surface states are described by the Dirac Hamiltonian in curved two-dimensional spaces. For a slablike sample with a magnetic field perpendicular to its top and bottom surfaces, there are chiral states delocalized on the four side faces. These "chiral sheets" carry both charge and spin currents. In strong magnetic fields, the quantized charge Hall effect [sigma(xy) = (2n + 1)e2/h] will coexist with spin Hall effect.

  11. Cellulose Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Fire retardant cellulose insulation is produced by shredding old newspapers and treating them with a combination of chemicals. Insulating material is blown into walls and attics to form a fiber layer which blocks the flow of air. All-Weather Insulation's founders asked NASA/UK-TAP to help. They wanted to know what chemicals added to newspaper would produce an insulating material capable of meeting federal specifications. TAP researched the query and furnished extensive information. The information contributed to successful development of the product and helped launch a small business enterprise which is now growing rapidly.

  12. Tuning the metal-insulator transition in manganite films through surface exchange coupling with magnetic nanodots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, T Z; Gai, Z; Xu, X Y; Guo, H W; Yin, L F; Shen, J

    2011-04-15

    In strongly correlated electronic systems, the global transport behavior depends sensitively on spin ordering. We show that spin ordering in manganites can be controlled by depositing isolated ferromagnetic nanodots at the surface. The exchange field at the interface is tunable with nanodot density and makes it possible to overcome dimensionality and strain effects in frustrated systems to greatly increasing the metal-insulator transition and magnetoresistance. These findings indicate that electronic phase separation can be controlled by the presence of magnetic nanodots.

  13. Homogenization mechanism of the residual surface potential of insulating specimens under electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jingjing; Zhang Haibo; Feng Renjian

    2007-01-01

    A homogenized surface potential is desirable for the observation of a pre-irradiated insulating specimen using a scanning electron microscope because the residual surface potential may affect the imaging properties of the specimen. To homogenize the residual surface potential, the specimen should be subjected to the irradiation of an electron beam with the total electron yield greater than one. The expression of the equilibrium potential is derived based on the charge balance condition in the equilibrium state and the potential value is found to increase mainly with the secondary electron (SE) yield and the most probable emission energy of SEs. Further numerical calculations of SE trajectories show that affected by different surface potentials, SEs leave or return to the specimen surface to change the net charge flux into the specimen. This thereby increases the surface potential below the equilibrium potential and decreases that above the equilibrium potential, homogenizing the surface potential

  14. Surface antiferromagnetism and incipient metal-insulator transition in strained manganite films

    KAUST Repository

    Cossu, Fabrizio

    2013-06-21

    Using first-principles calculations, we show that the (001) surface of the ferromagnet La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 under an epitaxial compressive strain favors antiferromagnetic (AF) order in the surface layers, coexisting with ferromagnetic (FM) bulk order. Surface antiferromagnetism is accompanied by a very marked surface-related spectral pseudogap, signaling an incomplete metal-insulator transition at the surface. The different relaxation and rumpling of the MnO2 and LaO surface planes in the two competing magnetic phases cause distinct work-function changes, which are of potential diagnostic use. The AF phase is recognized as an extreme surface-assisted case of the combination of in-plane AF super-exchange and vertical FM double-exchange couplings that rules magnetism in manganites under in-plane compression.

  15. EVALUATION OF THERMAL INSULATION FOR THREE DIFFERENT MATERIALS USED IN CONSTRUCTION AND COMPLETION OF EXTERNAL WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Carlos Navroski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Summers increasingly hot are bringing large thermal problems within homes and businesses, leading to increased demand for installation of air conditioners and the consequent high energy consumption. Constructions with thermal insulation on its external walls thatcould reduce energy use or even supply the use of such equipment. Due to these factors the present study was to evaluate the insulation in three boxes built with different materials, one made of wooden boards with plain walls, and two built with plywood, wall insulation andinterior walls filled with rice husk and Styrofoam®. The boxes were built after placed in drying oven at 40 °C, then noted the temperature inside the same interval every five minutes using a digital thermometer. The box with inner Styrofoam® showed the lowest variation among the three evaluated, followed by the box of rice husk. These two materials also showed good thermal initial, unlike the box built only with wood, which showed a large interiorheating, lay in a drying oven.

  16. Cryogenic Properties of Inorganic Insulation Materials for ITER Magnets: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N.J.

    1994-12-01

    Results of a literature search on the cryogenic properties of candidate inorganic insulators for the ITER TF magnets are reported. The materials investigated include: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, AlN, MgO, porcelain, SiO{sub 2}, MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, ZrO{sub 2}, and mica. A graphical presentation is given of mechanical, elastic, electrical, and thermal properties between 4 and 300 K. A companion report reviews the low temperature irradiation resistance of these materials.

  17. Band inversion mechanism in topological insulators: A guideline for materials design

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2012-06-01

    Alteration of the topological order by band inversion is a key ingredient of a topologically nontrivial material. Using first-principles calculations for HgTe, PtScBi, and Bi2Se3, we argue that it is not accurate to ascribe the band inversion to the spin-orbit coupling. Instead, scalar relativistic effects and/or lattice distortions are found to be essential. Therefore, the search for topologically nontrivial materials should focus on band shifts due to these mechanisms rather than spin-orbit coupling. We propose an effective scheme to search for new topological insulators.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF ECOLOGICAL MATERIALS EMBEDDED INTO COMPOSITES UPON THE THERMAL INSULATING CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa-Maria BRENCI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a research performed in order to design and manufacture composites that embed in their structure ecological raw materials, such as wood chips and hemp hurds. The thermal conductivity was determined for a temperature difference (ΔT of 200 C between the cold plate and warm plate and the measurements were done in eight points. The results showed that the best insulating composite material was obtained for the structure containing equal shares of wood chips and chopped hemp

  19. Surface physics of materials materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Blakely, J M

    2013-01-01

    Surface Physics of Materials presents accounts of the physical properties of solid surfaces. The book contains selected articles that deal with research emphasizing surface properties rather than experimental techniques in the field of surface physics. Topics discussed include transport of matter at surfaces; interaction of atoms and molecules with surfaces; chemical analysis of surfaces; and adhesion and friction. Research workers, teachers and graduate students in surface physics, and materials scientist will find the book highly useful.

  20. Incorporation of Polymers into Calcined Clays as Improved Thermal Insulating Materials for Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serina Ng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcined clay is a Type Q supplementary cementing material according to EN197-1:2000. It possesses lower thermal conductivity than cement. To further improve its thermal insulation property, polymer-calcined clay complexes (PCCs were produced in a one-pot synthesis. Two contrasting polymers, polystyrene (PS and polyethylene glycol (PEG, were employed. The hydrophilicity of the polymers influenced the thermal conductivity of PCC. Hydrophilic PEG entrapped more water molecules on clay layers than the hydrophobic PS, making PEG-PCC more thermally conducting than PS-PCC. Contaminants in calcined clays played a role in affecting the overall thermal conductivity. PCC can improve thermal insulation properties for future construction applications.

  1. Manufacture and mechanical characterisation of high voltage insulation for superconducting busbars - (Part 1) Materials selection and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, N.; Crouchen, M.; Devred, A.; Evans, D.; Gung, C.-Y.; Lathwell, I.

    2017-04-01

    It is planned that the high voltage electrical insulation on the ITER feeder busbars will consist of interleaved layers of epoxy resin pre-impregnated glass tapes ('pre-preg') and polyimide. In addition to its electrical insulation function, the busbar insulation must have adequate mechanical properties to sustain the loads imposed on it during ITER magnet operation. This paper reports an investigation into suitable materials to manufacture the high voltage insulation for the ITER superconducting busbars and pipework. An R&D programme was undertaken in order to identify suitable pre-preg and polyimide materials from a range of suppliers. Pre-preg materials were obtained from 3 suppliers and used with Kapton HN, to make mouldings using the desired insulation architecture. Two main processing routes for pre-pregs have been investigated, namely vacuum bag processing (out of autoclave processing) and processing using a material with a high coefficient of thermal expansion (silicone rubber), to apply the compaction pressure on the insulation. Insulation should have adequate mechanical properties to cope with the stresses induced by the operating environment and a low void content necessary in a high voltage application. The quality of the mouldings was assessed by mechanical testing at 77 K and by the measurement of the void content.

  2. The inaccuracy of heat transfer characteristics for non-insulated and insulated spherical containers neglecting the influence of heat radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, King-Leung; Salazar, Jose Luis Leon; Prasad, Leo; Chen, Wen-Lih

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation, the differences of heat transfer characteristics for insulated and non-insulated spherical containers between considering and neglecting the influence of heat radiation are studied by the simulations in some practical situations. It is found that the heat radiation effect cannot be ignored in conditions of low ambient convection heat coefficients (such ambient air) and high surface emissivities, especially for the non-insulated and thin insulated cases. In most practical situations when ambient temperature is different from surroundings temperature and the emissivity of insulation surface is different from that of metal wall surface, neglecting heat radiation will result in inaccurate insulation effect and heat transfer errors even with very thick insulation. However, the insulation effect considering heat radiation will only increase a very small amount after some dimensionless insulated thickness (such insulation thickness/radius ≥0.2 in this study), thus such dimensionless insulated thickness can be used as the optimum thickness in practical applications. Meanwhile, wrapping a material with low surface emissivity (such as aluminum foil) around the oxidized metal wall or insulation layer (always with high surface emissivity) can achieve very good insulated effect for the non-insulated or thin insulated containers.

  3. Surface Thermal Insulation and Pipe Cooling of Spillways during Concrete Construction Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhenhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given that spillways adopt a hydraulic thin concrete plate structure, this structure is difficult to protect from cracks. The mechanism of the cracks in spillways shows that temperature stress is the major reason for cracks. Therefore, an effective way of preventing cracks is a timely and reasonable temperature-control program. Studies show that one effective prevention method is surface thermal insulation combined with internal pipe cooling. The major factors influencing temperature control effects are the time of performing thermal insulation and the ways of internal pipe cooling. To solve this problem, a spillway is taken as an example and a three-dimensional finite element program and pipe cooling calculation method are adopted to conduct simulation calculation and analysis on the temperature fields and stress fields of concretes subject to different temperature-control programs. The temperature-control effects are then compared. Optimization results show that timely and reasonable surface thermal insulation and water-flowing mode can ensure good temperature-control and anticrack effects. The method has reference value for similar projects.

  4. Density-waves instability and a skyrmion lattice on the surface of strong topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Yuval; Stern, Ady

    2012-11-01

    In this work we analyze the instability conditions for spin-density-wave (SDW) formation on the surface of strong topological insulators. We find that for a certain range of Fermi energies and strength of interactions the SDW state is favored compared to the unmagnetized and the uniform-magnetization states. We also find that the SDWs are of spiral nature and, for a certain range of parameters, a Skyrmion lattice may form on the surface. We show that this phase may have a nontrivial Chern number even in the absence of an external magnetic field.

  5. On the improvement of mechanical properties of monolithic silica aerogels (for transparent insulating material); Silica aerogel (tomei dannetsu zairyo) kyodo no kaizen ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajiri, K.; Igarashi, K.; Tanemura, S. [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Study was made on improvement of the strength of silica aerogel as transparent insulating material. Silica aerogel is a low-density porous material with high heat insulation and transparency. To develop a insulating material with high transparency, monolithic silica aerogel was studied. For direct use of it for windows, its strength improvement was attempted. The aerogel was prepared by supercritical drying (alcohol or CO2) of silica wet gel obtained by hydrolysis and condensation of silicon alkoxide solution. To prepare the aerogel bonded on plate glass for strength improvement, the aerogel was bonded to alkoxide by exposing active silanol radical through F-etching of plate glass surface. However, to obtain the practical large-area bonded aerogel, shrinkage control of the aerogel in supercritical drying was necessary. Addition of Laponite into a silica network for strength improvement by polymer increased the bending strength by 50%. Although some reduction of its transparency was observed because of clouding, its heat insulation was stable. Further strength improvement is necessary for its practical use. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. A highly efficient surface plasmon polaritons excitation achieved with a metal-coupled metal-insulator-metal waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel metal-coupled metal-insulator-metal (MC-MIM waveguide which can achieve a highly efficient surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs excitation. The MC-MIM waveguide is formed by inserting a thin metal film in the insulator of an MIM. The introduction of the metal film, functioning as an SPPs coupler, provides a space for the interaction between SPPs and a confined electromagnetic field of the intermediate metal surface, which makes energy change and phase transfer in the metal-dielectric interface, due to the joint action of incomplete electrostatic shielding effect and SPPs coupling. Impacts of the metal film with different materials and various thickness on SPPs excitation are investigated. It is shown that the highest efficient SPPs excitation is obtained when the gold film thickness is 60 nm. The effect of refractive index of upper and lower symmetric dielectric layer on SPPs excitation is also discussed. The result shows that the decay value of refractive index is 0.3. Our results indicate that this proposed MC-MIM waveguide may offer great potential in designing a new SPPs source.

  7. Timber Chips as the Insulation Material for Energy Saving in Prefabricated Offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research demonstrates the feasibility of a roof insulation method for prefabricated offices that uses vinyl packed timber chips to reduce air conditioning loads (hereinafter referred to as AC loads and which also improves indoor thermal comfort. The advantages of the new roof insulation method were revealed through comparing the impacts of four roof types on prefabricated offices. The AC load and indoor thermal comfort (surface temperature and air temperature were evaluated. The disposal of scrap timber discarded from building construction projects is costing money, and is also a waste of natural resources. The assessment of a new roof insulation method with timber chips demonstrates the advanced usage of timber chips, reducing the environmental load in the building construction process. On the other hand, since prefabricated offices have lower thermal storage capacities and are less airtight than RC (reinforced concrete or S (steel structured buildings, the AC load consumption and indoor thermal comfort exacerbation in prefabricated offices is more serious. Especially in summer, a large amount of solar energy absorption from the roof raises the indoor air temperature and significantly increases the cooling load. This research contributes to the environmental design for prefabricated offices, and develops a method for the reuse of wood chips.

  8. Quantum and Classical Magnetoresistance in Ambipolar Topological Insulator Transistors with Gate-tunable Bulk and Surface Conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jifa; Chang, Cuizu; Cao, Helin; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun; Chen, Yong P.

    2014-01-01

    Weak antilocalization (WAL) and linear magnetoresistance (LMR) are two most commonly observed magnetoresistance (MR) phenomena in topological insulators (TIs) and often attributed to the Dirac topological surface states (TSS). However, ambiguities exist because these phenomena could also come from bulk states (often carrying significant conduction in many TIs) and are observable even in non-TI materials. Here, we demonstrate back-gated ambipolar TI field-effect transistors in (Bi0.04Sb0.96)2Te3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on SrTiO3(111), exhibiting a large carrier density tunability (by nearly 2 orders of magnitude) and a metal-insulator transition in the bulk (allowing switching off the bulk conduction). Tuning the Fermi level from bulk band to TSS strongly enhances both the WAL (increasing the number of quantum coherent channels from one to peak around two) and LMR (increasing its slope by up to 10 times). The SS-enhanced LMR is accompanied by a strongly nonlinear Hall effect, suggesting important roles of charge inhomogeneity (and a related classical LMR), although existing models of LMR cannot capture all aspects of our data. Our systematic gate and temperature dependent magnetotransport studies provide deeper insights into the nature of both MR phenomena and reveal differences between bulk and TSS transport in TI related materials. PMID:24810663

  9. Analysis of Insulating Material of XLPE Cables considering Innovative Patterns of Partial Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Figueroa Godoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the quality of insulation in high voltage underground cables XLPE using a prototype which classifies the following usual types of patterns of partial discharge (PD: (1 internal PD, (2 superficial PD, (3 corona discharge in air, and (4 corona discharge in oil, in addition to considering two new PD patterns: (1 false contact and (2 floating ground. The tests and measurements to obtain the patterns and study cases of partial discharges were performed at the Testing Laboratory Equipment and Materials (LEPEM of the Federal Electricity Commission of Mexico (CFE using a measuring equipment LDIC and norm IEC60270. To classify the six patterns of partial discharges mentioned above a Probabilistic Neural Network Bayesian Modified (PNNBM method having the feature of using a large amount of data will be used and it is not saturated. In addition, PNN converges, always finding a solution in a short period of time with low computational cost. The insulation of two high voltage cables with different characteristics was analyzed. The test results allow us to conclude which wire has better insulation.

  10. A thermal porosimetry method to estimate pore size distribution in highly porous insulating materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, V; Jannot, Y; Degiovanni, A

    2012-05-01

    Standard pore size determination methods such as mercury porosimetry, nitrogen sorption, microscopy, or x-ray tomography are not always applicable to highly porous, low density, and thus very fragile materials. For this kind of materials, a method based on thermal characterization is proposed. Indeed, the thermal conductivity of a highly porous and insulating medium is significantly dependent on the thermal conductivity of the interstitial gas that depends on both gas pressure and size of the considered pore (Knudsen effect). It is also possible to link the pore size with the thermal conductivity of the medium. Thermal conductivity measurements are realized on specimens placed in an enclosure where the air pressure is successively set to different values varying from 10(-1) to 10(5) Pa. Knowing the global porosity ratio, an effective thermal conductivity model for a two-phase air-solid material based on a combined serial-parallel model is established. Pore size distribution can be identified by minimizing the sum of the quadratic differences between measured values and modeled ones. The results of the estimation process are the volume fractions of the chosen ranges of pore size. In order to validate the method, measurements done on insulating materials are presented. The results are discussed and show that pore size distribution estimated by the proposed method is coherent.

  11. Investigation of the Hydrogen Silsesquioxane (HSQ) Electron Resist as Insulating Material in Phase Change Memory Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiao; Ji, Hongkai; Lan, Tian; Yan, Junbing; Zhou, Wenli; Miao, Xiangshui

    2015-01-01

    Phase change random access memory (PCRAM) affords many advantages over conventional solid-state memories due to its nonvolatility, high speed, and scalability. However, high programming current to amorphize the crystalline phase through the melt-quench process of PCRAM, known as the RESET current, poses a critical challenge and has become the most significant obstacle for its widespread commercialization. In this work, an excellent negative tone resist for high resolution electron beam lithography, hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ), has been investigated as the insulating material which locally blocks the contact between the bottom electrode and the phase change material in PCRAM devices. Fabrications of the highly scaled HSQ nanopore arrays (as small as 16 nm) are presented. The insulating properties of the HSQ material are studied, especially under e-beam exposure plus thermal curing. Some other critical issues about the thickness adjustment of HSQ films and the influence of the PCRAM electrode on electron scattering in e-beam lithography are discussed. In addition, the HSQ material was successfully integrated into the PCRAM devices, achieving ultra-low RESET current (sub-100 μA), outstanding on/off ratios (~50), and improved endurance at tens of nanometers.

  12. Surface and step dynamics of a semi-infinite insulating antiferromagnet system

    CERN Document Server

    Tamine, M

    2003-01-01

    We have carried out a theoretical study of the localized spin-wave modes near the surface step of the insulating Heisenberg antiferromagnet. In this work, we study the full magnetic problem arising from the absence of translational symmetry due to the presence of a magnetic surface and step. The calculation concerns in particular the spin fluctuation dynamics and employs the matching procedure in the random-phase approximation. Only the nearest neighbours exchange interactions are considered between the spins in the model. The analytical formalism presented here determines the bulk and evanescent spin fluctuation fields in the two-dimensional plane normal to the surface and step regions. The results are used to calculate the localized modes of magnons associated with the step and surface terraces. The present model may be generalized to treat the spin fluctuations dynamics of other extended surface imperfections or nanostructures, provided they preserve the translation symmetry of the ordered spins along a di...

  13. Multiple Coexisting Dirac Surface States in Three-Dimensional Topological Insulator PbBi₆Te₁₀.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagno, Marco; Eremeev, Sergey V; Fujii, Jun; Aliev, Ziya S; Babanly, Mahammad B; Mahatha, Sanjoy Kr; Vobornik, Ivana; Mamedov, Nazim T; Pacilé, Daniela; Chulkov, Evgueni V

    2016-03-22

    By means of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measurements, we unveil the electronic band structure of three-dimensional PbBi6Te10 topological insulator. ARPES investigations evidence multiple coexisting Dirac surface states at the zone-center of the reciprocal space, displaying distinct electronic band dispersion, different constant energy contours, and Dirac point energies. We also provide evidence of Rashba-like split states close to the Fermi level, and deeper M- and V-shaped bands coexisting with the topological surface states. The experimental findings are in agreement with scanning tunneling microscopy measurements revealing different surface terminations according to the crystal structure of PbBi6Te10. Our experimental results are supported by density functional theory calculations predicting multiple topological surface states according to different surface cleavage planes.

  14. Evaluation of mechanical and thermal properties of insulation materials for HTS power devices at liquid nitrogen temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyung Seop; Diaz, Mark Angelo [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In superconducting power devices including power cables in which high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes are utilized, a reliable electrical insulation should be achieved for its maximum performance. For an efficient design of HTS superconducting devices, a comparative evaluation of the mechanical and thermal propperties for various insulation materials at cryogenic temperatures is required. Especially, in the process of the property evaluation of the sheet-shaped insulation materials, anisotropy according to the machining direction should be considered because the mechanical and thermal properties are significantly influenced by the sample orientation. In this study, the cryogenic thermal and mechanical properties of various insulation material sheets such as PPLP, Cryoflex, Teflon, and Kapton were determined considering sample orientation. All samples tested at cryogenic temperature showed significantly higher tensile strength as compared with that of room temperature. The ultimate tensile strength at both temperature conditions significantly depended upon the sample orientation. The thermal properties of the insulation materials exhibited a slight difference among samples depending on the orientation: for the PPLP and Cryoflex, the CD orientation showed larger thermal contraction up to 77 K as compared to the MD one. MD samples in PPLP and Cryoflex showed a lower CTE and thermal contraction which made it more promising as an insulation material due to its comparable CTE with HTS CC tapes.

  15. Thermal insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, R.; Asada, Y.; Matsuo, Y.; Mikoda, M.

    1985-07-16

    A thermal insulator comprises an expanded resin body having embedded therein an evacuated powder insulation portion which consists of fine powder and a container of film-like plastics or a film-like composite of plastics and metal for enclosing the powder. The resin body has been expanded by a Freon gas as a blowing agent. Since a Freon gas has a larger molecular diameter than the constituent gases of air, it is less likely to permeate through the container than air. Thus present invention provides a novel composite insulator which fully utilizes the benefits of vacuum insulation without necessitating a strong and costly material for a vacuum container.

  16. A review of vacuum insulation research and development in the Building Materials Group of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollie, T.G.; McElroy, D.L.; Fine, H.A.; Childs, K.W.; Graves, R.S.; Weaver, F.J.

    1991-09-01

    This report is a summary of the development work on flat-vacuum insulation performed by the Building Materials Group (BMG) in the Metals and Ceramics Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the last two years. A historical review of the technology of vacuum insulation is presented, and the role that ORNL played in this development is documented. The ORNL work in vacuum insulation has been concentrated in Powder-filled Evacuated Panels (PEPs) that have a thermal resistivity over 2.5 times that of insulating foams and seven times that of many batt-type insulations, such as fiberglass. Experimental results of substituting PEPs for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) foal insulation in Igloo Corporation ice coolers are summarized. This work demonstrated that one-dimensional (1D) heat flow models overestimated the increase in thermal insulation of a foam/PEP-composite insulation, but three-dimensional (3D) models provided by a finite-difference, heat-transfer code (HEATING-7) accurately predicted the resistance of the composites. Edges and corners of the ice coolers were shown to cause the errors in the 1D models as well as shunting of the heat through the foam and around the PEPs. The area of coverage of a PEP in a foam/PEP composite is established as an important parameter in maximizing the resistance of such composites. 50 refs., 27 figs,. 22 tabs.

  17. Surface materials as reference standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, V.P.; Siqueira, N.V.M. de

    1982-01-01

    Studies about standardization of geological samples have been the main goal of analytical research works and have thus contributed to supply data concerning the contents of major, minor and trace elements in samples. As reference standards, silicates and surface materials have been used, the latter being less abundant and the most employed are: bauxite standards NBS-69-a, NBS-69-b and NBS-697 (USA) and BxN(France); soil standards SO-1, SO-2, SO-3, SO-4 (Canada) and Soil-5 (international). Additional contributions to analytical geochemistry will be obtained from works aiming the standardization of samples of weathering materials. Contents of major components (SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 and volatile materials), minor (TiO 2 , P 2 O 5 )and trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Mn, Y, Zr, Nb, V and Mo) are being determined in two samples of altered basalt, three samples of bauxite and two samples of soils. Among the analytical methods employed in this preliminary phase of the work are the classical methods (gravimetric and titrimetric), colorimetry and X-ray fluorescence analysis. (Author) [pt

  18. Ablation characteristics and reaction mechanism of insulation materials under slag deposition condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yiwen; Li, Jiang; Liu, Yang

    2017-07-01

    Current understanding of the physical and chemical processes involved in the ablation of insulation materials by highly aluminized solid propellants is limited. The study on the heat transfer and ablation principle of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) materials under slag deposition condition is essential for future design or modification of large solid rocket motors (SRMs) for launch application. In this paper, the alumina liquid flow pattern and the deposition principle in full-scale SRM engines are discussed. The interaction mechanism between the alumina droplets and the wall are analyzed. Then, an experimental method was developed to simulate the insulation material ablation under slag deposition condition. Experimental study was conducted based on a laboratory-scale device. Meanwhile, from the analysis of the cross-sectional morphology and chemical composition of the charring layer after ablation, the reaction mechanism of the charring layer under deposition condition was discussed, and the main reaction equation was derived. The numerical simulation and experimental results show the following. (i) The alumina droplet flow in the deposition section of the laboratory-scale device is similar to that of a full-scale SRM. (ii) The charring layer of the EPDM insulator displays a porous tight/loose structure under high-temperature slag deposition condition. (iii) A seven-step carbothermal reduction in the alumina is derived and established under high-pressure and high-temperature environment in the SRM combustion chamber. (iv) The analysis using thermodynamic software indicates that the reaction of the alumina and charring layer initially forms Al4C3 during the operation. Then, Al element and Al2OC compound are subsequently produced with the reduction in the release of gas CO as well with continuous environmental heating.

  19. Thermal Characteristics of Multilayer Insulation Materials for Flexible Thin-Film Solar Cell Array of Stratospheric Airship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangwen Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible thin-film solar cell is an efficient energy system on the surface of stratospheric airship for utilizing the solar energy. In order to ensure the normal operation of airship platform, the thermal control problem between the flexible thin-film solar cell and the airship envelope should be properly resolved. In this paper, a multilayer insulation material (MLI is developed first, and low temperature environment test is carried out to verify the insulation effect of MLI. Then, a thermal heat transfer model of flexible thin-film solar cell and MLI is proposed, and the equivalent thermal conductivity coefficients of flexible thin-film solar cell and Nomex honeycomb are calculated based on the environment test and the temperature profile of flexible thin-film solar cell versus each layer of MLI. Finally, FLUENT is used for modeling and simulation analysis on the flexible thin-film solar cell and MLI, and the simulation results agree well with the experimental data, which validate the correctness of the proposed heat transfer model of MLI. In some way, our study can provide helpful support for further engineering applications of flexible thin-film solar cell.

  20. Duo gating on a 3D topological insulator - independent tuning of both topological surface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; de Ronde, Bob; Snelder, Marieke; Stehno, Martin; Huang, Yingkai; Golden, Mark; Brinkman, Alexander; ICE Team; IOP Collaboration

    ABSTRACT: Topological insulators are associated with a trove of exciting physics, such as the ability to host robust anyons, Majorana Bound States, which can be used for quantum computation. For future Majorana devices it is desirable to have the Fermi energy tuned as close as possible to the Dirac point of the topological surface state. Based on previous work on gating BSTS, we report the experimental progress towards gate-tuning of the top and bottom topological surface states of BiSbTeSe2 crystal flakes. When the Fermi level is moved across the Dirac point conduction is shown to change from electron dominated transport to hole dominated transport independently for either surface. In the high magnetic field, one can tune the system precisely between the different landau levels of both surfaces, thus a full gating map of the possible landau levels combination is established. In addition, we provide a simple capacitance model to explain the general hysteresis behaviors in topological insulator systems.

  1. Improvement of sidewall surface roughness in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F.; Wang, Y.; Cao, G.; Jia, X.; Zhang, F.

    2005-09-01

    Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) rib waveguides with residual sidewall roughness were fabricated through inductive coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICPRIE) process. The sidewall surface morphology was characterized by scan electron microscope (SEM), and the root mean square (rms) roughness of the sidewall surface was directly measured by atomic force microscope (AFM). Sidewall surface roughness is the dominant scattering loss source. The ripples on the sidewall surface could be eliminated by mixed ICPRIE, and the rms roughness could be low down to 0.3 nm after thermal oxidation and hf rinse. According to the scattering theory developed by Payne and Lacey, the scattering loss could be minimized to below 0.01 dB/cm. The results indicated that the scattering loss would be a sharp fall by the combination with these two techniques.

  2. Surface potential measurement of negative-ion-implanted insulators by analysing secondary electron energy distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyota, Yoshitaka; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Nagumo, Syoji; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo; Sakai, Shigeki.

    1994-01-01

    The negative ion implantation method we have proposed is a noble technique which can reduce surface charging of isolated electrodes by a large margin. In this paper, the way to specify the surface potential of negative-ion-implanted insulators by the secondary electron energy analysis is described. The secondary electron energy distribution is obtained by a retarding field type energy analyzer. The result shows that the surface potential of fused quartz by negative-ion implantation (C - with the energy of 10 keV to 40 keV) is negatively charged by only several volts. This surface potential is extremely low compared with that by positive-ion implantation. Therefore, the negative-ion implantation is a very effective method for charge-up free implantation without charge compensation. (author)

  3. Use of silicon carbide sludge to form porous alkali-activated materials for insulating application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, E.; Joussein, E.; Rossignol, S.

    2015-07-01

    One of the objectives in the field of alkali-activated materials is the development of materials having greater thermal performances than conventional construction materials such as aerated concrete. The aim of this paper is to present the possibility to obtain controlled porosity and controlled thermal properties with geopolymer materials including a waste like silicon carbide sludge. The porosity is created by the reaction of free silicon contains in silicon carbide sludge leading to the formation of hydrogen. Two possible ways are investigated to control the porosity: modification of mixture formulation and additives introduction. The first way is the most promising and allowed the formation of materials presenting the same density but various porosities, which shows that the material is adaptable to the application. The insulation properties are logically linked to the porosity and density of materials. A lower value of thermal conductivity of 0.075 W.m-1.K-1 can be reached for a material with a low density of 0.27 g.cm-3. These characteristics are really good for a mineral-based material which always displays non-negligible resistance to manipulation.

  4. Realizing the insulator-to-metal transition in Se-hyperdoped Si via non-equilibrium material processing

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, F.; Prucnal, S.; Berencén, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Yuan, Y.; Liu, Y.; Heller, R.; Boettger, R.; Rebohle, L.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the insulator-to-metal transition in Se-hyperdoped Si layers driven by manipulating the Se concentration via non-equilibrium material processing, i.e. ion implantation followed by millisecond-flash lamp annealing. Electrical transport measurements reveal an increase of carrier concentration and conductivity with increasing Se concentration. For the semi-insulating sample with Se concentrations below the Mott limit, quantitative analysis of the temperature dependence of conductivi...

  5. Transport of Dirac fermions on the surface of strong topological insulator and graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Arijit

    2012-06-14

    In this dissertation I study electronic transport through Dirac Fermions on the surface of strong topological insulator and graphene. I start by reviewing the physics of topological insulator and graphene and the low energy effective theory for the electronic states of the surface of a 3D strong topological insulator and graphene. Using this theory the electronic structure of the surface states of strong topological insulators of geometries with large surface to bulk ratio like nanowire and thin film are obtained. Then the energy spectrum and the spin-parity structure of the eigenstates for a finite size topological insulator quantum dot of the shape of a nanotube are considered. Numerical calculations show that even at the lowest energy scales, the ''spin-surface locking'' is broken, that is, the spin direction in a topologically protected surface mode is not locked to the surface. The calculations also show the existence of ''zero-momentum'' modes, and sub-gap states localized near the ''caps'' of the dot. Both the energy spectrum and the spin texture of the eigenstates are basically reproduced from an analytical surface Dirac fermion description. The results are compared to microscopic calculations using a tight-binding model for a strong topological insulator in a finite-length nanowire geometry, which shows qualitative similarity. Then, a theoretical study of electron-phonon scattering effects in thin films made of a strong topological insulator is presented. Phonons are modeled by isotropic elastic continuum theory with stress-free boundary conditions, and the interaction with the helical surface Dirac fermions is mediated by the deformation potential. The temperature-dependent electrical resistivity ρ(T) and the quasi-particle decay rate Γ(T) observable in photo-emission are computed numerically. The low and high-temperature power laws for both quantities are obtained analytically. Detailed

  6. Unconventional Fermi surface associated with novel quasiparticles in the Kondo insulator SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Suchitra

    The search for a Fermi surface in the absence of a Fermi liquid has endured for decades. We present evidence for the realisation of such a state in the Kondo Insulator SmB6, which is an extreme example of Fermi liquid breakdown. Experimental results are presented from complementary techniques including quantum oscillations, specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and oscillatory entropy down to low temperatures. An experimental comparison is made with alternative theoretical models that associate novel quasiparticles with the unconventional Fermi surface we uncover in SmB6. A new paradigm for the realisation of a Fermi surface in the absence of conventional quasiparticles is proposed in the vicinity of a Kondo insulator transition. This work was performed in collaboration with M. Hartstein, W. H. Toews, Y.-T. Hsu, B. Zeng, X. Chen, M. Ciomaga Hatnean, Q. R. Zhang, S. Nakamura, A. S. Padgett, G. Rodway-Gant, J. Berk, M. K. Kingston, G. H. Zhang, M. K. Chan, S. Yamashita, T. Sakakibara, Y. Takano, J. -H. Park, L. Balicas, N. Harrison, N. Shitsevalova, G. Balakrishnan, G. G. Lonzarich, R. W. Hill, and M. Sutherland.

  7. Interplay between surface and bulk states in the Topological Kondo Insulator SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sangram; Hatnean, Monica Ciomaga; Balakrishnan, Geetha; Bid, Aveek

    Kondo insulator SmB6 is predicted to have topologically protected conducting surface states(TSS). We have studied electrical transport through surface states(SS) at ultra-low temperatures in single crystals of SmB6 using local-nonlocal transport scheme and found a large nonlocal signal at temperatures lower than bulk Kondo gap scale. Using resistance fluctuation spectroscopy, we probed the local and nonlocal transport channels and showed that at low temperatures, transport in this system takes place only through SS. The measured noise in this temperature range arises due to Universal Conductance Fluctuations whose statistics was found to be consistent with theoretical predictions for that of 2D systems in the Symplectic symmetry class. We studied the temperature dependence of noise and found that, unlike the topological insulators of the dichalcogenide family, the noise in surface and bulk conduction channels in SmB6 are uncorrelated - at sufficiently low temperatures, the bulk has no discernible contribution to electrical transport in SmB6 making it an ideal platform for probing the physics of TSS. Nanomission, Department of Science & Technology (DST) and Indian Institute of Scienc and EPSRC, UK, Grant EP/L014963/1.

  8. Interactions of liquid lithium with various atmospheres, concretes, and insulating materials; and filtration of lithium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.

    1979-06-01

    This report describes the facilities and experiments and presents test results of a program being conducted at the hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in support of the fusion reactor development effort. This experimental program is designed to characterize the interaction of liquid lithium with various atmospheres, concretes, and insulating materials. Lithium-atmosphere reaction tests were conducted in normal humidity air, pure nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. These tests are described and their results, such as maximum temperatures, aerosol generated, and reaction rates measured, are reported. Initial lithium temperatures for these tests ranged between 224 0 C and 843 0 C. A lithium-concrete reaction test, using 10 kg of lithium at 327 0 C, and lithium-insulating materials reaction tests, using a few grams of lithium at 350 0 C and 600 0 C, are also described and results are presented. In addition, a lithium-aerosol filter loading test was conducted to determine the mass loading capacity of a commercial high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The aerosol was characterized, and the loading-capacity-versus-pressure-buildup across the filter is reported

  9. Molecular dynamics study of water molecule diffusion in oil-paper insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Ruijin; Zhu Mengzhao; Yang Lijun; Zhou Xin; Gong Chunyan

    2011-01-01

    Moisture is an important factor that influences the safe operation of transformers. In this study, molecular dynamics was employed to investigate the diffusion behavior of water molecules in the oil-paper insulation materials of transformers. Two oil-cellulose models were built. In the first model, water molecules were initially distributed in oil, and in the second model, water molecules were distributed in cellulose. The non-bonding energies of interaction between water molecules and oil, and between water molecules and cellulose, were calculated by the Dreiding force field. The interaction energy was found to play a dominant role in influencing the equilibrium distribution of water molecules. The radial direction functions of water molecules toward oil and cellulose indicate that the hydrogen bonds between water molecules and cellulose are sufficiently strong to withstand the operating temperature of the transformer. Mean-square displacement analysis of water molecules diffusion suggests that water molecules initially distributed in oil showed anisotropic diffusion; they tended to diffuse toward cellulose. Water molecules initially distributed in cellulose diffused isotropically. This study provides a theoretical contribution for improvements in online monitoring of water in transformers, and for subsequent research on new insulation materials.

  10. Experimental study on the influence of different thermal insulation materials on the fire dynamics in a reduced-scale enclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leisted, Rolff Ripke; Sørensen, Martin X.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    Four scaled (1:5) fire experiments with two identically classified types of commercially available sandwich panels incorporating either stone wool (SW) or poly-isocyanurate (PIR) foam as cores were conducted using a modified version of the ISO 13784-1 (Reaction to fire tests for sandwich panel...... in the fire behavior, depending on whether the enclosures were constructed of panels filled with SW or PIR insulation material. The mass losses of the insulation materials showed significant contribution from the PIR cores, regardless of fire load and the non-structural damage. The qualitative behavior...... in the full scale tests than in the scaled experiments. Therefore, it can be concluded that when the energy contribution from the core material remained negligible compared to the gas burner, the measured parameters matched quite well. Therefore, if the insulating core material does not dominate the fire...

  11. Long-term water absorption tests for frost insulation materials taking into account frost attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni A. Pakkala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water absorption of several different frost insulation materials was tested for four years. The test took into account both immersion and frost attack to materials. On the basis of the research the water absorption on XPS specimens is significantly minor compared to EPS specimens that were studied. The most significant result was that freezing of test specimens did not affect on water absorption of XPS specimens but had a major effect on water absorption of EPS specimens. With frozen EPS specimen the absorption continued increasing even after 48 months of immersion. Presumably the reason for such a behaviour is that the pore structure of EPS is not able to resist the tension caused by freezing water and therefore cracks are formed. Thus, more water absorbs inside the EPS through the cracks and it causes cracking deeper in the specimen which is why absorption increases after every freezing period.

  12. Measurement of the quantum capacitance from two-dimensional surface state of a topological insulator at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyunwoo, E-mail: chw0089@gmail.com [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 02504 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Geun, E-mail: tgkim1@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Changhwan, E-mail: cshin@uos.ac.kr [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 02504 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The quantum capacitance in topological insulator (TI) at room temperature is directly revealed. • The physical origin of quantum capacitance, the two dimensional surface state of TI, is experimentally validated. • Theoretically calculated results of ideal quantum capacitance can well predict the experimental data. - Abstract: A topological insulator (TI) is a new kind of material that exhibits unique electronic properties owing to its topological surface state (TSS). Previous studies focused on the transport properties of the TSS, since it can be used as the active channel layer in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). However, a TI with a negative quantum capacitance (QC) effect can be used in the gate stack of MOSFETs, thereby facilitating the creation of ultra-low power electronics. Therefore, it is important to study the physics behind the QC in TIs in the absence of any external magnetic field, at room temperature. We fabricated a simple capacitor structure using a TI (TI-capacitor: Au-TI-SiO{sub 2}-Si), which shows clear evidence of QC at room temperature. In the capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement, the total capacitance of the TI-capacitor increases in the accumulation regime, since QC is the dominant capacitive component in the series capacitor model (i.e., C{sub T}{sup −1} = C{sub Q}{sup −1} + C{sub SiO2}{sup −1}). Based on the QC model of the two-dimensional electron systems, we quantitatively calculated the QC, and observed that the simulated C-V curve theoretically supports the conclusion that the QC of the TI-capacitor is originated from electron–electron interaction in the two-dimensional surface state of the TI.

  13. Characterizing material properties of cement-stabilized rammed earth to construct sustainable insulated walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of local materials can reduce the hauling of construction materials over long distances, thus reducing the greenhouse gas emissions associated with transporting such materials. Use of locally available soils (earth for construction of walls has been used in many parts of the world. Owing to the thermal mass of these walls and the potential to have insulation embedded in the wall section has brought this construction material/technology at the forefront in recent years. However, the mechanical properties of the rammed earth and the parameters required for design of steel reinforced walls are not fully understood. In this paper, the author presents a case study where full-scale walls were constructed using rammed earth to understand the effect of two different types of shear detailing on the structural performance of the walls. The mechanical properties of the material essential for design such as compressive strength of the material including effect of coring on the strength, pull out strength of different rebar diameters, flexural performance and out-of-plane bending on walls was studied. These results are presented in this case study.

  14. Nonlinear optical responses to circularly polarized lights of the surface state of a topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Tetsuro; Yokoyama, Takehito; Murakami, Shuichi

    2012-02-01

    Recent photoelectron spectroscopy experiments have revealed the presence of the Dirac cone on the surface of the topological insulator and its spin-splitting due to the spin-orbit interaction. In general, on spin-orbit coupled systems, electric fields induce spin polarizations as linear and nonlinear responses. Here we investigate the inverse Faraday effect on the surface of the topological insulator. The inverse Faraday effect is a non-linear optical effect where a circularly polarized light induces a dc spin polarization. We employ the Keldysh Green's function method to calculate the induced spin polarization and discuss its frequency dependence. In particular, in the low frequency limit, our analytical result gives the spin polarization proportional to the frequency and the square of the lifetime. As for the finite frequency regime, we employ numerical methods to discuss the resonance due to interband transitions. We also discuss the photogalvanic effect, where an illumination of a circular polarized light generates the dc charge current. Lastly, we evaluate those quantities with realistic parameters.[4pt] [1] T. Misawa, T. Yokoyama, S. Murakami, Phys. Rev. B84, 165407 (2011).

  15. Electric controlling of surface metal-insulator transition in the doped BaTiO3 film

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Xun; Xiang Hao; Tao Pan; Jia-Lin Zhong; Chun-Lan Ma; Fang Hou; Yin-Zhong Wu

    2017-01-01

    Based on first-principles calculations, the BaTiO3(BTO) film with local La-doping is studied. For a selected concentration and position of doping, the surface metal-insulator transition occurs under the applied electric field, and the domain appears near the surface for both bipolar states. Furthermore, for the insulated surface state, i.e., the downward polarization state in the doped film, the gradient bandgap structure is achieved, which favors the absorption of solar energy. Our investiga...

  16. Utilization of Baggase Waste Based Materials as Improvement for Thermal Insulation of Cement Brick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminudin Eeydzah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Building materials having low thermal load and low thermal conductivity will provide thermal comforts to the occupants in building. In an effort to reduce the use of high energy and waste products from the agricultural industry, sugarcane bagasse and banana bagasse has been utilize as an additive in the manufacture of cement brick. The aim of this study is to investigate the insulation and mechanical properties of brick that has been mixed with bagasse and its effectiveness as thermal insulation using heat flow meter. Waste bagasse is being treated using sodium hydroxide (NaOH and is characterized using SEM and XRF. The samples produced with two different dimensions of 50 mm × 50 mm × 50 mm and 215mm × 102.5mm × 65mm for thermal conductivity test. Next, the sample varies from 0% (control sample, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% in order to determine the best mix proportion. The compressive strength is being tested for 7, 14 and 28 days of water curing. Results showed that banana bagasse has lower thermal conductivity compared to sugarcane bagasse used, with compressive strength of 15.6MPa with thermal conductivity 0.6W/m.K.

  17. Long-term radiation effects on commercial cable-insulating materials irradiated at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, P.; Stolarz, A.

    1983-01-01

    Long-term irradiation damage tests have been carried out on a variety of flexible cable-insulating materials offered to CERN by different European cable manufacturers. Tensile test specimens were exposed for a maximum of three years in high-level radiation areas of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and for comparison at high dose rates in a nuclear reactor. The degradation of mechanical properties after irradiation in air depends not only on the total absorbed dose, but also on the dose rate for most of these polymer compounds. These dose-rate effects vary between material types and for different compounds. The results presented here illustrate the difference in radiation damage between short-term and long-term irradiation conditions in a typical service application for the various materials tested. They also allow safety factors to be estimated for the extrapolation of the limiting exposure in service from accelerated material tests in the range of dose rates covered. A discussion of the available models of the dose-rate effects results in a conservative estimate for extrapolation to low dose rates from measured values at intermediate dose rates of the order of 0.1 Gy/s. Based on short-term irradiation tests only, the safety factors to be applied depend on the end-point criterion used, and may vary between 1 and 10 for the range of dose rates and materials considered here. (orig.)

  18. Experimental Study of Fire Hazards of Thermal-Insulation Material in Diesel Locomotive: Aluminum-Polyurethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Taolin; Zhou, Xiaodong; Yang, Lizhong

    2016-01-01

    This work investigated experimentally and theoretically the fire hazards of thermal-insulation materials used in diesel locomotives under different radiation heat fluxes. Based on the experimental results, the critical heat flux for ignition was determined to be 6.15 kW/m2 and 16.39 kW/m2 for pure polyurethane and aluminum-polyurethane respectively. A theoretical model was established for both to predict the fire behaviors under different circumstances. The fire behavior of the materials was evaluated based on the flashover and the total heat release rate (HRR). The fire hazards levels were classified based on different experimental results. It was found that the fire resistance performance of aluminum-polyurethane is much better than that of pure-polyurethane under various external heat fluxes. The concentration of toxic pyrolysis volatiles generated from aluminum-polyurethane materials is much higher than that of pure polyurethane materials, especially when the heat flux is below 50 kW/m2. The hazard index HI during peak width time was proposed based on the comprehensive impact of time and concentrations. The predicted HI in this model coincides with the existed N-gas and FED models which are generally used to evaluate the fire gas hazard in previous researches. The integrated model named HNF was proposed as well to estimate the fire hazards of materials by interpolation and weighted average calculation. PMID:28773295

  19. The Dynamics of the Electric Field Distribution in the Surface of Insulating Film Irradiated by Air Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julionas KALADE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When deposited on a surface, electric charge usually accumulates near the tips of surface irregularities, from where it can be transferred to nearby objects due to ionization of ambient air. The amount of transferred charge, the rate of charge transfer, the size of the charged spot (e.g., on the surface of an insulator and its tendency to spread will depend on properties of air during electric discharge, on the magnitude of charge accumulated at the tip of an object, on possibilities for replenishing that charge, on the time spent for charge transfer from the tip onto the insulating layer, on properties of the insulating layer, etc. Those properties are discussed in this work by comparing the results of measurements and theoretical analysis.

  20. Fracture Toughness Evaluation of Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System Polyurethane Foam Insulation Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Preston; Wells, Doug; Morgan, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    Experimental evaluation of the basic fracture properties of Thermal Protection System (TPS) polyurethane foam insulation materials was conducted to validate the methodology used in estimating critical defect sizes in TPS applications on the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank. The polyurethane foam found on the External Tank (ET) is manufactured by mixing liquid constituents and allowing them to react and expand upwards - a process which creates component cells that are generally elongated in the foam rise direction and gives rise to mechanical anisotropy. Similarly, the application of successive foam layers to the ET produces cohesive foam interfaces (knitlines) which may lead to local variations in mechanical properties. This study reports the fracture toughness of BX-265, NCFI 24-124, and PDL-1034 closed-cell polyurethane foam as a function of ambient and cryogenic temperatures and knitline/cellular orientation at ambient pressure.

  1. Metal-Insulator Transition Driven by Vacancy Ordering in GeSbTe Phase Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragaglia, Valeria; Arciprete, Fabrizio; Zhang, Wei; Mio, Antonio Massimiliano; Zallo, Eugenio; Perumal, Karthick; Giussani, Alessandro; Cecchi, Stefano; Boschker, Jos Emiel; Riechert, Henning; Privitera, Stefania; Rimini, Emanuele; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Calarco, Raffaella

    2016-04-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are unique compounds employed in non-volatile random access memory thanks to the rapid and reversible transformation between the amorphous and crystalline state that display large differences in electrical and optical properties. In addition to the amorphous-to-crystalline transition, experimental results on polycrystalline GeSbTe alloys (GST) films evidenced a Metal-Insulator Transition (MIT) attributed to disorder in the crystalline phase. Here we report on a fundamental advance in the fabrication of GST with out-of-plane stacking of ordered vacancy layers by means of three distinct methods: Molecular Beam Epitaxy, thermal annealing and application of femtosecond laser pulses. We assess the degree of vacancy ordering and explicitly correlate it with the MIT. We further tune the ordering in a controlled fashion attaining a large range of resistivity. Employing ordered GST might allow the realization of cells with larger programming windows.

  2. Improving Performance of Cold-Chain Insulated Container with Phase Change Material: An Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The cold-chain transportation is an important means to ensure the drug and food safety. An cold-chain insulated container incorporating with Phase Change Material (PCM has been developed for a temperature-controlled transportation in the range of 2~8 °C. The container configuration and different preconditioning methods have been determined to realize a 72-h transportation under extremely high, extremely low, and alternating temperature conditions. The experimental results showed that the temperature-controlled time was extended from 1 h to more than 80 h and the internal temperature maintained at 4~5 °C by using a PCM with a melting/freezing point of 5 °C, while the container presented a subcooling effect in a range of −1~2 °C when using water as PCM. The experimental values of the temperature-controlled time agreed well with the theoretical values.

  3. MODAL ANALYSIS OF REAL TIMBER FRAME HOUSES WITH DIFFERENT INSULATION MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Szczepański

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the results of a numerical modal analysis of two actual structures of timber frame buildings and the different behaviour due to the used insulation material. One model of the timber structure was filled with mineral wool, while the other with polyurethane foam. During the modal analysis, eigenvalues for both models have been determined. The results of the analysis clearly show the increase of stiffness and damping properties of skeletal constructions achieved by the use of polyurethane foam as the skeleton filling. The numerical model was based on prior experimental test on real scale single frame elements, therefore the result can be assumed to be adequate.

  4. Metal - Insulator Transition Driven by Vacancy Ordering in GeSbTe Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragaglia, Valeria; Arciprete, Fabrizio; Zhang, Wei; Mio, Antonio Massimiliano; Zallo, Eugenio; Perumal, Karthick; Giussani, Alessandro; Cecchi, Stefano; Boschker, Jos Emiel; Riechert, Henning; Privitera, Stefania; Rimini, Emanuele; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Calarco, Raffaella

    2016-04-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are unique compounds employed in non-volatile random access memory thanks to the rapid and reversible transformation between the amorphous and crystalline state that display large differences in electrical and optical properties. In addition to the amorphous-to-crystalline transition, experimental results on polycrystalline GeSbTe alloys (GST) films evidenced a Metal-Insulator Transition (MIT) attributed to disorder in the crystalline phase. Here we report on a fundamental advance in the fabrication of GST with out-of-plane stacking of ordered vacancy layers by means of three distinct methods: Molecular Beam Epitaxy, thermal annealing and application of femtosecond laser pulses. We assess the degree of vacancy ordering and explicitly correlate it with the MIT. We further tune the ordering in a controlled fashion attaining a large range of resistivity. Employing ordered GST might allow the realization of cells with larger programming windows.

  5. Translucent Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Jens Eg

    1998-01-01

    Two new types of translucent materials are presented. One is translucent fiber insulation and the other type is a new type of hony-comb made of Celulose-acetat. Data for the materials and calculations of energy savings when using the materials in building envelopes are presented....

  6. Renewable insulation as a sustainable option. A study on the performance of renewable insulation materials; Vernieuwbare isolatie als duurzaam alternatief. Een onderzoek naar de prestaties van vernieuwbare isolatiematerialen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselaar, B.L.H.

    2004-06-25

    Insulation of buildings has doubled the energy use per person compared to the 1950's instead of quadrupled. Through sustainable building the health- and environmental effects of building, buildings and the built environment are tried to be reduced, among others by using renewable resources. However, the use of renewable insulation materials is limited because products are unknown to people or have certain prejudices against them. From the insulation materials that are currently available on the Dutch market a selection of three renewable materials has been made on ground of environmental profile and kind of material: sheepwool, cellulose fiber and flaxwool. These will be compared to glasswool as a reference to the standard of what is normally used. Renewable materials have, other than for example glasswool, a hygroscopic or sorption curve. This means they can absorb water, and that the water content is dependent of the relative humidity. Which consequences this property has for building constructions has been researched in two different ways: in a test facility, where the amount of internal condensation and the reaction of the different materials to this was tested, and by simulation in the program WUFI, where the test results were used to increase the reliability of the simulations. In order to make comparison between the insulation materials possible, the maximum relative humidity (RH) in the material was monitored. The higher the RH, the more chance of condensation (free water) and accidence of fungus. The simulations made apparent that the sorption curve, and therefore hygroscopic ability, leads to a higher average RH in the insulation materials. Water that is in a material because of hygroscopic properties moves under influence of a temperature gradient to the cold side, with high local humidities as a result. The higher the hygroscopic capacity of a material, the higher the average RH. Only when a certain moisture flow causes the moisture content to rise

  7. Estimation of the thermal conductivity of hemp based insulation material from 3D tomographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sawalhi, R.; Lux, J.; Salagnac, P.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we are interested in the structural and thermal characterization of natural fiber insulation materials. The thermal performance of these materials depends on the arrangement of fibers, which is the consequence of the manufacturing process. In order to optimize these materials, thermal conductivity models can be used to correlate some relevant structural parameters with the effective thermal conductivity. However, only a few models are able to take into account the anisotropy of such material related to the fibers orientation, and these models still need realistic input data (fiber orientation distribution, porosity, etc.). The structural characteristics are here directly measured on a 3D tomographic image using advanced image analysis techniques. Critical structural parameters like porosity, pore and fiber size distribution as well as local fiber orientation distribution are measured. The results of the tested conductivity models are then compared with the conductivity tensor obtained by numerical simulation on the discretized 3D microstructure, as well as available experimental measurements. We show that 1D analytical models are generally not suitable for assessing the thermal conductivity of such anisotropic media. Yet, a few anisotropic models can still be of interest to relate some structural parameters, like the fiber orientation distribution, to the thermal properties. Finally, our results emphasize that numerical simulations on 3D realistic microstructure is a very interesting alternative to experimental measurements.

  8. Monodisperse hollow silica nanospheres for nano insulation materials: synthesis, characterization, and life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tao; Jelle, Bjørn Petter; Sandberg, Linn Ingunn C; Gustavsen, Arild

    2013-02-01

    The application of manufactured nanomaterials provides not only advantages resulting from their unique properties but also disadvantages derived from the high energy use and CO(2) burden related to their manufacture, operation, and disposal. It is therefore important to understand the trade-offs of process economics of nanomaterial production and their associated environmental footprints in order to strengthen the existing advantages while counteracting disadvantages. This work reports the synthesis, characterization, and life cycle assessment (LCA) of a new type of superinsulating materials, nano insulation materials (NIMs), which are made of hollow silica nanospheres (HSNSs) and have great flexibility in modifying their properties by tuning the corresponding structural parameters. The as-prepared HSNSs in this work have a typical inner pore diameter of about 150 nm and a shell thickness of about 10-15 nm and exhibit a reduced thermal conductivity of about 0.02 W/(m K) because of their size-dependent thermal conduction at the nanometer scale. The energy and raw material consumption related to the synthesis of HSNSs have been analyzed by the LCA method. The results indicate that the recycle of chemicals, up-scaling production, and use of environmentally friendly materials can greatly affect the process of environmental footprints. New synthesis routes for NIMs with improved thermal performance and energy and environmental features are also recommended on the basis of the LCA study.

  9. Heat transfer enhancement of flow insulator by combined stainless steel fibrous and wire net porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khantikomol, P.; Polsongkram, M.; Apisitpinyo, W.; Poowadin, T.

    2018-01-01

    The present research article aims to propose the heat transfer enhancement of the flow insulator using combined fibrous and wire net stainless steel porous material. The stainless fibrous plate with porosity of 0.9292 was combined to the stainless steel wire net having pore per inch (PPI) of 16 and total thickness of 30 mm. Two models of the arranging porous plates were prepared, which were model BA and model AB. Each porous plate segment had the same thickness. The examined porous plate model have porosities of 0.8452. The porous plate was placed normal to the flow direction. The air was used as working fluid heated by 5 kW electric heater, which was controlled by the automatic temperature control. Type-K thermocouples were employed to measure the air temperatures. The temperature at front of the porous plate was varied to be 350, 450, and 550°C. The air flow rate was varied in the range of 4-12 m3/hr. The experimental result showed that the temperature drop across the porous plate and the thermal efficiency increase with the inlet temperature. The air velocity slightly affects the temperature profile inside the test section at the upstream side of the porous plate but greatly affects temperature inside the porous plate. In consideration of the arranging porous plate, placing of the stainless steel wire net at the upstream side and placing the stainless steel fibrous at downstream side (model BA) results in the highest temperature drop and the highest thermal efficiency. At Re 733 and inlet temperature 550°C for model BA at 30 mm thickness, the thermal efficiency was 50%. It was shown that the combined stainless steel fibrous and stainless steel wire net porous material could be a good flow insulator.

  10. Improvement of surface roughness in silicon-on-insulator wafer fabrication using a neutral beam etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, T. H.; Park, B. J.; Kang, S. K.; Gweon, G. H.; Kim, Y. Y.; Yeom, G. Y.

    2009-08-01

    Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers were etched by an energetic chlorine neutral beam obtained by the low-angle forward reflection of an ion beam, and the surface roughness of the etched wafers was compared with that of the SOI wafers etched by an energetic chlorine ion beam. When the ion beam was used to etch the silicon layer of the SOI wafers, the surface roughness was not significantly changed even though the use of higher ion bombardment energy slightly decreased the surface roughness of the SOI wafer. However, when the chlorine neutral beam was used instead of the chlorine ion beam having a similar beam energy, the surface roughness of the SOI wafer was significantly improved compared with that etched by the chlorine ion beam. By etching about 150 nm silicon from the SOI wafer having a 300 nm-thick top silicon layer with the chlorine neutral beam at the energy of 500 eV, the rms surface roughness of 1.5 Å could be obtained with the etch rate of about 750 Å min-1.

  11. Bulk-Induced 1/f Noise at the Surface of Three-Dimensional Topological Insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Semonti; Banerjee, Mitali; Nhalil, Hariharan; Islam, Saurav; Dasgupta, Chandan; Elizabeth, Suja; Ghosh, Arindam

    2015-12-22

    Slow intrinsic fluctuations of resistance, also known as the flicker noise or 1/f-noise, in the surface transport of strong topological insulators (TIs) is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here, we have systematically explored the 1/f-noise in field-effect transistors (FET) of mechanically exfoliated Bi1.6Sb0.4Te2Se TI films when transport occurs predominantly via the surface states. We find that the slow kinetics of the charge disorder within the bulk of the TI induces mobility fluctuations at the surface, providing a new source of intrinsic 1/f-noise that is unique to bulk TI systems. At small channel thickness, the noise magnitude can be extremely small, corresponding to the phenomenological Hooge parameter γH as low as ≈10(-4), but it increases rapidly when channel thickness exceeds ∼1 μm. From the temperature (T)-dependence of noise, which displayed sharp peaks at characteristic values of T, we identified generation-recombination processes from interband transitions within the TI bulk as the dominant source of the mobility fluctuations in surface transport. Our experiment not only establishes an intrinsic microscopic origin of noise in TI surface channels, but also reveals a unique spectroscopic information on the impurity bands that can be useful in bulk TI systems in general.

  12. Dynamic surface electronic reconstruction as symmetry-protected topological orders in topological insulator Bi2Se3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, G. J.; Liou, S. C.; Karna, S. K.; Sankar, R.; Hayashi, M.; Chou, F. C.

    2018-04-01

    The layered narrow-band-gap semiconductor Bi2Se3 is composed of heavy elements with strong spin-orbital coupling, which has been identified both as a good candidate for a thermoelectric material with high thermoelectric figure of merit (Z T ) and as a topological insulator of the Z2 type with a gapless surface band in a Dirac-cone shape. The existence of a conjugated π -bond system on the surface of each Bi2Se3 quintuple layer is proposed based on an extended valence bond model with valence electrons distributed in the hybridized orbitals. Supporting experimental evidence of a two-dimensional (2D) conjugated π -bond system on each quintuple layer of Bi2Se3 is provided using electron energy-loss spectroscopy and electron density mapping through inverse Fourier transform of x-ray diffraction data. Quantum chemistry calculations support the π -bond existence between partially filled 4 pz orbitals of Se via side-to-side orbital overlap positively. The conjugated π -bond system on the surface of each quintuple Bi2Se3 layer is proposed to be similar to that found in graphite (graphene) and responsible for the unique 2D conduction mechanism. The van der Waals (vdW) attractive force between quintuple layers is interpreted to be coming from the antiferroelectrically ordered effective electric dipoles, which are constructed with π -bond trimer pairs on Se layers across the vdW gap of minimized Coulomb repulsion.

  13. Device Performance of the Mott InsulatorDevice Performance of the Mott Insulator LaVO3 as a Photovoltaic Material

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Lingfei

    2015-06-22

    Searching for solar-absorbing materials containing earth-abundant elements with chemical stability is of critical importance for advancing photovoltaic technologies. Mott insulators have been theoretically proposed as potential photovoltaic materials. In this paper, we evaluate their performance in solar cells by exploring the photovoltaic properties of Mott insulator LaVO3 (LVO). LVO films show an indirect band gap of 1.08 eV as well as strong light absorption over a wide wavelength range in the solar spectrum. First-principles calculations on the band structure of LVO further reveal that the d−d transitions within the upper and lower Mott-Hubbard bands and p−d transitions between the O 2p and V 3d band contribute to the absorption in visible and ultraviolet ranges, respectively. Transport measurements indicate strong carrier trapping and the formation of polarons in LVO. To utilize the strong light absorption of LVO and to overcome its poor carrier transport, we incorporate it as a light absorber in solar cells in conjunction with carrier transporters and evaluate its device performance. Our complementary experimental and theoretical results on such prototypical solar cells made of Mott-Hubbard transition-metal oxides pave the road for developing light-absorbing materials and photovoltaic devices based on strongly correlated electrons.

  14. Suppression of surface charge accumulation on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-filled epoxy resin insulator under dc voltage by direct fluorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Boya; Zhang, Guixin, E-mail: guixin@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Li, Chuanyang; He, Jinliang [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Qiang [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Mechatronic Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); An, Zhenlian [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Surface charge accumulation on insulators under high dc voltage is a major factor that may lead to the reduction of insulation levels in gas insulated devices. In this paper, disc insulators made of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-filled epoxy resin were surface fluorinated using a F{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixture (12.5% F{sub 2}) at 50 °C and 0.1 MPa for different durations of 15 min, 30 min and 60 min. A dc voltage was applied to the insulator for 30 min and the charge density on its surface was measured by an electrostatic probe. The results revealed significant lower surface charge densities on the fluorinated insulators in comparison with the original one. Surface conductivity measurements indicated a higher surface conductivity by over three orders of magnitude after fluorination, which would allow the charges to transfer along the surface and thus may suppress their accumulation. Further, attenuated total reflection infrared analysis and surface morphology observations of the samples revealed that the introduction of fluoride groups altered the surface physicochemical properties. These structure changes, especially the physical defects reduced the depth of charge traps in the surface layer, which was verified by the measurement of energy distributions of the electron and hole traps based on the isothermal current theory. The results in this paper demonstrate that fluorination can be a promising and effective method to suppress surface charge accumulation on epoxy insulators in gas insulated devices.

  15. Design of the optimum insulator gate bipolar transistor using response surface method with cluster analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Chi Ling; Huang Sy Ruen; Yeh Chao Yu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a statistical methodology that can be used for the optimization of the Insulator Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) devices is proposed. This is achieved by integrating the response surface method (RSM) with cluster analysis, weighted composite method and genetic algorithm (GA). The device characteristic of IGBT was simulated based upon the fabrication simulator, ATHENA, and the device simulator, ATLAS. This methodology, yielded another way to investigate the IGBT device and to make a decision in the tradeoff between the breakdown voltage and the on-resistance. In this methodology, we also show how to use cluster analysis to determine the dominant factors that are not visible in the screening of all experiments. 20 Refs.

  16. Analysis of surface insulation resistance related failures in electronics by circuit simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Joshy, Salil; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2017-01-01

    of the circuits using a range of empirical leakage resistance values combined with the knowledge of the humidity and contamination profile of the electronics can be used for the robust design of a device, which is also important for electronic products relying on low current consumption for long battery lifetime......Purpose-The purpose of this study is to show that the humidity levels for surface insulation resistance (SIR)-related failures are dependent on the type of activators used in no-clean flux systems and to demonstrate the possibility of simulating the effects of humidity and contamination on printed...... conduction medium. Findings-This paper provides a summary of the effects of contamination with various weak organic acids representing the active components in no-clean solder flux residue, and demonstrates the effect of humidity and contamination on the possible malfunctions and errors in electronic...

  17. Response Surface Methodology for Design of Porous Hollow Sphere Thermal Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohani, Nazanin; Pourmahdian, Saeed; Shirkavand Hadavand, Behzad

    2017-11-01

    In this study, response surface method is used for synthesizing polystyrene (PS) as sacrificial templates and optimizing the particle size. Three factors of initiator, stabilizer concentration and also stirring rate were selected as variable factors. Then, three different concentration of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) added to reaction media and core-shell structure with PS core and silica shell was developed. Finally, core-shell structure was changed to hollow silica sphere for using as thermal insulator. We observed that increased initiator concentration caused to larger PS particles, increase the stirring rate caused the smaller PS and also with increased the stabilizer concentration obtained that particle size decrease then after 2.5% began to increase. Also the optimum amount of TEOS was found.

  18. Standard Test Method for Oxyacetylene Ablation Testing of Thermal Insulation Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the screening of ablative materials to determine the relative thermal insulation effectiveness when tested as a flat panel in an environment of a steady flow of hot gas provided by an oxyacetylene burner. 1.2 This test method should be used to measure and describe the properties of materials, products, or assemblies in response to heat and flame under controlled laboratory conditions and should not be used to describe or appraise the fire hazard of materials, products, or assemblies under actual fire conditions. However, results of this test method may be used as elements of a fire risk assessment which takes into account all of the factors which are pertinent to an assessment of the fire hazard of a particular end use. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limi...

  19. Diffusion and solubility of oxygen in γ-ray irradiated polymer insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguchi, Tadao; Yamamoto, Yasuaki.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of 60 Co γ-rays irradiation on diffusion and solubility of oxygen in polymer materials for electric cable insulation materials were investigated. The polymers were polyethylene, ethylene-propylene rubber, chlorinated polyethylene, chlorosulphonated polyethylene, and chloroprene rubber. They were pure grade and several types of formulation grade. The sheets of these polymers were irradiated up to 5 - 200 Mrad under vacuum or in oxygen under pressure of 3 - 15 atm at room temperature or at 70 deg C. By a method of gas desorption, the diffusion coefficient (D) and solubility coefficient (S) of oxygen or argon in polymer materials were determined at various temperatures of 10 - 80 deg C. The D and S decreased with increase of dose, and the decrease by irradiation with oxidation was more remarkable than that by irradiation without oxidation. However, the decreases of D and S by irradiation were reduced by the formulation of polymers. The additives in formulated polymers would reduce the reactions of crosslinking or oxidation by γ-ray irradiation. The activation energy of D was scarcely changed by irradiations with and without oxidation. (author)

  20. Low-Density, Sprayable, Thermal Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclemore, James P.; Norton, William E.; Lambert, Joe D.; Simpson, William G.; Echols, Sherman; Sharpe, Max H.; Hill, William E.

    1989-01-01

    Improved formulation prevents cracks. Low-density, thermally insulating material applied by spraying it onto surface to be protected. Material, called "MSA-2" improved version of similar material called "MSA-1". Useful as sprayed, lightweight insulation to cover large areas in terrestrial applications in which manual attachment too slow or impractical. Formulated to be more flexible and to prevent coats as thick as 1/2 in. from developing stress cracks as they cure.

  1. External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems: Critical Parameters for Surface Hygrothermal Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Barreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems (ETICS are often used in Europe. Despite its thermal advantages, low cost, and ease of application, this system has serious problems of biological growth causing the cladding defacement. Recent studies pointed that biological growth is due to high values of surface moisture content, which mostly results from the combined effect of exterior surface condensation, wind-driven rain, and drying process. Based on numerical simulation, this paper points the most critical parameters involved in hygrothermal behaviour of ETICS, considering the influence of thermal and hygric properties of the external rendering, the effect of the characteristics of the façade, and the consequences of the exterior and interior climate on exterior surface condensation, wind-driven rain, and drying process. The model used was previously validated by comparison with the results of an “in situ” campaign. The results of the sensitivity analyses show that relative humidity and temperature of the exterior air, atmospheric radiation, and emissivity of the exterior rendering are the parameters that most influence exterior surface condensation. Wind-driven rain depends mostly on horizontal rain, building’s height, wind velocity, and orientation. The drying capacity is influenced by short-wave absorbance, incident solar radiation, and orientation.

  2. Trigger of the Ubiquitous Surface Band Bending in 3D Topological Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Frantzeskakis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main scientific activity in the field of topological insulators (TIs consists of determining their electronic structure by means of magnetotransport and electron spectroscopy with a view to devices based on topological transport. There is, however, a caveat in this approach. There are systematic experimental discrepancies on the electronic structure of the most pristine surfaces of TI single crystals as determined by Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations and by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES. We identify intense ultraviolet illumination—that is inherent to an ARPES experiment—as the source for these experimental differences. We explicitly show that illumination is the key parameter, or in other words, the trigger, for energetic shifts of electronic bands near the surface of a TI crystal. This finding revisits the common belief that surface decoration is the principal cause of surface band bending and explains why band bending is not a prime issue in illumination-free magnetotransport studies. Our study further clarifies the role of illumination on the electronic band structure of TIs by revealing its dual effect: downward band bending on very small time scales followed by band flattening at large time scales. Our results therefore allow us to present and predict the complete evolution of the band structure of TIs in a typical ARPES experiment. By virtue of our findings, we pinpoint two alternatives of how to approach flat-band conditions by means of photon-based techniques and we suggest a microscopic mechanism that can explain the underlying phenomena.

  3. Trigger of the Ubiquitous Surface Band Bending in 3D Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzeskakis, E.; Ramankutty, S. V.; de Jong, N.; Huang, Y. K.; Pan, Y.; Tytarenko, A.; Radovic, M.; Plumb, N. C.; Shi, M.; Varykhalov, A.; de Visser, A.; van Heumen, E.; Golden, M. S.

    2017-10-01

    The main scientific activity in the field of topological insulators (TIs) consists of determining their electronic structure by means of magnetotransport and electron spectroscopy with a view to devices based on topological transport. There is, however, a caveat in this approach. There are systematic experimental discrepancies on the electronic structure of the most pristine surfaces of TI single crystals as determined by Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations and by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). We identify intense ultraviolet illumination—that is inherent to an ARPES experiment—as the source for these experimental differences. We explicitly show that illumination is the key parameter, or in other words, the trigger, for energetic shifts of electronic bands near the surface of a TI crystal. This finding revisits the common belief that surface decoration is the principal cause of surface band bending and explains why band bending is not a prime issue in illumination-free magnetotransport studies. Our study further clarifies the role of illumination on the electronic band structure of TIs by revealing its dual effect: downward band bending on very small time scales followed by band flattening at large time scales. Our results therefore allow us to present and predict the complete evolution of the band structure of TIs in a typical ARPES experiment. By virtue of our findings, we pinpoint two alternatives of how to approach flat-band conditions by means of photon-based techniques and we suggest a microscopic mechanism that can explain the underlying phenomena.

  4. A difference in using atomic layer deposition or physical vapour deposition TiN as electrode material in metal-insulator-metal and metal-insulator-silicon capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenland, A W; Wolters, R A M; Kovalgin, A Y; Schmitz, J

    2011-09-01

    In this work, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) and metal-insulator-silicon (MIS) capacitors are studied using titanium nitride (TiN) as the electrode material. The effect of structural defects on the electrical properties on MIS and MIM capacitors is studied for various electrode configurations. In the MIM capacitors the bottom electrode is a patterned 100 nm TiN layer (called BE type 1), deposited via sputtering, while MIS capacitors have a flat bottom electrode (called BE type 2-silicon substrate). A high quality 50-100 nm thick SiO2 layer, made by inductively-coupled plasma CVD at 150 degrees C, is deposited as a dielectric on top of both types of bottom electrodes. BE type 1 (MIM) capacitors have a varying from low to high concentration of structural defects in the SiO2 layer. BE type 2 (MIS) capacitors have a low concentration of structural defects and are used as a reference. Two sets of each capacitor design are fabricated with the TiN top electrode deposited either via physical vapour deposition (PVD, i.e., sputtering) or atomic layer deposition (ALD). The MIM and MIS capacitors are electrically characterized in terms of the leakage current at an electric field of 0.1 MV/cm (I leak) and for different structural defect concentrations. It is shown that the structural defects only show up in the electrical characteristics of BE type 1 capacitors with an ALD TiN-based top electrode. This is due to the excellent step coverage of the ALD process. This work clearly demonstrates the sensitivity to process-induced structural defects, when ALD is used as a step in process integration of conductors on insulation materials.

  5. Spin and Charge Transport in 2D Materials and Magnetic Insulator/Metal Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amamou, Walid

    Spintronic devices are very promising for future information storage, logic operations and computation and have the potential to replace current CMOS technology approaching the scaling limit. In particular, the generation and manipulation of spin current enables the integration of storage and logic within the same circuit for more powerful computing architectures. In this thesis, we examine the manipulation of spins in 2D materials such as graphene and metal/magnetic insulator heterostructures. In particular, we investigate the feasibility for achieving magnetization switching of a nanomagnet using graphene as a nonmagnetic channel material for All Spin Logic Device applications. Using in-situ MBE deposition of nanomagnet on graphene spin valve, we demonstrate the presence of an interfacial spin dephasing at the interface between the graphene and the nanomagnet. By introducing a Cu spacer between the nanomagnet and graphene, we demonstrate that this interfacial effect is related to an exchange interaction between the spin current and the disordered magnetic moment of the nanomagnet in the first monolayer. In addition to the newly discovered interfacial spin relaxation effect, the extracted contact resistance area product of the nanomagnet/graphene interface is relatively high on the order of 1Omicrom2. In practice, reducing the contact resistance will be as important as eliminating the interfacial relaxation in order to achieve magnetization switching. Furthermore, we examine spin manipulation in a nonmagnetic Pt using an internal magnetic exchange field produced by the adjacent magnetic insulator CoFe2O4 grown by MBE. Here, we report the observation of a strong magnetic proximity effect of Pt deposited on top of a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) inverse spinel material Cobalt Ferrite (CFO, CoFe 2O4). The CFO was grown by MBE and its magnetization was characterized by Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM) demonstrating the strong out of plane magnetic

  6. Numerical simulation of the insulation material transport to a PWR core under loss of coolant accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Höhne, Thomas; Grahn, Alexander; Kliem, Sören; Rohde, Ulrich; Weiss, Frank-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Detailed results of a numerical simulation of the insulation material transport to a PWR core are shown. ► The spacer grid is modeled as a strainer which completely retains the insulation material carried by coolant. ► The CFD calculations showed that the fibers at the upper spacer grid plane are not uniformly distributed. ► Furthermore the pressure loss does not exceed a critical limit. ► The PWR core coolablity can be guaranteed all the time during the transient. -- Abstract: In 1992, strainers on the suction side of the ECCS pumps in Barsebäck NPP Unit 2 became partially clogged with mineral wool because after a safety valve opened the steam impinged on thermally insulated equipment and released mineral wool. This event pointed out that strainer clogging is an issue in the course of a loss-of-coolant accident. Modifications of the insulation material, the strainer area and mesh size were carried out in most of the German NPPs. Moreover, back flushing procedures to remove the mineral wool from the strainers and differential pressure measurements were implemented to assure the performance of emergency core cooling during the containment sump recirculation mode. Nevertheless, it cannot be completely ruled out, that a limited amount of small fractions of the insulation material is transported into the RPV. During a postulated cold leg LOCA with hot leg ECC injection, the fibers enter the upper plenum and can accumulate at the fuel element spacer grids, preferably at the uppermost grid level. This effect might affect the ECC flow into the core and could result in degradation of core cooling. It was the aim of the numerical simulations presented to study where and how many mineral wool fibers are deposited at the upper spacer grid. The 3D, time dependent, multi-phase flow problem was modeled applying the CFD code ANSYS CFX. The CFD calculation does not yet include steam production in the core and also does not include re-suspension of the

  7. Natural ageing of EPDM composite insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlastos, A.E.; Sherif, E. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, High Voltage Engineering, S-412 96 Gothenburg (SW))

    1990-01-01

    Long-rod composite insulators, with weather sheds (sheds) made of ethylene propylene rubbers (EPDM), were exposed for many years to HVAC and HVDC under realistic conditions and natural pollution. The change of their properties with time and their aging was studied. The results show that the insulator shed material undergoes a slow degradation process and loses successively its water repelling properties which initially make the EPDM composite insulators superior to inorganic glass and porcelain insulator. The outdoor degradation of the shed material depends on the electric stress, in the environmental factors (such as pollution, rain, salt-laden fog, and UV-radiation from sun) and on the materials and fillers used in the construction of the composite insulators. A thorough macro- and microscopic study of the EPDM composite insulator sheds illustrates the differences of the surface state of EPDM insulators of different makes in which different basic material compositions and fillers are used. The poor performance of aged EPDM composite insulators compared to inorganic insulators depends on the design and on environmental factors.

  8. On the modelling of semi-insulating GaAs including surface tension and bulk stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, W.; Duderstadt, F.

    2004-07-01

    Necessary heat treatment of single crystal semi-insulating Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), which is deployed in micro- and opto- electronic devices, generate undesirable liquid precipitates in the solid phase. The appearance of precipitates is influenced by surface tension at the liquid/solid interface and deviatoric stresses in the solid. The central quantity for the description of the various aspects of phase transitions is the chemical potential, which can be additively decomposed into a chemical and a mechanical part. In particular the calculation of the mechanical part of the chemical potential is of crucial importance. We determine the chemical potential in the framework of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law which gives an appropriate stress/strain relation for many solids in the small strain regime. We establish criteria, which allow the correct replacement of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law by the simpler Hooke law. The main objectives of this study are: (i) We develop a thermo-mechanical model that describes diffusion and interface motion, which both are strongly influenced by surface tension effects and deviatoric stresses. (ii) We give an overview and outlook on problems that can be posed and solved within the framework of the model. (iii) We calculate non-standard phase diagrams, i.e. those that take into account surface tension and non-deviatoric stresses, for GaAs above 786 C, and we compare the results with classical phase diagrams without these phenomena. (orig.)

  9. Surface Modification of Catalytic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierhoff, Anders Ulrik Fregerslev

    aggregation techniques. With the use of two different filter mechanisms, the Quadrupole and the Lateral Time Of Flight, the nanoparticles were mass selected. This was done to correlate nanoparticle size with reactivity. Selected key findings can be summarized as: 1) CO induced surface changes of Pt based...... methanol synthesis. The importance of conducting well controlled UHV experiments and characterization in combination with experiments at higher pressures to span the pressure gap between UHV and operando conditions is definitely highlighted in this thesis....

  10. PREFACE: 12th Europhysical Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials (EURODIM 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredsson, M. L.; Chadwick, A. V.; Jackson, R. A.; McCabe, E. E.

    2015-04-01

    The 12th Europhysical Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials (EURODIM14) was held at the University of Kent, UK, from 13-18 July 2014. It was attended by about 120 delegates from around the world, and featured 56 oral presentations and 77 posters. EURODIM14 followed other conferences in the series, held in Pecs (2010), Milan (2006) and Wroclaw (2002), as well as the related ICDIM conferences held in Santa Fe (2012), Aracaju (2008) and Riga (2004). These conferences all have the aim of bringing together scientists to discuss the chemistry and physics of defects in solids, and their role in determining material properties. We would like to thank the International Advisory Committee for suggesting invited speakers, and the Local and Programme Committee for their hard work in planning and running the conference. Finally we would like to thank the authors and referees for their contributions to the proceedings. M L Alfredsson (Conference Chair) A V Chadwick R A Jackson E E McCabe

  11. 12th Europhysical Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials (EURODIM 2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfredsson, M L; Chadwick, A V; Jackson, R A; McCabe, E E

    2015-01-01

    The 12th Europhysical Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials (EURODIM14) was held at the University of Kent, UK, from 13-18 July 2014. It was attended by about 120 delegates from around the world, and featured 56 oral presentations and 77 posters. EURODIM14 followed other conferences in the series, held in Pecs (2010), Milan (2006) and Wroclaw (2002), as well as the related ICDIM conferences held in Santa Fe (2012), Aracaju (2008) and Riga (2004). These conferences all have the aim of bringing together scientists to discuss the chemistry and physics of defects in solids, and their role in determining material properties. We would like to thank the International Advisory Committee for suggesting invited speakers, and the Local and Programme Committee for their hard work in planning and running the conference. Finally we would like to thank the authors and referees for their contributions to the proceedings. M L Alfredsson (Conference Chair) A V Chadwick R A Jackson E E McCabe (preface)

  12. Realizing the insulator-to-metal transition in Se-hyperdoped Si via non-equilibrium material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Prucnal, S.; Berencén, Y.; Zhang, Zhitao; Yuan, Ye; Liu, Yu; Heller, R.; Böttger, R.; Rebohle, L.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, Shengqiang

    2017-10-01

    We report on the insulator-to-metal transition in Se-hyperdoped Si layers driven by manipulating the Se concentration via non-equilibrium material processing, i.e. ion implantation followed by millisecond-flash lamp annealing. Electrical transport measurements reveal an increase of the carrier concentration and conductivity with the increasing Se concentration. For the semi-insulating sample with Se concentrations below the Mott limit, quantitative analysis of the temperature dependence of the conductivity indicates a variable-range hopping mechanism with an exponent of s  =  1/2 rather than 1/4, which implies a Coulomb gap at the Fermi level. The observed insulator-to-metal transition is attributed to the formation of an intermediate band in the Se-hyperdoped Si layers.

  13. Building materials and systems with vacuum insulation panels for external walls; Bauelemente und Systeme mit VIP fuer Aussenwandkonstruktionen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A.; Steinke, G.

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at materials and systems using vacuum insulation panels (VIP) for the construction of external walls. The aim of this research project was the development, practical use and market introduction of VIP systems that take account of the special properties of VIP. Along with partners in industry, applications involving external and internal insulation were examined. The need for protecting the vacuum panels against mechanical damage is stressed. The specific needs for the protection of external and internal applications are discussed. The dynamic developments in this relatively new area are commented on. Various mounting systems are examined and commented on. The thermal properties of such insulation systems and applications are noted and commented on.

  14. Measurement of the quantum capacitance from two-dimensional surface state of a topological insulator at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyunwoo; Kim, Tae Geun; Shin, Changhwan

    2017-06-01

    A topological insulator (TI) is a new kind of material that exhibits unique electronic properties owing to its topological surface state (TSS). Previous studies focused on the transport properties of the TSS, since it can be used as the active channel layer in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). However, a TI with a negative quantum capacitance (QC) effect can be used in the gate stack of MOSFETs, thereby facilitating the creation of ultra-low power electronics. Therefore, it is important to study the physics behind the QC in TIs in the absence of any external magnetic field, at room temperature. We fabricated a simple capacitor structure using a TI (TI-capacitor: Au-TI-SiO2-Si), which shows clear evidence of QC at room temperature. In the capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement, the total capacitance of the TI-capacitor increases in the accumulation regime, since QC is the dominant capacitive component in the series capacitor model (i.e., CT-1 = CQ-1 + CSiO2-1). Based on the QC model of the two-dimensional electron systems, we quantitatively calculated the QC, and observed that the simulated C-V curve theoretically supports the conclusion that the QC of the TI-capacitor is originated from electron-electron interaction in the two-dimensional surface state of the TI.

  15. Observation of Dirac-like energy band and ring-torus Fermi surface associated with the nodal line in topological insulator CaAgAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takane, Daichi; Nakayama, Kosuke; Souma, Seigo; Wada, Taichi; Okamoto, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Koshi; Yamakawa, Youichi; Yamakage, Ai; Mitsuhashi, Taichi; Horiba, Koji; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Takashi; Sato, Takafumi

    2018-01-01

    One of key challenges in current material research is to search for new topological materials with inverted bulk-band structure. In topological insulators, the band inversion caused by strong spin-orbit coupling leads to opening of a band gap in the entire Brillouin zone, whereas an additional crystal symmetry such as point-group and nonsymmorphic symmetries sometimes prohibits the gap opening at/on specific points or line in momentum space, giving rise to topological semimetals. Despite many theoretical predictions of topological insulators/semimetals associated with such crystal symmetries, the experimental realization is still relatively scarce. Here, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with bulk-sensitive soft-x-ray photons, we experimentally demonstrate that hexagonal pnictide CaAgAs belongs to a new family of topological insulators characterized by the inverted band structure and the mirror reflection symmetry of crystal. We have established the bulk valence-band structure in three-dimensional Brillouin zone, and observed the Dirac-like energy band and ring-torus Fermi surface associated with the line node, where bulk valence and conducting bands cross on a line in the momentum space under negligible spin-orbit coupling. Intriguingly, we found that no other bands cross the Fermi level and therefore the low-energy excitations are solely characterized by the Dirac-like band. CaAgAs provides an excellent platform to study the interplay among low-energy electron dynamics, crystal symmetry, and exotic topological properties.

  16. Zwitterionic materials for antifouling membrane surface construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingrui; Gao, Kang; Zhou, Linjie; Jiao, Zhiwei; Wu, Mengyuan; Cao, Jialin; You, Xinda; Cai, Ziyi; Su, Yanlei; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2016-08-01

    Membrane separation processes are often perplexed by severe and ubiquitous membrane fouling. Zwitterionic materials, keeping electric neutrality with equivalent positive and negative charged groups, are well known for their superior antifouling properties and have been broadly utilized to construct antifouling surfaces for medical devices, biosensors and marine coatings applications. In recent years, zwitterionic materials have been more and more frequently utilized for constructing antifouling membrane surfaces. In this review, the antifouling mechanisms of zwitterionic materials as well as their biomimetic prototypes in cell membranes will be discussed, followed by the survey of common approaches to incorporate zwitterionic materials onto membrane surfaces including surface grafting, surface segregation, biomimetic adhesion, surface coating and so on. The potential applications of these antifouling membranes are also embedded. Finally, we will present a brief perspective on the future development of zwitterionic materials modified antifouling membranes. Membrane fouling is a severe problem hampering the application of membrane separation technology. The properties of membrane surfaces play a critical role in membrane fouling and antifouling behavior/performance. Antifouling membrane surface construction has evolved as a hot research issue for the development of membrane processes. Zwitterionic modification of membrane surfaces has been recognized as an effective strategy to resist membrane fouling. This review summarizes the antifouling mechanisms of zwitterionic materials inspired by cell membranes as well as the popular approaches to incorporate them onto membrane surfaces. It can help form a comprehensive knowledge about the principles and methods of modifying membrane surfaces with zwitterionic materials. Finally, we propose the possible future research directions of zwitterionic materials modified antifouling membranes. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc

  17. Possibilities of surface coating for thermal insulation. [zirconium dioxide, titanium dioxide, and zircon coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeschel, E.; Weisser, G.

    1979-01-01

    Calculations performed for pulsating heat sources indicate a relatively thin (200-1000 micron) coating can lower temperature both inside and on the surface of a construction material. Various coating materials (including zirconium dioxide) are discussed, together with possible thermic stresses and ways to deal with the latter.

  18. Dirac states with knobs on: Interplay of external parameters and the surface electronic properties of three-dimensional topological insulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantzeskakis, E.; de Jong, N.; Zwartsenberg, B.; Bay, T.V.; Huang, Y.K.; Ramankutty, S.V.; Tytarenko, A.; Wu, D.; Pan, Y.; Hollanders, S.; Radovic, M.; Plumb, N.C.; Xu, N.; Shi, M.; Lupulescu, C.; Arion, T.; Ovsyannikov, R.; Varykhalov, A.; Eberhardt, W.; de Visser, A.; van Heumen, E.; Golden, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Topological insulators are a novel materials platform with high applications potential in fields ranging from spintronics to quantum computation. In the ongoing scientific effort to demonstrate controlled manipulation of their electronic structure by external means, i. e., the provision of knobs

  19. Ultra high vacuum fabrication of metallic contacts for molecular devices on an insulating surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostner, Shawn

    The preparation and characterization of metallic wires on insulating substrates by a variety of mechanisms has been explored. A multi-scale approach utilizing microfabricated silicon stencil masks, feedback controlled electromigration, and field induced metal cluster deposition in a novel geometry has been explored on potassium bromide (KBr), indium phosphide (InP), and silicon oxide substrates in an ultra-high vacuum environment (UHV). The initial deposition of gold, and tantalum wires between one hundred nanometers and micrometers in size was performed using reinforced silicon nanostencils. The stencil fabrication was discussed, and an examination of the deformation of the integrated structures under the deposition of highly stressed tantalum films was shown to be significantly smaller than typical structures. Metallic wires deposited using these stencils as well as electron beam lithography were electrically stressed and the breaking characteristics analyzed. Typical nanometer scale gaps were observed, as well as larger features more commonly found in the breaking of bamboo-like structures in gold wires 100 nm in size or less, particularly with a significant series resistance. These larger gaps are expected to be more applicable for the deposition of subsequent metallic clusters and preparation of molecular devices. As a step towards connecting the initially deposited wires as well as localized molecules in an a fashion allowing atomic scale imaging by AFM, modelling and experiments of field induced deposition of gold clusters on KBr and InP substrates was carried out. Deposition on InP substrates with a backside 2D electron gas as a counter-electrode demonstrated the feability of this deposition technique in UHV. Subsequent depositions on or adjacent to metallic pads on the bulk insulating KBr provided a proof of principle of the technique, though some experimental limitations such as large current pulses with the tip in close proximity to the surface are

  20. The Wick-Concept for Thermal Insulation of Cold Piping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koverdynsky, Vit; Korsgaard, Vagn; Rode, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    The wick-concept for thermal insulation of cold piping is based on capillary suction of a fiber fabric to remove excess water from the pipe surface by transporting it to the outer surface of the insulation. From the surface of the insulation jacket, the water will evaporate to the ambient air....... This will prevent long-term accumulation of moisture in the insulation material. The wick keeps the hydrophobic insulation dry, allowing it to maintain its thermal performance. The liquid moisture is kept only in the wick fabric. This article presents the principle of operation of cold pipe insulation using...... that the variations of these types of insulation systems work for pipes with temperature above 0C and for ambient conditions within common ranges for industrial applications....

  1. Ion surface treatments on organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaki, Masaya

    2001-04-01

    A study has been made of surface modification of various organic materials by ion bombardment or implantation to make the surface properties of high and multiple functions in RIKEN. Substrates used were polyimide (PI), polyacetylene, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polystyrene (PS), silicone rubber, various kinds of proteins and so on. Bombarded or implanted ions were inert gas elements, chemically active gaseous elements and metallic elements. Surface properties such as electrical conductivity, wettability and cell adhesion of implanted layers have been investigated. Surface characterization of implanted materials has been carried out by means of transmission electron microscopy, laser Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. In this paper, studies in RIKEN are reviewed of electrical conductivity, optical absorbance, wettability and cell adhesion depending on current densities and doping elements. Applications of ion bombardment to biomedical materials are introduced using cell adhesion control. It is concluded that ion bombardment or implantation is useful to change and control surface properties of various organic materials.

  2. Behavior of AC High Voltage Polyamide Insulators: Evolution of Leakage Current in Different Surface Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed El Amine Slama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at a systematic study of the leakage current of high voltage polyamide insulator string under different conditions of pollution for possible application in the electric locomotive systems. It is shown that in the case of clean/dry and clean/wetted insulators, the leakage current and applied voltage are linear. While in the case of pollution with saline spray, the leakage current and the applied voltage are not linear; the leakage current changes from a linear regime to a nonlinear regime up to total flashover of the insulators sting. Traces of erosion and tracking of insulators resulting of partial discharges are observed.

  3. Quantum magnetotransport for the surface states of three-dimensional topological insulators in the presence of a Zeeman field

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, Muhammad

    2013-05-01

    We show that the surface states of magnetic topological insulators realize an activated behavior and Shubnikov de Haas oscillations. Applying an external magnetic field perpendicular to the surface of the topological insulator in the presence of Zeeman interaction, we investigate the opening of a gap at the Dirac point, making the surface Dirac fermions massive, and the effects on the transport properties. Analytical expressions are derived for the collisional conductivity for elastic impurity scattering in the first Born approximation. We also calculate the Hall conductivity using the Kubo formalism. Evidence for a transition from gapless to gapped surface states at n = 0 and activated transport is found from the temperature and magnetic-field dependence of the collisional and Hall conductivities. © Copyright EPLA, 2013.

  4. Dirac-fermion-mediated ferromagnetism in a topological insulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Checkelsky, Joseph G.; Ye, Jianting; Onose, Yoshinori; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    Topological insulators are a newly discovered class of materials in which helical conducting modes exist on the surface of a bulk insulator(1-6). Recently, theoretical works have shown that breaking gauge symmetry(7) or time-reversal symmetry(8) in these materials produces exotic states that, if

  5. Performance of LI-1542 reusable surface insulation system in a hypersonic stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, L. R.; Shideler, J. L.; Weinstein, I.

    1976-01-01

    The thermal and structural performance LI-1542 reusable surface insulation (RSI) tiles was investigated. The test panel was designed to represent part of the surface structure on a space shuttle orbiter fuselage along a 1250 K isotherm. Aerothermal tests were conducted at a free-stream Mach number of 6.6, a total temperature of 1820 K, Reynolds numbers of 2 millon and 5 million per meter, and dynamic pressures of 26 and 65 kPa. The RSI tiles demonstrated good thermal protection and structural integrity. High temperatures were caused by misalinement in tile height, offset the tile longitudinal alinement, and leakage around thermal seals when differential pressure existed across the panel. The damage tolerance of LI-1542 RSI appeared high. The tile coating crazed early in the test program, but this did not effect the tile integrity. Erosion of the tile edges occurred at forward-facing steps and at the ends of longitudinal gaps because of particle impacts and flow shear.

  6. RKKY interaction in P-N junction based on surface states of 3D topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuhui; Yang, Wen; Chang, Kai

    The RKKY interaction mediated by conduction electrons supplies a mechanism to realize the long-range coupling of localized spins which is desired for the spin devices. Here, we examine the controllability of RKKY interaction in P-N junction (PNJ) based on surface states of 3D topological insulator (3DTI). In this study, through quantum way but not usual classical analogy to light propagation, the intuitive picture for electron waves across the interface of PNJ is obtained, e.g., Klein tunneling, negative refraction and focusing. Moreover, we perform the numerical calculations for all kinds of RKKY interaction including the Heisenberg, Ising, and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya terms. We find the focusing of surface states leads to the local augmentation of RKKY interaction. Most importantly, a dimension transition occurs, i.e., the decay rate of RKKY interaction from the deserved 1/R 2 to 1/ R . In addition, the quadratic gate-dependence of RKKY interaction is also beneficial to the application of 3DTI PNJ in the fields of spintronics and quantum computation. This work was supported by the MOST (Grant No. 2015CB921503, and No. 2014CB848700) and NSFC (Grant No. 11434010, No. 11274036, No. 11322542, and No. 11504018).

  7. Recovery of waste and side products of apatite-nepheline and eudialyte ores processing in manufacture of heat-insulating foam glassy-crystalline materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvorova O. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Overburden and dressing tailings accumulated in the Murmansk region in impressive volumes represent serious challenges of both economic and ecological character. Maintenance of overburden dumps and dressing tailings involves considerable capital and material expenses. Therefore reprocessing of mining waste and manufacture of building materials, including heat-insulating foam-glass materials, is a promising trend. The work discusses the feasibility of recovering silica-containing waste and ore processing byproducts on the Kola Peninsula. Compositions and techniques for producing blocks and pellets from foam-glass crystalline materials have been developed. The effect of modifying agents on the foam-silicate materials' mechanical properties has been investigated. The production conditions for high-quality foam-silicate blocks have been identified. The foam silicates obtained under optimal conditions have featured a relatively low viscosity (0.3–0.5 g/cm³, high strength (up to 5 MPa and heat conductivity (0.09–0.107 Wt/m·K. Methods of improving the operating characteristics of foam silicates based on structure perfecting have been proposed. It has been found that as a result of shorttime baking of grainy samples the product has a grain strength of 5–6 MPa, density of 0.25–0.35 g/cm3 and a resistance to crushing in cylinder of 2.2–3 MPa, which is 2–3 times higher than that of a material subjected to one-stage thermal treatment. The water absorption of the material is 5–6 %, which is by a half lower compared to a one-stage treated material. The thermal conduction coefficient is 0.091–0.096 Wt/m·K. The obtained materials are recommended for use as heat-insulating surfacing and filling material for garrets, floors and roofs in construction and renovation of industrial and civic buildings

  8. An employee sews thermal insulation material on the back cover and heat shield of the Huygens probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    An employee in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF) sews thermal insulation material on the back cover and heat shield of the Huygens probe during prelaunch processing, testing and integration in that facility. The Huygens probe and the Cassini orbiter being processed at KSC are the two primary components of the Cassini spacecraft, which will be launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral Air Station. Cassini will explore Saturn, its rings and moons for four years. The Huygens probe, designed and developed for the European Space Agency (ESA), will be deployed from the orbiter to study the clouds, atmosphere and surface of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. The orbiter was designed and assembled at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California. Following postflight inspections, integration of the 12 science instruments not already installed on the orbiter will be completed. Then, the parabolic high-gain antenna and the propulsion module will be mated to the orbiter, followed by the Huygens probe, which will complete spacecraft integration. The Cassini mission is targeted for an Oct. 6 launch to begin its 6.7-year journey to the Saturnian system. Arrival at the planet is expected to occur around July 1, 2004.

  9. An employee sews thermal insulation material on the front heat shield of the Huygens probe in the PH

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    An employee in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF) sews thermal insulation material on the front heat shield of the Huygens probe during prelaunch processing testing and integration in that facility, with the probe's back cover in the background. The Huygens probe and the Cassini orbiter being processed at KSC are the two primary components of the Cassini spacecraft, which will be launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral Air Station. Cassini will explore Saturn, its rings and moons for four years. The Huygens probe, designed and developed for the European Space Agency (ESA), will be deployed from the orbiter to study the clouds, atmosphere and surface of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. The orbiter was designed and assembled at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California. Following postflight inspections, integration of the 12 science instruments not already installed on the orbiter will be completed. Then, the parabolic high-gain antenna and the propulsion module will be mated to the orbiter, followed by the Huygens probe, which will complete spacecraft integration. The Cassini mission is targeted for an Oct. 6 launch to begin its 6.7-year journey to the Saturnian system. Arrival at the planet is expected to occur around July 1, 2004.

  10. Optical microcavities based on surface modes in two-dimensional photonic crystals and silicon-on-insulator photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Qiu, M.

    2007-01-01

    Surface-mode optical microcavities based on two-dimensional photonic crystals and silicon-on-insulator photonic crystals are studied. We demonstrate that a high-quality-factor microcavity can be easily realized in these structures. With an increasing of the cavity length, the quality factor...... is gradually enhanced and the resonant frequency converges to that of the corresponding surface mode in the photonic crystals. These structures have potential applications such as sensing....

  11. Physics of Three-Dimensional Bosonic Topological Insulators: Surface-Deconfined Criticality and Quantized Magnetoelectric Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvin Vishwanath

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss physical properties of “integer” topological phases of bosons in D=3+1 dimensions, protected by internal symmetries like time reversal and/or charge conservation. These phases invoke interactions in a fundamental way but do not possess topological order; they are bosonic analogs of free-fermion topological insulators and superconductors. While a formal cohomology-based classification of such states was recently discovered, their physical properties remain mysterious. Here, we develop a field-theoretic description of several of these states and show that they possess unusual surface states, which, if gapped, must either break the underlying symmetry or develop topological order. In the latter case, symmetries are implemented in a way that is forbidden in a strictly two-dimensional theory. While these phases are the usual fate of the surface states, exotic gapless states can also be realized. For example, tuning parameters can naturally lead to a deconfined quantum critical point or, in other situations, to a fully symmetric vortex metal phase. We discuss cases where the topological phases are characterized by a quantized magnetoelectric response θ, which, somewhat surprisingly, is an odd multiple of 2π. Two different surface theories are shown to capture these phenomena: The first is a nonlinear sigma model with a topological term. The second invokes vortices on the surface that transform under a projective representation of the symmetry group. We identify a bulk-field theory consistent with these properties, which is a multicomponent background-field theory supplemented, crucially, with a topological term. We also provide bulk sigma-model field theories of these phases and discuss a possible topological phase characterized by the thermal analog of the magnetoelectric effect.

  12. Degradation mechanisms of cable insulation materials during radiation-thermal ageing in radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguchi, Tadao; Tamura, Kiyotoshi; Ohshima, Takeshi; Shimada, Akihiko; Kudoh, Hisaaki

    2011-02-01

    Radiation and thermal degradation of ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) and crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) as cable insulation materials were investigated by evaluating tensile properties, gel-fraction, and swelling ratio, as well as by the infrared (FTIR) analysis. The activation energy of thermal oxidative degradation changed over the range 100-120 °C for both EPR and XLPE. This may be attributed to the fact that the content of an antioxidant used as the stabilizer for polymers decreases by evaporation during thermal ageing at high temperatures. The analysis of antioxidant content and oxidative products in XLPE as a model sample showed that a small amount of antioxidant significantly reduced the extent of thermal oxidation, but was not effective for radiation induced oxidation. The changes in mechanical properties were well reflected by the degree of oxidation. A new model of polymer degradation mechanisms was proposed where the degradation does not take place by chain reaction via peroxy radical and hydro-peroxide. The role of the antioxidant in the polymer is the reduction of free radical formation in the initiation step in thermal oxidation, and it could not stop radical reactions for either radiation or thermal oxidation.

  13. Degradation mechanisms of cable insulation materials during radiation-thermal ageing in radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguchi, Tadao, E-mail: seguchi@aj.wakwak.co [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai 319-1195 (Japan); Tamura, Kiyotoshi; Ohshima, Takeshi; Shimada, Akihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai 319-1195 (Japan); Kudoh, Hisaaki [University of Tokyo, Tokai 319-1195 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Radiation and thermal degradation of ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) and crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) as cable insulation materials were investigated by evaluating tensile properties, gel-fraction, and swelling ratio, as well as by the infrared (FTIR) analysis. The activation energy of thermal oxidative degradation changed over the range 100-120 {sup o}C for both EPR and XLPE. This may be attributed to the fact that the content of an antioxidant used as the stabilizer for polymers decreases by evaporation during thermal ageing at high temperatures. The analysis of antioxidant content and oxidative products in XLPE as a model sample showed that a small amount of antioxidant significantly reduced the extent of thermal oxidation, but was not effective for radiation induced oxidation. The changes in mechanical properties were well reflected by the degree of oxidation. A new model of polymer degradation mechanisms was proposed where the degradation does not take place by chain reaction via peroxy radical and hydro-peroxide. The role of the antioxidant in the polymer is the reduction of free radical formation in the initiation step in thermal oxidation, and it could not stop radical reactions for either radiation or thermal oxidation.

  14. Absorbed dose measurements of insulating material for TRISTAN magnets by IR spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Kuninori; Ohsawa, Yasunobu; Michikawa, Taichi.

    1995-01-01

    Absorbed dose measurements of the insulating material for 29GeV TRISTAN Main-Ring magnets were carried out with the Infrared spectrometry. From the fact that carbonyl radical is induced in epoxy resin by irradiation, infrared absorbance in the range of 1705-1720 cm -1 due to carbonyl radicals was applied to the estimations of the absorbed dose of the epoxy resin. Relationship between absorbance of carbonyl band and absorbed dose was investigated exposing the epoxy resin in two irradiation fields, TRISTAN MR and irradiation facility of 3kCi 60 Co source. From this work, it was found that IR absorbance method could be applied to the absorbed dose measurements from 10 3 to 10 7 Gy and that absorbed doses obtained from 31 specimens of epoxy resin shaved from coils of TRISTAN MR magnets had a distribution extending from 2.6 x 10 3 to 1.07 x 10 7 Gy, mostly order of 10 4 to 10 5 Gy. (author)

  15. Nodal surface semimetals: Theory and material realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weikang; Liu, Ying; Li, Si; Zhong, Chengyong; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Sheng, Xian-Lei; Zhao, Y. X.; Yang, Shengyuan A.

    2018-03-01

    We theoretically study the three-dimensional topological semimetals with nodal surfaces protected by crystalline symmetries. Different from the well-known nodal-point and nodal-line semimetals, in these materials, the conduction and valence bands cross on closed nodal surfaces in the Brillouin zone. We propose different classes of nodal surfaces, both in the absence and in the presence of spin-orbit coupling (SOC). In the absence of SOC, a class of nodal surfaces can be protected by space-time inversion symmetry and sublattice symmetry and characterized by a Z2 index, while another class of nodal surfaces are guaranteed by a combination of nonsymmorphic twofold screw-rotational symmetry and time-reversal symmetry. We show that the inclusion of SOC will destroy the former class of nodal surfaces but may preserve the latter provided that the inversion symmetry is broken. We further generalize the result to magnetically ordered systems and show that protected nodal surfaces can also exist in magnetic materials without and with SOC, given that certain magnetic group symmetry requirements are satisfied. Several concrete nodal-surface material examples are predicted via the first-principles calculations. The possibility of multi-nodal-surface materials is discussed.

  16. Reliability prediction of I&C cable insulation materials by DSC and Weibull theory for probabilistic safety assessment of NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh, T.V., E-mail: santutv@barc.gov.in [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India); Gopika, V. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India); Ghosh, A.K. [Raja Ramanna Fellow, Department of Atomic Energy (India); Fernandes, B.G. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India); Dubey, K.A. [Radiation Technology Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • An approach for time dependent reliability prediction of I&C cable insulation materials for use in PSA of NPP has been developed based on OIT and OITp measurement, and Weibull theory. • OITs were determined from the measured OITp based on the fundamental thermodynamics principles, and the correlations obtained from DSC and FTIR are in good agreement with the EAB. • The SEM of thermal and irradiated samples of insulation materials was performed to support the degradation behaviour observed from OIT and EAB measurements. • The proposed methodology has been illustrated with the accelerated thermal and radiation ageing data on low voltage cables used in NPP for I&C applications. • The time dependent reliability predicted from the OIT based on Weibull theory will be useful in incorporating the cable ageing into PSA of NPP. - Abstract: Instrumentation and control (I&C) cables used in nuclear power plants (NPPs) are exposed to various deteriorative environmental effects during their operational lifetime. The factors consisting of long-term irradiation and enhanced temperature eventually result in insulation degradation. Monitoring of the actual state of the cable insulation and the prediction of their residual service life consist of the measurement of the properties that are directly proportional to the functionality of the cables (usually, elongation at break is used as the critical parameter). Although, several condition monitoring (CM) and life estimation techniques are available, currently there is no any standard methodology or an approach towards incorporating the cable ageing effects into probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of NPPs. In view of this, accelerated thermal and radiation ageing of I&C cable insulation materials have been carried out and the degradation due to thermal and radiation ageing has been assessed using oxidation induction time (OIT) and oxidation induction temperature (OITp) measurements by differential scanning

  17. Reliability prediction of I&C cable insulation materials by DSC and Weibull theory for probabilistic safety assessment of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhosh, T.V.; Gopika, V.; Ghosh, A.K.; Fernandes, B.G.; Dubey, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An approach for time dependent reliability prediction of I&C cable insulation materials for use in PSA of NPP has been developed based on OIT and OITp measurement, and Weibull theory. • OITs were determined from the measured OITp based on the fundamental thermodynamics principles, and the correlations obtained from DSC and FTIR are in good agreement with the EAB. • The SEM of thermal and irradiated samples of insulation materials was performed to support the degradation behaviour observed from OIT and EAB measurements. • The proposed methodology has been illustrated with the accelerated thermal and radiation ageing data on low voltage cables used in NPP for I&C applications. • The time dependent reliability predicted from the OIT based on Weibull theory will be useful in incorporating the cable ageing into PSA of NPP. - Abstract: Instrumentation and control (I&C) cables used in nuclear power plants (NPPs) are exposed to various deteriorative environmental effects during their operational lifetime. The factors consisting of long-term irradiation and enhanced temperature eventually result in insulation degradation. Monitoring of the actual state of the cable insulation and the prediction of their residual service life consist of the measurement of the properties that are directly proportional to the functionality of the cables (usually, elongation at break is used as the critical parameter). Although, several condition monitoring (CM) and life estimation techniques are available, currently there is no any standard methodology or an approach towards incorporating the cable ageing effects into probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of NPPs. In view of this, accelerated thermal and radiation ageing of I&C cable insulation materials have been carried out and the degradation due to thermal and radiation ageing has been assessed using oxidation induction time (OIT) and oxidation induction temperature (OITp) measurements by differential scanning

  18. Towards ultra-stiff materials: Surface effects on nanoporous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Dingjie; Xie, Yi Min; Huang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Shiwei, E-mail: shiwei.zhou@rmit.edu.au [Centre for Innovative Structures and Materials, School of Civil, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476, Melbourne 3001 (Australia); Li, Qing [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2014-09-08

    The significant rise in the strength and stiffness of porous materials at nanoscale cannot be described by conventional scaling laws. This letter investigates the effective Young's modulus of such materials by taking into account surface effect in a microcellular architecture designed for an ultralight material whose stiffness is an order of magnitude higher than most porous materials. We find that by considering the surface effects the predicted stiffness using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory compares well to experimental data for spongelike nanoporous gold with random microstructures. Analytical results show that, of the two factors influencing the effective Young's modulus, the residual stress is more important than the surface stiffness.

  19. Lightweight, Cost Effective LOX Compatible Aerogel Insulation Material for Cryogenic Fluid Transfer Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energy-efficient cryogenic insulation is an imperative requirement for the future of space travel. In order to advance the space program, NASA must find cost...

  20. Absolute measurement of the thermal conductivity of insulating materials at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liermann, J.

    1975-01-01

    A device was developed at the CEA for the absolute measurement of the thermal conductivity of insulators. It can operate in controlled atmospheres (air, CO 2 , Ar, He) and between 100 and 1050 deg C [fr

  1. Lightweight, Cost Effective LOX Compatible Aerogel Insulation Material for Cryogenic Fluid Transfer Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energy-efficient cryogenic insulation is an imperative requirement for the future of space travel. In order to advance the space program, NASA must find cost...

  2. A Study on Variation of Thermal Characteristics of Insulation Materials for Buildings According to Actual Long-Term Annual Aging Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Jung; Kang, Jae-Sik; Huh, Jung-Ho

    2018-01-01

    Insulation materials used for buildings are broadly classified as organic insulation materials or inorganic insulation materials. Foam gas is used for producing organic insulation materials. The thermal conductivity of foam gas is generally lower than that of air. As a result, foam gas is discharged over time and replaced by outside air that has relatively less thermal resistance. The gas composition ratio in air bubbles inside the insulation materials changes rapidly, causing the performance degradation of insulation materials. Such performance degradation can be classified into different stages. Stage 1 appears to have a duration of 5 years, and Stage 2 takes a period of over 10 years. In this study, two insulation materials that are most frequently used in South Korea were analyzed, focusing on the changes thermal resistance for the period of over 5000 days. The measurement result indicated that the thermal resistance of expanded polystyrene fell below the KS performance standards after about 80-150 days from its production date. After about 5000 days, its thermal resistance decreased by 25.7 % to 42.7 % in comparison with the initial thermal resistance. In the case of rigid polyurethane, a pattern of rapid performance degradation appeared about 100 days post-production, and the thermal resistance fell below the KS performance standards after about 1000 days. The thermal resistance decreased by 22.5 % to 27.4 % in comparison with the initial thermal resistance after about 5000 days.

  3. Ultra-low carrier concentration and surface-dominant transport in antimony-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulator nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Seung Sae

    2012-03-27

    A topological insulator is the state of quantum matter possessing gapless spin-locking surface states across the bulk band gap, which has created new opportunities from novel electronics to energy conversion. However, the large concentration of bulk residual carriers has been a major challenge for revealing the property of the topological surface state by electron transport measurements. Here we report the surface-state-dominant transport in antimony-doped, zinc oxide-encapsulated Bi2Se3 nanoribbons with suppressed bulk electron concentration. In the nanoribbon with sub-10-nm thickness protected by a zinc oxide layer, we position the Fermi levels of the top and bottom surfaces near the Dirac point by electrostatic gating, achieving extremely low two-dimensional carrier concentration of 2×10 11cm-2. The zinc oxide-capped, antimony-doped Bi 2Se3 nanostructures provide an attractive materials platform to study fundamental physics in topological insulators, as well as future applications. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  4. Characteristics of epoxy resin/SiO2 nanocomposite insulation: effects of plasma surface treatment on the nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Phung, B T; Han, Zhao Jun; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2013-05-01

    The present study compares the effects of two different material processing techniques on modifying hydrophilic SiO2 nanoparticles. In one method, the nanoparticles undergo plasma treatment by using a custom-developed atmospheric-pressure non-equilibrium plasma reactor. With the other method, they undergo chemical treatment which grafts silane groups onto their surface and turns them into hydrophobic. The treated nanoparticles are then used to synthesize epoxy resin-based nanocomposites for electrical insulation applications. Their characteristics are investigated and compared with the pure epoxy resin and nanocomposite fabricated with unmodified nanofillers counterparts. The dispersion features of the nanoparticles in the epoxy resin matrix are examined through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. All samples show evidence that the agglomerations are smaller than 30 nm in their diameters. This indicates good dispersion uniformity. The Weibull plot of breakdown strength and the recorded partial discharge (PD) events of the epoxy resin/plasma-treated hydrophilic SiO2 nanocomposite (ER/PTI) suggest that the plasma-treated specimen yields higher breakdown strength and lower PD magnitude as compared to the untreated ones. In contrast, surprisingly, lower breakdown strength is found for the nanocomposite made by the chemically treated hydrophobic particles, whereas the PD magnitude and PD numbers remain at a similar level as the plasma-treated ones.

  5. The roles of thermal insulation and heat storage in the energy performance of the wall materials: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong

    2016-04-07

    A high-performance envelope is the prerequisite and foundation to a zero energy building. The thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of a wall are two thermophysical properties that strongly influence the energy performance. Although many case studies have been performed, the results failed to give a big picture of the roles of these properties in the energy performance of an active building. In this work, a traversal study on the energy performance of a standard room with all potential wall materials was performed for the first time. It was revealed that both heat storage materials and insulation materials are suitable for external walls. However, the importances of those materials are distinct in different situations: the heat storage plays a primary role when the thermal conductivity of the material is relatively high, but the effect of the thermal insulation is dominant when the conductivity is relatively low. Regarding internal walls, they are less significant to the energy performance than the external ones, and they need exclusively the heat storage materials with a high thermal conductivity. These requirements for materials are consistent under various climate conditions. This study may provide a roadmap for the material scientists interested in developing high-performance wall materials.

  6. The roles of thermal insulation and heat storage in the energy performance of the wall materials: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong

    2016-01-01

    A high-performance envelope is the prerequisite and foundation to a zero energy building. The thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of a wall are two thermophysical properties that strongly influence the energy performance. Although many case studies have been performed, the results failed to give a big picture of the roles of these properties in the energy performance of an active building. In this work, a traversal study on the energy performance of a standard room with all potential wall materials was performed for the first time. It was revealed that both heat storage materials and insulation materials are suitable for external walls. However, the importances of those materials are distinct in different situations: the heat storage plays a primary role when the thermal conductivity of the material is relatively high, but the effect of the thermal insulation is dominant when the conductivity is relatively low. Regarding internal walls, they are less significant to the energy performance than the external ones, and they need exclusively the heat storage materials with a high thermal conductivity. These requirements for materials are consistent under various climate conditions. This study may provide a roadmap for the material scientists interested in developing high-performance wall materials. PMID:27052186

  7. Surface materials considerations for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sone, Kazuho; Maeno, Masaki; Yamamoto, Shin; Ohtsuka, Hidewo; Abe, Tetsuya

    1982-11-01

    Surface materials considerations have been made to support the Impurity Control and First Wall Engineering task in the INTOR. They focussed on low-Z material candidates including C(graphite), SiC and TiC. Properties considered are listed in the following: 1) Physical Sputtering. 2) Chemical Sputtering. 3) Arcing. 4) H/He Retention/Release. 5) Redeposited Materials Characteristics. (author)

  8. PREFACE 11th Europhysical Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials (EURODIM 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, László; Corradi, Gábor

    2010-11-01

    The Europhysical Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials, organized in the period 12-16 July 2010 in Pécs, Hungary by the Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Budapest and the Institute of Physics of the University of Pécs, was the 11th European conference in the alternate series of EURODIM and ICDIM. The first meeting in Argonne, USA in 1956 was dedicated to the field of color centers in alkali halide crystals. Since then the topic has been gradually extended to the real structure of oxides, halides, nitrides and other more complex insulators, and also to less ordered materials like glasses, ceramics and low-dimensional systems, as well as applications e.g. in radiology, non-linear optics, photonics and electronics. Recently the field covered includes the research and technology of defect-related phenomena in crystalline and amorphous wide band-gap bulk, layered and nano-materials. More than 200 colleagues from 31 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas have participated in the conference. The program contained in addition to seven invited and three keynote talks 67 further oral presentations as well as some 200 poster contributions. The city of Pécs, a pearl of the Southern Danubia region, was proud of hosting the conference as one of the 2010 European Capitals of Culture, this status crowning a long urban history dating back to paleochristian times in the Roman province Pannonia. On behalf of the Organizing Committee signature László Kovács Conference Chair Conference Chair László Kovács Crystal Physics Department Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics Budapest, Hungary e-mail: eurodim2010@optics.szfki.kfki.hu Program Committee Gábor Corradi (Hungary) István Földvári (Hungary) Rob A. Jackson (UK) László Kovács (Hungary) Martin Nikl (Czech Republic) Anna Vedda (Italy) Andrea Watterich (Hungary) International Advisory Committee M.G. Blanchin (France)A. Lushchik (Estonia) F. Bridges (USA

  9. Materials and surface engineering in tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Takadoum, Jamal

    2010-01-01

    This title is designed to provide a clear and comprehensive overview of tribology. The book introduces the notion of a surface in tribology where a solid surface is described from topographical, structural, mechanical, and energetic perspectives. It also describes the principal techniques used to characterize and analyze surfaces. The title then discusses what may be called the fundamentals of tribology by introducing and describing the concepts of adhesion, friction, wear, and lubrication. The book focuses on the materials used in tribology, introducing the major classes of materials used, ei

  10. Electrical Performance of Distribution Insulators with Chlorella vulgaris Growth on its Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Enrique Rojas Cubides

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study about electrical performance of ceramic and polymeric insulators bio-contaminated with alga Chlorella vulgaris. The performed tests involve ANSI 55-2 and ANSI 52-1 ceramic insulators and ANSI DS-15 polymeric insulators, all of them used in distribution systems of Colombia. Biological contamination of insulators is realized using a controlled environment chamber that adjusts the temperature, humidity and light radiation. The laboratory tests include measurements of flashover voltages and leakage currents and they were performed to determine how insulators are affected by biological contamination. After a series of laboratory tests, it was concluded that the presence of Chlorella vulgaris on the contaminated ceramic insulators reduces the wet flashover voltage up to 12% and increases their leakage currents up to 80%. On the other hand, for polymeric insulators the effect of algae growth on flashover voltages was not to strong, although the leakage currents increase up to 60%.

  11. Comparison of kinetic models for atom recombination on high-temperature reusable surface insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Ronald J.

    1993-01-01

    Five kinetic models are compared for their ability to predict recombination coefficients for oxygen and nitrogen atoms over high-temperature reusable surface insulation (HRSI). Four of the models are derived using Rideal-Eley or Langmuir-Hinshelwood catalytic mechanisms to describe the reaction sequence. The fifth model is an empirical expression that offers certain features unattainable through mechanistic description. The results showed that a four-parameter model, with temperature as the only variable, works best with data currently available. The model describes recombination coefficients for oxygen and nitrogen atoms for temperatures from 300 to 1800 K. Kinetic models, with atom concentrations, demonstrate the influence of atom concentration on recombination coefficients. These models can be used for the prediction of heating rates due to catalytic recombination during re-entry or aerobraking maneuvers. The work further demonstrates a requirement for more recombination experiments in the temperature ranges of 300-1000 K, and 1500-1850 K, with deliberate concentration variation to verify model requirements.

  12. Dissociative adsorption of environment-friendly insulating medium C3F7CN on Cu(111) and Al(111) surface: A theoretical evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Li, Yi; Chen, Dachang; Xiao, Song; Tian, Shuangshuang; Tang, Ju; Wang, Dibo

    2018-03-01

    SF6 is extensively used in electrical applications because of its excellent insulation and arc extinguishing performance, but its strong greenhouse effect has negative impact on the atmosphere. The excellent performance of C3F7CN in greenhouse effect, insulation ability, safety, and thermal stability has been demonstrated, indicating that this compound can replace SF6 in electrical applications. However, little information is available on the compatibility of C3F7CN with metals, such as copper and aluminum, in devices. Material compatibility between new gas mixtures and materials used in Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS) should be investigated to determine the long-term behavior of materials. In this paper, dissociative adsorption of C3F7CN on Cu (1 1 1) and Al (1 1 1) surfaces were analyzed based on density functional theory. Adsorption energy, charge transfer, density of states, and electron density difference of interaction between C3F7CN and two metals were analyzed. It was found that the adsorption energy of C3F7CN adsorbed on Cu (1 1 1) and Al (1 1 1) is both below 0.8 eV. This value indicates that the interaction between them is not very strong. In addition, the dissociation reaction path of gas molecules after adsorption requires certain activation energy. Therefore, C3F7CN and copper or aluminum have certain compatibility and the compatibility of C3F7CN with aluminum is better than that of copper. Related results provide a reference for predicting the aging mechanism of equipment and the selection or modification of major materials for equipment.

  13. Application of the base catalyzed decomposition process to treatment of PCB-contaminated insulation and other materials associated with US Navy vessels. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, A.J.; Zacher, A.H.; Gano, S.R.

    1996-09-01

    The BCD process was applied to dechlorination of two types of PCB-contaminated materials generated from Navy vessel decommissioning activities at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard: insulation of wool felt impregnated with PCB, and PCB-containing paint chips/debris from removal of paint from metal surfaces. The BCD process is a two-stage, low-temperature chemical dehalogenation process. In Stage 1, the materials are mixed with sodium bicarbonate and heated to 350 C. The volatilized halogenated contaminants (eg, PCBs, dioxins, furans), which are collected in a small volume of particulates and granular activated carbon, are decomposed by the liquid-phase reaction (Stage 2) in a stirred-tank reactor, using a high-boiling-point hydrocarbon oil as the reaction medium, with addition of a hydrogen donor, a base (NaOH), and a catalyst. The tests showed that treating wool felt insulation and paint chip wastes with Stage 2 on a large scale is feasible, but compared with current disposal costs for PCB-contaminated materials, using Stage 2 would not be economical at this time. For paint chips generated from shot/sand blasting, the solid-phase BCD process (Stage 1) should be considered, if paint removal activities are accelerated in the future.

  14. Environmental assessment of façade-building systems and thermal insulation materials for different climatic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra-Pérez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    In the European Union, the building sector accounts for more than 40% of the total energy consumption and environmental impacts, representing the area with the greatest potential for intervention. In addition to the existing policies that promote energy efficiency in buildings, the embodied energy and the environmental impacts contained in the building materials should be considered. In the case of the construction of insulation façade systems, the environmental implications are different dep...

  15. Metal-insulator-metal diodes with sub-nanometre surface roughness for energy-harvesting applications

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, A.A.

    2017-07-27

    For ambient radio-frequency (RF) energy harvesting, the available power levels are quite low, and it is highly desirable that the rectifying diodes do not consume any power at all. Contrary to semiconducting diodes, a tunnelling diode – also known as a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diode – can provide zero-bias rectification, provided the two metals have different work functions. This could result in a complete passive rectenna system. Despite great potential, MIM diodes have not been investigated much in the GHz-frequency regime due to challenging nano-fabrication requirements. In this work, we investigate zero-bias MIM diodes for RF energy-harvesting applications. We studied the surface roughness issue for the bottom metal of the MIM diode for various deposition techniques such as sputtering, atomic layer deposition (ALD) and electron-beam (e-beam) evaporation for crystalline metals as well as for an amorphous alloy, namely ZrCuAlNi. A surface roughness of sub-1nm has been achieved for both the crystalline metals as well as the amorphous alloy, which is vital for the reliable operation of the MIM diode. An MIM diode comprising of a Ti-ZnO-Pt combination yields a zero-bias responsivity of 0.25V−1 and a dynamic resistance of 1200Ω. Complete RF characterisation has been performed by integrating the MIM diode with a coplanar waveguide transmission line. The input impedance varies from 100Ω to 50Ω in the frequency range of between 2GHz and 10GHz, which can be easily matched to typical antenna impedances in this frequency range. Finally, a rectified DC voltage of 4.7mV is obtained for an incoming RF power of 0.4W at zero bias. These preliminary results of zero-bias rectification indicate that complete, passive rectennas (a rectifier and antenna combination) are feasible with further optimisation of MIM devices.

  16. Optimization of Process Variables for Insulation Coating of Conductive Particles by Response Surface Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Chol-Ho [Sangji University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The powder core, conventionally fabricated from iron particles coated with insulator, showed large eddy current loss under high frequency, because of small specific resistance. To overcome the eddy current loss, the increase in the specific resistance of powder cores was needed. In this study, copper oxide coating onto electrically conductive iron particles was performed using a planetary ball mill to increase the specific resistance. Coating factors were optimized by the Response surface methodology. The independent variables were the CuO mass fraction, mill revolution number, coating time, ball size, ball mass and sample mass. The response variable was the specific resistance. The optimization of six factors by the fractional factorial design indicated that CuO mass fraction, mill revolution number, and coating time were the key factors. The levels of these three factors were selected by the three-factors full factorial design and steepest ascent method. The steepest ascent method was used to approach the optimum range for maximum specific resistance. The Box-Behnken design was finally used to analyze the response surfaces of the screened factors for further optimization. The results of the Box-Behnken design showed that the CuO mass fraction and mill revolution number were the main factors affecting the efficiency of coating process. As the CuO mass fraction increased, the specific resistance increased. In contrast, the specific resistance increased with decreasing mill revolution number. The process optimization results revealed a high agreement between the experimental and the predicted data (Adj-R2=0.944). The optimized CuO mass fraction, mill revolution number, and coating time were 0.4, 200 rpm, and 15 min, respectively. The measured value of the specific resistance of the coated pellet under the optimized conditions of the maximum specific resistance was 530 kΩ·cm.

  17. Optimization of Process Variables for Insulation Coating of Conductive Particles by Response Surface Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Chol-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The powder core, conventionally fabricated from iron particles coated with insulator, showed large eddy current loss under high frequency, because of small specific resistance. To overcome the eddy current loss, the increase in the specific resistance of powder cores was needed. In this study, copper oxide coating onto electrically conductive iron particles was performed using a planetary ball mill to increase the specific resistance. Coating factors were optimized by the Response surface methodology. The independent variables were the CuO mass fraction, mill revolution number, coating time, ball size, ball mass and sample mass. The response variable was the specific resistance. The optimization of six factors by the fractional factorial design indicated that CuO mass fraction, mill revolution number, and coating time were the key factors. The levels of these three factors were selected by the three-factors full factorial design and steepest ascent method. The steepest ascent method was used to approach the optimum range for maximum specific resistance. The Box-Behnken design was finally used to analyze the response surfaces of the screened factors for further optimization. The results of the Box-Behnken design showed that the CuO mass fraction and mill revolution number were the main factors affecting the efficiency of coating process. As the CuO mass fraction increased, the specific resistance increased. In contrast, the specific resistance increased with decreasing mill revolution number. The process optimization results revealed a high agreement between the experimental and the predicted data (Adj-R2=0.944). The optimized CuO mass fraction, mill revolution number, and coating time were 0.4, 200 rpm, and 15 min, respectively. The measured value of the specific resistance of the coated pellet under the optimized conditions of the maximum specific resistance was 530 kΩ·cm

  18. Translucent insulating building envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Jens Eg

    1997-01-01

    A new type of translucent insulating material has been tested. This material is made of Celulose-Acetat and have a honey-comb structure. The material has a high solar transmittance and is highly insulating. The material is relatively cheap to produce. Danish Title: Translucent isolerende klimaskærm....

  19. Ultrafast Optical Excitation of a Persistent Surface-State Population in the Topological Insulator Bi2Se3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobota, Jonathan

    2012-03-14

    Using femtosecond time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we investigated the nonequilibrium dynamics of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. We studied p-type Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, in which the metallic Dirac surface state and bulk conduction bands are unoccupied. Optical excitation leads to a meta-stable population at the bulk conduction band edge, which feeds a nonequilibrium population of the surface state persisting for >10 ps. This unusually long-lived population of a metallic Dirac surface state with spin texture may present a channel in which to drive transient spin-polarized currents.

  20. Acoustic parameters of sound insulating materials investigation in small reverberation rooms on rubber plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.А. Вишневський

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available  The mathematical model of the mean loading allocated along the arc of a touch of a roller and a sample is submitted. The mean contact area of the roller and the sample and the mean loading during realization of the experiment is defined. The generalized model of an abrasive wear of surfaces of materials is constructed, at not hard-mounted abrasive particles.

  1. Retrospective Analysis of NIST Standard Reference Material 1450, Fibrous Glass Board, for Thermal Insulation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarr, Robert R; Heckert, N Alan; Leigh, Stefan D

    2014-01-01

    Thermal conductivity data acquired previously for the establishment of Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1450, Fibrous Glass Board, as well as subsequent renewals 1450a, 1450b, 1450c, and 1450d, are re-analyzed collectively and as individual data sets. Additional data sets for proto-1450 material lots are also included in the analysis. The data cover 36 years of activity by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in developing and providing thermal insulation SRMs, specifically high-density molded fibrous-glass board, to the public. Collectively, the data sets cover two nominal thicknesses of 13 mm and 25 mm, bulk densities from 60 kg·m−3 to 180 kg·m−3, and mean temperatures from 100 K to 340 K. The analysis repetitively fits six models to the individual data sets. The most general form of the nested set of multilinear models used is given in the following equation: λ(ρ,T)=a0+a1ρ+a2T+a3T3+a4e−(T−a5a6)2where λ(ρ,T) is the predicted thermal conductivity (W·m−1·K−1), ρ is the bulk density (kg·m−3), T is the mean temperature (K) and ai (for i = 1, 2, … 6) are the regression coefficients. The least squares fit results for each model across all data sets are analyzed using both graphical and analytic techniques. The prevailing generic model for the majority of data sets is the bilinear model in ρ and T. λ(ρ,T)=a0+a1ρ+a2T One data set supports the inclusion of a cubic temperature term and two data sets with low-temperature data support the inclusion of an exponential term in T to improve the model predictions. Physical interpretations of the model function terms are described. Recommendations for future renewals of SRM 1450 are provided. An Addendum provides historical background on the origin of this SRM and the influence of the SRM on external measurement programs. PMID:26601034

  2. Surface conditions for the observation of metal-insulator transitions on Cr-doped V 2O 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, David S.; Metcalf, Patricia; Henrich, Victor E.

    2000-03-01

    Chromium-doped vanadium sesquioxide, (V 1- xCr x) 2O 3, displays two metal-insulator transitions with temperature for 0.005< x<0.0179. The high-temperature (˜300 K) transition occurs in a temperature range that is of interest for catalysis; the physics of the transition is also of fundamental interest. However, so far that transition has been observed only on cleaved samples. Due to the difficulty in obtaining doped single crystals for cleaving, alternate preparation methods are required. (V 0.985Cr 0.015) 2O 3 (0001) was prepared both by scraping with a diamond file and by ion bombardment followed by annealing in oxygen; the resulting surfaces were examined by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for evidence of the high-temperature metal-insulator transition. Although resistance measurements across the transition temperature showed that a transition had taken place in the bulk, no changes were observed in photoemission spectra of scraped samples; they appeared insulating both above and below the transition. Annealed samples, on the other hand, displayed a clear increase in the density of states at EF, as well as changes in core-level XPS consistent with a metallic surface, as the temperature was lowered through the transition. Sharp (1×1) low energy electron diffraction (LEED) patterns were obtained from annealed surfaces, and Auger spectra showed no evidence of chromium segregation following annealing.

  3. Surfaces and interfaces of electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Brillson, Leonard J

    2012-01-01

    An advanced level textbook covering geometric, chemical, and electronic structure of electronic materials, and their applications to devices based on semiconductor surfaces, metal-semiconductor interfaces, and semiconductor heterojunctions. Starting with the fundamentals of electrical measurements on semiconductor interfaces, it then describes the importance of controlling macroscopic electrical properties by atomic-scale techniques. Subsequent chapters present the wide range of surface and interface techniques available to characterize electronic, optical, chemical, and structural propertie

  4. EB surface sterilization of food material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, H.; Mizutani, A.; Kato, K.; Nishikimi, T.; Taniguchi, S.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a food irradiation with low energetic, lower than 300keV, electrons (so-called SOFT ELECTRON) as a rather new method of food sterilization. It is also a physical sterilization method, and free from the problems mentioned above. Low energetic electrons have small penetration power (50-200micron) through raw materials, and by selecting a proper energy of electrons we can sterilize only the surfaces or skins of target materials

  5. Dynamic Test Method Based on Strong Electromagnetic Pulse for Electromagnetic Shielding Materials with Field-Induced Insulator-Conductor Phase Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Zhao, Min; Wang, Qingguo

    2018-01-01

    In order to measure the pulse shielding performance of materials with the characteristic of field-induced insulator-conductor phase transition when materials are used for electromagnetic shielding, a dynamic test method was proposed based on a coaxial fixture. Experiment system was built by square pulse source, coaxial cable, coaxial fixture, attenuator, and oscilloscope and insulating components. S11 parameter of the test system was obtained, which suggested that the working frequency ranges from 300 KHz to 7.36 GHz. Insulating performance is good enough to avoid discharge between conductors when material samples is exposed in the strong electromagnetic pulse field up to 831 kV/m. This method is suitable for materials with annular shape, certain thickness and the characteristic of field-induced insulator-conductor phase transition to get their shielding performances of strong electromagnetic pulse.

  6. Development of a readily recyclable sound insulation material made of polyester fibers. Application of the PET fibers from plastic bottles; Recycle kanona jidoshayo polyester sei kyuon zairyo no kaihatsu. Shiyozumi pet bottle zai no insulator zai eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, K.; Watanabe, K.; Sugawara, H.; Minemura, Y. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have developed new polyester sound-absorbing materials made of fine and modified-cross-section polyester fabric. They provide noticeably higher sound-absorbing performance than traditional materials. Another feature of the new materials is their excellent recyclability since they are made of polyester. Application of the new materials to the dash silencer and the floor carpeting produced a great improvement in sound-insulation performance with less weight. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Argon Cluster Sputtering Source for ToF-SIMS Depth Profiling of Insulating Materials: High Sputter Rate and Accurate Interfacial Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhaoying; Liu, Bingwen; Zhao, Evan; Jin, Ke; Du, Yingge; Neeway, James J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Hongliang; Hong, Mina; Le Guernic, Solenne; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Wang, Fuyi; Zhu, Zihua

    2015-08-01

    For the first time, the use of an argon cluster ion sputtering source has been demonstrated to perform superiorly relative to traditional oxygen and cesium ion sputtering sources for ToF-SIMS depth profiling of insulating materials. The superior performance has been attributed to effective alleviation of surface charging. A simulated nuclear waste glass, SON68, and layered hole-perovskite oxide thin films were selected as model systems due to their fundamental and practical significance. Our study shows that if the size of analysis areas is same, the highest sputter rate of argon cluster sputtering can be 2-3 times faster than the highest sputter rates of oxygen or cesium sputtering. More importantly, high quality data and high sputter rates can be achieved simultaneously for argon cluster sputtering while this is not the case for cesium and oxygen sputtering. Therefore, for deep depth profiling of insulating samples, the measurement efficiency of argon cluster sputtering can be about 6-15 times better than traditional cesium and oxygen sputtering. Moreover, for a SrTiO3/SrCrO3 bi-layer thin film on a SrTiO3 substrate, the true 18O/16O isotopic distribution at the interface is better revealed when using the argon cluster sputtering source. Therefore, the implementation of an argon cluster sputtering source can significantly improve the measurement efficiency of insulating materials, and thus can expand the application of ToF-SIMS to the study of glass corrosion, perovskite oxide thin films, and many other potential systems.

  8. The Wick-Concept for Thermal Insulation of Cold Piping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koverdynsky, Vit; Korsgaard, Vagn; Rode, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    the wick-concept in either of two variations: the self-drying or the self-sealing system. Experiments have been carried out using different variations of the two systems to investigate the conditions for exploiting the drying capabilities of the systems, and the results are presented. The results show......The wick-concept for thermal insulation of cold piping is based on capillary suction of a fiber fabric to remove excess water from the pipe surface by transporting it to the outer surface of the insulation. From the surface of the insulation jacket, the water will evaporate to the ambient air....... This will prevent long-term accumulation of moisture in the insulation material. The wick keeps the hydrophobic insulation dry, allowing it to maintain its thermal performance. The liquid moisture is kept only in the wick fabric. This article presents the principle of operation of cold pipe insulation using...

  9. Thermal conductivity: recent developments on insulating and new materials; La conductivite thermique: developpements recents sur les isolants et les materiaux nouveaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This workshop organized by the thermo-kinetics section of the French society of thermal engineers deals with recent developments concerning insulating, dielectric and composite materials. The seven papers presented during this workshop concern the methods and results of thermal conductivity measurements performed in these materials and the possible applications of these materials in aerospace industry (carbon foams, ceramic-based composite materials), civil engineering (glazing materials, aerogels), power electronics (dielectric thin films, ceramics), and in other industries (heat resistant and thermal insulating materials). (J.S.)

  10. Surface potential measurement of the insulator with secondary electron caused by negative ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Toyota, Yoshitaka; Nagumo, Syoji; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo; Sakai, Shigeki; Tanjyo, Masayasu; Matsuda, Kohji.

    1994-01-01

    Ion implantation has the merit of the good controllability of implantation profile and low temperature process, and has been utilized for the impurity introduction in LSI production. However, positive ion implantation is carried out for insulator or insulated conductor substrates, their charged potential rises, which is a serious problem. As the requirement for them advanced, charge compensation method is not the effective means for resolving it. The negative ion implantation in which charging is little was proposed. When the experiment on the negative ion implantation into insulated conductors was carried out, it was verified that negative ion implantation is effective as the implantation process without charging. The method of determining the charged potential of insulators at the time of negative ion implantation by paying attention to the energy distribution of the secondary electrons emitted from substrates at the time was devised. The energy analyzer for measuring the energy distribution of secondary electrons was made, and the measurement of the charged potential of insulators was carried out. The principle of the measurement, the measuring system and the experimental results are reported. (K.I.)

  11. Spectroscopy of Icy Moon Surface Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, J. B.

    2010-06-01

    Remote sensing of icy objects in the outer solar system relies upon availability of appropriate laboratory measurements. Surface deposits of specific substances often provide our most direct route to understanding interior composition, thereby informing theories of endogenic surface modification, exogenic surface processing and processes involving exchange of material with the interiors. Visible to near-infrared reflectance spectra of properly prepared compounds are required to enable retrieval of surface abundances through linear and nonlinear mixture analysis applied to spacecraft observations of icy bodies. This chapter describes the techniques, conditions and approaches necessary to provide reference spectra of use to theoretical models of icy satellite surface compositions, and summarizes the current state of knowledge represented in the published literature.

  12. Various scenarios of metal-insulator transition in strongly correlated materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jan; Anisimov, V.I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 523, 8-9 (2011), 682-688 ISSN 0003-3804 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/10/0284 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : electronic correlations * metal-insulator transition * dynamical mean-field theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.841, year: 2011

  13. Charge Storage, Conductivity and Charge Profiles of Insulators As Related to Spacecraft Charging

    OpenAIRE

    Dennison, JR; Frederickson, A. R.; Swaminathan, Prasanna

    2003-01-01

    Dissipation of charges built up near the surface of insulators due to space environment interaction is central to understanding spacecraft charging. Conductivity of insulating materials is key to determine how accumulated charge will distribute across the spacecraft and how rapidly charge imbalance will dissipate. To understand these processes requires knowledge of how charge is deposited within the insulator, the mechanisms for charge trapping and charge transport within the insulator, and h...

  14. Spacecraft charging investigation for the CTS project. [electric insulator surface tests by electron bombardment for Communications Technology Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.; Lovell, R. R.; Gore, V.

    1975-01-01

    Results to date are presented for a program of analytical and experimental investigations to assess the impact of discharge pulses from spacecraft surfaces in the joint Canadian-American Communications Technology Satellite (CTS). All insulator surfaces tested experienced visible discharges when subjected to an electron beam with energy greater than 10 keV. Discharge rate was found to be a function of current flux. The deployable solar array sample experienced discharges under bombardment from the cell or kapton side. There was no measurable cell performance degradation due to the discharges.

  15. Liquid-crystal indicators for temperature monitoring at the surface of pipeline insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonarev, M.G.; Igon'kin, E.L.; Sidel'nikova, G.A.; Chernyshev, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    The design and specifications of cholesteric type liquid-crystal indicators used for temperature monitoring at NPP an TPP pipeline insulators if temperature deviation makes up ± 1 deg C, are considered. The liquid-crystal indicators operate in the temperature range from room temperature to 200-250 deg C

  16. Self-assembled diacetylene molecular wire polymerization on an insulating hexagonal boron nitride (0001) surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makarova, Marina; Okawa, Y.; Verveniotis, E.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Joachim, Ch.; Aono, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 39 (2016), 1-8, č. článku 395303. ISSN 0957-4484 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : molecular self-assembly * insulating substrate * molecular electronics * polydiacetylene Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2016

  17. Trigger of the ubiquitous surface band bending in 3D topological insulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantzeskakis, E.; Ramankutty, S.V.; de Jong, N.; Huang, Y.K.; Pan, Y.; Tytarenko, A.; Radovic, M.; Plumb, N.C.; Shi, M.; Varykhalov, A.; de Visser, A.; van Heumen, E.; Golden, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    The main scientific activity in the field of topological insulators (TIs) consists of determining their electronic structure by means of magnetotransport and electron spectroscopy with a view to devices based on topological transport. There is, however, a caveat in this approach. There are

  18. Material surface modification for first wall protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The elements and strategy of a program to develop low Z surfaces for tokamak reactors is described. The development of low Z coated limiters is selected as an interim goal. Candidate materials were selected from the elements: Be, B, Al, Ti, V, C, O, N and their compounds. The effect of low energy erosion on surface morphology is shown for Be, TiC and VBe 12 . The tradeoffs in coating design are described. Stress analysis results for TiB 2 coated POCO graphite limiters for ORNL's ISX-B tokamak are given

  19. Surface analysis methods in materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Sexton, Brett; Smart, Roger

    1992-01-01

    The idea for this book stemmed from a remark by Philip Jennings of Murdoch University in a discussion session following a regular meeting of the Australian Surface Science group. He observed that a text on surface analysis and applica­ tions to materials suitable for final year undergraduate and postgraduate science students was not currently available. Furthermore, the members of the Australian Surface Science group had the research experience and range of coverage of sur­ face analytical techniques and applications to provide a text for this purpose. A of techniques and applications to be included was agreed at that meeting. The list intended readership of the book has been broadened since the early discussions, particularly to encompass industrial users, but there has been no significant alter­ ation in content. The editors, in consultation with the contributors, have agreed that the book should be prepared for four major groups of readers: - senior undergraduate students in chemistry, physics, metallur...

  20. Thermal insulation. Non-utilized energy need not be generated. Four rules for a successful thermal insulation by means of building insulation; Waermedaemmung. Energie, die nicht gebraucht wird, muss man nicht erzeugen. Vier Regeln fuer erfolgreichen Waermeschutz durch Gebaeudedaemmung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patschke, Markus [3E-Consult, Nordkirchen (Germany); Drewer, Arnold [IpeG-Institut, Paderborn (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    The heat supply of buildings causes nearly one third of the energy consumption of an industrialized country. In 2006, the climate-adjusted heat consumption of private households in Germany amounted nearly 600 billion kWh. This consumption caused more than 167 million tons of CO{sub 2}. Heat insulation measures in buildings are required for all heat-transferring enveloping surface. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on four fundamental rules for a cost-efficient building insulation: (a) Only heated rooms should be insulated thermally; (b) Location and thermal insulation of cavities; (c) Selection of a suitable insulating material; (d) Consideration of an economic sustainability.

  1. Spin-related tunneling through a nanostructured electric-magnetic barrier on the surface of a topological insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenhua; Li, Jun

    2012-01-27

    We investigate quantum tunneling through a single electric and/or magnetic barrier on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator. We found that (1) the propagating behavior of electrons in such system exhibits a strong dependence on the direction of the incident electron wavevector and incident energy, giving the possibility to construct a wave vector and/or energy filter; (2) the spin orientation can be tuned by changing the magnetic barrier structure as well as the incident angles and energies.PACS numbers: 72.25.Dc; 73.20.-r; 73.23.-b; 75.70.-i.

  2. Thermal insulation research plan for the Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) materials program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fine, H.A.

    1986-08-01

    This report documents both the process and the output of the process of establishing a peer review panel primarily from the private sector to suggest research and development activities appropriate for government sponsorship through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program on the subject of thermal insulation. We expect to use information and guidance from the document during the federal budgetary process to allow more informed decision making. All related results of that budgetary decision making will affect what the DOE or Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) can and will sponsor during this or subsequent years through detailed decisions of DOE and ORNL program managers.

  3. Plasmonics in Topological Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ping Lai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With strong spin-orbit coupling, topological insulators have an insulating bulk state, characterized by a band gap, and a conducting surface state, characterized by a Dirac cone. Plasmons in topological insulators show high frequency-tunability in the mid-infrared and terahertz spectral regions with transverse spin oscillations, also called “spin-plasmons”. This paper presents a discussion and review of the developments in this field from the fundamental theory of plasmons in bulk, thin-film, and surface-magnetized topological insulators to the techniques of plasmon excitation and future applications.

  4. Magnetic properties of Martian surface material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargraves, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The hypothesis that the magnetic properties of the Martian surface material are due to the production of a magnetic phase in the clay mineral nontronite by transient shock heating is examined. In the course of the investigation a magnetic material is produced with rather unusual properties. Heating from 900 C to 1000 C, of natural samples of nontronite leads first to the production of what appears to be Si doped maghemite gamma (-Fe2O3). Although apparently metastable, the growth of gamma -Fe2O3 at these temprtures is unexpected, and its relative persistence of several hours at 1000 C is most surprising. Continued annealing of this material for longer periods promote the crystallization of alpha Fe2O3 and cristobalite (high temperature polymorph of SiO2). All available data correlate this new magnetic material with the cristobalite hence our naming it magnetic ferri cristobalite. Formation of this magnetic cristobalite, however, may require topotactic growth from a smectite precursor.

  5. Outdoor polymeric insulators long-term exposed to HVDC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerqvist, T.; Vlastos, A.E. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    Field experience from outdoor polymeric insulators exposed to HVDC under natural contamination conditions is presented. This paper summarizes the peak leakage current statistics, the hydrophobicity and the surface material conditions studied by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The results show a strong interrelation between the surface conditions and the performance with respect to leakage currents. Moreover, the results show that the surface conditions and the performance of the insulators exposed to HVDC are rather similar to those of the insulators exposed to HVAC.

  6. Colloquium 3: Thermal insulation materials in construction and in high-temperature plants. Lectures; Kolloquium 3: Waermedaemmstoffe im Bauwesen und in Hochtemperaturanlagen. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, E.; Gross, U.; Walter, G. [comps.

    1999-07-01

    Colloquium 3, ''Thermal insulation materials in construction and in high-temperature plants'' focused, for one thing, on the inter-relationships between the development of thermal insulation materials for construction and high-temperature applications and the development of processes and plants and, for another, on the standards of and amendments to the thermal protection ordinance. Calcium silicate and Silcapor as a thermal protection material and a high-temperature thermal insulant, respectively, are dealt with inter alia. The use of thermal insulants in industrial furnaces and different methods for measuring thermal conductivity are described. Further topics are the elements of the energy conservation ordinance being drafted, and thermal-insulation construction materials such as bricks and foam mortar. Ten papers are individually listed in the Energy database. (orig.) [German] Im Mittelpunkt des Kolloquium 3 ''Waermedaemmstoffe im Bauwesen und in Hochtemperaturanlagen'' stehen die wechselseitigen Zusammenhaenge zwischen der Entwicklung von Waermedaemmstoffen fuer das Bauwesen und die Hochtemperaturanwendung einerseits und der Prozess-und Anlagenentwicklung anderseits sowie die Normung und die Novellierung der Waermeschutzverordnung. Es wird u.a. auf den Waermedaemmstoff Calciumsilicat eingegangen ebensowie auf Silcapor als Hochtemperaturd ammstoff. Der Einsatz von Waermedaemmstoffen in Industrieoefen sowie die unterschiedlichen Messmethoden der Waermeleitfaehigkeit werden beschrieben. Weitere Themen sind die Grundlagen der kuenftigen Energiesparverordnung sowie waermedaemmende Baustoffe wie Ziegel und Porenbeton. Fuer die Datenbank Energy wurden zehn Arbeiten separat aufgenommen.

  7. Development of polystyrene-geopolymer composite for thermal insulating material and its properties with special regards to flame resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucsi, G.; Szabó, R.; Nagy, S.; Bohács, K.; Gombkötő, I.; Debreczeni, Á.

    2017-10-01

    As a first part of the research, systematic experimental series were conducted in order to develop an appropriate fly ash-based geopolymer binder focusing on the workability of the paste. In these series, the NaOH molar ratio and water glass/NaOH ratio were investigated and the fineness of the fly ash was optimized presented in a recent paper. Based on these results the effect of metakaolin on the mechanical properties was studied. After developing the appropriate binder, experimental series were carried out using ground polystyrene as light aggregate in various concentration (from 30 V/V% up to 98 V/V%) and geopolymer as a binder in order to develop a heat insulating material. Compressive and flexural strength, specimen density, flammability, freeze-thaw resistance were determined in order to characterize the composite product. As a result of the experimental investigation, it was found that the flexural strength of the composite was found to be ~400 kPa which is as high as the original polystyrene heat insulating panel. Additionally, the flammability was much better than the original pure PS product, the sample was not ignited even at higher PS content (90%). Furthermore, the freeze-thaw resistance of the composite improved compared with the neat geopolymer.

  8. Performance of Topological Insulator Interconnects

    OpenAIRE

    Philip, Timothy M.; Hirsbrunner, Mark R.; Park, Moon Jip; Gilbert, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    The poor performance of copper interconnects at the nanometer scale calls for new material solutions for continued scaling of integrated circuits. We propose the use of three dimensional time-reversal-invariant topological insulators (TIs), which host backscattering-protected surface states, for this purpose. Using semiclassical methods, we demonstrate that nanoscale TI interconnects have a resistance 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than copper interconnects and graphene nanoribbons at the nano...

  9. Controlling surface charge and spin density oscillations by Dirac plasmon interaction in thin topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyli, M. Ameen; Hrtoň, M.; Nechaev, I. A.; Nikitin, A. Y.; Echenique, P. M.; Silkin, V. M.; Aizpurua, J.; Esteban, R.

    2018-03-01

    Thin topological insulator (TI) films support optical and acoustic plasmonic modes characterized by effective net charge or net spin density, respectively. We combine many-body and electromagnetic calculations to study how these modes can be selectively excited at films and nanodisks at infrared and THz frequencies. We first discuss the excitation of propagating plasmons in a thin film by a point dipolar source. We emphasize how changing the distance between the dipolar source and the film allows us to control the relative strength of the acoustic and optical plasmons and thus to excite net-spin or net-charge waves on demand. The acoustic and optical modes in a nanodisk structure can be efficiently tuned by changing the size of the disk or by applying electrostatic gating. Furthermore, these modes can be confined to regions of dimensions much smaller than the wavelength. The control of the excitation of acoustic and optical modes indicates that thin topological insulators are a promising system to manipulate the spin and charge properties of the plasmonic response, with potential applications in fast, compact, and electrically-controlled spintronic devices.

  10. Effect Of Fly Ash Filler To Dielectric Properties Of The Insulator Material Of Silicone Rubber And Epoxy Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhlas Kitta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently many operated the coal fired power plant to meet the energy needs of the worlds electricity. But the coal fired power plant produces waste that can pollute the environment such as fly ash and bottom ash so requires management to not cause environmental problems because coal fly ash classified as a hazardous waste. Fly ash has a particle size that is very smooth and of some literature research done previously fly ash coal containing silica SiO2 alumina Al2O3 titanium dioxide TiO2 magnesium oxide MgO and zinc oxide ZnO are potentially as filler that are likely to be used as a mixture of silicone rubber and epoxy resin for electrical insulators. So this research theme was engineering insulation materials by utilizing waste coal fly ash. The purpose of this study was to obtain performance characteristics of waste coal fly ash as filler in silicon rubber and epoxy resin. To achieve these objectives the activities that have been done is examined the effects of the use of fly ash as filler in silicone rubber material and epoxy resin. Parameters measured were dielectric strength and relative permittivity. The result of this research is the dielectric strength of silicone rubber rose with increasing quantity of fly ash. Conversely in epoxy resin dielectric strength decreases with increasing quantity of fly ash. Furthermore the measurement results relative permittivity where the value of the relative permittivity of silicon rubber swell if it is filled with fly ash as well as epoxy resin which has a value of permittivity relative to the concentration of fly ash filler material is linear.

  11. Polymer-Reinforced, Non-Brittle, Lightweight Cryogenic Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The primary application for cryogenic insulating foams will be fuel tank applications for fueling systems. It is crucial for this insulation to be incorporated into systems that survive vacuum and terrestrial environments. It is hypothesized that by forming an open-cell silica-reinforced polymer structure, the foam structures will exhibit the necessary strength to maintain shape. This will, in turn, maintain the insulating capabilities of the foam insulation. Besides mechanical stability in the form of crush resistance, it is important for these insulating materials to exhibit water penetration resistance. Hydrocarbon-terminated foam surfaces were implemented to impart hydrophobic functionality that apparently limits moisture penetration through the foam. During the freezing process, water accumulates on the surfaces of the foams. However, when hydrocarbon-terminated surfaces are present, water apparently beads and forms crystals, leading to less apparent accumulation. The object of this work is to develop inexpensive structural cryogenic insulation foam that has increased impact resistance for launch and ground-based cryogenic systems. Two parallel approaches will be pursued: a silica-polymer co-foaming technique and a post foam coating technique. Insulation characteristics, flexibility, and water uptake can be fine-tuned through the manipulation of the polyurethane foam scaffold. Silicate coatings for polyurethane foams and aerogel-impregnated polyurethane foams have been developed and tested. A highly porous aerogel-like material may be fabricated using a co-foam and coated foam techniques, and can insulate at liquid temperatures using the composite foam

  12. Characteristics of MOSFETs fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material formed by high-dose oxygen ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, H.W.; Pinizzotto, R.F.; Yuan, H.T.; Bellavance, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    By implanting a dose of 6 x 10 17 cm -2 of 32 O 2 + at 300 keV into a silicon wafer, a buried oxide layer is formed. Crystallinity of the silicon layer above the buried oxide layer is maintained by applying a high (>200 0 C) substrate temperature during the ion implantation process. A two-step anneal cycle is found to be adequate to form the insulating buried oxide layer and to repair the implantation damage in the silicon layer on top of the buried oxide. A surface electron mobility as high as 710 cm 2 /Vs has been measured in n-channel MOSFETs fabricated in a 0.5 μm-thick epitaxial layer grown on the buried oxide wafer. A minimum subthreshold current of about 10 pA per micron of channel width at Vsub(DS)=2 V has been measured. (author)

  13. Effect of Slow External Flow on Flame Spreading over Solid Material: Opposed Spreading over Polyethylene Wire Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, O.; Nishizawa, K.; Ito, K.; Olson, S. L.; Kashigawa, T.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of slow external flow on solid combustion is very important from the view of fire safety in space because the solid material in spacecraft is generally exposed to the low air flow for ventilation. Further, the effect of low external flow on fuel combustion is generally fundamental information for industrial combustion system, such as gas turbine, boiler incinerator and so on. However, it is difficult to study the effect of low external flow on solid combustion in normal gravity, because the buoyancy-induced flow strongly disturbs the flow field, especially for low flow velocity. In this research therefore, the effect of slow external flow on opposed flame spreading over polyethylene (PE) wire insulation have been investigated in microgravity. The microgravity environment was provided by Japan Microgravity Center (JAMIC) in Japan and KC-135 at NASA GRC. The tested flow velocity range is 0-30cm/s with different oxygen concentration and inert gas component.

  14. The thermal insulating materials and its coatings for underground piping; Los aislamientos termicos y sus recubrimientos para tuberias subterraneos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcido Lopez, Salvador [Aislantes Minerales, S. A. de C. V. Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    Energy Saving through the adequate selection and application of the thermal insulating materials, as well as its coatings for underground piping conducting fluids, both at high and at low temperature. The benefits are outlined at economical level for the investor as well as at ecological level (of vital importance today) and are observed as practical examples in industrial and commercial processes. [Espanol] Ahorro de energeticos mediante la adecuada seleccion y aplicacion de los aislamientos termicos, asi como de sus recubrimientos para tuberias subterraneas que conducen fluidos tanto en alta como en baja temperatura. Los beneficios son destacados tanto a nivel economico para el inversionista, como a nivel ecologico (de vital importancia en la actualidad), y son observados con ejemplos practicos en procesos industriales y comerciales.

  15. Heat conduction coefficient and coefficient of linear thermal expansion of electric insulation materials for superconducting magnetic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deev, V.I.; Sobolev, V.P.; Kruglov, A.B.; Pridantsev, A.I.

    1984-01-01

    Results of experimental investigation of heat conduction coefficient and coefficient of linear thermal expansion and thermal shrinkages of the STEF-1 textolite-glass widely used in superconducting magnetic systems as electric insulating and structural material are presented. Samples of two types have been died: sample axisa is perpendicular to a plae of fiberglass layers ad sample axis is parallel to a plane of fiberglass layers. Heat conduction coefficient was decreased almost a five times with temperature decrease from 300 up to 5K and was slightly dependent on a sample type. Temperature variation of linear dimensions in a sample of the first type occurs in twice as fast as compared to the sample of the second type

  16. Influence of iron on crystallization behavior and thermal stability of the insulating materials - porous calcium silicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Sonja; Yu, Donghong; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2017-01-01

    The properties of porous calcium silicate for high temperature insulation are strongly influenced by impurities. In this work we determine the influence of Fe3+ on the crystallization behavior and thermal stability of hydrothermally derived calcium silicate. We synthesize porous calcium silicate...... by XRD analysis. The thermal stability and compressive strength of the calcium silicates are seriously influenced by the changes of their crystal structure. Linear shrinkage of the reference sample is 1.3% at 1050°C, whereas the sample with Fe/Si =1.0% does by 30.4%. In conclusion, the presence of Fe3...... measurements reveal a pronounced decrease in the number of Q3 sites in the calcium silicate with an increase of Fe3+, and thereby lower the crystal fraction of xonotlite (Ca6Si6O17(OH)2) phase, and increase the crystal fractions of tobermorite(Ca5Si6O16(OH)2·4H2O) and calcite (CaCO3) phases, as confirmed...

  17. Life estimation I and C cable insulation materials based on accelerated life testing accelerated life testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhosh, T.V.; Ramteke, P.K.; Shrestha, N.B.; Ahirwar, A.K.; Gopika, V.

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated Iife tests are becoming increasingly popular in today's industry due to the need for obtaining life data quickly and reliably. Life testing of products under higher stress levels without introducing additional failure modes can provide significant savings of both time and money. Correct analysis of data gathered via such accelerated life testing will yield parameters and other information for the product's life under use stress conditions. To be of practical use in assessing the operational behaviour of cables in NPPs, laboratory ageing aims to mimic the type of degradation observed under operational conditions. Conditions of testing therefore need to be carefully chosen to ensure that the degradation mechanism occurring in the accelerated tests are similar to those which occur in service. This paper presents the results of an investigation in which the elongation-at-break (EAB) measurements were carried on a typical control cable to predict the mean life at service conditions. A low voltage polyvinyl chloride (PVC) insulated and PVC sheathed control cable, used in NPP instrumentation and control (I and C) applications, was subjected thermal ageing at three elevated temperatures

  18. Switchable and responsive surfaces and materials for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Johnathan

    2015-01-01

    Surface modification of biomaterials can ultimately determine whether a material is accepted or rejected from the human body, and a responsive surface can further make the material ""smart"" and ""intelligent"". Switchable and Responsive Surfaces and Materials for Biomedical Applications outlines synthetic and biological materials that are responsive under different stimuli, their surface design and modification techniques, and applicability in regenerative medicine/tissue engineering,  drug delivery, medical devices, and biomedical diagnostics. Part one provides a detailed overview of swit

  19. Peierls instability as the insulating origin of the Na/Si(111)-(3 × 1) surface with a Na coverage of 2/3 monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myung Ho; Kwon, Se Gab; Jung, Sung Chul

    2018-03-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to investigate the insulating origin of the Na/Si(111)-(3 × 1) surface with a Na coverage of 2/3 monolayers. In the coverage definition, one monolayer refers to one Na atom per surface Si atom, so this surface contains an odd number of electrons (i.e., three Si dangling-bond electrons plus two Na electrons) per 3 × 1 unit cell. Interestingly, this odd-electron surface has been ascribed to a Mott-Hubbard insulator to account for the measured insulating band structure with a gap of about 0.8 eV. Here, we instead propose a Peierls instability as the origin of the experimental band gap. The concept of Peierls instability is fundamental in one-dimensional metal systems but has not been taken into account in previous studies of this surface. Our DFT calculations demonstrate that the linear chain structure of Si dangling bonds in this surface is energetically unstable with respect to a × 2 buckling modulation, and the buckling-induced band gap of 0.79 eV explains well the measured insulating nature.

  20. Density of loose-fill insulation material exposed to cyclic humidity conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    the granulated loose-fill material is exposed to a climate that is characterised as cyclic humidity conditions (a constant temperature and a relative humidity alternating between two predetermined constant relative humidity levels). A better understanding of the behaviour of granulated loose-fill material...

  1. Optical absorption and photocurrent enhancement in semi-insulating gallium arsenide by femtosecond laser pulse surface microstructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen-Yu; Song, Zhi-Qiang; Shi, Wang-Zhou; Zhao, Quan-Zhong

    2014-05-19

    We observe an enhancement of optical absorption and photocurrent from semi-insulating gallium arsenide (SI-GaAs) irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses. The SI-GaAs wafer is treated by a regeneratively amplified Ti: Sapphire laser of 120 fs laser pulse at 800 nm wavelength. The laser ablation induced 0.74 μm periodic ripples, and its optical absorption-edge is shifted to a longer wavelength. Meanwhile, the steady photocurrent of irradiated SI-GaAs is found to enhance 50%. The electrical properties of samples are calibrated by van der Pauw method. It is found that femtosecond laser ablation causes a microscale anti-reflection coating surface which enhances the absorption and photoconductivity.

  2. Optimization of THz semi-insulating surface plasmon waveguide structures of GaSb/AlSb quantum cascade lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Park, Bum Doo; Yu, Jae Su [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    We designed and analyzed the semi-insulating surface plasmon waveguide structures of GaSb based quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) operating in the terahertz (THz) region of 2.6 - 6.5 THz using the finite element method. For improving the guiding property of THz QCL waveguide structures, a low threshold gain (g{sub th}) and a high optical confinement (Γ) could be achieved by optimizing the doping concentration and the thickness of plasma layer, the waveguide width, the substrate thickness, and the number of stages in active core region at various operating frequencies (2.6 - 6.5 THz). The effect of different substrates on the g{sub th} and Γ of THz QCL waveguide structures was also investigated.

  3. Single Dirac Cone Topological Surface State and Unusual Thermoelectric Property of Compounds from a New Topological Insulator Family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y

    2011-08-18

    Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) study on TlBiTe2 and TlBiSe2 from a Thallium-based III-V-VI2 ternary chalcogenides family revealed a single surface Dirac cone at the center of the Brillouin zone for both compounds. For TlBiSe{sub 2}, the large bulk gap ({approx} 200meV) makes it a topological insulator with better mechanical properties than the previous binary 3D topological insualtor family. For TlBiTe{sub 2}, the observed negative bulk gap indicates it as a semi-metal, rather than a narrow gap semi-conductor as conventionally believed; this semi-metality naturally explains its mysteriously small thermoelectric figure of merit comparing to other compounds in the family. Finally, the unique band structures of TlBiTe{sub 2} also suggests it as a candidate for topological superconductors.

  4. Correlation among ESDD, NSDD and leakage current in distribution insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, G.; Ramirez, I.; Montoya, J.I.

    2004-01-01

    The maintenance of distribution networks is more effective if the insulation contamination levels are known. The selection of measuring methods of pollution levels is then crucial. The relationship between several evaluation methods of pollution levels and the operating behaviour of several insulator profiles in a polluted zone is described. Laboratory tests were carried out to reproduce pollution levels found in the field. The quantity of non-soluble materials deposited over the insulators' surface affect the magnitude of the leakage current generated over a contaminated insulator. The relationship that defines leakage current with respect to the equivalent salt deposit density (ESDD) level for a specific non-soluble material level is almost linear, from which it is possible to develop a relationship between them for each insulator. (author)

  5. High insulation foam glass material from waste cathode ray tube panel glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Jakob; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Recycling of materials from obsolete equipment has become an important part of global waste management. With responsible collecting, dismantling and materials separation, majority of materials can be recycled. Cathode ray tube (CRT) glass represents as much as two-thirds of the weight of a TV...... parameters on the characteristics of foamed glass. CRT panel glass was crushed, milled and sieved below 63 m. Activated carbon used as a foaming agent and MnO2 as an ‘oxidizing’ agent were mixed with glass powders by means of a planetary ball mill. Foaming effect was observed in the temperature range...

  6. Research on vacuum insulation for cryocables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graneau, P.

    1974-01-01

    Vacuum insulation, as compared with solid insulation, simplifies the construction of both resistive or superconducting cryogenic cables. The common vacuum space in the cable can furnish thermal insulation between the environment and the cryogenic coolant, provide electrical insulation between conductors, and establish thermal isolation between go- and return-coolant streams. The differences between solid and vacuum high voltage insulation are discussed, and research on the design, materials selection, and testing of vacuum insulated cryogenic cables is described

  7. Topological Insulator Nanowires and Nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Kong, Desheng

    2010-01-13

    Recent theoretical calculations and photoemission spectroscopy measurements on the bulk Bi2Se3 material show that it is a three-dimensional topological insulator possessing conductive surface states with nondegenerate spins, attractive for dissipationless electronics and spintronics applications. Nanoscale topological insulator materials have a large surface-to-volume ratio that can manifest the conductive surface states and are promising candidates for devices. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of high quality single crystalline Bi2Se5 nanomaterials with a variety of morphologies. The synthesis of Bi 2Se5 nanowires and nanoribbons employs Au-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Nanowires, which exhibit rough surfaces, are formed by stacking nanoplatelets along the axial direction of the wires. Nanoribbons are grown along [1120] direction with a rectangular cross-section and have diverse morphologies, including quasi-one-dimensional, sheetlike, zigzag and sawtooth shapes. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies on nanoribbons show atomically smooth surfaces with ∼ 1 nm step edges, indicating single Se-Bi-Se-Bi-Se quintuple layers. STM measurements reveal a honeycomb atomic lattice, suggesting that the STM tip couples not only to the top Se atomic layer, but also to the Bi atomic layer underneath, which opens up the possibility to investigate the contribution of different atomic orbitais to the topological surface states. Transport measurements of a single nanoribbon device (four terminal resistance and Hall resistance) show great promise for nanoribbons as candidates to study topological surface states. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. Determining Surface Material Properties Using Satellite Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloudeman, C.; Gerace, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge of soil moisture content is necessary for drought monitoring, crop irrigation, and water runoff. Remote sensing techniques provide a more efficient alternative to traditional field measurements for determining soil moisture content. Thermal infrared sensors from Landsat, MODIS Aqua & Terra, and AVHRR MetOp A & B satellites were used to find thermal inertia, which is highly correlated with soil moisture. A diurnal cycle is converted from band effective radiance to Land Surface Temperature (LST) using Planck's Law for blackbody radiation and a modified split-window algorithm. The THERM model for finding expected LST is then used to determine the material properties. A second approach was used to calculate apparent thermal inertia and soil moisture content from day/ night pairs of LST. For this method, only the MODIS Aqua LST product was used.To this end, we have observed clear differences in moisture between areas of vegetation and sand and between different crop fields. Our results indicate that matching the observed data with the THERM model could be improved with increased satellite measurements.

  9. Effect of sheath material and reaction overpressure on Ag protrusions into the TiO2 insulation coating of Bi-2212 round wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, I.; Jiang, J.; Matras, M.; Trociewitz, U. P.; Lu, J.; Kametani, F.; Larbalestier, D.; Hellstrom, E.

    2017-12-01

    In order to develop a high current density in coils, Bi-2212 wires must be electrically discrete in tight winding packs. It is vital to use an insulating layer that is thin, fulfils the dielectric requirements, and can survive the heat treatment whose maximum temperature reaches 890 °C in oxygen. A thin (20-30 µm) ceramic coating could be better as the insulating layer compared to alumino-silicate braided fiber insulation, which is about 150 μm thick and reacts with the Ag sheathed Bi-2212 wire during heat treatment. At present, TiO2 seems to be the most viable ceramic material for such a thin insulation because it is chemically compatible with Ag and Bi-2212 and its sintering temperature is lower than the maximum temperature used for the Bi-2212 heat treatment. However, recent tests of a large Bi-2212 coil insulated only with TiO2 showed severe electrical shorting between the wires after over pressure heat treatment (OPHT). The origin of the shorting was frequent silver protrusions into the porous TiO2 layer that electrically connected adjacent Bi-2212 wires. To understand the mechanism of this unexpected behaviour, we investigated the effect of sheath material and hydrostatic pressure on Ag protrusions. We found that Ag protrusions occur only when TiO2-insulated Ag-0.2%Mg sheathed wire (Ag(Mg) wire) undergoes OPHT at 50 bar. No Ag protrusions were observed when the TiO2-insulated Ag(Mg) wire was processed at 1 bar. The TiO2-insulated wires sheathed with pure Ag that underwent 50 bar OPHT were also free from Ag protrusions. A key finding is that the Ag protrusions from the Ag(Mg) sheath actually contain no MgO, suggesting that local depletion of MgO facilitates local, heterogeneous deformation of the sheath under hydrostatic overpressure. Our study also suggests that predensifying the Ag(Mg) wire before insulating it with TiO2 and doing the final OPHT can potentially limit Ag protrusions.

  10. Disorder-driven metal-insulator-transition assisted by interband Coulomb repulsion in a surface transfer doped electron system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Sánchez-Royo, Juan

    2012-12-01

    The two-dimensional conducting properties of the Si(111) \\sqrt {3} \\times \\sqrt {3} surface doped by the charge surface transfer mechanism have been calculated in the frame of a semiclassical Drude-Boltzmann model considering donor scattering mechanisms. To perform these calculations, the required values of the carrier effective mass were extracted from reported angle-resolved photoemission results. The calculated doping dependence of the surface conductance reproduces experimental results reported and reveals an intricate metallization process driven by disorder and assisted by interband interactions. The system should behave as an insulator even at relatively low doping due to disorder. However, when doping increases, the system achieves to attenuate the inherent localization effects introduced by disorder and to conduct by percolation. The mechanism found by the system to conduct appears to be connected with the increasing of the carrier effective mass observed with doping, which seems to be caused by interband interactions involving the conducting band and deeper ones. This mass enhancement reduces the donor Bohr radius and, consequently, promotes the screening ability of the donor potential by the electron gas.

  11. Thermoelectric properties of 3D topological insulator: Direct observation of topological surface and its gap opened states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Stephane Yu; Huynh, Khuong Kim; Yoshino, Harukazu; Tu, Ngoc Han; Tanabe, Yoichi; Tanigaki, Katsumi

    2017-10-01

    We report thermoelectric (TE) properties of topological surface Dirac states (TSDS) in three-dimensional topological insulators (3D-TIs) purely isolated from the bulk by employing single-crystal B i2 -xS bxT e3 -yS ey films epitaxially grown in the ultrathin limit. Two intrinsic nontrivial topological surface states, a metallic TSDS (m-TSDS) and a gap-opened semiconducting topological state (g-TSDS), are successfully observed by electrical transport, and important TE parameters [electrical conductivity (σ), thermal conductivity (κ), and thermopower (S )] are accurately determined. Pure m-TSDS gives S =-44 μ V K-1 , which is an order of magnitude higher than those of the conventional metals and the value is enhanced to -212 μ V K-1 for g-TSDS. It is clearly shown that the semiclassical Boltzmann transport equation (SBTE) in the framework of constant relaxation time (τ) most frequently used for conventional analysis cannot be valid in 3D-TIs and strong energy dependent relaxation time τ(E ) beyond the Born approximation is essential for making intrinsic interpretations. Although σ is protected on the m-TSDS, κ is greatly influenced by the disorder on the topological surface, giving a dissimilar effect between topologically protected electronic conduction and phonon transport.

  12. Aharonov–Bohm interference in topological insulator nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Hailin

    2009-12-13

    Topological insulators represent unusual phases of quantum matter with an insulating bulk gap and gapless edges or surface states. The two-dimensional topological insulator phase was predicted in HgTe quantum wells and confirmed by transport measurements. Recently, Bi2 Se3 and related materials have been proposed as three-dimensional topological insulators with a single Dirac cone on the surface, protected by time-reversal symmetry. The topological surface states have been observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments. However, few transport measurements in this context have been reported, presumably owing to the predominance of bulk carriers from crystal defects or thermal excitations. Here we show unambiguous transport evidence of topological surface states through periodic quantum interference effects in layered single-crystalline Bi2 Se3 nanoribbons, which have larger surface-to-volume ratios than bulk materials and can therefore manifest surface effects. Pronounced Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the magnetoresistance clearly demonstrate the coherent propagation of two-dimensional electrons around the perimeter of the nanoribbon surface, as expected from the topological nature of the surface states. The dominance of the primary h/e oscillation, where h is Plancks constant and e is the electron charge, and its temperature dependence demonstrate the robustness of these states. Our results suggest that topological insulator nanoribbons afford promising materials for future spintronic devices at room temperature.

  13. Plasmon-enhanced electron-phonon coupling in Dirac surface states of the thin-film topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glinka, Yuri D., E-mail: ydglinka@mail.wvu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States); Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine); Babakiray, Sercan; Lederman, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States)

    2015-10-07

    Raman measurements of a Fano-type surface phonon mode associated with Dirac surface states (SS) in Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} topological insulator thin films allowed an unambiguous determination of the electron-phonon coupling strength in Dirac SS as a function of film thickness ranging from 2 to 40 nm. A non-monotonic enhancement of the electron-phonon coupling strength with maximum for the 8–10 nm thick films was observed. The non-monotonicity is suggested to originate from plasmon-phonon coupling which enhances electron-phonon coupling when free carrier density in Dirac SS increases with decreasing film thickness and becomes suppressed for thinnest films when anharmonic coupling between in-plane and out-of-plane phonon modes occurs. The observed about four-fold enhancement of electron-phonon coupling in Dirac SS of the 8–10 nm thick Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} films with respect to the bulk samples may provide new insights into the origin of superconductivity in this-type materials and their applications.

  14. Quantum Hall effect on top and bottom surface states of topological insulator (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimi, R; Tsukazaki, A; Kozuka, Y; Falson, J; Takahashi, K S; Checkelsky, J G; Nagaosa, N; Kawasaki, M; Tokura, Y

    2015-04-14

    The three-dimensional topological insulator is a novel state of matter characterized by two-dimensional metallic Dirac states on its surface. To verify the topological nature of the surface states, Bi-based chalcogenides such as Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, Sb2Te3 and their combined/mixed compounds have been intensively studied. Here, we report the realization of the quantum Hall effect on the surface Dirac states in (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3 films. With electrostatic gate-tuning of the Fermi level in the bulk band gap under magnetic fields, the quantum Hall states with filling factor ±1 are resolved. Furthermore, the appearance of a quantum Hall plateau at filling factor zero reflects a pseudo-spin Hall insulator state when the Fermi level is tuned in between the energy levels of the non-degenerate top and bottom surface Dirac points. The observation of the quantum Hall effect in three-dimensional topological insulator films may pave a way toward topological insulator-based electronics.

  15. Infrared response of the lateral PIN structure of a highly titanium-doped silicon-on-insulator material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhi-Hua; Cao Quan; Zuo Yu-Hua; Zheng Jun; Xue Chun-Lai; Cheng Bu-Wen; Wang Qi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The intermediate band (IB) solar cell is a promising third-generation solar cell that could possibly achieve very high efficiency above the Shockley—Queisser limit. One of the promising ways to synthesize IB material is to introduce heavily doped deep level impurities in conventional semiconductors. High-doped Ti with a concentration of 10 20 cm −3 –10 21 cm −3 in the p-type top Si layer of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate is obtained by ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements confirm that the Ti concentration exceeds the theoretical Mott limit, the main requirement for the formation of an impurity intermediate band. Increased absorption is observed in the infrared (IR) region by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technology. By using a lateral p-i-n structure, an obvious infrared response in a range of 1100 nm–2000 nm is achieved in a heavily Ti-doped SOI substrate, suggesting that the improvement on IR photoresponse is a result of increased absorption in the IR. The experimental results indicate that heavily Ti-implanted Si can be used as a potential kind of intermediate-band photovoltaic material to utilize the infrared photons of the solar spectrum. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  16. An experimental investigation on morphological, mechanical and thermal properties of date palm particles reinforced polyurethane composites as new ecological insulating materials in building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Oushabi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The rigid polyurethane (PU with apparent density about 40 kg/m3 was prepared using commercial polyols and polyisocyanate. This reference petrochemical formulation was modified with natural and renewable components such as date palm particles (DPP. The goal of this investigation was to reduce the environmental impacts, and reduce the cost of the petroleum based polyurethane (PU by obtaining polyurethane/date palm particles (PU-DPP composites with the heat insulating and mechanical properties similar or better as in the case of the reference material (PU. The composites were prepared with different (DPP loading; 5%, 10%, and 20% (by weight. The results showed that heat insulating and mechanical properties of the (PU-DPP composites were comparable with those from reference petrochemical formulation (PU. On the other hand these mechanical and thermal performances are competitive with those of other insulating material available on the market. Hence the (PU-DPP is a good candidate for development of efficient, low cost, and safe insulating materials.

  17. A New Generation of Building Insulation by Foaming Polymer Blend Materials with CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Arthur [Industrial Science & Technology Network, Inc., Lancaster, PA (United States); Domszy, Roman [Industrial Science & Technology Network, Inc., Lancaster, PA (United States); Yang, Jeff [Industrial Science & Technology Network, Inc., Lancaster, PA (United States)

    2016-03-30

    Advanced thermal insulation is among the most effective technologies in transforming our nation’s energy system and contributing to DOE’s stated goal of 50% less building energy consumption by 2030. The installation of an advanced thermal insulation would prevent energy waste without the need for any maintenance, and ISTN conservatively estimates that the commercialization of such a new technology would contribute to annual U.S. energy savings of 0.361 Quads and $8 billion in annual economic savings. The key challenge to improving building insulation is to maintain and surpass the industry standard of R-5 per inch insulation value in a cost-competitive manner. Improvements in R-value without cost-efficiency are not likely to impact the market given the cost-sensitive nature of the construction industry (insulation is already the lowest-cost component of the building envelope). However, significantly higher insulating value at competitive costs is extremely appealing to the market given the greater potential to save on energy consumption and costs over the long-term. Thus, our goal is to develop a super-thermal insulation with 50% greater insulation value (R-9 to R-10 per inch) and manufacturing costs that are equal on a per-R-value basis (< $0.70/ft2).

  18. Effects of bulk charged impurities on the bulk and surface transport in three-dimensional topological insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, B.; Chen, T.; Shklovskii, B. I.

    2013-01-01

    In the three-dimensional topological insulator (TI), the physics of doped semiconductors exists literally side-by-side with the physics of ultrarelativistic Dirac fermions. This unusual pairing creates a novel playground for studying the interplay between disorder and electronic transport. In this mini-review, we focus on the disorder caused by the three-dimensionally distributed charged impurities that are ubiquitous in TIs, and we outline the effects it has on both the bulk and surface transport in TIs. We present self-consistent theories for Coulomb screening both in the bulk and at the surface, discuss the magnitude of the disorder potential in each case, and present results for the conductivity. In the bulk, where the band gap leads to thermally activated transport, we show how disorder leads to a smaller-than-expected activation energy that gives way to variable-range hopping at low temperatures. We confirm this enhanced conductivity with numerical simulations that also allow us to explore different degrees of impurity compensation. For the surface, where the TI has gapless Dirac modes, we present a theory of disorder and screening of deep impurities, and we calculate the corresponding zero-temperature conductivity. We also comment on the growth of the disorder potential in passing from the surface of the TI into the bulk. Finally, we discuss how the presence of a gap at the Dirac point, introduced by some source of time-reversal symmetry breaking, affects the disorder potential at the surface and the mid-gap density of states

  19. Evaluation of insulation materials and composites for use in a nuclear radiation environment, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhow, W. A.; Lewis, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    This study has been carried out to evaluate flight-qualified Saturn 5 materials, components, and systems for use, with or without modification, in the radiation environment of the nuclear flight system. The results reported herein are primarily intended to aid designers in their evaluation and selection of off-the-shelf equipments which may meet the stringent requirements and specifications associated with application on a reusable nuclear powered space system, i.e., the reusable nuclear shuttle. One of the factors which must be evaluated in the design of the RNS is the effects of radiation on materials; and it is toward this aspect of the overall effort that this analysis has been directed.

  20. Surface analysis of selected hydrophobic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewska, Sylwia Katarzyna

    This dissertation contains a series of studies on hydrophobic surfaces by various surface sensitive techniques such as contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Hydrophobic surfaces have been classified as mineral surfaces, organic synthetic surfaces, or natural biological surfaces. As a model hydrophobic mineral surface, elemental sulfur has been selected. The sulfur surface has been characterized for selected allotropic forms of sulfur such as rhombic, monoclinic, plastic, and cyclohexasulfur. Additionally, dextrin adsorption at the sulfur surface was measured. The structure of a dextrin molecule showing hydrophobic sites has been presented to support the proposed hydrophobic bonding nature of dextrin adsorption at the sulfur surface. As a model organic hydrophobic surface, primary fatty amines such as dodecylamine, hexadecylamine, and octadecylamine were chosen. An increase of hydrophobicity, significant changes of infrared bands, and surface topographical changes with time were observed for each amine. Based on the results it was concluded that hydrocarbon chain rearrangement associated with recrystallization took place at the surface during contact with air. A barley straw surface was selected as a model of biological hydrophobic surfaces. The differences in the contact angles for various straw surfaces were explained by the presence of a wax layer. SEM images confirmed the heterogeneity and complexity of the wax crystal structure. AFM measurements provided additional structural details including a measure of surface roughness. Additionally, straw degradation as a result of conditioning in an aqueous environment was studied. Significant contact angle changes were observed as soon as one day after conditioning. FTIR studies showed a gradual wax layer removal due to straw surface decomposition. SEM and AFM images revealed topographical changes and biological

  1. Localized Electron Trap Modification as a Result of Space Weather Exposure in Highly Disordered Insulating Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    of Figures and Tables Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ii Figure 21 Absorbance spectra of pristine and electron radiation...then the photon may be absorbed . The electron may be an ion-core electron or a free electron in the solid. If the energy of the incoming photon does...color, and, most importantly for these studies, the radiation-induced defects in a material. Fourier transform infrared ( FTIR ) spectroscopy probes

  2. Tip-Sample Interactions as a Function of Distance on Insulating Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Regina

    Recent advances in the measurement methods of scanning force microscopy (SFM) in the dynamic mode allow experimental access to site-specific short range forces. Either the tip is moved to a particular site, or the full three-dimensional frequency shift field of the oscillating tip is recorded while scanning a small surface area. Then the frequency shift is converted to force, and the long-range forces are fit by models and subtracted. The remaining short-range forces measured on a well- known surface CaF2 (111) can be used to learn more about the tip structure and chemical composition. On NaCl (001)-type crystal surfaces, where there is a complete symmetry of the local distribution of the positive and negative charge, the measurement of the force as a function of distance allows to unambiguously identify the positively and negatively charged sublattices on the surface. If additionally, the full three-dimensional force field is measured, information about the chemical nature of the tip-terminating cluster and about lateral forces are obtained. SFM measurements of site-specific force-distance curves further allow a deeper insight into mechanisms of energy dissipation at tips and surfaces.

  3. Magnetization switching of a metallic nanomagnet via current-induced surface spin-polarization of an underlying topological insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Urmimala; Dey, Rik; Pramanik, Tanmoy; Ghosh, Bahniman; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2015-01-01

    We consider a thermally stable, metallic nanoscale ferromagnet (FM) subject to spin-polarized current injection and exchange coupling from the spin-helically locked surface states of a topological insulator (TI) to evaluate possible non-volatile memory applications. We consider parallel transport in the TI and the metallic FM, and focus on the efficiency of magnetization switching as a function of transport between the TI and the FM. Transport is modeled as diffusive in the TI beneath the FM, consistent with the mobility in the TI at room temperature, and in the FM, which essentially serves as a constant potential region albeit spin-dependent except in the low conductivity, diffusive limit. Thus, it can be captured by drift-diffusion simulation, which allows for ready interpretation of the results. We calculate switching time and energy consumed per write operation using self-consistent transport, spin-transfer-torque (STT), and magnetization dynamics calculations. Calculated switching energies and times compare favorably to conventional spin-torque memory schemes for substantial interlayer conductivity. Nevertheless, we find that shunting of current from the TI to a metallic nanomagnet can substantially limit efficiency. Exacerbating the problem, STT from the TI effectively increases the TI resistivity. We show that for optimum performance, the sheet resistivity of the FM layer should be comparable to or larger than that of the TI surface layer. Thus, the effective conductivity of the FM layer becomes a critical design consideration for TI-based non-volatile memory

  4. Spin-orbit torque in 3D topological insulator-ferromagnet heterostructure: crossover between bulk and surface transport

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Sumit

    2017-11-29

    Current-driven spin-orbit torques are investigated in a heterostructure composed of a ferromagnet deposited on top of a three dimensional topological insulator using the linear response formalism. We develop a tight-binding model of the heterostructure adopting a minimal interfacial hybridization scheme that promotes induced magnetic exchange on the topological surface states, as well as induced Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling in the ferromagnet. Therefore, our model accounts for spin Hall effect from bulk states together with inverse spin galvanic and magnetoelectric effects at the interface on equal footing. By varying the transport energy across the band structure, we uncover a crossover from surface-dominated to bulk-dominated transport regimes. We show that the spin density profile and the nature of the spin-orbit torques differ substantially in both regimes. Our results, which compare favorably with experimental observations, demonstrate that the large damping torque reported recently is more likely attributed to interfacial magnetoelectric effect, while spin Hall torque remains small even in the bulk-dominated regime.

  5. Final Report: Stability and Novel Properties of Magnetic Materials and Ferromagnet / Insulator Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, Paul M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Chang, Y. Austin [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-07-24

    We report investigations of the synthesis, structure, and properties of new materials for spintronic applications integrated onto silicon substrates. Our primary focus is materials with very high, negative, intrinsic spin polarization of the density of states at the Fermi level. We have developed a new synthesis method for Fe3O4 thin films through selective oxidation of Fe, resulting in smooth, low-defect density films. We have synthesized Fe4N films and shown that they preferentially oxidize to Fe3O4. When integrated into magnetic tunnel junctions consisting of Fe4N / AlOx / Fe, oxidation at the Fe4N / AlOx interface creates Fe3O4, leading to negative tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR). Oxidation of Fe in nominally symmetric CoFe / AlOx / CoFe also produces Fe3O4 and negative TMR under selected oxidation conditions.

  6. Controllable magnetic doping of the surface state of a topological insulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlenk, T.; Bianchi, M.; Koleini, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    principles calculations within density functional theory, these Fe substitutional impurities retain a large magnetic moment thus presenting an alternative scheme for magnetically doping the topological surface state. For both types of Fe doping, we see no indication of a gap at the Dirac point....

  7. Innovative Retrofit Insulation Strategies for Concrete Masonry Foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huelman, P. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Goldberg, L. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Jacobson, R. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership

    2015-05-06

    This study was designed to test a new approach for foundation insulation retrofits, with the goal of demonstrating improved moisture control, improved occupant comfort, and reduced heat loss. Because conducting experimental research on existing below-grade assemblies is very difficult, most of the results are based on simulations. The retrofit approach consists of filling open concrete block cores with an insulating material and adding R-10 exterior insulation that extends 1 ft below grade. The core fill is designed to improve the R-value of the foundation wall and increase the interior wall surface temperature, but more importantly to block convection currents that could otherwise increase moisture loads on the foundation wall and interior space. The exterior insulation significantly reduces heat loss through the most exposed part of the foundation and further increases the interior wall surface temperature. This improves occupant comfort and decreases the risk of condensation. Such an insulation package avoids the full-depth excavation necessary for exterior insulation retrofits, reduces costs, and eliminates the moisture and indoor air quality risks associated with interior insulation retrofits. Retrofit costs for the proposed approach were estimated at roughly half those of a full-depth exterior insulation retrofit.

  8. The dynamics of ultraviolet-induced oxygen vacancy at the surface of insulating SrTiO{sub 3}(0 0 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwanwong, S. [School of Physics, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Program in General Science Teaching, Faculty of Education, Vongchavalitkul University, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Eknapakul, T. [School of Physics, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Rattanachai, Y. [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Liberal Arts, Rajamangala University of Technology Isan, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Masingboon, C. [School of Physics, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kasetsart University, Chalermphrakiat Sakon Nakhon Province Campus, Sakon Nakhon 47000 (Thailand); Rattanasuporn, S.; Phatthanakun, R.; Nakajima, H. [Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); King, P.D.C. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Hodak, S.K. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Meevasana, W., E-mail: worawat@g.sut.ac.th [School of Physics, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); NANOTEC-SUT Center of Excellence on Advanced Functional Nanomaterials, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, CHE, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The dynamics of UV-induced oxygen vacancy is studied from the change of surface resistance. • The formation of 2DEG at the insulating surface of SrTiO{sub 3} is confirmed by ARPES. • The UV-induced change in resistance responds differently to oxygen/gas exposure. • The behavior of resistance recovery suggests an alternative method of low-pressure sensing. - Abstract: The effect of ultra-violet (UV) irradiation on the electronic structure and the surface resistance of an insulating SrTiO{sub 3}(0 0 1) crystal is studied in this work. Upon UV irradiation, we show that the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) emerges at the insulating SrTiO{sub 3} surface and there is a pronounced change in the surface resistance. By combining the observations of the change in valance band and the resistance change under different environments of gas pressure and gas species, we find that UV-induced oxygen vacancies at the surface plays a major role in the resistance change. The dynamic of the resistance change at different oxygen pressures also suggests an alternative method of low-pressure sensing.

  9. The dynamics of ultraviolet-induced oxygen vacancy at the surface of insulating SrTiO3(0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwanwong, S.; Eknapakul, T.; Rattanachai, Y.; Masingboon, C.; Rattanasuporn, S.; Phatthanakun, R.; Nakajima, H.; King, P.D.C.; Hodak, S.K.; Meevasana, W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The dynamics of UV-induced oxygen vacancy is studied from the change of surface resistance. • The formation of 2DEG at the insulating surface of SrTiO 3 is confirmed by ARPES. • The UV-induced change in resistance responds differently to oxygen/gas exposure. • The behavior of resistance recovery suggests an alternative method of low-pressure sensing. - Abstract: The effect of ultra-violet (UV) irradiation on the electronic structure and the surface resistance of an insulating SrTiO 3 (0 0 1) crystal is studied in this work. Upon UV irradiation, we show that the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) emerges at the insulating SrTiO 3 surface and there is a pronounced change in the surface resistance. By combining the observations of the change in valance band and the resistance change under different environments of gas pressure and gas species, we find that UV-induced oxygen vacancies at the surface plays a major role in the resistance change. The dynamic of the resistance change at different oxygen pressures also suggests an alternative method of low-pressure sensing.

  10. Implant surface material, design, and osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Orrett E

    2015-04-01

    The structural and functional union of the implant with living bone is greatly influenced by the surface properties of the implant. The success of a dental implant depends on the chemical, physical, mechanical, and topographic characteristics of its surface. The influence of surface topography on osseointegration has translated to shorter healing times from implant placement to restoration. This article presents a discussion of surface characteristics and design of implants, which should allow the clinician to better understand osseointegration and information coming from implant manufacturers, allowing for better implant selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An interim report on the materials and selection criteria analysis for the Compact Ignition Tokamak Toroidal Field Coil Turn-to-Turn Insulation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, V.W.; Dooley, J.B.; Hubrig, J.G.; Janke, C.J.; McManamy, T.J.; Welch, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Design criteria for the Compact Ignition Tokamak, Toroidal-Field (TF) Coil, Turn-to-Turn Insulation System require an insulation sheet and bonding system that will survive cryogenic cycling in a radiation environment and maintain structural integrity during exposure to the significant compressive and shear loads associated with each operating cycle. For thermosetting resin systems, a complex interactive dependency exists between optimum peak value, in-service property performance capabilities of candidate generic materials; key handling and processing parameters required to achieve their optimum in-service property performance as an insulation system; and suitability of their handling and processing parameters as a function of design configuration and assembly methodology. This dependency is assessed in a weighted study matrix in which two principal programmatic approaches for the development of the TF Coil Subassembly Insulation System have been identified. From this matrix study, two viable approaches to the fabrication of the insulation sheet were identified: use of a press-formed sheet bonded in place with epoxy for mechanical bonding and tolerance take-up and formation of the insulation sheet by placement of dry cloth and subsequent vacuum pressure impregnation. Laboratory testing was conducted to screen a number of combinations of resins and hardeners on a generic basis. These combinations were chosen for their performance in similar applications. Specimens were tested to screen viscosity, thermal-shock tolerance, and cryogenic tolerance. Cryogenic shock and cryogenic temperature proved to be extremely lethal to many combinations of resin, hardener, and cure. Two combinations survived: a heavily flexibilized bisphenol A resin with a flexibilized amine hardener and a bisphenol A resin with cycloaliphatic amine hardener. 7 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Material fluxes on the surface of the earth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources; Division on Earth and Life Studies; Board on Earth Sciences & Resources; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    ...) level of surficial fluxes and their dynamics. Leading experts in the field offer a historical perspective on geofluxes and discuss the cycles of materials on the earth's surface, from weathering processes to the movement of material...

  13. TANK FARM INTERIM SURFACE BARRIER MATERIALS AND RUNOFF ALTERNATIVES STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLM MJ

    2009-06-25

    This report identifies candidate materials and concepts for interim surface barriers in the single-shell tank farms. An analysis of these materials for application to the TY tank farm is also provided.

  14. Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Materials And Runoff Alternatives Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    This report identifies candidate materials and concepts for interim surface barriers in the single-shell tank farms. An analysis of these materials for application to the TY tank farm is also provided.

  15. Observation of cyclotron resonance and electron-phonon coupling in surface states of the bulk-insulating topological insulator Cu0.02Bi2Se3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Liang [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). The Inst. of Quantum Matter; Tse, Wang-Kong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Morris, C. M. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). The Inst. of Quantum Matter; Brahlek, M. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Koirala, N. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Oh, S. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Armitage, N. P. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). The Inst. of Quantum Matter

    2015-02-05

    We have utilized magneto-optical time-domain spectroscopy to investigate the low frequency optical response of topological insulator Cu0.02Bi2Se3 and Bi2Se3 films. With both field and frequency depedence, such experiments give sufficient information to measure the mobility and carrier density of multiple conduction channels simultaneously. We observe sharp cyclotron resonances (CRs) in both samples. The small amount of Cu substitution into the Cu0.02Bi2Se3 induces a true bulk insulator with only a single conduction channel with total sheet carrier density 4.9 x 1012/cm2 and mobility as large as 4000 cm2/V s. This is consistent with pure topological surface state (TSSs) conduction with a chemical potential 150 meV above the Dirac point. Hence, a true topological insulator with an insulating bulk is realized. The CR broadens at high fields, an e ect that we attribute to an electron-phonon interaction. This assignment is supported by an extended Drude model analysis on the zero field data. In contrast to Cu0.02Bi2Se3, two charge channels were observed in normal Bi2Se3 films. We demonstrate a method to distinguish between the dominant TSSs and trivial bulk/2DEG states. The dominant channel exhibits a CR with a carrier density of ~2.0 x 1013/cm2 and mobility ~3200 cm2/V s, consistent with TSSs with a chemical potential ~350meV above the Dirac point.

  16. Emerging technologies from the foot-prints of heavy ions radiation in insulating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakarvarti, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most interesting aspects of heavy-ions interaction with dielectric materials is the phase change at the point of interaction creating a damage trail, popularly known as latent track, which in fact, is the footprint of the incident ion. It is very convenient to amplify chemically this foot-print and manufacture a membrane under certain conditions. A membrane, with its most comprehensive and clear definition, is an intervening phase separating two phases and/or acting as an active or passive barrier to the transport of matter between phases. The very existence of a membrane relies upon the functionality domain of the pores contained therein. The geometrical traits and morphology of the pore ensembles dictate the applications, which any membrane can serve to. There are variety of membranes being developed and used in myriad of applications in diverse fields of science and technology. The range of commercially available membrane materials is quite diverse and varies widely in terms of composition, and physical structure. The creation of pores, whether through natural self-assembling phenomenon or man-made processes, might itself be an issue of interest but these are the pore-traits which are fundamentally more important, whether the membrane is being used for sieving-one of the ever most important applications the mankind has been using for thousand of years, or in the technological applications-the most recent one being nano technology. This talk would be addressed to the development of membranes - organic (polymeric) in general, formed through irradiation of polymeric foils with heavy and energetic ions followed by chemical processing leading finally to what is known as 'Track Etch Membranes (TEMs)', and present the review of the innovative applications of these membranes from filtration to electro-kinetic based applications and nano-/micro fabrication of devices- the potent aspect of emerging technologies. The emphasis would be on the dependence of useful

  17. Gaseous products and smoke generation on combustion of the insulation materials of nuclear cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Isamu; Takami, Hiroshi; Ueyama, Michio; Fujimura, Shun-ichi.

    1976-01-01

    Serious requirements have been introduced to the cables used for nuclear power plants on their flame retardation in the IEEE Standard 383-1974. The movements that the users prescribe the quantity of corrosive gas generated from cables are also observed. This report describes on the measured results of the gaseous products generated by burning polyethylene, polyvinyl-chloride (PVC) and their flame-resistant products, and a part of the covering materials of the cables for nuclear power plants (flame-resistant, crosslinking polyethylene, flame-resistant, low hydrochloric acid PVC, flame-resistant jute) in the infra-red rapid heating combustion test facility designed by the Furukawa Electric Co. Ltd. In addition, the report introduces the test method for the smoke generation evaluation of polymers and a part of the measured results. The gaseous products of combustion were collected and determined quantitatively by gas chromatographic method. Since smoke generation is affected greatly by the kinds, shape, atmosphere, temperature, ignition procedure and others of burnt matters, the establishment of the evaluation test method is difficult, and a number of methods have been proposed. As the measured results showed, it is clear that smoke generation increases with the increase of flame resistant reagent addition. The smoke generation of PVC was of course great in quantity because it contains considerable amount of chlorine for its molecular structure. Flame-resistant polyethylene generates smoke much more than polyethylene without flame-resisting treatment because of its flame resistivity, but less than that of PVC. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Experimental study on magnetically insulated transmission line electrode surface evolution process under MA/cm current density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, PengFei; Qiu, Aici; Hu, Yang; Yang, HaiLiang; Sun, Jiang; Wang, Liangping; Cong, Peitian

    2016-01-01

    The design of high-current density magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) is a difficult problem of current large-scale Z-pinch device. In particular, a thorough understanding of the MITL electrode surface evolution process under high current density is lacking. On the “QiangGuang-I” accelerator, the load area possesses a low inductance short-circuit structure with a diameter of 2.85 mm at the cathode, and three reflux columns with a diameter of 3 mm and uniformly distributed circumference at the anode. The length of the high density MITL area is 20 mm. A laser interferometer is used to assess and analyze the state of the MITL cathode and anode gap, and their evolution process under high current density. Experimental results indicate that evident current loss is not observed in the current density area at pulse leading edge, and peak when the surface current density reaches MA/cm. Analysis on electrode surface working conditions indicates that when the current leading edge is at 71.5% of the peak, the total evaporation of MITL cathode structure can be realized by energy deposition caused by ohmic heating. The electrode state changes, and diffusion conditions are reflected in the laser interferometer image. The MITL cathode area mainly exists in metal vapor form. The metal vapor density in the cathode central region is higher than the upper limit of laser penetration density (∼4 × 10 21 /cm 3 ), with an expansion velocity of ∼0.96 km/s. The metal vapor density in the electrode outer area may lead to evident distortion of fringes, and its expansion velocity is faster than that in the center area (1.53 km/s).

  19. A Parametric Study of Thermal Performance of an Exterior Wall Insulated with Vacuum Insulation Panels

    OpenAIRE

    Ciobanu, Adrian-Alexandru; Iacob, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The requirements regarding thermal insulation of the new buildings and thermal rehabilitation of the existing buildings tend to reach a threshold of insulation which allows to fulfill the necessary requirements for a low-energy building. To achieve this level of thermal insulation involves using either thick layers of conventional insulation (polystyrene, mineral wool, etc.) or high thermal performance materials. Vacuum insulation panels are high performance thermal insulation characteri...

  20. An experimental approach for measuring surface potential and second crossover energy in insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhfakh, S; Jbara, O; Rondot, S; Rau, E I; Fakhfakh, Z

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this work is to first measure the second crossover energy E 2S under stationary electron irradiation (charging conditions) and then to show that the charge balance occurs at this beam energy and not at E 2C , the energy deduced from non-charging conditions (short pulse irradiation) as commonly assumed. The experimental procedure is based on simultaneous time dependent measurements of surface potential, leakage and displacement currents. The study is illustrated by the estimate of the real landing energy of primary electrons E L and the second crossover energy E 2S for soda-lime glass

  1. An experimental approach for measuring surface potential and second crossover energy in insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhfakh, S; Jbara, O; Rondot, S [UTAP/LASSI, EA 3802 Faculte des Sciences, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Rau, E I [Institute of Microelectronics Technology of Russian Academy of Science, 142432, Chernogolovka, Moscow District (Russian Federation); Fakhfakh, Z [LaMaCop, Faculte des Sciences, Route Soukra Km 3, BP 802, CP 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)], E-mail: slimfakhfakh@yahoo.fr

    2008-05-21

    The goal of this work is to first measure the second crossover energy E{sub 2S} under stationary electron irradiation (charging conditions) and then to show that the charge balance occurs at this beam energy and not at E{sub 2C}, the energy deduced from non-charging conditions (short pulse irradiation) as commonly assumed. The experimental procedure is based on simultaneous time dependent measurements of surface potential, leakage and displacement currents. The study is illustrated by the estimate of the real landing energy of primary electrons E{sub L} and the second crossover energy E{sub 2S} for soda-lime glass.

  2. Alternative surfacing materials for weed control at BC Hydro substations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, T.C.; Shrimpton, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    A two year study was conducted by BC Hydro in which a variety of surfacing materials were tested for their suitability for use in substations. Ideally, surfacing materials should have the following characteristics: high electrical resistivity in both dry and wet conditions, resistance to invasion by weeds, good driveability, good drainage, non-flammable, reasonably priced, no dust to foul conductors, and be aesthetically pleasing. Trials at Vernon Koksilah, and Ingledow substations were conducted to test the materials. A qualitative estimate of the amount of weed control provided by each material was recorded. The trials were meant to provide operational recommendations and screening information to allow for future testing of promising materials or combination of materials. Results showed that no single material meets all the desired criteria. The surfaces that best combined good weed control, electrical resistance and surface stability was a 15 cm deep layer of crushed gravel, especially if underlain by a layer of geotextile. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  3. Systematic study of transport via surface and bulk states in Bi2Te3 topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, S.; Peres, M. L.; Chitta, V. A.; Gratens, X.; Soares, D. A. W.; Fornari, C. I.; Rappl, P. H. O.; Abramof, E.; Oliveira, N. F., Jr.

    2016-07-01

    We performed magnetoresistance measurements on Bi2Te3 thin film in the temperature range of T = 1.2-4.0 K and for magnetic fields up to 2 T. The curves exhibited anomalous behavior for temperatures below 4.0 K. Different temperature intervals revealed electrical transport through different conductive channels with clear signatures of weak antilocalization. The magnetoresistance curves were explained using the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model and the 2D Dirac modified model. The comparison between the parameters obtained from the two models revealed the transport via topological surface states and bulk states. In addition, a superconductive like transition is observed for the lowest temperatures and we suggest that this effect can be originated from the misfit dislocations caused by strain, giving rise to a superconductive channel between the interface of the film and the substrate.

  4. Choice and optimization of ratio of components to develop fast-mounted thermostable heat-insulating constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginova, N. A.; Grigor'ev, S. V.; Lapin, E. E.; Pogorelov, S. I.; Ryzhenkov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    Fast-mounted heat-insulating constructions based on foamed synthetic rubbers, polyethylene, and polyurethane are characterized by a thermostability up to 150°C and emit toxic substances when burnt. However, there is a need for heat insulation of surfaces with higher coolant temperatures, such as pipelines, equipment of nuclear and thermal power plants, and heating systems with remote heat sources. One of the most promising types of heat insulation materials for creation of fast-mounted heat insulation constructions is the syntactic foams or thin-film multilayer heat-insulating coatings (TFMHIC), which are created using hollow microspheres and various types of binders. The formation of TFMHIC on the heat-insulating surface is carried out mostly by means of spraying methods that have well proven themselves at coating on flat and cylindrical surfaces of large area, but they turned out ineffective for cylindrical surfaces with a diameter of 300 mm and less, since they are characterized by a large degree of carryover of composite material. This article analyzed the binders and microspheres promising to create the fast-mounted heat-insulating constructions based on TFMHIC with high thermostability. Based on the analysis, a conclusion is drawn that organicsilicon binding and glass microspheres are promising for use in the heat-insulating constructions with thermostability up to 300°C. The results of experimental research are given that point to the possibility of predicting the optimal composition of heat-insulating material characterized by a high degree of filling with microspheres with maintaining the mechanical strength, by means of performing the analysis of rheological characteristics of nonpolymerized liquid compositions of heat-insulation material. The index of tensile strength in bending was the criterion for evaluating the mechanical strength of heat-insulating material. The critical volume concentrations of filling the heat-insulating material with glass

  5. Improved Sprayable Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, W. F.; Sharpe, M. H.; Lester, C. N.; Echols, Sherman; Simpson, W. G.; Lambert, J. D.; Norton, W. F.; Mclemore, J. P.; Patel, A. K.; Patel, S. V.; hide

    1992-01-01

    MSA-2 and MSA-2A, two similar improved versions of Marshall sprayable ablator, insulating material developed at Marshall Space Flight Center to replace both sheets of cork and MSA-1. Suitable for use on large vehicles and structures exposed to fire or other sources of heat by design or accident. Ablative insulation turns into strong char when exposed to high temperature; highly desireable property in original spacecraft application and possibly in some terrestrial applications.

  6. Möbius Kondo insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Yao; Erten, Onur; Coleman, Piers

    2017-08-01

    Heavy fermion materials have recently attracted attention for their potential to combine topological protection with strongly correlated electron physics. To date, the ideas of topological protection have been restricted to the heavy fermion or `Kondo' insulators with the simplest point-group symmetries. Here we argue that the presence of nonsymmorphic crystal symmetries in many heavy fermion materials opens up a new family of topologically protected heavy electron systems. Re-examination of archival resistivity measurements in the nonsymmorphic heavy fermion insulators Ce3Bi4Pt3 and CeNiSn reveals the presence of a low-temperature conductivity plateau, making them candidate members of the new class of material. We illustrate our ideas with a specific model for CeNiSn, showing how glide symmetries generate surface states with a novel Möbius braiding that can be detected by ARPES or non-local conductivity measurements. One of the interesting effects of strong correlation is the development of partially localization or `Kondo breakdown' on the surfaces, which transforms Möbius surface states into quasi-one-dimensional conductors, with the potential for novel electronic phase transitions.

  7. Bulk and surface electron transport in topological insulator candidate YbB{sub 6-δ}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glushkov, Vladimir V.; Demishev, Sergey V.; Sluchanko, Nikolay E. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute of RAS, Vavilov str. 38, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskii per. 9, 141700, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Bozhko, Alexey D.; Bogach, Alexey V.; Semeno, Alexey V.; Voronov, Valeriy V. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute of RAS, Vavilov str. 38, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dukhnenko, Anatoliy V.; Filipov, Volodimir B.; Shitsevalova, Natalya Yu. [Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science NAS, Krzhyzhanovsky str. 3, 03680, Kiev (Ukraine); Kondrin, Mikhail V. [Vereshchagin Institute of High Pressure Physics of RAS, 142190, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, Alexey V.; Sannikov, Ilia I. [National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' , Kashirskoe Shosse 31, 115409, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    We report the study of transport and magnetic properties of the YbB{sub 6-δ}single crystals grown by inductive zone melting. A strong disparity in the low temperature resistivity, Seebeck and Hall coefficients is established for the samples with the different level of boron deficiency. The effective parameters of the charge transport in YbB{sub 6-δ} are shown to depend on the concentration of intrinsic defects, which is estimated to range from 0.09% to 0.6%. The pronounced variation of Hall mobility μ{sub H} found for bulk holes is induced by the decrease of transport relaxation time from τ ∼ 7.7 fs for YbB{sub 5.994} to τ ∼ 2.2 fs for YbB{sub 5.96}. An extra contribution to conductivity from electrons with μ{sub H}∼ -1000 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} and the very low concentration n /n{sub Yb}∼ 10{sup -6} discovered below 20 K for all the single crystals under investigation is suggested to arise from the surface electron states appeared in the inversion layer due to the band bending. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Surface Characteristics and Biofilm Development on Selected Dental Ceramic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung H. Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intraoral adjustment and polishing of dental ceramics often affect their surface characteristics, promoting increased roughness and consequent biofilm growth. This study correlated surface roughness to biofilm development with four commercially available ceramic materials. Methods. Four ceramic materials (Vita Enamic®, Lava™ Ultimate, Vitablocs Mark II, and Wieland Reflex® were prepared as per manufacturer instructions. Seventeen specimens of each material were adjusted and polished to simulate clinical intraoral procedures and another seventeen remained unaltered. Specimens were analysed by SEM imaging, confocal microscopy, and crystal violet assay. Results. SEM images showed more irregular surface topography in adjusted specimens than their respective controls. Surface roughness (Ra values were greater in all materials following adjustments. All adjusted materials with the exception of Vitablocs Mark II promoted significantly greater biofilm growth relative to controls. Conclusion. Simulated intraoral polishing methods resulted in greater surface roughness and increased biofilm accumulation.

  9. Facet‐Engineered Surface and Interface Design of Photocatalytic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Li, Zhengquan

    2016-01-01

    The facet‐engineered surface and interface design for photocatalytic materials has been proven as a versatile approach to enhance their photocatalytic performance. This review article encompasses some recent advances in the facet engineering that has been performed to control the surface of mono‐component semiconductor systems and to design the surface and interface structures of multi‐component heterostructures toward photocatalytic applications. The review begins with some key points which should receive attention in the facet engineering on photocatalytic materials. We then discuss the synthetic approaches to achieve the facet control associated with the surface and interface design. In the following section, the facet‐engineered surface design on mono‐component photocatalytic materials is introduced, which forms a basis for the discussion on more complex systems. Subsequently, we elucidate the facet‐engineered surface and interface design of multi‐component photocatalytic materials. Finally, the existing challenges and future prospects are discussed. PMID:28105398

  10. Reducing heat transfer across the insulated walls of refrigerated truck trailers by the application of phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Mashud; Meade, Oliver; Medina, Mario A.

    2010-01-01

    A general estimate shows that 80% of communities across the United States receive their goods exclusively by transport trucks, of which a significant number are climate-controlled because they carry perishable goods, pharmaceutical items and many other temperature-sensitive commodities. Keeping the inside of a truck trailer at a constant temperature and relative humidity requires exact amounts of heat and/or moisture management throughout the shipment period, which is regulated via small refrigeration units, placed outside the truck, that operate by burning fuel. These trucks, known as refrigerated truck trailers, are the focus of this paper. In the research presented herein, the conventional method of insulation of the refrigerated truck trailer was modified using phase change materials (PCMs). The limited research carried out in refrigerated transport compared to other refrigeration processes has left spaces for innovative solutions in this area. The research investigated the inclusion of paraffin-based PCMs in the standard trailer walls as a heat transfer reduction technology. An average reduction in peak heat transfer rate of 29.1% was observed when all walls (south, east, north, west, and top) were considered. For individual walls, the peak heat transfer rate was reduced in the range of 11.3-43.8%. Overall average daily heat flow reductions into the refrigerated compartment of 16.3% were observed. These results could potentially translate into energy savings, pollution abatement from diesel-burning refrigeration units, refrigeration equipment size reduction, and extended equipment operational life. The research and its results will help to better understand the scope of this technology.

  11. Surface properties of copper based cermet materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinea, M.; Vladuta, C.; Bogatu, C.; Duta, A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the characterization of the surface properties of copper based cermets obtained by two different techniques: spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) and electrodeposition. Copper acetate was used as precursor of Cu/CuO x cermet. The surface morphology was tailored by adding copolymers of maleic anhydride with controlled hydrophobia. The films morphology of Cu/CuO x was assessed using contact angle measurements and AFM analysis. The porous structures obtained via SPD lead to higher liquid adsorption rate than the electrodeposited films. A highly polar liquid - water is recommended as testing liquid in contact angle measurements, for estimating the porosity of copper based cermets, while glycerol can be used to distinguish among ionic and metal predominant structures. Thus, contact angle measurements can be used for a primary evaluation of the films morphology and, on the other hand, of the ratio between the cermet components

  12. Surface properties of copper based cermet materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voinea, M. [The Centre: Product Design for Sustainable Development, Transilvania University of Brasov, Eroilor 29, 500036 (Romania)], E-mail: m.voinea@unitbv.ro; Vladuta, C.; Bogatu, C.; Duta, A. [The Centre: Product Design for Sustainable Development, Transilvania University of Brasov, Eroilor 29, 500036 (Romania)

    2008-08-25

    The paper presents the characterization of the surface properties of copper based cermets obtained by two different techniques: spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) and electrodeposition. Copper acetate was used as precursor of Cu/CuO{sub x} cermet. The surface morphology was tailored by adding copolymers of maleic anhydride with controlled hydrophobia. The films morphology of Cu/CuO{sub x} was assessed using contact angle measurements and AFM analysis. The porous structures obtained via SPD lead to higher liquid adsorption rate than the electrodeposited films. A highly polar liquid - water is recommended as testing liquid in contact angle measurements, for estimating the porosity of copper based cermets, while glycerol can be used to distinguish among ionic and metal predominant structures. Thus, contact angle measurements can be used for a primary evaluation of the films morphology and, on the other hand, of the ratio between the cermet components.

  13. Thermal insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsky, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal insulation for vessels and piping within the reactor containment area of nuclear power plants is disclosed. The thermal insulation of this invention can be readily removed and replaced from the vessels and piping for inservice inspection, can withstand repeated wettings and dryings, and can resist high temperatures for long periods of time. 4 claims, 3 figures

  14. Dielectric strength behaviour and mechanical properties of transparent insulation materials suitable to optical monitoring of partial discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lothongkam, Chaiyaporn

    2014-01-01

    statistical analysis based on the 2-parameter Weibull distribution function. The investigations revealed that the virgin translucent silicone rubber has a large elastic region with an acceptable plastic deformation and also provides an AC 50 Hz dielectric strength of approximately 24 kV/mm for 0.5 mm thickness. These values enable considering the tested translucent silicone as replacement material for an opaque elastomer that is currently used for a rubber stress cone of HV cable accessories.. Unfortunately, its optical transmittance is poor compared to optically clear transparent silicone rubbers. On the other hand, the mechanical properties of virgin transparent silicone rubbers do not comply with those demanded from push-on stress cones. In particular, their elongation at break is considered too low for that application. However they provide the AC dielectric strength values in either 28 kV/mm or 29 kV/mm for 0.5 mm thickness, which are higher than those of the translucent type. Moreover, it was found that the post-curing process does not provide a positive impact on the ultimate elongation of silicone rubbers. Hence, the elongation at break of virgin transparent silicone rubbers must be improved before they can be used as insulating material for a rubber stress cone. In addition, the influence of mechanical tensile stress on the dielectric strength of the virgin translucent silicone rubber was investigated. The results show that mechanical tensile stress does not negatively influence on dielectric strength of such silicone rubber, so it can be well-operated under combined electrical and mechanical stresses. Beside the improvement of optical PD detection performance in the translucent silicone insulation materials, the influence of fluorescent dye's modification was investigated. The results indicate that the commercially available fluorescent dyes of 0.02 wt. % mixed into the translucent silicone polymer do not negatively influence on the E b value of such silicone

  15. Deposition of SiC x H y O z thin film on epoxy resin by nanosecond pulsed APPJ for improving the surface insulating performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, XIE; Haofan, LIN; Shuai, ZHANG; Ruixue, WANG; Fei, KONG; Tao, SHAO

    2018-02-01

    Non-thermal plasma surface modification for epoxy resin (EP) to improve the insulation properties has wide application prospects in gas insulated switchgear and gas insulated transmission line. In this paper, a pulsed Ar dual dielectrics atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used for SiC x H y O z thin film deposition on EP samples. The film deposition was optimized by varying the treatment time while other parameters were kept at constants (treatment distance: 10 mm, precursor flow rate: 0.6 l min-1, maximum instantaneous power: 3.08 kW and single pulse energy: 0.18 mJ). It was found that the maximum value of flashover voltages for negative and positive voltage were improved by 18% and 13% when the deposition time was 3 min, respectively. The flashover voltage reduced as treatment time increased. Moreover, all the surface conductivity, surface charge dissipation rate and surface trap level distribution reached an optimal value when thin film deposition time was 3 min. Other measurements, such as atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscope for EP surface morphology, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for EP surface compositions, optical emission spectra for APPJ deposition process were carried out to better understand the deposition processes and mechanisms. The results indicated that the original organic groups (C-H, C-C, C=O, C=C) were gradually replaced by the Si containing inorganic groups (Si-O-Si and Si-OH). The reduction of C=O in ester group and C=C in p-substituted benzene of the EP samples might be responsible for shallowing the trap level and then enhancing the flashover voltage. However, when the plasma treatment time was longer than 3 min, the significant increase of the surface roughness might increase the trap level depth and then deteriorate the flashover performance.

  16. Photonic Floquet topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechtsman, Mikael C.; Zeuner, Julia M.; Plotnik, Yonatan; Lumer, Yaakov; Podolsky, Daniel; Dreisow, Felix; Nolte, Stefan; Segev, Mordechai; Szameit, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    Topological insulators are a new phase of matter, with the striking property that conduction of electrons occurs only on the surface. In two dimensions, surface electrons in topological insulators do not scatter despite defects and disorder, providing robustness akin to superconductors. Topological insulators are predicted to have wideranging applications in fault-tolerant quantum computing and spintronics. Recently, large theoretical efforts were directed towards achieving topological insulation for electromagnetic waves. One-dimensional systems with topological edge states have been demonstrated, but these states are zero-dimensional, and therefore exhibit no transport properties. Topological protection of microwaves has been observed using a mechanism similar to the quantum Hall effect, by placing a gyromagnetic photonic crystal in an external magnetic field. However, since magnetic effects are very weak at optical frequencies, realizing photonic topological insulators with scatterfree edge states requires a fundamentally different mechanism - one that is free of magnetic fields. Recently, a number of proposals for photonic topological transport have been put forward. Specifically, one suggested temporally modulating a photonic crystal, thus breaking time-reversal symmetry and inducing one-way edge states. This is in the spirit of the proposed Floquet topological insulators, where temporal variations in solidstate systems induce topological edge states. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate the first external field-free photonic topological insulator with scatter-free edge transport: a photonic lattice exhibiting topologically protected transport of visible light on the lattice edges. Our system is composed of an array of evanescently coupled helical waveguides arranged in a graphene-like honeycomb lattice. Paraxial diffraction of light is described by a Schrödinger equation where the propagation coordinate acts as `time'. Thus the waveguides

  17. Electrical insulating liquid: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanta, Deba Kumar; Laskar, Shakuntala

    Insulating liquid plays an important role for the life span of the transformer. Petroleum-based mineral oil has become dominant insulating liquid of transformer for more than a century for its excellent dielectric and cooling properties. However, the usage of petroleum-based mineral oil, derived from a nonrenewable energy source, has affected the environment for its nonbiodegradability property. Therefore, researchers direct their attention to renewable and biodegradable alternatives. Palm fatty acid ester, coconut oil, sunflower oil, etc. are considered as alternatives to replace mineral oil as transformer insulation liquid. This paper gives an extensive review of different liquid insulating materials used in a transformer. Characterization of different liquids as an insulating material has been discussed. An attempt has been made to classify different insulating liquids-based on different properties.

  18. Electrical insulating liquid: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deba Kumar Mahanta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Insulating liquid plays an important role for the life span of the transformer. Petroleum-based mineral oil has become dominant insulating liquid of transformer for more than a century for its excellent dielectric and cooling properties. However, the usage of petroleum-based mineral oil, derived from a nonrenewable energy source, has affected the environment for its nonbiodegradability property. Therefore, researchers direct their attention to renewable and biodegradable alternatives. Palm fatty acid ester, coconut oil, sunflower oil, etc. are considered as alternatives to replace mineral oil as transformer insulation liquid. This paper gives an extensive review of different liquid insulating materials used in a transformer. Characterization of different liquids as an insulating material has been discussed. An attempt has been made to classify different insulating liquids-based on different properties.

  19. Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, A.

    1999-03-02

    A low-cost exterior insulation process of stacking bags of insulating material against a wall and covering them with wire mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value. 2 figs.

  20. A Review on Disorder-Driven Metal-Insulator Transition in Crystalline Vacancy-Rich GeSbTe Phase-Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiang-Jing; Xu, Ya-Zhi; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Wuttig, Matthias; Zhang, Wei

    2017-07-27

    Metal-insulator transition (MIT) is one of the most essential topics in condensed matter physics and materials science. The accompanied drastic change in electrical resistance can be exploited in electronic devices, such as data storage and memory technology. It is generally accepted that the underlying mechanism of most MITs is an interplay of electron correlation effects (Mott type) and disorder effects (Anderson type), and to disentangle the two effects is difficult. Recent progress on the crystalline Ge₁Sb₂Te₄ (GST) compound provides compelling evidence for a disorder-driven MIT. In this work, we discuss the presence of strong disorder in GST, and elucidate its effects on electron localization and transport properties. We also show how the degree of disorder in GST can be reduced via thermal annealing, triggering a disorder-driven metal-insulator transition. The resistance switching by disorder tuning in crystalline GST may enable novel multilevel data storage devices.

  1. A Review on Disorder-Driven Metal–Insulator Transition in Crystalline Vacancy-Rich GeSbTe Phase-Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiang-Jing; Xu, Ya-Zhi; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Wuttig, Matthias; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Metal–insulator transition (MIT) is one of the most essential topics in condensed matter physics and materials science. The accompanied drastic change in electrical resistance can be exploited in electronic devices, such as data storage and memory technology. It is generally accepted that the underlying mechanism of most MITs is an interplay of electron correlation effects (Mott type) and disorder effects (Anderson type), and to disentangle the two effects is difficult. Recent progress on the crystalline Ge1Sb2Te4 (GST) compound provides compelling evidence for a disorder-driven MIT. In this work, we discuss the presence of strong disorder in GST, and elucidate its effects on electron localization and transport properties. We also show how the degree of disorder in GST can be reduced via thermal annealing, triggering a disorder-driven metal–insulator transition. The resistance switching by disorder tuning in crystalline GST may enable novel multilevel data storage devices. PMID:28773222

  2. Tetradymites as thermoelectrics and topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heremans, Joseph P.; Cava, Robert J.; Samarth, Nitin

    2017-10-01

    Tetradymites are M2X3 compounds — in which M is a group V metal, usually Bi or Sb, and X is a group VI anion, Te, Se or S — that crystallize in a rhombohedral structure. Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 are archetypical tetradymites. Other mixtures of M and X elements produce common variants, such as Bi2Te2Se. Because tetradymites are based on heavy p-block elements, strong spin-orbit coupling greatly influences their electronic properties, both on the surface and in the bulk. Their surface electronic states are a cornerstone of frontier work on topological insulators. The bulk energy bands are characterized by small energy gaps, high group velocities, small effective masses and band inversion near the centre of the Brillouin zone. These properties are favourable for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials but make it difficult to obtain an electrically insulating bulk, which is a requirement of topological insulators. This Review outlines recent progress made in bulk and thin-film tetradymite materials for the optimization of their properties both as thermoelectrics and as topological insulators.

  3. A Non-Ventilated Solar Façade Concept Based on Selective and Transparent Insulation Material Integration: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Čekon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A new solar façade concept based on transparent insulation and a selective absorber is proposed, tested and compared with conventional insulation and a non-selective type of absorber, respectively. The presented study focuses on an experimental non-ventilated solar type of façade exposed to solar radiation both in the laboratory and in outdoor tests. Due to the high solar absorbance level of the façade, high- and low-emissivity contributions were primarily analysed. All of the implemented materials were contrasted from the thermal and optical point of view. An analysis was made of both thermodynamic and steady state procedures affecting the proposed solar façade concept. Experimental full scale tests on real building components were additionally involved during summer monitoring. An indicator of the temperature response generated by solar radiation exposure demonstrates the outdoor performance of the façade is closely related to overheating phenomena. From the thermal point of view, the proposed transparent insulation and selective absorber concept corresponds to the performance of conventional thermal insulation of identical material thickness; however, the non-selective prototype only provides 50% thermal performance. The results of the solar-based experiments show that with a small-scale experimental prototype, approximately no significant difference is measured when compared with a non-selective absorber type. The only difference was achieved at the maximum of 2.5 K, when the lower temperature was obtained in the solar selective concept. At the full-scale outdoor mode, the results indicate a maximum of 3.0 K difference, however the lower temperature achieves a non-selective approach. This solar façade can actively contribute to the thermal performance of building components during periods of heating.

  4. Surface, interface and thin film characterization of nano-materials using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Keisuke

    2005-01-01

    From the results of studies in the nanotechnology support project of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan, several investigations on the surface, interface and thin film characterization of nano-materials are described; (1) the MgB 2 thin film by X-ray diffraction, (2) the magnetism of the Pt thin film on a Co film by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurement, (3) the structure and physical properties of oxygen molecules absorbed in a micro hole of the cheleted polymer crystal by the direct observation in X-ray powder diffraction, and (4) the thin film gate insulator with a large dielectric constant, thermally treated HfO 2 /SiO 2 /Si, by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (M.H.)

  5. Thermally conductive tough flexible elastomers as composite of slide-ring materials and surface modified boron nitride particles via plasma in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Taku; Iida, Masaki; Tan, Helen; Liu, Chang; Mayumi, Koichi; Maeda, Rina; Kitahara, Koichi; Hatakeyama, Kazuto; Ito, Tsuyohito; Shimizu, Yoshiki; Yokoyama, Hideaki; Kimura, Kaoru; Ito, Kohzo; Hakuta, Yukiya; Terashima, Kazuo

    2018-03-01

    We have developed a thermally conductive flexible elastomer as a composite material with slide-ring (SR) materials and boron nitride (BN) particles surface-modified via plasma in solution. This composite shows excellent properties as a flexible insulator for thermal management. Surface modification of BN particles using plasma in solution increases the tensile strength, extension ratio at break, toughness, and rubber characteristics of the composites, compared to SR and non-modified BN, while the Young's modulus values are identical. Furthermore, the thermal conductivity also improved as a result of plasma surface modification.

  6. Ultrafast all-optical switching and error-free 10 Gbit/s wavelength conversion in hybrid InP-silicon on insulator nanocavities using surface quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazin, Alexandre; Monnier, Paul; Beaudoin, Grégoire; Sagnes, Isabelle; Raj, Rama; Lenglé, Kevin; Gay, Mathilde; Bramerie, Laurent; Braive, Rémy; Raineri, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Ultrafast switching with low energies is demonstrated using InP photonic crystal nanocavities embedding InGaAs surface quantum wells heterogeneously integrated to a silicon on insulator waveguide circuitry. Thanks to the engineered enhancement of surface non radiative recombination of carriers, switching time is obtained to be as fast as 10 ps. These hybrid nanostructures are shown to be capable of achieving systems level performance by demonstrating error free wavelength conversion at 10 Gbit/s with 6 mW switching powers

  7. Topological Insulator Nanowires and Nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, D.S.

    2010-06-02

    Recent theoretical calculations and photoemission spectroscopy measurements on the bulk Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} material show that it is a three-dimensional topological insulator possessing conductive surface states with nondegenerate spins, attractive for dissipationless electronics and spintronics applications. Nanoscale topological insulator materials have a large surface-to-volume ratio that can manifest the conductive surface states and are promising candidates for devices. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of high quality single crystalline Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanomaterials with a variety of morphologies. The synthesis of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanowires and nanoribbons employs Au-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Nanowires, which exhibit rough surfaces, are formed by stacking nanoplatelets along the axial direction of the wires. Nanoribbons are grown along [11-20] direction with a rectangular crosssection and have diverse morphologies, including quasi-one-dimensional, sheetlike, zigzag and sawtooth shapes. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies on nanoribbons show atomically smooth surfaces with {approx}1 nm step edges, indicating single Se-Bi-Se-Bi-Se quintuple layers. STM measurements reveal a honeycomb atomic lattice, suggesting that the STM tip couples not only to the top Se atomic layer, but also to the Bi atomic layer underneath, which opens up the possibility to investigate the contribution of different atomic orbitals to the topological surface states. Transport measurements of a single nanoribbon device (four terminal resistance and Hall resistance) show great promise for nanoribbons as candidates to study topological surface states.

  8. Statistics of ductile fracture surfaces: the effect of material parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponson, Laurent; Cao, Yuanyuan; Bouchaud, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    distributed. The three dimensional analysis permits modeling of a three dimensional material microstructure and of the resulting three dimensional stress and deformation states that develop in the fracture process region. Material parameters characterizing void nucleation are varied and the statistics......The effect of material parameters on the statistics of fracture surfaces is analyzed under small scale yielding conditions. Three dimensional calculations of ductile crack growth under mode I plane strain, small scale yielding conditions are carried out using an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive...... of the resulting fracture surfaces is investigated. All the fracture surfaces are found to be self-affine over a size range of about two orders of magnitude with a very similar roughness exponent of 0.56 ± 0.03. In contrast, the full statistics of the fracture surfaces is found to be more sensitive to the material...

  9. Modification of Material Surface Using Plasma-Enhanced Ion Beams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bystritskii, V

    1998-01-01

    ...) Technology for Materials Surface Modification. Following second year programmatic plan, formulated in the conclusion of the 1-st year report we focused our effort on study of aluminum alloys modification (Al2024, 6061, 7075...

  10. Thermal math model analysis of FRSI test article subjected to cold soak and entry environments. [Flexible Reuseable Surface Insulation in Space Shuttle Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    A multi-objective test program was conducted at the NASA/JSC Radiant Heat Test Facility in which an aluminum skin/stringer test panel insulated with FRSI (Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation) was subjected to 24 simulated Space Shuttle Orbiter ascent/entry heating cycles with a cold soak in between in the 10th and 20th cycles. A two-dimensional thermal math model was developed and utilized to predict the thermal performance of the FRSI. Results are presented which indicate that the modeling techniques and property values have been proven adequate in predicting peak structure temperatures and entry thermal responses from both an ambient and cold soak condition of an FRSI covered aluminum structure.

  11. Thermal inertia mapping. [for lithologic materials in earth surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, A. B.; Gillespie, A. R.; Goetz, A. F. H.; Addington, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    A thermal model of the earth's surface has been developed and used to determine the thermal inertia of a test site in the Mojave Desert, California. The model, which includes meteorological heating terms as well as radiation and conduction heating terms, is used with remotely sensed surface temperature data to determine thermal inertia of materials. The thermal inertia is displayed in image form, and can aid in the differentiation of the various lithologic materials in the test site.

  12. Contact mechanics for layered materials with randomly rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, B N J

    2012-03-07

    The contact mechanics model of Persson is applied to layered materials. We calculate the M function, which relates the surface stress to the surface displacement, for a layered material, where the top layer (thickness d) has different elastic properties than the semi-infinite solid below. Numerical results for the contact area as a function of the magnification are presented for several cases. As an application, we calculate the fluid leak rate for laminated rubber seals.

  13. Influence of starting material particle size on pellet surface roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Srimanta; Ang, Bee Hwee; Liew, Celine Valeria

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pelletization aids, i.e., microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and cross-linked polyvinyl pyrrolidone (XPVP), and filler, i.e., lactose, particle size on the surface roughness of pellets. Pellets were prepared from powder blends containing pelletization aid/lactose in 1:3 ratio by extrusion-spheronization. Surface roughness of pellets was assessed quantitatively and qualitatively using optical interferometry and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Both quantitative and qualitative surface studies showed that surface roughness of pellets depended on the particle size of XPVP and lactose used in the formulation. Increase in XPVP or lactose particle size resulted in rougher pellets. Formulations containing MCC produced pellets with smoother surfaces than those containing XPVP. Furthermore, surface roughness of the resultant pellets did not appear to depend on MCC particle size. Starting material particle size was found to be a critical factor for determining the surface roughness of pellets produced by extrusion-spheronization. Smaller particles can pack well with lower peaks and valleys, resulting in pellets with smoother surfaces. Similar surface roughness of pellets containing different MCC grades could be due to the deaggregation of MCC particles into smaller subunits with more or less similar sizes during wet processing. Hence, for starting materials that deaggregate during the wet processing, pellet surface roughness is influenced by the particle size of the material upon deaggregation.

  14. Pulsed-voltage atom probe tomography of low conductivity and insulator materials by application of ultrathin metallic coating on nanoscale specimen geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adineh, Vahid R; Marceau, Ross K W; Chen, Yu; Si, Kae J; Velkov, Tony; Cheng, Wenlong; Li, Jian; Fu, Jing

    2017-10-01

    We present a novel approach for analysis of low-conductivity and insulating materials with conventional pulsed-voltage atom probe tomography (APT), by incorporating an ultrathin metallic coating on focused ion beam prepared needle-shaped specimens. Finite element electrostatic simulations of coated atom probe specimens were performed, which suggest remarkable improvement in uniform voltage distribution and subsequent field evaporation of the insulated samples with a metallic coating of approximately 10nm thickness. Using design of experiment technique, an experimental investigation was performed to study physical vapor deposition coating of needle specimens with end tip radii less than 100nm. The final geometries of the coated APT specimens were characterized with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and an empirical model was proposed to determine the optimal coating thickness for a given specimen size. The optimal coating strategy was applied to APT specimens of resin embedded Au nanospheres. Results demonstrate that the optimal coating strategy allows unique pulsed-voltage atom probe analysis and 3D imaging of biological and insulated samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Removal of PCB from indoor air and surface materials by introduction of additional sorbing materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Lyng, Nadja; Kolarik, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Alleviation of indoor PCB contamination is extremely expensive because PCB from old primary sources has redistributed to most other surfaces over time. This study investigates the introduction of new removable sorbing materials as a method instantly lowering the concentration of PCB in indoor air...... and slowly decontaminating old surface materials. In three bedrooms of a contaminated apartment respectively new painted gypsum boards, sheets of flexible polyurethane foam and activated carbon fabric were introduced. The PCB concentrations in room air were monitored before the intervention and several times...... during the following 10 months. The PCB concentrations in the old surface materials as well as the new materials were also measured. An immediate reduction of PCB concentration in indoor air, a gradual increase of PCB in new material and as well a gradual reduction in old surface materials were...

  16. Metal-organic framework materials with ultrahigh surface areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Wilmer, Christopher E.; Eryazici, Ibrahim; Snurr, Randall Q.; Gomez-Gualdron, Diego A.; Borah, Bhaskarjyoti

    2015-12-22

    A metal organic framework (MOF) material including a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area greater than 7,010 m.sup.2/g. Also a metal organic framework (MOF) material including hexa-carboxylated linkers including alkyne bond. Also a metal organic framework (MOF) material including three types of cuboctahedron cages fused to provide continuous channels. Also a method of making a metal organic framework (MOF) material including saponifying hexaester precursors having alkyne bonds to form a plurality of hexa-carboxylated linkers including alkyne bonds and performing a solvothermal reaction with the plurality of hexa-carboxylated linkers and one or more metal containing compounds to form the MOF material.

  17. Development of ecological and economical super-insulations for various applications. Subproject 1: scientific development of ecological super-insulations for industrial application. Subproject 2: experimental synthesis and development of a pilot plant for continuously production and realisation of multilayer-insulation materials. Final report; Entwicklung oekologischer und wirtschaftlicher Super-Isolationen fuer vielfaeltige Anwendungen. Teilvorhaben 1: Wissenschaftliche Entwicklung oekologischer Super-Isolationen fuer industrielle Anwendungen. Teilvorhaben 2: Experimentelle Struktursynthese und Entwicklung einer Technikumsanlage zur kontinuierlichen Herstellung von Mehrschicht-Daemmstoffen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offermann, P.; Freudenberg, C.; Schenk, A.; Doerfel, A.; Hoffmann, G.; Roedel, H.; Schierz, C.; Hopf, W.

    2002-07-01

    Heat insulation materials are used in many applications with special tasks. Insulating materials like mineral wool, hard foams are used in civil engineering and for industrial insulation. Insulating materials from natural fibres are used in civil engineering on a small scale, too. In the clothing area are applied knitted fleece particularly for out-door-clothing in addition to non-woven made of synthetic polymers or wool. The aim of the project consists in the development of an insulating material with a very low heat conductivity and density as well as a multitude of degree of freedom to the structure and material parameters. A mathematical model has been developed for the determination of an optimised structure regarding to heat conductivity and density. The development was done by using the electrostatic flocking technology. After the material selection practical investigations have been done about the mode of function of the selected materials regarding their thermal insulation behaviour. A pilot plant for continuous production of the flocked material has been installed and tested. The result of this project is a very variable structure of insulating materials with excellent properties. The developed material is called Super-Insulation-Flock-Material (SIFM). Using defined structural parameters and skillfully selected materials it would be possible to get a heat conductivity between 0,027 W/mK and 0,30 W/mK. The density of these structures is between 10 kg/m{sup 3} and 20 kg/m{sup 3}. Structures with a density of only 7 kg/m{sup 3} are able to attend for applications without high mechanical demands. The Super-Insulation-Fock-Material is used in the clothing area and the technical sector. Sample products, e.g. a cold protective jacket, a jacket for fire fighters, insulation of airplanes as well as heat protective plates for the automotive industry, are found out. New fields for further applications of the Super-Insulation-Flock-Material result from the

  18. Electric fields and electrical insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    2002-01-01

    The adoption of a field-theoretical approach to problems arising in the framework of electrical insulation is discussed with reference to six main topics, which have been addressed over the last 30 years. These include uniform field electrodes, Green's differential equation, electrode surface......, it is amply demonstrated that such an approach can lead to significant progress in many areas of electrical insulation....

  19. ZnO materials and surface tailoring for biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakimova, Rositza; Selegard, Linnea; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr; Pearce, Ruth; Spetz, Anita Lloyd; Uvdal, Kajsa

    2012-01-01

    ZnO nanostructured materials, such as films and nanoparticles, could provide a suitable platform for development of high performance biosensors due to their unique fundamental material properties. This paper reviews different preparation techniques of ZnO nanocrystals and material issues like wettability, biocompatibility and toxicity, which have an important relevance to biosensor functionality. Efforts are made to summarize and analyze existing results regarding surface modification and molecular attachments for successful biofunctionalization and understanding of the mechanisms involved. A section is devoted to implementations of tailored surfaces in biosensors. We end with conclusions on the feasibility of using ZnO nanocrystals for biosensing.

  20. New Developments for Radiation Enhancements from Metal Surfaces by Using Nanoscale Materials in the Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Koji; Matsuda, Masami

    2017-12-01

    The enhancements of thermal radiations from the surfaces of devices are very important for electric machines to prevent from heating up and/or efficiency degradations. In this investigation, new applications of micro-scale membrane of Si, SiO2 etc. on the metal surfaces have been studied to cool down the temperature without breaking insulations of the devices by selecting materials. The modified black-body radiations were sensitively detected by thermisters with sub-second responses. The optimum membrane thicknesses were successfully determined by subtractions a of radiation intensities between those at membranes with and without membrane, respectively. We obtained the best cooling condition in SiO2 membrane with 20μmt for an Al-plate of 10cmx10cmx1mmt. Further, we observed the detaching/attaching processes of massive molecule clusters from the metal surface as a sudden change in temperature changes just like the noises in the detectors. A characteristic pattern of temperature change was observed in diatomite membranes during the cooling process in a temperature range between 200-50°C. These radiation phenomena as a function of temperature might be available as a molecular analysis on the metal surface.

  1. Washing Off Polyurethane Foam Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Richard K.; Fogel, Irving

    1990-01-01

    Jet of hot water removes material quickly and safely. Simple, environmentally sound technique found to remove polyurethane foam insulation from metal parts. Developed for (but not limited to) use during rebuilding of fuel system of Space Shuttle main engine, during which insulation must be removed for penetrant inspection of metal parts.

  2. Dental Hetero-Graft Materials with Nano Hydroxyapatite Surface Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dai-Hwan; Kim, Kyung-Il; Yoon, Seokyoung; Kim, Hyung-Jo; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Jun, Sang Ho; Kang, Ho Chang; Pang, Changhyun; Kim, Jaeyun; Cha, Hyung Joon; Han, Kwon-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Myong; Lee, Jung Heon

    2015-10-01

    We report the development of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (HAp NP)-functionalized hetero-graft materials (HGMs) for dental applications. These HGMs were prepared by attaching platelet-, needle-, and sphere-shaped HAp NPs to the surface of xenograft materials through chemical conjugation. Although all three HAp NPs contributed to increase the surface area of bone graft material (BGM), the shape of the HAp NPs was a determining factor. Platelet HAp NPs were most effective, because they caused a 48.9% increase in BGM surface area whereas the influence of the spherical NP was only a 6.7% increase. This suggests that geometric factors regarding both the attached HAp NPs and graft material surface are essential in controlling the surface roughness of graft materials. Among the three HAp NPs, it was the platelet HAp NPs that helped to increase the efficacy of the BGM most significantly. Compared with BGM with no HAp NP attachment, HGM with platelet HAp NP ('platelet-HGM) treatment had ~46.1% higher cell attachment and proliferation rate. The MTT assay also showed that the HAp NP-treated hetero-graft materials had negligible cytotoxicity.

  3. STUDY OF SURFACE PHENOMENA IN MATERIALS OF PROSTHETIC RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Păpuşa Vasiliu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As a direct consequence of their application domain – the oral cavity – dental materials are subjected to the corosive action of saliva, being surrounded by microorganisms, fluids and alimentary rests, which modify their surface characteristics. Concerns on the quality of the dental materials explain the numeorus interdisciplinary studies, characterized by a close relation among various scientific domains (physics, chemistry, biology, science of biomaterials, techniques also applied in clinical stomatology. Analysis of the saliva–dental materials interface made use of ceramic surfaces, composites and artificial saliva, permitting to determine the main surface parameters of the materials of prosthetic restoration, calculated with some physical models, starting from measurements of the contact angle: surface energy, its polar and dispersive components, surface rugosity, adhesion mechanic work. All composites showed low values of the adhesion mechanic work, the conclusion being that they are much more hydrophobic than the ceramic materials. Such a property is especially important from an aesthetic perspective, as the hydrophobic materials have a better colour stability in time.

  4. Effects of bleaching agents on surface roughness of filling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Ljubisa; Jordan, Rainer Andreas; Glasser, Marie-Claire; Arnold, Wolfgang Hermann; Nebel, Jan; Tillmann, Wolfgang; Ostermann, Thomas; Zimmer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use a non-tactile optical measurement system to assess the effects of three bleaching agents' concentrations on the surface roughness of dental restoration materials. Two composites (Grandio, Venus) and one glass ionomer cement (Ketac Fil Plus) were used in this in vitro study. Specimens were treated with three different bleaching agents (16% and 22% carbamide peroxide (Polanight) and 38% hydrogen peroxide (Opalescence Boost)). Surface roughness was measured with an optical profilometer (Infinite Focus G3) before and after the bleaching treatment. Surface roughness increased in all tested specimens after bleaching treatment (p<0.05). Our in vitro study showed that dental bleaching agents influenced the surface roughness of different restoration materials, and the restoration material itself was shown to have an impact on alteration susceptibility. There seemed to be no clinical relevance in case of an optimal finish.

  5. Controlling coverage of solution cast materials with unfavourable surface interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Burlakov, V. M.

    2014-03-03

    Creating uniform coatings of a solution-cast material is of central importance to a broad range of applications. Here, a robust and generic theoretical framework for calculating surface coverage by a solid film of material de-wetting a substrate is presented. Using experimental data from semiconductor thin films as an example, we calculate surface coverage for a wide range of annealing temperatures and film thicknesses. The model generally predicts that for each value of the annealing temperature there is a range of film thicknesses leading to poor surface coverage. The model accurately reproduces solution-cast thin film coverage for organometal halide perovskites, key modern photovoltaic materials, and identifies processing windows for both high and low levels of surface coverage. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  6. Method of removing hazardous material deposited on concrete surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Fumiaki; Baba, Kyoji.

    1991-01-01

    A salt compound containing a carbonate group such as sodium carbonate or potassium carbonate is dissolved in water and the aqueous solution is sprayed on the surface of concretes, kept for a predetermined period and dried to deposit the carbonate on the surface of the concretes. Then, aqueous solution of an organic acid such as oxalic acid or citric acid is sprayed and reacted with the carbonate to form bubbles of gaseous carbon dioxide. With such procedures, hazardous material containing radioactive materials intruded to the unevenness or fine holes on the surface of the concrete, or heavy metals such as hexavalent chromium or lead are deposited to the bubbles of gaseous carbon dioxide to be raised up therewith. By removing the bubbles, hazardous materials such as radioactive materials or heavy metals intruded to the concretes can be removed without generating powdery dusts, without requiring a large-scaled device and without changing the characteristic of the concretes. (T.M.)

  7. Thermal conductivity of carbon felts, insulating materials with a high anisotropy; Conductivite thermique des feutres de carbone, isolants a forte anisotropie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danes, F.E.; Bardon, J.P. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Thermocinetique

    1996-12-31

    Because of their high temperature resistance, carbon felts are used as thermal insulating materials for high temperature applications. The aim of this paper is to present a model that allows to calculate the thermal conductivity of felt fibers taking into account their high anisotropy and the contact resistance of fibers generated by the 3-D constriction phenomena which develop in fibers around each contact point. The study is divided in two parts: the first part concerns the bibliographic study of the different anisotropies of fibers and felts, while the second part presents the proposed conductivity model. (J.S.) 12 refs.

  8. A New Analytical Subthreshold Behavior Model for Single-Halo, Dual-Material Gate Silicon-on-Insulator Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Te-Kuang

    2008-11-01

    On the basis of the exact solution of the two-dimensional Poisson equation, a new analytical subthreshold behavior model consisting of the two-dimensional potential, threshold voltage, and subthreshold current for the single-halo, dual-material gate (SHDMG) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) is developed. The model is verified by the good agreement with a numerical simulation using the device simulator MEDICI. The model not only offers a physical insight into device physics but is also an efficient device model for the circuit simulation.

  9. Quantitative voltage contrast method for electron irradiated insulators in SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhaj, M [UR MMA INSAT Centre Urbain Nord, BP 676-1080, Tunis (Tunisia); Jbara, O [LASSI/GRESPI, Faculte des Sciences, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Fakhfakh, S [LaMaCop, Faculte des sciences de SFAX, Route Soukra Km 3, BP 802, CP 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)], E-mail: mohamed.belhaj@free.fr

    2008-09-07

    A surface potential mapping method for electron irradiated insulators in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) is proposed. This method, based on the use of a highly compact electrostatic toroidal spectrometer specially adapted to SEM applications, is able to monitor the spatial variation of surface potentials of strongly negatively charged materials. The capabilities of this method are tested on a made-up heterogeneous sample. First results prove that the method is particularly appropriate for the reconstitution of the surface potential distribution.

  10. Quantitative voltage contrast method for electron irradiated insulators in SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhaj, M; Jbara, O; Fakhfakh, S

    2008-01-01

    A surface potential mapping method for electron irradiated insulators in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) is proposed. This method, based on the use of a highly compact electrostatic toroidal spectrometer specially adapted to SEM applications, is able to monitor the spatial variation of surface potentials of strongly negatively charged materials. The capabilities of this method are tested on a made-up heterogeneous sample. First results prove that the method is particularly appropriate for the reconstitution of the surface potential distribution

  11. Electrical resistivity study of insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liesegang, J.; Senn, B.C.; Holcombe, S.R.; Pigram, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Conventional methods of electrical resistivity measurement of dielectric materials involve the application of electrodes to a sample whereby a potential is applied and a current through the material is measured. Although great care and ingenuity has often been applied to this technique, the recorded values of electrical resistivity (p), especially for insulator materials, show great disparity. In earlier work by the authors, a method for determining surface charge decay [Q(t)], using a coaxial cylindrical capacitor arrangement interfaced to a personal computer, was adapted to allow the relatively straightforward measurement of electrical resistivity in the surface region of charged insulator materials. This method was used to develop an ionic charge transport theory, based on Mott-Gurney diffusion to allow a greater understanding into charge transport behaviour. This theory was extended using numerical analysis to produce a two dimensional (2-D) computational model to allow the direct comparison between experimental and theoretical charge decay data. The work also provided a means for the accurate determination of the diffusion coefficient (D) and the layer of thickness of surface charge (Δz) on the sample. The work outlined here involves an extension of the theoretical approach previously taken, using a computational model based more closely on the 3-D experimental set-up, to reinforce the level of confidence in the results achieved for the simpler 2-D treatment. Initially, a 3-D rectangular box arrangement similar to the experimental set-up was modelled and a theoretical and experimental comparison of voltage decay results made. This model was then transferred into cylindrical coordinates to allow it to be almost identical to the experiment and again a comparison made. In addition, theoretical analysis of the coupled non-linear partial differential equations governing the charge dissipation process has led to a simplification involving directly, the

  12. Hardfacing materials used in valves for seating and wear surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, W.G.

    1996-12-01

    Most valves and essentially all critical service valves utilize hardfacing materials for seating and wear surfaces to minimize wear and galling. The type of hardfacing materials used, the methods of deposition, and the quality of the final product all contribute to the wear characteristics, required operating force, and life of the final product. Over the last forty years the most prevalent hardfacing materials furnished to the commercial nuclear industry consisted of cobalt base and nickel base materials. In the last several years there has been extensive development and evaluation work performed on iron base hardfacing materials. This presentation will address the wear characteristics of the various materials and the importance of consistent quality of deposited materials necessary to achieve optimum product performance and longevity.

  13. The human impact on natural rock reserves using basalt, anorthosite, and carbonates as raw materials in insulation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Tais Wittchen; Clausen, Anders U.; Hansen, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    , and carbonates are widespread on all continents. Although basaltic rocks cover most of the ocean floor, these reserves are hidden below several kilometres of water and therefore are regarded as inaccessible. Instead, large igneous provinces on land constitute major basaltic reserves useful for human rock...... of these rock types are so large that they could supply current human demand for millions of years. The natural degradation of surface rocks occurs by physical and chemical weathering creating sediment that is transported along rivers and deposited in the ocean. Sediments are either obducted with continental......% basalt, 20 wt% anorthosite, and 40 wt% cement-bonded renewable materials. This study provides an overview of the natural cycle of these resources, including their abundances in nature, and sets the consumption by the stone wool industry and other human activities in perspective. Basalt, anorthosite...

  14. Surface Sensitive Techniques for Advanced Characterization of Luminescent Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Hendrik C

    2017-08-04

    The important role of surface sensitive characterization techniques such as Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), time of flight scanning ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) for the characterization of different phosphor materials is discussed in this short review by giving selective examples from previous obtained results. AES is used to monitor surface reactions during electron bombardment and also to determine the elemental composition of the surfaces of the materials, while XPS and TOF-SIMS are used for determining the surface chemical composition and valence state of the dopants. The role of XPS to determine the presence of defects in the phosphor matrix is also stated with the different examples. The role of HRTEM in combination with Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) for nanoparticle characterization is also pointed out.

  15. Surface Sensitive Techniques for Advanced Characterization of Luminescent Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik C. Swart

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The important role of surface sensitive characterization techniques such as Auger electron spectroscopy (AES, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS, time of flight scanning ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM for the characterization of different phosphor materials is discussed in this short review by giving selective examples from previous obtained results. AES is used to monitor surface reactions during electron bombardment and also to determine the elemental composition of the surfaces of the materials, while XPS and TOF-SIMS are used for determining the surface chemical composition and valence state of the dopants. The role of XPS to determine the presence of defects in the phosphor matrix is also stated with the different examples. The role of HRTEM in combination with Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS for nanoparticle characterization is also pointed out.

  16. Materials surface damage and modification under high power plasma exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkusha, I.; Makhlaj, V.; Byrka, O.; Taran, V.; Voitsenya, V.; Malykhin, S.; Herashchenko, S.; Surovitskiy, S.; Nowakowska-Langier, K.; Sadowski, M. J.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Terentyev, D.

    2018-01-01

    Influence of powerful plasma impacts on several materials used for the construction of energy systems, i.e. different grades of steels as well as tungsten coatings, has been discussed. Irradiations of these materials with hydrogen and helium plasma streams have been performed in several high-current-pulse and quasi-stationary plasma accelerators which provided the variation of a power load upon the exposed surface as well as changes of the particle flux in wide ranges: the energy flux density in the range of 1-25 MJ/m2, particle flux - up to 1026-1029 ion/m2s, the plasma stream velocity - up to about 500 km/s, and the pulse duration in the range of 1-250 μs. A response of the investigated materials to extreme plasma loads, which are relevant to transient events in fusion reactors, is briefly discussed. It is demonstrated that a broad combination of mechanisms of powerful plasma interactions with various materials includes not only a surface damage caused by different erosion mechanisms, but under certain conditions it may also result in a significant improvement of material properties in the near-surface surface layer of several tens-μm in thickness. Some improvement of the structure and substructure of such a layer may be caused by the high-speed quenching, the shock wave formation and material alloying with plasma- and coating-species. The creation of unique surface structures and a considerable improvement of physical and mechanical properties of different materials can be achieved by the pulsed plasma alloying, i.e. pre-deposited coating modifications and mixing caused by the impacting plasma streams.

  17. Evidence of having control over loss-of-coolant accidents with release of insulation material under consideration of actions taken in German BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffrath, Andreas; Henschel, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    The following contribution describes the main features of the demonstration of the control of loss of coolant accidents with release of insulation material under consideration of actions taken in German BWR. The general criteria for the assessment as well as comparable individual aspects are adopted from the RSK statement (374 th meeting) for PWR from July 2004. After the Barsebaeck event in 1992 administrative regulations were implemented for securing the plant cleanliness as well as modifications to strainers of the ECCS and the containment (e.g. the introduction of perforated plates in the control rod chamber). This contribution illustrates that sufficient examinations and tests have been performed for German BWR for a final positive evaluation that the amount of fibers which enter the core remain below the amount at which core cooling is no longer guaranteed. Currently, for one BWR an additional optimation of the ECCS systems (here the introduction of a socalled 'sandwich' wire cloths in the ECCS strainers) has currently been applied for. Through this the core entry of insulation material - even for fibers with a covering small lengths spectrum - can be further reduced and currently existing safety margins further increased. (orig.)

  18. Topological insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Topological Insulators, volume six in the Contemporary Concepts of Condensed Matter Series, describes the recent revolution in condensed matter physics that occurred in our understanding of crystalline solids. The book chronicles the work done worldwide that led to these discoveries and provides the reader with a comprehensive overview of the field. Starting in 2004, theorists began to explore the effect of topology on the physics of band insulators, a field previously considered well understood. However, the inclusion of topology brings key new elements into this old field. Whereas it was

  19. Laboratory Determination of Thermal Protection System Materials Surface Catalytic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Zalar, A., "Recombination of Neutral Hydrogen Atoms on AISI 304 Stainless Steel Surface," Applied Surface Science, Vol. 144-145, 1999, pp. 399-403. 57...and test environments. Typically, these fits contain only the temperature dependence of the loss probability, with no information on pressure or...generated in the MESOX test facility in the PROMES-CNRS laboratory on a variety of ceramic materials.47-50 The MESOX facility uses a flow tube

  20. Directing neuronal cell growth on implant material surfaces by microstructuring.

    OpenAIRE

    Reich, Uta; Fadeeva, Elena; Warnecke, Athanasia; Paasche, Gerrit; Müller, Peter; Chichkov, Boris; Stöver, Timo; Lenarz, Thomas; Reuter, Günter

    2012-01-01

    For best hearing sensation, electrodes of auditory prosthesis must have an optimal electrical contact to the respective neuronal cells. To improve the electrode-nerve interface, microstructuring of implant surfaces could guide neuronal cells toward the electrode contact. To this end, femtosecond laser ablation was used to generate linear microgrooves on the two currently relevant cochlear implant materials, silicone elastomer and platinum. Silicone surfaces were structured by two different me...

  1. Surface Sensitive Techniques for Advanced Characterization of Luminescent Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrik C. Swart

    2017-01-01

    The important role of surface sensitive characterization techniques such as Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), time of flight scanning ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) for the characterization of different phosphor materials is discussed in this short review by giving selective examples from previous obtained results. AES is used to monitor surface reactions during electron bombardment and al...

  2. STUDY OF SURFACE PHENOMENA IN MATERIALS OF PROSTHETIC RESTORATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela-Păpuşa Vasiliu; Carmen Stadoleanu; Daniela Ivona Tomiţa; Cristina-Mihaela Stanilă; S.-C. Jalbă; Nicoleta Dumitraşcu

    2012-01-01

    As a direct consequence of their application domain – the oral cavity – dental materials are subjected to the corosive action of saliva, being surrounded by microorganisms, fluids and alimentary rests, which modify their surface characteristics. Concerns on the quality of the dental materials explain the numeorus interdisciplinary studies, characterized by a close relation among various scientific domains (physics, chemistry, biology, science of biomaterials), techniqu...

  3. Surface engineering of glazing materials and structures using plasma processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre; Monteiro, Othon R.

    2003-01-01

    A variety of coatings is commercially produced on a very large scale, including transparent conducting oxides and multi-layer silver-based low-emissivity and solar control coatings. A very brief review of materials and manufacturing process is presented and illustrated by ultrathin silver films and chevron copper films. Understanding the close relation between manufacturing processes and bulk and surface properties of materials is crucial for film growth and self-assembly processes

  4. Thermal/acoustical insulation foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R. Y.; Struzik, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Lightweight low-density substance can be used as fire resistant insulation in aircraft. Material density can be controlled over range from 0.6-1.2 pounds per cubic foot and has good thermal and acoustic properties.

  5. Insulators for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    Design studies for fusion devices and reactors have become more detailed in recent years and with this has come a better understanding of requirements and operating conditions for insulators in these machines. Ceramic and organic insulators are widely used for many components of fusion devices and reactors namely: radio frequency (RF) energy injection systems (BeO, Al 2 O 3 , Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 3 N 4 ); electrical insulation for the torus structure (SiC, Al 2 O 3 , MgO, Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 4 Al 2 O 2 N 6 , Si 3 N 4 , Y 2 O 3 ); lightly-shielded magnetic coils (MgO, MgAl 2 O 4 ); the toroidal field coil (epoxies, polyimides), neutron shield (B 4 C, TiH 2 ); high efficiency electrical generation; as well as the generation of very high temperatures for high efficiency hydrogen production processes (ZrO 2 and Al 2 O 3 - mat, graphite and carbon - felt). Timely development of insulators for fusion applications is clearly necessary. Those materials to be used in fusion machines should show high resistance to radiation damage and maintain their structural integrity. Now the need is urgent for a variety of radiation resistant materials, but much effort in these areas is required for insulators to be considered seriously by the design community. This document contains 14 papers from an IAEA meeting. It was the objective of this meeting to identify existing problems in analysing various situations of applications and requirements of electrical insulators and ceramics in fusion and to recommend strategies and different stages of implementation. This meeting was endorsed by the International Fusion Research Council

  6. Life cycle assessment of hemp cultivation and use of hemp-based thermal insulator materials in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampori, Luca; Dotelli, Giovanni; Vernelli, Valeria

    2013-07-02

    The aim of this research is to assess the sustainability of a natural fiber, such as hemp (Cannabis sativa), and its use as thermal insulator for building applications. The sustainability of hemp was quantified by life cycle assessment (LCA) and particular attention was given to the amount of CO2eq of the whole process, and the indicator greenhouse gas protocol (GGP) was selected to quantify CO2eq emissions. In this study also CO2 uptake of hemp was considered. Two different allocation procedures (i.e., mass and economic) were adopted. Other indicators, such as Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) and EcoIndicator99 H were calculated. The production of 1 ha yielded 15 ton of hemp, whose global warming potential (GWP100) was equal to about -26.01 ton CO2eq: the amount allocated to the technical fiber (20% of the total amount of hemp biomass) was -5.52 ton CO2eq when mass allocation was used, and -5.54 ton CO2eq when economic allocation was applied. The sustainability for building applications was quantified by considering an insulation panel made by hemp fiber (85%) and polyester fiber (15%) in 1 m(2) of wall having a thermal transmittance (U) equal to 0.2 W/m(2)_K. The environmental performances of the hemp-based panel were compared to those of a rockwool-based one.

  7. Characterization of waste of soda-lime glass generated from lapping process to reuse as filler in composite materials as thermal insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. P. Galvão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe beneficiation plate process by soda-lime glass lapping in the glass industry generates, an untapped residue (waste. The waste of this material is sent to landfills, causing impact on the environment. This work aimed to characterize and evaluate the waste of soda-lime glass (GP lapping. After its acquisition, the GP was processed by grinding and sieving and further characterized by the chemical/mineralogical analysis (XRF, EDS and XRD, SEM morphology, particle size by laser diffraction, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA and DSC and thermophysical analyses. It was observed that the GP particles are irregular and micrometric with the predominant presence of Na, Si and Ca elements characteristic of amorphous soda-lime glass. The assessment of the chemical/mineralogical, morphological, thermophysical and thermal gravimetric characteristics of GP suggest its reuse as reinforcing fillers or filler in composite materials to obtain thermal insulation.

  8. Material, Mechanical, and Tribological Characterization of Laser-Treated Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Kumar, Aditya; Bhushan, Bharat; Aleem, B. J. Abdul

    2014-10-01

    Laser treatment under nitrogen assisting gas environment of cobalt-nickel-chromium-tungsten-based superalloy and high-velocity oxygen-fuel thermal spray coating of nickel-chromium-based superalloy on carbon steel was carried out to improve mechanical and tribological properties. Superalloy surface was preprepared to include B4C particles at the surface prior to the laser treatment process. Material and morphological changes in the laser-treated samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Residual stresses present at the surface region of the laser-treated layer were determined from the XRD data. The microhardness of the laser-treated surface was measured by indentation tests. Fracture toughness of the coating surfaces before and after laser treatment were also measured using overload indentation tests. Macrowear and macrofriction characterization were carried out using pin-on-disk tests.

  9. Acoustic surface transformation realized by acoustic-null materials using bilayer natural materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Borui; Sun, Fei; He, Sailing

    2017-11-01

    We propose a general method, known as acoustic surface transformation (AST), to design novel acoustic devices and study the realization of such devices by using naturally available materials in broadband acoustic frequencies. All devices designed by AST only need one anisotropic homogeneous acoustic-null material (ANM). We design the ANM by exploiting natural material-based metal-fluid structures and verify that by numerical simulation. Unlike traditional methods, no complicated mathematical calculations are needed. We only need to design the geometrical shapes of the input and output surfaces of the devices. The proposed method will pave a new road for future acoustic design.

  10. Modeling and analysis for surface roughness and material removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    terms of cutting parameters is also developed using regression modeling. The results indicate that the developed model is suitable for prediction of surface roughness and material removal rate in machining of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastics (UD-GFRP) composites. The predicted values and measured values ...

  11. Difraction analysis of iron materials after surface machining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čerňanský, Marian; Ganev, N.; Barcal, J.; Drahokoupil, Jan; Kolařík, K.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2006, suppl. 23 (2006), s. 369-374 ISSN 0044-2968 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : iron materials * surface treatment * size-strain * residual stress * phase analysis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2006

  12. Boundary surface and microstructure analysis of ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woltersdorf, J.; Pippel, E.

    1992-01-01

    The article introduces the many possibilities of high voltage (HVEM) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) for boundary surface and microstructure analysis of ceramic materials. The investigations are limited to ceramic long fibre composites and a ceramic fibre/glass matrix system. (DG) [de

  13. Highway-rail grade crossing surface material performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Highway-Railroad grade crossings are an integral part of the transportation system, allowing the : two modes to operate in the same areas. Performance of the surface material at grade : crossings has been an ongoing issue. This study reviewed the lit...

  14. Modeling and analysis for surface roughness and material removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... A multiple objective utility model has been studied to optimize both the dependent parameters. ... Keywords: UD-GFRP composites, ANOVA, multi response optimization, utility concept, regression modeling, surface roughness, material removal rate, ...

  15. Computational design of surfaces, nanostructures and optoelectronic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Kamal

    Properties of engineering materials are generally influenced by defects such as point defects (vacancies, interstitials, substitutional defects), line defects (dislocations), planar defects (grain boundaries, free surfaces/nanostructures, interfaces, stacking faults) and volume defects (voids). Classical physics based molecular dynamics and quantum physics based density functional theory can be useful in designing materials with controlled defect properties. In this thesis, empirical potential based molecular dynamics was used to study the surface modification of polymers due to energetic polyatomic ion, thermodynamics and mechanics of metal-ceramic interfaces and nanostructures, while density functional theory was used to screen substituents in optoelectronic materials. Firstly, polyatomic ion-beams were deposited on polymer surfaces and the resulting chemical modifications of the surface were examined. In particular, S, SC and SH were deposited on amorphous polystyrene (PS), and C2H, CH3, and C3H5 were deposited on amorphous poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using molecular dynamics simulations with classical reactive empirical many-body (REBO) potentials. The objective of this work was to elucidate the mechanisms by which the polymer surface modification took place. The results of the work could be used in tailoring the incident energy and/or constituents of ion beam for obtaining a particular chemistry inside the polymer surface. Secondly, a new Al-O-N empirical potential was developed within the charge optimized many body (COMB) formalism. This potential was then used to examine the thermodynamic stability of interfaces and mechanical properties of nanostructures composed of aluminum, its oxide and its nitride. The potentials were tested for these materials based on surface energies, defect energies, bulk phase stability, the mechanical properties of the most stable bulk phase, its phonon properties as well as with a genetic algorithm based evolution theory of

  16. Enzyme-enabled responsive surfaces for anti-contamination materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songtao; Buthe, Andreas; Jia, Hongfei; Zhang, Minjuan; Ishii, Masahiko; Wang, Ping

    2013-06-01

    Many real-life stains have origins from biological matters including proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates that act as gluing agents binding along with other particulates or microbes to exposed surfaces of automobiles, furniture, and fabrics. Mimicking naturally occurring self-defensive processes, we demonstrate in this work that a solid surface carrying partially exposed enzyme granules protected the surface in situ from contamination by biological stains and fingerprints. Attributed to the activities of enzymes which can be made compatible with a wide range of materials, such anti-contamination and self-cleaning functionalities are highly selective and efficient toward sticky chemicals. This observation promises a new mechanism in developing smart materials with desired anti-microbial, self-reporting, self-cleaning, or self-healing functions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Internal insulation failure mechanisms of HV equipment under service conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhanin, A.K.; Morozova, T.I. [All-Russian Electrochemical Inst. (Russian Federation); Shneider, G.Y. [Electrozavod Holding Company (Russian Federation); Sokolov, V.V. [Scientific and Engineering Centre, ZTZ Service Research Inst. (Russian Federation); Chornogotsky, V.M. [Ukrainian Transformer Research Inst. (Ukraine)

    2005-09-01

    Failure mechanisms in oil-barrier transformer insulation and oil-paper condenser type insulation of transformers and HV bushing were discussed with reference to typical defects and failure modes of oil-barrier insulation of transformers, shunt reactor, condenser type bushing and instrument current transformers. It was noted that insulation problems predominantly involve the impairment of insulation, and that the relative rate of major failures in shunt reactors is about 1 per cent. It was suggested that bushings can cause about 45 per cent of major transformer failures, with aged mode failure occurring most frequently. The failure rate of 220-500 kV CTs accounts for more than 60 per cent of total instrument transformer failures. Two failure modes were observed: ionisation-mode and aging-mode failures. The reduction of switching surge breakdown voltage due to deposit of insoluble aging products was discussed. A long-term dielectric strength test revealed the following 2 mechanisms of insulation breakdown: accidental breakdown during the first period of aging and wearing mode breakdown due to degradation of materials at the last stage of the calculated terms of aging. Issues concerning the mechanism of the incipient irreversible failure in oil-barrier insulation were discussed, as well as issues concerning creeping discharge and large failures during normal operating conditions. It was suggested that the occurrence of surface discharge is associated with increased voltage due to oil breakdown progressing into insulation destruction and surface discharge as a self-firing phenomenon. Failure modes induced by peculiar oil and staining of internal porcelain were reviewed. It was noted that the discharges across the inner part of the transformer and porcelain were the out-come of a typical aging-mode phenomenon in the bushing. In addition, failure modes induced by staining the outer surface of bottom porcelain were discussed, as well as failure of oil-filled paper

  18. Deposition of fine and ultrafine particles on indoor surface materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Reinhold, Claus

    2008-01-01

    -scale test chamber. Experiments took place in a 32 m3 chamber with walls and ceiling made of glass. Prior to each experiment the chamber was flushed with outdoor air to reach an initial particle concentration typical of indoor air in buildings with natural ventilation. The decay of particle concentrations...... The aim of this study was the experimental determination of particle deposition for both different particle size fractions and different indoor surface materials. The selected surface materials were glass, gypsum board, carpet, and curtain. These materials were tested vertically in a full...... was monitored. Seven particle size fractions were studied. These comprised ultrafine and fine particles. Deposition was higher on carpet and curtain than on glass and gypsum board. Particles ranging from 0.3 to 0.5 µm had the lowest deposition. This fraction also has the highest penetration and its indoor...

  19. Asteroid surface materials: mineralogical characterizations from reflectance spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffey, M.J.; McCord, T.B.

    1978-01-01

    The interpretation of diagnostic parameters in the spectral reflectance data for asteroids provides a means of characterizing the mineralogy and petrology of asteroid surface materials. An interpretive technique based on a quantitative understanding of the functional relationship between the optical properties of a mineral assemblage and its mineralogy, petrology and chemistry can provide a considerably more sophisticated characterization of a single material than any matching or classification technique for those objects bright enough to allow spectral reflectance measurements. Albedos derived from radiometry and polarization data for individual asteroids can be used with spectral data to establish the spectral albedo, to define the optical density of the surface material and, in general to constrain mineralogical interpretations. (Auth.)

  20. Surface and Interface Physics of Correlated Electron Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millis, Andrew [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2004-09-01

    The {\\it Surface and Interface Physics of Correlated Electron Materials} research program provided conceptual understanding of and theoretical methodologies for understanding the properties of surfaces and interfaces involving materials exhibiting strong electronic correlations. The issues addressed in this research program are important for basic science, because the behavior of correlated electron superlattices is a crucial challenge to and crucial test of our understanding of the grand-challenge problem of correlated electron physics and are important for our nation's energy future because correlated interfaces offer opportunities for the control of phenomena needed for energy and device applications. Results include new physics insights, development of new methods, and new predictions for materials properties.