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Sample records for surface induced ordering

  1. Surface-induced ordering of a liquid crystal in the isotropic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, K.

    1979-01-01

    A detailed account of a measurement of order parameter of a liquid crystal at the boundary by means of the wall-induced pretransitional birefringence is given. Several surface treatments were studied including surfactants and evaporated films. Although all treatments produced good alignment in the nematic phase, the boundary order parameter (hence the strength of the aligning force) in the isotropic phase differed very much depending on the treatment, indicating the diverse nature of the alignment process

  2. Surface induced ordering of micelles at the solid-liquid interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstenberg, M.C.; Pedersen, J.S.; Smith, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    The surface induced ordering of triblock copolymer micelles in aqueous solution was measured with neutron reflectivity far above the critical micelle concentration. The scattering length density profiles showed a clear indication of ordered layers of micelles perpendicular to a quartz surface. The structure and interactions of the micelles were modeled in detail. The convolution of the center distribution of the micelles, obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of hard spheres at a hard wall, and the projected density of the micelle showed excellent agreement with the experimental profiles. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  3. Surface induced ordering of micelles at the solid-liquid interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstenberg, M.C.; Pedersen, J.S.; Smith, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    The surface induced ordering of triblock copolymer micelles in aqueous solution was measured with neutron reflectivity far above the critical micelle concentration. The scattering length density profiles showed a clear indication of ordered layers of micelles perpendicular to a quartz surface....... The structure and interactions of the micelles were modeled in detail. The convolution of the center distribution of the micelles, obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of hard spheres at a hard wall, and the projected density of the micelle showed excellent agreement with the experimental profiles. [S1063-651X...

  4. Shear induced hexagonal ordering observed in an ionic viscoelastic fluid in flow past a surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, W.A.; Butler, P.D.; Baker, S.M.; Smith, G.S.; Hayter, J.B.; Magid, L.J.; Pynn, R.

    1994-01-01

    We present the first clear evidence of a shear induced hexagonal phase in a polyionic fluid in flow past a plane quartz surface. The dilute surfactant solution studied is viscoelastic due to the formation and entanglement of highly extended charged threadlike micelles many thousands of A long, which are known to align along the flow direction under shear. Small-angle neutron diffraction data show that in the high shear region within a few tens of microns of the surface these micelles not only align, but form a remarkably well ordered hexagonal array separated by 370 A, 8 times their 46 A diameter

  5. Antisite-defect-induced surface segregation in ordered NiPt alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pourovskii, L.V.; Ruban, Andrei; Abrikosov, I.A.

    2003-01-01

    alloys corresponds to the (111) truncation of the bulk L1(0) ordered structure. However, the (111) surface of the nickel deficient Ni49Pt51 alloy is strongly enriched by Pt and should exhibit the pattern of the 2x2 structure. Such a drastic change in the segregation behavior is due to the presence...

  6. Annealing-induced near-surface ordering in disordered Ga0.5In0.5P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, J.S.; Olson, J.M.; Wu, M.

    1995-01-01

    Most samples of Ga 0.5 In 0.5 P grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on (001)-like surfaces are partially ordered and exhibit distinctive reflectance difference spectral (RDS) features associated with the anisotropic properties of the ordered bulk structure. It is known that the ordering is not a ground-state property of the bulk but is surface-induced during growth. On the other hand, Ga 0.5 In 0.5 P grown by liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) is completely disordered, and it has been shown that its RD spectrum is essentially featureless. In this article, we present a study of the effects of annealing (in a PH 3 /H 2 atmosphere) on LPE-grown Ga 0.5 In 0.5 P using ex situ and in situ RDS. The annealing temperatures and times used in this study (650 degree C and tens of minutes) have virtually no effect on the bulk optical or structural properties of MOCVD-grown Ga 0.5 In 0.5 P. For LPE-grown Ga 0.5 In 0.5 P, we find that annealing induces bulk-like RDS features at both E 0 and E 1 with line shapes similar to those observed for MOCVD-grown ordered Ga 0.5 In 0.5 P. These bulk-like spectral features are, however, due to near-surface reconstruction of Ga and In because they are effectively quenched by exposure to air. Also, the E 0 feature becomes sharper and both the E 0 and the E 1 features red-shift as the annealing process is prolonged. This indicates that this reconstruction is kinetically limited, presumably by the slow interdiffusion of Ga and In necessary to achieve the ordered bulk-like structure. copyright 1995 American Vacuum SocietyGa 0.5 In 0.5 P

  7. ''Over the horizon'' SANS: Measurements on near-surface Poiseuille shear-induced ordering of dilute solutions of threadlike micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, W.A.; Butler, P.D.; Hayter, J.B.; Magid, L.J.; Kreke, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Although the behavior of a fluid under shear near a surface can be expected to be critically important to its drag and lubrication properties, most shear measurements to date have been of the bulk. This paper outlines the use of a specially developed Poiseuille shear cell at grazing incidence to measure the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) signal from the first few tens of microns in the interfacial region. The authors illustrate the technique with measurements made on the near-surface ordering in flow past a quartz surface of dilute surfactant solutions comprising highly extended self-assembling ''threadlike'' micelles

  8. Surface induced smectic order in ionic liquids - an X-ray reflectivity study of [C22C1im]+[NTf2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Julian; Hou, Binyang; Weiss, Henning; Li, Hailong; Konovalov, Oleg; Festersen, Sven; Murphy, Bridget M; Rütt, Uta; Bier, Markus; Mezger, Markus

    2017-10-11

    Surface induced smectic order was found for the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-docosylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethlysulfonyl)imide by X-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence scattering experiments. Near the free liquid surface, an ordered structure of alternating layers composed of polar and non-polar moieties is observed. This leads to an oscillatory interfacial profile perpendicular to the liquid surface with a periodicity of 3.7 nm. Small angle X-ray scattering and polarized light microscopy measurements suggest that the observed surface structure is related to fluctuations into a metastable liquid crystalline SmA 2 phase that was found by supercooling the bulk liquid. The observed surface ordering persists up to 157 °C, i.e. more than 88 K above the bulk melting temperature of 68.1 °C. Close to the bulk melting point, we find a thickness of the ordered layer of L = 30 nm. The dependency of L(τ) = Λ ln(τ/τ 1 ) vs. reduced temperature τ follows a logarithmic growth law. In agreement with theory, the pre-factor Λ is governed by the correlation length of the isotropic bulk phase.

  9. Induced surface stress at crystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmen, K.

    2002-05-01

    Changes of the surfaces stress Δτ (s) can be studied by observing the bending of thin crystalline plates. With this cantilever method one can gain the induced change of surface stress Δτ (s) from the bending of plates with the help of elasticity theory. For elastic isotropic substrates the relevant relations are known. Here the relations are generalized to elastic anisotropic crystals with a C 2v - Symmetry. The equilibrium shapes of crystalline plates oriented along the (100)-, (110)-, or (111)-direction which are clamped along one edge are calculated with a numeric method under the load of a homogeneous but pure isotropic or anisotropic surface stress. The results can be displayed with the dimensionality, so that the effect of clamping can be described in a systematic way. With these tabulated values one can evaluate cantilever experiments exactly. These results are generalized to cantilever methods for determining magnetoelastic constants. It is shown which magnetoelastic constants are measured in domains of thin films with ordered structures. The eigenshape and the eigenfrequency of plates constraint through a clamping at one side are calculated. These results give a deeper understanding of the elastic anisotropy. The induced surface stress of oxygen on the (110)-surface of molybdenum is measured along the principle directions Δτ [001] and Δτ [ anti 110] . The anisotropy of the surface stress is found for the p(2 x 2)-reconstruction. Lithium induces a tensile surface stress on the Molybdenum (110)-surface up to a coverage of Θ = 0, 3 monolayer. For a higher coverage the induced stress drops and reaches a level of less than -1, 2 N/m at one monolayer. It is shown, that cobalt induces a linear increasing stress with respect to the coverage on the (100)-surface of copper with a value of 2, 4GPa. The copper (100)-surface is bombarded with accelerated ions in the range between 800-2200 eV. The resulting induced compressive stress (Δτ (s) < 0) of the order

  10. Second-order nonlinearity induced transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y H; Zhang, S S; Shen, H Z; Yi, X X

    2017-04-01

    In analogy to electromagnetically induced transparency, optomechanically induced transparency was proposed recently in [Science330, 1520 (2010)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1195596]. In this Letter, we demonstrate another form of induced transparency enabled by second-order nonlinearity. A practical application of the second-order nonlinearity induced transparency is to measure the second-order nonlinear coefficient. Our scheme might find applications in quantum optics and quantum information processing.

  11. Anomalous Symmetry Fractionalization and Surface Topological Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In addition to possessing fractional statistics, anyon excitations of a 2D topologically ordered state can realize symmetry in distinct ways, leading to a variety of symmetry-enriched topological (SET phases. While the symmetry fractionalization must be consistent with the fusion and braiding rules of the anyons, not all ostensibly consistent symmetry fractionalizations can be realized in 2D systems. Instead, certain “anomalous” SETs can only occur on the surface of a 3D symmetry-protected topological (SPT phase. In this paper, we describe a procedure for determining whether a SET of a discrete, on-site, unitary symmetry group G is anomalous or not. The basic idea is to gauge the symmetry and expose the anomaly as an obstruction to a consistent topological theory combining both the original anyons and the gauge fluxes. Utilizing a result of Etingof, Nikshych, and Ostrik, we point out that a class of obstructions is captured by the fourth cohomology group H^{4}(G,U(1, which also precisely labels the set of 3D SPT phases, with symmetry group G. An explicit procedure for calculating the cohomology data from a SET is given, with the corresponding physical intuition explained. We thus establish a general bulk-boundary correspondence between the anomalous SET and the 3D bulk SPT whose surface termination realizes it. We illustrate this idea using the chiral spin liquid [U(1_{2}] topological order with a reduced symmetry Z_{2}×Z_{2}⊂SO(3, which can act on the semion quasiparticle in an anomalous way. We construct exactly solved 3D SPT models realizing the anomalous surface terminations and demonstrate that they are nontrivial by computing three-loop braiding statistics. Possible extensions to antiunitary symmetries are also discussed.

  12. Local structural ordering in surface-confined liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwa, I.; Jeżewski, W.; Zakharov, A. V.

    2017-06-01

    The effect of the interplay between attractive nonlocal surface interactions and attractive pair long-range intermolecular couplings on molecular structures of liquid crystals confined in thin cells with flat solid surfaces has been studied. Extending the McMillan mean field theory to include finite systems, it has been shown that confining surfaces can induce complex orientational and translational ordering of molecules. Typically, local smectic A, nematic, and isotropic phases have been shown to coexist in certain temperature ranges, provided that confining cells are sufficiently thick, albeit finite. Due to the nonlocality of surface interactions, the spatial arrangement of these local phases can display, in general, an unexpected complexity along the surface normal direction. In particular, molecules located in the vicinity of surfaces can still be organized in smectic layers, even though nematic and/or isotropic order can simultaneously appear in the interior of cells. The resulting surface freezing of smectic layers has been confirmed to occur even for rather weak surface interactions. The surface interactions cannot, however, prevent smectic layers from melting relatively close to system boundaries, even when molecules are still arranged in layers within the central region of the system. The internal interfaces, separating individual liquid-crystal phases, are demonstrated here to form fronts of local finite-size transitions that move across cells under temperature changes. Although the complex molecular ordering in surface confined liquid-crystal systems can essentially be controlled by temperature variations, specific thermal properties of these systems, especially the nature of the local transitions, are argued to be strongly conditioned to the degree of molecular packing.

  13. Isotope enrichment by photolysis on ordered surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epling, G.A.; Florio, E.

    1981-01-01

    A surface was prepared as a micelle model which could be altered, by reacting trichlorododecylsilane with silica gel. Adsorption of dibenzyl ketone onto this surface followed by irradiation resulted in a recovered dibenzyl ketone enriched in 13 C. The plot of log S vs -log (1-f) had a slope of 1.66

  14. Isotope enrichment by photolysis on ordered surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epling, G.A.; Florio, E.

    1981-03-11

    A surface was prepared as a micelle model which could be altered, by reacting trichlorododecylsilane with silica gel. Adsorption of dibenzyl ketone onto this surface followed by irradiation resulted in a recovered dibenzyl ketone enriched in /sup 13/C. The plot of log S vs -log (1-f) had a slope of 1.66. (DLC)

  15. Coupling between bulk ordering and surface segregation: from alloy surfaces to surface alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallis, Coralie

    1997-01-01

    -The knowledge of the alloy surfaces is of prime interest to understand their catalytic properties. On the one hand, the determination of the stability of the surface alloys depends very strongly on the behaviours of the A c B 1-c alloy surfaces. On the other hand, the knowledge of the kinetics of the formation-dissolution of surface alloys can allow to understand the equilibrium segregation isotherm. We have then studied the relation between the equilibrium surface segregation in an alloy A c B 1-c and the kinetics of dissolution of a few metallic layers of A/B and the inverse deposit. We have used an energetic model derived from the electronic structure (T.I.B.M.) allowing us to study the surface segregation both in the disordered state and in the ordered one. The kinetics of dissolution were studied using the kinetic version of this model (K.T.I.B.M.) consistent with the equilibrium model. To illustrate our study, we have chosen the Cu-Pd system, a model for the formation of surface alloys and for which a great number of studies, both experimental and theoretical, are in progress. We then have shown for the (111) surface of this system that the surface alloys obtained during the dissolution are related to the alloy surfaces observed for the equilibrium segregation. The Cu-Pd system is characteristic of systems which have a weak segregation energy. Then, we have performed an equivalent study for a system with a strong segregation energy. Our choice was directly put on the Pt-Sn system. The surface behaviour, both in equilibrium and during the kinetics of dissolution, is very different from the Cu-Pd case. In particular, we have found pure 2-D surface alloys. Finally, a quenched molecular dynamics study has allowed us to determine the relative stability of various possible surface superstructures. (author) [fr

  16. Ordering transitions induced by Coulomb interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovere, M.; Senatore, G.; Tosi, M.P.

    1988-11-01

    We briefly review recent progress in treating phase transitions to ordered states driven by Coulomb interactions. Wigner crystallization of the one-component plasma, in the degenerate Fermi limit and in the classical limit, is the foremost example and developments in its theory are discussed in some detail. Attention is also given to quasi-twodimensional realizations of the plasma model in the laboratory. The usefulness of these ideas in relation to freezing and ordering transitions is illustrated with reference to alkali metals, elemental and polar semiconductors, and various types of ionic systems (molten salts, colloidal suspensions and astrophysical plasmas). (author). 70 refs, 5 figs

  17. Bulk ordering and surface segregation in Ni50Pt50

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pourovskii, L.P.; Ruban, Andrei; Abrikosov, I.A.

    2001-01-01

    in the bulk compare well with experimental data. The surface-alloy compositions for the (111) and (110) facets above the ordering transition temperature are also found to be in a good agreement with experiments. It is demonstrated that the segregation profile at the (110) surface of NiPt is mainly caused...... by the unusually strong segregation of Pt into the second layer and the interlayer ordering due to large chemical nearest-neighbor interactions....

  18. Field emission from the surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knápek, Alexandr, E-mail: knapek@isibrno.cz [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, Brno (Czech Republic); Sobola, Dinara; Tománek, Pavel [Department of Physics, FEEC, Brno University of Technology, Technická 8, Brno (Czech Republic); Pokorná, Zuzana; Urbánek, Michal [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • HOPG shreds were created and analyzed in the UHV conditions. • Current-voltage measurements have been done to confirm electron tunneling, based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory. • Surface was characterized by other surface evaluation methods, in particular by: SNOM, SEM and AFM. - Abstract: This paper deals with the electrical characterization of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface based on field emission of electrons. The effect of field emission occurs only at disrupted surface, i.e. surface containing ripped and warped shreds of the uppermost layers of graphite. These deformations provide the necessary field gradients which are required for measuring tunneling current caused by field electron emission. Results of the field emission measurements are correlated with other surface characterization methods such as scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) or atomic force microscopy.

  19. Field emission from the surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knápek, Alexandr; Sobola, Dinara; Tománek, Pavel; Pokorná, Zuzana; Urbánek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • HOPG shreds were created and analyzed in the UHV conditions. • Current-voltage measurements have been done to confirm electron tunneling, based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory. • Surface was characterized by other surface evaluation methods, in particular by: SNOM, SEM and AFM. - Abstract: This paper deals with the electrical characterization of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface based on field emission of electrons. The effect of field emission occurs only at disrupted surface, i.e. surface containing ripped and warped shreds of the uppermost layers of graphite. These deformations provide the necessary field gradients which are required for measuring tunneling current caused by field electron emission. Results of the field emission measurements are correlated with other surface characterization methods such as scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) or atomic force microscopy.

  20. Ordering of rods near planar and curved surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Dora; de Oliveira, Mário J.

    2018-01-01

    We study the orientational profile of a semi-infinite system of cylinders bounded in two different ways: by a flat and by a curved wall. The latter corresponds to the interior of a spherical shell, where the dimensions of the rods are comparable to the radius of curvature of the container: they have to accomodate to fill the available space, leading to a rich orientation profile. In order to study these problems, we make a mapping onto a three-state Potts model on a semi-infinite lattice, which is solved using a mean-field approach; we fix the boundary conditions on the surface and in the bulk. In the case of a curved surface, the increase in the effective volume interactions towards the bulk, due to compression, is obtained by increasing the nearest neighbor interactions. The mean-field equations are iterated numerically and we obtain various interesting results concerning the free energy and the orientation profile. We show that there is always a first order transition and the stability of the coexisting phases is strongly affected by the surface. When the surface is disordered and the bulk ordered, the profile may present a step that depends on the degree of disorder on the surface, on the rate of increase of the particle interactions and on the surface external potential. The existence of this step may be relevant to applications in nanotechnology.

  1. Substrate induced ordering of molecular adsorbates on Au(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schott, J.H.; White, H.S.; Arana, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy in dimethylformate, [Ru(bpy) 2 (bpy-(CH 2 ) x -bpy) 2+ ] (x = 4 and 5) monolayers adsorbed on the unreconstructed and √3 x 22 reconstructed surfaces of Au(111) were imaged in this paper. The substrate had a highly ordered pattern on the reconstructed surface, but random spatial distribution on the unreconstructed surface. 17 refs., 3 figs

  2. Metal surface nitriding by laser induced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, A. L.; Boulmer-Leborgne, C.; Andreazza-Vignolle, C.; Andreazza, P.; Hermann, J.; Blondiaux, G.

    1996-10-01

    We study a nitriding technique of metals by means of laser induced plasma. The synthesized layers are composed of a nitrogen concentration gradient over several μm depth, and are expected to be useful for tribological applications with no adhesion problem. The nitriding method is tested on the synthesis of titanium nitride which is a well-known compound, obtained at present by many deposition and diffusion techniques. In the method of interest, a laser beam is focused on a titanium target in a nitrogen atmosphere, leading to the creation of a plasma over the metal surface. In order to understand the layer formation, it is necessary to characterize the plasma as well as the surface that it has been in contact with. Progressive nitrogen incorporation in the titanium lattice and TiN synthesis are studied by characterizing samples prepared with increasing laser shot number (100-4000). The role of the laser wavelength is also inspected by comparing layers obtained with two kinds of pulsed lasers: a transversal-excited-atmospheric-pressure-CO2 laser (λ=10.6 μm) and a XeCl excimer laser (λ=308 nm). Simulations of the target temperature rise under laser irradiation are performed, which evidence differences in the initial laser/material interaction (material heated thickness, heating time duration, etc.) depending on the laser features (wavelength and pulse time duration). Results from plasma characterization also point out that the plasma composition and propagation mode depend on the laser wavelength. Correlation of these results with those obtained from layer analyses shows at first the important role played by the plasma in the nitrogen incorporation. Its presence is necessary and allows N2 dissociation and a better energy coupling with the target. Second, it appears that the nitrogen diffusion governs the nitriding process. The study of the metal nitriding efficiency, depending on the laser used, allows us to explain the differences observed in the layer features

  3. Fermi-surface reconstruction by stripe order in cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberté, Francis

    2012-02-01

    The origin of pairing in a superconductor resides in the underlying normal state. In the cuprate high-temperature superconductor YBCO, application of a magnetic field to suppress superconductivity reveals a ground state that appears to break the translational symmetry of the lattice, pointing to some density-wave order [1,2,3]. In another cuprate, Eu-LSCO, the onset of stripe order - a modulation of spin and charge densities - at low temperature is well established [4]. By a comparative study of thermoelectric transport in the cuprates YBCO and Eu-LSCO, we show that the two materials exhibit a very similar process of Fermi-surface reconstruction as a function of temperature and doping [5,6]. This strongly suggests that Fermi-surface reconstruction is caused by stripe order in both cases, compelling evidence that stripe order is a generic tendency of hole-doped cuprates.[4pt] Work done in collaboration with J. Chang, N. Doiron-Leyraud, E. Hassinger, R. Daou, D. LeBoeuf, M. Rondeau, B. J. Ramshaw, R. Liang, D. A. Bonn, W. N. Hardy, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, I. Sheikin, L. Malone, C. Proust, K. Behnia and L. Taillefer.[4pt] [1] N. Doiron-Leyraud et al., Nature 447, 565 (2007).[0pt] [2] D. LeBoeuf et al., Nature 450, 533 (2007).[0pt] [3] D. LeBoeuf et al., Phys. Rev. B 83, 054506 (2011).[0pt] [4] J. Fink et al., Phys. Rev. B 83, 092503 (2011).[0pt] [5] J. Chang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 057005 (2010).[0pt] [6] F. Lalibert'e et al., Nat. Commun. 2, 432 (2011).

  4. Towards friction control using laser-induced periodic surface structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichstädt, J.; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Huis in 't Veld, Bert; Schmidt, M.; Zaeh, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the study of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) and the description of their tribological properties in order to facilitate the knowledge for contact mechanical applications. To obtain laser parameters for LIPSS formation, we propose to execute two

  5. Classification Order of Surface-Confined Intermixing at Epitaxial Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailov, M.

    The self-organization phenomena at epitaxial interface hold special attention in contemporary material science. Being relevant to the fundamental physical problem of competing, long-range and short-range atomic interactions in systems with reduced dimensionality, these phenomena have found exacting academic interest. They are also of great technological importance for their ability to bring spontaneous formation of regular nanoscale surface patterns and superlattices with exotic properties. The basic phenomenon involved in this process is surface diffusion. That is the motivation behind the present study which deals with important details of diffusion scenarios that control the fine atomic structure of epitaxial interface. Consisting surface imperfections (terraces, steps, kinks, and vacancies), the interface offers variety of barriers for surface diffusion. Therefore, the adatoms and clusters need a certain critical energy to overcome the corresponding diffusion barriers. In the most general case the critical energies can be attained by variation of the system temperature. Hence, their values define temperature limits of system energy gaps associated with different diffusion scenarios. This systematization imply classification order of surface alloying: blocked, incomplete, and complete. On that background, two diffusion problems, related to the atomic-scale surface morphology, will be discussed. The first problem deals with diffusion of atomic clusters on atomically smooth interface. On flat domains, far from terraces and steps, we analyzed the impact of size, shape, and cluster/substrate lattice misfit on the diffusion behavior of atomic clusters (islands). We found that the lattice constant of small clusters depends on the number N of building atoms at 1 < N ≤ 10. In heteroepitaxy, this effect of variable lattice constant originates from the enhanced charge transfer and the strong influence of the surface potential on cluster atomic arrangement. At constant

  6. Spin ice Thin Film: Surface Ordering, Emergent Square ice, and Strain Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaubert, L. D. C.; Lin, T.; Opel, T. S.; Holdsworth, P. C. W.; Gingras, M. J. P.

    2017-05-01

    Motivated by recent realizations of Dy2 Ti2 O7 and Ho2 Ti2 O7 spin ice thin films, and more generally by the physics of confined gauge fields, we study a model spin ice thin film with surfaces perpendicular to the [001] cubic axis. The resulting open boundaries make half of the bonds on the interfaces inequivalent. By tuning the strength of these inequivalent "orphan" bonds, dipolar interactions induce a surface ordering equivalent to a two-dimensional crystallization of magnetic surface charges. This surface ordering may also be expected on the surfaces of bulk crystals. For ultrathin films made of one cubic unit cell, once the surfaces have ordered, a square ice phase is stabilized over a finite temperature window. The square ice degeneracy is lifted at lower temperature and the system orders in analogy with the well-known F transition of the 6-vertex model. To conclude, we consider the addition of strain effects, a possible consequence of interface mismatches at the film-substrate interface. Our simulations qualitatively confirm that strain can lead to a smooth loss of Pauling entropy upon cooling, as observed in recent experiments on Dy2 Ti2 O7 films.

  7. Molecular ordering of ethanol at the calcite surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasarín, I. S.; Yang, M.; Bovet, Nicolas Emile

    2012-01-01

    To produce biominerals, such as shells, bones, and teeth, living beings create organic compounds that control the growth of the solid phase. Investigating the atomic scale behavior of individual functional groups at the mineral-fluid interface provides fundamental information that is useful...... for constructing accurate predictive models for natural systems. Previous investigations of the activity of coccolith-associated polysaccharides (CAP) on calcite, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) [ Henriksen, K., Young, J. R., Bown, P. R., and Stipp, S. L. S.Palentology 2004, 43 (Part 3), 725...... dynamics (MD) simulations, the structuring on calcite of a layer of the simplest carbon chain molecule that contains an OH group, ethanol (CH 3-CH2-OH). We found evidence that EtOH forms a highly ordered structure at the calcite surface, where the first layer molecules bond with calcite. The ethanol...

  8. Surface-segregated monolayers: a new type of ordered monolayer for surface modification of organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qingshuo; Tajima, Keisuke; Tong, Yujin; Ye, Shen; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

    2009-12-09

    We report a new type of ordered monolayer for the surface modification of organic semiconductors. Fullerene derivatives with fluorocarbon chains ([6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-buryric acid 1H,1H-perfluoro-1-alkyl ester or FC(n)) spontaneously segregated as a monolayer on the surface of a [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) film during a spin-coating process from the mixture solutions, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) showed the shift of ionization potentials (IPs) depending on the fluorocarbon chain length, indicating the formation of surface dipole moments. Surface-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy, sum frequency generation (SFG) revealed the ordered molecular orientations of the C(60) moiety in the surface FC(n) layers. The intensity of the SFG signals from FC(n) on the surface showed a clear odd-even effect when the length of the fluorocarbon chain was changed. This new concept of the surface-segregated monolayer provides a facile and versatile approach to modifying the surface of organic semiconductors and is applicable to various organic optoelectronic devices.

  9. Characterization of metallic surfaces in phosphorous-bronze ordered packings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandru, Claudia; Titescu, Gh.

    1997-01-01

    Copper and its alloys, particularly the phosphorous bronze, are characterized by a high water wettability as compared with other materials. This feature led to utilization of phosphorous bronze in fabrication of contact elements, a packing type equipping the distillation columns. For heavy water separation by isotopic distillation under vacuum, ordered packings of phosphorous bronze networks were fabricated. The superior performances of these packings are determined by the material and also by the geometrical form and the state of the metallic surface. Thus, a procedure of evaluating the wettability has been developed, based on tests of the network material. The results of the tests constitute a criterion of rating the functional performances of packings, particularly of their efficiencies. Also, investigation techniques of the chemical composition and of the thickness of superficial layer on the packing were developed. It was found that the packing surface presents a layer of about 5-20 μm formed mainly by oxides of copper, tin, and, depending on the packing treatment, of oxides of other elements coming from the treatment agent. The paper presents characterization of phosphorous bronze treated with potassium permanganate, a specific treatment for improving the functional performances of the packings used in the heavy water concentration and re-concentration installations

  10. Radiation-induced segregation behavior in random and ordered face-centered cubic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, T.X.; Robertson, I.M.; Klatt, J.L.; Averback, R.S.; Kirk, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation-induced segregation has been studied in random solid solution alloys Ni-10%Al and Ni-6%Si, and in the ordered (L1 2 structure) intermetallics Ni 3 Si and Ni 3 Al. These materials were irradiated with 2 MeV He + ions at a temperature between 0.45 and 0.55T m and at an ion dose rate of approximately 1x10 -4 dpa per second. Subsequent Auger Electron Spectroscopy analysis showed that silicon segregated to the surface in the Ni-6% Si and Ni 3 Si alloys, and aluminum segregated away from the near surface region in the Ni-10% Al alloy. The Ni 3 Al samples exhibited no detectable segregation with respect to depth from the sample surface. The mechanisms that may give rise to this resistance to radiation induced segregation will be examined in terms of the mobility of the alloying constituents, ordering energies and atomic sizes. (orig.)

  11. Molecular ordering of ethanol at the calcite surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasarín, I S; Yang, M; Bovet, N; Glyvradal, M; Nielsen, M M; Bohr, J; Feidenhans'l, R; Stipp, S L S

    2012-02-07

    To produce biominerals, such as shells, bones, and teeth, living beings create organic compounds that control the growth of the solid phase. Investigating the atomic scale behavior of individual functional groups at the mineral-fluid interface provides fundamental information that is useful for constructing accurate predictive models for natural systems. Previous investigations of the activity of coccolith-associated polysaccharides (CAP) on calcite, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) [Henriksen, K., Young, J. R., Bown, P. R., and Stipp, S. L. S. Palentology 2004, 43 (Part 3), 725-743] and molecular dynamics (MD) modeling [Yang, M., Stipp, S. L. S., and Harding, J. H. Cryst. Growth Des. 2008, 8 (11), 4066-4074], have suggested that OH functional groups control polysaccharide attachment. The purpose of this work was to characterize, using X-ray reflectivity (XR) combined with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the structuring on calcite of a layer of the simplest carbon chain molecule that contains an OH group, ethanol (CH(3)-CH(2)-OH). We found evidence that EtOH forms a highly ordered structure at the calcite surface, where the first layer molecules bond with calcite. The ethanol molecules stand up perpendicularly at the interface or nearly so. As a consequence, the fatty, CH(3) ends form a new surface, about 6 Å from the termination of the bulk calcite, and beyond that, there is a thin gap where ethanol density is low. Following is a more disordered layer that is two to three ethanol molecules thick, about 14 Å, where density more resembles that of bulk liquid ethanol. The good agreement between theory and experiment gives confidence that a theoretical approach can offer information about behavior in more complex systems.

  12. Ion-induced surface modification of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedersich, H.

    1983-11-01

    In addition to the accumulation of the implanted species, a considerable number of processes can affect the composition of an alloy in the surface region during ion bombardment. Collisions of energetic ions with atoms of the alloy induce local rearrangement of atoms by displacements, replacement sequences and by spontaneous migration and recombination of defects within cascades. Point defects form clusters, voids, dislocation loops and networks. Preferential sputtering of elements changes the composition of the surface. At temperatures sufficient for thermal migration of point defects, radiation-enhanced diffusion promotes alloy component redistribution within and beyond the damage layer. Fluxes of interstitials and vacancies toward the surface and into the interior of the target induce fluxes of alloying elements leading to depth-dependent compositional changes. Moreover, Gibbsian surface segregation may affect the preferential loss of alloy components by sputtering when the kinetics of equilibration of the surface composition becomes competitive with the sputtering rate. Temperature, time, current density and ion energy can be used to influence the individual processes contributing to compositional changes and, thus, produce a rich variety of composition profiles near surfaces. 42 references

  13. Electro-osmosis of nematic liquid crystals under weak anchoring and second-order surface effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Antarip; Dhar, Jayabrata; Chakraborty, Suman

    2017-07-01

    Advent of nematic liquid crystal flows has attracted renewed attention in view of microfluidic transport phenomena. Among various transport processes, electro-osmosis stands as one of the efficient flow actuation mechanisms through narrow confinements. In the present study, we explore the electrically actuated flow of an ordered nematic fluid with ionic inclusions, taking into account the influences from surface-induced elasticity and electrical double layer (EDL) phenomena. Toward this, we devise the coupled flow governing equations from fundamental free-energy analysis, considering the contributions from first- and second-order elastic, dielectric, flexoelectric, charged surface polarization, ionic and entropic energies. The present study focuses on the influence of surface charge and elasticity effects in the resulting linear electro-osmosis through a slit-type microchannel whose surfaces are chemically treated to display a homeotropic-type weak anchoring state. An optical periodic stripe configuration of the nematic director has been observed, especially for higher electric fields, wherein the Ericksen number for the dynamic study is restricted to the order of unity. Contrary to the isotropic electrolytes, the EDL potential in this case was found to be dependent on the external field strength. Through a systematic investigation, we brought out the fact that the wavelength of the oscillating patterns is dictated mainly by the external field, while the amplitude depends on most of the physical variables ranging from the anchoring strength and the flexoelectric coefficients to the surface charge density and electrical double layer thickness.

  14. Synchrotron photoemission spectroscopy study of ammonium hydroxide etching to prepare well-ordered GaAs(1 0 0) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, Mikhail V.; Ensling, David; Hunger, Ralf; Mayer, Thomas; Jaegermann, Wolfram

    2004-01-01

    Synchrotron-induced photoelectron spectroscopy was used to investigate the native-oxide-covered GaAs(1 0 0) surface and changes induced by etching with aqueous ammonia solution and by annealing in vacuum. The etching step removes arsenic and gallium oxides from the surface and the surface gets covered by elemental arsenic and tiny amounts of gallium suboxide. The surface oxygen content is reduced by an order of magnitude after etching, whereas the surface carbon content is somewhat increased. Annealing of this surface at 450 deg. C results in the disappearance of elemental arsenic and a considerable decrease in surface carbon and oxygen contents. The valence band spectra exhibit clear features typical for As-terminated GaAs(1 0 0) surfaces, as also obtained after As decapping

  15. Nematic order on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Rex; Yerzhakov, Hennadii; Maciejko, Joseph

    2017-12-01

    We study the spontaneous breaking of rotational symmetry in the helical surface state of three-dimensional topological insulators due to strong electron-electron interactions, focusing on time-reversal invariant nematic order. Owing to the strongly spin-orbit coupled nature of the surface state, the nematic order parameter is linear in the electron momentum and necessarily involves the electron spin, in contrast with spin-degenerate nematic Fermi liquids. For a chemical potential at the Dirac point (zero doping), we find a first-order phase transition at zero temperature between isotropic and nematic Dirac semimetals. This extends to a thermal phase transition that changes from first to second order at a finite-temperature tricritical point. At finite doping, we find a transition between isotropic and nematic helical Fermi liquids that is second order even at zero temperature. Focusing on finite doping, we discuss various observable consequences of nematic order, such as anisotropies in transport and the spin susceptibility, the partial breakdown of spin-momentum locking, collective modes and induced spin fluctuations, and non-Fermi-liquid behavior at the quantum critical point and in the nematic phase.

  16. Surface modifications by field induced diffusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Olsen

    Full Text Available By applying a voltage pulse to a scanning tunneling microscope tip the surface under the tip will be modified. We have in this paper taken a closer look at the model of electric field induced surface diffusion of adatoms including the van der Waals force as a contribution in formations of a mound on a surface. The dipole moment of an adatom is the sum of the surface induced dipole moment (which is constant and the dipole moment due to electric field polarisation which depends on the strength and polarity of the electric field. The electric field is analytically modelled by a point charge over an infinite conducting flat surface. From this we calculate the force that cause adatoms to migrate. The calculated force is small for voltage used, typical 1 pN, but due to thermal vibration adatoms are hopping on the surface and even a small net force can be significant in the drift of adatoms. In this way we obtain a novel formula for a polarity dependent threshold voltage for mound formation on the surface for positive tip. Knowing the voltage of the pulse we then can calculate the radius of the formed mound. A threshold electric field for mound formation of about 2 V/nm is calculated. In addition, we found that van der Waals force is of importance for shorter distances and its contribution to the radial force on the adatoms has to be considered for distances smaller than 1.5 nm for commonly used voltages.

  17. A theory of surface enrichment in ordered alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santen, van R.A.; Sachtler, W.M.H.

    1974-01-01

    A simple theory was developed to explain exptl. data on surface enrichment in Pt3Sn. The computed surface enrichment is in accord with exptl. findings. The theory predicts that in the Pt3Sn system enrichment occurs by interchange of atoms of the element with the lower heat of sublimation from the

  18. Slurry erosion induced surface nanocrystallization of bulk metallic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiulin; Wu, Jili; Pi, Jinghong; Cheng, Jiangbo; Shan, Yiping; Zhang, Yingtao

    2018-05-01

    Microstructure evolution and phase transformation of metallic glasses (MGs) could occur under heating condition or mechanical deformation. The cross-section of as-cast Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 MG rod was impacted by the solid particles when subjected to erosion in slurry flow. The surface microstructure was observed by XRD before and after slurry erosion. And the stress-driven de-vitrification increases with the increase of erosion time. A microstructure evolution layer with 1-2 μm thickness was formed on the topmost eroded surface. And a short range atomic ordering prevails in the microstructure evolution layer with crystalline size around 2-3 nm embedded in the amorphous matrix. The XPS analysis reveals that most of the metal elements in the MG surface, except for Cu, were oxidized. And a composite layer with ZrO2 and Al2O3 phases were formed in the topmost surface after slurry erosion. The cooling rate during solidification of MG has a strong influence on the slurry erosion induced nanocrystallization. And a lower cooling rate favors the surface nanocrystallization because of lower activation energy and thermo-stability. Finally, the slurry erosion induced surface nanocrystallization and microstructure evolution result in surface hardening and strengthening. Moreover, the microstructure evolution mechanisms were discussed and it is related to the cooling rate of solidification and the impact-induced temperature rise, as well as the combined effects of the impact-induced plastic flow, inter-diffusion and oxidation of the metal elements.

  19. Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) induced surface chemistry on Ru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Feng; Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    EUV photon induced surface chemistry can damage multilayer mirrors causing reflectivity loss and faster degradation. EUV photo chemistry involves complex processes including direct photon induced surface chemistry and secondary electron radiation chemistry. Current cleaning techniques include dry

  20. First-order chemistry in the surface-flux layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Andersen, C.E.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    1997-01-01

    of a characteristic turbulent time scale and the scalar mean lifetime. We show that if we use only first-order closure and neglect the effect of the Damkohler ratio on the turbulent diffusivity we obtain another analytic solution for the profiles of the flux and the mean concentration which, from an experimental...

  1. Pb chains on ordered Si(3 3 5) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisiel, M.; Skrobas, K.; Zdyb, R.; Mazurek, P.; Jalochowski, M.

    2007-01-01

    The electronic band structure of the Si(3 3 5)-Au surface decorated with Pb atoms was studied with angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) in ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions. The photoemission spectra were measured in two perpendicular directions, along and across the steps. In the direction parallel to the step edges the ARPES spectra show strongly dispersive electron energy band while in the perpendicular direction there is no electronic dispersion at all. This confirms one-dimensional character of the system. The theoretical band dispersion calculated within a tight-binding model was fitted to that obtained from the experiment

  2. Ordered arrays of polymeric nanopores by using inverse nanostructured PTFE surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, Jaime; Martín-González, Marisol; Del Campo, Adolfo; Reinosa, Julián J; Fernández, José Francisco

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple, efficient, and high-throughput methodology for the fabrication of ordered nanoporous polymeric surfaces with areas in the range of cm 2 . The procedure is based on a two-stage replication of a master nanostructured pattern. The process starts with the preparation of an ordered array of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) free-standing nanopillars by wetting self-ordered porous anodic aluminum oxide templates with molten PTFE. The nanopillars are 120 nm in diameter and approximately 350 nm long, while the array extends over cm 2 . The PTFE nanostructuring process induces surface hydrocarbonation of the nanopillars, as revealed by confocal Raman microscopy/spectroscopy, which enhances the wettability of the originally hydrophobic material and facilitates its subsequent use as an inverse pattern. Thus, the PTFE nanostructure is then used as a negative master for the fabrication of macroscopic hexagonal arrays of nanopores composed of biocompatible poly(vinylalcohol). In this particular case, the nanopores are 130–140 nm in diameter and the interpore distance is around 430 nm. Features of such characteristic dimensions are known to be easily recognized by living cells. Moreover, the inverse mold is not destroyed in the pore array demolding process and can be reused for further pore array fabrication. Therefore, the developed method allows the high-throughput production of cm 2 -scale biocompatible nanoporous surfaces that could be interesting as two-dimensional scaffolds for tissue repair or wound healing. Moreover, our approach can be extrapolated to the fabrication of almost any polymer and biopolymer ordered pore array. (paper)

  3. Magnetic order of Au nanoparticle with clean surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Ryuju; Ishikawa, Soichiro; Sato, Hiroyuki; Sato, Tetsuya, E-mail: satoh@appi.keio.ac.jp

    2015-11-01

    Au nanoparticles, which are kept in vacuum after the preparation by gas evaporation method, show ferromagnetism even in 1.7 nm in diameter. The intrinsic magnetism is examined by detecting the disappearance of spontaneous magnetization in Au bulk prepared by heating the nanoparticles without exposure to the air. The temperature dependence of spontaneous magnetization is not monotonic and the increase in magnetization is observed after Au nanoparticles are exposed to the air. The magnetic behavior can be interpreted by the ferrimagnetic-like core–shell structure with shell thickness of 0.16±0.01 nm and magnetic moment of (1.5±0.1)×10{sup −2} μ{sub B}/Au atom, respectively. - Highlights: • Au nanoparticles with clean surface were prepared by the gas evaporation method. • The spontaneous magnetization was observed in Au nanoparticles. • Temperature dependent spontaneous magnetization of smaller Au particles was not monotonic. • The magnetic behavior was interpreted by the ferrimagnetic-like core–shell model. • The shell thickness and the magnetic moment per Au atom were estimated.

  4. Ordered supramolecular oligothiophene structures on passivated silicon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Renjie

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with extraordinary properties and thus many potential applications have been predicted to be the best reinforcements for the next-generation multifunctional composite materials. Difficulties exist in transferring the most use of the unprecedented properties of individual CNTs to macroscopic forms of CNT assemblies. Therefore, this thesis focuses on two main goals: 1) discussing the issues that influence the performance of bulk CNT products, and 2) fabricating high-performance dry CNT films and composite films with an understanding of the fundamental structure-property relationship in these materials. Dry CNT films were fabricated by a winding process using CNT arrays with heights of 230 mum, 300 im and 360 mum. The structures of the as-produced films, as well as their mechanical and electrical properties were examined in order to find out the effects of different CNT lengths. It was found that the shorter CNTs synthesized by shorter time in the CVD furnace exhibited less structural defects and amorphous carbon, resulting in more compact packing and better nanotube alignment when made into dry films, thus, having better mechanical and electrical performance. A novel microcombing approach was developed to mitigate the CNT waviness and alignment in the dry films, and ultrahigh mechanical properties and exceptional electrical performance were obtained. This method utilized a pair of sharp surgical blades with microsized features at the blade edges as micro-combs to, for the first time, disentangle and straighten the wavy CNTs in the dry-drawn CNT sheet at single-layer level. The as-combed CNT sheet exhibited high level of nanotube alignment and straightness, reduced structural defects, and enhanced nanotube packing density. The dry CNT films produced by microcombing had a very high Young's modulus of 172 GPa, excellent tensile strength of 3.2 GPa, and unprecedented electrical conductivity of 1.8x10 5 S/m, which were records for CNT films or

  5. Role of low-order rational surfaces in transport barrier formation on the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, K.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, F.

    2010-11-01

    In the Large Helical Device, edge transport barrier (ETB) was formed by H-mode transition near the low-order rational surfaces, that is, at the ι/2π=1 resonant layer (ι/2π: the rotational transform) in outward-shifted plasmas of R ax =3.9m (R ax : the magnetic axis position in the vacuum field), and the ι/2π=2 resonant layer in inward-shifted plasmas of R ax =3.6m. The ι/2π=1 and 2 resonant layers reside in the stochastic field region existing just outside the last closed magnetic surface (LCFS). In the outward-shifted plasmas, H-modes without edge localized modes (ELM-free H-modes) followed by giant ELMs were obtained, while H-modes with high frequency and low amplitude ELMs were obtained in the inward-shifted plasmas. A new type of barrier formation induced by TAE bursts was observed in the plasmas of R ax =3.6m, where the transport barrier is formed near the ι/2π=1 surface locates inside LCFS. (author)

  6. Femtosecond laser-induced surface wettability modification of polystyrene surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Wang, XinCai; Zheng, HongYu; Lam, YeeCheong

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated a simple method to create either a hydrophilic or hydrophobic surface. With femtosecond laser irradiation at different laser parameters, the water contact angle (WCA) on polystyrene's surface can be modified to either 12.7° or 156.2° from its original WCA of 88.2°. With properly spaced micro-pits created, the surface became hydrophilic probably due to the spread of the water droplets into the micro-pits. While with properly spaced micro-grooves created, the surface became rough and more hydrophobic. We investigated the effect of laser parameters on WCAs and analyzed the laser-treated surface roughness, profiles and chemical bonds by surface profilometer, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For the laser-treated surface with low roughness, the polar (such as C—O, C=O, and O—C=O bonds) and non-polar (such as C—C or C—H bonds) groups were found to be responsible for the wettability changes. While for a rough surface, the surface roughness or the surface topography structure played a more significant role in the changes of the surface WCA. The mechanisms involved in the laser surface wettability modification process were discussed.

  7. High-order fractional partial differential equation transform for molecular surface construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Langhua; Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Fractional derivative or fractional calculus plays a significant role in theoretical modeling of scientific and engineering problems. However, only relatively low order fractional derivatives are used at present. In general, it is not obvious what role a high fractional derivative can play and how to make use of arbitrarily high-order fractional derivatives. This work introduces arbitrarily high-order fractional partial differential equations (PDEs) to describe fractional hyperdiffusions. The fractional PDEs are constructed via fractional variational principle. A fast fractional Fourier transform (FFFT) is proposed to numerically integrate the high-order fractional PDEs so as to avoid stringent stability constraints in solving high-order evolution PDEs. The proposed high-order fractional PDEs are applied to the surface generation of proteins. We first validate the proposed method with a variety of test examples in two and three-dimensional settings. The impact of high-order fractional derivatives to surface analysis is examined. We also construct fractional PDE transform based on arbitrarily high-order fractional PDEs. We demonstrate that the use of arbitrarily high-order derivatives gives rise to time-frequency localization, the control of the spectral distribution, and the regulation of the spatial resolution in the fractional PDE transform. Consequently, the fractional PDE transform enables the mode decomposition of images, signals, and surfaces. The effect of the propagation time on the quality of resulting molecular surfaces is also studied. Computational efficiency of the present surface generation method is compared with the MSMS approach in Cartesian representation. We further validate the present method by examining some benchmark indicators of macromolecular surfaces, i.e., surface area, surface enclosed volume, surface electrostatic potential and solvation free energy. Extensive numerical experiments and comparison with an established surface model

  8. Second-order infinitesimal bendings of surfaces of revolution with flattening at the poles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabitov, I Kh

    2014-01-01

    We study infinitesimal bendings of surfaces of revolution with flattening at the poles. We begin by considering the minimal possible smoothness class C 1 both for surfaces and for deformation fields. Conditions are formulated for a given harmonic of a first-order infinitesimal bending to be extendable into a second order infinitesimal bending. We finish by stating a criterion for nonrigidity of second order for closed surfaces of revolution in the analytic class. We also give the first concrete example of such a nonrigid surface. Bibliography: 15 entries

  9. Second-order infinitesimal bendings of surfaces of revolution with flattening at the poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabitov, I Kh [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-31

    We study infinitesimal bendings of surfaces of revolution with flattening at the poles. We begin by considering the minimal possible smoothness class C{sup 1} both for surfaces and for deformation fields. Conditions are formulated for a given harmonic of a first-order infinitesimal bending to be extendable into a second order infinitesimal bending. We finish by stating a criterion for nonrigidity of second order for closed surfaces of revolution in the analytic class. We also give the first concrete example of such a nonrigid surface. Bibliography: 15 entries.

  10. Investigations on geometrical features in induced ordering of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    molecular volumes can be calculated from the solvent inaccessible surface areas and ... protein–DNA interactions has been examined.13–15 On similar lines, ... Through the electrostatic topography of a polyphenol molecule, possible ...

  11. An unscaled parameter to measure the order of surfaces: a new surface elaboration to increase cells adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigerelle, M; Anselme, K; Dufresne, E; Hardouin, P; Iost, A

    2002-08-01

    We present a new parameter to quantify the order of a surface. This parameter is scale-independent and can be used to compare the organization of a surface at different scales of range and amplitude. To test the accuracy of this roughness parameter versus a hundred existing ones, we created an original statistical bootstrap method. In order to assess the physical relevance of this new parameter, we elaborated a great number of surfaces with various roughness amplitudes on titanium and titanium-based alloys using different physical processes. Then we studied the influence of the roughness amplitude on in vitro adhesion and proliferation of human osteoblasts. It was then shown that our new parameter best discriminates among the cell adhesion phenomena than others' parameters (Average roughness (Ra em leader )): cells adhere better on isotropic surfaces with a low order, provided this order is quantified on a scale that is more important than that of the cells. Additionally, on these low ordered metallic surfaces, the shape of the cells presents the same morphological aspect as that we can see on the human bone trabeculae. The method used to prepare these isotropic surfaces (electroerosion) could be undoubtedly and easily applied to prepare most biomaterials with complex geometries and to improve bone implant integration. Moreover, the new order parameter we developed may be particularly useful for the fundamental understanding of the mechanism of bone cell installation on a relief and of the formation of bone cell-material interface.

  12. Electronic structure and dynamics of ordered clusters with ME or RE ions on oxide surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulagin, N.A., E-mail: nkulagin@bestnet.kharkov.u [Kharkiv National University for Radio Electronics, Avenue Shakespeare 6-48, 61045 Kharkiv (Ukraine)

    2011-03-15

    Selected data of ab initio simulation of the electronic structure and spectral properties of either cluster with ions of iron, rare earth or actinium group elements have been presented here. Appearance of doped Cr{sup +4} ions in oxides, Cu{sup +2} in HTSC, Nd{sup +2} in solids has been discussed. Analysis of experimental data for plasma created ordered structures of crystallites with size of about 10{sup -9} m on surface of separate oxides are given, too. Change in the spectroscopic properties of clusters and nano-structures on surface of strontium titanate crystals discussed shortly using the X-ray line spectroscopy experimental results. - Research highlights: External influence and variation of technology induce changes in valence of nl ions in compounds. Wave function of cluster presented as anti-symmetrical set of ions wave functions. The main equation describes the self-consistent field depending on state of all electrons of cluster. Level scheme of Cr{sup 4+} ions in octo- and tetra-site corresponds to doped oxides spectra after treatment. Plasma treatment effects in appearance of systems of unit crystallites with size of about 10{sup -6}-10{sup -9} m.

  13. Electronic structure and dynamics of ordered clusters with ME or RE ions on oxide surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulagin, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Selected data of ab initio simulation of the electronic structure and spectral properties of either cluster with ions of iron, rare earth or actinium group elements have been presented here. Appearance of doped Cr +4 ions in oxides, Cu +2 in HTSC, Nd +2 in solids has been discussed. Analysis of experimental data for plasma created ordered structures of crystallites with size of about 10 -9 m on surface of separate oxides are given, too. Change in the spectroscopic properties of clusters and nano-structures on surface of strontium titanate crystals discussed shortly using the X-ray line spectroscopy experimental results. - Research highlights: → External influence and variation of technology induce changes in valence of nl ions in compounds. → Wave function of cluster presented as anti-symmetrical set of ions wave functions. → The main equation describes the self-consistent field depending on state of all electrons of cluster. → Level scheme of Cr 4+ ions in octo- and tetra-site corresponds to doped oxides spectra after treatment. → Plasma treatment effects in appearance of systems of unit crystallites with size of about 10 -6 -10 -9 m.

  14. Radiation induced diffusion as a method to protect surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumvol, I.J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation induced diffusion forms a coating adeherent and without interface on the surface of metalic substrates. This coating improves the behaviour of metal to corrosion and abrasion. The effect of radiation induced diffusion of tin and calcium on pure iron surface is described and analyzed in this work. (author) [pt

  15. Self-induced free surface oscillations caused by water jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukaya, M.; Madarame, H.; Okamoto, K.; Iida, M.; Someya, S.

    1995-01-01

    The interaction between the high speed flow and the free surfaces could induced surface oscillations. Recently, some kinds of self-induced free surface oscillations caused by water jet were discovered, e.g., a self-induced sloshing, 'Jet-Flutter' and a self-induced manometer oscillation. These oscillations have many different characteristics with each other. In this study, the similarities and differences of these oscillations are examined, and the geometrical effects on the phenomena are experimentally investigated. The self-induced sloshing and the Jet-Flutter have different dimensionless traveling times, which suggests a difference in the energy supply mechanism. When the distance between the inlet and the outlet is small in a vessel, the self-induced manometer oscillation could occur in the multi-free-surface system. (author)

  16. Simulations of flow induced ordering in viscoelastic fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos de Oliveira, I.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we report on simulations of colloidal ordering phenomena in shearthinning viscoelastic fluids under shear flow. Depending on the characteristics of the fluid, the colloids are observed to align in the direction of the flow. These string-like structures remain stable as long as the

  17. Orbital frustration induced unusual ordering in semiconductor alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Yin, Wanjian; Chen, Shiyou; Gong, Xingao; Wei, Suhuai; Xiang, Hongjun

    It is well known that ternary zinc-blende semiconductors are always more stable in the chalcopyrite (CH) structure than the Cu-Au (CA) structure because CH structure has large Coulomb interaction and reduced strain energy. Surprisingly, an experimental study showed that ZnFeSe2 alloy takes the CA order as the ground state structure, which is consistent with our density function theory (DFT) calculations showing that the CA order has lower energy than the CH order for ZnFeSe2. We reveal that the orbital degree of freedom of high-spin Fe2+ ion (d6) in the tetrahedral crystal field plays a key role in stabilizing the CA order. First, the spin-minority d electron of the Fe2+ ion tends to occupy the dx2-y 2 -like orbital instead of the d3z2 -r2 -like orbital because of its large negative Coulomb energy. Second, for a nearest-neighboring Fe2+ pair, two spin-minority d electrons with occupied dx2-y 2 -like orbitals in the plane containing the Fe-Fe bond has lower electronic kinetic energy. Both conditions can be satisfied in the CA ordered ZnFeSe2 alloy, while there is an orbital frustration in the CH structure. Our results suggest that orbital degree of freedom provides a new way to manipulate the structure and properties of alloys. Work at Fudan was supported by NSFC (11374056), the Special Funds for Major State Basic Research (2012CB921400, 2015CB921700), Program for Professor of Special Appointment (Eastern Scholar), and Fok Ying Tung Education Foundation.

  18. Surface-Induced Hybridization between Graphene and Titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Allen L. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States).; Koch, Roland J. [Technische Universitat, Chemnitz (Germany); Ong, Mitchell T. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Fang, Wenjing [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hofmann, Mario [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Kim, Ki Kang [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States).; Seyller, Thomas [Technische Universitat, Chemnitz (Germany); Dresselhaus, Mildred S. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Reed, Evan J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Kong, Jing [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Palacios, Tomás [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-08-26

    Carbon-based materials such as graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes have inspired a broad range of applications ranging from high-speed flexible electronics all the way to ultrastrong membranes. However, many of these applications are limited by the complex interactions between carbon-based materials and metals. In this work, we experimentally investigate the structural interactions between graphene and transition metals such as palladium (Pd) and titanium (Ti), which have been confirmed by density functional simulations. We find that the adsorption of titanium on graphene is more energetically favorable than in the case of most metals, and density functional theory shows that a surface induced p-d hybridization occurs between atomic carbon and titanium orbitals. This strong affinity between the two materials results in a short-range ordered crystalline deposition on top of graphene as well as chemical modifications to graphene as seen by Raman and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). This induced hybridization is interface-specific and has major consequences for contacting graphene nanoelectronic devices as well as applications toward metal-induced chemical functionalization of graphene.

  19. Protein-induced bilayer Perturbations: Lipid ordering and hydrophobic coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Frederic Nicolas Rønne; Laursen, Ib; Bohr, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The host lipid bilayer is increasingly being recognized as an important non-specific regulator of membrane protein function. Despite considerable progress the interplay between hydrophobic coupling and lipid ordering is still elusive. We use electron spin resonance (ESR) to study the interaction...... between the model protein gramicidin and lipid bilayers of varying thickness. The free energy of the interaction is up to −6 kJ/mol; thus not strongly favored over lipid–lipid interactions. Incorporation of gramicidin results in increased order parameters with increased protein concentration...... and hydrophobic mismatch. Our findings also show that at high protein:lipid ratios the lipids are motionally restricted but not completely immobilized. Both exchange on and off rate values for the lipid ↔ gramicidin interaction are lowest at optimal hydrophobic matching. Hydrophobic mismatch of few Å results...

  20. A novel magnetoresistance induced by charge ordering in ferromagnetic/charge-ordered/ferromagnetic trilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiou; Li, Jinwei; Su, Kunpeng; Huo, Dexuan; Tan, Weishi

    2015-10-01

    Microstructure, magnetoresistance (MR) and magnetic properties of Pr0.7Sr0.3MnO3/La0.5Ca0.5MnO3/Pr0.7Sr0.3MnO3 trilayers, which are shown to be tunable with different La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 spacer thickness, are investigated. The trilayer with 6 nm thick La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 spacer show \\text{MR}∼37{%} at 195 K in 1 T and \\text{MR}∼80{%} at 220 K in 9 T, which is realized through the double-exchange mechanism. In contrast, trilayers with the thicker La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 spacer show enhanced MR at a wide low-temperature range. The obtained \\text{MR}∼52{%} at 50 K in 1 T in the trilayer with 18 nm thick La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 spacer is superior to that of other magnetic nanoscales. We surmise that this MR originates in the ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic competition accompanied with the formation of a charge-ordered antiferromagnetic state and the collapse of the charge-ordered state at the applied magnetic field, rather than in the double-exchange mechanism. Large and tunable MR can be realized by controlling the strain state (the thickness of the La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 spacer), which can be applied in the used devices.

  1. Carbon surface diffusion and SiC nanocluster self-ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezoldt, J.; Trushin, Yu.V.; Kharlamov, V.S.; Schmidt, A.A.; Cimalla, V.; Ambacher, O.

    2006-01-01

    The process of the spatial ordering of SiC nanoclusters on the step edges on Si surfaces was studied by means of multi-scale computer simulation. The evolution of cluster arrays on an ideal flat surface and surfaces with terraces of various widths was performed by kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations based on quantitative studies of potential energy surfaces (PES) by molecular dynamics (MD). PES analysis revealed that certain types of steps act as strong trapping centres for both Si and C adatoms stimulating clusters nucleation. Spatial ordering of the SiC nanoclusters at the terrace edges can be achieved if the parameters of the growth process (substrate temperature, carbon flux) and substrate (steps direction and terrace widths) are adjusted to the surface morphology. Temperature ranges for growth regimes with and without formation of cluster chains were determined. Cluster size distributions and the dependence of optimal terrace width for self ordering on the deposition parameters were obtained

  2. Shear-induced partial translational ordering of a colloidal solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, B. J.; Clark, N. A.

    1984-08-01

    Highly charged submicrometer plastic spheres suspended in water at low ionic strength will order spontaneously into bcc crystals or polycrystals. A simple linear shear orients and disorders these crystals by forcing (110) planes to stack normal to the shear gradient and to slide relative to each other with a direction parallel to the solvent flow. In this paper we analyze in detail the disordering and flow processes occurring beyond the intrinsic elastic limit of the bcc crystal. We are led to a model in which the flow of a colloidal crystal is interpreted as a fundamentally different process from that found in atomic crystals. In the colloidal crystal the coupling of particle motion to the background fluid forces a homogeneous flow, where every layer is in motion relative to its neighboring layers. In contrast, the plastic flow in an atomic solid is defect mediated flow. At the lowest applied stress, the local bcc order in the colloidal crystal exhibits shear strains both parallel and perpendicular to the direction of the applied stress. The magnitude of these deformations is estimated using the configurational energy for bcc and distorted bcc crystals, assuming a screened Coulomb pair interaction between colloidal particles. As the applied stress is increased, the intrinsic elastic limit of the crystal is exceeded and the crystal begins to flow with adjacent layers executing an oscillatory path governed by the balance of viscous and screened Coulomb forces. The path takes the structure from the bcc1 and bcc2 twins observed at zero shear to a distorted two-dimensional hcp structure at moderate shear rates, with a loss of interlayer registration as the shear is increased. This theoretical model is consistent with other experimental observations, as well.

  3. Effects of quenched impurities on surface diffusion, spreading, and ordering of O/W(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikunen, P.; Vattulainen, Ilpo Tapio; Ala-Nissila, T.

    2002-01-01

    We study how quenched impurities affect the surface diffusion and ordering of strongly interacting adsorbate atoms on surfaces. To this end, we carry out Monte Carlo simulations for a lattice-gas model of O/W(110), including small concentrations of immobile impurities which block their adsorption...

  4. A high-order boundary integral method for surface diffusions on elastically stressed axisymmetric rods

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaofan; Nie, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Many applications in materials involve surface diffusion of elastically stressed solids. Study of singularity formation and long-time behavior of such solid surfaces requires accurate simulations in both space and time. Here we present a high-order boundary integral method for an elastically stressed solid with axi-symmetry due to surface diffusions. In this method, the boundary integrals for isotropic elasticity in axi-symmetric geometry are approximated through modified alternating quadratu...

  5. Modification of silica surface by gamma ray induced Ad micellar Polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buathong, Salukjit; Pongprayoon, Thirawudh; Suwanmala, Phiriyatorn

    2005-10-01

    Precipitated silica is often added to natural rubber compounds in order to improve performance in commercial application. A problem with using silica as filler is the poor compatibility between silica and natural rubber. In this research, polyisoprene was coated on silica surface by gamma ray induced ad micellar polymerization in order to achieve the better compatibility between silica and natural rubber. The modified silica was characterized by FT-IR, and SEM. The results show that polyisoprene was successfully coated on silica surface via gamma ray induced ad micellar polymerization

  6. Magnetic field induced third order susceptibility of third order harmonic generation in a ZnMgSe strained quantum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark, J. Abraham Hudson, E-mail: a.john.peter@gmail.com; Peter, A. John, E-mail: a.john.peter@gmail.com [Dept. of Physics, SSM Institute of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul-624002 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Third order susceptibility of third order harmonic generation is investigated in a Zn{sub 0.1}Mg{sub 0.9}Se/Zn{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}Se/Zn{sub 0.1}Mg{sub 0.9}Se quantum well in the presence of magnetic field strength. The confinement potential is considered as the addition of energy offsets of the conduction band (or valence band) and the strain-induced potential in our calculations. The material dependent effective mass is followed throughout the computation because it has a high influence on the electron energy levels in low dimensional semiconductor systems.

  7. Delay induced high order locking effects in semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, B.; Wishon, M. J.; Locquet, A.; Goulding, D.; Tykalewicz, B.; Huyet, G.; Viktorov, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    Multiple time scales appear in many nonlinear dynamical systems. Semiconductor lasers, in particular, provide a fertile testing ground for multiple time scale dynamics. For solitary semiconductor lasers, the two fundamental time scales are the cavity repetition rate and the relaxation oscillation frequency which is a characteristic of the field-matter interaction in the cavity. Typically, these two time scales are of very different orders, and mutual resonances do not occur. Optical feedback endows the system with a third time scale: the external cavity repetition rate. This is typically much longer than the device cavity repetition rate and suggests the possibility of resonances with the relaxation oscillations. We show that for lasers with highly damped relaxation oscillations, such resonances can be obtained and lead to spontaneous mode-locking. Two different laser types-—a quantum dot based device and a quantum well based device—are analysed experimentally yielding qualitatively identical dynamics. A rate equation model is also employed showing an excellent agreement with the experimental results.

  8. Noise-and delay-induced phase transitions of the dimer–monomer surface reaction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Chunhua; Wang Hua

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We study the dimer–monomer surface reaction model. ► We show that noise induces first-order irreversible phase transition (IPT). ► Combination of noise and time-delayed feedback induce first- and second-order IPT. ► First- and second-order IPT is viewed as noise-and delay-induced phase transitions. - Abstract: The effects of noise and time-delayed feedback in the dimer–monomer (DM) surface reaction model are investigated. Applying small delay approximation, we construct a stochastic delayed differential equation and its Fokker–Planck equation to describe the state evolution of the DM reaction model. We show that the noise can only induce first-order irreversible phase transition (IPT) characteristic of the DM model, however the combination of the noise and time-delayed feedback can simultaneously induce first- and second-order IPT characteristics of the DM model. Therefore, it is shown that the well-known first- and second-order IPT characteristics of the DM model may be viewed as noise-and delay-induced phase transitions.

  9. Regulating Ultrasound Cavitation in order to Induce Reproducible Sonoporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestas, J.-L.; Alberti, L.; El Maalouf, J.; Béra, J.-C.; Gilles, B.

    2010-03-01

    Sonoporation would be linked to cavitation, which generally appears to be a non reproducible and unstationary phenomenon. In order to obtain an acceptable trade-off between cell mortality and transfection, a regulated cavitation generator based on an acoustical cavitation measurement was developed and tested. The medium to be sonicated is placed in a sample tray. This tray is immersed in in degassed water and positioned above the face of a flat ultrasonic transducer (frequency: 445 kHz; intensity range: 0.08-1.09 W/cm2). This technical configuration was admitted to be conducive to standing-wave generation through reflection at the air/medium interface in the well thus enhancing the cavitation phenomenon. Laterally to the transducer, a homemade hydrophone was oriented to receive the acoustical signal from the bubbles. From this spectral signal recorded at intervals of 5 ms, a cavitation index was calculated as the mean of the cavitation spectrum integration in a logarithmic scale, and the excitation power is automatically corrected. The device generates stable and reproducible cavitation level for a wide range of cavitation setpoint from stable cavitation condition up to full-developed inertial cavitation. For the ultrasound intensity range used, the time delay of the response is lower than 200 ms. The cavitation regulation device was evaluated in terms of chemical bubble collapse effect. Hydroxyl radical production was measured on terephthalic acid solutions. In open loop, the results present a great variability whatever the excitation power. On the contrary the closed loop allows a great reproducibility. This device was implemented for study of sonodynamic effect. The regulation provides more reproducible results independent of cell medium and experimental conditions (temperature, pressure). Other applications of this regulated cavitation device concern internalization of different particles (Quantum Dot) molecules (SiRNA) or plasmids (GFP, DsRed) into different

  10. Influence of low-order rational magnetic surfaces on heat transport in TJ-II heliac ECRH plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castejon, F.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Estrada, T.; Ascasibar, E.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.

    2004-01-01

    We study the effect of low-order rational surfaces on electron heat transport in plasmas confined in the TJ-II stellarator (Alejaldre et al 1990 Fusion Technol. 17 131) and heated by electron cyclotron waves. Enhancement of core electron heat confinement is observed when the rational surface is placed in the vicinity of the power deposition zone, either by performing a magnetic configuration scan or by inducing Ohmic current in a single discharge. The key to improving heat confinement seems to be a locally strong positive radial electric field, which is made possible by a synergistic effect between enhanced electron heat fluxes through radial positions around low-order rationals and pump out mechanisms in the heat deposition zone. (author)

  11. Predictive model for convective flows induced by surface reactivity contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Scott M.; Lammertink, Rob G. H.; Mani, Ali

    2018-05-01

    Concentration gradients in a fluid adjacent to a reactive surface due to contrast in surface reactivity generate convective flows. These flows result from contributions by electro- and diffusio-osmotic phenomena. In this study, we have analyzed reactive patterns that release and consume protons, analogous to bimetallic catalytic conversion of peroxide. Similar systems have typically been studied using either scaling analysis to predict trends or costly numerical simulation. Here, we present a simple analytical model, bridging the gap in quantitative understanding between scaling relations and simulations, to predict the induced potentials and consequent velocities in such systems without the use of any fitting parameters. Our model is tested against direct numerical solutions to the coupled Poisson, Nernst-Planck, and Stokes equations. Predicted slip velocities from the model and simulations agree to within a factor of ≈2 over a multiple order-of-magnitude change in the input parameters. Our analysis can be used to predict enhancement of mass transport and the resulting impact on overall catalytic conversion, and is also applicable to predicting the speed of catalytic nanomotors.

  12. ECG artifact cancellation in surface EMG signals by fractional order calculus application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljković, Nadica; Popović, Nenad; Djordjević, Olivera; Konstantinović, Ljubica; Šekara, Tomislav B

    2017-03-01

    New aspects for automatic electrocardiography artifact removal from surface electromyography signals by application of fractional order calculus in combination with linear and nonlinear moving window filters are explored. Surface electromyography recordings of skeletal trunk muscles are commonly contaminated with spike shaped artifacts. This artifact originates from electrical heart activity, recorded by electrocardiography, commonly present in the surface electromyography signals recorded in heart proximity. For appropriate assessment of neuromuscular changes by means of surface electromyography, application of a proper filtering technique of electrocardiography artifact is crucial. A novel method for automatic artifact cancellation in surface electromyography signals by applying fractional order calculus and nonlinear median filter is introduced. The proposed method is compared with the linear moving average filter, with and without prior application of fractional order calculus. 3D graphs for assessment of window lengths of the filters, crest factors, root mean square differences, and fractional calculus orders (called WFC and WRC graphs) have been introduced. For an appropriate quantitative filtering evaluation, the synthetic electrocardiography signal and analogous semi-synthetic dataset have been generated. The examples of noise removal in 10 able-bodied subjects and in one patient with muscle dystrophy are presented for qualitative analysis. The crest factors, correlation coefficients, and root mean square differences of the recorded and semi-synthetic electromyography datasets showed that the most successful method was the median filter in combination with fractional order calculus of the order 0.9. Statistically more significant (p ECG peak reduction was obtained by the median filter application compared to the moving average filter in the cases of low level amplitude of muscle contraction compared to ECG spikes. The presented results suggest that the

  13. Highly ordered nanopatterns on Ge and Si surfaces by ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziberi, B; Cornejo, M; Frost, F; Rauschenbach, B

    2009-01-01

    The bombardment of surfaces with low-energy ion beams leads to material erosion and can be accompanied by changes in the topography. Under certain conditions this surface erosion can result in well-ordered nanostructures. Here an overview of the pattern formation on Si and Ge surfaces under low-energy ion beam erosion at room temperature will be given. In particular, the formation of ripple and dot patterns, and the influence of different process parameters on their formation, ordering, shape and type will be discussed. Furthermore, the internal ion beam parameters inherent to broad beam ion sources are considered as an additional degree of freedom for controlling the pattern formation process. In this context: (i) formation of ripples at near-normal ion incidence, (ii) formation of dots at oblique ion incidence without sample rotation, (iii) transition between patterns, (iv) formation of ripples with different orientations and (v) long range ordered dot patterns will be presented and discussed.

  14. Reliability-based design optimization via high order response surface method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hong Shuang

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the computational effort of reliability-based design optimization (RBDO), the response surface method (RSM) has been widely used to evaluate reliability constraints. We propose an efficient methodology for solving RBDO problems based on an improved high order response surface method (HORSM) that takes advantage of an efficient sampling method, Hermite polynomials and uncertainty contribution concept to construct a high order response surface function with cross terms for reliability analysis. The sampling method generates supporting points from Gauss-Hermite quadrature points, which can be used to approximate response surface function without cross terms, to identify the highest order of each random variable and to determine the significant variables connected with point estimate method. The cross terms between two significant random variables are added to the response surface function to improve the approximation accuracy. Integrating the nested strategy, the improved HORSM is explored in solving RBDO problems. Additionally, a sampling based reliability sensitivity analysis method is employed to reduce the computational effort further when design variables are distributional parameters of input random variables. The proposed methodology is applied on two test problems to validate its accuracy and efficiency. The proposed methodology is more efficient than first order reliability method based RBDO and Monte Carlo simulation based RBDO, and enables the use of RBDO as a practical design tool.

  15. A high-order boundary integral method for surface diffusions on elastically stressed axisymmetric rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofan; Nie, Qing

    2009-07-01

    Many applications in materials involve surface diffusion of elastically stressed solids. Study of singularity formation and long-time behavior of such solid surfaces requires accurate simulations in both space and time. Here we present a high-order boundary integral method for an elastically stressed solid with axi-symmetry due to surface diffusions. In this method, the boundary integrals for isotropic elasticity in axi-symmetric geometry are approximated through modified alternating quadratures along with an extrapolation technique, leading to an arbitrarily high-order quadrature; in addition, a high-order (temporal) integration factor method, based on explicit representation of the mean curvature, is used to reduce the stability constraint on time-step. To apply this method to a periodic (in axial direction) and axi-symmetric elastically stressed cylinder, we also present a fast and accurate summation method for the periodic Green's functions of isotropic elasticity. Using the high-order boundary integral method, we demonstrate that in absence of elasticity the cylinder surface pinches in finite time at the axis of the symmetry and the universal cone angle of the pinching is found to be consistent with the previous studies based on a self-similar assumption. In the presence of elastic stress, we show that a finite time, geometrical singularity occurs well before the cylindrical solid collapses onto the axis of symmetry, and the angle of the corner singularity on the cylinder surface is also estimated.

  16. Temperature suppression of STM-induced desorption of hydrogen on Si(100) surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, C.; Sakurai, M.; Nakayama, T.

    1999-01-01

    The temperature dependence of hydrogen (H) desorption from Si(100) H-terminated surfaces by a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is reported for negative sample bias. It is found that the STM induced H desorption rate (R) decreases several orders of magnitude when the substrate temperature...

  17. Solution of volume-surface integral equations using higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    The problem of electromagnetic scattering by composite metallic and dielectric objects is solved using the coupled volume-surface integral equation (VSIE). The method of moments (MoM) based on higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions and higher-order curvilinear geometrical elements...... with the analytical Mie series solution. Scattering by more complex metal-dielectric objects are also considered to compare the presented technique with other numerical methods....

  18. Orientational Order on Surfaces: The Coupling of Topology, Geometry, and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, M.; Nitschke, I.; Praetorius, S.; Voigt, A.

    2018-02-01

    We consider the numerical investigation of surface bound orientational order using unit tangential vector fields by means of a gradient flow equation of a weak surface Frank-Oseen energy. The energy is composed of intrinsic and extrinsic contributions, as well as a penalization term to enforce the unity of the vector field. Four different numerical discretizations, namely a discrete exterior calculus approach, a method based on vector spherical harmonics, a surface finite element method, and an approach utilizing an implicit surface description, the diffuse interface method, are described and compared with each other for surfaces with Euler characteristic 2. We demonstrate the influence of geometric properties on realizations of the Poincaré-Hopf theorem and show examples where the energy is decreased by introducing additional orientational defects.

  19. Lipid order, saturation and surface property relationships: a study of human meibum saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam; Borchman, Douglas; Yappert, Marta C; Duran, Diana; Cox, Gregory W; Smith, Ryan J; Bhola, Rahul; Dennis, Gary R; Whitehall, John S

    2013-11-01

    Tear film stability decreases with age however the cause(s) of the instability are speculative. Perhaps the more saturated meibum from infants may contribute to tear film stability. The meibum lipid phase transition temperature and lipid hydrocarbon chain order at physiological temperature (33 °C) decrease with increasing age. It is reasonable that stronger lipid-lipid interactions could stabilize the tear film since these interactions must be broken for tear break up to occur. In this study, meibum from a pool of adult donors was saturated catalytically. The influence of saturation on meibum hydrocarbon chain order was determined by infrared spectroscopy. Meibum is in an anhydrous state in the meibomian glands and on the surface of the eyelid. The influence of saturation on the surface properties of meibum was determined using Langmuir trough technology. Saturation of native human meibum did not change the minimum or maximum values of hydrocarbon chain order so at temperatures far above or below the phase transition of human meibum, saturation does not play a role in ordering or disordering the lipid hydrocarbon chains. Saturation did increase the phase transition temperature in human meibum by over 20 °C, a relatively high amount. Surface pressure-area studies showing the late take off and higher maximum surface pressure of saturated meibum compared to native meibum suggest that the saturated meibum film is quite molecularly ordered (stiff molecular arrangement) and elastic (molecules are able to rearrange during compression and expansion) compared with native meibum films which are more fluid agreeing with the infrared spectroscopic results of this study. In saturated meibum, the formation of compacted ordered islands of lipids above the surfactant layer would be expected to decrease the rate of evaporation compared to fluid and more loosely packed native meibum. Higher surface pressure observed with films of saturated meibum compared to native meibum

  20. Diffusion processes in bombardment-induced surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    The bombardment of surfaces with moderate energy ions can lead to the development of various micron-sized surface structures. These structures include ridges, ledges, flat planes, pits and cones. The causal phenomena in the production of these features are sputtering, ion reflection, redeposition of sputtered material, and surface diffusion of both impurity and target-atom species. The authors concentrate on the formation of ion bombardment-induced surface topography wherein surface diffusion is a dominant process. The most thoroughly understood aspect of this topography development is the generation of cone-like structures during sputtering. The formation of cones during sputtering has been attributed to three effects. These are: (1) the presence of asperities, defects, or micro-inclusions in the surface layers, (2) the presence of impurities on the surfaces, and (3) particular crystal orientations. (Auth.)

  1. Light induced modulation instability of surfaces under intense illumination

    KAUST Repository

    Burlakov, V. M.

    2013-12-17

    We show that a flat surface of a polymer in rubber state illuminated with intense electromagnetic radiation is unstable with respect to periodic modulation. Initial periodic perturbation is amplified due to periodic thermal expansion of the material heated by radiation. Periodic heating is due to focusing-defocusing effects caused by the initial surface modulation. The surface modulation has a period longer than the excitation wavelength and does not require coherent light source. Therefore, it is not related to the well-known laser induced periodic structures on polymer surfaces but may contribute to their formation and to other phenomena of light-matter interaction.

  2. ONE-DIMENSIONAL ORDERING OF IN ATOMS IN A CU(100) SURFACE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BREEMAN, M; BARKEMA, GT; BOERMA, DO

    1994-01-01

    A Monte Carlo study of the ordering of In atoms embedded in the top layer of a Cu(100) surface is presented. The interaction energies between the In and Cu atoms were derived from atom-embedding calculations, with Finnis-Sinclair potentials. It was found that the interaction between In atoms in the

  3. Landau-de Gennes theory of surface-enhanced ordering in smectic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaginov, A N; Sullivan, D E

    2001-03-01

    A Landau theory for surface-enhanced ordering in smectic-A free-standing films is described, based on a generalization of de Gennes' model for a "presmectic" fluid confined between two walls. According to the theory, smectic ordering in free-standing films heated above the bulk smectic melting temperature is due to an intrinsic surface contribution rather than an external field. The theory yields a persistent finite-size effect, in that the film melting temperatures do not tend to the bulk transition temperature in the limit of infinite film thickness. It also predicts that a continuous transition from (N+1)- to N-layer films is impossible without an external field. The theory closely fits existing experimental data on layer-thinning transitions in compounds which exhibit a bulk smectic-A to nematic phase transition. Possible origins of the intrinsic surface contribution are discussed.

  4. Surface and finite size effect on fluctuations dynamics in nanoparticles with long-range order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozovska, A. N.; Eliseev, E. A.

    2010-02-01

    The influence of surface and finite size on the dynamics of the order parameter fluctuations and critical phenomena in the three-dimensional (3D)-confined systems with long-range order was not considered theoretically. In this paper, we study the influence of surface and finite size on the dynamics of the order parameter fluctuations in the particles of arbitrary shape. We consider concrete examples of the spherical and cylindrical ferroic nanoparticles within Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire phenomenological approach. Allowing for the strong surface energy contribution in micro and nanoparticles, the analytical expressions derived for the Ornstein-Zernike correlator of the long-range order parameter spatial-temporal fluctuations, dynamic generalized susceptibility, relaxation times, and correlation radii discrete spectra are different from those known for bulk systems. Obtained analytical expressions for the correlation function of the order parameter spatial-temporal fluctuations in micro and nanosized systems can be useful for the quantitative analysis of the dynamical structural factors determined from magnetic resonance diffraction and scattering spectra. Besides the practical importance of the correlation function for the analysis of the experimental data, derived expressions for the fluctuations strength determine the fundamental limits of phenomenological theories applicability for 3D-confined systems.

  5. Imaging of first-order surface-related multiples by reverse-time migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejian; Liu, Yike; Hu, Hao; Li, Peng; Khan, Majid

    2017-02-01

    Surface-related multiples have been utilized in the reverse-time migration (RTM) procedures, and additional illumination for subsurface can be provided. Meanwhile, many cross-talks are generated from undesired interactions between forward- and backward-propagated seismic waves. In this paper, subsequent to analysing and categorizing these cross-talks, we propose RTM of first-order multiples to avoid most undesired interactions in RTM of all-order multiples, where only primaries are forward-propagated and crosscorrelated with the backward-propagated first-order multiples. With primaries and multiples separated during regular seismic data processing as the input data, first-order multiples can be obtained by a two-step scheme: (1) the dual-prediction of higher-order multiples; and (2) the adaptive subtraction of predicted higher-order multiples from all-order multiples within local offset-time windows. In numerical experiments, two synthetic and a marine field data sets are used, where different cross-talks generated by RTM of all-order multiples can be identified and the proposed RTM of first-order multiples can provide a very interpretable image with a few cross-talks.

  6. Laser-induced selective copper plating of polypropylene surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratautas, K.; Gedvilas, M.; Stankevičiene, I.; JagminienÄ--, A.; Norkus, E.; Li Pira, N.; Sinopoli, S.; Emanuele, U.; Račiukaitis, G.

    2016-03-01

    Laser writing for selective plating of electro-conductive lines for electronics has several significant advantages, compared to conventional printed circuit board technology. Firstly, this method is faster and cheaper at the prototyping stage. Secondly, material consumption is reduced, because it works selectively. However, the biggest merit of this method is potentiality to produce moulded interconnect device, enabling to create electronics on complex 3D surfaces, thus saving space, materials and cost of production. There are two basic techniques of laser writing for selective plating on plastics: the laser-induced selective activation (LISA) and laser direct structuring (LDS). In the LISA method, pure plastics without any dopant (filler) can be used. In the LDS method, special fillers are mixed in the polymer matrix. These fillers are activated during laser writing process, and, in the next processing step, the laser modified area can be selectively plated with metals. In this work, both methods of the laser writing for the selective plating of polymers were investigated and compared. For LDS approach, new material: polypropylene with carbon-based additives was tested using picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses. Different laser processing parameters (laser pulse energy, scanning speed, the number of scans, pulse durations, wavelength and overlapping of scanned lines) were applied in order to find out the optimal regime of activation. Areal selectivity tests showed a high plating resolution. The narrowest width of a copper-plated line was less than 23 μm. Finally, our material was applied to the prototype of the electronic circuit board on a 2D surface.

  7. Geometrically induced surface polaritons in planar nanostructured metallic cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, P. S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Intravia, F [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalvit, Diego A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-14

    We examine the modal structure and dispersion of periodically nanostructured planar metallic cavities within the scattering matrix formulation. By nanostructuring a metallic grating in a planar cavity, artificial surface excitations or spoof plasmon modes are induced with dispersion determined by the periodicity and geometric characteristics of the grating. These spoof surface plasmon modes are shown to give rise to new cavity polaritonic modes at short mirror separations that modify the density of modes in nanostructured cavities. The increased modal density of states form cavity polarirons have a large impact on the fluctuation induced electromagnetic forces and enhanced hear transfer at short separations.

  8. Ion induced optical emission for surface and depth profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    Low-energy ion bombardment of solid surfaces results in the emission of infrared, visible, and ultraviolet radiation produced by inelastic ion-solid collision processes. The emitted optical radiation provides important insight into low-energy particle-solid interactions and provides the basis for an analysis technique which can be used for surface and depth profile analysis with high sensitivity. The different kinds of collision induced optical radiation emitted as a result of low-energy particle-solid collisions are reviewed. Line radiation arising from excited states of sputtered atoms or molecules is shown to provide the basis for surface and depth profile analysis. The spectral characteristics of this type of radiation are discussed and applications of the ion induced optical emission technique are presented. These applications include measurements of ion implant profiles, detection sensitivities for submonolayer quantities of impurities on elemental surfaces, and the detection of elemental impurities on complex organic substrates

  9. Ion-Induced Surface Modification of Magnetically Operated Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Arushanov

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A study has been made of permalloy (iron-nickel contacts of reed switches before and after ion-induced surface modification using atomic force and optical microscopy, Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been found that the formation of surface nitride layers enhances corrosion and erosion resistance of contacts. We proposed to produce such layers directly into sealed reed switches by means of pulsing glow-discharge nitrogen plasma.

  10. Laboratory Activity Worksheet to Train High Order Thinking Skill of Student on Surface Chemistry Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonata, B.; Nasrudin, H.

    2018-01-01

    A worksheet has to be a set with activity which is help students to arrange their own experiments. For this reason, this research is focused on how to train students’ higher order thinking skills in laboratory activity by developing laboratory activity worksheet on surface chemistry lecture. To ensure that the laboratory activity worksheet already contains aspects of the higher order thinking skill, it requires theoretical and empirical validation. From the data analysis results, it shows that the developed worksheet worth to use. The worksheet is worthy of theoretical and empirical feasibility. This conclusion is based on the findings: 1) Assessment from the validators about the theoretical feasibility aspects in the category is very feasible with an assessment range of 95.24% to 97.92%. 2) students’ higher thinking skill from N Gain values ranges from 0.50 (enough) to 1.00 (high) so it can be concluded that the laboratory activity worksheet on surface chemistry lecture is empirical in terms of worth. The empirical feasibility is supported by the responses of the students in very reasonable categories. It is expected that the laboratory activity worksheet on surface chemistry lecture can train students’ high order thinking skills for students who program surface chemistry lecture.

  11. Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopic studies of oxide surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadesalingam, Manori

    2005-03-01

    Defects on oxide surfaces are well known to play a key role in catalysis. TiO2, MgO, SiO2 surfaces were investigated using Time-Of-Flight Positron induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (TOF-PAES). Previous work in bulk materials has demonstrated that positrons are particularly sensitive to charged defects. In PAES energetic electron emission results from Auger transitions initiated by annihilation of core electrons with positrons trapped in an image-potential well at the surface. Annealed samples in O2 environment show a strong Auger peak of Oxygen. The implication of these results will be discussed

  12. Robust authentication through stochastic femtosecond laser filament induced scattering surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haisu; Tzortzakis, Stelios

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a reliable authentication method by femtosecond laser filament induced scattering surfaces. The stochastic nonlinear laser fabrication nature results in unique authentication robust properties. This work provides a simple and viable solution for practical applications in product authentication, while also opens the way for incorporating such elements in transparent media and coupling those in integrated optical circuits.

  13. Robust authentication through stochastic femtosecond laser filament induced scattering surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haisu [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Heraklion 71110 (Greece); Tzortzakis, Stelios, E-mail: stzortz@iesl.forth.gr [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Heraklion 71110 (Greece); Materials Science and Technology Department, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Science Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar)

    2016-05-23

    We demonstrate a reliable authentication method by femtosecond laser filament induced scattering surfaces. The stochastic nonlinear laser fabrication nature results in unique authentication robust properties. This work provides a simple and viable solution for practical applications in product authentication, while also opens the way for incorporating such elements in transparent media and coupling those in integrated optical circuits.

  14. Electron emission from tungsten surface induced by neon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhongfeng; Zeng, Lixia; Zhao, Yongtao; Liu, Xueliang; Xiao, Guoqing; Li, Fuli; Cheng, Rui; Zhang, Xiaoan; Ren, Jieru; Zhou, Xianming; Wang, Xing; Lei, Yu; Li, Yongfeng; Yu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The electron emission from W surface induced by Ne q+ has been measured. For the same charge state, the electron yield gradually increases with the projectile velocity. Meanwhile, the effect of the potential energy of projectile has been found obviously. Our results give the critical condition for ''trampoline effect''

  15. Electron emission from tungsten surface induced by neon ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongfeng; Zeng, Lixia; Zhao, Yongtao; Cheng, Rui; Zhang, Xiaoan; Ren, Jieru; Zhou, Xianming; Wang, Xing; Lei, Yu; Li, Yongfeng; Yu, Yang; Liu, Xueliang; Xiao, Guoqing; Li, Fuli

    2014-04-01

    The electron emission from W surface induced by Neq+ has been measured. For the same charge state, the electron yield gradually increases with the projectile velocity. Meanwhile, the effect of the potential energy of projectile has been found obviously. Our results give the critical condition for "trampoline effect".

  16. Stress-induced roughening instabilities along surfaces of piezoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, N.Y.; Gao, H.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of using electric field to stabilize surfaces of piezoelectric solids against stress-induced morphological roughening is explored in this paper. Two types of idealized boundary conditions are considered: (1) a traction free and electrically insulating surface and (2) a traction free and electrically conducting surface. A perturbation solution for the energy variation associated with surface roughening suggests that the electric field can be used to suppress the roughening instability to various degrees. A completely stable state is possible in the insulating case, and kinetically more stable states can be attained in the conducting case. The stabilization has importance in reducing concentration of stress and electric fields due to microscopic surface roughness which might trigger failure processes involving dislocation, cracks and dielectric breakdown

  17. Femtosecond laser fabrication of highly hydrophobic stainless steel surface with hierarchical structures fabricated by combining ordered microstructures and LIPSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Calderon, M.; Rodríguez, A.; Dias-Ponte, A.; Morant-Miñana, M.C.; Gómez-Aranzadi, M.; Olaizola, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Femtosecond laser treatment to achieve highly hydrophobic behavior on stainless steel. • Combination of micro-machined patterns with LIPSS into hierarchical structures. • Contact angles as high as 156° with only the femtosecond laser irradiation. - Abstract: In this work we have developed hierarchical structures that consist of micro-patterned surfaces covered by nanostructures with a femtosecond laser. The first part of this work is a study to determine the microscale modifications produced on a stainless steel alloy (AISI304) surface at high pulse energy, different velocities, and number of overscans in order to obtain microstructures with a selected depth of around 10 μm and line widths of 20 μm. The second part of the work is focused on finding the optimal irradiation parameters to obtain the nanostructure pattern. Nanostructures have been defined by means of Laser Induced Periodical Surface Structures (LIPSS) around 250 nm high and a period of 580 nm, which constitute the nanostructure pattern. Finally, dual scale gratings of 50 mm"2 were fabricated with different geometries and their effect on the measured contact angle. Combining the micro-pattern with the LIPSS nano-pattern, highly hydrophobic surfaces have been developed with measured static contact angles higher than 150° on a stainless steel alloy.

  18. Femtosecond laser fabrication of highly hydrophobic stainless steel surface with hierarchical structures fabricated by combining ordered microstructures and LIPSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Calderon, M., E-mail: mmcalderon@ceit.es [CEIT-IK4 & Tecnun (University of Navarra), Paseo Manuel Lardizábal 15, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); CIC microGUNE, Goiru Kalea 9 Polo Innovación Garaia, 20500 Arrasate-Mondragón (Spain); Rodríguez, A.; Dias-Ponte, A.; Morant-Miñana, M.C.; Gómez-Aranzadi, M.; Olaizola, S.M. [CEIT-IK4 & Tecnun (University of Navarra), Paseo Manuel Lardizábal 15, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); CIC microGUNE, Goiru Kalea 9 Polo Innovación Garaia, 20500 Arrasate-Mondragón (Spain)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Femtosecond laser treatment to achieve highly hydrophobic behavior on stainless steel. • Combination of micro-machined patterns with LIPSS into hierarchical structures. • Contact angles as high as 156° with only the femtosecond laser irradiation. - Abstract: In this work we have developed hierarchical structures that consist of micro-patterned surfaces covered by nanostructures with a femtosecond laser. The first part of this work is a study to determine the microscale modifications produced on a stainless steel alloy (AISI304) surface at high pulse energy, different velocities, and number of overscans in order to obtain microstructures with a selected depth of around 10 μm and line widths of 20 μm. The second part of the work is focused on finding the optimal irradiation parameters to obtain the nanostructure pattern. Nanostructures have been defined by means of Laser Induced Periodical Surface Structures (LIPSS) around 250 nm high and a period of 580 nm, which constitute the nanostructure pattern. Finally, dual scale gratings of 50 mm{sup 2} were fabricated with different geometries and their effect on the measured contact angle. Combining the micro-pattern with the LIPSS nano-pattern, highly hydrophobic surfaces have been developed with measured static contact angles higher than 150° on a stainless steel alloy.

  19. Multi-phase-field method for surface tension induced elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiedung, Raphael; Steinbach, Ingo; Varnik, Fathollah

    2018-01-01

    A method, based on the multi-phase-field framework, is proposed that adequately accounts for the effects of a coupling between surface free energy and elastic deformation in solids. The method is validated via a number of analytically solvable problems. In addition to stress states at mechanical equilibrium in complex geometries, the underlying multi-phase-field framework naturally allows us to account for the influence of surface energy induced stresses on phase transformation kinetics. This issue, which is of fundamental importance on the nanoscale, is demonstrated in the limit of fast diffusion for a solid sphere, which melts due to the well-known Gibbs-Thompson effect. This melting process is slowed down when coupled to surface energy induced elastic deformation.

  20. Second order tidally induced flow in the inlet of a coastal lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguiluz, Ana; Wong, Kuo-Chuin

    2005-08-01

    Current meter data obtained in Indian River Inlet and Indian River Bay, Delaware are analyzed to compute second order low-frequency tidal flow and tidally induced mean flow in the system. Results from least-squares harmonic analysis show that nonlinearly induced M4 currents in the inlet and bay occur at order 10 -1 of the M2 amplitudes, indicating weak nonlinearity in the system. Tidally rectified mean flow computed from Mm and Msf is ˜3 cm s -1, which is of the same order of magnitude as the observed mean current. The estimated low-frequency tidal flow and the tidally induced mean flow agree well with scalings computed for the inlet and with results found by Münchow et al. [Münchow, A., Masse, A.K., Garvine, R.W., 1992. Astronomical and nonlinear tidal currents in a coupled estuary shelf system. Continental Shelf Research 12, 471-498] in Delaware Bay.

  1. Disturbance induced by surface preparation on instrumented indentation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yugang; Kanouté, Pascale; François, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Surface preparation, which may induce considerable sample disturbance, plays an important role in instrumented indentation test (IIT). In this study, the sample disturbance (mainly divided into residual stresses and plastic strain) induced by the surface preparation process of instrumented indentation test specimens were investigated with both experimental tests and numerical simulations. Grazing incidence X-ray diffractions (GIXRD) and uniaxial tensile tests were conducted for characterizing the residual stresses and high plastic strain in the top surface layers of a carefully mechanically polished indentation sample, which, in the present work, is made of commercially pure titanium. Instrumented indentation tests and the corresponding finite element simulations were performed as well. For comparison, a reference sample (carefully mechanically polished & electrolytically polished) which represents the raw material was prepared and tested. Results showed that a careful mechanical polishing procedure can effectively reduce the level of residual stresses induced by this process. However, the high plastic strain in the surface region imposed by the polishing process is significant. The induced plastic strain can affect a depth up to 5 µm, which is deeper than the maximum penetration depth h max (3 µm) used for the instrumented indentation tests. In the near surface layer (in the range of depth about 350 nm), the plastic strain levels are fairly high. In the very top layer, the plastic strain was even estimated to reach more than 60%. The simultaneous use of indentation tests and numerical simulations showed that the existence of high plastic strain in the surface region will make the load vs depth (P–h) curve shift upwards, the contact hardness (H) increase and the contact stiffness (S) decrease

  2. Disturbance induced by surface preparation on instrumented indentation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yugang, E-mail: yugang.li@utt.fr [Université de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), ICD-LASMIS, UMR CNRS 6281, 12, rue Marie Curie-CS 42060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Kanouté, Pascale, E-mail: pascale.kanoute@onera.fr [Université de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), ICD-LASMIS, UMR CNRS 6281, 12, rue Marie Curie-CS 42060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); The French Aerospace Lab (ONERA), DMSM/MCE, 29 avenue de la Division Leclerc-BP 72, F-92322 Chatillon Cedex (France); François, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.francois@utt.fr [Université de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), ICD-LASMIS, UMR CNRS 6281, 12, rue Marie Curie-CS 42060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)

    2015-08-26

    Surface preparation, which may induce considerable sample disturbance, plays an important role in instrumented indentation test (IIT). In this study, the sample disturbance (mainly divided into residual stresses and plastic strain) induced by the surface preparation process of instrumented indentation test specimens were investigated with both experimental tests and numerical simulations. Grazing incidence X-ray diffractions (GIXRD) and uniaxial tensile tests were conducted for characterizing the residual stresses and high plastic strain in the top surface layers of a carefully mechanically polished indentation sample, which, in the present work, is made of commercially pure titanium. Instrumented indentation tests and the corresponding finite element simulations were performed as well. For comparison, a reference sample (carefully mechanically polished & electrolytically polished) which represents the raw material was prepared and tested. Results showed that a careful mechanical polishing procedure can effectively reduce the level of residual stresses induced by this process. However, the high plastic strain in the surface region imposed by the polishing process is significant. The induced plastic strain can affect a depth up to 5 µm, which is deeper than the maximum penetration depth h{sub max} (3 µm) used for the instrumented indentation tests. In the near surface layer (in the range of depth about 350 nm), the plastic strain levels are fairly high. In the very top layer, the plastic strain was even estimated to reach more than 60%. The simultaneous use of indentation tests and numerical simulations showed that the existence of high plastic strain in the surface region will make the load vs depth (P–h) curve shift upwards, the contact hardness (H) increase and the contact stiffness (S) decrease.

  3. Surface plasmon enhanced third-order optical nonlinearity of Ag nanocomposite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Vijender [Department of Applied Science, N.C. College of Engineering, Israna, Panipat 132107, Haryana (India); Aghamkar, Praveen, E-mail: p-aghamkar@yahoo.in [Department of Physics, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa 125055, Haryana (India)

    2014-03-17

    We obtain a large third-order optical nonlinearity (χ{sup (3)} ≈ 10{sup −10}esu) of silver nanoparticles dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol/tetraethyl orthosilicate matrix using single beam z-scan technique at 532 nm by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. We have shown that mechanisms responsible for third-order optical nonlinearity of Ag nanocomposite film are reverse saturable absorption (RSA) and self-defocusing in the purlieu of surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Optical band-gap and width of SPR band of Ag nanocomposite film decrease with increasing silver concentration, which leads to enhancement of local electric field and hence third-order optical nonlinearity. Optical limiting, due to RSA has also been demonstrated at 532 nm.

  4. Surface plasmon enhanced third-order optical nonlinearity of Ag nanocomposite film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vijender; Aghamkar, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    We obtain a large third-order optical nonlinearity (χ (3)  ≈ 10 −10 esu) of silver nanoparticles dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol/tetraethyl orthosilicate matrix using single beam z-scan technique at 532 nm by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. We have shown that mechanisms responsible for third-order optical nonlinearity of Ag nanocomposite film are reverse saturable absorption (RSA) and self-defocusing in the purlieu of surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Optical band-gap and width of SPR band of Ag nanocomposite film decrease with increasing silver concentration, which leads to enhancement of local electric field and hence third-order optical nonlinearity. Optical limiting, due to RSA has also been demonstrated at 532 nm

  5. On Surface Order and Disorder of α-Pinene-Derived Secondary Organic Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Mona; Zhang, Yue; Upshur, Mary Alice; Liu, Pengfei; Blair, Sandra L.; Wang, Hongfei; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Thomson, Regan; Martin, Scot T.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-05-14

    The surfaces of secondary organic aerosol particles are notoriously difficult to access experimentally, even though they are the key location where exchange between the aerosol particle phase and its gas phase occurs. Here, we overcome this difficulty by applying standard and sub 1-cm-1 resolution vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy to detect C–H oscillators at the surfaces of secondary organic material (SOM) prepared from the ozonolysis of α-pinene at Harvard University and at the University of California, Irvine that were subsequently collected on Teflon filters as well as CaF2 windows using electrostatic deposition. We find both samples yield comparable SFG spectra featuring an intense peak at 2940 cm-1 that are independent of spectral resolution and location or method of preparation. We hypothesize that the SFG spectra are due to surface-active C–H oscillators associated with the four-membered ring motif of α-pinene, which produces an unresolvable spectral continuum of approximately 50 cm-1 width reminiscent of the similar, albeit much broader, O–H stretching continuum observed in the SFG spectra of aqueous surfaces. Upon subjecting the SOM samples to cycles in relative humidity (RH) between <2% RH and 95% RH, we observe reversible changes in the SFG signal intensity across the entire spectral range surveyed for a polarization combination probing components of the vibrational transition dipole moments that are oriented parallel to the plane of incidence, but no signal intensity changes for any other polarization combination investigated. These results support the notion that the C–H oscillators at the surfaces of α-pinene-derived SOM deposited on CaF2 windows shift back and forth between two different molecular orientation distributions as the RH is lowered (more ordered) or raised (less ordered). The findings thus point towards the presence of a reversible surface switch for hindering (more ordered, <2%RH) and promoting (less

  6. Mixed convection peristaltic flow of third order nanofluid with an induced magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Saima

    2013-01-01

    This research is concerned with the peristaltic flow of third order nanofluid in an asymmetric channel. The governing equations of third order nanofluid are modelled in wave frame of reference. Effect of induced magnetic field is considered. Long wavelength and low Reynolds number situation is tackled. Numerical solutions of the governing problem are computed and analyzed. The effects of Brownian motion and thermophoretic diffusion of nano particles are particularly emphasized. Physical quantities such as velocity, pressure rise, temperature, induced magnetic field and concentration distributions are discussed.

  7. Mixed convection peristaltic flow of third order nanofluid with an induced magnetic field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Noreen

    Full Text Available This research is concerned with the peristaltic flow of third order nanofluid in an asymmetric channel. The governing equations of third order nanofluid are modelled in wave frame of reference. Effect of induced magnetic field is considered. Long wavelength and low Reynolds number situation is tackled. Numerical solutions of the governing problem are computed and analyzed. The effects of Brownian motion and thermophoretic diffusion of nano particles are particularly emphasized. Physical quantities such as velocity, pressure rise, temperature, induced magnetic field and concentration distributions are discussed.

  8. Electron backscatter diffraction characterization of laser-induced periodic surface structures on nickel surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedao, Xxx, E-mail: sedao.xxx@gmail.com [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université Jean Monnet, 42000 St-Etienne (France); Maurice, Claire [Laboratoire Georges Friedel, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, 42023 St-Etienne (France); Garrelie, Florence; Colombier, Jean-Philippe; Reynaud, Stéphanie [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université Jean Monnet, 42000 St-Etienne (France); Quey, Romain; Blanc, Gilles [Laboratoire Georges Friedel, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, 42023 St-Etienne (France); Pigeon, Florent [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université Jean Monnet, 42000 St-Etienne (France)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlight: •Lattice rotation and its distribution in laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) and the subsurface region on a nickel substrate are revealed using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). -- Abstract: We report on the structural investigation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) generated in polycrystalline nickel target after multi-shot irradiation by femtosecond laser pulses. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is used to reveal lattice rotation caused by dislocation storage during LIPSS formation. Localized crystallographic damages in the LIPSS are detected from both surface and cross-sectional EBSD studies. A surface region (up to 200 nm) with 1–3° grain disorientation is observed in localized areas from the cross-section of the LIPSS. The distribution of the local disorientation is inhomogeneous across the LIPSS and the subsurface region.

  9. Synthesis of partially graphitic ordered mesoporous carbons with high surface areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Wenjun; Wan, Ying [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Resource Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Dou, Yuqian; Zhao, Dongyuan [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Graphitic carbons with ordered mesostructure and high surface areas (of great interest in applications such as energy storage) have been synthesized by a direct triblock-copolymer-templating method. Pluronic F127 is used as a structure-directing agent, with a low-molecular-weight phenolic resol as a carbon source, ferric oxide as a catalyst, and silica as an additive. Inorganic oxides can be completely eliminated from the carbon. Small-angle XRD and N{sub 2} sorption analysis show that the resultant carbon materials possess an ordered 2D hexagonal mesostructure, uniform bimodal mesopores (about 1.5 and 6 nm), high surface area ({proportional_to}1300 m{sup 2}/g), and large pore volumes ({proportional_to}1.50 cm{sup 3}/g) after low-temperature pyrolysis (900 C). All surface areas come from mesopores. Wide-angle XRD patterns demonstrate that the presence of the ferric oxide catalyst and the silica additive lead to a marked enhancement of graphitic ordering in the framework. Raman spectra provide evidence of the increased content of graphitic sp{sup 2} carbon structures. Transmission electron microscopy images confirm that numerous domains in the ordered mesostructures are composed of characteristic graphitic carbon nanostructures. The evolution of the graphitic structure is dependent on the temperature and the concentrations of the silica additive, and ferric oxide catalyst. Electrochemical measurements performed on this graphitic mesoporous carbon when used as an electrode material for an electrochemical double layer capacitor shows rectangular-shaped cyclic voltammetry curves over a wide range of scan rates, even up to 200 mV/s, with a large capacitance of 155 F/g in KOH electrolyte. This method can be widely applied to the synthesis of graphitized carbon nanostructures. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Surface plasmon-enhanced molecular fluorescence induced by gold nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Y.; Ueno, K.; Shi, X.; Aoyo, D.; Misawa, H.; Qiu, J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors report on surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence of Eosin Y molecules induced by gold nanostructures. Al 2 O 3 films deposited by atomic layer deposition with sub-nanometer resolution were used as the spacer layer to control the distance between molecules and the gold surface. As the thickness of the Al 2 O 3 film increased, the fluorescence intensity first increased and then decreased. The highest enhancement factor is achieved with a 1 nm Al 2 O 3 film. However, the trend for the fluorescence lifetime is the opposite. It first decreased and then increased. The changes in the fluorescence quantum yield were also calculated. The yield shows a similar trend to the fluorescence intensity. The competition between the surface plasmon-induced increase in the radiative decay rate and the gold-induced fluorescence quenching is responsible for the observed phenomenon. In addition, this competition strongly depends on the thickness of the spacer layer between Eosin Y molecules and the gold surface. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Nested Fermi surfaces and order in the rare earth nickel borocarbides and copper palladium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, Ian

    2002-01-01

    The electronic structure of two systems, each displaying a different type of order believed to derive from their respective Fermi surface topologies, has been investigated using the two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) technique. A particular topological feature of a generic rare earth nickel borocarbide (general formula RNi 2 B 2 C) Fermi surface is popularly believed to be responsible for a particular modulated arrangement of local moments observed in several magnetic borocarbides. Accordingly, c-axis 2D-ACAR spectra were collected from four representative members of the series, namely the Er, Tm, Yb and Lu compounds. A further a-axis projection from LuNi 2 B 2 C provides an additional comparison with electronic structure calculations performed for this compound. The c-axis projected k-space electron occupancies reveal a fundamentally similar Fermi surface topology across the measured compounds. The a- and c-axis k-space occupancies obtained from LuNi 2 B 2 C showed exceptional qualitative agreement with the corresponding calculated electron occupancy. A number of edge-detection methods were employed to identify the projected Fermi surface, and the existence of the proposed feature was confirmed by direct observation in each of the measured compounds. Calipers of this feature were found to be in good general agreement with those predicted by relevant calculation and expected from indirect experimental evidence. The compositional phase behaviour of copper-palladium solid solutions is believed to be strongly influenced by the shape of their respective Fermi surfaces. In particular, the concentration-dependent positions of diffuse peaks in electron and X-ray diffraction patterns from disordered samples has been associated with the corresponding evolution of flat, parallel areas on the alloy Fermi surface. Electronic structure calculations indicate these areas to be maximal around 40 at. % Pd, and it has been further suggested that

  12. Sulfur-induced structural motifs on copper and gold surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walen, Holly [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of sulfur with copper and gold surfaces plays a fundamental role in important phenomena that include coarsening of surface nanostructures, and self-assembly of alkanethiols. Here, we identify and analyze unique sulfur-induced structural motifs observed on the low-index surfaces of these two metals. We seek out these structures in an effort to better understand the fundamental interactions between these metals and sulfur that lends to the stability and favorability of metal-sulfur complexes vs. chemisorbed atomic sulfur. The experimental observations presented here—made under identical conditions—together with extensive DFT analyses, allow comparisons and insights into factors that favor the existence of metal-sulfur complexes, vs. chemisorbed atomic sulfur, on metal terraces. We believe this data will be instrumental in better understanding the complex phenomena occurring between the surfaces of coinage metals and sulfur.

  13. Adsorbate induced domain-wall ordering on silicon(111); Adsorbatinduzierte Domaenenwandordnung auf Silizium(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, C.

    2006-09-14

    The gold-induced (5 x 2)-reconstruction on the Si(111) surface has been investigated in detail. Investigations with scanning tunneling microscopy, electron diffraction and simple electron diffraction simulation as combining element are presented. The defect density in the (5 x 2)-reconstructed areas has been analysed in dependency on temperature and gold density on the surface. One important result is the categorization of this reconstruction as domain-wall reconstruction like the other gold induced reconstructions on this surface in the submonolayer-coverage regime. The correlation of the adatoms on the (5 x 2)-reconstructed areas is analysed and the silicon coverage in the areas is determined from the growth dynamics of the reconstruction. Based on this, a new model, which has been developed in cooperation with Steve Erwin from the Naval Research Center, Washington, is presented. (orig.)

  14. Electrochemical formation and characterization of Au nanostructures on a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arroyo Gómez, José J.; Zubieta, Carolina; Ferullo, Ricardo M.; García, Silvana G.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The electrodeposition of Au on HOPG tends to follow the response predicted for a 3D instantaneous nucleation mechanism in the potential range considered. • By choosing suitable nucleation and growth pulses, one-dimensional deposits were possible, preferentially located on step edges of the HOPG substrate. • Quantum-mechanical calculations confirmed the tendency of Au atoms to join selectively on the HOPG step edges, at the early stages of Au electrodeposition. - Abstract: The electrochemical formation of Au nanoparticles on a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrate using conventional electrochemical techniques and ex-situ AFM is reported. From the potentiostatic current transients studies, the Au electrodeposition process on HOPG surfaces was described, within the potential range considered, by a model involving instantaneous nucleation and diffusion controlled 3D growth, which was corroborated by the microscopic analysis. Initially, three-dimensional (3D) hemispherical nanoparticles distributed on surface defects (step edges) of the substrate were observed, with increasing particle size at more negative potentials. The double potential pulse technique allowed the formation of rounded deposits at low deposition potentials, which tend to form lines of nuclei aligned in defined directions leading to 3D ordered structures. By choosing suitable nucleation and growth pulses, one-dimensional (1D) deposits were possible, preferentially located on step edges of the HOPG substrate. Quantum-mechanical calculations confirmed the tendency of Au atoms to join selectively on surface defects, such as the HOPG step edges, at the early stages of Au electrodeposition.

  15. Xe ion beam induced rippled structures on differently oriented single-crystalline Si surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanisch, Antje; Grenzer, Joerg; Facsko, Stefan [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, PO Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich, E-mail: A.Hanisch@fzd.d [Universitaet Siegen, Festkoerperphysik, 57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2010-03-24

    We report on Xe{sup +} induced ripple formation at medium energy on single-crystalline silicon surfaces of different orientations using substrates with an intentional miscut from the [0 0 1] direction and a [1 1 1] oriented wafer. The ion beam incidence angle with respect to the surface normal was kept fixed at 65{sup 0} and the ion beam projection was parallel or perpendicular to the [1 1 0] direction. By a combination of atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy we found that the features of the surface and subsurface rippled structures such as ripple wavelength and amplitude and the degree of order do not depend on the surface orientation as assumed in recent models of pattern formation for semiconductor surfaces. (fast track communication)

  16. Practical Considerations for Thermal Stresses Induced by Surface Heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, James P.

    2003-01-01

    Rapid surface heating can induce large stresses in solids. A relatively simple model, assuming full constraint in two dimensions and no constraint in the third dimension, can adequately model stresses in a wide variety of situations. This paper derives this simple model, and supports it with criteria for its validity. Phenomena that are considered include non-zero penetration depths for the heat deposition, spatial non-uniformity in the surface heating, and elastic waves. Models for each of these cases, using simplified geometries, are used to develop quantitative limits for their applicability

  17. First-order dissolution rate law and the role of surface layers in glass performance assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambow, B.; Müller, R.

    2001-09-01

    The first-order dissolution rate law is used for nuclear waste glass performance predictions since 1984. A first discussion of the role of saturation effects was initiated at the MRS conference that year. In paper (1) it was stated that "For glass dissolution A* (the reaction affinity) cannot become zero since saturation only involves the reacting surface while soluble elements still might be extracted from the glass" [B. Grambow, J. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 44 (1985) 15]. Saturation of silica at the surface and condensation of surface silanol groups was considered as being responsible for the slow down of reaction rates by as much as a factor of 1000. Precipitation of Si containing secondary phases such as quartz was invoked as a mechanism for keeping final dissolution affinities higher than zero. Another (2) paper [A.B. Barkatt, P.B. Macedo, B.C. Gibson, C.J. Montrose, J. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 44 (1985) 3] stated that "… under repository conditions the extent of glass dissolution will be moderate due to saturation with respect to certain major elements (in particular, Si, Al and Ca). Consequently, the concentration levels of the more soluble glass constituents in the aqueous medium are expected to fall appreciable below their solubility limit." The formation of dense surface layers was considered responsible for explaining the saturation effect. The mathematical model assumed stop of reaction in closed systems, once solubility limits were achieved. For more than 15 years the question of the correctness of one or the other concept has seldom been posed and has not yet been resolved. The need of repository performance assessment for validated rate laws demands a solution, particularly since the consequences of the two concepts and research requirements for the long-term glass behavior are quite different. In concept (1) the stability of the `equilibrium surface region' is not relevant because, by definition, this region is stable chemically and after a

  18. H2O2-induced higher order chromatin degradation: A novel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    mediator of oxidative stress, can also cause genomic damage indirectly. Thus, H2O2 at pathologically relevant concentrations rapidly induces higher order chromatin degradation (HOCD), i.e. enzymatic ... clease works through a single strand scission mechanism ... a great mutagenic risk to the surviving cells, because en-.

  19. Stress Induced Charge-Ordering Process in LiMn_2O_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yan; Yu, Dunji; An, Ke

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we report the stress-induced Mn charge-ordering process in the LiMn_2O_4 spinel, evidenced by the lattice strain evolutions due to the Jahn–Teller effects. In situ neutron diffraction reveals the initial stage of this process at low stress, indicating the eg electron localization at the preferential Mn sites during the early phase transition as an underlying charge-ordering mechanism in the charge-frustrated LiMn_2O_4. The initial stage of this transition exhibits as a progressive lattice and charge evolution, without showing a first-order behavior.

  20. Giant fifth-order nonlinearity via tunneling induced quantum interference in triple quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Cong Tian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Schemes for giant fifth-order nonlinearity via tunneling in both linear and triangular triple quantum dots are proposed. In both configurations, the real part of the fifth-order nonlinearity can be greatly enhanced, and simultaneously the absorption is suppressed. The analytical expression and the dressed states of the system show that the two tunnelings between the neighboring quantum dots can induce quantum interference, resulting in the giant higher-order nonlinearity. The scheme proposed here may have important applications in quantum information processing at low light level.

  1. Second order classical perturbation theory for atom surface scattering: Analysis of asymmetry in the angular distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yun, E-mail: zhou.yun.x@gmail.com; Pollak, Eli, E-mail: eli.pollak@weizmann.ac.il [Chemical Physics Department, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Miret-Artés, Salvador, E-mail: s.miret@iff.csic.es [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-01-14

    A second order classical perturbation theory is developed and applied to elastic atom corrugated surface scattering. The resulting theory accounts for experimentally observed asymmetry in the final angular distributions. These include qualitative features, such as reduction of the asymmetry in the intensity of the rainbow peaks with increased incidence energy as well as the asymmetry in the location of the rainbow peaks with respect to the specular scattering angle. The theory is especially applicable to “soft” corrugated potentials. Expressions for the angular distribution are derived for the exponential repulsive and Morse potential models. The theory is implemented numerically to a simplified model of the scattering of an Ar atom from a LiF(100) surface.

  2. Second order classical perturbation theory for atom surface scattering: analysis of asymmetry in the angular distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Pollak, Eli; Miret-Artés, Salvador

    2014-01-14

    A second order classical perturbation theory is developed and applied to elastic atom corrugated surface scattering. The resulting theory accounts for experimentally observed asymmetry in the final angular distributions. These include qualitative features, such as reduction of the asymmetry in the intensity of the rainbow peaks with increased incidence energy as well as the asymmetry in the location of the rainbow peaks with respect to the specular scattering angle. The theory is especially applicable to "soft" corrugated potentials. Expressions for the angular distribution are derived for the exponential repulsive and Morse potential models. The theory is implemented numerically to a simplified model of the scattering of an Ar atom from a LiF(100) surface.

  3. On the nano-hillock formation induced by slow highly charged ions on insulator surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemell, C.; El-Said, A. S.; Meissl, W.; Gebeshuber, I. C.; Trautmann, C.; Toulemonde, M.; Burgdörfer, J.; Aumayr, F.

    2007-10-01

    We discuss the creation of nano-sized protrusions on insulating surfaces using slow highly charged ions. This method holds the promise of forming regular structures on surfaces without inducing defects in deeper lying crystal layers. We find that only projectiles with a potential energy above a critical value are able to create hillocks. Below this threshold no surface modification is observed. This is similar to the track and hillock formation induced by swift (˜GeV) heavy ions. We present a model for the conversion of potential energy stored in the projectiles into target-lattice excitations (heat) and discuss the possibility to create ordered structures using the guiding effect observed in insulating conical structures.

  4. Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohwetter, Ph.; Stelmaszczyk, K.; Woeste, L.; Ackermann, R.; Mejean, G.; Salmon, E.; Kasparian, J.; Yu, J.; Wolf, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate laser induced ablation and plasma line emission from a metallic target at distances up to 180 m from the laser, using filaments (self-guided propagation structures ∼ 100 μm in diameter and ∼ 5 x 10 13 W/cm 2 in intensity) appearing as femtosecond and terawatt laser pulses propagating in air. The remarkable property of filaments to propagate over a long distance independently of the diffraction limit opens the frontier to long range operation of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. We call this special configuration of remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy 'remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy'. Our results show main features of filament-induced ablation on the surface of a metallic sample and associated plasma emission. Our experimental data allow us to estimate requirements for the detection system needed for kilometer-range remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy experiment

  5. Nanoantennas for surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy: Effects of interaction and higher order resonant excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Aizpurua

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity in surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy (SEIRS strongly depends on where the resonant excitation is spectrally located compared to the molecular vibration that is to be enhanced. In this contribution, we study the effect of coupling in the electromagnetic properties of 2D gold nanorod arrays in the IR. We also study the SEIRS activity of higher order resonant excitations in long nanoantennas to identify polaritonic signals of a supporting SiO2 layer with nanometer thickness (3 nm on a silicon substrate.

  6. Bio-Inspired Functional Surfaces Based on Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Frank A; Kunz, Clemens; Gräf, Stephan

    2016-06-15

    Nature developed numerous solutions to solve various technical problems related to material surfaces by combining the physico-chemical properties of a material with periodically aligned micro/nanostructures in a sophisticated manner. The utilization of ultra-short pulsed lasers allows mimicking numerous of these features by generating laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). In this review paper, we describe the physical background of LIPSS generation as well as the physical principles of surface related phenomena like wettability, reflectivity, and friction. Then we introduce several biological examples including e.g., lotus leafs, springtails, dessert beetles, moth eyes, butterfly wings, weevils, sharks, pangolins, and snakes to illustrate how nature solves technical problems, and we give a comprehensive overview of recent achievements related to the utilization of LIPSS to generate superhydrophobic, anti-reflective, colored, and drag resistant surfaces. Finally, we conclude with some future developments and perspectives related to forthcoming applications of LIPSS-based surfaces.

  7. Bio-Inspired Functional Surfaces Based on Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A. Müller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nature developed numerous solutions to solve various technical problems related to material surfaces by combining the physico-chemical properties of a material with periodically aligned micro/nanostructures in a sophisticated manner. The utilization of ultra-short pulsed lasers allows mimicking numerous of these features by generating laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS. In this review paper, we describe the physical background of LIPSS generation as well as the physical principles of surface related phenomena like wettability, reflectivity, and friction. Then we introduce several biological examples including e.g., lotus leafs, springtails, dessert beetles, moth eyes, butterfly wings, weevils, sharks, pangolins, and snakes to illustrate how nature solves technical problems, and we give a comprehensive overview of recent achievements related to the utilization of LIPSS to generate superhydrophobic, anti-reflective, colored, and drag resistant surfaces. Finally, we conclude with some future developments and perspectives related to forthcoming applications of LIPSS-based surfaces.

  8. Ordered CdSe nanoparticles within self-assembled block copolymer domains on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shan; Hong, Rui; Emrick, Todd; Walker, Gilbert C

    2007-02-13

    Hierarchical, high-density, ordered patterns were fabricated on Si substrates by self-assembly of CdSe nanoparticles within approximately 20-nm-thick diblock copolymer films in a controlled manner. Surface-modified CdSe nanoparticles formed well-defined structures within microphase-separated polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) domains. Trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO)-coated CdSe nanoparticles were incorporated into PS domains and polyethylene glycol-coated CdSe nanoparticles were located primarily in the P2VP domains. Nearly close-packed CdSe nanoparticles were clearly identified within the highly ordered patterns on Si substrates by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Contact angle measurements together with SEM results indicate that TOPO-CdSe nanoparticles were partially placed at the air/copolymer interface.

  9. Order-Order Transition of C → sdG → sL → S in ABC Triblock Copolymer Thin Film Induced by Solvent Vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chunxia; Huang, Weihuan; Han, Yanchun

    2009-04-01

    The morphology transition of polystyrene-block-poly(butadiene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (SBV) triblock thin film induced in benzene vapor showing weak selectivity for PS is investigated. The order-order transitions (OOT) in the sequence of core-shell cylinders (C), sphere in 'diblock gyroid' (sdG), sphere in lamella (sL) and sphere (S) are observed. The projection along (111) direction in Gyroid phase (sdG(111)) is found to epitaxially grow from C(001) in the film. Instead of sdG(111), sdG(110)(0.1875) develops to the phase of sL. Consequently, the film experiences the transition sequence of sdG(111) → sdG(211) → sdG(110)(0.25)  → sdG(110)(0.1875) between C and sL. The mechanism is analyzed from the total surface area of the blocks. Copyright © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Effect of surface wettability caused by radiation induced surface activation on leidenfrost condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, T.; Hazuku, T.; Tamura, N.; Okamoto, K.; Mishima, K.; Furuya, M.

    2003-01-01

    Improving the limit of boiling heat transfer or critical heat flux requires that the cooling liquid can contact the heating surface, or a high-wettability, highly hydrophilic heating surface, even if a vapor bubble layer is generated on the surface. From this basis, we investigated surface wettability and Leidenfrost condition using metal oxides irradiated by γ-rays. In our previous study, contact angle, an indicator of macroscopic wettability, of a water droplet on metal oxide at room temperature was measured by image processing of the images obtained by a CCD video camera. The results showed that the surface wettability on metal oxide pieces of titanium, Zircaloy No. 4, SUS-304, and copper was improved significantly by the Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) phenomenon. To delineate the effect of Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) on heat transferring phenomena, the Leidenfrost condition and quenching of metal oxides irradiated by γ-rays were investigated. In the Leidenfrost experiment, when the temperature of the heating surface reached the wetting limit temperature, water-solid contact vanished because a stable vapor film existed between the droplet and the metal surface; i.e., a Leidenfrost condition obtained. The wetting limit temperature increased with integrated irradiation dose. After irradiation, the wet length and the duration of contact increased, and the contact angle decreased. In the quenching test, high surface wettability, or a highly hydrophilic condition, of a simulated fuel rod made of SUS was achieved, and the quenching velocities were increased up to 20-30% after 300 kGy 60Co γ-ray irradiation

  11. Effect of surface wettability caused by radiation induced surface activation on leidenfrost condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamasa, T.; Hazuku, T.; Tamura, N.; Okamoto, K. [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Mishima, K. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Furuya, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Improving the limit of boiling heat transfer or critical heat flux requires that the cooling liquid can contact the heating surface, or a high-wettability, highly hydrophilic heating surface, even if a vapor bubble layer is generated on the surface. From this basis, we investigated surface wettability and Leidenfrost condition using metal oxides irradiated by {gamma}-rays. In our previous study, contact angle, an indicator of macroscopic wettability, of a water droplet on metal oxide at room temperature was measured by image processing of the images obtained by a CCD video camera. The results showed that the surface wettability on metal oxide pieces of titanium, Zircaloy No. 4, SUS-304, and copper was improved significantly by the Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) phenomenon. To delineate the effect of Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) on heat transferring phenomena, the Leidenfrost condition and quenching of metal oxides irradiated by {gamma}-rays were investigated. In the Leidenfrost experiment, when the temperature of the heating surface reached the wetting limit temperature, water-solid contact vanished because a stable vapor film existed between the droplet and the metal surface; i.e., a Leidenfrost condition obtained. The wetting limit temperature increased with integrated irradiation dose. After irradiation, the wet length and the duration of contact increased, and the contact angle decreased. In the quenching test, high surface wettability, or a highly hydrophilic condition, of a simulated fuel rod made of SUS was achieved, and the quenching velocities were increased up to 20-30% after 300 kGy 60Co {gamma}-ray irradiation.

  12. Ion beam induced optical and surface modification in plasmonic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Udai B., E-mail: udaibhansingh123@gmail.com; Gautam, Subodh K.; Kumar, Sunil; Hooda, Sonu; Ojha, Sunil; Singh, Fouran

    2016-07-15

    In present work, ion irradiation induced nanostructuring has been exploited as an efficient and effective tool for synthesis of coupled plasmonics nanostructures by using 1.2 MeV Xe ions on Au/ZnO/Au system deposited on glass substrate. The results are correlated on the basis of their optical absorption, surface morphologies and enhanced sensitivity of evolved phonon modes by using UV Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy (RS), respectively. Optical absorbance spectra of plasmonic nanostructures (NSs) show a decrease in band gap, which may be ascribed to the formation of defects with ion irradiation. The surface morphology reveals the formation of percolated NSs upon ion irradiation and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) study clearly shows the formation of multilayer system. Furthermore, RS measurements on samples are studied to understand the enhanced sensitivity of ion irradiation induced phonon mode at 573 cm{sup −1} along with other modes. As compared to pristine sample, a stronger and pronounced evolution of these phonon modes is observed with further ion irradiation, which indicates localized surface plasmon results with enhanced intensity of phonon modes of Zinc oxide (ZnO) material. Thus, such plasmonic NSs can be used as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates.

  13. Depletion region surface effects in electron beam induced current measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, Paul M.; Zhitenev, Nikolai B. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Yoon, Heayoung P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Gaury, Benoit [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Maryland NanoCenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2016-09-07

    Electron beam induced current (EBIC) is a powerful characterization technique which offers the high spatial resolution needed to study polycrystalline solar cells. Current models of EBIC assume that excitations in the p-n junction depletion region result in perfect charge collection efficiency. However, we find that in CdTe and Si samples prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, there is a reduced and nonuniform EBIC lineshape for excitations in the depletion region. Motivated by this, we present a model of the EBIC response for excitations in the depletion region which includes the effects of surface recombination from both charge-neutral and charged surfaces. For neutral surfaces, we present a simple analytical formula which describes the numerical data well, while the charged surface response depends qualitatively on the location of the surface Fermi level relative to the bulk Fermi level. We find that the experimental data on FIB-prepared Si solar cells are most consistent with a charged surface and discuss the implications for EBIC experiments on polycrystalline materials.

  14. Sub-nanometer glass surface dynamics induced by illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Duc; Nienhaus, Lea; Haasch, Richard T.; Lyding, Joseph; Gruebele, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Illumination is known to induce stress and morphology changes in opaque glasses. Amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) has a smaller bandgap than the crystal. Thus, we were able to excite with 532 nm light a 1 μm amorphous surface layer on a SiC crystal while recording time-lapse movies of glass surface dynamics by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Photoexcitation of the a-SiC surface layer through the transparent crystal avoids heating the STM tip. Up to 6 × 10 4 s, long movies of surface dynamics with 40 s time resolution and sub-nanometer spatial resolution were obtained. Clusters of ca. 3-5 glass forming units diameter are seen to cooperatively hop between two states at the surface. Photoexcitation with green laser light recruits immobile clusters to hop, rather than increasing the rate at which already mobile clusters hop. No significant laser heating was observed. Thus, we favor an athermal mechanism whereby electronic excitation of a-SiC directly controls glassy surface dynamics. This mechanism is supported by an exciton migration-relaxation-thermal diffusion model. Individual clusters take ∼1 h to populate states differently after the light intensity has changed. We believe the surrounding matrix rearranges slowly when it is stressed by a change in laser intensity, and clusters serve as a diagnostic. Such cluster hopping and matrix rearrangement could underlie the microscopic mechanism of photoinduced aging of opaque glasses

  15. Hydrogen induced surface effects on the mechanical properties of type 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.C.V. da; Pascual, R.; Miranda, P.E.V. de.

    1983-01-01

    The possibilities of modifying the mechanical properties of type 304 stainless steel by cathodic hydrogen charging were studied. The situations analysed included hydrogen embrittlement itself in tensile tests of hydrogen containing samples and the effects of delayed cracks in fatigue tests of hydrogenated and outgassed samples. SEM and TEM observations were also performed. It was found that hydrogen induced surface delayed cracks appear in great quantity during outgassing (of the order of several millions in a square centimeter). Hydrogen embrittlement was responsible for drastic losses in ductility in tension, while surface cracks severely reduced fatigue life. (author) [pt

  16. Electron induced conformational changes of an imine-based molecular switch on a Au(111) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotze, Christian; Henningsen, Nils; Franke, Katharina; Schulze, Gunnar; Pascual, Jose Ignacio [Inst. f. Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Luo, Ying; Haag, Rainer [Inst. f. Organische Chemie, Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Azobenzene-based molecules exhibit a cis-trans configurational photoisomerisation in solution. Recently, the adsorption properties of azobenzene derivatives have been investigated on different metal surfaces in order to explore the possible changes in the film properties induced by external stimuli. In azobenzene, the diazo-bridge is a key group for the isomerization process. Its interaction with a metal surface is dominated through the N lone-pair electrons, which reduces the efficiency of the conformational change. In order to reduce the molecule-surface interaction, we explore an alternative molecular architecture by substituting the diazo-bridge (-N=N-) of azobenzene by an imine-group (-N=CH-). We have investigated the imine-based compound para-carboxyl-di-benzene-imine (PCI) adsorbed on a Au(111) surface. The carboxylic terminations mediates the formation of strongly bonded molecular dimers, which align in ordered rows preferentially following the fcc regions of the Au(111) herringbone reconstruction. Low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy was used to induce conformational changes between trans and cis state of individual molecules in a molecular monolayer.

  17. Development of a Higher Order Laminate Theory for Modeling Composites with Induced Strain Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Seeley, Charles E.

    1996-01-01

    A refined higher order plate theory is developed to investigate the actuation mechanism of piezoelectric materials surface bonded or embedded in composite laminates. The current analysis uses a displacement field which accurately accounts for transverse shear stresses. Some higher order terms are identified by using the conditions that shear stresses vanish at all free surfaces. Therefore, all boundary conditions for displacements and stresses are satisfied in the present theory. The analysis is implemented using the finite element method which provides a convenient means to construct a numerical solution due to the discrete nature of the actuators. The higher order theory is computationally less expensive than a full three dimensional analysis. The theory is also shown to agree well with published experimental results. Numerical examples are presented for composite plates with thicknesses ranging from thin to very thick.

  18. Disorder-Induced Order in Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederberger, A.; Schulte, T.; Wehr, J.; Lewenstein, M.; Sanchez-Palencia, L.; Sacha, K.

    2008-01-01

    We propose and analyze a general mechanism of disorder-induced order in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates, analogous to corresponding effects established for XY spin models. We show that a random Raman coupling induces a relative phase of π/2 between the two BECs and that the effect is robust. We demonstrate it in one, two, and three dimensions at T=0 and present evidence that it persists at small T>0. Applications to phase control in ultracold spinor condensates are discussed

  19. Surface-induced patterns from evaporating droplets of aqueous carbon nanotube dispersions

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Hongbo; Kristiansen, Kai De Lange; Wang, Peng; Bergli, Joakim; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2011-01-01

    Evaporation of aqueous droplets of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coated with a physisorbed layer of humic acid (HA) on a partially hydrophilic substrate induces the formation of a film of CNTs. Here, we investigate the role that the global geometry of the substrate surfaces has on the structure of the CNT film. On a flat mica or silica surface, the evaporation of a convex droplet of the CNT dispersion induces the well-known "coffee ring", while evaporation of a concave droplet (capillary meniscus) of the CNT dispersion in a wedge of two planar mica sheets or between two crossed-cylinder sheets induces a large area (>mm 2) of textured or patterned films characterized by different short- and long-range orientational and positional ordering of the CNTs. The resulting patterns appear to be determined by two competing or cooperative sedimentation mechanisms: (1) capillary forces between CNTs giving micrometer-sized filaments parallel to the boundary line of the evaporating droplet and (2) fingering instability at the boundary line of the evaporating droplet and subsequent pinning of CNTs on the surface giving micrometer-sized filaments of CNTs perpendicular to this boundary line. The interplay between substrate surface geometry and sedimentation mechanisms gives an extra control parameter for manipulating patterns of self-assembling nanoparticles at substrate surfaces. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Surface-induced patterns from evaporating droplets of aqueous carbon nanotube dispersions

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Hongbo

    2011-06-07

    Evaporation of aqueous droplets of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coated with a physisorbed layer of humic acid (HA) on a partially hydrophilic substrate induces the formation of a film of CNTs. Here, we investigate the role that the global geometry of the substrate surfaces has on the structure of the CNT film. On a flat mica or silica surface, the evaporation of a convex droplet of the CNT dispersion induces the well-known "coffee ring", while evaporation of a concave droplet (capillary meniscus) of the CNT dispersion in a wedge of two planar mica sheets or between two crossed-cylinder sheets induces a large area (>mm 2) of textured or patterned films characterized by different short- and long-range orientational and positional ordering of the CNTs. The resulting patterns appear to be determined by two competing or cooperative sedimentation mechanisms: (1) capillary forces between CNTs giving micrometer-sized filaments parallel to the boundary line of the evaporating droplet and (2) fingering instability at the boundary line of the evaporating droplet and subsequent pinning of CNTs on the surface giving micrometer-sized filaments of CNTs perpendicular to this boundary line. The interplay between substrate surface geometry and sedimentation mechanisms gives an extra control parameter for manipulating patterns of self-assembling nanoparticles at substrate surfaces. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  1. Structural coloration of metallic surfaces with micro/nano-structures induced by elliptical vibration texturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Pan, Yayue; Guo, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Creating orderly periodic micro/nano-structures on metallic surfaces, or structural coloration, for control of surface apparent color and optical reflectivity has been an exciting research topic over the years. The direct applications of structural coloration include color marking, display devices, and invisibility cloak. This paper presents an efficient method to colorize metallic surfaces with periodic micro/nano-gratings using elliptical vibration texturing. When the tool vibration is coupled with a constant cutting velocity, controlled periodic ripples can be generated due to the overlapping tool trajectory. These periodic ripples with a wavelength near visible spectrum can act as micro-gratings to introduce iridescent colors. The proposed technique also provides a flexible method for color marking of metallic surfaces with arbitrary patterns and images by precise control of the spacing distance and orientation of induced micro/nano-ripples. Theoretical analysis and experimental results are given to demonstrate structural coloration of metals by a direct mechanical machining technique.

  2. Induced wettability and surface-volume correlation of composition for bovine bone derived hydroxyapatite particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidaniuc, Andreea; Miculescu, Florin; Voicu, Stefan Ioan; Andronescu, Corina; Miculescu, Marian; Matei, Ecaterina; Mocanu, Aura Catalina; Pencea, Ion; Csaki, Ioana; Machedon-Pisu, Teodor; Ciocan, Lucian Toma

    2018-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite powders characteristics need to be determined both for quality control purposes and for a proper control of microstructural features of bone reconstruction products. This study combines bulk morphological and compositional analysis methods (XRF, SEM-EDS, FT-IR) with surface-related methods (XPS, contact angle measurements) in order to correlate the characteristics of hydroxyapatite powders derived from bovine bone for its use in medical applications. An experimental approach for correlating the surface and volume composition was designed based on the analysis depth of each spectral method involved in the study. Next, the influences of powder particle size and forming method on the contact angle between water drops and ceramic surface were evaluated for identifying suitable strategies of tuning hydroxyapatite's wettability. The results revealed a preferential arrangement of chemical elements at the surface of hydroxyapatite particles which could induce a favourable material behaviour in terms of sinterability and biological performance.

  3. Sputtering induced surface composition changes in copper-palladium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararaman, M.; Sharma, S.K.; Kumar, L.; Krishnan, R.

    1981-01-01

    It has been observed that, in general, surface composition is different from bulk composition in multicomponent materials as a result of ion beam sputtering. This compositional difference arises from factors like preferential sputtering, radiation induced concentration gradients and the knock-in effect. In the present work, changes in the surface composition of copper-palladium alloys, brought about by argon ion sputtering, have been studied using Auger electron spectroscopy. Argon ion energy has been varied from 500 eV to 5 keV. Enrichment of palladium has been observed in the sputter-altered layer. The palladium enrichment at the surface has been found to be higher for 500 eV argon ion sputtering compared with argon ion sputtering at higher energies. Above 500 eV, the surface composition has been observed to remain the same irrespective of the sputter ion energy for each alloy composition. The bulk composition ratio of palladium to copper has been found to be linearly related to the sputter altered surface composition ratio of palladium to copper. These results are discussed on the basis of recent theories of alloy sputtering. (orig.)

  4. Refining femtosecond laser induced periodical surface structures with liquid assist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, L.S.; Ng, E.Y.K.; Zheng, H.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► LIPSS on silicon wafer was made in air and in ethanol environment. ► Ethanol environment produce cleaner surface ripples. ► Ethanol environment decrease spatial wavelength of the LIPSS by 30%. ► More number of pulses produce smaller spatial wavelength in air. ► Number of pulses do not influence spatial wavelength in ethanol environment. - Abstract: Laser induced periodic surface structures were generated on silicon wafer using femtosecond laser. The medium used in this study is both air and ethanol. The laser process parameters such as wavelength, number of pulse, laser fluence were kept constant for both the mediums. The focus of the study is to analyze spatial wavelength. When generating surface structures with air as a medium and same process parameter of the laser, spatial wavelength results showed a 30% increase compared to ethanol. The cleanliness of the surface generated using ethanol showed considerably less debris than in air. The results observed from the above investigation showed that the medium plays a predominant role in the generation of surface structures.

  5. Shiga toxin induces membrane reorganization and formation of long range lipid order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solovyeva, Vita; Johannes, Ludger; Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    2015-01-01

    membrane reordering. When Shiga toxin was added above the lipid chain melting temperature, the toxin interaction with the membrane induced rearrangement and clustering of Gb3 lipids that resulted in the long range order and alignment of lipids in gel domains. The toxin induced redistribution of Gb3 lipids...... inside gel domains is governed by the temperature at which Shiga toxin was added to the membrane: above or below the phase transition. The temperature is thus one of the critical factors controlling lipid organization and texture in the presence of Shiga toxin. Lipid chain ordering imposed by Shiga toxin...... binding can be another factor driving the reconstruction of lipid organization and crystallization of lipids inside gel domains....

  6. Induced Unbalanced Linguistic Ordered Weighted Average and Its Application in Multiperson Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Marin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic variables are very useful to evaluate alternatives in decision making problems because they provide a vocabulary in natural language rather than numbers. Some aggregation operators for linguistic variables force the use of a symmetric and uniformly distributed set of terms. The need to relax these conditions has recently been posited. This paper presents the induced unbalanced linguistic ordered weighted average (IULOWA operator. This operator can deal with a set of unbalanced linguistic terms that are represented using fuzzy sets. We propose a new order-inducing criterion based on the specificity and fuzziness of the linguistic terms. Different relevancies are given to the fuzzy values according to their uncertainty degree. To illustrate the behaviour of the precision-based IULOWA operator, we present an environmental assessment case study in which a multiperson multicriteria decision making model is applied.

  7. Laser-induced plasma spectrometry: truly a surface analytical tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadillo, Jose M.; Laserna, J.

    2004-01-01

    For a long period, analytical applications of laser induced plasma spectrometry (LIPS) have been mainly restricted to overall and quantitative determination of elemental composition in bulk, solid samples. However, introduction of new compact and reliable solid state lasers and technological development in multidimensional intensified detectors have made possible the seeking of new analytical niches for LIPS where its analytical advantages (direct sampling from any material irrespective of its conductive status without sample preparation and with sensitivity adequate for many elements in different matrices) could be fully exploited. In this sense, the field of surface analysis could take advantage from the cited advantages taking into account in addition, the capability of LIPS for spot analysis, line scan, depth-profiling, area analysis and compositional mapping with a single instrument in air at atmospheric pressure. This review paper outlines the fundamental principles of laser-induced plasma emission relevant to sample surface studies, discusses the experimental parameters governing the spatial (lateral and in-depth) resolution in LIPS analysis and presents the applications concerning surface examination

  8. Investigations on ion-beam induced desorption from cryogenic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    pumps can be taken into account. This method can be extended to any desorption experiment employing the single shot method for measurement. Of special interest for the operation of the SIS100 at high intensities is the minimization of desorption from cryogenic surfaces. A previous examination of this topic found a breakdown of the familiar scaling of the desorption yield with the beam's energy loss for cryogenic targets. Further examination of this effect with the techniques described above is another goal of this thesis. Simultaneously, desorption measurements at room temperature for several other targets have been conducted. An unexpected result of these experiments is the influence of target surface properties, which was found to be very weak in comparison to previous results. The methods developed during this thesis, along with the results gained by their application, represent another step towards the comprehension of (heavy) ion beam induced desorption.

  9. Surface Casimir densities and induced cosmological constant on parallel branes in AdS spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saharian, Aram A.

    2004-01-01

    Vacuum expectation value of the surface energy-momentum tensor is evaluated for a massive scalar field with general curvature coupling parameter subject to Robin boundary conditions on two parallel branes located on (D+1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter bulk. The general case of different Robin coefficients on separate branes is considered. As a regularization procedure the generalized zeta function technique is used, in combination with contour integral representations. The surface energies on the branes are presented in the form of the sums of single brane and second brane-induced parts. For the geometry of a single brane both regions, on the left (L-region) and on the right (R-region), of the brane are considered. The surface densities for separate L- and R-regions contain pole and finite contributions. For an infinitely thin brane taking these regions together, in odd spatial dimensions the pole parts cancel and the total surface energy is finite. The parts in the surface densities generated by the presence of the second brane are finite for all nonzero values of the interbrane separation. It is shown that for large distances between the branes the induced surface densities give rise to an exponentially suppressed cosmological constant on the brane. In the Randall-Sundrum braneworld model, for the interbrane distances solving the hierarchy problem between the gravitational and electroweak mass scales, the cosmological constant generated on the visible brane is of the right order of magnitude with the value suggested by the cosmological observations

  10. Surface-passivation-induced optical changes in Ge quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboredo, F. A.; Zunger, Alex

    2001-01-01

    One of the most interesting properties of quantum dots is the possibility to tune the band gap as a function of their size. Here we explore the possibility of changing the lifetime of the lowest-energy excited state by altering the surface passivation. We show that a moderately electronegative passivation potential can induce long-lived excitons without appreciable changes to the band gap. In addition, for such passivation the symmetry of the valence-band maximum is γ 8# sub v# (t 1 derived) instead of the more usual γ 8v (t 2 derived). This reverses the effect of the exchange interaction on the bright-dark exciton splitting

  11. Kinetics of radiation-induced precipitation at the alloy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, N. Q.; Nguyen, T.; Leaf, G. K.; Yip, S.

    1988-05-01

    Radiation-induced precipitation of a new phase at the surface of an alloy during irradiation at elevated temperatures was studied with the aid of a kinetic model of segregation. The preferential coupling of solute atoms with the defect fluxes gives rise to a strong solute enrichment at the surface, which, if surpassing the solute solubility limit, leads to the formation of a precipitate layer. The moving precipitate/matrix interface was accommodated by means of a mathematical scheme that transforms spatial coordinates into a reference frame in which the boundaries are immobile. Sample calculations were performed for precipitation of the γ'-Ni 3Si layer on Ni-Si alloys undergoing electron irradiation. The dependences of the precipitation kinetics on the defect-production rate, irradiation temperature, internal defect sink concentration and alloy composition were investigated systematically.

  12. Inexpensive laser-induced surface modification in bismuth thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, A. Reyes [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Carretera Toluca, Ixtlahuaca Kilómetro 15.5, C.P. 50200 Edo. de México (Mexico); Hautefeuille, M., E-mail: mathieu_h@ciencias.unam.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Avenida Universidad 3000, Circuito Exterior S/N, Coyoacán, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510 D.F. Mexico (Mexico); García, A. Esparza [Fotofísica y Películas Delgadas, Departamento de Tecnociencias, CCADET-UNAM, Circuito exterior s/n C.P. 04510 Cd. Universitaria, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Mejia, O. Olea [Centro Conjunto de Investigación en Química Sustentable UAEM-UNAM, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, Km 14.5, Unidad El Rosedal, 50200 San Cayetano, Estado de México (Mexico); López, M.A. Camacho [Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Tollocan s/n, esq. Paseo Colón, Toluca, Estado de México 50110 (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Laser-induced microbumps were formed on bismuth films using a simple, low-cost, laser setup. • The patterns, similar to those typically obtained with high-power lasers, were characterized. • Control of laser ablation conditions is critical in the fabrication of surface microbumps. - Abstract: In this work, we present results on texturing a 500 nm thick bismuth film, deposited by sputtering onto a glass slide using a low-cost homemade, near-infrared pulsed laser platform. A 785 nm laser diode of a CD–DVD pickup head was precisely focused on the sample mounted on a motorized two-axis translation stage to generate localized surface microbumps on the bismuth films. This simple method successfully transferred desired micropatterns on the films in a computer-numerical control fashion. Irradiated zones were characterized by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that final results are strongly dependent on irradiation parameters.

  13. Climate Impacts of Fire-Induced Land-Surface Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Hao, X.; Qu, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    One of the consequences of wildfires is the changes in land-surface properties such as removal of vegetation. This will change local and regional climate through modifying the land-air heat and water fluxes. This study investigates mechanism by developing and a parameterization of fire-induced land-surface property changes and applying it to modeling of the climate impacts of large wildfires in the United States. Satellite remote sensing was used to quantitatively evaluate the land-surface changes from large fires provided from the Monitoring Trends in Burning Severity (MTBS) dataset. It was found that the changes in land-surface properties induced by fires are very complex, depending on vegetation type and coverage, climate type, season and time after fires. The changes in LAI are remarkable only if the actual values meet a threshold. Large albedo changes occur in winter for fires in cool climate regions. The signs are opposite between the first post-fire year and the following years. Summer day-time temperature increases after fires, while nigh-time temperature changes in various patterns. The changes are larger in forested lands than shrub / grassland lands. In the parameterization scheme, the detected post-fire changes are decomposed into trends using natural exponential functions and fluctuations of periodic variations with the amplitudes also determined by natural exponential functions. The final algorithm is a combination of the trends, periods, and amplitude functions. This scheme is used with Earth system models to simulate the local and regional climate effects of wildfires.

  14. Synthesis, characterization, and application of surface-functionalized ordered mesoporous nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Po-Wen [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The dissertation begins with Chapter 1, which is a general introduction of the fundamental synthesis of mesoporous silica materials, the selective functionlization of mesoporous silica materials, and the synthesis of nanostructured porous materials via nanocasting. In Chapter 2, the thermo-responsive polymer coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) was synthesized via surface-initated polymerization and exhibited unique partition activities in a biphasic solution with the thermally induced change. In Chapter 3, the monodispersed spherical MSN with different mesoporous structure (MCM-48) was developed and employed as a template for the synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCN) via nanocasting. MCN was demonstrated for the delivery of membrane impermeable chemical agents inside the cells. The cellular uptake efficiency and biocompabtibility of MCN with human cervical cancer cells were also investigated. In addition to the biocompabtibility of MCN, MCN was demonstrated to support Rh-Mn nanoparticles for catalytic reaction in Chapter 4. Owing to the unique mesoporosity, Rh-Mn nanoparticles can be well distributed inside the mesoporous structure and exhibited interesting catalytic performance on CO hydrogenation. In Chapter 5, the synthesis route of the aforementioned MCM-48 MSN was discussed and investigated in details and other metal oxide nanoparticles were also developed via nanocasting by using MCM-48 MSN as a template. At last, there is a general conclusion summarized in Chapter 6.

  15. IR and UV laser-induced morphological changes in silicon surface under oxygen atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Jarquin, J.; Fernandez-Guasti, M.; Haro-Poniatowski, E.; Hernandez-Pozos, J.L. [Laboratorio de Optica Cuantica, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, C.P. 09340, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-08-01

    We irradiated silicon (100) wafers with IR (1064 nm) and UV (355 nm) nanosecond laser pulses with energy densities within the ablation regime and used scanning electron microscopy to analyze the morphological changes induced on the Si surface. The changes in the wafer morphology depend both on the incident radiation wavelength and the environmental atmosphere. We have patterned Si surfaces with a single focused laser spot and, in doing the experiments with IR or UV this reveals significant differences in the initial surface cracking and pattern formation, however if the experiment is carried out in O{sub 2} the final result is an array of microcones. We also employed a random scanning technique to irradiate the silicon wafer over large areas, in this case the microstructure patterns consist of a ''semi-ordered'' array of micron-sized cones. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Relativistic Néel-Order Fields Induced by Electrical Current in Antiferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Železný, J.

    2014-10-06

    We predict that a lateral electrical current in antiferromagnets can induce nonequilibrium Néel-order fields, i.e., fields whose sign alternates between the spin sublattices, which can trigger ultrafast spin-axis reorientation. Based on microscopic transport theory calculations we identify staggered current-induced fields analogous to the intraband and to the intrinsic interband spin-orbit fields previously reported in ferromagnets with a broken inversion-symmetry crystal. To illustrate their rich physics and utility, we consider bulk Mn2Au with the two spin sublattices forming inversion partners, and a 2D square-lattice antiferromagnet with broken structural inversion symmetry modeled by a Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We propose an antiferromagnetic memory device with electrical writing and reading.

  17. Relativistic Néel-Order Fields Induced by Electrical Current in Antiferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Železný , J.; Gao, H.; Vý borný , K.; Zemen, J.; Mašek, J.; Manchon, Aurelien; Wunderlich, J.; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, T.

    2014-01-01

    We predict that a lateral electrical current in antiferromagnets can induce nonequilibrium Néel-order fields, i.e., fields whose sign alternates between the spin sublattices, which can trigger ultrafast spin-axis reorientation. Based on microscopic transport theory calculations we identify staggered current-induced fields analogous to the intraband and to the intrinsic interband spin-orbit fields previously reported in ferromagnets with a broken inversion-symmetry crystal. To illustrate their rich physics and utility, we consider bulk Mn2Au with the two spin sublattices forming inversion partners, and a 2D square-lattice antiferromagnet with broken structural inversion symmetry modeled by a Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We propose an antiferromagnetic memory device with electrical writing and reading.

  18. Some remarks on real numbers induced by first-order spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Sune; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of a first-order sentence is the set of natural numbers occurring as the cardinalities of finite models of the sentence. In a recent survey, Durand et al. introduce a new class of real numbers, the spectral reals, induced by spectra and pose two open problems associated to this class...... may occur, and (iv) every right-computable real number between 0 and 1 occurs as the subword entropy of a spectral real. In addition, Durand et al. note that the set of spectral reals is not closed under addition or multiplication. We extend this result by showing that the class of spectral reals...

  19. Chloroform micro-evaporation induced ordered structures of poly(L-lactide) thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaoyong; Li, Hongfei; Shang, Yingrui

    2013-01-01

    Self-assembly of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) in thin films induced by chloroform micro-evaporation was investigated by microscopic techniques and X-ray diffraction studies. A film-thickness dependent on highly ordered structures has been derived from disordered films. Ring-banded spherulitic...... and dendritic morphologies with radial periodic variation of thicknesses were formed in dilute solution driven by micro-evaporation of the solvent. Bunched morphologies stacked with a flat-on lozenge-shaped lamellae were created in thinner films. The formation of the concentric ring banded structures...

  20. Crisis induced intermittency in a fourth-order autonomous electric circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stouboulos, I.N.; Miliou, A.N.; Valaristos, A.P.; Kyprianidis, I.M.; Anagnostopoulos, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    The chaotic dynamics of a fourth-order autonomous nonlinear electric circuit has been studied. The circuit consists of two active elements, one linear negative conductance and one nonlinear resistor exhibiting a symmetrical piecewise-linear v-i characteristic and two capacitances C 1 and C 2 , which serve as the control parameters of the system. Experimental time series and the corresponding phase portraits were used to register the intermittent behaviour of the corresponding dynamical system between two interacting subattractors. The distribution of the times τ, between successive transitions from the one subattractor to the other indicates that a crisis induced intermittency occurs in the studied circuit

  1. Functionalized Surface Geometries Induce: “Bone: Formation by Autoinduction”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Ripamonti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The induction of tissue formation, and the allied disciplines of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, have flooded the twenty-first century tissue biology scenario and morphed into high expectations of a fulfilling regenerative dream of molecularly generated tissues and organs in assembling human tissue factories. The grand conceptualization of deploying soluble molecular signals, first defined by Turing as forms generating substances, or morphogens, stemmed from classic last century studies that hypothesized the presence of morphogens in several mineralized and non-mineralized mammalian matrices. The realization of morphogens within mammalian matrices devised dissociative extractions and chromatographic procedures to isolate, purify, and finally reconstitute the cloned morphogens, found to be members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β supergene family, with insoluble signals or substrata to induce de novo tissue induction and morphogenesis. Can we however construct macroporous bioreactors per se capable of inducing bone formation even without the exogenous applications of the osteogenic soluble molecular signals of the TGF-β supergene family? This review describes original research on coral-derived calcium phosphate-based macroporous constructs showing that the formation of bone is independent of the exogenous application of the osteogenic soluble signals of the TGF-β supergene family. Such signals are the molecular bases of the induction of bone formation. The aim of this review is to primarily describe today's hottest topic of biomaterials' science, i.e., to construct and define osteogenetic biomaterials' surfaces that per se, in its own right, do initiate the induction of bone formation. Biomaterials are often used to reconstruct osseous defects particularly in the craniofacial skeleton. Edentulism did spring titanium implants as tooth replacement strategies. No were else that titanium surfaces require functionalized

  2. Ionic liquid nanotribology: stiction suppression and surface induced shear thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asencio, Rubén Álvarez; Cranston, Emily D; Atkin, Rob; Rutland, Mark W

    2012-07-03

    The friction and adhesion between pairs of materials (silica, alumina, and polytetrafluoroethylene) have been studied and interpreted in terms of the long-ranged interactions present. In ambient laboratory air, the interactions are dominated by van der Waals attraction and strong adhesion leading to significant frictional forces. In the presence of the ionic liquid (IL) ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) the van der Waals interaction is suppressed and the attractive/adhesive interactions which lead to "stiction" are removed, resulting in an at least a 10-fold reduction in the friction force at large applied loads. The friction coefficient for each system was determined; coefficients obtained in air were significantly larger than those obtained in the presence of EAN (which ranged between 0.1 and 0.25), and variation in the friction coefficients between systems was correlated with changes in surface roughness. As the viscosity of ILs can be relatively high, which has implications for the lubricating properties, the hydrodynamic forces between the surfaces have therefore also been studied. The linear increase in repulsive force with speed, expected from hydrodynamic interactions, is clearly observed, and these forces further inhibit the potential for stiction. Remarkably, the viscosity extracted from the data is dramatically reduced compared to the bulk value, indicative of a surface ordering effect which significantly reduces viscous losses.

  3. Tip Induced Motion of Adatoms on Metal Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuerpick, U.; Rahman, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    From total energy calculations we show that for certain tip-adatom separations the activation barrier for the adatom to move towards the tip disappears and the adatom experiences an attractive force in the direction of the tip. For a Cu adatom at a (100) microfaceted step on Cu(111) this happens at a lateral separation of about one lattice constant, in agreement with recent experimental findings. Simultaneously, the activation barrier in the direction away from the tip increases significantly. The details of the changes in the potential energy surface induced by the tip are found to depend on the characteristics of the tip apex and its height above the adatom. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  4. Heat pretreatment-induced activation of gadolinium surfaces towards the initial precipitation of hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamar, G.; Schweke, D.; Shamir, N.; Zalkind, S.; Livneh, T.; Danon, A.; Kimmel, G.; Mintz, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    A vacuum heat pretreatment is applied, in order to enhance the reactivity of hydride-forming metals towards hydrogen reaction. For gadolinium, as for other rare-earth metals and some actinides, pretreatment temperatures of about 470 K are sufficient to induce such activation. The different factors that may be involved in that activation mechanism are identified and analyzed for gadolinium and their role is evaluated. It is concluded that the most prominent effect is desorption of surface hydroxyl groups, which impede the dissociative chemisorptions of hydrogen.

  5. Irradiation induced surface segregation in concentrated alloys: a contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandjean, Y.

    1996-01-01

    A new computer modelization of irradiation induced surface segregation is presented together with some experimental determinations in binary and ternary alloys. The model we propose handles the alloy thermodynamics and kinetics at the same level of sophistication. Diffusion is described at the atomistic level and proceeds vis the jumps of point defects (vacancies, dumb-bell interstitials): the various jump frequencies depend on the local composition in a manner consistent with the thermodynamics of the alloy. For application to specific alloys, we have chosen the simplest statistical approximation: pair interactions in the Bragg Williams approximation. For a system which exhibits the thermodynamics and kinetics features of Ni-Cu alloys, the model generates the behaviour parameters (flux and temperature) and of alloy composition. Quantitative agreement with the published experimental results (two compositions, three temperatures) is obtained with a single set of parameters. Modelling austenitic steels used in nuclear industry requires taking into account the contribution of dumbbells to mass transport. The effects of this latter contribution are studied on a model of Ni-Fe. Interstitial trapping on dilute impurities is shown to delay or even suppress the irradiation induced segregation. Such an effect is indeed observed in the experiments we report on Fe 50 Ni 50 and Fe 49 Ni 50 Hf 1 alloys. (author)

  6. Surface modifications induced by hydrogen in AISI 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelista, G.E.; Miranda, P.E.V. de

    1983-01-01

    Hydrogen induced surface modifications of type AISI 304 SS were studied by charging the samples in a 1N a 1N H 2 SO 4 electrolyte at room temperature. Current densities were varied from 500 to 4000 A/m 2 and charging times from 2 to 50 hours. Charged specimens were analysed using optical and electron scanning microscopy. Vickers microhardness tests with small load was also performed. Metallographic etching metodologies were developed (in black and white and colored photographies) which permited identification of all phases present. It was shown that delayed cracks appear somewhat curved on austenite and perfectly strainght on martensite, following the intersections of a phase platlets. These are the regions where α' martensite is located. The habit plane of these cracks might belong to (100) sub(γ) or (221) sub(γ) plane families. A new phenomenon termed hydrogen induced softening was observed on type AISI 304 SS at elevated current densities and/or charging times. (Author) [pt

  7. Multi-surface segmentation of OCT images with AMD using sparse high order potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jorge; Pereira, Sérgio; Gonçalves, Luís; Ferreira, Manuel; Silva, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    In age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the quantification of drusen is important because it is correlated with the evolution of the disease to an advanced stage. Therefore, we propose an algorithm based on a multi-surface framework for the segmentation of the limiting boundaries of drusen: the inner boundary of the retinal pigment epithelium + drusen complex (IRPEDC) and the Bruch's membrane (BM). Several segmentation methods have been considerably successful in segmenting retinal layers of healthy retinas in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. These methods are successful because they incorporate prior information and regularization. Nonetheless, these factors tend to hinder the segmentation for diseased retinas. The proposed algorithm takes into account the presence of drusen and geographic atrophy (GA) related to AMD by excluding prior information and regularization just valid for healthy regions. However, even with this algorithm, prior information and regularization still cause the oversmoothing of drusen in some locations. Thus, we propose the integration of local shape prior in the form of a sparse high order potentials (SHOPs) into the algorithm to reduce the oversmoothing of drusen. The proposed algorithm was evaluated in a public database. The mean unsigned errors, relative to the average of two experts, for the inner limiting membrane (ILM), IRPEDC and BM were 2.94±2.69, 5.53±5.66 and 4.00±4.00 µ m, respectively. Drusen areas measurements were evaluated, relative to the average of two expert graders, by the mean absolute area difference and overlap ratio, which were 1579.7 ± 2106.8 µ m 2 and 0.78 ± 0.11, respectively.

  8. Theoretical study of orbital ordering induced structural phase transition in iron pnictides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jena, Sushree Sangita, E-mail: sushree@iopb.res.in; Rout, G. C., E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.in [Physics Enclave, Plot No-664/4825, Lane-4A, Shree Vihar, Bhubaneswar-24, Odisha (India); Panda, S. K., E-mail: skp@iopb.res.in

    2016-05-06

    We attribute the structural phase transition (SPT) in the parent compounds of the iron pnictides to orbital ordering. Due to anisotropy of the d{sub xz} and d{sub yz} orbitals in the xy plane, orbital ordering makes the orthorhombic structure more favorable and thus inducing the SPT. We consider a one band model Hamiltonian consisting of first and second-nearest-neighbor hopping of the electrons. We introduce Jahn-Tellar (JT) distortion in the system arising due to the orbital ordering present in this system. We calculate the electron Green’s function by using Zuvareb’s Green’s function technique and hence calculate an expression for the temperature dependent lattice strain which is computed numerically and self-consistently. The temperature dependent electron specific heat is calculated by minimizing the free energy of the system. The lattice strain is studied by varying the JT coupling and elastic constant of the system. The structural anomaly is studied through the electron occupation number and the specific heat by varying the physical parameters like JT coupling, lattice constant, chemical potential and hopping integrals of the system.

  9. From superamphiphobic to amphiphilic polymeric surfaces with ordered hierarchical roughness fabricated with colloidal lithography and plasma nanotexturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinas, K; Tserepi, A; Gogolides, E

    2011-04-05

    Ordered, hierarchical (triple-scale), superhydrophobic, oleophobic, superoleophobic, and amphiphilic surfaces on poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA polymer substrates are fabricated using polystyrene (PS) microparticle colloidal lithography, followed by oxygen plasma etching-nanotexturing (for amphiphilic surfaces) and optional subsequent fluorocarbon plasma deposition (for amphiphobic surfaces). The PS colloidal microparticles were assembled by spin-coating. After etching/nanotexturing, the PMMA plates are amphiphilic and exhibit hierarchical (triple-scale) roughness with microscale ordered columns, and dual-scale (hundred nano/ten nano meter) nanoscale texture on the particles (top of the column) and on the etched PMMA surface. The spacing, diameter, height, and reentrant profile of the microcolumns are controlled with the etching process. Following the design requirements for superamphiphobic surfaces, we demonstrate enhancement of both hydrophobicity and oleophobicity as a result of hierarchical (triple-scale) and re-entrant topography. After fluorocarbon film deposition, we demonstrate superhydrophobic surfaces (contact angle for water 168°, compared to 110° for a flat surface), as well as superoleophobic surfaces (153° for diiodomethane, compared to 80° for a flat surface).

  10. The Correlation Analysis between Corneal Biomechanical Properties and the Surgically Induced Corneal High-Order Aberrations after Small Incision Lenticule Extraction and Femtosecond Laser In Situ Keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To investigate the correlation between corneal biomechanics and the surgically induced corneal high-order aberrations (HOAs after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE and femtosecond laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK. Methods. A total of 150 right myopic eyes that underwent SMILE or FS-LASIK surgery were included in this retrospective study, 75 eyes in each group. The corneal hysteresis (CH and the corneal resistance factor (CRF with the corneal HOAs of the anterior, posterior, and total cornea were assessed preoperatively and three months postoperatively. Multivariate linear regression was applied to determine the correlations. Results. The preoperative CRF was significantly correlated with the induced 3rd–6th-order HOAs and spherical aberration of the anterior surface and the total cornea after SMILE and FS-LASIK surgeries (P<0.05, postoperatively. The CRF was significantly correlated with the induced vertical coma of the anterior and posterior surfaces and the total cornea after SMILE surgery (P<0.05. There was a significant correlation between the CRF and the induced posterior corneal horizontal coma after FS-LASIK surgery (P=0.013. Conclusions. The corneal biomechanics affect the surgically induced corneal HOAs after SMILE and FS-LASIK surgery, which may be meaningful for screening the patients preoperatively and optimizing the visual qualities postoperatively.

  11. Iron-Induced Activation of Ordered Mesoporous Nickel Cobalt Oxide Electrocatalyst for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaohui; Öztürk, Secil; Weidenthaler, Claudia; Tüysüz, Harun

    2017-06-28

    Herein, ordered mesoporous nickel cobalt oxides prepared by the nanocasting route are reported as highly active oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts. By using the ordered mesoporous structure as a model system and afterward elevating the optimal catalysts composition, it is shown that, with a simple electrochemical activation step, the performance of nickel cobalt oxide can be significantly enhanced. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results indicated that charge transfer resistance increases for Co 3 O 4 spinel after an activation process, while this value drops for NiO and especially for CoNi mixed oxide significantly, which confirms the improvement of oxygen evolution kinetics. The catalyst with the optimal composition (Co/Ni 4/1) reaches a current density of 10 mA/cm 2 with an overpotential of a mere 336 mV and a Tafel slope of 36 mV/dec, outperforming benchmarked and other reported Ni/Co-based OER electrocatalysts. The catalyst also demonstrates outstanding durability for 14 h and maintained the ordered mesoporous structure. The cyclic voltammograms along with the electrochemical measurements in Fe-free KOH electrolyte suggest that the activity boost is attributed to the generation of surface Ni(OH) 2 species that incorporate Fe impurities from the electrolyte. The incorporation of Fe into the structure is also confirmed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

  12. Strain-induced ordered structure of titanium carbide during depositing diamond on Ti alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.J., E-mail: lixj@alum.imr.ac.cn [College of Material Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Structural Materials, Ministry of Education, Changchun University of Technology, Changchun, 130012 (China); He, L.L., E-mail: llhe@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Lab of Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Y.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon S7N 5A9, SK (Canada); Plasma Physics Laboratory, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2 (Canada); Yang, Q. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon S7N 5A9, SK (Canada); Hirose, A. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2017-01-15

    During the deposition of diamond films on Ti alloy substrates, titanium carbide is a common precipitated phase, preferentially formed at the interfacial region. However, in this case, the precipitation of an ordered structure of titanium carbide has not been reported. In our work, a long periodic ordered structure of TiC has been observed at the deposited diamond film/Ti alloy interface by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The long periodic ordered structure is identified as 6H-type. The formation mechanism is revealed by comparative studies on the different structures of TiC precipitated under different diamond deposition conditions in terms of deposition time, atmosphere and temperature. A large number of carbon vacancies in the interfacial precipitated TiC phase are verified through electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) quantification analysis. However, an ordered arrangement of these carbon vacancies occurs only when the interfacial stress is large enough to induce the precipitation of 6H-type TiC. The supplementary analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) further confirms that additional diffraction peaks presented in the XRD patterns are corresponding to the precipitation of 6H-type TiC. - Highlights: •Different structures of TiC are observed during deposited diamond on Ti alloy. •One is common NaCl structure, the other is periodic structure. •The periodic structure is identified as 6H-type by HRTEM. •Carbon vacancies are verified to always exist in the TiC phase. •The precipitation of 6H-type TiC is mainly affected by interfacial stress.

  13. Strain-induced ordered structure of titanium carbide during depositing diamond on Ti alloy substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.J.; He, L.L.; Li, Y.S.; Yang, Q.; Hirose, A.

    2017-01-01

    During the deposition of diamond films on Ti alloy substrates, titanium carbide is a common precipitated phase, preferentially formed at the interfacial region. However, in this case, the precipitation of an ordered structure of titanium carbide has not been reported. In our work, a long periodic ordered structure of TiC has been observed at the deposited diamond film/Ti alloy interface by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The long periodic ordered structure is identified as 6H-type. The formation mechanism is revealed by comparative studies on the different structures of TiC precipitated under different diamond deposition conditions in terms of deposition time, atmosphere and temperature. A large number of carbon vacancies in the interfacial precipitated TiC phase are verified through electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) quantification analysis. However, an ordered arrangement of these carbon vacancies occurs only when the interfacial stress is large enough to induce the precipitation of 6H-type TiC. The supplementary analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) further confirms that additional diffraction peaks presented in the XRD patterns are corresponding to the precipitation of 6H-type TiC. - Highlights: •Different structures of TiC are observed during deposited diamond on Ti alloy. •One is common NaCl structure, the other is periodic structure. •The periodic structure is identified as 6H-type by HRTEM. •Carbon vacancies are verified to always exist in the TiC phase. •The precipitation of 6H-type TiC is mainly affected by interfacial stress.

  14. High ordered biomineralization induced by carbon nanoparticles in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manno, Daniela; Buccolieri, Alessandro; Filippo, Emanuela; Serra, Antonio; Carata, Elisabetta; Tenuzzo, Bernadetta A; Panzarini, Elisa; Dini, Luciana; Rossi, Marco

    2012-01-01

    A surprising and unexpected biomineralization process was observed during toxicological assessment of carbon nanoparticles on Paracentrotus lividus (sea urchin) pluteus larvae. The larvae activate a process of defense against external material, by incorporating the nanoparticles into microstructures of aragonite similarly to pearl oysters. Aiming at a better understanding of this phenomenon, the larvae were exposed to increasing concentrations of carbon nanoparticles and the biomineralization products were analyzed by electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. In order to evaluate the possible influence of Sp-CyP-1 expression on this biomineralization process by larvae, analyses of gene expression (Sp-CyP-1) and calcein labeling were performed. Overall, we report experimental evidence about the capability of carbon nanoparticles to induce an increment of Sp-CyP-1 expression with the consequent activation of a biomineralization process leading to the production of a new pearl-like biomaterial never previously observed in sea urchins. (paper)

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation of radiation-induced amorphization of the ordered compound NiZr2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devanathan, R.; Meshii, M.

    1992-12-01

    We have studied the electron irradiation-induced amorphization of the ordered intermetallic compound NiZr 2 by molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with embedded-atom potentials. Randomly chosen Frenkel pairs and chemical disorder were introduced into the system in separate processes. In both cases, the energy and volume of the system rose above the corresponding levels of a quenched liquid and the calculated diffraction patterns indicated the occurrence of a crystalline-to-amorphous transition. In addition, the average shear elastic constant fell to about 50% of its value in the perfect crystal and the system became elastically isotropic. These results indicate that NiZr 2 can be amorphized by chemical disorder as well as Frenkel pairs and are in good agreement with experimental observations

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of heavy ion induced kinetic electron emission from an Al surface

    CERN Document Server

    Ohya, K

    2002-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation is performed in order to study heavy ion induced kinetic electron emission from an Al surface. In the simulation, excitation of conduction band electrons by the projectile ion and recoiling target atoms is treated on the basis of the partial wave expansion method, and the cascade multiplication process of the excited electrons is simulated as well as collision cascade of the recoiling target atoms. Experimental electron yields near conventional threshold energies of heavy ions are simulated by an assumption of a lowering in the apparent surface barrier for the electrons. The present calculation derives components for electron excitations by the projectile ion, the recoiling target atoms and the electron cascades, from the calculated total electron yield. The component from the recoiling target atoms increases with increasing projectile mass, whereas the component from the electron cascade decreases. Although the components from the projectile ion and the electron cascade increase with...

  17. Surface magnetic order and effects of the nature of the interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, C.; Chame, A.M.N.

    1988-01-01

    We discuss, within a real-space renormalization-group, interesting thermal effects (surface singularity at the bulk transition; Ising-Heisenberg crossover) concerning the free surface of a semi-infinite d=3 spin 1/2 anisotropic Heisenberg ferromagnet. Comparison with the Mermin-Wagner theorem and with experimental work is done. (author) [pt

  18. Exploring bacteria-induced growth and morphogenesis in the green macroalga order Ulvales (Chlorophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eWichard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Green macroalgae, such as Ulvales, lose their typical morphology completely when grown under axenic conditions or in the absence of the appropriate microbiome. As a result, slow growing aberrant phenotypes or even callus-like morphotypes are observed in Ulvales. The cross-kingdom interactions between marine algae and microorganisms are hence not only restricted by the exchange of macronutrients, including vitamins and nutrients, but also by infochemicals such as bacterial morphogenetic compounds. The latter are a fundamental trait mediating the mutualism within the chemosphere where the organisms interact with each other via compounds in their surroundings.Approximately 60 years ago, pilot studies demonstrated that certain bacteria promote growth, whereas other bacteria induce morphogenesis; this is particularly true for the order of Ulvales. However, only slow progress was made towards the underlying mechanism due to the complexity of, for example, algal cultivation techniques, and the lack of standardized experiments in the laboratory.A breakthrough in this research was the discovery of the morphogenetic compound thallusin, which was isolated from an epiphytic bacterium and induces normal germination and restores the foliaceous morphotypes of Monostroma. Owing to the low concentration, the purification and structure elucidation of highly biologically active morphogenetic compounds is still challenging. Recently, it was found that only the combination of two specific bacteria from the Rhodobacteraceae and Flavobacteriaceae can completely recover the growth and morphogenesis of axenic Ulva mutabilis cultures forming a symbiotic tripartite community by chemical communication.This review combines literature detailing evidence of bacteria-induced morphogenesis in Ulvales. A set of standardized experimental approaches is further proposed for the preparation of axenic algal tissues, bacteria isolation, co-cultivation experiments, and the analysis of

  19. Exploring bacteria-induced growth and morphogenesis in the green macroalga order Ulvales (Chlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichard, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Green macroalgae, such as Ulvales, lose their typical morphology completely when grown under axenic conditions or in the absence of the appropriate microbiome. As a result, slow growing aberrant phenotypes or even callus-like morphotypes are observed in Ulvales. The cross-kingdom interactions between marine algae and microorganisms are hence not only restricted by the exchange of macronutrients, including vitamins and nutrients, but also by infochemicals such as bacterial morphogenetic compounds. The latter are a fundamental trait mediating the mutualism within the chemosphere where the organisms interact with each other via compounds in their surroundings. Approximately 60 years ago, pilot studies demonstrated that certain bacteria promote growth, whereas other bacteria induce morphogenesis; this is particularly true for the order of Ulvales. However, only slow progress was made towards the underlying mechanism due to the complexity of, for example, algal cultivation techniques, and the lack of standardized experiments in the laboratory. A breakthrough in this research was the discovery of the morphogenetic compound thallusin, which was isolated from an epiphytic bacterium and induces normal germination restoring the foliaceous morphotypes of Monostroma. Owing to the low concentration, the purification and structure elucidation of highly biologically active morphogenetic compounds are still challenging. Recently, it was found that only the combination of two specific bacteria from the Rhodobacteraceae and Flavobacteriaceae can completely recover the growth and morphogenesis of axenic Ulva mutabilis cultures forming a symbiotic tripartite community by chemical communication. This review combines literature detailing evidences of bacteria-induced morphogenesis in Ulvales. A set of standardized experimental approaches is further proposed for the preparation of axenic algal tissues, bacteria isolation, co-cultivation experiments, and the analysis of the chemosphere

  20. Light-induced second-order nonlinear optical properties of molecular materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, Celine

    1995-01-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of all-optical orientation. The work focusses more particularly on the realization of poled polymers for quadratic nonlinear optics. It is shown that the coherent superposition of two beams at fundamental and second harmonic frequencies results in the breaking of the former centro-symmetry of the material. The source is a Neodymium-YAG laser delivering 25 ps pulses at 1064 nm. The incident second-harmonic beam is obtained by frequency doubling in a KDP crystal. Using a phase conjugation configuration based on six-wave mixing interactions, we have Investigated in detail the mechanism of photo-induced second-harmonic generation in initially centrosymmetric materials. It is shown that the light-induced non-centro-symmetry is due to an orientational hole burning of the molecules. The process involves interference effects between one and two photon absorptions. Experiments are performed in various solutions of an azo-dye molecule (Disperse Red One). The possibility of inducing quasi-permanent second-order susceptibility in a PMMA polymer matrix doped with the azo-dye molecule of Disperse Red One is also demonstrated. The method of all-optical poling consists in a seeding type process with alternate writing and probing phases. Permanent orientation of the molecules can be described in terms of photo-isomerization processes. It leads to a poling of the molecules with a spatial modulation which is phase-matched for frequency doubling. Relevant parameters leading to an efficient polarisation of the sample are identified. A theoretical modelling of the different phenomena observed is proposed. Last part of the study is devoted to an enlarged study of the potentialities offered by this dual-frequency holography technique: orientation of octupolar molecules, polarisation of highly transparent materials. We also show that the new techniques developed during this work can also reveal to be complementary methods for nonlinear

  1. Swift heavy ion induced surface and microstructural evolution in metallic glass thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Hysen; Thomas, Senoy; Ramanujan, Raju V.; Avasthi, D.K.; Al- Omari, I.A.; Al-Harthi, Salim; Anantharaman, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Swift heavy ion induced changes in microstructure and surface morphology of vapor deposited Fe–Ni based metallic glass thin films have been investigated by using atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Ion beam irradiation was carried out at room temperature with 103 MeV Au 9+ beam with fluences ranging from 3 × 10 11 to 3 × 10 13 ions/cm 2 . The atomic force microscopy images were subjected to power spectral density analysis and roughness analysis using an image analysis software. Clusters were found in the image of as-deposited samples, which indicates that the film growth is dominated by the island growth mode. As-deposited films were amorphous as evidenced from X-ray diffraction; however, high resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements revealed a short range atomic order in the samples with crystallites of size around 3 nm embedded in an amorphous matrix. X-ray diffraction pattern of the as-deposited films after irradiation does not show any appreciable changes, indicating that the passage of swift heavy ions stabilizes the short range atomic ordering, or even creates further amorphization. The crystallinity of the as-deposited Fe–Ni based films was improved by thermal annealing, and diffraction results indicated that ion beam irradiation on annealed samples results in grain fragmentation. On bombarding annealed films, the surface roughness of the films decreased initially, then, at higher fluences it increased. The observed change in surface morphology of the irradiated films is attributed to the interplay between ion induced sputtering, volume diffusion and surface diffusion.

  2. Oxygen vacancy induced by La and Fe into ZnO nanoparticles to modify ferromagnetic ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Kuldeep Chand; Kotnala, R.K.

    2016-01-01

    We reported long-range ferromagnetic interactions in La doped Zn 0.95 Fe 0.05 O nanoparticles that mediated through lattice defects or vacancies. Zn 0.92 Fe 0.05 La 0.03 O (ZFLaO53) nanoparticles were synthesized by a sol–gel process. X-ray fluorescence spectrum of ZFLaO53 detects the weight percentage of Zn, Fe, La and O. X-ray diffraction shows the hexagonal Wurtzite ZnO phase. The Rietveld refinement has been used to calculate the lattice parameters and the position of Zn, Fe, La and O atoms in the Wurtzite unit cell. The average size of ZFLaO53 nanoparticles is 99 nm. The agglomeration type product due to OH ions with La results into ZnO nanoparticles than nanorods that found in pure ZnO and Zn 0.95 Fe 0.05 O sample. The effect of doping concentration to induce Wurtzite ZnO structure and lattice defects has been analyzed by Raman active vibrational modes. Photoluminescence spectra show an abnormal emission in both UV and visible region, and a blue shift at near band edge is formed with doping. The room temperature magnetic measurement result into weak ferromagnetism but pure ZnO is diamagnetic. However, the temperature dependent magnetic measurement using zero-field and field cooling at dc magnetizing field 500 Oe induces long-range ferromagnetic ordering. It results into antiferromagnetic Neel temperature of ZFLaO53 at around 42 K. The magnetic hysteresis is also measured at 200, 100, 50 and 10 K measurement that indicate enhancement in ferromagnetism at low temperature. Overall, the La doping into Zn 0.95 Fe 0.05 O results into enhanced antiferromagnetic interaction as well as lattice defects/vacancies. The role of the oxygen vacancy as the dominant defects in doped ZnO must form Bound magnetic polarons has been described. - Graphical abstract: The long-range ferromagnetic order in Zn 0.92 Fe 0.05 La 0.03 O nanoparticles at low temperature measurements involves oxygen vacancy as the medium of magnetic interactions. - Highlights: • The La and Fe doping

  3. Stratification-induced order--disorder phase transitions in molecularly thin confined films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoen, M.; Diestler, D.J.; Cushman, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    By means of grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulations of a monatomic film confined between unstructured (i.e., molecularly smooth) rigidly fixed solid surfaces (i.e., walls), we investigate the mechanism of molecular stratification, i.e., the tendency of atoms to arrange themselves in layers parallel with the walls. Stratification is accompanied by a heretofore unnoticed order--disorder phase transition manifested as a maximum in density fluctuations at the transition point. The transition involves phases with different transverse packing characteristics, although the number of layers accommodated between the walls remains unchanged during the transition, which occurs periodically as the film thickens. However, with increasing thickness, an increasingly smaller proportion of the film is structurally affected by the transition. Thus, the associated maximum in density fluctuations diminishes rapidly with film thickness

  4. Delay-induced diversity of firing behavior and ordered chaotic firing in adaptive neuronal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yubing; Wang Li; Xu Bo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of time delay on the firing behavior and temporal coherence and synchronization in Newman–Watts thermosensitive neuron networks with adaptive coupling. At beginning, the firing exhibit disordered spiking in absence of time delay. As time delay is increased, the neurons exhibit diversity of firing behaviors including bursting with multiple spikes in a burst, spiking, bursting with four, three and two spikes, firing death, and bursting with increasing amplitude. The spiking is the most ordered, exhibiting coherence resonance (CR)-like behavior, and the firing synchronization becomes enhanced with the increase of time delay. As growth rate of coupling strength or network randomness increases, CR-like behavior shifts to smaller time delay and the synchronization of firing increases. These results show that time delay can induce diversity of firing behaviors in adaptive neuronal networks, and can order the chaotic firing by enhancing and optimizing the temporal coherence and enhancing the synchronization of firing. However, the phenomenon of firing death shows that time delay may inhibit the firing of adaptive neuronal networks. These findings provide new insight into the role of time delay in the firing activity of adaptive neuronal networks, and can help to better understand the complex firing phenomena in neural networks.

  5. Substrate texture properties induce triatomine probing on bitten warm surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Marcelo G

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this work we initially evaluated whether the biting process of Rhodnius prolixus relies on the detection of mechanical properties of the substrate. A linear thermal source was used to simulate the presence of a blood vessel under the skin of a host. This apparatus consisted of an aluminium plate and a nickel-chrome wire, both thermostatized and presented at 33 and 36°C, respectively. To evaluate whether mechanical properties of the substrate affect the biting behaviour of bugs, this apparatus was covered by a latex membrane. Additionally, we evaluated whether the expression of probing depends on the integration of bilateral thermal inputs from the antennae. Results The presence of a latex cover on a thermal source induced a change in the biting pattern shown by bugs. In fact, with latex covered sources it was possible to observe long bites that were never performed in response to warm metal surfaces. The total number of bites was higher in intact versus unilaterally antennectomized insects. These bites were significantly longer in intact than in unilaterally antennectomized insects. Conclusions Our results suggest that substrate recognition by simultaneous input through thermal and mechanical modalities is required for triggering maxillary probing activity.

  6. Effects of self-assembled monolayer structural order, surface homogeneity and surface energy on pentacene morphology and thin film transistor device performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Daniel Orrin; Weidner, Tobias; Baio, Joe; Polishak, Brent; Acton, Orb; Cernetic, Nathan; Ma, Hong; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2013-01-04

    A systematic study of six phosphonic acid (PA) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with tailored molecular structures is performed to evaluate their effectiveness as dielectric modifying layers in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and determine the relationship between SAM structural order, surface homogeneity, and surface energy in dictating device performance. SAM structures and surface properties are examined by near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, contact angle goniometry, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Top-contact pentacene OFET devices are fabricated on SAM modified Si with a thermally grown oxide layer as a dielectric. For less ordered methyl- and phenyl-terminated alkyl ~(CH 2 ) 12 PA SAMs of varying surface energies, pentacene OFETs show high charge carrier mobilities up to 4.1 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . It is hypothesized that for these SAMs, mitigation of molecular scale roughness and subsequent control of surface homogeneity allow for large pentacene grain growth leading to high performance pentacene OFET devices. PA SAMs that contain bulky terminal groups or are highly crystalline in nature do not allow for a homogenous surface at a molecular level and result in charge carrier mobilities of 1.3 cm 2 V -1 s -1 or less. For all molecules used in this study, no causal relationship between SAM surface energy and charge carrier mobility in pentacene FET devices is observed.

  7. Hierarchically ordered self-lubricating superhydrophobic anodized aluminum surfaces with enhanced corrosion resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengatesh, Panneerselvam; Kulandainathan, Manickam Anbu

    2015-01-28

    Herein, we report a facile method for the fabrication of self-lubricating superhydrophobic hierarchical anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) surfaces with improved corrosion protection, which is greatly anticipated to have a high impact in catalysis, aerospace, and the shipping industries. This method involves chemical grafting of as-formed AAO using low surface free energy molecules like long chain saturated fatty acids, perfluorinated fatty acid (perfluorooctadecanoic acid, PFODA), and perfluorosulfonicacid-polytetrafluoroethylene copolymer. The pre and post treatment processes in the anodization of aluminum (Al) play a vital role in the grafting of fatty acids. Wettability and surface free energy were analyzed using a contact angle meter and achieved 161.5° for PFODA grafted anodized aluminum (PFODA-Al). This study was also aimed at evaluating the surface for corrosion resistance by Tafel polarization and self-lubricating properties by tribological studies using a pin-on-disc tribometer. The collective results showed that chemically grafted AAO nanostructures exhibit high corrosion resistance toward seawater and low frictional coefficient due to low surface energy and self-lubricating property of fatty acids covalently linked to anodized Al surfaces.

  8. Surface charges for gravity and electromagnetism in the first order formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodden, Ernesto; Hidalgo, Diego

    2018-02-01

    A new derivation of surface charges for 3  +  1 gravity coupled to electromagnetism is obtained. Gravity theory is written in the tetrad-connection variables. The general derivation starts from the Lagrangian, and uses the covariant symplectic formalism in the language of forms. For gauge theories, surface charges disentangle physical from gauge symmetries through the use of Noether identities and the exactness symmetry condition. The surface charges are quasilocal, explicitly coordinate independent, gauge invariant and background independent. For a black hole family solution, the surface charge conservation implies the first law of black hole mechanics. As a check, we show the first law for an electrically charged, rotating black hole with an asymptotically constant curvature (the Kerr–Newman (anti-)de Sitter family). The charges, including the would-be mass term appearing in the first law, are quasilocal. No reference to the asymptotic structure of the spacetime nor the boundary conditions is required and therefore topological terms do not play a rôle. Finally, surface charge formulae for Lovelock gravity coupled to electromagnetism are exhibited, generalizing the one derived in a recent work by Barnich et al Proc. Workshop ‘ About Various Kinds of Interactions’ in honour of Philippe Spindel (4–5 June 2015, Mons, Belgium) C15-06-04 (2016 (arXiv:1611.01777 [gr-qc])). The two different symplectic methods to define surface charges are compared and shown equivalent.

  9. Diffusion processes in bombardment-induced surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    A treatment is given of the problem of surface diffusion processes occurring during surface topography development, whenever a surface is simultaneously seeded with impurities and ion bombarded. The development of controllable topography and the importance of surface diffusion parameters, which can be obtained during these studies, are also analyzed. 101 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  10. Surface Modifications of Polymers Induced by Heavy Ions Grafting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzei, R O; Lombardo, J; Camporotondi, D; Tadey, D; Bermudez, G G [National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Centre, Ezeiza (Argentina)

    2012-09-15

    Polymer surfaces are modified by the application of swift heavy ions etching and grafting procedures. The residual active sites produced by heavy ion beams, remaining after the etching process, were used to start the grafting process. In order to produce tracks on foils of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) they were irradiated with {sup 208}Pb of 25.62 MeV/n or with 115 MeV Cl ions. Moreover, foils of polypropylene (PP) were irradiated with {sup 208}Pb of 25.62 MeV/n. Then, they were etched and grafted with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) monomers or with acrylic acid (AAc) monomers, respectively. The replica method allowed the observation of the shape of the grafted tracks using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition NIPAAm grafted foils were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The sulfonation procedure (methodology previously described for perfluorated polymers) was applied on grafted PVDF. A new method is described to produce a thin layer of poly-acrylic-acid (membranes) that grows on the surface of PVDF foils implanted by an Ar{sup +} beam with energies between 30-150 keV. Different combinations of monomers in water solutions were used such as: acrylic acid (AAc); acrylic acid-glycidyl methacrylate (AAc-GMA); acrylic acid-styrene (AAc-S); acrylic acid-N-isopropyl acrylamide (AAc-NIPAAm) and acrylic acid-N-isopropyl acrylamide - glycidyl methacrylate (AAc-NIPAAm-GMA). The experimental results show that for particular values of: ion fluence and energy, AAc concentration, sulphuric acid and PVDF polymorphous (alpha or beta) a huge percentage of grafting was obtained. At certain point of the grafting process the development of the PolyAAc-Xmonomer produce a detachment from the irradiated substrate and continue its grafting outside it. This method produces a membrane that is an increased replica of the original implanted surface. Finally, PVDF films implanted by an Ar{sup +} beam with energies about 100 keV and a fluence of 10

  11. Step-driven surface segregation and ordering during Si-Ge MBE growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesson, D.E.; Pennycook, S.J.; Baribeau, J.M.; Houghton, D.C.

    1992-06-01

    An important role of type S B step edges in determining the as-grown microstructure of Si-Ge superlattices and alloys is implicated from direct Z-contrast images of as-grown structures. A variety of different ordered phase variants can arise at each Si on Ge interface as a result of vertical segregation during superlattice growth. A new monoclinic-ordered structure is predicted to arise as a result of lateral segregation during alloy growth

  12. Surface characterization of carbon fiber reinforced polymers by picosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Rodolfo; Palmieri, Frank; Connell, John; Yost, William; Fitz-Gerald, James

    2018-02-01

    Adhesive bonding of composite materials requires reliable monitoring and detection of surface contaminants as part of a vigorous quality control process to assure robust and durable bonded structures. Surface treatment and effective monitoring prior to bonding are essential in order to obtain a surface which is free from contaminants that may lead to inferior bond quality. In this study, the focus is to advance the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique by using pulse energies below 100 μJ (μLIBS) for the detection of low levels of silicone contaminants in carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. Various CFRP surface conditions were investigated by LIBS using ∼10 ps, 355 nm laser pulses with pulse energies below 30 μJ. Time-resolved analysis was conducted to optimize the gate delay and gate width for the detection of the C I emission line at 247.9 nm to monitor the epoxy resin matrix of CFRP composites and the Si I emission line at 288.2 nm for detection of silicone contaminants in CFRP. To study the surface sensitivity to silicone contamination, CFRP surfaces were coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), the active ingredient in many mold release agents. The presence of PDMS was studied by inspecting the Si I emission lines at 251.6 nm and 288.2 nm. The measured PDMS areal densities ranged from 0.15 to 2 μg/cm2. LIBS measurements were performed before and after laser surface ablation. The results demonstrate the successful detection of PDMS thin layers on CFRP using picosecond μLIBS.

  13. Avoiding unstable regions in the design space of EUV mirror systems comprising high-order aspheric surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinescu, O.; Bociort, F.; Braat, J.

    2004-01-01

    When Extreme Ultraviolet mirror systems having several high-order aspheric surfaces are optimized, the configurations often enter into highly unstable regions of the parameter space. Small changes of system parameters lead then to large changes in ray paths, and therefore optimization algorithms

  14. Characterizing interstate vibrational coherent dynamics of surface adsorbed catalysts by fourth-order 3D SFG spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingmin; Wang, Jiaxi; Clark, Melissa L.; Kubiak, Clifford P.; Xiong, Wei

    2016-04-01

    We report the first fourth-order 3D SFG spectroscopy of a monolayer of the catalyst Re(diCN-bpy)(CO)3Cl on a gold surface. Besides measuring the vibrational coherences of single vibrational modes, the fourth-order 3D SFG spectrum also measures the dynamics of interstate coherences and vibrational coherences states between two vibrational modes. By comparing the 3D SFG to the corresponding 2D and third-order 3D IR spectroscopy of the same molecules in solution, we found that the interstate coherences exist in both liquid and surface systems, suggesting that the interstate coherence is not disrupted by surface interactions. However, by analyzing the 3D spectral lineshape, we found that the interstate coherences also experience non-negligible homogenous dephasing dynamics that originate from surface interactions. This unique ability of determining interstate vibrational coherence dynamics of the molecular monolayer can help in understanding of how energy flows within surface catalysts and other molecular monolayers.

  15. HIGHLY PRECISE APPROXIMATION OF FREE SURFACE GREEN FUNCTION AND ITS HIGH ORDER DERIVATIVES BASED ON REFINED SUBDOMAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiameng Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The infinite depth free surface Green function (GF and its high order derivatives for diffraction and radiation of water waves are considered. Especially second order derivatives are essential requirements in high-order panel method. In this paper, concerning the classical representation, composed of a semi-infinite integral involving a Bessel function and a Cauchy singularity, not only the GF and its first order derivatives but also second order derivatives are derived from four kinds of analytical series expansion and refined division of whole calculation domain. The approximations of special functions, particularly the hypergeometric function and the algorithmic applicability with different subdomains are implemented. As a result, the computation accuracy can reach 10-9 in whole domain compared with conventional methods based on direct numerical integration. Furthermore, numerical efficiency is almost equivalent to that with the classical method.

  16. Computer simulation of strain-induced ordering in interstitial solutions based on the b.c.c. Ta lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanter, M.S.; Khachaturyan, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    A computer simulation is made of strain-induced ordering of interstitial atoms within octahedral interstices in the Ta host lattice. The calculation technique allows to take into account infinite-range strain-induced interaction. Computer simulation of ordering process enables to model the sequence of structure changes which occur during the ordering process and to find the equilibrium structure of the stable interstitial superstructures. The structures of high-temperature ordering phases obtained by the method of static concentration waves coincide with those obtained by means of computer simulation. However computer simulation enables to predict the structures of low-temperature ordered phases which cannot be obtained by the method of concentration waves. Comparison of computer simulation results and structures of observed ordered phases demonstrates good agreement. (author)

  17. An ordered array of hierarchical spheres for surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of traces of pesticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoye; Zheng, Peng; Meng, Guowen; Huang, Qing; Zhu, Chuhong; Han, Fangming; Huang, Zhulin; Li, Zhongbo; Wang, Zhaoming; Wu, Nianqiang

    2016-09-01

    An ordered array of hierarchically-structured core-nanosphere@space-layer@shell-nanoparticles has been fabricated for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection. To fabricate this hierarchically-structured chip, a long-range ordered array of Au/Ag-nanospheres is first patterned in the nano-bowls on the planar surface of ordered nanoporous anodic titanium oxide template. A ultra-thin alumina middle space-layer is then conformally coated on the Au/Ag-nanospheres, and Ag-nanoparticles are finally deposited on the surface of the alumina space-layer to form an ordered array of Au/Ag-nanosphere@Al2O3-layer@Ag-nanoparticles. Finite-difference time-domain simulation shows that SERS hot spots are created between the neighboring Ag-nanoparticles. The ordered array of hierarchical nanostructures is used as the SERS-substrate for a trial detection of methyl parathion (a pesticide) in water and a limit of detection of 1 nM is reached, indicating its promising potential in rapid monitoring of organic pollutants in aquatic environment.

  18. Acoustically Induced Microparticle Orbiting and Clustering on a Solid Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.; Tarimala, S.; Roberts, P. M.

    2008-12-01

    Behavior of colloidal particles in the bulk solution or at interfaces under the effect of high-frequency acoustics is critical to many seemingly different applications ranging from enhanced oil recovery to improved mixing in microfluidic channels and from accelerated contaminant extractions to surface cleaning, drug delivery and microelectronics. It can be detrimental or beneficial, depending on the application. In medical research, flow cytometry and microfluidics, for example, acoustically induced clustering of tracer particles and/or their sticking to the walls of channels, vessels, or tubes often becomes a problem. On the other hand, it can be tailored to enhance processes such as mixing in microfluidic devices, particle separation and sizing, and power generation microdevices. To better understand the underlying mechanisms, microscopic visualization experiments were performed in which polystyrene fluorescent (468/508 nm wavelength) microspheres with a mean diameter of 2.26-µm and density of 1.05 g/cm3, were suspended in either de-ionized water or a 0.1M NaCl solution. The freshly-prepared colloidal suspension was injected into a parallel-plate glass flow cell, which was subjected to high-frequency acoustics (200-500 kHz) through a piezoelectric transducer attached to one of the cell's outer walls. When the suspending medium is de-ionized water, acoustic stimulation of the cell at 313 kHz induced three distinct particle behaviors: 1) entrainment and bulk transport via wavelength-scale Rayleigh streaming, 2) transport via direct radiation forces to concentrate at nodal or anti-nodal planes, and 3) entrapment via boundary layer vorticular microstreaming resulting in mobile particles orbiting deposited particles. This latter phenomenon is intriguing. It occurs at specific frequencies and the shape of the orbits is determined by the applied frequency, whereas the rotation speed is proportional to the applied amplitude. At the higher ionic strength, on the other

  19. Optimizing pentacene thin-film transistor performance: Temperature and surface condition induced layer growth modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassnig, R; Hollerer, M; Striedinger, B; Fian, A; Stadlober, B; Winkler, A

    2015-11-01

    In this work we present in situ electrical and surface analytical, as well as ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies on temperature and surface condition induced pentacene layer growth modifications, leading to the selection of optimized deposition conditions and entailing performance improvements. We prepared p ++ -silicon/silicon dioxide bottom-gate, gold bottom-contact transistor samples and evaluated the pentacene layer growth for three different surface conditions (sputtered, sputtered + carbon and unsputtered + carbon) at sample temperatures during deposition of 200 K, 300 K and 350 K. The AFM investigations focused on the gold contacts, the silicon dioxide channel region and the highly critical transition area. Evaluations of coverage dependent saturation mobilities, threshold voltages and corresponding AFM analysis were able to confirm that the first 3-4 full monolayers contribute to the majority of charge transport within the channel region. At high temperatures and on sputtered surfaces uniform layer formation in the contact-channel transition area is limited by dewetting, leading to the formation of trenches and the partial development of double layer islands within the channel region instead of full wetting layers. By combining the advantages of an initial high temperature deposition (well-ordered islands in the channel) and a subsequent low temperature deposition (continuous film formation for low contact resistance) we were able to prepare very thin (8 ML) pentacene transistors of comparably high mobility.

  20. Structural and surface properties of highly ordered mesoporous magnesium-aluminium composite oxides derived from facile synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Dahai, E-mail: pandahai@foxmail.com; Dong, Zhaoyang; He, Min; Chen, Wei; Chen, Shuwei; Yu, Feng; Fan, Binbin; Cui, Xingyu; Li, Ruifeng, E-mail: rfli@tyut.edu.cn

    2017-01-15

    Highly ordered mesoporous magnesium-aluminium composite oxides (denoted as OMMA-x) with a variety of n{sub Al}/n{sub Mg} ratios have been successfully synthesized via a facile strategy, and a salt effect was proposed to explain the formation mechanism. The incorporation of Mg can significantly improve the structural and surface properties of ordered mesoporous alumina (OMA) material. The resultant OMMA-x exhibited a much more ordered 2-D hexagonal mesostructure, a narrower pore size distribution, a higher specific surface area and pore volume, and a stronger basicity than those of OMA. More importantly, the highly homogeneous incorporation of Mg at the atomic level and the formation of framework Mg−O−Al bonds could effectively suppress the formation of crystalline alumina during the calcination process. As a result, OMMA-x demonstrated a superior thermal stability. For example, the ordered mesostructure of OMMA-8 could be well maintained with a high surface area of 182 m{sup 2}/g even after thermal treatment at 1000 °C. - Graphical abstract: A schematic procedure to illustrate the preparation of highly ordered mesoporous Mg-Al composite oxides (OMMA-x) with highly homogeneously dispersed Mg species and enhanced structural stability. - Highlights: • Mesoporous Mg-Al composite oxides with excellent structural and surface properties. • A highly homogeneous incorporation of Mg into the mesoporous framework of alumina. • A superior structural stability up to 1000 °C coupled with a large surface area. • A salt effect from the addition of Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O to explain the formation mechanism.

  1. Light induced modulation instability of surfaces under intense illumination

    KAUST Repository

    Burlakov, V. M.; Foulds, Ian G.; Goriely, A.

    2013-01-01

    heated by radiation. Periodic heating is due to focusing-defocusing effects caused by the initial surface modulation. The surface modulation has a period longer than the excitation wavelength and does not require coherent light source. Therefore

  2. Transitions to improved core electron heat confinement triggered by low order rational magnetic surfaces in the stellarator TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, T.; Medina, F.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; AscasIbar, E.; BalbIn, R.; Cappa, A.; Castejon, F.; Eguilior, S.; Fernandez, A.; Guasp, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Petrov, S.

    2007-01-01

    Transitions to improved core electron heat confinement are triggered by low order rational magnetic surfaces in TJ-II electron cyclotron heated (ECH) plasmas. Experiments are performed changing the magnetic shear around the rational surface n = 3/m = 2 to study its influence on the transition; ECH power modulation is used to look at transport properties. The improvement in the electron heat confinement shows no obvious dependence on the magnetic shear. Transitions triggered by the rational surface n = 4/m = 2 show, in addition, an increase in the ion temperature synchronized with the increase in the electron temperature. Ion temperature changes had not been previously observed either in TJ-II or in any other helical device. SXR measurements demonstrate that, under certain circumstances, the rational surface positioned inside the plasma core region precedes and provides a trigger for the transition

  3. Higher order hierarchical discretization scheme for surface integral equations for layered media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Erik; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient technique for the analysis of electromagnetic scattering by arbitrarily shaped perfectly conducting objects in layered media. The technique is based on a higher order method of moments (MoM) solution of the electric field, magnetic field, or combined-field integra...

  4. A titanium surface with nano-ordered spikes and pores enhances human dermal fibroblastic extracellular matrix production and integration of collagen fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masahiro; Kato, Eiji; Sakurai, Kaoru; Yamamoto, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    The acquisition of substantial dermal sealing determines the prognosis of percutaneous titanium-based medical devices or prostheses. A nano-topographic titanium surface with ordered nano-spikes and pores has been shown to induce periodontal-like connective tissue attachment and activate gingival fibroblastic functions. This in vitro study aimed to determine whether an alkali-heat (AH) treatment-created nano-topographic titanium surface could enhance human dermal fibroblastic functions and binding strength to the deposited collagen on the titanium surface. The surface topographies of commercially pure titanium machined discs exposed to two different AH treatments were evaluated. Human dermal fibroblastic cultures grown on the discs were evaluated in terms of cellular morphology, proliferation, extracellular matrix (ECM) and proinflammatory cytokine synthesis, and physicochemical binding strength of surface-deposited collagen. An isotropically-patterned, shaggy nano-topography with a sponge-like inner network and numerous well-organized, anisotropically-patterned fine nano-spikes and pores were observed on each nano-topographic surface type via scanning electron microscopy. In contrast to the typical spindle-shaped cells on the machined surfaces, the isotropically- and anisotropically-patterned nano-topographic titanium surfaces had small circular/angular cells containing contractile ring-like structures and elongated, multi-shaped cells with a developed cytoskeletal network and multiple filopodia and lamellipodia, respectively. These nano-topographic surfaces enhanced dermal-related ECM synthesis at both the protein and gene levels, without proinflammatory cytokine synthesis or reduced proliferative activity. Deposited collagen fibers were included in these surfaces and sufficiently bound to the nano-topographies to resist the physical, enzymatic and chemical detachment treatments, in contrast to machined surfaces. Well-organized, isotropically

  5. Band Structure and Fermi-Surface Properties of Ordered beta-Brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Christensen, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    , but that their position relative to the Fermi level is correct. The derived Fermi-surface model allows a detailed interpretation of the de Hass-van Alphen (dHvA) data. The present model has no open orbit along for B→∥ 〈110〉. This agrees with dHvA as well as magnetoresistance measurements. Four new extremal cross sections...

  6. Reversibility and intermediate steps as key tools for the growth of extended ordered polymers via on-surface synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giovannantonio, Marco; Contini, Giorgio

    2018-03-01

    Surface-confined polymerization is a bottom-up strategy to create one- and two-dimensional covalent organic nanostructures with a π-conjugated backbone, which are suitable to be employed in real-life electronic devices, due to their high mechanical resistance and electronic charge transport efficiency. This strategy makes it possible to change the properties of the final nanostructures by a careful choice of the monomer architecture (i.e. of its constituent atoms and their spatial arrangement). Several chemical reactions have been proven to form low-dimensional polymers on surfaces, exploiting a variety of precursors in combination with metal (e.g. Cu, Ag, Au) and insulating (e.g. NaCl, CaCO3) surfaces. One of the main challenges of such an approach is to obtain nanostructures with long-range order, to boost the conductance performances of these materials. Most of the exploited chemical reactions use irreversible coupling between the monomers and, as a consequence, the resulting structures often suffer from poor order and high defect density. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art surface-confined polymerization reactions, with particular attention paid to reversible coupling pathways and irreversible processes including intermediate states, which are key aspects to control to increase the order of the final nanostructure.

  7. Well-ordered structure of methylene blue monolayers on Au(111) surface: electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yonghai; Wang, Li

    2009-02-01

    Well-ordered structure of methylene blue (MB) monolayers on Au(111) surface has been successfully obtained by controlling the substrate potential. Electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (ECSTM) examined the monolayers of MB on Au(111) in 0.1 M HClO(4) and showed long-range ordered, interweaved arrays of MB with quadratic symmetry on the substrate in the potential range of double-layer charging. High-resolution ECSTM image further revealed the details of the MB monolayers structure of c(5 x 5 radical 3)rect and the flat-lying orientation of ad-molecules. The dependence of molecular organization on the substrate potential and the formation mechanism of well-ordered structure on Au(111) surface were investigated in detail. The obtained well-ordered structure at the interface between a metal and an aqueous electrolyte might possibly be used as high-density device for signal memory and templates for the advanced nanopatterning of surfaces. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Phonon-mediated decay of an atom in a surface-induced potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kien, Fam Le; Hakuta, K.; Dutta Gupta, S.

    2007-01-01

    We study phonon-mediated transitions between translational levels of an atom in a surface-induced potential. We present a general master equation governing the dynamics of the translational states of the atom. In the framework of the Debye model, we derive compact expressions for the rates for both upward and downward transitions. Numerical calculations for the transition rates are performed for a deep silica-induced potential allowing for a large number of bound levels as well as free states of a cesium atom. The total absorption rate is shown to be determined mainly by the bound-to-bound transitions for deep bound levels and by bound-to-free transitions for shallow bound levels. Moreover, the phonon emission and absorption processes can be orders of magnitude larger for deep bound levels as compared to the shallow bound ones. We also study various types of transitions from free states. We show that, for thermal atomic cesium with a temperature in the range from 100 μK to 400 μK in the vicinity of a silica surface with a temperature of 300 K, the adsorption (free-to-bound decay) rate is about two times larger than the heating (free-to-free upward decay) rate, while the cooling (free-to-free downward decay) rate is negligible

  9. Magnetism and rotation effect on surface waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic general viscoelastic media of higher order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abo-Dahab, S. M. [Taif University, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Abd-Alla, A. M. [SVU, Qena (Egypt); Khan, Aftab [Sohag University, Sohag (Egypt)

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to study the propagation of surface waves in a rotating fibre-reinforced viscoelastic media of higher order under the influence of magnetic field. The general surface wave speeds derived to study the effects of rotation and magnetic field on surface waves. Particular cases for Stoneley, Love and Rayleigh waves are also discussed and dispersion relation for the waves has been deduced. The results obtained in this investigation are more general in the sense that some earlier published results are obtained from our result as special cases. For order zero our results are well agreement to fibre-reinforced materials. Also by neglecting the reinforced elastic parameters, the results reduce to well known isotropic medium. It is observed that in a rotating medium the surface waves are dispersive. Also magnetic effects play a significant roll. It is observed that Love wave remain unaffected in a rotating medium but remain under the influence of magnetic field. Rayleigh waves are affected by rotation and magnetic field whereas Stoneley waves are independent of Maxwell stresses. It is also observed that, surface waves cannot propagate in a fast rotating medium or in the presence of magnetic field of high intensity. Numerical results for particular materials are given and illustrated graphically. The results indicate that the effect of rotation and magnetic field are very pronounced.

  10. Magnetism and rotation effect on surface waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic general viscoelastic media of higher order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Dahab, S. M.; Abd-Alla, A. M.; Khan, Aftab

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the propagation of surface waves in a rotating fibre-reinforced viscoelastic media of higher order under the influence of magnetic field. The general surface wave speeds derived to study the effects of rotation and magnetic field on surface waves. Particular cases for Stoneley, Love and Rayleigh waves are also discussed and dispersion relation for the waves has been deduced. The results obtained in this investigation are more general in the sense that some earlier published results are obtained from our result as special cases. For order zero our results are well agreement to fibre-reinforced materials. Also by neglecting the reinforced elastic parameters, the results reduce to well known isotropic medium. It is observed that in a rotating medium the surface waves are dispersive. Also magnetic effects play a significant roll. It is observed that Love wave remain unaffected in a rotating medium but remain under the influence of magnetic field. Rayleigh waves are affected by rotation and magnetic field whereas Stoneley waves are independent of Maxwell stresses. It is also observed that, surface waves cannot propagate in a fast rotating medium or in the presence of magnetic field of high intensity. Numerical results for particular materials are given and illustrated graphically. The results indicate that the effect of rotation and magnetic field are very pronounced.

  11. Preparation of ordered silver angular nanoparticles array in block copolymer film for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svanda, J. [University of Chemistry and Technology, Department of Solid State Engineering (Czech Republic); Gromov, M. V. [University of Minnesota Duluth, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Kalachyova, Y. [University of Chemistry and Technology, Department of Solid State Engineering (Czech Republic); Postnikov, P. S. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Department of Technology of Organic Substances and Polymer Materials (Russian Federation); Svorcik, V.; Lyutakov, O., E-mail: lyutakoo@vscht.cz [University of Chemistry and Technology, Department of Solid State Engineering (Czech Republic)

    2016-10-15

    We report a single-step method of preparation of ordered silver nanoparticles array through template-assisted nanoparticles synthesis in the semidried block copolymer film. Ordered nanoparticles were prepared on different substrates by the proper choice of solvents combination and preparation procedure. In particular, block copolymer and silver nitrate were dissolved in the mix of tetrahydrofuran, toluene, and n-methylpyrolidone. During short spin-coating procedure ordering of block copolymer, evaporation of toluene and preferential silver redistribution into poly(4-vinylpyridine) block occurred. Rapid heating of semidry film initiated silver reduction, removing of residual solvent and creation of ordered silver array. After polymer removing silver nanoparticles array was tested as a suitable candidate for subdiffraction plasmonic application–surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Enhancement factor was calculated and compared with the literature data.

  12. Study of preparation and surface morphology of self-ordered nanoporous alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Elisa Marchezini; Martins, Maximiliano Delany; Silva, Ronald Arreguy

    2013-01-01

    Nanoporous alumina is a typical material that exhibits self-ordered nanochannels spontaneously organized in hexagonal shape. Produced by anodizing of metallic aluminum, it has been used as a template for production of materials at the nanoscale. This work aimed to study the preparation of nanoporous alumina by anodic anodizing of metallic aluminum substrates. The nanoporous alumina was prepared following the methodology proposed by Masuda and Fukuda (1995), a two-step method consisting of anodizing the aluminum sample in the potentiostatic mode, removing the layer of aluminum oxide (alumina) formed and then repeat the anodization process under the same conditions as the first anodization. This method produces nanoporous alumina with narrow pore diameter distribution and well-ordered structure. (author)

  13. Efficient and tunable high-order harmonic light sources for photoelectron spectroscopy at surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Cheng-Tien; Huth, Michael; Trützschler, Andreas; Schumann, Frank O.; Kirschner, Jürgen; Widdra, Wolf

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An overview of photoelectron spectroscopy using high-order harmonics is presented. • Photoemission spectra on Ag(0 0 1) using megahertz harmonics are shown. • A gas recycling system for harmonic generation is presented. • Non-stop operation of megahertz harmonics up to 76 h is demonstrated. • The bandwidth and pulse duration of the harmonics are discussed. - Abstract: With the recent progress in high-order harmonic generation (HHG) using femtosecond lasers, laboratory photoelectron spectroscopy with an ultrafast, widely tunable vacuum-ultraviolet light source has become available. Despite the well-established technique of HHG-based photoemission experiments at kilohertz repetition rates, the efficiency of these setups can be intrinsically limited by the space-charge effects. Here we present recent developments of compact HHG light sources for photoelectron spectroscopy at high repetition rates up to megahertz, and examples for angle-resolved photoemission experiments are demonstrated.

  14. Chemical and structural order in silicon oxynitrides by methods of surface physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, J.; Heeg, J.; Klinkenberg, E.-D.

    A large number of thin amorphous layers of SiO xN y and several (crystalline) reference compounds (SiO 2, Si 3N 4, Si 2N 2O) are studied. Although XANES and SEXAFS are well sulted to derive structural and chemical order, for these compounds many problems remain to be solved. We show how core level spectra (XPS, AES) can be used to gain such information (e.g. random bonding structure, N coordination, oxidation behaviour).

  15. X-ray impact induced desorption of gases from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumbach, S.; Kaminsky, M.

    1976-02-01

    Measurements of gases released from 302 stainless steel and gold surfaces before and after discharge cleaning were made in ultrahigh vacuum using x-rays with an energy distribution typical of a tungsten bremsstrahlung spectrum. Similar measurements were also made for Al 2 O 3 surfaces which had not been discharge cleaned. For the non-discharge-cleaned surfaces of stainless steel, Al 2 O 3 , and gold the predominant gas species observed mass spectrometrically was CO 2 . For some stainless steel and Al 2 O 3 surfaces CO and O 2 were also readily observed. Mean quantum yields for CO, O 2 and CO 2 release from such stainless steel surfaces, for example, ranged from less than 6 x 10 -5 to 9 x 10 -4 molecules per photons in the bremsstrahlung spectrum characteristic for 50 keV electron energy. After discharge cleaning a decrease in the mean quantum yields was observed for the stainless steel and gold surfaces

  16. Teager-Kaiser Energy and Higher-Order Operators in White-Light Interference Microscopy for Surface Shape Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Ouahab Boudraa

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In white-light interference microscopy, measurement of surface shape generally requires peak extraction of the fringe function envelope. In this paper the Teager-Kaiser energy and higher-order energy operators are proposed for efficient extraction of the fringe envelope. These energy operators are compared in terms of precision, robustness to noise, and subsampling. Flexible energy operators, depending on order and lag parameters, can be obtained. Results show that smoothing and interpolation of envelope approximation using spline model performs better than Gaussian-based approach.

  17. The Impact of Visual Guided Order Picking on Ocular Comfort, Ocular Surface and Tear Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Klein-Theyer

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of a visual picking system on ocular comfort, the ocular surface and tear function compared to those of a voice guided picking solution.Prospective, observational, cohort study.Institutional.A total of 25 young asymptomatic volunteers performed commissioning over 10 hours on two consecutive days.The operators were guided in the picking process by two different picking solutions, either visually or by voice while their subjective symptoms and ocular surface and tear function parameters were recorded.The visual analogue scale (VAS values, according to subjective dry eye symptoms, in the visual condition were significantly higher at the end of the commissioning than the baseline measurements. In the voice condition, the VAS values remained stable during the commissioning. The tear break-up time (BUT values declined significantly in the visual condition (pre-task: 16.6 sec and post-task: 9.6 sec in the right eyes, that were exposed to the displays, the left eyes in the visual condition showed only a minor decline, whereas the BUT values in the voice condition remained constant (right eyes or even increased (left eyes over the time. No significant differences in the tear meniscus height values before and after the commissioning were observed in either condition.In our study, the use of visually guided picking solutions was correlated with post-task subjective symptoms and tear film instability.

  18. Surface modifications induced by pulsed-laser texturing—Influence of laser impact on the surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costil, S., E-mail: sophie.costil@utbm.fr [IRTES-LERMPS, Université de Technologie de Belfort - Montbéliard, site de Sévenans, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); Lamraoui, A.; Langlade, C. [IRTES-LERMPS, Université de Technologie de Belfort - Montbéliard, site de Sévenans, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); Heintz, O.; Oltra, R. [ICB, Université de Bourgogne, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2014-01-01

    Laser cleaning technology provides a safe, environmentally friendly and very cost effective way to improve cleaning and surface preparation of metallic materials. Compared with efficient cleaning processes, it can avoid the disadvantages of ductile materials prepared by conventional technologies (cracks induced by sand-blasting for example) and treat only some selected areas (due to the optical fibers). By this way, laser technology could have several advantages and expand the range of thermal spraying. Moreover, new generations of lasers (fiber laser, disc laser) allow the development of new methods. Besides a significant bulk reduction, no maintenance, low operating cost, laser fibers can introduce alternative treatments. Combining a short-pulse laser with a scanner allows new applications in terms of surface preparation. By multiplying impacts using scanning laser, it is possible to shape the substrate surface to improve the coating adhesion as well as the mechanical behaviour. In addition, during the interactions of the laser beam with metallic surfaces, several modifications can be induced and particularly thermal effects. Indeed, under ambient conditions, a limited oxidation of the clean surface can occur. This phenomenon has been investigated in detail for silicon but few works have been reported concerning metallic materials. This paper aims at studying the surface modifications induced on aluminium alloy substrates after laser texturing. After morphological observations (SEM), a deeper surface analysis will be performed using XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) measures and microhardness testing.

  19. Surface tension alteration on calcite, induced by ion substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hiroshi; Andersson, Martin Peter; Bechgaard, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of water and organic molecules with mineral surfaces controls many processes in nature and industry. The thermodynamic property, surface tension, is usually determined from the contact angle between phases, but how does one understand the concept of surface tension at the nanoscale...... preferentially as ion pairs at solution-calcite interfaces. Mg2+ incorporation weakens organic molecule adhesion while strengthening water adsorption so Mg2+ substitution renders calcite more water wet. When Mg2+ replaces 10% of surface Ca2+, the contact angle changes dramatically, by 40 to 70, converting...

  20. Numerical Calculation of Distribution of Induced Carge Density on Planar Confined Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotov, V.; Druzhchenko, R.; Karazin, V.; Lominadze, J.; Kharadze, F.

    2007-01-01

    The calculation method of distribution of induced charge density on planar surfaces, including fractal structures of Sierpinski carpet type, is propesed. The calculation scheme is based on the fact that simply connected conducting surface of arbitrary geometry is an equipotential surface. (author)

  1. Theory of the surface-induced magnetism in liquid 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jichu, Hisao; Kuroda, Yoshihiro

    1982-01-01

    A theory of the surface-induced magnetism of liquid 3 He confined in a restricted geometry is presented. In a general model, three different types of contributions to the effective exchange interactions among spins of the 3 He atoms in a solid layer adsorbed on a substrate are distinguished on the basis of the second order perturbation theory; one is from a direct process and the others are mediated by the spins of the 3 He atoms in the remaining bulk liquid. By using a simplified model, the exchange constants are calculated to find that an RKKY-type indirect exchange interaction appears to be most dominant and to explain the observed ferromagnetic tendency. (author)

  2. Reversible and irreversible changes of surface morphology by order-disorder transition in CuAu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachl, Jindrich; Sima, Vladimir; Pfeiler, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    The change of symmetry from the disordered fcc structure to tetragonal or orthorhombic structure is accompanied in CuAu alloy by anisotropy of lattice parameters and also by local generation of c-variants of structural antiphase domains. Macroscopic results of these processes can be observed as a dynamic change of the surface morphology. Some surface changes are reversible, on the other hand the internal stresses connected with the order-disorder transformation are also responsible for irreversible surface deformation effects. The domain structure formation can be influenced by external load and a shape memory effect can be observed at special conditions in CuAu. A combination of in-situ microscopic video cinematography and post-mortem 3-D atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used for the surface study. The AFM images have enabled a detailed analysis of the surface morphology and the cinematography has given an in-situ information dealing with conditions and kinetics of observed surface changes. Measurements on CuAu single- and poly-crystalline samples have been made for a wide variety of experimental conditions (heating/cooling rates, external load, thermal history of the sample)

  3. Reversible and irreversible changes of surface morphology by order-disorder transition in CuAu alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachl, Jindrich; Sima, Vladimir; Pfeiler, Wolfgang

    2004-09-22

    The change of symmetry from the disordered fcc structure to tetragonal or orthorhombic structure is accompanied in CuAu alloy by anisotropy of lattice parameters and also by local generation of c-variants of structural antiphase domains. Macroscopic results of these processes can be observed as a dynamic change of the surface morphology. Some surface changes are reversible, on the other hand the internal stresses connected with the order-disorder transformation are also responsible for irreversible surface deformation effects. The domain structure formation can be influenced by external load and a shape memory effect can be observed at special conditions in CuAu. A combination of in-situ microscopic video cinematography and post-mortem 3-D atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used for the surface study. The AFM images have enabled a detailed analysis of the surface morphology and the cinematography has given an in-situ information dealing with conditions and kinetics of observed surface changes. Measurements on CuAu single- and poly-crystalline samples have been made for a wide variety of experimental conditions (heating/cooling rates, external load, thermal history of the sample)

  4. Expression robust 3D face recognition via mesh-based histograms of multiple order surface differential quantities

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a mesh-based approach for 3D face recognition using a novel local shape descriptor and a SIFT-like matching process. Both maximum and minimum curvatures estimated in the 3D Gaussian scale space are employed to detect salient points. To comprehensively characterize 3D facial surfaces and their variations, we calculate weighted statistical distributions of multiple order surface differential quantities, including histogram of mesh gradient (HoG), histogram of shape index (HoS) and histogram of gradient of shape index (HoGS) within a local neighborhood of each salient point. The subsequent matching step then robustly associates corresponding points of two facial surfaces, leading to much more matched points between different scans of a same person than the ones of different persons. Experimental results on the Bosphorus dataset highlight the effectiveness of the proposed method and its robustness to facial expression variations. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. Tribological performance of sub-100-nm femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonse, J., E-mail: joern.bonse@bam.de [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Höhm, S. [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Koter, R.; Hartelt, M.; Spaltmann, D.; Pentzien, S. [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Rosenfeld, A. [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Krüger, J. [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Large areas covered with sub-100 nm LIPSS (HSFL) were manufactured by fs-laser irradiation on titanium surfaces. • Tribological performance of HSFL covered areas was qualified in reciprocal sliding tests in two different lubricating oils. • HSFL on titanium do not endure the tribological tests. • For a beneficial tribological performance, the tribological sample deformation must be smaller than the LIPSS modulation depth. - Abstract: Sub-100-nm laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were processed on bulk titanium (Ti) surfaces by femtosecond laser pulse irradiation in air (30 fs pulse duration, 790 nm wavelength). The laser peak fluence, the spatial spot overlap, and the number of overscans were optimized in a sample-scanning geometry in order to obtain large surface areas (5 mm × 5 mm) covered homogeneously by the LIPSS. The laser-processed regions were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), white light interference microscopy (WLIM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The friction coefficient of the nanostructured surfaces was tested during 1000 cycles under reciprocal sliding conditions (1 Hz, 1.0 N normal load) against a 10-mm diameter ball of hardened 100Cr6 steel, both in paraffin oil and in engine oil used as lubricants. Subsequently, the corresponding wear tracks were qualified by OM, SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analyses (EDX). The results of the tribological tests are discussed and compared to that obtained for near wavelength-sized fs-LIPSS, processed under somewhat different irradiation conditions. Some constraints for a beneficial effect of LIPSS on the tribological performance are provided.

  6. Tribological performance of sub-100-nm femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonse, J.; Höhm, S.; Koter, R.; Hartelt, M.; Spaltmann, D.; Pentzien, S.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Large areas covered with sub-100 nm LIPSS (HSFL) were manufactured by fs-laser irradiation on titanium surfaces. • Tribological performance of HSFL covered areas was qualified in reciprocal sliding tests in two different lubricating oils. • HSFL on titanium do not endure the tribological tests. • For a beneficial tribological performance, the tribological sample deformation must be smaller than the LIPSS modulation depth. - Abstract: Sub-100-nm laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were processed on bulk titanium (Ti) surfaces by femtosecond laser pulse irradiation in air (30 fs pulse duration, 790 nm wavelength). The laser peak fluence, the spatial spot overlap, and the number of overscans were optimized in a sample-scanning geometry in order to obtain large surface areas (5 mm × 5 mm) covered homogeneously by the LIPSS. The laser-processed regions were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), white light interference microscopy (WLIM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The friction coefficient of the nanostructured surfaces was tested during 1000 cycles under reciprocal sliding conditions (1 Hz, 1.0 N normal load) against a 10-mm diameter ball of hardened 100Cr6 steel, both in paraffin oil and in engine oil used as lubricants. Subsequently, the corresponding wear tracks were qualified by OM, SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analyses (EDX). The results of the tribological tests are discussed and compared to that obtained for near wavelength-sized fs-LIPSS, processed under somewhat different irradiation conditions. Some constraints for a beneficial effect of LIPSS on the tribological performance are provided.

  7. The effect of the temperature in the formation of sputter-induced surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiping; Wang Zhenxia; Tao Zhenlan; Pan Jisheng

    1992-01-01

    The formation of the ion-induced surface topography has been studied extensively, but we know little of how to control the formation of the surface topography. In order to study further the mechanism of the formation of the surface topography at different target temperatures, we have selected two samples of the metal indium (99.99% purity) for study. The samples were bombarded by 27 keV Ar + ions at normal incidence, and the temperature was kept at 25 or 70 o C. The Ar + beam current was about 0.7 μA and the total dose was 1.4 x 10 18 ions cm -2 for each sample. The examination of the bombarded surface for each sample was carried out on an S-570 scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the bombarded surface of sample A at 25 o C, there are some terraces surrounded by deep ditches and among them there exhibit pebble-or sand-like structures. The terraces respond to the lowest-index planes of specimens in which the channel effect can be seen. The ditches are originated from grain boundaries, and the other part is high-index planes. In sample B at 70 o C, there are the same pebble-or sand-like structures, but instead of terraces there are some craters whose size and distribution is similar to that of the terraces in sample A. The middle of the crater is cavitated a little and its edge is raised. Like sample A, there are some deep ditches surrounding the craters. Comparing samples A and B, it can be accepted that these terraces and craters originated from the plane of the same orientation of grain. An interpretation of these observations is offered. (author)

  8. Neutron diffraction study of the pressure-induced magnetic ordering in the spin gap system TlCuCl3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosawa, Akira; Osakabe, Toyotaka; Kakurai, Kazuhisa; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2003-01-01

    Neutron elastic scattering measurements have been performed under a hydrostatic pressure in order to investigate the spin structure of the pressure-induced magnetic ordering in the spin gap system TlCuCl 3 . Below the ordering temperature T N = 16.9 K for the hydrostatic pressure P = 1.48 GPa, magnetic Bragg reflections were observed at reciprocal lattice points Q = (h, 0, l) with integer h and odd l, which are equivalent to those points with the lowest magnetic excitation energy at ambient pressure. This indicates that the spin gap close due to the applied pressure. The spin structure of the pressure-induced magnetic ordered state for P = 1.48 GPa was determined. (author)

  9. Oriented and Ordered Biomimetic Remineralization of the Surface of Demineralized Dental Enamel Using HAP@ACP Nanoparticles Guided by Glycine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haorong; Xiao, Zuohui; Yang, Jie; Lu, Danyang; Kishen, Anil; Li, Yanqiu; Chen, Zhen; Que, Kehua; Zhang, Qian; Deng, Xuliang; Yang, Xiaoping; Cai, Qing; Chen, Ning; Cong, Changhong; Guan, Binbin; Li, Ting; Zhang, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Achieving oriented and ordered remineralization on the surface of demineralized dental enamel, thereby restoring the satisfactory mechanical properties approaching those of sound enamel, is still a challenge for dentists. To mimic the natural biomineralization approach for enamel remineralization, the biological process of enamel development proteins, such as amelogenin, was simulated in this study. In this work, carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) conjugated with alendronate (ALN) was applied to stabilize amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) to form CMC/ACP nanoparticles. Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) functioned as the protease which decompose amelogenin in vivo to degrade the CMC-ALN matrix and generate HAP@ACP core-shell nanoparticles. Finally, when guided by 10 mM glycine (Gly), HAP@ACP nanoparticles can arrange orderly and subsequently transform from an amorphous phase to well-ordered rod-like apatite crystals to achieve oriented and ordered biomimetic remineralization on acid-etched enamel surfaces. This biomimetic remineralization process is achieved through the oriented attachment (OA) of nanoparticles based on non-classical crystallization theory. These results indicate that finding and developing analogues of natural proteins such as amelogenin involved in the biomineralization by natural macromolecular polymers and imitating the process of biomineralization would be an effective strategy for enamel remineralization. Furthermore, this method represents a promising method for the management of early caries in minimal invasive dentistry (MID).

  10. LASSO-ligand activity by surface similarity order: a new tool for ligand based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Darryl; Sadjad, Bashir S; Zsoldos, Zsolt; Simon, Aniko

    2008-01-01

    Virtual Ligand Screening (VLS) has become an integral part of the drug discovery process for many pharmaceutical companies. Ligand similarity searches provide a very powerful method of screening large databases of ligands to identify possible hits. If these hits belong to new chemotypes the method is deemed even more successful. eHiTS LASSO uses a new interacting surface point types (ISPT) molecular descriptor that is generated from the 3D structure of the ligand, but unlike most 3D descriptors it is conformation independent. Combined with a neural network machine learning technique, LASSO screens molecular databases at an ultra fast speed of 1 million structures in under 1 min on a standard PC. The results obtained from eHiTS LASSO trained on relatively small training sets of just 2, 4 or 8 actives are presented using the diverse directory of useful decoys (DUD) dataset. It is shown that over a wide range of receptor families, eHiTS LASSO is consistently able to enrich screened databases and provides scaffold hopping ability.

  11. LASSO—ligand activity by surface similarity order: a new tool for ligand based virtual screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Darryl; Sadjad, Bashir S.; Zsoldos, Zsolt; Simon, Aniko

    2008-06-01

    Virtual Ligand Screening (VLS) has become an integral part of the drug discovery process for many pharmaceutical companies. Ligand similarity searches provide a very powerful method of screening large databases of ligands to identify possible hits. If these hits belong to new chemotypes the method is deemed even more successful. eHiTS LASSO uses a new interacting surface point types (ISPT) molecular descriptor that is generated from the 3D structure of the ligand, but unlike most 3D descriptors it is conformation independent. Combined with a neural network machine learning technique, LASSO screens molecular databases at an ultra fast speed of 1 million structures in under 1 min on a standard PC. The results obtained from eHiTS LASSO trained on relatively small training sets of just 2, 4 or 8 actives are presented using the diverse directory of useful decoys (DUD) dataset. It is shown that over a wide range of receptor families, eHiTS LASSO is consistently able to enrich screened databases and provides scaffold hopping ability.

  12. Oxidation-reduction induced roughening of platinum (111) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, H.; Nagy, Z.

    1993-06-01

    Platinum (111) single crystal surface was roughened by repeated cycles of oxidation and reduction to study dynamic evolution of surface roughening. The interface roughens progressively upon repeated cycles. The measured width of the interface was fit to an assumed pow law, W ∼t β , with β = 0.38(1). The results are compared with a simulation based on a random growth model. The fraction of the singly stepped surface apparently saturates to 0. 25 monolayer, which explains the apparent saturation to a steady roughness observed in previous studies

  13. Analysis of radiation pressure force exerted on a biological cell induced by high-order Bessel beams using Debye series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Renxian; Ren, Kuan Fang; Han, Xiang'e; Wu, Zhensen; Guo, Lixin; Gong, Shuxi

    2013-01-01

    Debye series expansion (DSE) is employed to the analysis of radiation pressure force (RPF) exerted on biological cells induced by high-order Bessel beams (BB). The beam shape coefficients (BSCs) for high-order Bessel beams are calculated using analytical expressions obtained by the integral localized approximation (ILA). Different types of cells, including a real Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell and a lymphocyte which are respectively modeled by a coated and five-layered sphere, are considered. The RPF induced by high-order Bessel beams is compared with that by Gaussian beams and zeroth-order Bessel beams, and the effect of different scattering processes on RPF is studied. Numerical calculations show that high-order Bessel beams with zero central intensity can also transversely trap particle in the beam center, and some scattering processes can provide longitudinal pulling force. -- Highlights: ► BSCs for high-order Bessel beam (HOBB) is derived using ILA. ► DSE is employed to study the RPF induced by HOBB exerted on multilayered cells. ► RPF is decided by radius relative to the interval of peaks in intensity profile. ► HOBB can also transversely trap high-index particle in the vicinity of beam axis. ► RPF for some scattering processes can longitudinally pull particles back

  14. Transformation between surface spherical harmonic expansion of arbitrary high degree and order and double Fourier series on sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    2018-02-01

    In order to accelerate the spherical harmonic synthesis and/or analysis of arbitrary function on the unit sphere, we developed a pair of procedures to transform between a truncated spherical harmonic expansion and the corresponding two-dimensional Fourier series. First, we obtained an analytic expression of the sine/cosine series coefficient of the 4 π fully normalized associated Legendre function in terms of the rectangle values of the Wigner d function. Then, we elaborated the existing method to transform the coefficients of the surface spherical harmonic expansion to those of the double Fourier series so as to be capable with arbitrary high degree and order. Next, we created a new method to transform inversely a given double Fourier series to the corresponding surface spherical harmonic expansion. The key of the new method is a couple of new recurrence formulas to compute the inverse transformation coefficients: a decreasing-order, fixed-degree, and fixed-wavenumber three-term formula for general terms, and an increasing-degree-and-order and fixed-wavenumber two-term formula for diagonal terms. Meanwhile, the two seed values are analytically prepared. Both of the forward and inverse transformation procedures are confirmed to be sufficiently accurate and applicable to an extremely high degree/order/wavenumber as 2^{30} {≈ } 10^9. The developed procedures will be useful not only in the synthesis and analysis of the spherical harmonic expansion of arbitrary high degree and order, but also in the evaluation of the derivatives and integrals of the spherical harmonic expansion.

  15. Surface solitons of four-wave mixing in an electromagnetically induced lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanpeng; Yuan, Chenzhi; Zhang, Yiqi; Zheng, Huaibin; Chen, Haixia; Li, Changbiao; Wang, Zhiguo; Xiao, Min

    2013-01-01

    By creating lattice states with two-dimensional spatial periodic atomic coherence, we report an experimental demonstration of generating two-dimensional surface solitons of a four-wave mixing signal in an electromagnetically induced lattice composed of two electromagnetically induced gratings with different orientations in an atomic medium, each of which can support a one-dimensional surface soliton. The surface solitons can be well controlled by different experimental parameters, such as probe frequency, pump power, and beam incident angles, and can be affected by coherent induced defect states. (letter)

  16. Uniform surface-to-line integral reduction of physical optics for curved surfaces by modified edge representation with higher-order correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Pengfei; Ando, Makoto

    2017-09-01

    The modified edge representation is one of the equivalent edge currents approximation methods for calculating the physical optics surface radiation integrals in diffraction analysis. The Stokes' theorem is used in the derivation of the modified edge representation from the physical optics for the planar scatterer case, which implies that the surface integral is rigorously reduced into the line integral of the modified edge representation equivalent edge currents, defined in terms of the local shape of the edge. On the contrary, for curved surfaces, the results of radiation integrals depend upon the global shape of the scatterer. The physical optics surface integral consists of two components, from the inner stationary phase point and the edge. The modified edge representation is defined independently from the orientation of the actual edge, and therefore, it could be available not only at the edge but also at the arbitrary points on the scatterer except the stationary phase point where the modified edge representation equivalent edge currents becomes infinite. If stationary phase point exists inside the illuminated region, the physical optics surface integration is reduced into two kinds of the modified edge representation line integrations, along the edge and infinitesimally small integration around the inner stationary phase point, the former and the latter give the diffraction and reflection components, respectively. The accuracy of the latter has been discussed for the curved surfaces and published. This paper focuses on the errors of the former and discusses its correction. It has been numerically observed that the modified edge representation works well for the physical optics diffraction in flat and concave surfaces; errors appear especially for the observer near the reflection shadow boundary if the frequency is low for the convex scatterer. This paper gives the explicit expression of the higher-order correction for the modified edge representation.

  17. Mining-induced surface damage and the study of countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Jixian

    1994-01-01

    Coal constitutes China's major energy resource. The majority of the coal is produced from underground mining operations. Surface subsidence may amount to 80% of the thickness of the seam mined, while the subsided volume is around 60% of the mined volume underground. An area of 20 hectares of land will be affected with each 1 million tons of coal mined, thereby causing severe surface damage. Following a description of the characteristics of surface damages due to underground mining disturbance, this paper elaborates on the damage prediction method, standards applied for evaluating the damages experienced by surface buildings, land reclamation methods in subsided area, measures for reinforcing and protecting buildings in mining-affected areas, and performance of antideformation buildings

  18. Experimental and theoretical studies of bombardment induced surface morphology changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Williams, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    In this review results of experimental and theoretical studies of solid surface morphology changes due to ion bombardment are discussed. An attempt is undertaken to classify the observed specific features of a structure, generated by ion bombardment [ru

  19. Origins of ion irradiation-induced Ga nanoparticle motion on GaAs surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, M.; Wu, J. H.; Chen, H. Y.; Thornton, K.; Goldman, R. S.; Sofferman, D. L.; Beskin, I.

    2013-01-01

    We have examined the origins of ion irradiation-induced nanoparticle (NP) motion. Focused-ion-beam irradiation of GaAs surfaces induces random walks of Ga NPs, which are biased in the direction opposite to that of ion beam scanning. Although the instantaneous NP velocities are constant, the NP drift velocities are dependent on the off-normal irradiation angle, likely due to a difference in surface non-stoichiometry induced by the irradiation angle dependence of the sputtering yield. It is hypothesized that the random walks are initiated by ion irradiation-induced thermal fluctuations, with biasing driven by anisotropic mass transport

  20. Spontaneous formation of optically induced surface relief gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblond, H; Barille, R; Ahmadi-Kandjani, S; Nunzi, J-M; Ortyl, E; Kucharski, S

    2009-01-01

    We develop a model based on Fick's law of diffusion as a phenomenological description of the molecular motion, and on the coupled mode theory, to describe single-beam surface relief grating formation in azopolymer thin films. The model allows us to explain the mechanism of spontaneous patterning, and self-organization. It allows us to compute the surface relief profile and its evolution, with good agreement with experiments.

  1. Spontaneous formation of optically induced surface relief gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblond, H; Barille, R; Ahmadi-Kandjani, S; Nunzi, J-M [Laboratoire POMA, Universite d' Angers, CNRS FRE 2988, 2, Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers (France); Ortyl, E; Kucharski, S, E-mail: herve.leblond@univ-angers.f [Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2009-10-28

    We develop a model based on Fick's law of diffusion as a phenomenological description of the molecular motion, and on the coupled mode theory, to describe single-beam surface relief grating formation in azopolymer thin films. The model allows us to explain the mechanism of spontaneous patterning, and self-organization. It allows us to compute the surface relief profile and its evolution, with good agreement with experiments.

  2. Physicochemical modifications accompanying UV laser induced surface structures on poly(ethylene terephthalate) and their effect on adhesion of mesenchymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollar, Esther; Pérez, Susana; Hernández, Margarita; Domingo, Concepción; Martín, Margarita; Ezquerra, Tiberio A; García-Ruiz, Josefa P; Castillejo, Marta

    2014-09-07

    This work reports on the formation of different types of structures on the surface of polymer films upon UV laser irradiation. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) was irradiated with nanosecond UV pulses at 193 and 266 nm. The polarization of the laser beam and the irradiation angle of incidence were varied, giving rise to laser induced surface structures with different shapes and periodicities. The irradiated surfaces were topographically characterized by atomic force microscopy and the chemical modifications induced by laser irradiation were inspected via micro-Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies. Contact angle measurements were performed with different liquids, and the results evaluated in terms of surface free energy components. Finally, in order to test the influence of surface properties for a potential application, the modified surfaces were used for mesenchymal stem cell culture assays and the effect of nanostructure and surface chemistry on cell adhesion was evaluated.

  3. Selective metallization of polymers using laser induced surface activation (LISA)—characterization and optimization of porous surface topography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Grave, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Laser induced selective activation (LISA) is a molded interconnected devices technique for selective metallization of polymers. On the working piece, only the laser-machined area can be metalized in the subsequent plating. The principle of the technology is introduced. Surface analysis was perfor...

  4. Evidence of a New Current-Induced Magnetoelectric Effect in a Toroidal Magnetic Ordered State of UNi4B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hiraku; Uenishi, Kenta; Miura, Naoyuki; Tabata, Chihiro; Hidaka, Hiroyuki; Yanagisawa, Tatsuya; Amitsuka, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    Magnetization measurements under direct electric current were performed in a toroidal magnetic ordered state of UNi4B to test a recent theoretical prediction of current-induced magnetization in a metallic system lacking local-inversion symmetry. We found that electric current parallel to [2\\bar{1}\\bar{1}0] and [0001] in the hexagonal 4-index notation induces a uniform magnetization along the [01\\bar{1}0] direction. The observed behavior of the induced magnetization is essentially consistent with the theoretical prediction; however, it also shows an inconsistency suggesting that the antiferromagnetic state of UNi4B could not be simply regarded as a uniform toroidal order in the ideal honeycomb layered structure.

  5. Shrink-Induced Superhydrophobic and Antibacterial Surfaces in Consumer Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freschauf, Lauren R.; McLane, Jolie; Sharma, Himanshu; Khine, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Structurally modified superhydrophobic surfaces have become particularly desirable as stable antibacterial surfaces. Because their self-cleaning and water resistant properties prohibit bacteria growth, structurally modified superhydrophobic surfaces obviate bacterial resistance common with chemical agents, and therefore a robust and stable means to prevent bacteria growth is possible. In this study, we present a rapid fabrication method for creating such superhydrophobic surfaces in consumer hard plastic materials with resulting antibacterial effects. To replace complex fabrication materials and techniques, the initial mold is made with commodity shrink-wrap film and is compatible with large plastic roll-to-roll manufacturing and scale-up techniques. This method involves a purely structural modification free of chemical additives leading to its inherent consistency over time and successive recasting from the same molds. Finally, antibacterial properties are demonstrated in polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), and polyethylene (PE) by demonstrating the prevention of gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria growth on our structured plastic surfaces. PMID:22916100

  6. July 2011 Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order, July 21, 2011

  7. Laser induced damage threshold on metallic surfaces during laser cleaning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, K

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available laser paint removal. Laser induced damage on 316L stainless steel was studied, with the target subjected to single and multiple pulse irradiations using a Q-switched Nd:YAG, with fluences between 0.15 and 11.8 J/cm2. Several different damage morphologies...

  8. Femtosecond laser irradiation-induced infrared absorption on silicon surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Zhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The near-infrared (NIR absorption below band gap energy of crystalline silicon is significantly increased after the silicon is irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses at a simple experimental condition. The absorption increase in the NIR range primarily depends on the femtosecond laser pulse energy, pulse number, and pulse duration. The Raman spectroscopy analysis shows that after the laser irradiation, the silicon surface consists of silicon nanostructure and amorphous silicon. The femtosecond laser irradiation leads to the formation of a composite of nanocrystalline, amorphous, and the crystal silicon substrate surface with microstructures. The composite has an optical absorption enhancement at visible wavelengths as well as at NIR wavelength. The composite may be useful for an NIR detector, for example, for gas sensing because of its large surface area.

  9. Competitive Protein Adsorption - Multilayer Adsorption and Surface Induced Protein Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hou, Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    In this study, competitive adsorption of albumin and IgG (immunoglobulin G) from human serum solutions and protein mixtures onto polymer surfaces is studied by means of radioactive labeling. By using two different radiolabels (125I and 131I), albumin and IgG adsorption to polymer surfaces...... is monitored simultaneously and the influence from the presence of other human serum proteins on albumin and IgG adsorption, as well as their mutual influence during adsorption processes, is investigated. Exploring protein adsorption by combining analysis of competitive adsorption from complex solutions...... of high concentration with investigation of single protein adsorption and interdependent adsorption between two specific proteins enables us to map protein adsorption sequences during competitive protein adsorption. Our study shows that proteins can adsorb in a multilayer fashion onto the polymer surfaces...

  10. Laser-induced short- and long-range orderings of Co nanoparticles on SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favazza, C.; Trice, J.; Krishna, H.; Kalyanaraman, R.; Sureshkumar, R.

    2006-01-01

    Laser irradiation of ultrathin Co films leads to pattern formation by dewetting with short-range order (SRO) as well as long-range order (LRO). When a 1.5 nm thick Co film is irradiated by a single laser beam, a monomodal size distribution of particles with average diameter of 31±10 nm and nearest-neighbor spacing of 75 nm is observed. Moreover, melting by two-beam interference irradiation produces LRO as well as SRO giving a quasi-two-dimensional arrangement of nanoparticles. The SRO is attributed to spinodal dewetting while the LRO is conjectured to be induced by in-plane interfacial tension gradients. Laser-induced dewetting of metals could be a simple technique to fabricate ordered metal nanoarrays

  11. Triconstituent co-assembly to ordered mesostructured polymer-silica and carbon-silica nanocomposites and large-pore mesoporous carbons with high surface areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruili; Shi, Yifeng; Wan, Ying; Meng, Yan; Zhang, Fuqiang; Gu, Dong; Chen, Zhenxia; Tu, Bo; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2006-09-06

    Highly ordered mesoporous polymer-silica and carbon-silica nanocomposites with interpenetrating networks have been successfully synthesized by the evaporation-induced triconstituent co-assembly method, wherein soluble resol polymer is used as an organic precursor, prehydrolyzed TEOS is used as an inorganic precursor, and triblock copolymer F127 is used as a template. It is proposed for the first time that ordered mesoporous nanocomposites have "reinforced concrete"-structured frameworks. By adjusting the initial mass ratios of TEOS to resol, we determined the obtained nanocomposites possess continuous composition with the ratios ranging from zero to infinity for the two constituents that are "homogeneously" dispersed inside the pore walls. The presence of silicates in nanocomposites dramatically inhibits framework shrinkage during the calcination, resulting in highly ordered large-pore mesoporous carbon-silica nanocomposites. Combustion in air or etching in HF solution can remove carbon or silica from the carbon-silica nanocomposites and yield ordered mesoporous pure silica or carbon frameworks. The process generates plenty of small pores in carbon or/and silica pore walls. Ordered mesoporous carbons can then be obtained with large pore sizes of approximately 6.7 nm, pore volumes of approximately 2.0 cm(3)/g, and high surface areas of approximately 2470 m(2)/g. The pore structures and textures can be controlled by varying the sizes and polymerization degrees of two constituent precursors. Accordingly, by simply tuning the aging time of TEOS, ordered mesoporous carbons with evident bimodal pores at 2.6 and 5.8 nm can be synthesized.

  12. Controlled assembly of high-order nanoarray metal structures on bulk copper surface by femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wanwan; Yang, Jianjun

    2017-07-01

    We report a new one-step maskless method to fabricate high-order nanoarray metal structures comprising periodic grooves and particle chains on a single-crystal Cu surface using femtosecond laser pulses at the central wavelength of 400 nm. Remarkably, when a circularly polarized infrared femtosecond laser pulse (spectrally centered at 800 nm) pre-irradiates the sample surface, the geometric dimensions of the composite structure can be well controlled. With increasing the energy fluence of the infrared laser pulse, both the groove width and particle diameter are observed to reduce, while the measured spacing-to-diameter ratio of the nanoparticles tends to present an increasing tendency. A physical scenario is proposed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms: as the infrared femtosecond laser pulse pre-irradiates the target, the copper surface is triggered to display anomalous transient physical properties, on which the subsequently incident Gaussian blue laser pulse is spatially modulated into fringe-like energy depositions via the excitation of ultrafast surface plasmon. During the following relaxation processes, the periodically heated thin-layer regions can be transferred into the metastable liquid rivulets and then they break up into nanodroplet arrays owing to the modified Rayleigh-like instability. This investigation indicates a simple integrated approach for active designing and large-scale assembly of complexed functional nanostructures on bulk materials.

  13. Influence of indium-tin oxide surface structure on the ordering and coverage of carboxylic acid and thiol monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerruti, Marta; Rhodes, Crissy; Losego, Mark; Efremenko, Alina; Maria, Jon-Paul; Fischer, Daniel; Franzen, Stefan; Genzer, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the variability of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formation on ITO depending on the substrate surface features. In particular, we report on the formation of carboxylic acid- and thiol-based SAMs on two lots of commercially prepared indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin films. Contact angle measurements, electrochemical experiments, and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy showed that the quality of monolayers formed differed substantially between the two ITO batches. Only one of the two ITO substrates was capable of forming well-organized thiol- and carboxylic acid-based SAMs. In order to rationalize these observations, atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses were carried out, and SAMs were prepared on ITO substrates fabricated by sputtering in our laboratories. An attempt was made to influence the film microstructure and surface morphology by varying substrate temperatures during ITO deposition. Good-quality thiol and carboxylic acid SAMs were obtained on one of the ITO substrates prepared in-house. While our characterization could not single out conclusively one specific parameter in ITO surface structure that could be responsible for good SAMs formation, we could point out homogeneous surface morphology as a relevant factor for the quality of the SAMs. Evidence was also found for ITO crystallographic orientation to be a parameter influencing SAMs organization

  14. Ion scattering studies of ordered alloy surfaces: CuAu(1 0 0) and NiAl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beikler, R.; Taglauer, E.

    2000-01-01

    The composition and structure of alloy surfaces can differ from the corresponding bulk properties due to segregation and relaxation effects. We studied the (1 0 0) surface of the ordered alloy CuAu and amorphous Ni and Al by low-energy Ne + and Na + ion scattering. The interpretation of the experimental results is supported by numerical simulations using the MARLOWE code. In the CuAu system a certain geometry was found to be very sensitive to Au presence in the 2nd layer. Comparison with MARLOWE results also allows to study variations in the ion yields arising from neutralization effects. By trajectory analysis ion survival probabilities are estimated for Ni and Al

  15. Study of gain-coupled distributed feedback laser based on high order surface gain-coupled gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Qin, Li; Chen, Yongyi; Jia, Peng; Chen, Chao; Cheng, LiWen; Chen, Hong; Liang, Lei; Zeng, Yugang; Zhang, Xing; Wu, Hao; Ning, Yongqiang; Wang, Lijun

    2018-03-01

    Single-longitudinal-mode, gain-coupled distributed feedback (DFB) lasers based on high order surface gain-coupled gratings are achieved. Periodic surface metal p-contacts with insulated grooves realize gain-coupled mechanism. To enhance gain contrast in the quantum wells without the introduction of effective index-coupled effect, groove length and depth were well designed. Our devices provided a single longitudinal mode with the maximum CW output power up to 48.8 mW/facet at 971.31 nm at 250 mA without facet coating, 3dB linewidth (39 dB). Optical bistable characteristic was observed with a threshold current difference. Experimentally, devices with different cavity lengths were contrasted on power-current and spectrum characteristics. Due to easy fabrication technique and stable performance, it provides a method of fabricating practical gain-coupled distributed feedback lasers for commercial applications.

  16. Grinding induced martensite on the surface of rails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, C.J.; Zhang, Xiaodan; Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson

    2014-01-01

    determined. Two different rail types R260 and R350HT that both had been ground by a grinding train were investigated. The rail sections, studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy, showed that the surface of both types of rails is covered with WELs. The hardness of the WEL is increased compared...

  17. Heterogeneity of soil surface temperature induced by xerophytic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The diurnal maximum and diurnal variations of soil surface temperatures under canopy vary strongly with different .... elevation of 1300 m above sea level), located at the southeastern fringe of ... cipitation is the only source of soil water replenish- ment. ...... 2001 Effects of nutrients and shade on tree-grass inter- actions in an ...

  18. New model for surface fracture induced by dynamical stress

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, J. V.; Lewis, L. J.

    1997-01-01

    We introduce a model where an isotropic, dynamically-imposed stress induces fracture in a thin film. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study how the integrated fragment distribution function depends on the rate of change and magnitude of the imposed stress, as well as on temperature. A mean-field argument shows that the system becomes unstable for a critical value of the stress. We find a striking invariance of the distribution of fragments for fixed ratio of temperature and rate of ch...

  19. A stable high-order perturbation of surfaces method for numerical simulation of diffraction problems in triply layered media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Youngjoon, E-mail: hongy@uic.edu; Nicholls, David P., E-mail: davidn@uic.edu

    2017-02-01

    The accurate numerical simulation of linear waves interacting with periodic layered media is a crucial capability in engineering applications. In this contribution we study the stable and high-order accurate numerical simulation of the interaction of linear, time-harmonic waves with a periodic, triply layered medium with irregular interfaces. In contrast with volumetric approaches, High-Order Perturbation of Surfaces (HOPS) algorithms are inexpensive interfacial methods which rapidly and recursively estimate scattering returns by perturbation of the interface shape. In comparison with Boundary Integral/Element Methods, the stable HOPS algorithm we describe here does not require specialized quadrature rules, periodization strategies, or the solution of dense non-symmetric positive definite linear systems. In addition, the algorithm is provably stable as opposed to other classical HOPS approaches. With numerical experiments we show the remarkable efficiency, fidelity, and accuracy one can achieve with an implementation of this algorithm.

  20. Invasion-wave-induced first-order phase transition in systems of active particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    An instability near the transition to collective motion of self-propelled particles is studied numerically by Enskog-like kinetic theory. While hydrodynamics breaks down, the kinetic approach leads to steep solitonlike waves. These supersonic waves show hysteresis and lead to an abrupt jump of the global order parameter if the noise level is changed. Thus they provide a mean-field mechanism to change the second-order character of the phase transition to first order. The shape of the wave is shown to follow a scaling law and to quantitatively agree with agent-based simulations.

  1. Negating HIO-induced metal and carbide EUV surface contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Gleeson, Michael; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Lee, Christopher James; Kleyn, A.W.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    The next generation photolithography will use 13.5 nm Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) light in order to reduce feature sizes in semiconductor manufactoring. Lens materials for this wavelength do not exist: image projection requires multilayer mirrors that act as an artificial Bragg crystal.

  2. Applications of high order harmonic radiation to UVX-solids interaction: high excitation density in electronic relaxation dynamics and surface damaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Grazia, M.

    2007-12-01

    The new sources of radiation in the extreme-UV (X-UV: 10-100 nm), which deliver spatially coherent, ultra-short and intense pulses, allow studying high flux processes and ultra-fast dynamics in various domains. The thesis work presents two applications of the high-order laser harmonics (HH) to solid state physics. In Part I, we describe the optimization of the harmonic for studies of X-UV/solids interaction. In Part II, we investigate effects of high excitation density in the dynamics of electron relaxation in dielectric scintillator crystals - tungstates and fluorides, using time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. Quenching of luminescence at short time gives evidence of the competition between radiative and non-radiative recombination of self-trapped excitons (STE). The non-radiative channel is identified to mutual interaction of STE at high excitation density. In Part III, we study the X-UV induced damage mechanism in various materials, either conductor (amorphous carbon) or insulators (organic polymers, e.g., PMMA). In PMMA-Plexiglas, in the desorption regime (0.2 mJ/cm 2 , i.e., below damage threshold), the surface modifications reflect X-UV induced photochemical processes that are tentatively identified, as a function of dose: at low dose, polymer chain scission followed by the blow-up of the volatile, low-molecular fragments leads to crater formation; at high dose, cross-linking in the near-surface layer of remaining material leads to surface hardening. These promising results have great perspectives considering the performances already attained and planned in the next future in the development of the harmonic sources. (author)

  3. Capillary-induced crack healing between surfaces of nanoscale roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylemez, Emrecan; de Boer, Maarten P

    2014-10-07

    Capillary forces are important in nature (granular materials, insect locomotion) and in technology (disk drives, adhesion). Although well studied in equilibrium state, the dynamics of capillary formation merit further investigation. Here, we show that microcantilever crack healing experiments are a viable experimental technique for investigating the influence of capillary nucleation on crack healing between rough surfaces. The average crack healing velocity, v̅, between clean hydrophilic polycrystalline silicon surfaces of nanoscale roughness is measured. A plot of v̅ versus energy release rate, G, reveals log-linear behavior, while the slope |d[log(v̅)]/dG| decreases with increasing relative humidity. A simplified interface model that accounts for the nucleation time of water bridges by an activated process is developed to gain insight into the crack healing trends. This methodology enables us to gain insight into capillary bridge dynamics, with a goal of attaining a predictive capability for this important microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) reliability failure mechanism.

  4. Carbon ion irradiation induced surface modification of polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, A.; Chakraborty, V.; Dutta, R.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    Polypropylene was irradiated with 12 C ions of 3.6 and 5.4 MeV energies in the fluence range of 5x10 13 -5x10 14 ions/cm 2 using 3 MV tandem accelerator. Ion penetration was limited to a few microns and surface modifications were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. At the lowest ion fluence only blister formation of various sizes (1-6 μm) were observed, but at higher fluence (1x10 14 ions/cm 2 ) a three-dimensional network structure was found to form. A gradual degradation in the network structure was observed with further increase in the ion fluence. The dose dependence of the changes on surface morphology of polypropylene is discussed

  5. Carbon ion irradiation induced surface modification of polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, A. E-mail: abhijit@alpha.iuc.res.in; Chakraborty, V.; Dutta, R.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N

    2001-12-01

    Polypropylene was irradiated with {sup 12}C ions of 3.6 and 5.4 MeV energies in the fluence range of 5x10{sup 13}-5x10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} using 3 MV tandem accelerator. Ion penetration was limited to a few microns and surface modifications were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. At the lowest ion fluence only blister formation of various sizes (1-6 {mu}m) were observed, but at higher fluence (1x10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}) a three-dimensional network structure was found to form. A gradual degradation in the network structure was observed with further increase in the ion fluence. The dose dependence of the changes on surface morphology of polypropylene is discussed.

  6. Surface Thermometry of Energetic Materials by Laser-Induced Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    at 34 yttrium- aluminum -garnet (Dy:YAG). The simplified energy diagram of Dy:YAG is shown in Fig. 1. Absorbed laser light (at 355 nrm) can 5 excite the...the thermometric technique on a surface similar to that of an energetic material, a thermal-setting plastic supplied by Buehler, Ltd., was employed...temperature over the temperature range of interest. The rare-earth ion dysprosium (Dy) doped into a yttrium- aluminum -garnet (YAG) crystal was I determined

  7. Doping Induced Transition from an Antiferro-Type Order to Phase Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemanski, R.; Gajek, Z.

    2003-01-01

    A sequence of transitions from an antiferro-type order to a phase separate state under doping away from half filling is studied within the 1D Falicov-Kimball model. Using the method of restricted phase diagrams the system is analyzed exactly in the thermodynamic limit. Various kinds of ordering, including periodic n-molecular phases and their mixtures are found for a set of values of the interaction constant U. (author)

  8. Effects of small-world connectivity on noise-induced temporal and spatial order in neural media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perc, Matjaz

    2007-01-01

    We present an overview of possible effects of small-world connectivity on noise-induced temporal and spatial order in a two-dimensional network of excitable neural media with FitzHugh-Nagumo local dynamics. Small-world networks are characterized by a given fraction of so-called long-range couplings or shortcut links that connect distant units of the system, while all other units are coupled in a diffusive-like manner. Interestingly, already a small fraction of these long-range couplings can have wide-ranging effects on the temporal as well as spatial noise-induced dynamics of the system. Here we present two main effects. First, we show that the temporal order, characterized by the autocorrelation of a firing-rate function, can be greatly enhanced by the introduction of small-world connectivity, whereby the effect increases with the increasing fraction of introduced shortcut links. Second, we show that the introduction of long-range couplings induces disorder of otherwise ordered, spiral-wave-like, noise-induced patterns that can be observed by exclusive diffusive connectivity of spatial units. Thereby, already a small fraction of shortcut links is sufficient to destroy coherent pattern formation in the media. Although the two results seem contradictive, we provide an explanation considering the inherent scale-free nature of small-world networks, which on one hand, facilitates signal transduction and thus temporal order in the system, whilst on the other hand, disrupts the internal spatial scale of the media thereby hindering the existence of coherent wave-like patterns. Additionally, the importance of spatially versus temporally ordered neural network functioning is discussed

  9. Mapping surface tension induced menisci with application to tensiometry and refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Avanish; Kulkarni, Varun; Khor, Jian-Wei; Wereley, Steve

    2015-07-28

    In this work, we discuss an optical method for measuring surface tension induced menisci. The principle of measurement is based upon the change in the background pattern produced by the curvature of the meniscus acting as a lens. We measure the meniscus profile over an inclined glass plate and utilize the measured meniscus for estimation of surface tension and refractive index.

  10. Dielectrophoretic deformation of thin liquid films induced by surface charge patterns on dielectric substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, C.W.J.; Kuijpers, C.J.; Zeegers, J.C.H.; Darhuber, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the deformation of thin liquid films induced by surface charge patterns at the solid–liquid interface quantitatively by experiments and numerical simulations. We deposited a surface charge distribution on dielectric substrates by applying potential differences between a conductive liquid

  11. The quark induced Mueller-Tang jet impact factor at next-to-leading order

    CERN Document Server

    Hentschinski, M.; Murdaca, B.; Vera, A. Sabio

    2014-01-01

    We present the NLO corrections for the quark induced forward production of a jet with an associated rapidity gap. We make use of Lipatov's QCD high energy effective action to calculate the real emission contributions to the so-called Mueller-Tang impact factor. We combine them with the previously calculated virtual corrections and verify ultraviolet and collinear finiteness of the final result.

  12. Reduction of Friction of Metals Using Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on the effect of femtosecond-laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS on the tribological properties of stainless steel. Uniform periodic nanostructures were produced on AISI 304L (American Iron and Steel Institute steel grade steel surfaces using an 800-nm femtosecond laser. The spatial periods of LIPSS measured by field emission scanning electron microscopy ranged from 530 to 570 nm. The tribological properties of smooth and textured surfaces with periodic nanostructures were investigated using reciprocating ball-on-flat tests against AISI 440C balls under both dry and starved oil lubricated conditions. The friction coefficient of LIPSS covered surfaces has shown a lower value than that of the smooth surface. The induced periodic nanostructures demonstrated marked potential for reducing the friction coefficient compared with the smooth surface.

  13. Low to High Spin-State Transition Induced by Charge Ordering in Antiferromagnetic YBaCo2O5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, T.; Woodward, P. M.; Karen, P.; Hunter, B. A.; Henning, P.; Moodenbaugh, A. R.

    2000-01-01

    The oxygen-deficient double perovskite YBaCo 2 O 5 , containing corner-linked CoO 5 square pyramids as principal building units, undergoes a paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic spin ordering at 330 K. This is accompanied by a tetragonal to orthorhombic distortion. Below 220 K orbital ordering and long-range Co 2+ /Co 3+ charge ordering occur as well as a change in the Co 2+ spin state from low to high spin. This transition is shown to be very sensitive to the oxygen content of the sample. To our knowledge this is the first observation of a spin-state transition induced by long-range orbital and charge ordering. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  14. Reduction of Friction of Metals Using Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo Wang; Quanzhong Zhao; Chengwei Wang

    2015-01-01

    We report on the effect of femtosecond-laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on the tribological properties of stainless steel. Uniform periodic nanostructures were produced on AISI 304L (American Iron and Steel Institute steel grade) steel surfaces using an 800-nm femtosecond laser. The spatial periods of LIPSS measured by field emission scanning electron microscopy ranged from 530 to 570 nm. The tribological properties of smooth and textured surfaces with periodic nanostructures...

  15. Chemical changes in titanate surfaces induced by Ar+ ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Elipe, A.R.; Fernandez, A.; Espinos, J.P.; Munuera, G.; Sanz, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The reduction effects and compositional changes induced by 3.5 keV Ar + bombardment of several titanates (i.e. SrTiO 3 , Al 2 TiO 5 and NiTiO 3 ) have been quantitatively investigated by XPS. In all the samples studied here the original Ti 4+ species were reduced to lower oxidation states (i.e. Ti 3+ and Ti 2+ ), although to a lesser extent than in pure TiO 2 . On the contrary, whereas Sr 2+ and Al 3+ seem to remain unaffected by Ar + bombardment, in agreement with the behaviour of the respective oxides (i.e. SrO and Al 2 O 3 ), Ni 2+ appears more easily reducible to Ni o in NiTiO 3 than in NiO. In addition, other specific differences were observed between the titanates, which reveal the existence of interesting chemical effects related to the presence of the different counter-ions in the titanates. In the case of Al 2 TiO 5 , its Ar + -induced decomposition to form TiO 2 + Al 2 O 3 could be followed by XPS. (Author)

  16. Fusion neutron irradiation induced ordering and defect production in Cu3Au at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.S.; Guinan, M.W.; Kirk, M.A.; Hahn, P.A.

    1987-08-01

    We irradiate three Cu 3 Au alloys different degrees of initial long-range order at temperatures between 300K and 434K. The resistivity of samples is monitored during irradiation and related to the long-term order parameter by the Muto relation. The results show that the ordering rate, which is proportional to the concentration of freely migrating vacancies, increases at the beginning and then decreases later with fluence. The decrease is a result of the continuous production of sinks in the form of dislocation loops. The effect of sinks on vacancy annihilation in some cases causes a reversed temperature dependence of ordering rate. The free vacancy production rate and the rate of sink production are determined using an ordering kinetics theory. The results of the 14 MeV neutron irradiations are compared to those obtained in other neutron spectra and particle irradiations. The estimated free vacancy production rate is also compared to the primary defect production rate measured at 4.2K in disordered samples

  17. Optically induced surface relief phenomena in azobenzene polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, NCR; Nikolova, Ludmila; Hvilsted, Søren

    1999-01-01

    Azobenzene polymers and oligomers show intriguing surface relief features when irradiated with polarized laser light. We show through atomic force microscopic investigation of side-chain azobenzene polymers after irradiation through an amplitude mask that large peaks or trenches result depending...... on the architecture of the polymer. Extensive mass transport over long distances has been observed, paving the way for easy replication of nanostructures. We also show that it is possible to store microscopic images as topographic features in the polymers just through polarized light irradiation. (C) 1999 American...... Institute of Physics....

  18. Dynamic surface electronic reconstruction as symmetry-protected topological orders in topological insulator Bi2Se3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, G. J.; Liou, S. C.; Karna, S. K.; Sankar, R.; Hayashi, M.; Chou, F. C.

    2018-04-01

    The layered narrow-band-gap semiconductor Bi2Se3 is composed of heavy elements with strong spin-orbital coupling, which has been identified both as a good candidate for a thermoelectric material with high thermoelectric figure of merit (Z T ) and as a topological insulator of the Z2 type with a gapless surface band in a Dirac-cone shape. The existence of a conjugated π -bond system on the surface of each Bi2Se3 quintuple layer is proposed based on an extended valence bond model with valence electrons distributed in the hybridized orbitals. Supporting experimental evidence of a two-dimensional (2D) conjugated π -bond system on each quintuple layer of Bi2Se3 is provided using electron energy-loss spectroscopy and electron density mapping through inverse Fourier transform of x-ray diffraction data. Quantum chemistry calculations support the π -bond existence between partially filled 4 pz orbitals of Se via side-to-side orbital overlap positively. The conjugated π -bond system on the surface of each quintuple Bi2Se3 layer is proposed to be similar to that found in graphite (graphene) and responsible for the unique 2D conduction mechanism. The van der Waals (vdW) attractive force between quintuple layers is interpreted to be coming from the antiferroelectrically ordered effective electric dipoles, which are constructed with π -bond trimer pairs on Se layers across the vdW gap of minimized Coulomb repulsion.

  19. Taking Orders from Light: Photo-Switchable Working/Inactive Smart Surfaces for Protein and Cell Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junji; Ma, Wenjing; He, Xiao-Peng; Tian, He

    2017-03-15

    Photoresponsive smart surfaces are promising candidates for a variety of applications in optoelectronics and sensing devices. The use of light as an order signal provides advantages of remote and noninvasive control with high temporal and spatial resolutions. Modification of the photoswitches with target biomacromolecules, such as peptides, DNA, and small molecules including folic acid derivatives and sugars, has recently become a popular strategy to empower the smart surfaces with an improved detection efficiency and specificity. Herein, we report the construction of photoswitchable self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) based on sugar (galactose/mannose)-decorated azobenzene derivatives and determine their photoswitchable, selective protein/cell adhesion performances via electrochemistry. Under alternate UV/vis irradiation, interconvertible high/low recognition and binding affinity toward selective lectins (proteins that recognize sugars) and cells that highly express sugar receptors are achieved. Furthermore, the cis-SAMs with a low binding affinity toward selective proteins and cells also exhibit minimal response toward unselective protein and cell samples, which offers the possibility in avoiding unwanted contamination and consumption of probes prior to functioning for practical applications. Besides, the electrochemical technique used facilitates the development of portable devices based on the smart surfaces for on-demand disease diagnosis.

  20. Observation of field-induced long-range order in disordered Sr14Cu24O41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsugi, S.; Matsumoto, S.; Kitaoka, Y.; Matsuda, M.; Uehara, M.; Nagata, T.; Akimitsu, J.

    2004-01-01

    Field-induced magnetic order in a structural disordered single-crystal Sr 14 Cu 24 O 41 (Sr 14 -B) has been observed in the Cu-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements for the ladder sites below 20 K under the magnetic field H∼11 T. For the Zhang Rice (ZR) sites in the chains, the spectrum splits below 20 K due to an appearance of the internal field, whereas that of less disordered Sr 14 -A does not. This gives an evidence of three-dimensional (3D) long-range (LR) ordering in Sr 14 -B below T N ∼20 K under H∼11 T

  1. Enhancement of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernitsas, Michael M [Saline, MI; Raghavan, Kamaldev [Houston, TX

    2011-11-01

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to increase Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Enhancement is needed in such applications as harnessing of clean and renewable energy from ocean/river currents using the ocean energy converter VIVACE (Vortex Induced Vibration for Aquatic Clean Energy).

  2. Localized surface grafting reactions on carbon nanofibers induced by gamma and e-beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evora, M.C., E-mail: cecilia@ieav.cta.br [Institute for Advanced Studies-IEAV/DCTA, Av. Cel Jose Alberto Albano do Amarante, 1-Putim, 12228-001 São Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Araujo, J.R., E-mail: jraraujo@inmetro.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Ferreira, E.H.M. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Strohmeier, B.R. [Thermo Fisher Scientific, 5225 Verona Road, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Silva, L.G.A., E-mail: lgasilva@ipen.br [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Research- IPEN, Av. Prof lineu Prestes, 2242- Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 SP (Brazil); Achete, C.A. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Methodology for the functionalization of carbon nanofibers was investigated. • Two radiation sources were used to promote grafting reactions: gamma and electron beam. • We report the optimum inhibitor concentration to achieve the functionalization. • Surface of carbon nanofibers showed an increase of oxygen content after irradiation. • The radiation-induced graphitization did not damage the overall sp{sup 2} structure. - Abstract: Electron beam and gamma-ray irradiation have potential application to modify the carbon fiber nanostructures in order to produce useful defects in the graphitic structure and create reactive sites. In this study, the methodology to functionalize carbon nanofiber (CNF), via a radiation process and using acrylic acid as a source of oxygen functional groups, was investigated. The samples were submitted to a direct grafting radiation process with electron beam and gamma-ray source. Several parameters were changed such as: acrylic acid concentration, radiation dose and percentage of inhibitor necessary to achieve functionalization, with higher percentage of oxygen functional groups on CNF surface, and better dispersion. The better results achieved were when mixing CNF in a solution of acrylic acid with 6% of inhibitor (FeSO{sub 4}·7H{sub 2}O) and irradiated at 100 kGy. The samples were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the surface composition (atomic%) showed a significant increase of oxygen content for the samples after irradiation. Also, the dispersion of the functionalized CNF in water was stable during months which may be a good indication that the functionalization process of CNF via ionizing radiation was successful.

  3. Localized surface grafting reactions on carbon nanofibers induced by gamma and e-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evora, M.C.; Araujo, J.R.; Ferreira, E.H.M.; Strohmeier, B.R.; Silva, L.G.A.; Achete, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Methodology for the functionalization of carbon nanofibers was investigated. • Two radiation sources were used to promote grafting reactions: gamma and electron beam. • We report the optimum inhibitor concentration to achieve the functionalization. • Surface of carbon nanofibers showed an increase of oxygen content after irradiation. • The radiation-induced graphitization did not damage the overall sp 2 structure. - Abstract: Electron beam and gamma-ray irradiation have potential application to modify the carbon fiber nanostructures in order to produce useful defects in the graphitic structure and create reactive sites. In this study, the methodology to functionalize carbon nanofiber (CNF), via a radiation process and using acrylic acid as a source of oxygen functional groups, was investigated. The samples were submitted to a direct grafting radiation process with electron beam and gamma-ray source. Several parameters were changed such as: acrylic acid concentration, radiation dose and percentage of inhibitor necessary to achieve functionalization, with higher percentage of oxygen functional groups on CNF surface, and better dispersion. The better results achieved were when mixing CNF in a solution of acrylic acid with 6% of inhibitor (FeSO 4 ·7H 2 O) and irradiated at 100 kGy. The samples were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the surface composition (atomic%) showed a significant increase of oxygen content for the samples after irradiation. Also, the dispersion of the functionalized CNF in water was stable during months which may be a good indication that the functionalization process of CNF via ionizing radiation was successful

  4. Inhibition of Cariogenic Plaque Formation on Root Surface with Polydopamine-Induced-Polyethylene Glycol Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Lei Mei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Root caries prevention has been a challenge for clinicians due to its special anatomical location, which favors the accumulation of dental plaque. Researchers are looking for anti-biofouling material to inhibit bacterial growth on exposed root surfaces. This study aimed to develop polydopamine-induced-polyethylene glycol (PEG and to study its anti-biofouling effect against a multi-species cariogenic biofilm on the root dentine surface. Hydroxyapatite disks and human dentine blocks were divided into four groups for experiments. They received polydopamine-induced-PEG, PEG, polydopamine, or water application. Contact angle, quartz crystal microbalance, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to study the wetting property, surface affinity, and an infrared spectrum; the results indicated that PEG was induced by polydopamine onto a hydroxyapatite disk. Salivary mucin absorption on hydroxyapatite disks with polydopamine-induced-PEG was confirmed using spectrophotometry. The growth of a multi-species cariogenic biofilm on dentine blocks with polydopamine-induced-PEG was assessed and monitored by colony-forming units, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that dentine with polydopamine-induced-PEG had fewer bacteria than other groups. In conclusion, a novel polydopamine-induced-PEG coating was developed. Its anti-biofouling effect inhibited salivary mucin absorption and cariogenic biofilm formation on dentine surface and thus may be used for the prevention of root dentine caries.

  5. Surface depression of glass and surface swelling of ceramics induced by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeyama, Masami; Saitoh, Kazuo; Nakao, Setsuo; Niwa, Hiroaki; Tanemura, Seita; Miyagawa, Yoshiko; Miyagawa, Souji

    1994-01-01

    By the measurement of the change of the surface shapes of the glass and ceramics in which ion implantation was performed, it was clarified that glass surface was depressed, and ceramic surface swelled. These depression and swelling changed according to the kinds of ions, energy and the amount to be implanted and the temperature of samples. It became clear that the depression of glass surface was nearly proportional to the range of flight of the implanted ions, and the swelling of ceramic surface showed different state in the silicon nitride with strong covalent bond and the alumina and sapphire with strong ionic bond. For the improvement of the mechanical characteristics of solid materials such as hardness, strength, toughness, wear resistance, oxidation resistance and so on, attention has been paid to the surface reforming by high energy ion implantation at MeV level. The change of shapes of base materials due to ion implantation is not always negligible. The experiment was carried out on sintered silicon nitride and alumina, polished sapphire single crystals and quartz glass. The experimental method and the results are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Shape induced magnetic vortex state in hexagonal ordered cofe nanodot arrays using ultrathin alumina shadow mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellarajan, B.; Saravanan, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Nagaraja, H. S.; Barshilia, Harish C.; Chowdhury, P.

    2018-04-01

    The magnetization reversal process of hexagonal ordered CoFe nanodot arrays was investigated as a function of nanodot thickness (td) varying from 10 to 30 nm with fixed diameter. For this purpose, ordered CoFe nanodots with a diameter of 80 ± 4 nm were grown by sputtering using ultra-thin alumina mask. The vortex annihilation and the dynamic spin configuration in the ordered CoFe nanodots were analyzed by means of magnetic hysteresis loops in complement with the micromagnetic simulation studies. A highly pinched hysteresis loop observed at 20 nm thickness suggests the occurrence of vortex state in these nanodots. With increase in dot thickness from 10 to 30 nm, the estimated coercivity values tend to increase from 80 to 175 Oe, indicating irreversible change in the nucleation/annihilation field of vortex state. The measured magnetic properties were then corroborated with the change in the shape of the nanodots from disk to hemisphere through micromagnetic simulation.

  7. First-Order Quantum Phase Transition for Dicke Model Induced by Atom-Atom Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiu-Qin; Liu Ni; Liang Jiu-Qing

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we use the spin coherent state transformation and the ground state variational method to theoretically calculate the ground function. In order to consider the influence of the atom-atom interaction on the extended Dicke model’s ground state properties, the mean photon number, the scaled atomic population and the average ground energy are displayed. Using the self-consistent field theory to solve the atom-atom interaction, we discover the system undergoes a first-order quantum phase transition from the normal phase to the superradiant phase, but a famous Dicke-type second-order quantum phase transition without the atom-atom interaction. Meanwhile, the atom-atom interaction makes the phase transition point shift to the lower atom-photon collective coupling strength. (paper)

  8. Preparation of protein- and cell-resistant surfaces by hyperthermal hydrogen induced cross-linking of poly(ethylene oxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonduelle, Colin V; Lau, Woon M; Gillies, Elizabeth R

    2011-05-01

    The functionalization of surfaces with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) is an effective means of imparting resistance to the adsorption of proteins and the attachment and growth of cells, properties that are critical for many biomedical applications. In this work, a new hyperthermal hydrogen induced cross-linking (HHIC) method was explored as a simple one-step approach for attaching PEO to surfaces through the selective cleavage of C-H bonds and subsequent cross-linking of the resulting carbon radicals. In order to study the effects of the process on the polymer, PEO-coated silicon wafers were prepared and the effects of different treatment times were investigated. Subsequently, using an optimized treatment time and a modified butyl polymer with increased affinity for PEO, the technique was applied to butyl rubber surfaces. All of the treated surfaces exhibited significantly reduced protein adsorption and cell growth relative to control surfaces and compared favorably with surfaces that were functionalized with PEO using conventional chemical methods. Thus HHIC is a simple and effective means of attaching PEO to non-functional polymer surfaces.

  9. Observation of ferromagnetic ordering in a stable α -Co (OH) 2 phase grown on a Mo S2 surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Anup; Bhattacharya, Shatabda; Saha, Shyamal K.

    2017-12-01

    Because of the potential application of Co (OH) 2 in a magnetic cooling system as a result of its superior magnetocaloric effect many people have investigated magnetic properties of Co (OH) 2 . Unfortunately, most of the works have been carried out on the β -Co (OH) 2 phase due to the fact that the α -Co (OH) 2 phase is very unstable and continuously transformed into the stable β -Co (OH) 2 phase. However, in the present work, using a Mo S2 sheet as a two-dimensional template, we have been able to synthesize a stable α -Co (OH) 2 phase in addition to a β -Co (OH) 2 phase by varying the layer thickness. It is seen that for thinner samples the β phase, while for thicker samples α phase, is grown on the Mo S2 surface. Magnetic measurements are carried out for the samples over the temperature range from 2 to 300 K and it is seen that for the β phase, ferromagnetic ordering with fairly large coercivity (1271 Oe) at 2 K is obtained instead of the usual antiferromagnetism. The most interesting result is the observation of ferromagnetic ordering with a transition temperature (Curie temperature) more than 100 K in the α -Co (OH) 2 phase. Complete saturation in the hysteresis curve under application of very low field having coercivity of ˜162 Oe at 2 K and 60 Oe at 50 K is obtained. A thin stable α -Co (OH) 2 phase grown on Mo S2 surface with very soft ferromagnetic ordering will be very useful as the core material in electromagnets.

  10. Asymmetrical Polyhedral Configuration of Giant Vesicles Induced by Orderly Array of Encapsulated Colloidal Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Yuno; Toyota, Taro

    2016-01-01

    Giant vesicles (GVs) encapsulating colloidal particles by a specific volume fraction show a characteristic configuration under a hypertonic condition. Several flat faces were formed in GV membrane with orderly array of inner particles. GV shape changed from the spherical to the asymmetrical polyhedral configuration. This shape deformation was derived by entropic interaction between inner particles and GV membrane. Because a part of inner particles became to form an ordered phase in the region neighboring the GV membrane, free volume for the other part of particles increased. Giant vesicles encapsulating colloidal particles were useful for the model of "crowding effect" which is the entropic interaction in the cell.

  11. Higher-order geodesic deviation for charged particles and resonance induced by gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari-Fard, M.; Hasani, S. N.

    We generalize the higher-order geodesic deviation for the structure-less test particles to the higher-order geodesic deviation equations of the charged particles [R. Kerner, J. W. van Holten and R. Colistete Jr., Class. Quantum Grav. 18 (2001) 4725]. By solving these equations for charged particles moving in a constant magnetic field in the spacetime of a gravitational wave, we show for both cases when the gravitational wave is parallel and perpendicular to the constant magnetic field, a magnetic resonance appears at wg = Ω. This feature might be useful to detect the gravitational wave with high frequencies.

  12. Surface modification of silica nanoparticles by UV-induced graft polymerization of methyl methacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyeon; Kim, Eunhye; Kim, Sungsoo; Kim, Woosik

    2005-12-01

    In this study we modified the surface of silica nanoparticles with methyl methacrylate by UV-induced graft polymerization. It is a surface-initiated polymerization reaction induced by ultraviolet irradiation. The resulting organic-inorganic nanocomposites were near-monodisperse and fabricated without homopolymerization of the monomer. Substantial increase in mean particle size was observed by SEM image analysis after UV-induced grafting of methyl methacrylate onto pure silica particles. FT-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of these materials revealed the successful grafting of methyl methacrylate onto the silica surface. The formation of a covalent bond between the grafted PMMA chains and silica surface was indicated by FT-Raman spectra. Thermogravimetric analysis of the PMMA-grafted silica particles indicated the polymer contents in good agreement with SEM photographs.

  13. Surface hardening induced by high flux plasma in tungsten revealed by nano-indentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terentyev, D., E-mail: dterenty@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Bakaeva, A. [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, St. Pietersnieuwstraat 41, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Pardoen, T.; Favache, A. [Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering, Université catholique de Louvain, Place Sainte Barbe 2 L5.02.02, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Zhurkin, E.E. [Department of Experimental Nuclear Physics K-89, Faculty of Physics and Mechanics, St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 29 Polytekhnicheskaya str., 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-01

    Surface hardness of tungsten after high flux deuterium plasma exposure has been characterized by nanoindentation. The effect of plasma exposure was rationalized on the basis of available theoretical models. Resistance to plastic penetration is enhanced within the 100 nm sub-surface region, attributed to the pinning of geometrically necessary dislocations on nanometric deuterium cavities – signature of plasma-induced defects and deuterium retention. Sub-surface extension of thereby registered plasma-induced damage is in excellent agreement with the results of alternative measurements. The study demonstrates suitability of nano-indentation to probe the impact of deposition of plasma-induced defects in tungsten on near surface plasticity under ITER-relevant plasma exposure conditions.

  14. Relativistic Néel-order fields induced by electrical current in antiferromagnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Železný, Jakub; Gao, H.; Výborný, Karel; Zemen, Jan; Mašek, Jan; Manchon, A.; Wunderlich, Joerg; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 15 (2014), , "157201-1"-"157201-5" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * antiferromagnets * current induced switching Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.512, year: 2014

  15. Dynamic Dispersal of Surface Layer Biofilm Induced by Nanosized TiO2 Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance and Waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Guo, Jin-Song; Yan, Peng; Chen, You-Peng; Wang, Wei; Dai, You-Zhi; Fang, Fang; Wang, Gui-Xue; Shen, Yu

    2018-05-01

    Pollutant degradation is present mainly in the surface layer of biofilms, and the surface layer is the most vulnerable to impairment by toxic pollutants. In this work, the effects of nanosized TiO 2 (n-TiO 2 ) on the average thicknesses of Bacillus subtilis biofilm and on bacterial attachment on different surfaces were investigated. The binding mechanism of n-TiO 2 to the cell surface was also probed. The results revealed that n-TiO 2 caused biofilm dispersal and the thicknesses decreased by 2.0 to 2.6 μm after several hours of exposure. The attachment abilities of bacteria with extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on hydrophilic surfaces were significantly reduced by 31% and 81% under 10 and 100 mg/liter of n-TiO 2 , respectively, whereas those of bacteria without EPS were significantly reduced by 43% and 87%, respectively. The attachment abilities of bacteria with and without EPS on hydrophobic surfaces were significantly reduced by 50% and 56%, respectively, under 100 mg/liter of n-TiO 2 The results demonstrated that biofilm dispersal can be attributed to the changes in the cell surface structure and the reduction of microbial attachment ability. IMPORTANCE Nanoparticles can penetrate into the outer layer of biofilm in a relatively short period and can bind onto EPS and bacterial surfaces. The current work probed the effects of nanosized TiO 2 (n-TiO 2 ) on biofilm thickness, bacterial migration, and surface properties of the cell in the early stage using the surface plasmon resonance waveguide mode. The results demonstrated that n-TiO 2 decreased the adhesive ability of both cell and EPS and induced bacterial migration and biofilm detachment in several hours. The decreased adhesive ability of microbes and EPS worked against microbial aggregation, reducing the effluent quality in the biological wastewater treatment process. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Micro-mechanisms of Surface Defects Induced on Aluminum Alloys during Plastic Deformation at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gali, Olufisayo A.

    Near-surface deformed layers developed on aluminum alloys significantly influence the corrosion and tribological behavior as well as reduce the surface quality of the rolled aluminum. The evolution of the near-surface microstructures induced on magnesium containing aluminum alloys during thermomechanical processing has been investigated with the aim generating an understanding of the influence of individual forming parameters on its evolution and examine the microstructure of the roll coating induced on the mating steel roll through material transfer during rolling. The micro-mechanisms related to the various features of near-surface microstructure developed during tribological conditions of the simulated hot rolling process were identified. Thermomechanical processing experiments were performed with the aid of hot rolling (operating temperature: 550 to 460 °C, 4, 10 and 20 rolling pass schedules) and hot forming (operating temperature: 350 to 545 °C, strain rate: 4 x 10-2 s-1) tribo-simulators. The surface, near-surface features and material transfer induced during the elevated temperature plastic deformation were examined and characterized employing optical interferometry, SEM/EDS, FIB and TEM. Near-surface features characterized on the rolled aluminum alloys included; cracks, fractured intermetallic particles, aluminum nano-particles, oxide decorated grain boundaries, rolled-in oxides, shingles and blisters. These features were related to various individual rolling parameters which included, the work roll roughness, which induced the formation of shingles, rolling marks and were responsible for the redistribution of surface oxide and the enhancements of the depth of the near-surface damage. The enhanced stresses and strains experienced during rolling were related to the formation and propagation of cracks, the nanocrystalline structure of the near-surface layers and aluminum nano-particles. The mechanism of the evolution of the near-surface microstructure were

  17. Performance of a reduced-order FSI model for flow-induced vocal fold vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haoxiang; Chang, Siyuan; Chen, Ye; Rousseau, Bernard; PhonoSim Team

    2017-11-01

    Vocal fold vibration during speech production involves a three-dimensional unsteady glottal jet flow and three-dimensional nonlinear tissue mechanics. A full 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model is computationally expensive even though it provides most accurate information about the system. On the other hand, an efficient reduced-order FSI model is useful for fast simulation and analysis of the vocal fold dynamics, which can be applied in procedures such as optimization and parameter estimation. In this work, we study performance of a reduced-order model as compared with the corresponding full 3D model in terms of its accuracy in predicting the vibration frequency and deformation mode. In the reduced-order model, we use a 1D flow model coupled with a 3D tissue model that is the same as in the full 3D model. Two different hyperelastic tissue behaviors are assumed. In addition, the vocal fold thickness and subglottal pressure are varied for systematic comparison. The result shows that the reduced-order model provides consistent predictions as the full 3D model across different tissue material assumptions and subglottal pressures. However, the vocal fold thickness has most effect on the model accuracy, especially when the vocal fold is thin.

  18. Inducing elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned molecules with linearly polarized femtosecond pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etches, Adam; Madsen, Christian Bruun; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2010-01-01

    A recent paper reported elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned N2 using a linearly polarized driving field [X. Zhou et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009)]. This observation cannot be explained in the standard treatment of the Lewenstein model and has been ascribed to many...

  19. Magnetic ordering induced giant optical property change in tetragonal BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wen-Yi; Ding, Hang-Chen; Gong, Shi Jing; Wan, Xiangang; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic ordering could have significant influence on band structures, spin-dependent transport, and other important properties of materials. Its measurement, especially for the case of antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering, however, is generally difficult to be achieved. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of magnetic ordering detection using a noncontact and nondestructive optical method. Taking the tetragonal BiFeO3 (BFO) as an example and combining density functional theory calculations with tight-binding models, we find that when BFO changes from C1-type to G-type AFM phase, the top of valance band shifts from the Z point to Γ point, which makes the original direct band gap become indirect. This can be explained by Slater-Koster parameters using the Harrison approach. The impact of magnetic ordering on band dispersion dramatically changes the optical properties. For the linear ones, the energy shift of the optical band gap could be as large as 0.4 eV. As for the nonlinear ones, the change is even larger. The second-harmonic generation coefficient d33 of G-AFM becomes more than 13 times smaller than that of C1-AFM case. Finally, we propose a practical way to distinguish the two AFM phases of BFO using the optical method, which is of great importance in next-generation information storage technologies.

  20. Ion-irradiation induced chemical ordering of FePt and FePtAu nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetala, Naidu V. [Department of Physics, Grambling State University, RWE Jones Drive, Carver Hall 81, Grambling, LA 71245 (United States)]. E-mail: naidusv@gram.edu; Harrell, J.W. [MINT Center, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Lawson, Jeremy [MINT Center, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Nikles, David E. [MINT Center, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Williams, John R. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Isaacs-Smith, Tamara [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    We have studied the effect of ion-beam irradiation on reducing the ordering temperature of FePt and FePtAu nanoparticles. FePt and FePt(Au14%) 4 nm particles dispersed on a Si-substrate were irradiated by 300 keV Al-ions with a dose of 1 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} at 43 {sup o}C using a water-cooled flange in order to minimize the vacancy migration and voids formation within the collision cascades. Partial chemical ordering has been observed in as-irradiated particles with coercivity of 60-130 Oe. Post-irradiation annealing at 220 {sup o}C enhanced chemical ordering in FePt nanoparticles with coercivity of 3500 Oe, magnetic anisotropy of 1.5 x 10{sup 7} erg/cc, and thermal stability factor of 130. A much higher 375 {sup o}C post-irradiation annealing was required in FePtAu, presumably because Au atoms were trapped at Fe/Pt lattice sites at lower temperatures. As the annealing temperature increased, anomalous features in the magnetization reversal curves were observed that disappeared at higher annealing temperatures.

  1. Confinement induced ordering in dewetting of ultra-thin polymer bilayers on nanopatterned substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandaru, Nandini; Das, Anuja; Mukherjee, Rabibrata

    2016-01-14

    We report the dewetting of a thin bilayer of polystyrene (PS) and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) on a topographically patterned nonwettable substrate comprising an array of pillars, arranged in a square lattice. With a gradual increase in the concentration of the PMMA solution (Cn-PMMA), the morphology of the bottom layer changes to: (1) an aligned array of spin dewetted droplets arranged along substrate grooves at very low Cn-PMMA; (2) an interconnected network of threads surrounding each pillar at intermediate Cn-PMMA; and (3) a continuous bottom layer at higher Cn-PMMA. On the other hand the morphology of the PS top layer depends largely on the nature of the pre-existing bottom layer, in addition to Cn-PS. An ordered array of PMMA core-PS shell droplets forms right after spin coating when both Cn-PMMA and Cn-PS are very low. Bilayers with all other initial configurations evolve during thermal annealing, resulting in a variety of ordered structures. Unique morphologies realized include laterally coexisting structures of the two polymers confined within the substrate grooves due to initial rupture of the bottom layer on the substrate followed by a squeezing flow of the top layer; an array of core-shell and single polymer droplets arranged in an alternating order etc., to highlight a few. Such structures cannot be fabricated by any stand-alone lithography technique. On the other hand, in some cases the partially dewetted bottom layer imparts stability to an intact top PS layer against dewetting. Apart from ordering, under certain specific conditions significant miniaturization and downsizing of dewetted feature periodicity and dimension as compared to dewetting of a single layer on a flat substrate is observed. With the help of a morphology phase diagram we show that ordering is achieved over a wide combination of Cn-PMMA and Cn-PS, though the morphology and dewetting pathway differs significantly with variation in the thickness of the individual layers.

  2. pH-Driven Ordering Transitions in Liquid Crystal Induced by Conformational Changes of Cardiolipin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidiq, Sumyra; Verma, Indu; Pal, Santanu Kumar

    2015-04-28

    We report an investigation of interfacial phenomena occurring at aqueous-liquid crystal (LC) interfaces that triggers an orientational ordering transition of the LC in the presence of cardiolipin (CL) by varying pH, salt concentration and valence. In particular, the effects of three different conformational isomeric forms of the CL are observed to cause the response of the LC ordering to vary significantly from one to another at those interfaces. An ordering transition of the LC was observed when the CL is mostly in undissociated (at pH 2) and/or in bicyclic (at pH 4) conformation in which LC shows changes in the optical appearance from bright to dark. By contrast, no change in the optical appearance of the LC was observed when the pH of the system increases to 8 or higher in which the CL mostly exists in the open conformation. Fluorescence microscopy measurements further suggest that pH-dependent conformational forms of the CL have different ability to self-assemble (thus different packing efficiency) at aqueous-LC interfaces leading to dissimilar orientational behavior of the LC. Specifically, we found that change in headgroup-headgroup repulsion of the central phosphatidyl groups of the CL plays a key role in tuning the lipid packing efficiency and thus responses to interfacial phenomena. Orientational ordering transition of the LC was also observed as a function of increasing the ionic strength (buffer capacity) and strongly influenced in the presence of mono and divalent cations. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) measurements provide further insight in modulation of the lipid packing efficiency and alkyl chain conformation of the CL at different pH and ionic conditions. Overall, the results presented in this paper establish that LCs offer a promising approach to differentiate different conformations (label free detection) of the CL through ordering transition of the LC at aqueous

  3. Photo-induced surface functionalization of carbon surfaces: The role of photoelectron ejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colavita, Paula E.; Sun Bin; Tse, K.-Y.; Hamers, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon-based materials are attractive for a wide range of applications, from biomaterials to fuel cells; however, their effective use often requires controlling the surface chemistry to incorporate recognition moieties or reactive centers. The high stability of carbon also makes it a challenging material to functionalize; recently, the use of ultraviolet light (254 nm) to initiate functionalization of carbon surfaces has emerged as a way to obtain carbon/organic interfaces with tailored properties. The authors have investigated the mechanism of covalent grafting of amorphous carbon surfaces with functional organic molecules using the photochemical reaction of terminal alkenes. Measurements comparing the reactivity of different n-alkenes bearing different terminal groups at the terminus opposite the olefin showed pronounced differences in reactivity. They characterized the rate and final coverage of the resulting organic layers using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and photocurrent measurements suggested that the reaction involves photoelectron emission from the carbon surface into the liquid phase. Density functional calculations show a strong correlation between the electron affinity of the alkenes and the observed reactivity. The specific terminal group opposite to the olefin was found to play an important role in the stabilization of excess negative charges on the molecule, thus explaining the strong dependence of reactivity on the particular terminal group. These findings suggest that the reaction involves injection of photoelectrons into the alkene acceptor levels, leading to the formation of radical anions in the liquid phase. Finally, the authors demonstrate that the grafting of marginally reactive alkenes can be enhanced by seeding the surface with a small amount of good electron accepting groups. These results provide fundamental new insights into the role of

  4. Characterization of Silk Fibroin Modified Surface: A Proteomic View of Cellular Response Proteins Induced by Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hui Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop the pathway of silk fibroin (SF biopolymer surface induced cell membrane protein activation. Fibroblasts were used as an experimental model to evaluate the responses of cellular proteins induced by biopolymer material using a mass spectrometry-based profiling system. The surface was covered by multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs and SF to increase the surface area, enhance the adhesion of biopolymer, and promote the rate of cell proliferation. The amount of adhered fibroblasts on CNTs/SF electrodes of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM greatly exceeded those on other surfaces. Moreover, analyzing differential protein expressions of adhered fibroblasts on the biopolymer surface by proteomic approaches indicated that CD44 may be a key protein. Through this study, utilization of mass spectrometry-based proteomics in evaluation of cell adhesion on biopolymer was proposed.

  5. Extrusion induced low-order starch matrices: Enzymic hydrolysis and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Dhital, Sushil; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Luckman, Paul; Halley, Peter J; Gidley, Michael J

    2015-12-10

    Waxy, normal and highwaymen maize starches were extruded with water as sole plasticizer to achieve low-order starch matrices. Of the three starches, we found that only high-amylose extrudate showed lower digestion rate/extent than starches cooked in excess water. The ordered structure of high-amylose starches in cooked and extruded forms was similar, as judged by NMR, XRD and DSC techniques, but enzyme resistance was much greater for extruded forms. Size exclusion chromatography suggested that longer chains were involved in enzyme resistance. We propose that the local molecular density of packing of amylose chains can control the digestion kinetics rather than just crystallinity, with the principle being that density sufficient to either prevent/limit binding and/or slow down catalysis can be achieved by dense amorphous packing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Retrieval of interatomic separations of molecules from laser-induced high-order harmonic spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Van-Hoang; Nguyen, Ngoc-Ty; Jin, C; Le, Anh-Thu; Lin, C D

    2008-01-01

    We illustrate an iterative method for retrieving the internuclear separations of N 2 , O 2 and CO 2 molecules using the high-order harmonics generated from these molecules by intense infrared laser pulses. We show that accurate results can be retrieved with a small set of harmonics and with one or few alignment angles of the molecules. For linear molecules the internuclear separations can also be retrieved from harmonics generated using isotropically distributed molecules. By extracting the transition dipole moment from the high-order harmonic spectra, we further demonstrated that it is preferable to retrieve the interatomic separation iteratively by fitting the extracted dipole moment. Our results show that time-resolved chemical imaging of molecules using infrared laser pulses with femtosecond temporal resolutions is possible

  7. Retrieval of interatomic separations of molecules from laser-induced high-order harmonic spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Van-Hoang; Nguyen, Ngoc-Ty [Department of Physics, University of Pedagogy, 280 An Duong Vuong, Ward 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Jin, C; Le, Anh-Thu; Lin, C D [J. R. Macdonald Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2008-04-28

    We illustrate an iterative method for retrieving the internuclear separations of N{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} molecules using the high-order harmonics generated from these molecules by intense infrared laser pulses. We show that accurate results can be retrieved with a small set of harmonics and with one or few alignment angles of the molecules. For linear molecules the internuclear separations can also be retrieved from harmonics generated using isotropically distributed molecules. By extracting the transition dipole moment from the high-order harmonic spectra, we further demonstrated that it is preferable to retrieve the interatomic separation iteratively by fitting the extracted dipole moment. Our results show that time-resolved chemical imaging of molecules using infrared laser pulses with femtosecond temporal resolutions is possible.

  8. Fast magnetic energy dissipation in relativistic plasma induced by high order laser modes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gu, Yanjun; Yu, Q.; Klimo, Ondřej; Esirkepov, T.Z.; Bulanov, S.V.; Weber, Stefan A.; Korn, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, Jun (2016), 1-5, č. článku e19. ISSN 2095-4719 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : high order laser mode * laser–plasma interaction * magnetic annihilation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  9. Pressure-induced charge ordering of LiV2O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, K.; Hidaka, H.; Kotegawa, H.; Kobayashi, T.C.; Shimizu, K.; Harima, H.; Fujiwara, K.; Miyoshi, K.; Takeuchi, J.; Ohishi, Y.; Adachi, T.; Takata, M.; Nishibori, E.; Sakata, M.; Watanuki, T.; Shimomura, O.

    2005-01-01

    The powder X-ray diffraction experiments of LiV 2 O 4 have been performed at low temperature and high pressure using synchrotron radiation. In the isothermal experiment at 10K, the cubic-rhombohedral phase transition corresponding to the metal-insulator transition is found at around 13GPa. This transition seems to be due to charge ordering of V ions on the analogy of the metal-insulator transition in AlV 2 O 4

  10. The Gluon-Induced Mueller-Tang Jet Impact Factor at Next-to-Leading Order

    CERN Document Server

    Hentschinski, Martin; Murdaca, Beatrice; Vera, Agustín Sabio

    2014-01-01

    We complete the computation of the Mueller-Tang jet impact factor at next-to-leading order (NLO) initiated in arXiv:1406.5625 and presented in arXiv:1404.2937 by computing the real corrections associated to gluons in the initial state making use of Lipatov's effective action. NLO corrections for this effective vertex are an important ingredient for a reliable description of large rapidity gap phenomenology within the BFKL approach.

  11. Ordering-induced changes in the optical spectra of semiconductor alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.E.; Wei, S.; Wood, D.M.; Zunger, A.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown how the recently predicted and subsequently observed spontaneous long-range ordering of pseudobinary A/sub 0.5/B/sub 0.5/C isovalent semiconductor alloys into the (AC) 1 (BC) 1 superlattice structure (a CuAuI-type crystal) gives rise to characteristic changes in the optical and photoemission spectra. We predict new direct transitions and substantial splittings of transitions absent in the disordered alloy

  12. Voltage-induced switching of an antiferromagnetically ordered topological Dirac semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngseok; Kang, Kisung; Schleife, André; Gilbert, Matthew J.

    2018-04-01

    An antiferromagnetic semimetal has been recently identified as a new member of topological semimetals that may host three-dimensional symmetry-protected Dirac fermions. A reorientation of the Néel vector may break the underlying symmetry and open a gap in the quasiparticle spectrum, inducing the (semi)metal-insulator transition. Here, we predict that such a transition may be controlled by manipulating the chemical potential location of the material. We perform both analytical and numerical analysis on the thermodynamic potential of the model Hamiltonian and find that the gapped spectrum is preferred when the chemical potential is located at the Dirac point. As the chemical potential deviates from the Dirac point, the system shows a possible transition from the gapped to the gapless phase and switches the corresponding Néel vector configuration. We perform density functional theory calculations to verify our analysis using a realistic material and discuss a two terminal transport measurement as a possible route to identify the voltage-induced switching of the Néel vector.

  13. Generation and amplification of a high-order sideband induced by two-level atoms in a hybrid optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zeng-Xing; Xiong, Hao; Wu, Ying

    2018-01-01

    It is quite important to enhance and control the optomechanically induced high-order sideband generation to achieve low-power optical comb and high-sensitivity sensing with an integrable structure. Here we present and analyze a proposal for enhancement and manipulation of optical nonlinearity and high-order sideband generation in a hybrid atom-cavity optomechanical system that is coherently driven by a bichromatic input field consisting of a control field and a probe field and that works beyond the perturbative regime. Our numerical analysis with experimentally achievable parameters confirms that robust high-order sideband generation and typical spectral structures with nonperturbative features can be created even under weak driven fields. The dependence of the high-order sideband generation on the atomic parameters are also discussed in detail, including the decay rate of the atoms and the coupling parameter between the atoms and the cavity field. We show that the cutoff order as well as the amplitude of the higher-order sidebands can be well tuned by the atomic coupling strength and the atomic decay rate. The proposed mechanism of enhancing optical nonlinearity is quite general and can be adopted to optomechanical systems with different types of cavity.

  14. 10th order laterally coupled GaN-based DFB laser diodes with V-shaped surface gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J. H.; Wenzel, H.; Hoffmann, V.; Freier, E.; Sulmoni, L.; Unger, R.-S.; Einfeldt, S.; Wernicke, T.; Kneissl, M.

    2018-02-01

    Single longitudinal mode operation of laterally coupled distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes (LDs) based on GaN containing 10th-order surface Bragg gratings with V-shaped grooves is demonstrated using i-line stepper lithography and inductively coupled plasma etching. A threshold current of 82 mA, a slope efficiency of 1.7 W/A, a single peak emission at 404.5 nm with a full width at half maximum of 0.04 nm and a side mode suppression ratio of > 23 dB at an output power of about 46 mW were achieved under pulsed operation. The shift of the lasing wavelength of DFB LDs with temperature was around three times smaller than that of conventional ridge waveguide LDs.

  15. Electrical Double Layer-Induced Ion Surface Accumulation for Ultrasensitive Refractive Index Sensing with Nanostructured Porous Silicon Interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Stefano; Strambini, Lucanos Marsilio; Barillaro, Giuseppe

    2018-03-23

    Herein, we provide the first experimental evidence on the use of electrical double layer (EDL)-induced accumulation of charged ions (using both Na + and K + ions in water as the model) onto a negatively charged nanostructured surface (e.g., thermally growth SiO 2 )-Ion Surface Accumulation, ISA-as a means of improving performance of nanostructured porous silicon (PSi) interferometers for optical refractometric applications. Nanostructured PSi interferometers are very promising optical platforms for refractive index sensing due to PSi huge specific surface (hundreds of m 2 per gram) and low preparation cost (less than $0.01 per 8 in. silicon wafer), though they have shown poor resolution ( R) and detection limit (DL) (on the order of 10 -4 -10 -5 RIU) compared to other plasmonic and photonic platforms ( R and DL on the order of 10 -7 -10 -8 RIU). This can be ascribed to both low sensitivity and high noise floor of PSi interferometers when bulk refractive index variation of the solution infiltrating the nanopores either approaches or is below 10 -4 RIU. Electrical double layer-induced ion surface accumulation (EDL-ISA) on oxidized PSi interferometers allows the interferometer output signal (spectral interferogram) to be impressively amplified at bulk refractive index variation below 10 -4 RIU, increasing, in turn, sensitivity up to 2 orders of magnitude and allowing reliable measurement of refractive index variations to be carried out with both DL and R of 10 -7 RIU. This represents a 250-fold-improvement (at least) with respect to the state-of-the-art literature on PSi refractometers and pushes PSi interferometer performance to that of state-of-the-art ultrasensitive photonics/plasmonics refractive index platforms.

  16. Ultraviolet-induced surface grafting of octafluoropentyl methacrylate on polyether ether ketone for inducing antibiofilm properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdjadi, Parisa; Nojehdehian, Hanieh; Najafi, Farhood; Ghasemi, Amir; Seifi, Massoud; Dashtimoghadam, Erfan; Fahimipour, Farahnaz; Tayebi, Lobat

    2017-07-01

    Since octafluoropentyl methacrylate is an antifouling polymer, surface modification of polyether ether ketone with octafluoropentyl methacrylate is a practical approach to obtaining anti-biofilm biocompatible devices. In the current study, the surface treatment of polyether ether ketone by the use of ultraviolet irradiation, so as to graft (octafluoropentyl methacrylate) polymer chains, was initially implemented and then investigated. The Fourier-transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra corroborated the appearance of new signals associated with the fluoroacrylate group. Thermogravimetric curves indicated enhanced asymmetry in the polymer structure due to the introduction of the said new groups. Measuring the peak area in differential scanning calorimetry experiments also showed additional bond formation. Static water contact angle measurements indicated a change in wettability to the more hydrophobic surface. The polyether ether ketone-octafluoropentyl methacrylate surface greatly reduced the protein adsorption. This efficient method can modulate and tune the surface properties of polyether ether ketone according to specific applications.

  17. Endocardial botulinum toxin injection into ganglionated plexi in order to reduce atrial fibrillation inducibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Г. Стрельников

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Prior animal studies suggest that botulinum toxin injection into the epicardial fat pads can suppress atrial fibrillation (AF inducibility. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy and safety of endocardial botulinum toxin injection into epicardial fat pads and intramyocardial left atrial ganglionated plexi (GP for preventing AF.Methods. Twenty-four dogs were separated into 3 groups: endocardial approach for botulinum toxin (Xeomin, Germany injection into epicardial fat pads and intramyocardial GPs; endocardial approach for placebo injection (0.9% normal saline; control 1; n = 8 and epicardial approach for botulinum toxin injection (control 2; n = 8.Results. A mean of 6.9±1.7 intramyocardial injections (10 U/0.2 mL at each and 3 injections (50 U/1 mL at each were administered into each site exhibiting a positive vagal response and into each epicardial fat pad in all groups (p>0.05 between groups.The injections of botulinum toxin demonstrated dramatic prolongation of ERP in all PV-atrial junctions. This effect correlated with less pronounced ERP shortening in response to vagal nerve stimulation. Suppression of AF inducibility was observed at 7 days after endocardial botulinum toxin injections. The level of AF inducibility was: at 7 days – 57% (p<0.001 vs placebo; p<0.001 vs baseline; at 14 days – 61% (p<0.001 vs placebo; p<0.001 vs baseline; at 1 month – 38% (p<0.001 vs placebo; p<0.001 vs baseline; at 3 months – 23% (p = 0.003; p = 0.06 vs baseline. There were no differences between botulinum groups (p>0.05 for all. The effect of AF suppression disappeared at 3 months. No procedure-related complications occurred.Conclusion. Botulinum toxin injection into intramyocardial GPs and epicardial fat pads by an endocardial approach is feasible and safe. It provides complete removal of cardiac vagal responses and reliably reduces vulnerability to atrial fibrillation.

  18. Potential-induced structural transitions of DL-homocysteine monolayers on Au(111) electrode surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingdong; Demetriou, Anna; Welinder, Anne Christina; Albrecht, Tim; Nichols, Richard J.; Ulstrup, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Monolayers of homocysteine on Au(111)-surfaces have been investigated by voltammetry, in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and subtractively normalised interfacial Fourier transform spectroscopy (SNIFTIRS). A pair of sharp voltammetric peaks build up in the potential range 0 to -0.1V (vs. SCE) in phosphate buffer pH 7.7. The peak half-widths are about 25mV at a scan rate of 10mVs -1 . This is much smaller than for a one-electron Faradaic process (90.6mV) under similar conditions. The coverage of homocysteine is 6.1 (+/-0.2)x10 -10 molcm -2 , or 5.9x10 -5 Ccm -2 , from Au-S reductive desorption at -0.8V (SCE) in 0.1M NaOH, while the charge is only about 8x10 -6 Ccm -2 (pH 7.7) for the 0 to -0.1V peak. This suggests a capacitive origin. The peak potential and shape depend on pH. At pH 7.7 both cathodic and anodic peak currents reach a maximum, but drop at both higher and lower pH. The midpoint potential shows biphasic behaviour, decreasing linearly with increasing pH until pH 10.4 towards a constant value at higher pH. The cathodic and anodic peak charges decay at pH both higher and lower than 7.7. The homocysteine monolayer was investigated by in situ STM at different potentials at pH 7.7. The molecules pack into highly ordered domains around the peak potential. High-resolution in situ STM reveals a (√3x5) R30 deg. lattice with three homocysteine molecules in each unit cell. The adlayer changes into disordered structures on either side of the peak potential. This process is reversible. We propose that the voltammetric peaks are capacitive. The ordered domains are formed only around the potential of zero charge (pzc) and dissipate at potentials on either side of the peak, inducing mirror charge flow in the metallic electrode as the charged -COO - and -NH 3 + groups approach the surface. No bands for carboxylate coordinated to the surface were observed in SNIFTIRS implying more subtle orientation changes of the charged groups on transcending the voltammetric

  19. Validation and application of an high-order spectral difference method for flow induced noise simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Parsani, Matteo

    2011-09-01

    The main goal of this paper is to develop an efficient numerical algorithm to compute the radiated far field noise provided by an unsteady flow field from bodies in arbitrary motion. The method computes a turbulent flow field in the near fields using a high-order spectral difference method coupled with large-eddy simulation approach. The unsteady equations are solved by advancing in time using a second-order backward difference formulae scheme. The nonlinear algebraic system arising from the time discretization is solved with the nonlinear lowerupper symmetric GaussSeidel algorithm. In the second step, the method calculates the far field sound pressure based on the acoustic source information provided by the first step simulation. The method is based on the Ffowcs WilliamsHawkings approach, which provides noise contributions for monopole, dipole and quadrupole acoustic sources. This paper will focus on the validation and assessment of this hybrid approach using different test cases. The test cases used are: a laminar flow over a two-dimensional (2D) open cavity at Re = 1.5 × 10 3 and M = 0.15 and a laminar flow past a 2D square cylinder at Re = 200 and M = 0.5. In order to show the application of the numerical method in industrial cases and to assess its capability for sound field simulation, a three-dimensional turbulent flow in a muffler at Re = 4.665 × 10 4 and M = 0.05 has been chosen as a third test case. The flow results show good agreement with numerical and experimental reference solutions. Comparison of the computed noise results with those of reference solutions also shows that the numerical approach predicts noise accurately. © 2011 IMACS.

  20. Studying the universality of field induced tunnel ionization times via high-order harmonic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soifer, H; Bruner, B D; Dudovich, N; Negro, M; Devetta, M; Vozzi, C; Faccialà, D; Silvestri, S de; Stagira, S

    2014-01-01

    High-harmonic generation spectroscopy is a promising tool for resolving electron dynamics and structure in atomic and molecular systems. This scheme, commonly described by the strong field approximation, requires a deep insight into the basic mechanism that leads to the harmonic generation. Recently, we have demonstrated the ability to resolve the first stage of the process—field induced tunnel ionization—by adding a weak perturbation to the strong fundamental field. Here we generalize this approach and show that the assumptions behind the strong field approximation are valid over a wide range of tunnel ionization conditions. Performing a systematic study—modifying the fundamental wavelength, intensity and atomic system—we observed a good agreement with quantum path analysis over a range of Keldysh parameters. The generality of this scheme opens new perspectives in high harmonics spectroscopy, holding the potential of probing large, complex molecular systems. (paper)

  1. Ordering of pentacene in organic thin film transistors induced by irradiation of infrared light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C. H.; Chen, S. W.; Hwang, J.

    2009-01-01

    The device performances of pentacene-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) were greatly improved by irradiation of infrared light. The field effect mobility and maximum drain current increase from 0.20±0.01 to 0.57±0.02 cm 2 /V s and 1.14x10 -5 to 4.91x10 -5 A, respectively. The (001) peak of the pentacene 'thin film' phase increases in intensity by 4.5 times after infrared irradiation at 50 W for 2 h. Two types of crystal orientations, i.e., 'crystal I' (2θ=5.91 deg.) and 'crystal II' (2θ=5.84 deg.), coexist in the pentacene. The improvement of the characteristics of OTFTs is attributed to crystallization and crystal reorientation induced by infrared light.

  2. Direct visualization of the in-plane leakage of high-order transverse modes in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers mediated by oxide-aperture engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledentsov, N.; Shchukin, V. A.; Kropp, J.-R.; Burger, S.; Schmidt, F.; Ledentsov, N. N.

    2016-03-01

    Oxide-confined apertures in vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) can be engineered such that they promote leakage of the transverse optical modes from the non- oxidized core region to the selectively oxidized periphery of the device. The reason of the leakage is that the VCSEL modes in the core can be coupled to tilted modes in the periphery if the orthogonality between the core mode and the modes at the periphery is broken by the oxidation-induced optical field redistribution. Three-dimensional modeling of a practical VCSEL design reveals i) significantly stronger leakage losses for high-order transverse modes than that of the fundamental one as high-order modes have a higher field intensity close to the oxide layers and ii) narrow peaks in the far-field profile generated by the leaky component of the optical modes. Experimental 850-nm GaAlAs leaky VCSELs produced in the modeled design demonstrate i) single-mode lasing with the aperture diameters up to 5μm with side mode suppression ratio >20dB at the current density of 10kA/cm2; and ii) narrow peaks tilted at 37 degrees with respect to the vertical axis in excellent agreement with the modeling data and confirming the leaky nature of the modes and the proposed mechanism of mode selection. The results indicate that in- plane coupling of VCSELs, VCSELs and p-i-n photodiodes, VCSEL and delay lines is possible allowing novel photonic integrated circuits. We show that the approach enables design of oxide apertures, air-gap apertures, devices created by impurity-induced intermixing or any combinations of such designs through quantitative evaluation of the leaky emission.

  3. Tunneling-induced shift of the cutoff law for high-order above-threshold ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, X. Y.; Quan, W.; Liu, X.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the cutoff law for high-order above-threshold ionization (HATI) within a semiclassical framework. By explicitly adopting the tunneling effect and considering the initial position shift of the tunneled electron from the origin in the model, the cutoff energy position in HATI spectrum exhibits a well-defined upshift from the simple-man model prediction. The comparison between numerical results from our improved semiclassical model and the quantum-orbit theory shows a good agreement for small values of the Keldysh parameter γ, implying the important role of the inherent quantum tunneling effect in HATI dynamics.

  4. Estimation of the advection effects induced by surface heterogeneities in the surface energy budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuxart, J.; Wrenger, B.; Martinez-Villagrasa, D.; Reuder, J.; Jonassen, M.O.; Jimenez, M.A.; Lothon, M.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Dunnermann, J.; Conangla, L.; Garai, A.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of terrain heterogeneities in one-point
    measurements is a continuous subject of discussion. Here
    we focus on the order of magnitude of the advection term
    in the equation of the evolution of temperature as generated
    by documented terrain heterogeneities and we estimate

  5. Compatible orders and fermion-induced emergent symmetry in Dirac systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Lukas; Herbut, Igor F.; Scherer, Michael M.

    2018-01-01

    We study the quantum multicritical point in a (2+1)-dimensional Dirac system between the semimetallic phase and two ordered phases that are characterized by anticommuting mass terms with O (N1) and O (N2) symmetries, respectively. Using ɛ expansion around the upper critical space-time dimension of four, we demonstrate the existence of a stable renormalization-group fixed point, enabling a direct and continuous transition between the two ordered phases directly at the multicritical point. This point is found to be characterized by an emergent O (N1+N2) symmetry for arbitrary values of N1 and N2 and fermion flavor numbers Nf as long as the corresponding representation of the Clifford algebra exists. Small O (N ) -breaking perturbations near the chiral O (N ) fixed point are therefore irrelevant. This result can be traced back to the presence of gapless Dirac degrees of freedom at criticality, and it is in clear contrast to the purely bosonic O (N ) fixed point, which is stable only when N by-product, we obtain predictions for the critical behavior of the chiral O (N ) universality classes for arbitrary N and fermion flavor number Nf. Implications for critical Weyl and Dirac systems in 3+1 dimensions are also briefly discussed.

  6. Inversion symmetry breaking induced triply degenerate points in orderly arranged PtSeTe family materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, R. C.; Cheung, C. H.; Gong, P. L.; Lu, W. J.; Si, J. G.; Sun, Y. P.

    2018-06-01

    k paths exactly with symmetry allow to find triply degenerate points (TDPs) in band structures. The paths that host the type-II Dirac points in PtSe2 family materials also have the spatial symmetry. However, due to Kramers degeneracy (the systems have both inversion symmetry and time reversal symmetry), the crossing points in them are Dirac ones. In this work, based on symmetry analysis, first-principles calculations, and method, we predict that PtSe2 family materials should undergo topological transitions if the inversion symmetry is broken, i.e. the Dirac fermions in PtSe2 family materials split into TDPs in PtSeTe family materials (PtSSe, PtSeTe, and PdSeTe) with orderly arranged S/Se (Se/Te). It is different from the case in high-energy physics that breaking inversion symmetry I leads to the splitting of Dirac fermion into Weyl fermions. We also address a possible method to achieve the orderly arranged in PtSeTe family materials in experiments. Our study provides a real example that Dirac points transform into TDPs, and is helpful to investigate the topological transition between Dirac fermions and TDP fermions.

  7. Size-Induced Depression of First-Order Transition Lines and Entropy Jump in Extremely Layered Nanocrystalline Vortex Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, M I; Fasano, Y; Cejas Bolecek, N R; Pastoriza, H; Mosser, V; Li, M; Konczykowski, M

    2015-09-25

    We detect the persistence of the solidification and order-disorder first-order transition lines in the phase diagram of nanocrystalline Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8} vortex matter down to a system size of less than one hundred vortices. The temperature location of the vortex solidification transition line is not altered by decreasing the sample size although there is a depletion of the entropy jump at the transition with respect to macroscopic vortex matter. The solid order-disorder phase transition field moves upward on decreasing the system size due to the increase of the surface-to-volume ratio of vortices entailing a decrease on the average vortex binding energy.

  8. Viscous surface flow induced on Ti-based bulk metallic glass by heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kun [Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Hu, Zheng [Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Science and Technology on Vehicle Transmission Laboratory, China North Vehicle Research Institute, Beijing 100072 (China); Li, Fengjiang [Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wei, Bingchen, E-mail: weibc@imech.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Obvious smoothing and roughening phases on the Ti-based MG surface resulted, which correspond respectively to the normal and off-normal incidence angles. • Atomic force microscopy confirms two types of periodic ripples distributed evenly over the rough surface. • The irradiation-induced viscosity of MG is about 4×10{sup 12} Pa·s, which accords with the theoretical prediction for metallic glasses close to glass transition temperature. • Surface-confined viscous flow plays a dominant quantitative role, which is due to radiation-induced softening of the low-viscosity surface layer. - Abstract: Ti-based bulk metallic glass was irradiated by a 20 MeV Cl{sup 4+} ion beam under liquid-nitrogen cooling, which produced remarkable surface smoothing and roughening that respectively correspond to normal and off-normal incidence angles of irradiation. Atomic force microscopy confirms two types of periodic ripples distributed evenly over the rough glass surface. In terms of mechanism, irradiation-induced viscosity agrees with the theoretical prediction for metallic glasses near glass transition temperature. Here, a model is introduced, based on relaxation of confined viscous flow with a thin liquid-like layer, that explains both surface smoothing and ripple formation. This study demonstrates that bulk metallic glass has high morphological instability and low viscosity under ion irradiation, which assets can pave new paths for metallic glass applications.

  9. Pressure controlled transition into a self-induced topological superconducting surface state

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Ab-initio calculations show a pressure induced trivial-nontrivial-trivial topological phase transition in the normal state of 1T-TiSe2. The pressure range in which the nontrivial phase emerges overlaps with that of the superconducting ground state. Thus, topological superconductivity can be induced in protected surface states by the proximity effect of superconducting bulk states. This kind of self-induced topological surface superconductivity is promising for a realization of Majorana fermions due to the absence of lattice and chemical potential mismatches. For appropriate electron doping, the formation of the topological superconducting surface state in 1T-TiSe 2 becomes accessible to experiments as it can be controlled by pressure.

  10. Pressure controlled transition into a self-induced topological superconducting surface state

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2014-02-07

    Ab-initio calculations show a pressure induced trivial-nontrivial-trivial topological phase transition in the normal state of 1T-TiSe2. The pressure range in which the nontrivial phase emerges overlaps with that of the superconducting ground state. Thus, topological superconductivity can be induced in protected surface states by the proximity effect of superconducting bulk states. This kind of self-induced topological surface superconductivity is promising for a realization of Majorana fermions due to the absence of lattice and chemical potential mismatches. For appropriate electron doping, the formation of the topological superconducting surface state in 1T-TiSe 2 becomes accessible to experiments as it can be controlled by pressure.

  11. Reduction of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernitsas, Michael M; Raghavan, Kamaldev

    2014-04-01

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to decrease/suppress Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Suppression is required when fluid-structure interaction becomes destructive as in VIM of flexible cylinders or rigid cylinders on elastic support, such as underwater pipelines, marine risers, tubes in heat exchangers, nuclear fuel rods, cooling towers, SPAR offshore platforms.

  12. Cooperative light-induced molecular movements of highly ordered azobenzene self-assembled monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Giuseppina; Ferri, Violetta; Grave, Christian; Elbing, Mark; von Hänisch, Carsten; Zharnikov, Michael; Mayor, Marcel; Rampi, Maria Anita; Samorì, Paolo

    2007-06-12

    Photochromic systems can convert light energy into mechanical energy, thus they can be used as building blocks for the fabrication of prototypes of molecular devices that are based on the photomechanical effect. Hitherto a controlled photochromic switch on surfaces has been achieved either on isolated chromophores or within assemblies of randomly arranged molecules. Here we show by scanning tunneling microscopy imaging the photochemical switching of a new terminally thiolated azobiphenyl rigid rod molecule. Interestingly, the switching of entire molecular 2D crystalline domains is observed, which is ruled by the interactions between nearest neighbors. This observation of azobenzene-based systems displaying collective switching might be of interest for applications in high-density data storage.

  13. Synergistic effects in radiation-induced particle ejection from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Noriaki

    1990-01-01

    A description is given on radiation-induced particle ejection from solid surfaces, emphasizing synergistic effects arising from multi-species particle irradiation and from irradiation under complex environments. First, it is pointed out that synergisms can be treated by introducing the effects of material modification on radiation-induced particle ejection. As examples of the effects of surface modification on the sputtering induced by elastic encounters, sputtering of alloys and chemical sputtering of graphite are briefly discussed. Then the particle ejection induced by electronic encounters is explained emphasizing the difference in the behaviors from materials to materials. The possible synergistic effects of electronic and elastic encounters are also described. Lastly, we point out the importance of understanding the elementary processes of material-particle interaction and of developing computer codes describing material behaviors under irradiation. (author)

  14. Immobilization induced molecular compression of ionic liquid in ordered mesoporous matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Alok Kumar; Singh, Rajendra Kumar

    2018-02-01

    In this work, ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide ([EMIM][FSI]) has been immobilized into ordered mesoporous silica MCM-41 by a physical imbibition process. Transmission electron microscopy confirms the filling of mesopores of MCM-41. The effect of IL content in MCM-41 was probed in terms of thermal stability, chemical interactions, and dielectric properties. N2-sorption results indicate the compression of the IL in the nanopores of MCM-41, which contributes to an increase of the melting point probed by differential scanning calorimetry. The quantum chemical calculations confirmed that the ion-ion interaction in ion-pairs of IL were preferred over the hydrogen bonding interaction in the presence of SiO2 molecules, and these interactions probably compress the molecular size in the nanopores of MCM-41. Strong interactions between IL and porous MCM-41 were suggested as the mechanism of this immobilization, which was characterized by FTIR and dielectric spectroscopy.

  15. Ion-streaming induced order transition in three-dimensional dust clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Patrick; Kählert, Hanno; Bonitz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Dust dynamics simulations utilizing a dynamical screening approach are performed to study the effect of ion-streaming on the self-organized structures in a three-dimensional spherically confined complex (dusty) plasma. Varying the Mach number M, the ratio of ion drift velocity to the sound velocity, the simulations reproduce the experimentally observed cluster configurations in the two limiting cases: at M = 0 strongly correlated crystalline structures consisting of nested spherical shells (Yukawa balls) and, for M ⩾ 1, flow-aligned dust chains, respectively. In addition, our simulations reveal a discontinuous transition between these two limits. It is found that already a moderate ion drift velocity (M ≈ 0.1 for the plasma conditions considered here) destabilizes the highly ordered Yukawa balls and initiates an abrupt melting transition. The critical value of M is found to be independent of the cluster size. (paper)

  16. [Effects of surface roughness of bone cements on histological characteristics of induced membranes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Xiao; Xu, Hua-Zi; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Gang; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiao-Jie; Peng, Lei

    2012-08-01

    To explore surface roughness of bone cement and surround tissue on histological characteristic of induced membranes. Bone cements with smooth and rough surface were implanted in radius bone defect, intramuscular and subcutaneous sites of rabbits, and formed induced membranes. Membranes were obtained and stained (HE) 6 weeks later. Images of membrane tissue were obtained and analyzed with an automated image analysis system. Five histological parameters of membranes were measured with thickness,area,cell density,ECM density and microvessel density. Double factor variance analysis was used to evaluate the effect of the two factors on histological characteristics of induced membranes. Membranes can be induced by each kind of bone cement and at all the three tissue sites. In histological parameters of thickness,area and micro vessel,there were significant differences among the membranes induced at different tissue sites (P = 0.000, P = 0.000, P = 0.000); whereas, there were no significant differences in histological parameters of cell density and ECM density (P = 0.734, P = 0.638). In all five histological parameters of membranes, there were no significant differences between the membranes induced by bone cements with different surface roughness (P = 0.506, P = 0.185, P = 0.883, P = 0.093, P = 0.918). Surround tissue rather than surface roughness of bone cements can affect the histological characteristics of induced membranes. The fibrocystic number, vascularity, mechanical tension and micro motion of the surround tissue may be closely correlated with the histological characteristics of induced membranes.

  17. La Substitution and Pressure Studies on CeCoSi: A Possible Antiferroquadrupolar Ordering Induced by Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida, Hiroshi; Muro, Yuji; Matsumura, Takeshi

    2018-02-01

    The La-substitution and pressure effects on antiferromagnet CeCoSi with a tetragonal crystal structure were investigated in order to clarify the origin of the pressure induced ordered phase (PIOP) with an enormously high transition temperature of T0 ˜ 38 K. By substituting Ce with La, the PIOP shifts to high pressures, and the maximum value of T0 is suppressed, indicating that the PIOP originates from a Ce-Ce interaction. At T0, the magnetic susceptibility exhibits not a cusp, but an increase with decreasing temperature, as is frequently observed in antiferroquadrupolar (AFQ) ordering. Based on these results, we propose that a possible origin of the PIOP is an AFQ ordered phase of Ce-4f electron. Due to the lack of local inversion symmetry at the Ce sites, the AFQ order could be accompanied by odd parity multipolar moments. Since there is no clear evidence of successive transitions below T0, the remaining Kramers degeneracy could be lifted by the Kondo coupling.

  18. The nanostructure formation on muscovite mica surface induced by intermediate-energy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, P.; Zhang, HQ., E-mail: zhanghq@lzu.edu.cn; Zhang, Q.; Liu, Z.; Guan, S.; Wang, G.; Zhou, C.; Jia, J.; Lv, X.; Shao, J.; Cui, Y.; Chen, L.; Chen, X., E-mail: chenxm@lzu.edu.cn

    2013-07-15

    Muscovite mica sheets were bombarded by lithium, carbon and oxygen ions in the energy range from several hundred keV to several MeV. The induced surface structures were measured in the air with atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the tapping mode. The hillock-like structure on the mica surface was observed. The height of the hillock increases linearly when the energy loss is above 1.2 keV/nm. The induced structures are similar with the similar electronic stopping powers but different projectiles for muscovite mica.

  19. Enhancement in the photodetection of ZnO nanowires by introducing surface-roughness-induced traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woojin; Jo, Gunho; Hong, Woong-Ki; Yoon, Jongwon; Choe, Minhyeok; Ji, Yongsung; Kim, Geunjin; Kahng, Yung Ho; Lee, Kwanghee; Lee, Takhee; Lee, Sangchul; Wang, Deli

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the enhanced photoresponse of ZnO nanowire transistors that was introduced with surface-roughness-induced traps by a simple chemical treatment with isopropyl alcohol (IPA). The enhanced photoresponse of IPA-treated ZnO nanowire devices is attributed to an increase in adsorbed oxygen on IPA-induced surface traps. The results of this study revealed that IPA-treated ZnO nanowire devices displayed higher photocurrent gains and faster photoswitching speed than transistors containing unmodified ZnO nanowires. Thus, chemical treatment with IPA can be a useful method for improving the photoresponse of ZnO nanowire devices.

  20. Effect of substrate surface on electromigration-induced sliding at hetero-interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Praveen; Dutta, Indranath

    2013-01-01

    Electromigration (EM)-induced interfacial sliding between a metal film and Si substrate occurs when (i) only few grains exist across the width of the film and (ii) diffusivity through the interfacial region is significantly greater than diffusivity through the film. Here, the effect of the substrate surface layer on the kinetics of EM-induced interfacial sliding is assessed using Si substrates coated with various thin film interlayers. The kinetics of interfacial sliding, and therefore the EM-driven mass flow rate, strongly depends on the type of the interlayer (and hence the substrate surface composition), such that strongly bonded interfaces with slower interfacial diffusivity produce slower sliding. (paper)

  1. Pair-breaking effects by parallel magnetic field in electric-field-induced surface superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeta, Masahiro; Tanaka, Kenta K.; Onari, Seiichiro; Ichioka, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Zeeman effect shifts superconducting gaps of sub-band system, towards pair-breaking. • Higher-level sub-bands become normal-state-like electronic states by magnetic fields. • Magnetic field dependence of zero-energy DOS reflects multi-gap superconductivity. - Abstract: We study paramagnetic pair-breaking in electric-field-induced surface superconductivity, when magnetic field is applied parallel to the surface. The calculation is performed by Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory with s-wave pairing, including the screening effect of electric fields by the induced carriers near the surface. Due to the Zeeman shift by applied fields, electronic states at higher-level sub-bands become normal-state-like. Therefore, the magnetic field dependence of Fermi-energy density of states reflects the multi-gap structure in the surface superconductivity.

  2. Luminescence Properties of Surface Radiation-Induced Defects in Lithium Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitovich, A. P.; Kalinov, V. S.; Martynovich, E. F.; Novikov, A. N.; Runets, L. P.; Stupak, A. P.

    2013-11-01

    Luminescence and luminescence excitation spectra are recorded for surface radiation-induced defects in lithium fluoride at temperatures of 77 and 293 K. The presence of three bands with relatively small intensity differences is a distinctive feature of the excitation spectrum. These bands are found to belong to the same type of defects. The positions of the peaks and the widths of the absorption and luminescence bands for these defects are determined. The luminescence decay time is measured. All the measured characteristics of these surface defects differ from those of previously known defects induced by radiation in the bulk of the crystals. It is found that the luminescence of surface defects in an ensemble of nanocrystals with different orientations is not polarized. The number of anion vacancies in the surface defects is estimated using the polarization measurements. It is shown that radiative scattering distorts the intensity ratios of the luminescence excitation bands located in different spectral regions.

  3. Airway Surface Dehydration Aggravates Cigarette Smoke-Induced Hallmarks of COPD in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seys, Leen J M; Verhamme, Fien M; Dupont, Lisa L; Desauter, Elke; Duerr, Julia; Seyhan Agircan, Ayca; Conickx, Griet; Joos, Guy F; Brusselle, Guy G; Mall, Marcus A; Bracke, Ken R

    2015-01-01

    Airway surface dehydration, caused by an imbalance between secretion and absorption of ions and fluid across the epithelium and/or increased epithelial mucin secretion, impairs mucociliary clearance. Recent evidence suggests that this mechanism may be implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the role of airway surface dehydration in the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced COPD remains unknown. We aimed to investigate in vivo the effect of airway surface dehydration on several CS-induced hallmarks of COPD in mice with airway-specific overexpression of the β-subunit of the epithelial Na⁺ channel (βENaC). βENaC-Tg mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were exposed to air or CS for 4 or 8 weeks. Pathological hallmarks of COPD, including goblet cell metaplasia, mucin expression, pulmonary inflammation, lymphoid follicles, emphysema and airway wall remodelling were determined and lung function was measured. Airway surface dehydration in βENaC-Tg mice aggravated CS-induced airway inflammation, mucin expression and destruction of alveolar walls and accelerated the formation of pulmonary lymphoid follicles. Moreover, lung function measurements demonstrated an increased compliance and total lung capacity and a lower resistance and hysteresis in βENaC-Tg mice, compared to WT mice. CS exposure further altered lung function measurements. We conclude that airway surface dehydration is a risk factor that aggravates CS-induced hallmarks of COPD.

  4. Modeling of UV laser-induced patterning of ultrathin Co films on bulk SiO2: verification of short- and long-range ordering mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trice, Justin; Favazza, Christopher; Kalyanaraman, Ramki; Sureshkumar, R.

    2006-03-01

    Irradiating ultrathin Co films (1 to 10 nm) by a short-pulsed UV laser leads to pattern formation with both short- and long-range order (SRO, LRO). Single beam irradiation produces SRO, while two-beam interference irradiation produces a quasi-2D arrangement of nanoparticles with LRO and SRO. The pattern formation primarily occurs in the molten phase. An estimate of the thermal behavior of the film/substrate composite following a laser pulse is presented. The thermal behavior includes the lifetime of the liquid phase and the thermal gradient during interference heating. Based on this evidence, the SRO is attributed to spinodal dewetting of the film while surface tension gradients induced by the laser interference pattern appear to influence LRO [1]. [1] C.Favazza, J.Trice, H.Krishna, R.Sureshkumar, and R.Kalyanaraman, unpublished.

  5. Self-induced oscillation of free surface in a tank with circulating flow, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Koji; Madarame, Haruki; Hagiwara, Tsuyoshi

    1991-01-01

    An energy supply mechanism to self-induced sloshing in a tank with circulating flow is proposed. The circulating flow impinges on the free surface making it swell partially. The amount of swell increases with increasing water level under the condition of growing sloshing. The change of the free surface contour by this effect supplies sufficient energy to the sloshing. The dependency of the sloshing growth on the flow rate and the water level is explained well by this model. (author)

  6. Absence of magnetic ordering and field-induced phase diagram in the gadolinium aluminum garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, O.; Lhotel, E.; Jacobsen, H.; Knee, C. S.; Deen, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    The robustness of spin liquids with respect to small perturbations, and the way magnetic frustration can be lifted by slight changes in the balance between competing magnetic interactions, remains a rich and open issue. We address this question through the study of the gadolinium aluminum garnet Gd3Al5O12 , a related compound to the extensively studied Gd3Ga5O12 . We report on its magnetic properties at very low temperatures. We show that despite a freezing at about 300 mK, no magnetic transition is observed, suggesting the presence of a spin-liquid state down to the lowest temperatures, similarly to Gd3Ga5O12 , in spite of a larger ratio between exchange and dipolar interactions. Finally, the phase diagram as a function of field and temperature is strongly reminiscent of the one reported in Gd3Ga5O12 . This study reveals the robust nature of the spin-liquid phase for Gd ions on the garnet lattice, in stark contrast to Gd ions on the pyrochlore lattice for which a slight perturbation drives the compound into a range of magnetically ordered states.

  7. Complex source mechanisms of mining-induced seismic events - implications for surface effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlecka-Sikora, B.; Cesca, S.; Lasocki, S.; Rudzinski, L.; Lizurek, L.; Wiejacz, P.; Urban, P.; kozlowska, M.

    2012-04-01

    The seismicity of Legnica-Głogów Copper District (LGCD) is induced by mining activities in three mines: Lubin, Rudna and Polkowice-Sieroszowice. Ground motion caused by strong tremors might affect local infrastructure. "Żelazny Most" tailings pond, the biggest structure of this type in Europe, is here under special concern. Due to surface objects protection, Rudna Mine has been running ground motion monitoring for several years. From June 2010 to June 2011 unusually strong and extensive surface impact has been observed for 6 mining tremors induced in one of Rudna mining sections. The observed peak ground acceleration (PGA) for both horizontal and vertical component were in or even beyond 99% confidence interval for prediction. The aim of this paper is analyze the reason of such unusual ground motion. On the basis of registrations from Rudna Mine mining seismological network and records from Polish Seismological Network held by the Institute of Geophysics Polish Academy of Sciences (IGF PAN), the source mechanisms of these 6 tremors were calculated using a time domain moment tensor inversion. Furthermore, a kinematic analysis of the seismic source was performed, in order to determine the rupture planes orientations and rupture directions. These results showed that in case of the investigated tremors, point source models and shear fault mechanisms, which are most often assumed in mining seismology, are invalid. All analyzed events indicate extended sources with non-shear mechanism. The rapture planes have small dip angles and the rupture starts at the tremors hypocenter and propagates in the direction opposite to the plane dip. The tensional component plays here also big role. These source mechanisms well explain such observed strong ground motion, and calculated synthetic PGA values well correlates with observed ones. The relationship between mining tremors were also under investigation. All subsequent tremors occurred in the area of increased stress due to

  8. Application of positron annihilation induced auger electron spectroscopy to the study of surface chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.H.; Yang, G.; Nangia, A.; Kim, J.H.; Fazleev, N.G.

    1996-01-01

    Positron annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES), makes use a beam of low energy positrons to excite Auger transitions by annihilating core electrons. This novel mechanism provides PAES with a number of unique features which distinguishes it from other methods of surface analysis. In PAES the very large collisionally induced secondary electron background which is present under the low energy Auger peaks using conventional techniques can be eliminated by using a positron beam whose energy is below the range of Auger electron energies. In addition, PAES is more surface selective than conventional Auger Spectroscopy because the PAES signal originates almost exclusively from the topmost atomic layer due to the fact that the positrons annihilating with the core electrons are trapped in an image correlation well just outside the surface. In this paper, recent applications of Positron Annihilation Induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES) to the study of surface structure and surface chemistry will be discussed including studies of the growth, alloying and inter-diffusion of ultrathin layers of metals, metals on semiconductors, and semiconductors on semiconductors. In addition, the possibilities for future application of PAES to the study of catalysis and surface chemistry will be outlined. (author)

  9. A 3D-RBS study of irradiation-induced deformation and masking properties of ordered colloidal nanoparticulate masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolnai, Z.; Deak, A.; Nagy, N.; Toth, A.L.; Kotai, E.; Battistig, G.

    2010-01-01

    The 500 keV Xe 2+ irradiation-induced anisotropic deformation of ordered colloidal silica nanoparticulate masks is followed using 2 MeV 4 He + Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) with different measurement geometries and the improved data analysis capabilities of the RBS-MAST spectrum simulation code. The three-dimensional (3D) geometrical transformation from spherical to oblate ellipsoidal and polygonal shape and the decrease of the mask's hole size is described. The masking properties of the silica monolayer and the depth distribution of Xe in the underlying Si substrate vs. the irradiated Xe 2+ fluence are discussed. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) is applied as complementary characterization tool. Our results give contribution to clarify the impact of ion-nanoparticle interactions on the potentials and limits of nanosphere lithography. We also show the capability of the conventional RBS technique to characterize laterally ordered submicron-sized three-dimensional structures.

  10. Investigation of Fano resonances induced by higher order plasmon modes on a circular nano-disk with an elongated cavity

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Muhammad Ruhul

    2012-08-10

    In this paper, a planar metallic nanostructure design, which supports two distinct Fano resonances in its extinction cross-section spectrum under normally incident and linearly polarized electromagnetic field, is proposed. The proposed design involves a circular disk embedding an elongated cavity; shifting and rotating the cavity break the symmetry of the structure with respect to the incident field and induce higher order plasmon modes. As a result, Fano resonances are generated in the visible spectrum due to the destructive interference between the sub-radiant higher order modes and super-radiant the dipolar mode. The Fano resonances can be tuned by varying the cavity\\'s width and the rotation angle. An RLC circuit, which is mathematically equivalent to a mass-spring oscillator, is proposed to model the optical response of the nanostructure design.

  11. Pressure-induced decoupling of the order-disorder and displacive contributions to the phase transition in diguanidinium tetrachlorostannate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szafranski, M.; Ståhl, Kenny

    2000-01-01

    The crystals of diguanidinium tetrachlorostannate [C(NH2)(3)](2)(+).SnCl4-2, were studied by single-crystal x-ray diffraction at various temperatures and by calorimetric and dielectric measurements at ambient and high hydrostatic pressures. At room temperature the crystal structure is orthorhombic......) cations. At ambient pressure the crystals undergo two first-order phase transitions at 354.8 and 395.4 K. The former, between two orthorhombic phases (Pbca --> Cmca), is characterized by antiphase displacement of the double sheets along the b direction of the low-temperature unit cell which is coupled...... to dynamical disordering of G(2) and transformation of its hydrogen bonding scheme. At elevated pressures the coupling between the displacive and order-disorder contributions is modified and its breaking near a triple point at 180 MPa and 270 K results in a pressure-induced phase observed between Pbca and Cmca...

  12. Instability-induced ordering, universal unfolding and the role of gravity in granular Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Meheboob; Arakeri, V. H.; Nott, P. R.; Goddard, J. D.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2005-01-01

    Linear stability theory and bifurcation analysis are used to investigate the role of gravity in shear-band formation in granular Couette flow, considering a kinetic-theory rheological model. We show that the only possible state, at low shear rates, corresponds to a "plug" near the bottom wall, in which the particles are densely packed and the shear rate is close to zero, and a uniformly sheared dilute region above it. The origin of such plugged states is shown to be tied to the spontaneous symmetry-breaking instabilities of the gravity-free uniform shear flow, leading to the formation of ordered bands of alternating dilute and dense regions in the transverse direction, via an infinite hierarchy of pitchfork bifurcations. Gravity plays the role of an "imperfection", thus destroying the "perfect" bifurcation structure of uniform shear. The present bifurcation problem admits universal unfolding of pitchfork bifurcations which subsequently leads to the formation of a sequence of a countably infinite number of "isolas", with the solution structures being a modulated version of their gravity-free counterpart. While the solution with a plug near the bottom wall looks remarkably similar to the shear-banding phenomenon in dense slow granular Couette flows, a "floating" plug near the top wall is also a solution of these equations at high shear rates. A two-dimensional linear stability analysis suggests that these floating plugged states are unstable to long-wave travelling disturbances.The unique solution having a bottom plug can also be unstable to long waves, but remains stable at sufficiently low shear rates. The implications and realizability of the present results are discussed in the light of shear-cell experiments under "microgravity" conditions.

  13. Structural characterizations, Hirshfeld surface analyses, and third-order nonlinear optical properties of two novel chalcone derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidur, Shivaraj R.; Jahagirdar, Jitendra R.; Patil, Parutagouda Shankaragouda; Chia, Tze Shyang; Quah, Ching Kheng

    2018-01-01

    We report synthesis, characterizations, structure-property relationships, and third-order nonlinear optical studies for two new chalcone derivatives, (2E)-1-(anthracen-9-yl)-3-(4-bromophenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (Br-ANC) and (2E)-1-(anthracen-9-yl)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (Cl-ANC). These derivatives were crystallized in the centrosymmetric monoclinic P21/c crystal structure. The intermolecular interactions of both the crystals were visualized by Hirshfeld surface analyses (HSA). The crystals are thermally stable up to their melting points (180.82 and 191.16 °C for Cl-ANC and Br-ANC, respectively). The geometry optimizations, FT-IR spectra, 1H and 13C NMR spectra, electronic absorption spectra, electronic transitions, and HOMO-LUMO energy gaps were studied by Density Functional Theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-311+G(d, p) level. The theoretical results provide excellent agreement with experimental findings. The electric dipole moments, static polarizabilities, molecular electrostatic potentials (MEP) and global chemical reactivity descriptors (GCRD) were also theoretically computed. The materials exhibited good nonlinear absorption (NLA), nonlinear refraction (NLR) and optical limiting (OL) behavior under diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) continuous wave (CW) laser excitation (532 nm and 200 mW). The NLO parameters such as NLA coefficient (β∼10-5 cmW-1), NLR index (n2∼10-10 cm2 W-1) and third-order NLO susceptibilities (χ(3) ∼10-7 esu) were measured. Further, we estimated one-photon and two-photon figures of merit, which satisfy the demands (W > 1 and T < 1) for all-optical switching. Thus, the present chalcone derivatives with anthracene moiety are potential materials for OL and optical switching applications.

  14. Process comparison for fracture-induced formation of surface structures on polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yueh-Ying [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Yang, Fuqian [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Chen, Chia-Chieh [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taoyuan 32546, Taiwan (China); Lee, Sanboh, E-mail: sblee@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-01

    Using three different splitting approaches such as point-load splitting, tension-splitting and peeling–splitting, different surface ripples were produced on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based polymer films. Independent of the splitting approaches, the spatial wavelength of the surface structures is a linear function of the film thickness with the approximately same differential ratio of the spatial wavelength to the film thickness. The apparent surface residual stress was calculated from the thickness dependence of the spatial frequency, and the magnitude of the apparent surface stress increased with the increase of the film thickness. After exposing the aged PMMA-based photoresist at liquid state to gamma-irradiation, the effects of aging and the gamma-irradiation were investigated on the splitting-induced formation of surface structures. For the peeling–splitting process, the differential ratio of the spatial wavelength to the film thickness for the aged samples is larger than that for non-aged samples. The point-load splitting could not produce any surface pattern on the gamma-irradiated films. None of the splitting approaches could form surface structures for polymer films exposed to irradiation of high dose. Both the spatial wavelength and the apparent surface stress increased with the film thickness for the irradiated polymer films. - Highlights: • Using splitting processes, surface ripples were formed on polymer films. • The surface ripples were induced by compressively apparent surface stress. • The spatial wavelength of the ripples is a linear function of the film thickness. • The spatial wavelength of the ripples is affected by gamma-ray irradiation. • The spatial wavelength of the ripples is affected by aging.

  15. Formation of surface nano-structures by plasma expansion induced by highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moslem, W. M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said (Egypt); Centre for Theoretical Physics, The British University in Egypt (BUE), El-Shorouk City, Cairo (Egypt) and International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); El-Said, A. S. [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Nuclear and Radiation Physics Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, 35516 Mansoura (Egypt) and Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Bautzner Landstr. 128, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Slow highly charged ions (HCIs) create surface nano-structures (nano-hillocks) on the quartz surface. The formation of hillocks was only possible by surpassing a potential energy threshold. By using the plasma expansion approach with suitable hydrodynamic equations, the creation mechanism of the nano-hillocks induced by HCIs is explained. Numerical analysis reveal that within the nanoscale created plasma region, the increase of the temperature causes an increase of the self-similar solution validity domain, and consequently the surface nano-hillocks become taller. Furthermore, the presence of the negative (positive) nano-dust particles would lead to increase (decrease) the nano-hillocks height.

  16. Electron emission induced by resonant coherent ion-surface interaction at grazing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia de Abajo, F.J.; Ponce, V.H.; Echenique, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    A new spectroscopy based on the resonant coherently induced electron loss to the continuum in ion-surface scattering under grazing incidence is proposed. A series of peaks, corresponding to the energy differences determined by the resonant interaction with the rows of atoms in the surface, is predicted to appear in the energy distribution of electrons emitted from electronic states bound to the probe. Calculations for MeV He + ions scattered at a W(001) surface along the left-angle 100 right-angle direction with a glancing angle of 0--2 mrad show a total yield close to 1

  17. Laser-induced oxidation of titanium substrate: Analysis of the physicochemical structure of the surface and sub-surface layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antończak, Arkadiusz J., E-mail: arkadiusz.antonczak@pwr.edu.pl [Laser and Fiber Electronics Group, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wyb. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Skowroński, Łukasz; Trzcinski, Marek [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, University of Technology and Life Sciences, Kaliskiego 7, 85-789 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Kinzhybalo, Vasyl V. [Wroclaw Research Centre EIT+, Stabłowicka 147, 54-066 Wrocław (Poland); Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Okólna 2, 50-422 Wrocław (Poland); Łazarek, Łukasz K.; Abramski, Krzysztof M. [Laser and Fiber Electronics Group, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wyb. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Chemical structure of the films induced by laser on titanium surface was analyzed. • It was shown that outer layer of this films consist of oxides doped with nitrogen. • The optical properties of the laser-induced oxynitride films were characterized. • We found that the films demonstrated significant absorption in the band of 300–580 nm. • The morphology of the layers as a function of the laser fluence was investigated. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of the analysis of the complex chemical structure of the layers made on titanium in the process of the heating of its surfaces in an atmospheric environment, by irradiating samples with a nanosecond-pulsed laser. The study was carried out for electroplated, high purity, polycrystalline titanium substrates using a Yb:glass fiber laser. All measurements were made for samples irradiated in a broad range of accumulated fluence, below the ablation threshold. It has been determined how the complex index of refraction of both the oxynitride layers and the substrate vary as a function of accumulated laser fluence. It was also shown that the top layer of the film produced on titanium, which is transparent, is not a pure TiO{sub 2} as had been supposed before. The XPS and XRD analyses confirmed the presence of nitrogen compounds and the existence of nonstoichiometric compounds. By sputtering of the sample's surface using an Ar{sup +} ion gun, the changes in the concentration of individual elements as a function of the layer's cross-section were determined. Lastly, an analysis of the surface morphology has also been carried out, explaining why the layers crack and exfoliate from their substrate.

  18. First-order exchange coefficient coupling for simulating surface water-groundwater interactions: Parameter sensitivity and consistency with a physics-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, B.A.; Mirus, B.B.; Heppner, C.S.; VanderKwaak, J.E.; Loague, K.

    2009-01-01

    Distributed hydrologic models capable of simulating fully-coupled surface water and groundwater flow are increasingly used to examine problems in the hydrologic sciences. Several techniques are currently available to couple the surface and subsurface; the two most frequently employed approaches are first-order exchange coefficients (a.k.a., the surface conductance method) and enforced continuity of pressure and flux at the surface-subsurface boundary condition. The effort reported here examines the parameter sensitivity of simulated hydrologic response for the first-order exchange coefficients at a well-characterized field site using the fully coupled Integrated Hydrology Model (InHM). This investigation demonstrates that the first-order exchange coefficients can be selected such that the simulated hydrologic response is insensitive to the parameter choice, while simulation time is considerably reduced. Alternatively, the ability to choose a first-order exchange coefficient that intentionally decouples the surface and subsurface facilitates concept-development simulations to examine real-world situations where the surface-subsurface exchange is impaired. While the parameters comprising the first-order exchange coefficient cannot be directly estimated or measured, the insensitivity of the simulated flow system to these parameters (when chosen appropriately) combined with the ability to mimic actual physical processes suggests that the first-order exchange coefficient approach can be consistent with a physics-based framework. Copyright ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The role of original surface roughness in laser-induced periodic surface structure formation process on poly-carbonate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csete, M.; Hild, S.; Plettl, A.; Ziemann, P.; Bor, Zs.; Marti, O.

    2004-01-01

    Poly-carbonate films containing different types of original surface roughness were illuminated by a polarized ArF excimer laser beam having a fluence of 4 mJ/cm 2 . Atomic force microscopy was applied to study the laser-induced periodic surface structure formation process at 0 deg. , 30 deg. and 45 deg. angles of incidence. The effect of initial surface structures on the intensity distribution was investigated in cases of: (a) grains on oriented and amorphous thick films; (b) holes on thin spin-coated films; and (c) nanoparticles arranged along micrometer long sides of hexagons below the spin-coated films. The presence of the scattering objects caused symmetry breaking, if the samples were illuminated by oblique incident 's' polarized beam. The Fourier analysis of the AFM pictures has shown the competition of structures having different periods. The characteristic of the permanent surface patterns proved that the interference of the incoming beam and the beams scattered on previously existing structures is the LIPSS generating feedback process. Ring-shaped structures having 228 nm diameter were produced

  20. Ionic self-assembly of surface functionalized metal-organic polyhedra nanocages and their ordered honeycomb architecture at the air/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yantao; Zhang, Daojun; Gai, Fangyuan; Zhu, Xingqi; Guo, Ya-nan; Ma, Tianliang; Liu, Yunling; Huo, Qisheng

    2012-08-18

    Metal-organic polyhedra (MOP) nanocages were successfully surface functionalized via ionic self-assembly and the ordered honeycomb architecture of the encapsulated MOP nanocages was also fabricated at the air/water surface. The results provide a novel synthetic method and membrane processing technique of amphiphilic MOP nanocages for various applications.

  1. Particle emission induced by the interaction of highly charged slow Xe-ions with a SiO2 surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiwietz, G.; Skogvall, B.; Schneider, D.; Clark, M.; DeWitt, D.; McDonald, J.

    1991-01-01

    Sputtering of surface atoms by low energy (a few keV) heavy ions is a commonly used technique in material science and applied physics. In general, sputtering occurs via nuclear energy transfer processes and is determined mainly by the atom-atom interaction potentials. In the energy range of interest these potentials depend only slightly on the charge state of one collision partner if the other is neutral. The development of new ion-sources, however, allows for the use of ions with charged states of q > 50. For these highly charged ions it is conceivable that electronic processes come into play as well. If, for example, the density of charged surface atoms exceeds a certain limit, then particle emission can occur via the electrostatic repulsion of target atoms, the so-called Coulomb explosion. Indications for such electronic effects have been found in a few investigations of ion-induced sputtering Si (q q+ ). However, the order of magnitude of this effect is not clear until now. In this work we present preliminary data on sputtering, ion backscattering, electron and photon emission from SiO 2 surface induced by incident Xe ions of very high charge states (q=30--50). The experiment was performed at the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using a time-of-flight (TOF) ion analyzer-system from the Hahn-Meitner-Institute, Berlin

  2. Positron Annihilation Induced Auger and Gamma Spectroscopy of Catalytically Important Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, A. H.; Nadesalingam, M. P.; Sundaramoorthy, R.; Mukherjee, S.; Fazleev, N. G.

    2006-10-01

    The annihilation of positrons with core electrons results in unique signatures in the spectra of Auger-electron and annihilation-gamma rays that can be used to make clear chemical identification of atoms at the surface. Because positrons implanted at low energies are trapped with high efficiency in the image-correlation well where they are localized just outside the surface it is possible to use annihilation induced Auger and Gamma signals to probe the surfaces of solids with single atomic layer depth resolution. In this talk we will report recent applications of Positron Annihilation Induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES) and Auger-Gamma Coincidence Spectroscopy (AGCS) to the study of surface structure and surface chemistry. Our research has demonstrated that PAES spectra can provide new information regarding the composition of the top-most atomic layer. Applications of PAES to the study of catalytically important surfaces of oxides and wide band-gap semiconductors including TiO2, SiO2,Cu2O, and SiC will be presented. We conclude with a discussion of the use of Auger-Gamma and Gamma-Gamma coincidence spectroscopy for the study of surfaces at pressures closer to those found in practical chemical reactors. Research supported by the Welch Foundation Grant Number Y-1100.

  3. Ions-induced nanostructuration: effect of specific ionic adsorption on hydrophobic polymer surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siretanu, Igor; Chapel, Jean-Paul; Bastos-González, Delfi; Drummond, Carlos

    2013-06-06

    The effect of surface charges on the ionic distribution in close proximity to an interface has been extensively studied. On the contrary, the influence of ions (from dissolved salts) on deformable interfaces has been barely investigated. Ions can adsorb from aqueous solutions on hydrophobic surfaces, generating forces that can induce long-lasting deformation of glassy polymer films, a process called ion-induced polymer nanostructuration, IPN. We have found that this process is ion-specific; larger surface modifications are observed in the presence of water ions and hydrophobic and amphiphilic ions. Surface structuration is also observed in the presence of certain salts of lithium. We have used streaming potential and atomic force microscopy to study the effect of dissolved ions on the surface properties of polystyrene films, finding a good correlation between ionic adsorption and IPN. Our results also suggest that the presence of strongly hydrated lithium promotes the interaction of anions with polystyrene surfaces and more generally with hydrophobic polymer surfaces, triggering then the IPN process.

  4. Analysis of irradiation processes for laser-induced periodic surface structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichstädt, J.; Huis In 't Veld, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of errors on the irradiation process for laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) was studied theoretically with energy density simulations. Therefore an irradiation model has been extended by a selection of technical variations. The influence of errors has been found in a

  5. Detection of organic residues on poultry processing equipment surfaces by LED-induced fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic residues on equipment surfaces in poultry processing plants can generate cross- contamination and increase the risk of unsafe food for consumers. This research was aimed to investigate the potential of LED-induced fluorescence imaging technique for rapid inspection of stainless steel proces...

  6. Feasibility and safety of inducing modest hypothermia in awake patients with acute stroke through surface cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Rasmussen, B H; Jørgensen, Henrik Stig

    2000-01-01

    Hypothermia reduces neuronal damage in animal stroke models. Whether hypothermia is neuroprotective in patients with acute stroke remains to be clarified. In this case-control study, we evaluated the feasibility and safety of inducing modest hypothermia by a surface cooling method in awake patients...

  7. Ag-NP@Ge-nanotaper/Si-micropillar ordered arrays as ultrasensitive and uniform surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Meng, Guowen; Li, Zhongbo; Huang, Zhulin; Li, Xiangdong

    2015-11-21

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is considered to be an excellent candidate for analytical detection schemes, because of its molecular specificity, rapid response and high sensitivity. Here, SERS-substrates of Ag-nanoparticle (Ag-NP) decorated Ge-nanotapers grafted on hexagonally ordered Si-micropillar (denoted as Ag-NP@Ge-nanotaper/Si-micropillar) arrays are fabricated via a combinatorial process of two-step etching to achieve hexagonal Si-micropillar arrays, chemical vapor deposition of flocky Ge-nanotapers on each Si-micropillar and decoration of Ag-NPs onto the Ge-nanotapers through galvanic displacement. With high density three-dimensional (3D) "hot spots" created from the large quantities of the neighboring Ag-NPs and large-scale uniform morphology, the hierarchical Ag-NP@Ge-nanotaper/Si-micropillar arrays exhibit strong and reproducible SERS activity. Using our hierarchical 3D SERS-substrates, both methyl parathion (a commonly used pesticide) and PCB-2 (one congener of highly toxic polychlorinated biphenyls) with concentrations down to 10(-7) M and 10(-5) M have been detected respectively, showing great potential in SERS-based rapid trace-level detection of toxic organic pollutants in the environment.

  8. Low-energy electron irradiation induced top-surface nanocrystallization of amorphous carbon film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Fan, Xue; Diao, Dongfeng

    2016-10-01

    We report a low-energy electron irradiation method to nanocrystallize the top-surface of amorphous carbon film in electron cyclotron resonance plasma system. The nanostructure evolution of the carbon film as a function of electron irradiation density and time was examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the electron irradiation gave rise to the formation of sp2 nanocrystallites in the film top-surface within 4 nm thickness. The formation of sp2 nanocrystallite was ascribed to the inelastic electron scattering in the top-surface of carbon film. The frictional property of low-energy electron irradiated film was measured by a pin-on-disk tribometer. The sp2 nanocrystallized top-surface induced a lower friction coefficient than that of the original pure amorphous film. This method enables a convenient nanocrystallization of amorphous surface.

  9. Morphology of IR and UV Laser-induced Structural Changes on Silicon Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Jarquin, J.; Haro-Poniatowski, E.; Fernandez-Guasti, M.; Hernandez-Pozos, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Using scanning electronic microscopy, we analyze the structural changes induced in silicon (100) wafers by focused IR (1064 nm) and UV (355 nm) nanosecond laser pulses. The experiments were performed in the laser ablation regime. When a silicon surface is irradiated by laser pulses in an O2 atmosphere conical microstructures are obtained. The changes in silicon surface morphology depend both on the incident radiation wavelength and the environmental atmosphere. We have patterned Si surfaces with a single focused laser spot and, in doing the experiments with IR or UV this reveals significant differences in the initial surface cracking and pattern formation, however the final result consist of an array of microcones when the experiment is carried out in oxygen. We employ a random scanning technique to irradiate silicon surfaces over large areas. In this form we have obtained large patterned areas

  10. Tailorable Surface Morphology of 3D Scaffolds by Combining Additive Manufacturing with Thermally Induced Phase Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luca, Andrea; de Wijn, Joost R; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Camarero-Espinosa, Sandra; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2017-08-01

    The functionalization of biomaterials substrates used for cell culture is gearing towards an increasing control over cell activity. Although a number of biomaterials have been successfully modified by different strategies to display tailored physical and chemical surface properties, it is still challenging to step from 2D substrates to 3D scaffolds with instructive surface properties for cell culture and tissue regeneration. In this study, additive manufacturing and thermally induced phase separation are combined to create 3D scaffolds with tunable surface morphology from polymer gels. Surface features vary depending on the gel concentration, the exchanging temperature, and the nonsolvent used. When preosteoblasts (MC-3T3 cells) are cultured on these scaffolds, a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity is measured for submicron surface topography, suggesting a potential role on early cell differentiation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Laser-induced desorption determinations of surface diffusion on Rh(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seebauer, E.G.; Schmidt, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Surface diffusion of hydrogen, deuterium and CO on Rh(111) has been investigated by laser-induced thermal desorption (LITD) and compared with previous results for these species on Pt(111) and on other metals. For deuterium in the coverage range 0.02 0 - 8 x 10 -2 cm 2 /s, with a diffusion activation energy 3.7 0 rises from 10 -3 to 10 -2 cm 2 /s between θ = 0.01 and 0.40. Values of E/sub diff/ on different surfaces appear to correlate with differences in heats of adsorption in different binding states which form saddle point configurations in surface diffusion. In addition, oxidation reactions on Rh and on several other transition metal surfaces may be limited to CO or H surface diffusion. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. Response of cells on surface-induced nanopatterns: fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Hwei Ling; Kuan, Yujun; Kukula, Hildegard; Tamada, Kaoru; Knoll, Wolfgang; Moeller, Martin; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2007-05-01

    Ultrathin films of a poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyrindine) diblock copolymer (PS-b-P2VP) and poly(styrene)-block-poly(4-vinylpyrindine) diblock copolymer (PS-b-P4VP) were used to form surface-induced nanopattern (SINPAT) on mica. Surface interaction controlled microphase separation led to the formation of chemically heterogeneous surface nanopatterns on dry ultrathin films. Two distinct nanopatterned surfaces, namely, wormlike and dotlike patterns, were used to investigate the influence of topography in the nanometer range on cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration. Atomic force microscopy was used to confirm that SINPAT was stable under cell culture conditions. Fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells were cultured on the nanopatterned surfaces. Phase contrast and confocal laser microscopy showed that fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells preferred the densely spaced wormlike patterns. Atomic force microscopy showed that the cells remodelled the extracellular matrix differently as they migrate over the two distinctly different nanopatterns.

  13. On the dual nature of lichen-induced rock surface weathering in contrasting micro-environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Gonçalves, João; Oliveira, Cláudia; Favero-Longo, Sergio E; Paz-Bermúdez, Graciela; Almeida, Rubim; Prieto, Beatriz

    2016-10-01

    Contradictory evidence from biogeomorphological studies has increased the debate on the extent of lichen contribution to differential rock surface weathering in both natural and cultural settings. This study, undertaken in Côa Valley Archaeological Park, aimed at evaluating the effect of rock surface orientation on the weathering ability of dominant lichens. Hyphal penetration and oxalate formation at the lichen-rock interface were evaluated as proxies of physical and chemical weathering, respectively. A new protocol of pixel-based supervised image classification for the analysis of periodic acid-Schiff stained cross-sections of colonized schist revealed that hyphal spread of individual species was not influenced by surface orientation. However, hyphal spread was significantly higher in species dominant on northwest facing surfaces. An apparently opposite effect was noticed in terms of calcium oxalate accumulation at the lichen-rock interface; it was detected by Raman spectroscopy and complementary X-ray microdiffraction on southeast facing surfaces only. These results suggest that lichen-induced physical weathering may be most severe on northwest facing surfaces by means of an indirect effect of surface orientation on species abundance, and thus dependent on the species, whereas lichen-induced chemical weathering is apparently higher on southeast facing surfaces and dependent on micro-environmental conditions, giving only weak support to the hypothesis that lichens are responsible for the currently observed pattern of rock-art distribution in Côa Valley. Assumptions about the drivers of open-air rock-art distribution patterns elsewhere should also consider the micro-environmental controls of lichen-induced weathering, to avoid biased measures of lichen contribution to rock-art deterioration. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Multicharged ion-induced emission from metal- and insulator surfaces related to magnetic fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, H.P. [Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Physik

    1997-01-01

    The edge region of magnetically confined plasmas in thermonuclear fusion experiments couples the hot plasma core with the cold first wall. We consider the dependence of plasma-wall interaction processes on edge plasma properties, with particular emphasis on the role of slow multicharged ions (MCI). After a short survey on the physics of slow MCI-surface interaction we discuss recent extensive studies on MCI-induced electron emission from clean metal surfaces conducted at impact velocities << 1 a.u., from which generally reliable total electron yields can be obtained. We then demonstrate the essentially different role of the MCI charge for electron emission from metallic and insulator surfaces, respectively. Furthermore, we present recent results on slow MCI-induced `potential sputtering` of insulators which, in contrast to the well established kinetic sputtering, already occurs at very low ion impact energy and strongly increases with the MCI charge state. (J.P.N.). 55 refs.

  15. Ion bombardment induced smoothing of amorphous metallic surfaces: Experiments versus computer simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vauth, Sebastian; Mayr, S. G.

    2008-01-01

    Smoothing of rough amorphous metallic surfaces by bombardment with heavy ions in the low keV regime is investigated by a combined experimental-simulational study. Vapor deposited rough amorphous Zr 65 Al 7.5 Cu 27.5 films are the basis for systematic in situ scanning tunneling microscopy measurements on the smoothing reaction due to 3 keV Kr + ion bombardment. The experimental results are directly compared to the predictions of a multiscale simulation approach, which incorporates stochastic rate equations of the Langevin type in combination with previously reported classical molecular dynamics simulations [Phys. Rev. B 75, 224107 (2007)] to model surface smoothing across length and time scales. The combined approach of experiments and simulations clearly corroborates a key role of ion induced viscous flow and ballistic effects in low keV heavy ion induced smoothing of amorphous metallic surfaces at ambient temperatures

  16. Shear- and magnetic-field-induced ordering in magnetic nanoparticle dispersion from small-angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, V.V.; Bhandar, A.S.; Piao, M.; Zoto, I.; Lane, A.M.; Nikles, D.E.; Wiest, J.M.; Mankey, G.J.; Porcar, L.; Glinka, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering experiments have been performed to investigate orientational ordering of a dispersion of rod-shaped ferromagnetic nanoparticles under the influence of shear flow and static magnetic field. In this experiment, the flow and flow gradient directions are perpendicular to the direction of the applied magnetic field. The scattering intensity is isotropic in zero-shear-rate or zero-applied-field conditions, indicating that the particles are randomly oriented. Anisotropic scattering is observed both in a shear flow and in a static magnetic field, showing that both flow and field induce orientational order in the dispersion. The anisotropy increases with the increase of field and with the increase of shear rate. Three states of order have been observed with the application of both shear flow and magnetic field. At low shear rates, the particles are aligned in the field direction. When increasing shear rate is applied, the particles revert to random orientations at a characteristic shear rate that depends on the strength of the applied magnetic field. Above the characteristic shear rate, the particles align along the flow direction. The experimental results agree qualitatively with the predictions of a mean field model

  17. Monte Carlo simulation of ionizing radiation induced DNA strand breaks utilizing coarse grained high-order chromatin structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Yang, Gen; Liu, Feng; Wang, Yugang

    2016-01-07

    Ionizing radiation threatens genome integrity by causing DNA damage. Monte Carlo simulation of the interaction of a radiation track structure with DNA provides a powerful tool for investigating the mechanisms of the biological effects. However, the more or less oversimplification of the indirect effect and the inadequate consideration of high-order chromatin structures in current models usually results in discrepancies between simulations and experiments, which undermine the predictive role of the models. Here we present a biophysical model taking into consideration factors that influence indirect effect to simulate radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in eukaryotic cells with high-order chromatin structures. The calculated yields of single-strand breaks and double-strand breaks (DSBs) for photons are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The calculated yields of DSB for protons and α particles are consistent with simulations by the PARTRAC code, whereas an overestimation is seen compared with the experimental results. The simulated fragment size distributions for (60)Co γ irradiation and α particle irradiation are compared with the measurements accordingly. The excellent agreement with (60)Co irradiation validates our model in simulating photon irradiation. The general agreement found in α particle irradiation encourages model applicability in the high linear energy transfer range. Moreover, we demonstrate the importance of chromatin high-order structures in shaping the spectrum of initial damage.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of ionizing radiation induced DNA strand breaks utilizing coarse grained high-order chromatin structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Ying; Yang, Gen; Liu, Feng; Wang, Yugang

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation threatens genome integrity by causing DNA damage. Monte Carlo simulation of the interaction of a radiation track structure with DNA provides a powerful tool for investigating the mechanisms of the biological effects. However, the more or less oversimplification of the indirect effect and the inadequate consideration of high-order chromatin structures in current models usually results in discrepancies between simulations and experiments, which undermine the predictive role of the models. Here we present a biophysical model taking into consideration factors that influence indirect effect to simulate radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in eukaryotic cells with high-order chromatin structures. The calculated yields of single-strand breaks and double-strand breaks (DSBs) for photons are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The calculated yields of DSB for protons and α particles are consistent with simulations by the PARTRAC code, whereas an overestimation is seen compared with the experimental results. The simulated fragment size distributions for 60 Co γ irradiation and α particle irradiation are compared with the measurements accordingly. The excellent agreement with 60 Co irradiation validates our model in simulating photon irradiation. The general agreement found in α particle irradiation encourages model applicability in the high linear energy transfer range. Moreover, we demonstrate the importance of chromatin high-order structures in shaping the spectrum of initial damage. (paper)

  19. Induced liquid-crystalline ordering in solutions of stiff and flexible amphiphilic macromolecules: Effect of mixture composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glagolev, Mikhail K.; Vasilevskaya, Valentina V.; Khokhlov, Alexei R.

    2016-01-01

    Impact of mixture composition on self-organization in concentrated solutions of stiff helical and flexible macromolecules was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulation. The macromolecules were composed of identical amphiphilic monomer units but a fraction f of macromolecules had stiff helical backbones and the remaining chains were flexible. In poor solvents the compacted flexible macromolecules coexist with bundles or filament clusters from few intertwined stiff helical macromolecules. The increase of relative content f of helical macromolecules leads to increase of the length of helical clusters, to alignment of clusters with each other, and then to liquid-crystalline-like ordering along a single direction. The formation of filament clusters causes segregation of helical and flexible macromolecules and the alignment of the filaments induces effective liquid-like ordering of flexible macromolecules. A visual analysis and calculation of order parameter relaying the anisotropy of diffraction allow concluding that transition from disordered to liquid-crystalline state proceeds sharply at relatively low content of stiff components.

  20. Formation of organic layer on femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumaru, Naoki, E-mail: yasuma@fukui-nct.ac.jp [National Institute of Technology, Fukui College, Sabae, Fukui 916-8507 (Japan); Sentoku, Eisuke [National Institute of Technology, Fukui College, Sabae, Fukui 916-8507 (Japan); Kiuchi, Junsuke [Eyetec Co., Ltd., Sabae, Fukui 916-0016 (Japan)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Surface analyses of two types of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on titanium were conducted. • The parallel-oriented ultrafine LIPSS showed the almost same roughness and chemical states as the non-irradiated Ti surface. • The well-known perpendicular-oriented LIPSS were typically covered with an organic layer similar to a cellulose derivative. - Abstract: Two types of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) formed on titanium by femtosecond (fs) laser pulses (λ = 800 nm, τ = 180 fs, ν = 1 kHz) in air were investigated experimentally. At a laser fluence F above the ablation threshold, LIPSS with a minimum mean spacing of D < λ⁄2 were observed perpendicular to the laser polarization direction. In contrast, for F slightly below than the ablation threshold, ultrafine LIPSS with a minimum value of D < λ/10 were formed parallel to the polarization direction. The surface roughness of the parallel-oriented LIPSS was almost the same as that of the non-irradiated surface, unlike the high roughness of the perpendicular-oriented LIPSS. In addition, although the surface state of the parallel-oriented LIPSS was the same as that of the non-irradiated surface, the perpendicular-oriented LIPSS were covered with an organic thin film similar to a cellulose derivative that cannot be easily formed by conventional chemical synthesis. The results of these surface analyses indicate that these two types of LIPSS are formed through different mechanisms. This fs-laser processing technique may become a new technology for the artificial synthesis of cellulose derivatives.

  1. Observation and modeling of tide- and wind-induced surface currents in Galway Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ren

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A high-frequency radar system has been deployed in Galway Bay, a semi-enclosed bay on the west coast of Ireland. The system provides surface currents with fine spatial resolution every hour. Prior to its use for model validation, the accuracy of the radar data was verified through comparison with measurements from acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs and a good correlation between time series of surface current speeds and directions obtained from radar data and ADCP data. Since Galway Bay is located on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, it is subject to relatively windy conditions, and surface currents are therefore strongly wind-driven. With a view to assimilating the radar data for forecasting purposes, a three-dimensional numerical model of Galway Bay, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC, was developed based on a terrain-following vertical (sigma coordinate system. This study shows that the performance and accuracy of the numerical model, particularly with regard to tide- and wind-induced surface currents, are sensitive to the vertical layer structure. Results of five models with different layer structures are presented and compared with radar measurements. A variable vertical structure with thin layers at the bottom and the surface and thicker layers in the middle of the water column was found to be the optimal layer structure for reproduction of tide- and wind-induced surface currents. This structure ensures that wind shear can properly propagate from the surface layer to the sub-surface layers, thereby ensuring that wind forcing is not overdamped by tidal forcing. The vertical layer structure affects not only the velocities at the surface layer but also the velocities further down in the water column.

  2. Observation and modeling of tide- and wind-induced surface currents in Galway Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei REN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A high-frequency radar system has been deployed in Galway Bay, a semi-enclosed bay on the west coast of Ireland. The system provides surface currents with fine spatial resolution every hour. Prior to its use for model validation, the accuracy of the radar data was verified through comparison with measurements from acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs and a good correlation between time series of surface current speeds and directions obtained from radar data and ADCP data. Since Galway Bay is located on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, it is subject to relatively windy conditions, and surface currents are therefore strongly wind-driven. With a view to assimilating the radar data for forecasting purposes, a three-dimensional numerical model of Galway Bay, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC, was developed based on a terrain-following vertical (sigma coordinate system. This study shows that the performance and accuracy of the numerical model, particularly with regard to tide- and wind-induced surface currents, are sensitive to the vertical layer structure. Results of five models using different layer structures are presented and compared with radar measurements. A variable vertical structure with thin layers at the bottom and the surface and thicker layers in the middle of the water column was found to be the optimal layer structure for reproduction of tide- and wind-induced surface currents. This structure ensures that wind shear can properly propagate from the surface layer to the sub-surface layers, thereby ensuring that wind forcing is not overdamped by tidal forcing. The vertical layer structure affects not only the velocities at the surface layer but also the velocities further down in the water column.

  3. Photo-induced formation of nitrous acid (HONO) on protein surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusel, Hannah; Elshorbany, Yasin; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Selzle, Kathrin; Lelieveld, Jos; Ammann, Markus; Pöschl, Ulrich; Su, Hang; Cheng, Yafang

    2014-05-01

    The study of nitrous acid (HONO) is of great interest, as the photolysis of HONO leads to the OH radical, which is the most important oxidant in the troposphere. HONO is directly emitted by combustion of fossil fuel and from soil biogenic nitrite (Su et al., 2011), and can also be formed by gas phase reactions of NO and OH and heterogeneous reactions of NO2. Previous atmospheric measurements have shown unexpectedly high HONO concentrations during daytime. Measured mixing ratios were about one order of magnitude higher than model simulations (Kleffmann et al. 2005, Vogel et al. 2003). The additional daytime source of HONO might be attributed to the photolysis of adsorbed nitric acid or heterogeneous photochemistry of NO2 on organic substrates, such as humic acids or polyphenolic compounds (Stemmler et al., 2006), or indirectly through nitration of phenols and subsequent photolysis of nitrophenols (Sosedova et al., 2011, Bejan et al., 2006). An important reactive surface for the heterogeneous formation of HONO could involve proteins, which are ubiquitous in the environment. They are part of coarse biological aerosol particles like pollen grains, fine particles (fragments of pollen, microorganism, plant debris) and dissolved in rainwater, soil and road dust (Miguel et al. 1999). In this project a thin film of bovine serum albumin (BSA), a model protein with 67 kDa and 21 tyrosine residues per molecule, is irradiated and exposed to nitrogen dioxide in humidified nitrogen. The formation of HONO is measured with long path absorption photometry (LOPAP). The generated HONO is in the range of 100 to 1100 ppt depending on light intensity, NO2 concentration and film thickness. Light induced HONO formation on protein surfaces is stable over the 20-hours experiment of irradiation and exposure. On the other hand, light activated proteins reacting with NO2 form nitrated proteins, as detected by liquid chromatography (LC-DAD). Our experiments on tetranitromethane (TNM) nitrated

  4. Topological spin excitations induced by an external magnetic field coupled to a surface with rotational symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho-Santos, Vagson L.; Dandoloff, Rossen

    2013-01-01

    We study the Heisenberg model in an external magnetic field on curved surfaces with rotational symmetry. The Euler-Lagrange static equations, derived from the Hamiltonian, lead to the inhomogeneous double sine-Gordon equation. Nonetheless, if the magnetic field is coupled to the metric elements of the surface, and consequently to its curvature, the homogeneous double sine-Gordon equation emerges and a 2π-soliton solution is obtained. In order to satisfy the self-dual equations, surface deformations are predicted to appear at the sector where the spin direction is opposite to the magnetic field. On the basis of the model, we find the characteristic length of the 2π-soliton for three specific rotationally symmetric surfaces: the cylinder, the catenoid, and the hyperboloid. On finite surfaces, such as the sphere, torus, and barrels, fractional 2π-solitons are predicted to appear. (author)

  5. Simulation study and guidelines to generate Laser-induced Surface Acoustic Waves for human skin feature detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Fu, Xing; Chen, Kun; Dorantes-Gonzalez, Dante J.; Li, Yanning; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaotang

    2015-12-01

    Despite the seriously increasing number of people contracting skin cancer every year, limited attention has been given to the investigation of human skin tissues. To this regard, Laser-induced Surface Acoustic Wave (LSAW) technology, with its accurate, non-invasive and rapid testing characteristics, has recently shown promising results in biological and biomedical tissues. In order to improve the measurement accuracy and efficiency of detecting important features in highly opaque and soft surfaces such as human skin, this paper identifies the most important parameters of a pulse laser source, as well as provides practical guidelines to recommended proper ranges to generate Surface Acoustic Waves (SAWs) for characterization purposes. Considering that melanoma is a serious type of skin cancer, we conducted a finite element simulation-based research on the generation and propagation of surface waves in human skin containing a melanoma-like feature, determine best pulse laser parameter ranges of variation, simulation mesh size and time step, working bandwidth, and minimal size of detectable melanoma.

  6. Narrow titanium oxide nanowires induced by femtosecond laser pulses on a titanium surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui; Li, Xian-Feng [Laboratory of Nanophotonic Functional Materials and Devices, School of Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhang, Cheng-Yun [School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tie, Shao-Long [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Lan, Sheng, E-mail: slan@scnu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Nanophotonic Functional Materials and Devices, School of Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Titanium oxide nanowires with a feature width as narrow as ∼20 nm were induced on a titanium surface by using femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm. • An evolution of the surface structure from a high spatial frequency laser-induced periodic structure parallel to the laser polarization to a low spatial frequency one perpendicular to the laser polarization was observed with increasing irradiation pulse number. • The formation of the titanium oxide nanowires was confirmed by the energy dispersive spectroscopy measurements and the evolution of the surface structure was successfully interpreted by using the efficacy factor theory. - Abstract: The evolution of the nanostructure induced on a titanium (Ti) surface with increasing irradiation pulse number by using a 400-nm femtosecond laser was examined by using scanning electron microscopy. High spatial frequency periodic structures of TiO{sub 2} parallel to the laser polarization were initially observed because of the laser-induced oxidation of the Ti surface and the larger efficacy factor of TiO{sub 2} in this direction. Periodically aligned TiO{sub 2} nanowires with featured width as small as 20 nm were obtained. With increasing pulse number, however, low spatial frequency periodic structures of Ti perpendicular to the laser polarization became dominant because Ti possesses a larger efficacy factor in this direction. The competition between the high- and low-spatial frequency periodic structures is in good agreement with the prediction of the efficacy factor theory and it should also be observed in the femtosecond laser ablation of other metals which are easily oxidized in air.

  7. An amorphous Si-O film tribo-induced by natural hydrosilicate powders on ferrous surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Baosen; Xu, Binshi; Xu, Yi; Ba, Zhixin; Wang, Zhangzhong

    2013-01-01

    The tribological properties of surface-coated serpentine powders suspended in oil were evaluated using an Optimal SRV-IV oscillating friction and wear tester. The worn surface and the tribo-induced protective film were characterized by scanning electron microscope and focused ion beam (SEM/FIB) work station, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results indicate that with 0.5 wt% addition of serpentine powders to oil, the friction coefficient and wear rate significantly decrease referenced to those of the base oil alone. An amorphous SiO x film with amorphous SiO x particles inserted has formed on the worn surface undergoing the interactions between serpentine particles and friction surfaces. The protective film with excellent lubricating ability and mechanical properties is responsible for the reduced friction and wear.

  8. Surface mechanical attrition treatment induced phase transformation behavior in NiTi shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, T.; Wen, C.S.; Lu, J.; Wu, S.L.; Xin, Y.C.; Zhang, W.J.; Chu, C.L.; Chung, J.C.Y.; Yeung, K.W.K.; Kwok, D.T.K.; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    The phase constituents and transformation behavior of the martensite B19' NiTi shape memory alloy after undergoing surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) are investigated. SMAT is found to induce the formation of a parent B2 phase from the martensite B19' in the top surface layer. By removing the surface layer-by-layer, X-ray diffraction reveals that the amount of the B2 phase decreases with depth. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) further indicates that the deformed martensite in the sub-surface layer up to 300 μm deep exhibits the martensite stabilization effect. The graded phase structure and transformation behavior in the SMATed NiTi specimen can be attributed to the gradient change in strain with depth.

  9. A new multi-domain method based on an analytical control surface for linear and second-order mean drift wave loads on floating bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hui; Chen, Xiaobo

    2017-10-01

    A novel multi-domain method based on an analytical control surface is proposed by combining the use of free-surface Green function and Rankine source function. A cylindrical control surface is introduced to subdivide the fluid domain into external and internal domains. Unlike the traditional domain decomposition strategy or multi-block method, the control surface here is not panelized, on which the velocity potential and normal velocity components are analytically expressed as a series of base functions composed of Laguerre function in vertical coordinate and Fourier series in the circumference. Free-surface Green function is applied in the external domain, and the boundary integral equation is constructed on the control surface in the sense of Galerkin collocation via integrating test functions orthogonal to base functions over the control surface. The external solution gives rise to the so-called Dirichlet-to-Neumann [DN2] and Neumann-to-Dirichlet [ND2] relations on the control surface. Irregular frequencies, which are only dependent on the radius of the control surface, are present in the external solution, and they are removed by extending the boundary integral equation to the interior free surface (circular disc) on which the null normal derivative of potential is imposed, and the dipole distribution is expressed as Fourier-Bessel expansion on the disc. In the internal domain, where the Rankine source function is adopted, new boundary integral equations are formulated. The point collocation is imposed over the body surface and free surface, while the collocation of the Galerkin type is applied on the control surface. The present method is valid in the computation of both linear and second-order mean drift wave loads. Furthermore, the second-order mean drift force based on the middle-field formulation can be calculated analytically by using the coefficients of the Fourier-Laguerre expansion.

  10. Highly Ordered Periodic Au/TiO₂ Hetero-Nanostructures for Plasmon-Induced Enhancement of the Activity and Stability for Ethanol Electro-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhao; Wang, Qiyu; Zheng, Weitao; Cui, Xiaoqiang

    2016-03-02

    The catalytic electro-oxidation of ethanol is the essential technique for direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) in the area of alternative energy for the ability of converting the chemical energy of alcohol into the electric energy directly. Developing highly efficient and stable electrode materials with antipoisoning ability for ethanol electro-oxidation remains a challenge. A highly ordered periodic Au-nanoparticle (NP)-decorated bilayer TiO2 nanotube (BTNT) heteronanostructure was fabricated by a two-step anodic oxidation of Ti foil and the subsequent photoreduction of HAuCl4. The plasmon-induced charge separation on the heterointerface of Au/TiO2 electrode enhances the electrocatalytic activity and stability for the ethanol oxidation under visible light irradiation. The highly ordered periodic heterostructure on the electrode surface enhanced the light harvesting and led to the greater performance of ethanol electro-oxidation under irradiation compared with the ordinary Au NPs-decorated monolayer TiO2 nanotube (MTNT). This novel Au/TiO2 electrode also performed a self-cleaning property under visible light attributed to the enhanced electro-oxidation of the adsorbed intermediates. This light-driven enhancement of the electrochemical performances provides a development strategy for the design and construction of DAFCs.

  11. Light-Induced Tellurium Enrichment on CdZnTe Crystal Surfaces Detected by Raman Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, Samantha A.; Villa-Aleman, Eliel; Duff, Martine C.; Hunter, Doug B.; Burger, Arnold; Groza, Michael; Buliga, Vladimir; Black, David R.

    2008-01-01

    CdZnTe (CZT) crystals can be grown under controlled conditions to produce high-quality crystals to be used as room-temperature radiation detectors. Even the best crystal growth methods result in defects, such as tellurium secondary phases, that affect the crystal's performance. In this study, CZT crystals were analyzed by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The growth of Te rich areas on the surface was induced by low-power lasers. The growth was observed versus time with low-power Raman scattering and was observed immediately under higher-power conditions. The detector response was also measured after induced Te enrichment.

  12. LIGHT INDUCED TELLURIUM ENRICHMENT ON CDZNTE CRYSTAL SURFACES DETECTED BY RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, S; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Martine Duff, M; Douglas Hunter, D

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic CdZnTe or 'CZT' crystals can be grown under controlled conditions to produce high quality crystals to be used as room temperature radiation detectors. Even the best crystal growth methods result in defects, such as tellurium secondary phases, that affect the crystal's performance. In this study, CZT crystals were analyzed by micro Raman spectroscopy. The growth of Te rich areas on the surface was induced by low powered lasers. The growth was observed versus time with low power Raman scattering and was observed immediately under higher power conditions. The detector response was also measured after induced Te enrichment

  13. Effects of photovoltaic module soiling on glass surface resistance and potential-induced degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hacke, Peter; Burton, Patrick; Hendrickson, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The sheet resistance of three soil types (Arizona road dust, soot, and sea salt) on glass were measured by the transmission line method as a function of relative humidity (RH) between 39% and 95% at 60°C. Sea salt yielded a 3.5 orders of magnitude decrease in resistance on the glass surface when ...

  14. Characterization of EUV induced carbon films using laser-generated surface acoustic waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Juequan; Lee, Christopher James; Louis, Eric; Bijkerk, Frederik; Kunze, Reinhard; Schmidt, Hagen; Schneider, Dieter; Moors, Roel

    2009-01-01

    The deposition of carbon layers on the surfaces of optics exposed to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation has been observed in EUV lithography. It has become of critical importance to detect the presence of the carbon layer in the order of nanometer thickness due to carbon's extremely strong

  15. Research project AUS-10370/CF: electron impact ionization and surface induced reactions of edge plasma constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerk, T.D.

    1999-01-01

    In order to better understand elementary reactions which are taking place at the plasma edge of thermonuclear fusion devices, three areas of research were persuaded: I) Experimental studies about electron ionization of neutrals and ions and electron attachment to molecules, II) Theoretical studies about electron ionisation of neutrals and ions and III) Reactive interaction of molecular ions with surfaces

  16. Increased cell surface metallopeptidase activity in cells undergoing UV-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piva, T.J.; Davern, C.M.; Ellem, K.A.O.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: We have previously shown that UVC irradiation activated a range of cell surface peptidases (CSP) in HeLa cell monolayer cultures 20 h post-irradiation (1). In cells undergoing apoptosis there is an increase in CSP activity compared to control viable cells in cultures which have been treated by a wide range of agents including UV-irradiation (2). In order to further understand the mechanism involved in this process, we induced apoptosis in HeLa cells using 500 Jm -2 UVB. The separation of viable, apoptotic and necrotic cells of irradiated HeLa cell cultures was made by FACS analysis and sorting. The three populations were distinguished by their staining with PI and Hoechst 33342 dyes. CSP activity was measured using the P9 assay developed in this laboratory (1-3). The viable fraction of the irradiated cells had a higher level of CSP activity compared to unirradiated controls. The level of CSP activity in the apoptotic fraction was higher than that of the viable fraction, however that of the necrotic fraction was significantly lower. This finding agreed with that seen in UVC-irradiated (50 Jm -2 ) cultures (2). In order to elucidate the mechanism by which CSP activity was increased in UVB-irradiated cells undergoing apoptosis, the cultures were treated with the following agents: bestatin, aminopeptidase inhibitor, DEVD, caspase 3 inhibitor, and 3-aminobenzamide (3AB), PARP activation inhibitor. Bestatin and DEVD did not affect the level of CSP activity in the different cell subpopulations following UVB-irradiation. Treatment with 3AB abolished the increased CSP activity seen in the viable and apoptotic fraction following UVB-irradiation. All treated cells had the same morphology as observed under EM. The degree of phosphatidylserine eversion on the cell membrane was similar as were the cleavage profiles of PARP and actin. Only DEVD-treated cells had reduced caspase 3 activity which confirmed that the activation of CSP activity in apoptotic cells is

  17. Tailored optical vector fields for ultrashort-pulse laser induced complex surface plasmon structuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, J; Perrie, W; Allegre, O J; Heil, T; Jin, Y; Fearon, E; Eckford, D; Edwardson, S P; Dearden, G

    2015-05-18

    Precise tailoring of optical vector beams is demonstrated, shaping their focal electric fields and used to create complex laser micro-patterning on a metal surface. A Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) and a micro-structured S-waveplate were integrated with a picosecond laser system and employed to structure the vector fields into radial and azimuthal polarizations with and without a vortex phase wavefront as well as superposition states. Imprinting Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS) elucidates the detailed vector fields around the focal region. In addition to clear azimuthal and radial plasmon surface structures, unique, variable logarithmic spiral micro-structures with a pitch Λ ∼1μm, not observed previously, were imprinted on the surface, confirming unambiguously the complex 2D focal electric fields. We show clearly also how the Orbital Angular Momentum(OAM) associated with a helical wavefront induces rotation of vector fields along the optic axis of a focusing lens and confirmed by the observed surface micro-structures.

  18. Effect of fullerenol surface chemistry on nanoparticle binding-induced protein misfolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic, Slaven; Nedumpully-Govindan, Praveen; Chen, Ran; Salonen, Emppu; Brown, Jared M.; Ke, Pu Chun; Ding, Feng

    2014-06-01

    Fullerene and its derivatives with different surface chemistry have great potential in biomedical applications. Accordingly, it is important to delineate the impact of these carbon-based nanoparticles on protein structure, dynamics, and subsequently function. Here, we focused on the effect of hydroxylation -- a common strategy for solubilizing and functionalizing fullerene -- on protein-nanoparticle interactions using a model protein, ubiquitin. We applied a set of complementary computational modeling methods, including docking and molecular dynamics simulations with both explicit and implicit solvent, to illustrate the impact of hydroxylated fullerenes on the structure and dynamics of ubiquitin. We found that all derivatives bound to the model protein. Specifically, the more hydrophilic nanoparticles with a higher number of hydroxyl groups bound to the surface of the protein via hydrogen bonds, which stabilized the protein without inducing large conformational changes in the protein structure. In contrast, fullerene derivatives with a smaller number of hydroxyl groups buried their hydrophobic surface inside the protein, thereby causing protein denaturation. Overall, our results revealed a distinct role of surface chemistry on nanoparticle-protein binding and binding-induced protein misfolding.Fullerene and its derivatives with different surface chemistry have great potential in biomedical applications. Accordingly, it is important to delineate the impact of these carbon-based nanoparticles on protein structure, dynamics, and subsequently function. Here, we focused on the effect of hydroxylation -- a common strategy for solubilizing and functionalizing fullerene -- on protein-nanoparticle interactions using a model protein, ubiquitin. We applied a set of complementary computational modeling methods, including docking and molecular dynamics simulations with both explicit and implicit solvent, to illustrate the impact of hydroxylated fullerenes on the structure and

  19. In situ AFM investigation of electrochemically induced surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Yu, Bo; Zhou, Feng

    2013-02-12

    Electrochemically induced surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization is traced by in situ AFM technology for the first time, which allows visualization of the polymer growth process. It affords a fundamental insight into the surface morphology and growth mechanism simultaneously. Using this technique, the polymerization kinetics of two model monomers were studied, namely the anionic 3-sulfopropyl methacrylate potassium salt (SPMA) and the cationic 2-(metharyloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium chloride (METAC). The growth of METAC is significantly improved by screening the ammonium cations by the addition of ionic liquid electrolyte in aqueous solution. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Study of ion-bombardment-induced surface topography of silver by stereophotogrammetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayazov, I.M.; Sokolov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    The ion-bombardment-induced surface topography of polycrystalline silver was studied using the stereophotogrammetric method. The samples were irradiated with 30keV argon ions at fairly high fluences (> 10 17 ions/cm 2 ). The influence of the inclination angle of the sample in the SEM on the cone shape of a SEM-picture is discussed. To analyse the irradiated surfaces covered with cones, the SEM-stereotechnique is proposed. The measurements of the sample section perpendicular to the incidence plane are also carried out. (author)

  1. Kinetic model for electric-field induced point defect redistribution near semiconductor surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Prashun; Seebauer, Edmund G.

    2014-07-01

    The spatial distribution of point defects near semiconductor surfaces affects the efficiency of devices. Near-surface band bending generates electric fields that influence the spatial redistribution of charged mobile defects that exchange infrequently with the lattice, as recently demonstrated for pile-up of isotopic oxygen near rutile TiO2 (110). The present work derives a mathematical model to describe such redistribution and establishes its temporal dependence on defect injection rate and band bending. The model shows that band bending of only a few meV induces significant redistribution, and that the direction of the electric field governs formation of either a valley or a pile-up.

  2. Kinetic model for electric-field induced point defect redistribution near semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorai, Prashun; Seebauer, Edmund G.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of point defects near semiconductor surfaces affects the efficiency of devices. Near-surface band bending generates electric fields that influence the spatial redistribution of charged mobile defects that exchange infrequently with the lattice, as recently demonstrated for pile-up of isotopic oxygen near rutile TiO 2 (110). The present work derives a mathematical model to describe such redistribution and establishes its temporal dependence on defect injection rate and band bending. The model shows that band bending of only a few meV induces significant redistribution, and that the direction of the electric field governs formation of either a valley or a pile-up.

  3. Radiation induced ion currents in vacuum due to residual He and H, and their expected effect on insulating surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, E.R.; Morono, A.; Gonzalez de Vicente, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Ceramic insulators and windows in ITER will be subjected to bombardment by energetic hydrogen isotopes and helium as a consequence of ionization of the residual gas by gamma radiation and acceleration of the ions by the local electric fields. Most of the energy carried by these particles will be deposited at or very near the surface giving rise to possible electrical and optical degradation. Severe surface electrical degradation has recently been observed when oxide materials are implanted to low doses (10 15 ions/cm 2 ) with protons and alpha particles at temperatures between 50 and 450 o C. In order to estimate the relevance to fusion applications and hence the lifetime of ceramic insulators in ITER it is necessary to quantify possible ion currents generated in the residual gas by measuring radiation induced electrical conductivity for hydrogen isotopes and helium gases at low pressures and then perform experiments in which ceramic candidate materials are subjected to ion bombardment at representative currents and energies. To determine the magnitude of radiation generated ion currents, experiments have been carried out in a special gas chamber mounted in the beam line of a 2 MeV Van de Graaff electron accelerator, with the gases being irradiated through an 0.05 x 10 -3 m thick aluminium window with 1.8 MeV electrons. A guarded volume was defined between two parallel square copper plate electrodes separated by 1.5 x 10 -2 m. The experimental set-up permitted an electric field to be applied to the irradiated volume of gas, and the electric current flowing through the ionized gas to be measured. For these experiments the radiation beam was perpendicular to the electric field direction. In this way radiation induced conductivity for helium and hydrogen has been measured at pressures between about 1000 and 10 -3 mbar (10 -5 to 10 -1 Pa), radiation dose rates of 30 Gy/s and applied voltages up to 1500 volts. The radiation induced electrical currents for low pressure

  4. Variations in sea surface roughness induced by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Godin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Observations of tsunamis away from shore are critically important for improving early warning systems and understanding of tsunami generation and propagation. Tsunamis are difficult to detect and measure in the open ocean because the wave amplitude there is much smaller than it is close to shore. Currently, tsunami observations in deep water rely on measurements of variations in the sea surface height or bottom pressure. Here we demonstrate that there exists a different observable, specifically, ocean surface roughness, which can be used to reveal tsunamis away from shore. The first detailed measurements of the tsunami effect on sea surface height and radar backscattering strength in the open ocean were obtained from satellite altimeters during passage of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman tsunami. Through statistical analyses of satellite altimeter observations, we show that the Sumatra-Andaman tsunami effected distinct, detectable changes in sea surface roughness. The magnitude and spatial structure of the observed variations in radar backscattering strength are consistent with hydrodynamic models predicting variations in the near-surface wind across the tsunami wave front. Tsunami-induced changes in sea surface roughness can be potentially used for early tsunami detection by orbiting microwave radars and radiometers, which have broad surface coverage across the satellite ground track.

  5. Single ion induced surface nanostructures: a comparison between slow highly charged and swift heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumayr, Friedrich; Facsko, Stefan; El-Said, Ayman S; Trautmann, Christina; Schleberger, Marika

    2011-10-05

    This topical review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the formation of surface nanostructures, an intriguing phenomenon in ion-surface interaction due to the impact of individual ions. In many solid targets, swift heavy ions produce narrow cylindrical tracks accompanied by the formation of a surface nanostructure. More recently, a similar nanometric surface effect has been revealed for the impact of individual, very slow but highly charged ions. While swift ions transfer their large kinetic energy to the target via ionization and electronic excitation processes (electronic stopping), slow highly charged ions produce surface structures due to potential energy deposited at the top surface layers. Despite the differences in primary excitation, the similarity between the nanostructures is striking and strongly points to a common mechanism related to the energy transfer from the electronic to the lattice system of the target. A comparison of surface structures induced by swift heavy ions and slow highly charged ions provides a valuable insight to better understand the formation mechanisms. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  6. Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on steel and titanium alloy for tribological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonse, J.; Koter, R.; Hartelt, M.; Spaltmann, D.; Pentzien, S.; Höhm, S.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.

    2014-10-01

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS, ripples) were generated on stainless steel (100Cr6) and titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) surfaces upon irradiation with multiple femtosecond laser pulses (pulse duration 30 fs, central wavelength 790 nm). The experimental conditions (laser fluence, spatial spot overlap) were optimized in a sample-scanning geometry for the processing of large surface areas (5 × 5 mm2) covered homogeneously by the nanostructures. The irradiated surface regions were subjected to white light interference microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealing spatial periods around 600 nm. The tribological performance of the nanostructured surface was characterized by reciprocal sliding against a ball of hardened steel in paraffin oil and in commercial engine oil as lubricants, followed by subsequent inspection of the wear tracks. For specific conditions, on the titanium alloy a significant reduction of the friction coefficient by a factor of more than two was observed on the laser-irradiated (LIPSS-covered) surface when compared to the non-irradiated one, indicating the potential benefit of laser surface structuring for tribological applications.

  7. Gait Characteristics Associated with Trip-Induced Falls on Level and Sloped Irregular Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Merryweather

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Same level falls continue to contribute to an alarming number of slip/trip/fall injuries in the mining workforce. The objective of this study was to investigate how walking on different surface types and transverse slopes influences gait parameters that may be associated with a trip event. Gait analysis was performed for ten subjects on two orientations (level and sloped on smooth, hard surface (control and irregular (gravel, larger rocks surfaces. Walking on irregular surfaces significantly increased toe clearance compared to walking on the smooth surface. There was a significant (p < 0.05 decrease in cadence (steps/min, stride length (m, and speed (m/s from control to gravel to larger rocks. Significant changes in external rotation and increased knee flexion while walking on irregular surfaces were observed. Toe and heel clearance requirements increased on irregular surfaces, which may provide an explanation for trip-induced falls; however, the gait alterations observed in the experienced workers used as subjects would likely improve stability and recovery from a trip.

  8. An integrated approach for analysing earthquake-induced surface effects: A case study from the Northern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldini, D.; Genevois, R.; Panizza, M.; Puccinelli, A.; Berti, M.; Simoni, A.

    This paper illustrates research addressing the subject of the earthquake-induced surface effects by means of a multidisciplinary approach: tectonics, neotectonics, seismology, geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology, soil/rock mechanics have been considered. The research is aimed to verify in areas affected by earthquake-triggered landslides a methodology for the identification of potentially unstable areas. The research was organized according to regional and local scale studies. In order to better emphasise the complexity of the relationships between all the parameters affecting the stability conditions of rock slopes in static and dynamic conditions a new integrated approach, Rock Engineering Systems (RES), was applied in the Northern Apennines. In the paper, the different phases of the research are described in detail and an example of the application of RES method in a sample area is reported. A significant aspect of the study can be seen in its attempt to overcome the exclusively qualitative aspects of research into the relationship between earthquakes and induced surface effects, and to advance the idea of beginning a process by which this interaction can be quantified.

  9. Rogue wave train generation in a metamaterial induced by cubic-quintic nonlinearities and second-order dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essama, Bedel Giscard Onana; Atangana, Jacques; Frederick, Biya Motto; Mokhtari, Bouchra; Eddeqaqi, Noureddine Cherkaoui; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the behavior of the electromagnetic wave that propagates in a metamaterial for negative index regime. Second-order dispersion and cubic-quintic nonlinearities are taken into account. The behavior obtained for negative index regime is compared to that observed for absorption regime. The collective coordinates technique is used to characterize the light pulse intensity profile at some frequency ranges. Five frequency ranges have been pointed out. The perfect combination of second-order dispersion and cubic nonlinearity leads to a robust soliton at each frequency range for negative index regime. The soliton peak power progressively decreases for absorption regime. Further, this peak power also decreases with frequency. We show that absorption regime can induce rogue wave trains generation at a specific frequency range. However, this rogue wave trains generation is maintained when the quintic nonlinearity comes into play for negative index regime and amplified for absorption regime at a specific frequency range. It clearly appears that rogue wave behavior strongly depends on the frequency and the regime considered. Furthermore, the stability conditions of the electromagnetic wave have also been discussed at frequency ranges considered for both negative index and absorption regimes.

  10. Chemical changes induced on a TiO2 surface by electron bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara, L.I.; Passeggi, M.C.G.; Ferron, J.

    2007-01-01

    We study the TiO 2 (Ti 4+ ) chemical reduction induced by electron bombardment using Auger electron spectroscopy and factor analysis. We show that the electron irradiation of a TiO 2 sample is characterized by the appearance of a lower Ti oxidation state, Ti 2 O 3 (Ti 3+ ), followed by a further deposition of carbon, which is present inevitably in the environment even under ultra-high vacuum conditions. The appearance of C over the surface is found to be a complex mechanism which affects the reduction process through passivation of the electron-induced oxygen desorption and formation of titanium carbide. For very high irradiation doses, we also found that the chemical changes on the surface are stopped due to the deposition of carbon in a graphitic form

  11. LASER INDUCED SELECTIVE ACTIVATION UTILIZING AUTO-CATALYTIC ELECTROLESS PLATING ON POLYMER SURFACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Nielsen, Jakob Skov; Tang, Peter Torben

    2009-01-01

    . Characterization of the deposited copper layer was used to select and improve laser parameters. Several types of polymers with different melting points were used as substrate. Using the above mentioned laser treatment, standard grades of thermoplastic materials such as ABS, SAN, PE, PC and others have been......This paper presents a new method for selective micro metallization of polymers induced by laser. An Nd: YAG laser was employed to draw patterns on polymer surfaces using a special set-up. After subsequent activation and auto-catalytic electroless plating, copper only deposited on the laser tracks....... Induced by the laser, porous and rough structures are formed on the surface, which favours the palladium attachment during the activation step prior to the metallization. Laser focus detection, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and other instruments were used to analyze the topography of the laser track...

  12. Laser-induced novel patterns: As smart strain actuators for new-age dental implant surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çelen, Serap; Özden, Hüseyin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► It is time for that paradigm shift and for an exploration of novel surfaces. ► We developed novel 3D smart surfaces as strain actuators by nanosecond laser pulse energies. ► We analyzed these smart surface morphologies using FEM. ► We estimated their internal stiffness values which play a great role on stress shielding effect. ► We gave the optimum operation parameters. - Abstract: Surface morphologies of titanium implants are of crucial importance for long-term mechanical adaptation for following implantation. One major problem is the stress shielding effect which originates from the mismatch of the bone and the implant elasticity. It is time for a paradigm shift and for an exploration of novel smart surfaces to prevent this problem. Several surface treatment methods have traditionally been used to modify the surface morphology of titanium dental implants. The laser micro-machining can be considered as a unique and promising, non-contact, no media, contamination free, and flexible treatment method for modifying surface properties of materials in the biomedical industry. The aim of the present study is two folds; to develop novel 3D smart surfaces which can be acted as strain actuators by nanosecond laser pulse energies and irradiation strategies. And analyze these smart surface morphologies using finite element methods in order to estimate their internal stiffness values which play a great role on stress shielding effect. Novel 3D smart strain actuators were prepared using an ytterbium fiber laser (λ = 1060 nm) with 200–250 ns pulse durations on commercial pure titanium dental implant material specimen surfaces and optimum operation parameters were suggested.

  13. Laser-induced novel patterns: As smart strain actuators for new-age dental implant surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celen, Serap, E-mail: serap.celen@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Department, Izmir, 35100 (Turkey); Oezden, Hueseyin [Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Department, Izmir, 35100 (Turkey)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is time for that paradigm shift and for an exploration of novel surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed novel 3D smart surfaces as strain actuators by nanosecond laser pulse energies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyzed these smart surface morphologies using FEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We estimated their internal stiffness values which play a great role on stress shielding effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We gave the optimum operation parameters. - Abstract: Surface morphologies of titanium implants are of crucial importance for long-term mechanical adaptation for following implantation. One major problem is the stress shielding effect which originates from the mismatch of the bone and the implant elasticity. It is time for a paradigm shift and for an exploration of novel smart surfaces to prevent this problem. Several surface treatment methods have traditionally been used to modify the surface morphology of titanium dental implants. The laser micro-machining can be considered as a unique and promising, non-contact, no media, contamination free, and flexible treatment method for modifying surface properties of materials in the biomedical industry. The aim of the present study is two folds; to develop novel 3D smart surfaces which can be acted as strain actuators by nanosecond laser pulse energies and irradiation strategies. And analyze these smart surface morphologies using finite element methods in order to estimate their internal stiffness values which play a great role on stress shielding effect. Novel 3D smart strain actuators were prepared using an ytterbium fiber laser ({lambda} = 1060 nm) with 200-250 ns pulse durations on commercial pure titanium dental implant material specimen surfaces and optimum operation parameters were suggested.

  14. Evidence for a New Magnetoelectric Effect of Current-Induced Magnetization in a Toroidal Magnetic Ordered State of UNi$_4$B

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Hiraku; Uenishi, Kenta; Miura, Naoyuki; Tabata, Chihiro; Hidaka, Hiroyuki; Yanagisawa, Tatsuya; Amitsuka, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Magnetization measurements under direct electric currents were performed for toroidal magnetic ordered state of UNi$_4$B to test a recent theoretical prediction of current-induced magnetization in a metallic system lacking local inversion symmetry.We found that each of the electric currents parallel to [$2\\bar{1}\\bar{1}0$] and [$0001$] in the hexagonal 4-index notation induces uniform magnetization in the direction of [$01\\bar{1}0$].The observed behavior of the induced magnetization is essent...

  15. The effect of boron additions on irradiation-induced order changes in Ni3Al intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njah, N.; Gilbon, D.; Dimitrov, O.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of boron additions (0.1 wt%) on the kinetics of atomic order changes in a Ni 76 Al 24 intermetallic compound, under 1 MeV electron irradiation, were investigated at temperatures of 293 K and 410 K and displacement rates of 0.09 x 10 -3 to 4.7 x 10 -3 dpa.s -1 . In these irradiation conditions, a state of residual order was obtained for long irradiation times, characterized by a steady state order parameter S∞; it corresponds to a competition between two opposite features: irradiation disordering and thermal reordering enhanced by irradiation. Boron additions did not affect the efficiency of irradiation-induced disordering: the disordering cross-section (or, equivalently, the number of replacements per displacement var-epsilon) were comparable with and without a boron addition. By contrast, the S∞ values at 293 K were much lower in the alloy containing boron. Since boron does not change the disordering rate, the large difference between the values obtained in undoped and in boron-doped alloys shows that the reordering rate is strongly reduced by the presence of boron. Thus, boron modifies the mobility of the defects responsible for the irradiation-enhanced diffusion. The data on dislocation-loop size and the reordering kinetics suggest that vacancies are trapped by boron at low temperatures and immobilized, probably by the formation of a boron-vacancy complex. The effect becomes weaker at higher displacement rates and higher temperatures, probably due to the boron-vacancy complexes becoming unstable. It is proposed that two different reordering mechanisms may be operative at 293 K, according to the presence of boron: reordering is promoted by vacancy migration in the Ni 76 Al 24 alloy, whereas in the Ni 76 Al 24 (0.1 wt%B) alloy, it is promoted by the migration of split-interstitials or/and of low-mobility vacancy-boron complexes

  16. Proton and temperature-induced competitive segregation of iron on surface and volume sinks of silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilobreeva, S.N.; Kashkarov, L.L.; Barabanenkov, M.Yu.; Pustovit, A.N.; Zinenko, V.I.; Agafonov, Yu.A.

    2007-01-01

    Experimental results are delivered on iron redistribution in silica for proton irradiation followed by thermal annealing. Iron ions are initially implanted into silica at room temperature. Proton irradiation is performed at different temperatures. It is demonstrated, in particular, that radiation-induced migration of iron is more efficient at low temperature. Iron surface segregation and capture of iron by sinks in silica subsurface region during thermal annealing are speculated in terms of diffusion-alternative-sinks problem

  17. Proton and temperature-induced competitive segregation of iron on surface and volume sinks of silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilobreeva, S.N. [Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Kosygina 19, Moscow 117975 (Russian Federation); Kashkarov, L.L. [Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Kosygina 19, Moscow 117975 (Russian Federation); Barabanenkov, M.Yu. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology and Superpure Materials, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: barab@ipmt-hpm.ac.ru; Pustovit, A.N. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology and Superpure Materials, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Zinenko, V.I. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology and Superpure Materials, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Agafonov, Yu.A. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology and Superpure Materials, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2007-03-15

    Experimental results are delivered on iron redistribution in silica for proton irradiation followed by thermal annealing. Iron ions are initially implanted into silica at room temperature. Proton irradiation is performed at different temperatures. It is demonstrated, in particular, that radiation-induced migration of iron is more efficient at low temperature. Iron surface segregation and capture of iron by sinks in silica subsurface region during thermal annealing are speculated in terms of diffusion-alternative-sinks problem.

  18. Processes setting the characteristics of sea surface cooling induced by tropical cyclones

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, E.M.; Lengaigne, Matthieu; Madec, G.; Vialard, Jérôme; Samson, G.; Jourdain, N.C.; Menkès, Christophe; Jullien, S.

    2012-01-01

    A 1/2 degrees resolution global ocean general circulation model is used to investigate the processes controlling sea surface cooling in the wake of tropical cyclones (TCs). Wind forcing related to more than 3000 TCs occurring during the 1978-2007 period is blended with the CORE II interannual forcing, using an idealized TC wind pattern with observed magnitude and track. The amplitude and spatial characteristics of the TC-induced cooling are consistent with satellite observations, with an aver...

  19. Theory of the oxygen-induced restructuring of Cu(110) and Cu(100) surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1990-01-01

    A model calculation based on the effective-medium theory of the oxygen-induced reconstruction of the (110) and (100) surfaces of Cu is presented. Equilibrium structures are calculated from a minimization of the total energy of the system. Missing-row-type reconstructions are found to be most stable...... in both cases, and an analysis is presented, showing what the driving force is behind these reconstructions....

  20. Polarization-induced renormalization of molecular levels at metallic and semiconducting surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Lastra, Juan Maria; Rostgaard, Carsten; Rubio, A.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of first-principles G0W0 calculations we systematically study how the electronic levels of a benzene molecule are renormalized by substrate polarization when physisorbed on different metallic and semiconducting surfaces. The polarization-induced reduction in the energy gap between oc...... find that error cancellations lead to remarkably good agreement between the G0W0 and Kohn-Sham energies for the occupied orbitals of the adsorbed molecule....

  1. Performance Improvement of Polymer Solar Cells by Surface-Energy-Induced Dual Plasmon Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mengnan; Shen, Ping; Liu, Yan; Chen, Boyuan; Guo, Wenbin; Ruan, Shengping; Shen, Liang

    2016-03-09

    The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) is effectively applied on polymer solar cells (PSCs) to improve power conversion efficiency (PCE). However, universality of the reported results mainly focused on utilizing single type of MNPs to enhance light absorption only in specific narrow wavelength range. Herein, a surface-energy-induced dual MNP plasmon resonance by thermally evaporating method was presented to achieve the absorption enhancement in wider range. The differences of surface energy between silver (Ag), gold (Au), and tungsten trioxide (WO3) compared by contact angle images enable Ag and Au prefer to respectively aggregate into isolated islands rather than films at the initial stage of the evaporation process, which was clearly demonstrated in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurement. The sum of plasmon-enhanced wavelength range induced by both Ag NPs (350-450 nm) and Au NPs (450-600 nm) almost cover the whole absorption spectra of active layers, which compatibly contribute a significant efficiency improvement from 4.57 ± 0.16 to 6.55 ± 0.12% compared to the one without MNPs. Besides, steady state photoluminescence (PL) measurements provide strong evidence that the SPR induced by the Ag-Au NPs increase the intensity of light absorption. Finally, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) reveals that doping Au and Ag causes upper shift of both the work function and valence band of WO3, which is directly related to hole collection ability. We believe the surface-energy-induced dual plasmon resonance enhancement by simple thermally evaporating technique might pave the way toward higher-efficiency PSCs.

  2. Mechanism of equivalent electric dipole oscillation for high-order harmonic generation from grating-structured solid-surface by femtosecond laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Song, Hai-Ying; Liu, H. Y.; Liu, Shi-Bing

    2017-07-01

    We theoretically study high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from relativistically driven overdense plasma targets with rectangularly grating-structured surfaces by femtosecond laser pulses. Our particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations show that, under the conditions of low laser intensity and plasma density, the harmonics emit principally along small angles deviating from the target surface. Further investigation of the surface electron dynamics reveals that the electron bunches are formed by the interaction between the laser field and the target surface, giving rise to the oscillation of equivalent electric-dipole (OEED), which enhances specific harmonic orders. Our work helps understand the mechanism of harmonic emissions from grating targets and the distinction from the planar harmonic scheme.

  3. The influence of projectile ion induced chemistry on surface pattern formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmakar, Prasanta, E-mail: prasantak@vecc.gov.in [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Satpati, Biswarup [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2016-07-14

    We report the critical role of projectile induced chemical inhomogeneity on surface nanostructure formation. Experimental inconsistency is common for low energy ion beam induced nanostructure formation in the presence of uncontrolled and complex contamination. To explore the precise role of contamination on such structure formation during low energy ion bombardment, a simple and clean experimental study is performed by selecting mono-element semiconductors as the target and chemically inert or reactive ion beams as the projectile as well as the source of controlled contamination. It is shown by Atomic Force Microscopy, Cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy measurements that bombardment of nitrogen-like reactive ions on Silicon and Germanium surfaces forms a chemical compound at impact zones. Continuous bombardment of the same ions generates surface instability due to unequal sputtering and non-uniform re-arrangement of the elemental atom and compound. This instability leads to ripple formation during ion bombardment. For Argon-like chemically inert ion bombardment, the chemical inhomogeneity induced boost is absent; as a result, no ripples are observed in the same ion energy and fluence.

  4. Surface chemical reactions induced by molecules electronically-excited in the gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrunin, Victor V.

    2011-01-01

    and alignment are taking place, guiding all the molecules towards the intersections with the ground state PES, where transitions to the ground state PES will occur with minimum energy dissipation. The accumulated kinetic energy may be used to overcome the chemical reaction barrier. While recombination chemical...... be readily produced. Products of chemical adsorption and/or chemical reactions induced within adsorbates are aggregated on the surface and observed by light scattering. We will demonstrate how pressure and spectral dependencies of the chemical outcomes, polarization of the light and interference of two laser...... beams inducing the reaction can be used to distinguish the new process we try to investigate from chemical reactions induced by photoexcitation within adsorbed molecules and/or gas phase photolysis....

  5. Nanoparticle Enhanced Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Effect of nanoparticles deposited on sample surface on laser ablation and plasma emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Giacomo, A.; Gaudiuso, R.; Koral, C.; Dell'Aglio, M.; De Pascale, O.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the use of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) for improving Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is discussed. In the case of conductors an emission signal enhancement up to 1–2 orders of magnitude was obtained depositing NPs on the sample surface by drying a micro-drop of colloidal solution. The basic mechanisms of Nanoparticle Enhanced LIBS (NELIBS) were studied and the main causes of this significantly large enhancement were found to be related to the effect of NPs on the laser ablation process, in terms of a faster and more efficient production of seed electrons with respect to conventional LIBS. The characteristics of NELIBS-produced plasma were investigated by emission spectroscopy and spectrally resolved images. In spite of similar plasma parameters, the NELIBS plasma was found to have larger emission volume and longer persistence than the LIBS one. A method to determine NP concentration and size was also proposed, which involved depositing NPs on non-interacting substrates, and proved the feasibility of LIBS as a fast detection tool for a preliminary characterization of NPs. - Highlights: • Effect of NPs on sample surface enables instantaneous field emission. • More efficient ablation • LIBS emission enhancement up to 1–2 orders of magnitude • Possibility of NP characterization in terms of concentration and size

  6. Surface and elemental alterations of dental alloys induced by electro discharge machining (EDM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinelis, Spiros

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate the surface and elemental alterations induced by electro discharge machining (EDM) on the surface of dental cast alloys used for the fabrication of implant retained meso- and super-structures. A completed cast model of an arch that received dental implants was used for the preparation of six wax patterns which were divided into three groups (Au, Co and Ti). The wax patterns of the Au and Co groups were invested with conventional phosphate-bonded silica-based investment material and the Ti group with magnesia-based investment material. The investment rings of the Au and Co groups were cast with an Au-Ag alloy (Stabilor G) and a Co-Cr base alloy (Okta C), respectively, while the investment rings of group Ti were cast with cp Ti (Biotan). One casting of each group was subjected to electro discharge machining (EDM); the other was conventionally ground and polished. The surface morphology and the elemental compositions of conventionally and EDM-finished surfaces were studied by SEM/X-ray EDS analysis. Six spectra were collected from each surface employing the area scan mode and the mean value of each element between conventionally and EDM-finished surfaces was statistically analyzed by t-test (a=0.05). Then the specimens of each group were cut perpendicular to their longitudinal axis and after metallographic grinding and polishing the cross-sections studied under the SEM. The EDM surfaces showed a significant increase in C due to the decomposition of the dielectric fluid during spark erosion. Moreover, a significant Cu uptake was noted on these surfaces from the decomposition of the Cu electrodes used for EDM. Cross-sectional analysis showed that all alloys developed a superficial zone (recast layer) varying from 2 microm for Au-Ag to 10 microm for Co-Cr alloy. The elemental composition of dental alloy surfaces is significantly altered after EDM treatment.

  7. Surface characterization by energy distribution measurements of secondary electrons and of ion-induced electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, H.E.; Seiler, H.

    1988-01-01

    Instruments for surface microanalysis (e.g. scanning electron or ion microprobes, emission electron or ion microscopes) use the current of emitted secondary electrons or of emitted ion-induced electrons for imaging of the analysed surface. These currents, integrating over all energies of the emitted low energy electrons, are however, not well suited to surface analytical purposes. On the contrary, the energy distribution of these electrons is extremely surface-sensitive with respect to shape, size, width, most probable energy, and cut-off energy. The energy distribution measurements were performed with a cylindrical mirror analyser and converted into N(E), if necessary. Presented are energy spectra of electrons released by electrons and argon ions of some contaminated and sputter cleaned metals, the change of the secondary electron energy distribution from oxidized aluminium to clean aluminium, and the change of the cut-off energy due to work function change of oxidized aluminium, and of a silver layer on a platinum sample. The energy distribution of the secondary electrons often shows detailed structures, probably due to low-energy Auger electrons, and is broader than the energy distribution of ion-induced electrons of the same object point. (author)

  8. Various categories of defects after surface alloying induced by high current pulsed electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Dian [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Tang, Guangze, E-mail: oaktang@hit.edu.cn [School of Material Science & Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Ma, Xinxin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Gu, Le [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Sun, Mingren [School of Material Science & Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Liqin [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Four kinds of defects are found during surface alloying by high current electron beam. • Exploring the mechanism how these defects appear after irradiation. • Increasing pulsing cycles will help to get good surface quality. • Choosing proper energy density will increase surface quality. - Abstract: High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) is an attractive advanced materials processing method which could highly increase the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, how to eliminate different kinds of defects during irradiation by HCPEB especially in condition of adding new elements is a challenging task. In the present research, the titanium and TaNb-TiW composite films was deposited on the carburizing steel (SAE9310 steel) by DC magnetron sputtering before irradiation. The process of surface alloying was induced by HCPEB with pulse duration of 2.5 μs and energy density ranging from 3 to 9 J/cm{sup 2}. Investigation of the microstructure indicated that there were several forms of defects after irradiation, such as surface unwetting, surface eruption, micro-cracks and layering. How the defects formed was explained by the results of electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results also revealed that proper energy density (∼6 J/cm{sup 2}) and multi-number of irradiation (≥50 times) contributed to high quality of alloyed layers after irradiation.

  9. Surface modification induced by UV nanosecond Nd:YVO4 laser structuring on biometals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, M. Paula; López, Ana J.; Ramil, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    Laser surface texturing is a promising tool for improving metallic biomaterials performance in dental and orthopedic bone-replacing applications. Laser ablation modifies the topography of bulk material and might alter surface properties that govern the interactions with the surrounding tissue. This paper presents a preliminary evaluation of surface modifications in two biometals, stainless steel 316L and titanium alloy Ti6Al4V by UV nanosecond Nd:YVO4. Scanning electron microscopy of the surface textured by parallel micro-grooves reveals a thin layer of remelted material along the grooves topography. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction allowed us to appreciate a grain refinement of original crystal structure and consequently induced residual strain. Changes in the surface chemistry were determined by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; in this sense, generalized surface oxidation was observed and characterization of the oxides and other compounds such hydroxyl groups was reported. In case of titanium alloy, oxide layer mainly composed by TiO2 which is a highly biocompatible compound was identified. Furthermore, laser treatment produces an increase in oxide thickness that could improve the corrosion behavior of the metal. Otherwise, laser treatment led to the formation of secondary phases which might be detrimental to physical and biocompatibility properties of the material.

  10. Low energy helium ion irradiation induced nanostructure formation on tungsten surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ajlony, A.; Tripathi, J.K.; Hassanein, A.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the low energy helium ion irradiation induced surface morphology changes on tungsten (W) surfaces under extreme conditions. Surface morphology changes on W surfaces were monitored as a function of helium ion energy (140–300 eV), fluence (2.3 × 10 24 –1.6 × 10 25 ions m −2 ), and flux (2.0 × 10 20 –5.5 × 10 20 ion m −2 s −1 ). All the experiments were performed at 900° C. Our study shows significant effect of all the three ion irradiation parameters (ion flux, fluence, and energy) on the surface morphology. However, the effect of ion flux is more pronounced. Variation of helium ion fluence allows to capture the very early stages of fuzz growth. The observed fuzz growth and morphology changes were understood in the realm of various possible phenomena. The study has relevance and important impact in the current and future nuclear fusion applications. - Highlights: •Reporting formation of W nanostructure (fuzz) due to low energy He ion beam irradiation. •Observing the very early stages for the W-Fuzz formation. •Tracking the surface morphological evolution during the He irradiation. •Discussing in depth our observation and drawing a possible scenario that explain this phenomenon. •Studying various ions irradiation parameters such as flux, fluence, and ions energy.

  11. Low energy helium ion irradiation induced nanostructure formation on tungsten surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ajlony, A., E-mail: montaserajlony@yahoo.com; Tripathi, J.K.; Hassanein, A.

    2017-05-15

    We report on the low energy helium ion irradiation induced surface morphology changes on tungsten (W) surfaces under extreme conditions. Surface morphology changes on W surfaces were monitored as a function of helium ion energy (140–300 eV), fluence (2.3 × 10{sup 24}–1.6 × 10{sup 25} ions m{sup −2}), and flux (2.0 × 10{sup 20}–5.5 × 10{sup 20} ion m{sup −2} s{sup −1}). All the experiments were performed at 900° C. Our study shows significant effect of all the three ion irradiation parameters (ion flux, fluence, and energy) on the surface morphology. However, the effect of ion flux is more pronounced. Variation of helium ion fluence allows to capture the very early stages of fuzz growth. The observed fuzz growth and morphology changes were understood in the realm of various possible phenomena. The study has relevance and important impact in the current and future nuclear fusion applications. - Highlights: •Reporting formation of W nanostructure (fuzz) due to low energy He ion beam irradiation. •Observing the very early stages for the W-Fuzz formation. •Tracking the surface morphological evolution during the He irradiation. •Discussing in depth our observation and drawing a possible scenario that explain this phenomenon. •Studying various ions irradiation parameters such as flux, fluence, and ions energy.

  12. Molecular Dynamics Study of Thermally Augmented Nanodroplet Motion on Chemical Energy Induced Wettability Gradient Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Monojit; Chowdhury, Anamika; Bhusan, Richa; DasGupta, Sunando

    2015-10-20

    Droplet motion on a surface with chemical energy induced wettability gradient has been simulated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to highlight the underlying physics of molecular movement near the solid-liquid interface including the contact line friction. The simulations mimic experiments in a comprehensive manner wherein microsized droplets are propelled by the surface wettability gradient against forces opposed to motion. The liquid-wall Lennard-Jones interaction parameter and the substrate temperature are varied to explore their effects on the three-phase contact line friction coefficient. The contact line friction is observed to be a strong function of temperature at atomistic scales, confirming their experimentally observed inverse functionality. Additionally, the MD simulation results are successfully compared with those from an analytical model for self-propelled droplet motion on gradient surfaces.

  13. Observation of Atom Wave Phase Shifts Induced by Van Der Waals Atom-Surface Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perreault, John D.; Cronin, Alexander D.

    2005-01-01

    The development of nanotechnology and atom optics relies on understanding how atoms behave and interact with their environment. Isolated atoms can exhibit wavelike (coherent) behavior with a corresponding de Broglie wavelength and phase which can be affected by nearby surfaces. Here an atom interferometer is used to measure the phase shift of Na atom waves induced by the walls of a 50 nm wide cavity. To our knowledge this is the first direct measurement of the de Broglie wave phase shift caused by atom-surface interactions. The magnitude of the phase shift is in agreement with that predicted by Lifshitz theory for a nonretarded van der Waals interaction. This experiment also demonstrates that atom waves can retain their coherence even when atom-surface distances are as small as 10 nm

  14. The effect of incidence angle on ion bombardment induced surface topography development on single crystal copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Lewis, G.W.; Whitton, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The fluence dependence of development of microscopic surface features, particularly etch pits, during 9 keV Ar + ion bombardment of (11,3,1) oriented Cu single crystals has been studied employing quasi-dynamic irradiation and observation techniques in a scanning electron microscope-accelerator system. 9 keV ions are observed not to produce crystallographic pyramids under all irradiation conditions for this surface, a very different result from our earlier studies with higher energy ions. The bombardment does elaborate etch pits however, the habits and growth kinetics of which depend upon both polar and azimuthal angles of ion incidence to the surface. The results are explained in terms of differential erosion of crystal planes modified by the presence of pre-existing and irradiation induces extended defects. (orig.)

  15. Fluxon induced surface resistance and field emission in niobium films at 1.5 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuti, Cristoforo; Darriulat, Pierre; Peck, M A; Valente, A M; Van't Hof, C A

    2001-01-01

    The surface resistance of superconducting niobium films induced by the presence of trapped magnetic flux, presumably in the form of a pinned fluxon lattice, is shown to be modified by the presence of a field emitting impurity or defect. The modification takes the form of an additional surface resistance proportional to the density of the fluxon lattice and increasing linearly with the amplitude of the microwave above a threshold significantly lower than the field emission threshold. Such an effect, a precursor of electron emission, is observed for the first time in a study using radiofrequency cavities operating at their fundamental 1.5 GHz frequency. The measured properties of the additional surface resistance severely constrain possible explanations of the observed effect. (23 refs).

  16. First-principles study of the interactions of hydrogen with low-index surfaces of PdCu ordered alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Tang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available PdCu catalysts play a key role in several hydrogen-involved processes. Among these reactions, the interaction of hydrogen with PdCu essentially determines the catalytic performance. However, the response of PdCu to surrounding hydrogen has been poorly investigated, especially for specific facets of PdCu at different environment. In this work, taking temperature and hydrogen pressure into account, we studied the hydrogen-surface interactions for four low-index surfaces of PdCu through first-principles calculations. It was found that H-PdCu adsorption strong relies on the facets, hydrogen coverage, and reaction environment (temperature and H-pressure. Our work highlights the importance of the environment on the nature of catalyst surfaces and reactions and offers a plausible way to investigate the interactions between gas and the surfaces of nanocatalysts in real reactions.

  17. First-principles study of the interactions of hydrogen with low-index surfaces of PdCu ordered alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Tang; Hengbo Li; Wentao Yuan; Shihui Zou; Chenghua Sun; Yong Wang

    2017-01-01

    PdCu catalysts play a key role in several hydrogen-involved processes. Among these reactions, the interaction of hydrogen with PdCu essentially determines the catalytic performance. However, the response of PdCu to surrounding hydrogen has been poorly investigated, especially for specific facets of PdCu at different environment.In this work, taking temperature and hydrogen pressure into account, we studied the hydrogen-surface interactions for four low-index surfaces of PdCu through first-principles calculations. It was found that H-PdCu adsorption strong relies on the facets, hydrogen coverage, and reaction environment (temperature and H-pressure).Our work highlights the importance of the environment on the nature of catalyst surfaces and reactions and offers a plausible way to investigate the interactions between gas and the surfaces of nanocatalysts in real reactions.

  18. A miniaturized oxygen sensor integrated on fiber surface based on evanescent-wave induced fluorescence quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); Oil and Gas Field Applied Chemistry Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, 610500 (China); Tan, Jun; Wang, Chengjie; Zhu, Ying [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); Fang, Shenwen [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); Oil and Gas Field Applied Chemistry Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, 610500 (China); Wu, Jiayi; Wang, Qing [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); Duan, Ming, E-mail: swpua124@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); Oil and Gas Field Applied Chemistry Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, 610500 (China)

    2016-11-15

    In this work, a miniaturized sensor was integrated on fiber surface and developed for oxygen determination through evanescent-wave induced fluorescence quenching. The sensor was designed by using light emitting diode (LED) as light source and optical fiber as light transmission element. Tris(2,2′-bipyridyl) ruthenium ([Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+}) fluorophore was immobilized in the organically modified silicates (ORMOSILs) film and coated onto the fiber surface. When light propagated by total internal reflection (TIR) in the fiber core, evanescent wave could be produced on the fiber surface and excite [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} fluorophore to produce fluorescence emission. Then oxygen could be determinated by its quenching effect on the fluorescence and its concentration could be evaluated according to Stern–Volumer model. Through integrating evanescent wave excitation and fluorescence quenching on fiber surface, the sensor was successfully miniaturized and exhibit improved performances of high sensitivity (1.4), excellent repeatability (1.2%) and fast analysis (12 s) for oxygen determination. The sensor provided a newly portable method for in-situ and real-time measurement of oxygen and showed potential for practical oxygen analysis in different application fields. Furthermore, the fabrication of this sensor provides a miniaturized and portable detection platform for species monitoring by simple modular design. - Highlights: • ORMOSILs sensing film immobilized with [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} fluorophore was coated on fiber surface. • Evanescent wave on the fiber surface was utilized as excitation source to produce fluorescence. • Oxygen was measured based on its quenching effect on evanescent wave-induce fluorescence. • Sensor fabrication was miniaturized by integrating detection and sensing elements on the fiber. • The modular design sensor provides a detection platform for other species monitoring.

  19. Surface modification induced phase transformation and structure variation on the rapidly solidified recast layer of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Ming-Hung [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, National Kaoshiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaoshiung 807, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Haung, Chiung-Fang [School of Dental Technology, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Division of Family and Operative Dentistry, Department of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Devices and Prototyping Production, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Shyu, Shih-Shiun [Department of Dentistry, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, New Taipei City 231, Taiwan (China); Chou, Yen-Ru [Research Center for Biomedical Devices and Prototyping Production, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ming-Hong [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, National Kaoshiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaoshiung 807, Taiwan (China); Peng, Pei-Wen, E-mail: apon@tmu.edu.tw [School of Dental Technology, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); and others

    2015-08-15

    In this study, neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate (Nd:YVO{sub 4}) as a laser source with different scanning speeds was used on biomedical Ti surface. The microstructural and biological properties of laser-modified samples were investigated by means of optical microscope, electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, surface roughness instrument, contact angle and cell cytotoxicity assay. After laser modification, the rough volcano-like recast layer with micro-/nanoporous structure and wave-like recast layer with nanoporous structure were generated on the surfaces of laser-modified samples, respectively. It was also found out that, an α → (α + rutile-TiO{sub 2}) phase transition occurred on the recast layers of laser-modified samples. The Ti surface becomes hydrophilic at a high speed laser scanning. Moreover, the cell cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that laser-modified samples did not influence the cell adhesion and proliferation behaviors of osteoblast (MG-63) cell. The laser with 50 mm/s scanning speed induced formation of rough volcano-like recast layer accompanied with micro-/nanoporous structure, which can promote cell adhesion and proliferation of MG-63 cell on Ti surface. The results indicated that the laser treatment was a potential technology to enhance the biocompatibility for titanium. - Highlights: • Laser induced the formation of recast layer with micro-/nanoporous structure on Ti. • An α → (α + rutile-TiO{sub 2}) phase transition was observed within the recast layer. • The Ti surface becomes hydrophilic at a high speed laser scanning. • Laser-modified samples exhibit good biocompatibility to osteoblast (MG-63) cell.

  20. Hydroxyapatite growth induced by native extracellular matrix deposition on solid surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramatarova L.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems have a remarkable capability to produce perfect fine structures such as seashells, pearls, bones, teeth and corals. These structures are composites of interacting inorganic (calcium phosphate or carbonate minerals and organic counterparts. It is difficult to say with certainty which part has the primary role. For example, the growth of molluscan shell crystals is thought to be initiated from a solution by the extracellular organic matrix (ECM. According to this theory, the matrix induces nucleation of calcium containing crystals. Recently, an alternative theory has been put forward, stating that a class of granulocytic hemocytes would be directly involved in shell crystal production in oysters. In the work presented here the surface of AISI 316 stainless steel was modified by deposition of ECM proteins. The ability of the modified substrates to induce nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite (HA from simulated body fluid (SBF was examined by a kinetic study using two methods: (1 a simple soaking process in SBF and (2 a laser-liquid-solid interaction (LLSI process which allows interaction between a scanning laser beam and a solid substrate immersed in SBF. The deposited HA layers were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was found that a coating of stainless steel surface with native ECM proteins induced nucleation and growth of HA and facilitated its crystallization. By the process of simple soaking of the samples, irrespective of their horizontal or vertical position in the solution, HA layers were grown due to the reactive ECM-coated stainless steel surface. It was shown that the process occurring in the first stages of the growth was not only a result of the force of gravity. The application of the LLSI process strongly influenced HA formation on the ECM-modified substrates by promoting and enhancing the HA nucleation and growth through a synergistic effect

  1. Scattering properties of vein induced localized surface plasmon resonances on a gold disk

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    It is demonstrated via simulations that a gold nano-disk with a non-concentric cavity supports localized surface plasmon resonances over a frequency band that includes the visible and the near-infrared parts of the spectrum. The charge distribution on the disk indicates that the two distinct peaks in the scattering cross section are due to the (hybridized) higher-order plasmon modes; plasmon hybridization that involves the dipole modes of the disk and the cavity enforces the "coupling" of the plane-wave excitation to the originally-dark higher-order modes. It is further demonstrated that the resonance frequencies can be tuned by varying the radius of the embedded non-concentric cavity. The near-field enhancement observed at these two tunable resonance frequencies suggests that the proposed structure can be used as a substrate in surface enhanced spectroscopy applications. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Atomic Scale coexistence of Periodic and quasiperiodic order in a2-fold A1-Ni-Co decagonal quasicrystal surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Young; Ogletree, D. Frank; Salmeron, Miquel; Ribeiro,R.A.; Canfield, P.C.; Jenks, C.J.; Thiel, P.A.

    2005-11-14

    Decagonal quasicrystals are made of pairs of atomic planes with pentagonal symmetry periodically stacked along a 10-fold axis. We have investigated the atomic structure of the 2-fold surface of a decagonal Al-Ni-Co quasicrystal using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The surface consists of terraces separated by steps of heights 1.9, 4.7, 7.8, and 12.6{angstrom} containing rows of atoms parallel to the 10-fold direction with an internal periodicity of 4{angstrom}. The rows are arranged aperiodically, with separations that follow a Fibonacci sequence and inflation symmetry. The results indicate that the surfaces are preferentially Al-terminated and in general agreement with bulk models.

  3. Motion induced second order temperature and y-type anisotropies after the subtraction of linear dipole in the CMB maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunyaev, Rashid A.; Khatri, Rishi

    2013-01-01

    y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background allow us to detect clusters and groups of galaxies, filaments of hot gas and the non-uniformities in the warm hot intergalactic medium. Several CMB experiments (on small areas of sky) and theoretical groups (for full sky) have recently published y-type distortion maps. We propose to search for two artificial hot spots in such y-type maps resulting from the incomplete subtraction of the effect of the motion induced dipole on the cosmic microwave background sky. This dipole introduces, at second order, additional temperature and y-distortion anisotropy on the sky of amplitude few μK which could potentially be measured by Planck HFI and Pixie experiments and can be used as a source of cross channel calibration by CMB experiments. This y-type distortion is present in every pixel and is not the result of averaging the whole sky. This distortion, calculated exactly from the known linear dipole, can be subtracted from the final y-type maps, if desired

  4. Investigation of optically-induced DFB lasing in organic scintillators in order to achieve active ionizing radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Maugan

    2014-01-01

    Transducers used for nuclear measurements are divided into two groups. The first one is made of detectors based on the movement of charged carriers created during the interaction of ionizing radiation with materials (ionization chambers, semiconductors, etc.). The second comprises scintillating materials which emit light following such interaction. The present work aims at shifting the current paradigm in order to achieve an active measurement of the interactions between particles and sensor. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the response of nano-structured scintillators when excited by a primary laser beam while in the presence of ionizing radiations. It consists more precisely in optically inducing a laser emission in scintillators so as to benefit from the inherent sensitivity of this kind of wave to any kind of change in its environment. This study is at first focused on controlling the propagation of the electromagnetic waves in nano-structured media. This nano-structuration allows the channeling of the electromagnetic energy in a particular direction and at a precise wavelength and thus to amplify the transduction signal. The second part of this study is dedicated to the attempts at observing any change in the emission in an amplified regime while exposed to ionizing radiations (alpha, beta). The limitation of these sources requires the use of an electron accelerator. The conclusion of this part lays the foundation for future work and provides hypotheses regarding the effects that could be expected from the irradiation with high electron fluxes. (author) [fr

  5. Transcriptomic Analysis of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from Patients with Bipolar Disorder from an Old Order Amish Pedigree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwi Hye Kim

    Full Text Available Fibroblasts from patients with Type I bipolar disorder (BPD and their unaffected siblings were obtained from an Old Order Amish pedigree with a high incidence of BPD and reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. Established iPSCs were subsequently differentiated into neuroprogenitors (NPs and then to neurons. Transcriptomic microarray analysis was conducted on RNA samples from iPSCs, NPs and neurons matured in culture for either 2 weeks (termed early neurons, E or 4 weeks (termed late neurons, L. Global RNA profiling indicated that BPD and control iPSCs differentiated into NPs and neurons at a similar rate, enabling studies of differentially expressed genes in neurons from controls and BPD cases. Significant disease-associated differences in gene expression were observed only in L neurons. Specifically, 328 genes were differentially expressed between BPD and control L neurons including GAD1, glutamate decarboxylase 1 (2.5 fold and SCN4B, the voltage gated type IV sodium channel beta subunit (-14.6 fold. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the up-regulation of GAD1 in BPD compared to control L neurons. Gene Ontology, GeneGo and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of differentially regulated genes in L neurons suggest that alterations in RNA biosynthesis and metabolism, protein trafficking as well as receptor signaling pathways may play an important role in the pathophysiology of BPD.

  6. Impurity induced antiferromagnetic order in Haldane gap compound SrNi2-xMgxV2O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahari, B.; Ghoshray, K.; Ghoshray, A.; Samanta, T.; Das, I.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of nonmagnetic Mg 2+ doping in SrNi 2 V 2 O 8 , a Haldane gap system with a disordered ground state, was investigated using DC magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity measurements in polycrystalline samples of SrNi 2-x Mg x V 2 O 8 with x=0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.1 and 0.14. The results clearly reveal that the substitution of Ni 2+ (S=1) ion by Mg 2+ (S=0) ion induces a magnetic phase transition with the ordering temperatures lying in the range 3.4-4.3K, for the samples with lowest and highest value of x. The intrachain exchange constant (J/k B ) and the Haldane gap (Δ) for all the compounds were estimated to be ∼98+/-2 and 25K, respectively, which are close to that of the undoped compound. The magnetization data further suggest that the compounds exhibit metamagnetic behavior below T N , supporting a picture of antiferromagnet with significant magnetic anisotropy and competing intrachain and interchain interactions

  7. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of shear-induced particle migration in plane Couette-Poiseuille flow: Local ordering of suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Byoungjin; Kwon, Ilyoung; Jung, Hyun Wook; Hyun, Jae Chun

    2017-12-01

    The shear-induced migration of concentrated non-Brownian monodisperse suspensions in combined plane Couette-Poiseuille (C-P) flows is studied using a lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulations are mainly performed for a particle volume fraction of ϕbulk = 0.4 and H/a = 44.3, 23.3, where H and a denote the channel height and radius of suspended particles, respectively. The simulation method is validated in two simple flows, plane Poiseuille and plane Couette flows. In the Poiseuille flow, particles migrate to the mid-plane of the channel where the local concentration is close to the limit of random-close-packing, and a random structure is also observed at the plane. In the Couette flow, the particle distribution remains in the initial uniform distribution. In the combined C-P flows, the behaviors of migration are categorized into three groups, namely, Poiseuille-dominant, Couette-dominant, and intermediate regimes, based on the value of a characteristic force, G, where G denotes the relative magnitude of the body force (P) against the wall-driving force (C). With respect to the Poiseuille-dominant regime, the location of the maximum concentration is shifted from the mid-plane to the lower wall moving in the same direction as the external body force, when G decreases. With respect to the Couette-dominant regime, the behavior is similar to that of a simple shear flow with the exception that a slightly higher concentration of particles is observed near the lower wall. However, with respect to the intermediate value of G, several layers of highly ordered particles are unexpectedly observed near the lower wall where the plane of maximum concentration is located. The locally ordered structure is mainly due to the lateral migration of particles and wall confinement. The suspended particles migrate toward a vanishingly small shear rate at the wall, and they are consequently layered into highly ordered two-dimensional structures at the high local volume fraction.

  8. Critical role of surface chemical modifications induced by length shortening on multi-walled carbon nanotubes-induced toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussy Cyrill

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Given the increasing use of carbon nanotubes (CNT in composite materials and their possible expansion to new areas such as nanomedicine which will both lead to higher human exposure, a better understanding of their potential to cause adverse effects on human health is needed. Like other nanomaterials, the biological reactivity and toxicity of CNT were shown to depend on various physicochemical characteristics, and length has been suggested to play a critical role. We therefore designed a comprehensive study that aimed at comparing the effects on murine macrophages of two samples of multi-walled CNT (MWCNT specifically synthesized following a similar production process (aerosol-assisted CVD, and used a soft ultrasonic treatment in water to modify the length of one of them. We showed that modification of the length of MWCNT leads, unavoidably, to accompanying structural (i.e. defects and chemical (i.e. oxidation modifications that affect both surface and residual catalyst iron nanoparticle content of CNT. The biological response of murine macrophages to the two different MWCNT samples was evaluated in terms of cell viability, pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion and oxidative stress. We showed that structural defects and oxidation both induced by the length reduction process are at least as responsible as the length reduction itself for the enhanced pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative response observed with short (oxidized compared to long (pristine MWCNT. In conclusion, our results stress that surface properties should be considered, alongside the length, as essential parameters in CNT-induced inflammation, especially when dealing with a safe design of CNT, for application in nanomedicine for example.

  9. Ni3Si surface-film formation caused by radiation-induced segregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, D.I.; Rehn, L.E.; Okamoto, P.R.; Wiedersich, H.

    1977-01-01

    Several advanced alloys being considered for reactor applications contain the ordered γ' phase Ni 3 X in which the X component is frequently Al, Si and/or Ti. These alloys are precipitation hardened, and their strength depends upon the volume fraction, size, and spatial distribution of the coherent γ' precipitate. The investigation shows that a substantial Ni 3 Si precipitate film forms on the surface of irradiated specimens of solid-solution as well as two-phase Ni-Si alloys

  10. Reconstruction of Laser-Induced Surface Topography from Electron Backscatter Diffraction Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Patrick G; Echlin, McLean P; Pollock, Tresa M; De Graef, Marc

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate that the surface topography of a sample can be reconstructed from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) patterns collected with a commercial EBSD system. This technique combines the location of the maximum background intensity with a correction from Monte Carlo simulations to determine the local surface normals at each point in an EBSD scan. A surface height map is then reconstructed from the local surface normals. In this study, a Ni sample was machined with a femtosecond laser, which causes the formation of a laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS). The topography of the LIPSS was analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and reconstructions from EBSD patterns collected at 5 and 20 kV. The LIPSS consisted of a combination of low frequency waviness due to curtaining and high frequency ridges. The morphology of the reconstructed low frequency waviness and high frequency ridges matched the AFM data. The reconstruction technique does not require any modification to existing EBSD systems and so can be particularly useful for measuring topography and its evolution during in situ experiments.

  11. Effect of plasma-induced surface charging on catalytic processes: application to CO2 activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Kristof M.; Huygh, Stijn; Bogaerts, Annemie; Neyts, Erik C.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the nature and effect of the multitude of plasma-surface interactions in plasma catalysis is a crucial requirement for further process development and improvement. A particularly intriguing and rather unique property of a plasma-catalytic setup is the ability of the plasma to modify the electronic structure, and hence chemical properties, of the catalyst through charging, i.e. the absorption of excess electrons. In this work, we develop a quantum chemical model based on density functional theory to study excess negative surface charges in a heterogeneous catalyst exposed to a plasma. This method is specifically applied to investigate plasma-catalytic CO2 activation on supported M/Al2O3 (M = Ti, Ni, Cu) single atom catalysts. We find that (1) the presence of a negative surface charge dramatically improves the reductive power of the catalyst, strongly promoting the splitting of CO2 to CO and oxygen, and (2) the relative activity of the investigated transition metals is also changed upon charging, suggesting that controlled surface charging is a powerful additional parameter to tune catalyst activity and selectivity. These results strongly point to plasma-induced surface charging of the catalyst as an important factor contributing to the plasma-catalyst synergistic effects frequently reported for plasma catalysis.

  12. Single-step fabrication of electrodes with controlled nanostructured surface roughness using optically-induced electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N.; Li, M.; Liu, L.; Yang, Y.; Mai, J.; Pu, H.; Sun, Y.; Li, W. J.

    2018-02-01

    The customized fabrication of microelectrodes from gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has attracted much attention due to their numerous applications in chemistry and biomedical engineering, such as for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and as catalyst sites for electrochemistry. Herein, we present a novel optically-induced electrodeposition (OED) method for rapidly fabricating gold electrodes which are also surface-modified with nanoparticles in one single step. The electrodeposition mechanism, with respect to the applied AC voltage signal and the elapsed deposition time, on the resulting morphology and particle sizes was investigated. The results from SEM and AFM analysis demonstrated that 80-200 nm gold particles can be formed on the surface of the gold electrodes. Simultaneously, both the size of the nanoparticles and the roughness of the fabricated electrodes can be regulated by the deposition time. Compared to state-of-the-art methods for fabricating microelectrodes with AuNPs, such as nano-seed-mediated growth and conventional electrodeposition, this OED technique has several advantages including: (1) electrode fabrication and surface modification using nanoparticles are completed in a single step, eliminating the need for prefabricating micro electrodes; (2) the patterning of electrodes is defined using a digitally-customized, projected optical image rather than using fixed physical masks; and (3) both the fabrication and surface modification processes are rapid, and the entire fabrication process only requires less than 6 s.

  13. Surface-induced dissociation and chemical reactions of C2D4(+) on stainless steel, carbon (HOPG), and two different diamond surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feketeová, Linda; Zabka, Jan; Zappa, Fabio; Grill, Verena; Scheier, Paul; Märk, Tilmann D; Herman, Zdenek

    2009-06-01

    Surface-induced interactions of the projectile ion C(2)D(4)(+) with room-temperature (hydrocarbon covered) stainless steel, carbon highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), and two different types of diamond surfaces (O-terminated and H-terminated) were investigated over the range of incident energies from a few eV up to 50 eV. The relative abundance of the product ions in dependence on the incident energy of the projectile ion [collision-energy resolved mass spectra, (CERMS) curves] was determined. The product ion mass spectra contained ions resulting from direct dissociation of the projectile ions, from chemical reactions with the hydrocarbons on the surface, and (to a small extent) from sputtering of the surface material. Sputtering of the surface layer by low-energy Ar(+) ions (5-400 eV) indicated the presence of hydrocarbons on all studied surfaces. The CERMS curves of the product ions were analyzed to obtain both CERMS curves for the products of direct surface-induced dissociation of the projectile ion and CERMS curves of products of surface reactions. From the former, the fraction of energy converted in the surface collision into the internal excitation of the projectile ion was estimated as 10% of the incident energy. The internal energy of the surface-excited projectile ions was very similar for all studied surfaces. The H-terminated room-temperature diamond surface differed from the other surfaces only in the fraction of product ions formed in H-atom transfer surface reactions (45% of all product ions formed versus 70% on the other surfaces).

  14. Investigations of plasma induced effects on the surface properties of lignocellulosic natural coir fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen, K.M., E-mail: praveenkmiiucnn@gmail.com [International and Inter University Centre for Nano Science and Nanotechnology (IIUCNN), Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala (India); Centre de Recherche C.Huygens, LIMATB (Laboratoired’Ingénierie des Matériaux de Bretagne), Université De Bretagne-Sud, Rue stMaudé – BP 92116, Cedex Lorient 56321 Lorient (France); Thomas, Sabu [International and Inter University Centre for Nano Science and Nanotechnology (IIUCNN), Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala (India); Grohens, Yves [Centre de Recherche C.Huygens, LIMATB (Laboratoired’Ingénierie des Matériaux de Bretagne), Université De Bretagne-Sud, Rue stMaudé – BP 92116, Cedex Lorient 56321 Lorient (France); Mozetič, Miran; Junkar, Ita; Primc, Gregor [Department of Surface Engineering, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamovacesta 39, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia); Gorjanc, Marija [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 12, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: Plasma induced changes on the morphology of coir fibres (Viewed and Analysed using scanning electron microscopy, Jeol JSM 7600 FEG). The O{sub 2} plasma treated fibre possessed increased hydrophilicity due to the chemical and physical changes induced by plasma. - Highlights: • Plasma-induced effects on the surface properties of lignocellulosic natural coir fibres were investigated. • The morphological study using SEM analysis also confirmed the surface changes which were observed after plasma treatment. • The water absorption studies show an increase of water absorption from 39% to around 100%. • The topographic measurements done using atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed etching of fibre wall, and this is responsible for higher water absorption. • XPS analysis reveals that the oxygen content measured for samples treated at 50 Pa increased from initial 18 at% to about 32 at%. - Abstract: The development of lignocellulosic natural-fibre-reinforced polymers composites are constrained by two limitations: the upper temperature at which the fibre can be processed and the significant differences between the surface energy of the fibre and the polymer matrix. Since the fibres and matrices are chemically different, strong adhesion at their interface is needed for the effective transfer of stress and bond distribution throughout the interface. The present study investigated the plasma induced effects on the surface properties of natural coir fibres. Weakly ionized oxygen plasma was created in two different discharge chambers by an inductively coupled radiofrequency (RF) discharge. The water absorption studies showed an increase of water sorption from 39% to 100%. The morphological study using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis also confirmed the surface changes which were observed after the plasma treatment. The topographic measurements and phase imaging done using atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated difference in topographic

  15. A new setup for the investigation of swift heavy ion induced particle emission and surface modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinerzhagen, F.; Breuer, L.; Bukowska, H.; Herder, M.; Schleberger, M.; Wucher, A. [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen and Cenide, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Bender, M.; Severin, D. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Lebius, H. [CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCN), 14070 Caen Cedex 5 (France)

    2016-01-15

    The irradiation with fast ions with kinetic energies of >10 MeV leads to the deposition of a high amount of energy along their trajectory (up to several ten keV/nm). The energy is mainly transferred to the electronic subsystem and induces different secondary processes of excitations, which result in significant material modifications. A new setup to study these ion induced effects on surfaces will be described in this paper. The setup combines a variable irradiation chamber with different techniques of surface characterizations like scanning probe microscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion, and neutral mass spectrometry, as well as low energy electron diffraction under ultra high vacuum conditions, and is mounted at a beamline of the universal linear accelerator (UNILAC) of the GSI facility in Darmstadt, Germany. Here, samples can be irradiated with high-energy ions with a total kinetic energy up to several GeVs under different angles of incidence. Our setup enables the preparation and in situ analysis of different types of sample systems ranging from metals to insulators. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry enables us to study the chemical composition of the surface, while scanning probe microscopy allows a detailed view into the local electrical and morphological conditions of the sample surface down to atomic scales. With the new setup, particle emission during irradiation as well as persistent modifications of the surface after irradiation can thus be studied. We present first data obtained with the new setup, including a novel measuring protocol for time-of-flight mass spectrometry with the GSI UNILAC accelerator.

  16. Surface Casimir densities and induced cosmological constant in higher dimensional braneworlds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saharian, Aram A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the vacuum expectation value of the surface energy-momentum tensor for a massive scalar field with general curvature coupling parameter obeying the Robin boundary conditions on two codimension one parallel branes in a (D+1)-dimensional background spacetime AdS D 1 +1 xΣ with a warped internal space Σ. These vacuum densities correspond to a gravitational source of the cosmological constant type for both subspaces of the branes. Using the generalized zeta function technique in combination with contour integral representations, the surface energies on the branes are presented in the form of the sum of single-brane and second-brane-induced parts. For the geometry of a single brane both regions, on the left and on the right of the brane, are considered. At the physical point the corresponding zeta functions contain pole and finite contributions. For an infinitely thin brane taking these regions together, in odd spatial dimensions the pole parts cancel and the total zeta function is finite. The renormalization procedure for the surface energies and the structure of the corresponding counterterms are discussed. The parts in the surface densities generated by the presence of the second brane are finite for all nonzero values of the interbrane separation and are investigated in various asymptotic regions of the parameters. In particular, it is shown that for large distances between the branes the induced surface densities give rise to an exponentially suppressed cosmological constant on the brane. The total energy of the vacuum including the bulk and boundary contributions is evaluated by the zeta function technique and the energy balance between separate parts is discussed

  17. Generation of Electricity at Graphene Interface Governed by Underlying Surface Dipole Induced Ion Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shanshan; Su, Yudan; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Yuanbo; Tian, Chuanshan

    Aqueous droplet moving along graphene surface can produce electricity This interesting phenomenon provided environment-friendly means to harvest energy from graphene interface in contact with sea wave or rain droplets. However, microscopically, the nature of charge adsorption at the graphene interface is still unclear. Here, utilizing sum-frequency spectroscopy in combined with measurement of electrical power generation, the origin of charge adsorption on graphene was investigated. It was found that the direct ion-graphene interaction is negligibly small, contrary to the early speculation, but the ordered surface dipole from the supporting substrate, such as PET, is responsible for ion adsorption at the interface. Graphene serves as a conductive layer with mild screening of Coulomb interaction when aqueous droplet slips over the surface. These results pave the way for optimization of energy harvesting efficiency of graphene-based device.

  18. Deformation behaviour induced by point defects near a Cu(0 0 1) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said-Ettaoussi, M.; Jimenez-Saez, J.C.; Perez-Martin, A.M.C.; Jimenez-Rodriguez, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In order to attain a satisfactory understanding of many of the properties of metallic surfaces, it is necessary to take into account the distorting effect of self-interstitials and vacancies. The present work is focused on the study of the behaviour of neighbouring atoms around point defects. The conjugate gradient method with an empiric many-body potential has been used to study the point defect-surface interaction. Point defects have been generated at several depths under a Cu(0 0 1) surface and then the whole system driven to the minimum energy state. The displacement field has been obtained in the vicinity to the defect. An energetic analysis is also carried out calculating formation and migration energies

  19. Mechanism of equivalent electric dipole oscillation for high-order harmonic generation from grating-structured solid-surface by femtosecond laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang; Song, Hai-Ying; Liu, H.Y.; Liu, Shi-Bing, E-mail: sbliu@bjut.edu.cn

    2017-07-12

    Highlights: • Proposed a valid mechanism of high harmonic generation by laser grating target interaction: oscillation of equivalent electric dipole (OEED). • Found that there also exist harmonic emission at large emission angle but not just near-surface direction as the former researches had pointed out. • Show the process of the formation and motion of electron bunches at the grating-target surface irradiating with femtosecond laser pulse. - Abstract: We theoretically study high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from relativistically driven overdense plasma targets with rectangularly grating-structured surfaces by femtosecond laser pulses. Our particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations show that, under the conditions of low laser intensity and plasma density, the harmonics emit principally along small angles deviating from the target surface. Further investigation of the surface electron dynamics reveals that the electron bunches are formed by the interaction between the laser field and the target surface, giving rise to the oscillation of equivalent electric-dipole (OEED), which enhances specific harmonic orders. Our work helps understand the mechanism of harmonic emissions from grating targets and the distinction from the planar harmonic scheme.

  20. Generation of high-order Bessel vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum using multilayer amplitude-phase-modulated surfaces in radiofrequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Na; Yu, Shixing; Li, Long

    2017-01-01

    A high-order Bessel vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) is generated by using multilayer amplitude-phase-modulated surfaces (APMSs) at 10 GHz. The APMS transmitarray is composed of four-layer conformal square-loop (FCSL) surfaces with both amplitude and phase modulation. The APMS can transform a quasi-spherical wave emitted from the feeding source into a pseudo non-diffractive high-order Bessel vortex beam with OAM. The APMS for a second-order Bessel beam carrying OAM in the n = 2 mode is designed, fabricated, and measured. Full-wave simulation and measurement results confirm that Bessel vortex beams with OAM can be effectively generated using the proposed APMS transmitarray.

  1. Detection of a milling-induced surface damage by the magnetic Barkhausen noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupakov, A.; Neslušan, M.; Perevertov, O.

    2016-07-01

    The potential of the magnetic Barkhausen noise method for a non-destructive evaluation of the steel surface damage cased by milling was comprehensively investigated. A typical bearing steel was heat treated to three different hardnesses and then machined using the cutting tools with different degrees of the flank wear. The magnetic low-frequency measurements with a high reading depth were performed using a unique laboratory system providing a full control of the magnetization process. The high-frequency measurements were performed using a commercial Rollscan device. To study the induced magnetic anisotropy, the measurements were performed in two magnetization directions. In the feeding direction, the Barkhausen noise profiles showed a second high-field peak ascribed to an induced hardened surface layer, a so-called white layer. The most reliable results were obtained with the controlled waveform of the surface magnetic field measured directly by Hall sensors. In the perpendicular rotation direction, formation of the preferentially oriented matrix resulted in an enormously high Barkhausen noise activity. Based on these results, new magnetic parameters were proposed for the non-destructive evaluation of the white layer formation.

  2. Study of the thermal effect on silicon surface induced by ion beam from plasma focus device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Z., E-mail: pscientific5@aec.org.sy [Scientific Service Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box: 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Ahmad, M. [IBA Laboratory, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box: 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Chemistry Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box: 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Al-Hawat, Sh.; Akel, M. [Physics Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box: 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2017-04-01

    Structural modifications in form of ripples and cracks are induced by nitrogen ions from plasma focus on silicon surface. The investigation of such structures reveals correlation between ripples and cracks formation in peripheral region of the melt spot. The reason of such correlation and structure formation is explained as result of thermal effect. Melting and resolidification of the center of irradiated area occur within one micro second of time. This is supported by a numerical simulation used to investigate the thermal effect induced by the plasma focus ion beams on the silicon surface. This simulation provides information about the temperature profile as well as the dynamic of the thermal propagation in depth and lateral directions. In accordance with the experimental observations, that ripples are formed in latter stage after the arrival of last ion, the simulation shows that the thermal relaxation takes place in few microseconds after the end of the ion beam arrival. Additionally, the dependency of thermal propagation and relaxation on the distance of the silicon surface from the anode is presented.

  3. 6 MeV pulsed electron beam induced surface and structural changes in polyimide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathakari, Narendra L.; Bhoraskar, Vasant N. [Microtron Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, Maharashtra (India); Dhole, Sanjay D., E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ernet.i [Microtron Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, Maharashtra (India)

    2010-04-15

    Thin films of polyimide (PMDA-ODA, Kapton) having 50 mum thickness were irradiated with 6 MeV pulsed electron beam. The bulk and surface properties of pristine and irradiated samples were characterized by several techniques such as stress-strain measurements, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), UV-vis spectroscopy, contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and profilometry. The tensile strength, percentage elongation and strain energy show an enhancement from pristine value of 73-89 MPa, 10-22% and 4.75-14.2 MJ/m{sup 3} respectively at the maximum fluence of 4 x 10{sup 15} electrons/cm{sup 2}. This signifies that polyimide being an excessively aromatic polymer is crosslinked due to high-energy electron irradiation. In surface properties, the contact angle shows a significant decrease from 59 deg. to 32 deg. indicating enhancement in hydrophilicity. This mainly attributes to surface roughening, which is due to the electron beam induced sputtering. The surface roughening is confirmed in AFM and profilometry measurements. The AFM images clearly show that surface roughness increases after electron irradiation. Moreover, the roughness average (R{sub a}) as measured from surface profilograms is found to increase from 0.06 to 0.1. The FTIR and UV-vis spectra do not show noticeable changes as regards to scissioning of bonds and the oxidation. This work leads to a definite conclusion that 6 MeV pulsed electron beam can be used to bring about desired changes in surface as well as bulk properties of polyimide, which is considered to be a high performance space quality polymer.

  4. Surface morphology study of some Cu–Ni reference alloys using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheta, S.A. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science (NILES), Cairo University, 12613, Giza (Egypt); Di Carlo, G.; Ingo, G.M. [Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN-CNR), Area della Ricerca Roma 1 Montelibretti, 00016, Monterotondo Scalo, Rome (Italy); Harith, M.A., E-mail: mharithm@niles.edu.eg [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science (NILES), Cairo University, 12613, Giza (Egypt)

    2016-04-15

    In the present work a detailed study of the surface morphology of purposely-prepared Cu–Ni reference alloys has been performed. These alloys have been prepared via tailored casting methods in order to have samples with same chemical composition and different local chemical enrichments of both metals. A micro-LIBS system for surface spatial scanning was set up based on a second harmonic Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm and using a focusing lens of focal length 7 cm to disclose the local chemical composition variation. Surface morphological scanning was performed for some of the binary Cu–Ni reference alloys to differentiate between chemically homogeneous and heterogeneous alloys. LIBS results were compared with the information of the Scanning Electron Microscope coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEMEDS) investigation carried out to provide surface local large-area chemical analysis via EDS technique. It has been proved that LIBS is a simple, sensitive and direct technique in the determination of homogeneity or heterogeneity of the sample's surface. The LIBS results have been shown to be more sensitive and accurate in the heterogeneity determination than other used conventional analytical techniques. - Highlights: • Surface LIBS scanning was performed for Cu–Ni reference alloy samples. • LIBS system was based on a 2nd harmonic Nd:YAG laser and a focusing lens (f = 7 cm). • LIBS results were compared with SEM imaging and EDS chemical analysis. • Surface homogeneity and heterogeneity have been differentiated successfully. • LIBS is a sensitive analytical tool in surface metallurgical study.

  5. The Mathematical and Computer Aided Analysis of the Contact Stress of the Surface With 4th Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huran, Liu

    Inspired from some gears with heavy power transmission in practical usage after serious plastic deformation in metallurgical industry, we believe that there must existed some kind of gear profile which is most suitable in both the contact and bending fatigue strength. From careful analysis and deep going investigation, we think that it is the profile of equal conjugate curvature with high order of contact, and analyzed the forming principle of this kind of profile. Based on the second curve and comparative analysis of fourth order curves, combined with Chebyshev polynomial terms of higher order contact with tooth contact stress formula derived. Note high exposure in the case of two extreme points of stress and extreme positions and the derived extreme contact stress formula. Finally, a pair of conjugate gear tooth profile curvature provides specific contact stress calculation.

  6. Growth of epitaxially oriented Ag nanoislands on air-oxidized Si(1 1 1)-(7 × 7) surfaces: Influence of short-range order on the substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Anupam; Bhattacharjee, K.; Ghatak, J.; Dev, B.N.

    2012-01-01

    Clean Si(1 1 1)-(7 × 7) surfaces, followed by air-exposure, have been investigated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Fourier transforms (FTs) of STM images show the presence of short-range (7 × 7) order on the air-oxidized surface. Comparison with FTs of STM images from a clean Si(1 1 1)-(7 × 7) surface shows that only the 1/7th order spots are present on the air-oxidized surface. The oxide layer is ∼2-3 nm thick, as revealed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). Growth of Ag islands on these air-oxidized Si(1 1 1)-(7 × 7) surfaces has been investigated by in situ RHEED and STM and ex situ XTEM and scanning electron microscopy. Ag deposition at room temperature leads to the growth of randomly oriented Ag islands while preferred orientation evolves when Ag is deposited at higher substrate temperatures. For deposition at 550 °C face centered cubic Ag nanoislands grow with a predominant epitaxial orientation [11 ¯ 0] Ag ||[11 ¯ 0] Si , (1 1 1) Ag || (1 1 1) Si along with its twin [1 ¯ 10] Ag ||[11 ¯ 0] Si , (1 1 1) Ag || (1 1 1) Si , as observed for epitaxial growth of Ag on Si(1 1 1) surfaces. The twins are thus rotated by a 180° rotation of the Ag unit cell about the Si[1 1 1] axis. It is intriguing that Ag nanoislands follow an epitaxial relationship with the Si(1 1 1) substrate in spite of the presence of a 2-3 nm thick oxide layer between Ag and Si. Apparently the short-range order on the oxide surface influences the crystallographic orientation of the Ag nanoislands.

  7. Data on the role of accessible surface area on osmolytes-induced protein stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safikur Rahman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes data related to the research article “Testing the dependence of stabilizing effect of osmolytes on the fractional increase in the accessible surface area on thermal and chemical denaturations of proteins” [1]. Heat- and guanidinium chloride (GdmCl-induced denaturation of three disulfide free proteins (bovine cytochrome c (b-cyt-c, myoglobin (Mb and barstar in the presence of different concentrations of methylamines (sarcosine, glycine-betaine (GB and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO was monitored by [ϴ]222, the mean residue ellipticity at 222 nm at pH 7.0. Methylamines belong to a class of osmolytes known to protect proteins from deleterious effect of urea. This paper includes comprehensive thermodynamic data obtained from the heat- and GdmCl-induced denaturations of barstar, b-cyt-c and Mb.

  8. Changes in the surface electronic states of semiconductor fine particles induced by high energy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaki, Tetsuya; Asai, Keisuke; Ishigure, Kenkichi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Shibata, Hiromi

    1997-03-01

    The changes in the surface electronic states of Q-sized semiconductor particles in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, induced by high energy ion irradiation, were examined by observation of ion induced emission and photoluminescence (PL). Various emission bands attributed to different defect sites in the band gap were observed at the initial irradiation stage. As the dose increased, the emissions via the trapping sites decreased in intensity while the band-edge emission developed. This suggests that the ion irradiation would remove almost all the trapping sites in the band gap. The low energy emissions, which show a multiexponential decay, were due to a donor-acceptor recombination between the deeply trapped carriers. It was found that the processes of formation, reaction, and stabilization of the trapping sites would predominantly occur under the photooxidizing conditions. (author)

  9. The coupling of mechanical dynamics and induced currents in plates and surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenburger, D.W.; Bialek, J.M.

    1986-10-01

    Significant mechanical reactions and deflections may be produced when electrical eddy currents induced in a conducting structure by transformer-like electromotive forces interact with background magnetic fields. Additional eddy currents induced by structural motion through the background fields modify both the mechanical and electrical dynamic behavior of the system. The observed effects of these motional eddy currents are sometimes referred to as magnetic damping and magnetic stiffness. This paper addresses the coupled structural deformation and eddy currents in flat plates and simple two-dimensional surfaces in three-space. A coupled system of equations has been formulated using finite element techniques for the mechanical aspects and a mesh network method for the electrical aspects of the problem

  10. Physical properties of hydrated tissue determined by surface interferometry of laser-induced thermoelastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark, Marta L.; Perelman, Lev T.; Itzkan, Irving; Schaffer, Jonathan L.; Feld, Michael S.

    2000-02-01

    Knee meniscus is a hydrated tissue; it is a fibrocartilage of the knee joint composed primarily of water. We present results of interferometric surface monitoring by which we measure physical properties of human knee meniscal cartilage. The physical response of biological tissue to a short laser pulse is primarily thermomechanical. When the pulse is shorter than characteristic times (thermal diffusion time and acoustic relaxation time) stresses build and propagate as acoustic waves in the tissue. The tissue responds to the laser-induced stress by thermoelastic expansion. Solving the thermoelastic wave equation numerically predicts the correct laser-induced expansion. By comparing theory with experimental data, we can obtain the longitudinal speed of sound, the effective optical penetration depth and the Grüneisen coefficient. This study yields information about the laser-tissue interaction and determines properties of the meniscus samples that could be used as diagnostic parameters.

  11. Characterization of ion-irradiation-induced nanodot structures on InP surfaces by atom probe tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnaser, Hubert; Radny, Tobias

    2015-12-01

    Surfaces of InP were bombarded by 1.9 keV Ar(+) ions under normal incidence. The total accumulated ion fluence the samples were exposed to was varied from 1 × 10(17) cm(-2) to 3 × 10(18)cm(-2) and ion flux densities f of (0.4-2) × 10(14) cm(-2) s(-1) were used. Nanodot structures were found to evolve on the surface from these ion irradiations, their dimensions however, depend on the specific bombardment conditions. The resulting surface morphology was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). As a function of ion fluence, the mean radius, height, and spacing of the dots can be fitted by power-law dependences. In order to determine possible local compositional changes in these nanostructures induced by ion impact, selected samples were prepared for atom probe tomography (APT). The results indicate that by APT the composition of individual InP nanodots evolving under ion bombardment could be examined with atomic spatial resolution. At the InP surface, the values of the In/P concentration ratio are distinctly higher over a distance of ~1 nm and amount to 1.3-1.8. However, several aspects critical for the analyses were identified: (i) because of the small dimensions of these nanostructures a successful tip preparation proved very challenging. (ii) The elemental compositions obtained from APT were found to be influenced pronouncedly by the laser pulse energy; typically, low energies result in the correct stoichiometry whereas high ones lead to an inhomogeneous evaporation from the tips and deviations from the nominal composition. (iii) Depending again on the laser energy, a prolific emission of Pn cluster ions was observed, with n ≤ 11. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Formation of high-order oligomers is required for functional bioactivity of an African bat henipavirus surface glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behner, Laura; Zimmermann, Louisa; Ringel, Marc; Weis, Michael; Maisner, Andrea

    2018-05-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are highly pathogenic henipaviruses originating from fruit bats in Australia and Asia that can cause severe infections in livestock and humans. In recent years, also African bat henipaviruses were identified at the nucleic acid level. To assess their potential to replicate in non-bat species, several studies were performed to characterize the two surface glycoproteins required for virus entry and spread by cell-cell fusion. It has been shown that surface expression and fusion-helper function of the receptor-binding G protein of Kumasi virus (KV), the prototypic Ghanaian bat henipavirus, is reduced compared to other non-African henipavirus G proteins. Immunostainings and pulse-chase analysis revealed a delayed export of KV G from the ER. As defects in oligomerization of viral glycoproteins can be responsible for limited surface transport thereby restricting the bioactivity, we analyzed the oligomerization pattern of KV G. In contrast to HeV and NiV whose G proteins are known to be expressed at a dimer-tetramer ratio of 1:1, KV G almost exclusively formed stable tetramers or higher oligomers. KV G also showed less stringent requirements for defined stalk cysteines to form dimers and tetramers. Interestingly, any changes in the oligomeric forms negatively affected the fusion-helper activity although surface expression and receptor binding was unchanged. This clearly indicates that the formation of mostly higher oligomeric KV G forms is not a deficiency responsible for ER retention, but is rather a basic structural feature essential for the bioactivity of this African bat henipavirus glycoprotein. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultra-precision machining induced phase decomposition at surface of Zn-Al based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To, S.; Zhu, Y.H.; Lee, W.B.

    2006-01-01

    The microstructural changes and phase transformation of an ultra-precision machined Zn-Al based alloy were examined using X-ray diffraction and back-scattered electron microscopy techniques. Decomposition of the Zn-rich η phase and the related changes in crystal orientation was detected at the surface of the ultra-precision machined alloy specimen. The effects of the machining parameters, such as cutting speed and depth of cut, on the phase decomposition were discussed in comparison with the tensile and rolling induced microstrucutural changes and phase decomposition

  14. Influence of irradiation dose on laser-induced surface nanostructures on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlamova, Olga [Brandenburgische Technische Universität BTU Cottbus, Platz der Deutschen Einheit 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); Cottbus JointLab, Platz der Deutschen Einheit 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); Bounhalli, Mourad [Brandenburgische Technische Universität BTU Cottbus, Platz der Deutschen Einheit 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université St. Etienne, Bâtiment F 18 Rue du Professeur Benoît Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Reif, Juergen, E-mail: REIF@TU-COTTBUS.DE [Brandenburgische Technische Universität BTU Cottbus, Platz der Deutschen Einheit 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); Cottbus JointLab, Platz der Deutschen Einheit 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    We report on the dependence of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on an increase of incident pulse number. On silicon, the patterns evolve from linear, parallel sub-wavelength ripples, grossly perpendicular to the laser polarization, via coalesced wider features parallel to the polarization, to a crater with periodically structured, pillar-like walls. Closer inspection of the patterns indicates that the different features always continue to exhibit reminiscence to the preceding lower-dose patterns, suggesting that, indeed, all patterns can be created by ONE single GENERAL formation process, as in self-organized structure formation, and the different structures/feature sizes are NOT due to DIFFERENT mechanisms.

  15. Influence of irradiation dose on laser-induced surface nanostructures on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlamova, Olga; Bounhalli, Mourad; Reif, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    We report on the dependence of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on an increase of incident pulse number. On silicon, the patterns evolve from linear, parallel sub-wavelength ripples, grossly perpendicular to the laser polarization, via coalesced wider features parallel to the polarization, to a crater with periodically structured, pillar-like walls. Closer inspection of the patterns indicates that the different features always continue to exhibit reminiscence to the preceding lower-dose patterns, suggesting that, indeed, all patterns can be created by ONE single GENERAL formation process, as in self-organized structure formation, and the different structures/feature sizes are NOT due to DIFFERENT mechanisms.

  16. Ion bombardment induced surface topography modification of clean and contaminated single crystal Cu and Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.W.; Kiriakides, G.; Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Among the several factors which lead to depth resolution deterioration during sputter profiling, surface morphological modification resulting from local differences of sputtering rate can be important. This paper reports the results of direct scanning, electron microscopic studies obtained quasi-dynamically during increasing fluence ion bombardment of the evolution of etch pit structures on Si and Cu, and how such elaboration may be suppressed. It also reports on the elaboration of contaminant-induced cone generation for different ion species bombardment. The influence of such etch pit and cone generation on achievable depth resolution is assessed. (author)

  17. A parametric study of laser induced ablation-oxidation on porous silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Stefano, Luca; Rea, Ilaria; Nigro, M Arcangela; Della Corte, Francesco G; Rendina, Ivo

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the laser induced ablation-oxidation process on porous silicon layers having different porosities and thicknesses by non-destructive optical techniques. In particular, the interaction between a low power blue light laser and the porous silicon surfaces has been characterized by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The oxidation profiles etched on the porous samples can be tuned as functions of the layer porosity and laser fluence. Oxide stripes of width less than 2 μm and with thicknesses between 100 nm and 5 μm have been produced, depending on the porosity of the porous silicon, by using a 40 x focusing objective

  18. Radon-induced surface contaminations in neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattavina, L.

    2011-01-01

    In experiments looking for rare events, like neutrinoless double beta decay (DBD0ν) and dark matter search (DM), one of the main issues is to increase the experimental sensitivity through the material selection and production. The background contribution coming from the materials used for the detector realization has to be minimized. Moreover the net reduction of the background produced by the bulk part of the apparatus has raised concerns about the background contribution coming from the surfaces. Many procedures and techniques were developed during the last years in order to remove and to minimize the presence of possible contaminants on detector surfaces. To succeed in this strategy a big effort was put in defining all possible mechanisms that lead to surface contaminations, as well as specific cleaning procedures, which are able to reduce and control the surface radioactivity. The presence in air and gases of possible radioactive elements that can stick on the detector surfaces can lead to a recontamination process that will vanish all the applied cleaning procedures. Here is presented and analyzed the contribution to the background of rare events experiments like CUORE experiment (DBD0ν) and EDELWEISS experiment (DM) produced by an exposure of their detector components to a big activity of 222 Rn, radioactive daughter isotope from the 238 U chain. (author)

  19. Surface induces different crystal structures in a room temperature switchable spin crossover compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Denis; Liscio, Fabiola; Demitri, Nicola; Schäfer, Bernhard; Borgatti, Francesco; Torelli, Piero; Gobaut, Benoit; Panaccione, Giancarlo; Rossi, Giorgio; Degli Esposti, Alessandra; Gazzano, Massimo; Milita, Silvia; Bergenti, Ilaria; Ruani, Giampiero; Šalitroš, Ivan; Ruben, Mario; Cavallini, Massimiliano

    2016-01-07

    We investigated the influence of surfaces in the formation of different crystal structures of a spin crossover compound, namely [Fe(L)2] (LH: (2-(pyrazol-1-yl)-6-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridine), which is a neutral compound thermally switchable around room temperature. We observed that the surface induces the formation of two different crystal structures, which exhibit opposite spin transitions, i.e. on heating them up to the transition temperature, one polymorph switches from high spin to low spin and the second polymorph switches irreversibly from low spin to high spin. We attributed this inversion to the presence of water molecules H-bonded to the complex tetrazolyl moieties in the crystals. Thin deposits were investigated by means of polarized optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and micro Raman spectroscopy; moreover the analysis of the Raman spectra and the interpretation of spin inversion were supported by DFT calculations.

  20. Innovative nuclear technologies based on radiation induced surface activation (RISA). 1. The project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Kyosuke; Morooka, Shinichi; Hishida, Mamoru

    2004-01-01

    This research of the Innovative nuclear technologies based on Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) is due to start from 2003 and to be ended to 2006, and performed fund by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) Japan. One of the innovative technologies is to develop a high performance corrosion-proof film to prevent the surface of reactor internals from stress corrosion cracking (SCC), the other one is to develop the film for improving the heat transfer performance a high performance of the nuclear fuel rod. Both of these properties are derived under gamma ray irradiation by the RISA effect. This paper reports about the summary of this subsidy enterprise by METI. (author)

  1. Surface tension-induced high aspect-ratio PDMS micropillars with concave and convex lens tips

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei

    2013-04-01

    This paper reports a novel method for the fabrication of 3-dimensional (3D) Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars with concave and convex lens tips in a one-step molding process, using a CO2 laser-machined Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) mold with through holes. The PDMS micropillars are 4 mm high and have an aspect ratio of 251. The micropillars are formed by capillary force drawing up PDMS into the through hole mold. The concave and convex lens tips of the PDMS cylindrical micropillars are induced by surface tension and are controllable by changing the surface wetting properties of the through holes in the PMMA mold. This technique eliminates the requirements of expensive and complicated facilities to prepare a 3D mold, and it provides a simple and rapid method to fabricate 3D PDMS micropillars with controllable dimensions and tip shapes. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Plasma-induced surface degradation in 304 stainless steel used for TRIAM-1M limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukuda, N.; Kuramoto, E.; Tokunaga, K.; Muroga, T.; Yoshida, N.; Itoh, S.

    1994-01-01

    Surface degradation in a 304 stainless steel limiter of TRIAM-1M by long-pulse discharge during long period operation has been examined by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and dynamical microindentation tests. Particular exfoliation and hardening of the surface of the electron drift side were observed. These result from the formation of α prime martensite induced by hydrogen in the plasma. The stability of the martensitic phase has been studied by annealing experiments on the cathodically hydrogen charged 316 stainless steel by X-ray diffraction. Both ε and α prime martensites were formed by 22 h cathodic charging. The former reverts to γ-phase and/or converts to α prime martensite below 723 K and the latter reverts to γ-phase below 923 K, repectively. ((orig.))

  3. Martensitic phase transformations in the nanostructured surface layers induced by mechanical attrition treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Zhichun; Wang Xiaowei; Wu Erdong; Liu Gang

    2005-01-01

    Conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis have been used to investigate the relationship between characteristics of phase transformation and the treatment time in surface nanocrystallized 316L stainless steel induced by surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). A similar trend of development of the martensitic phase upon the treatment time has been observed from both CEMS and XRD measurements. However, in the CEMS measurement, two types of martensite phase with different magnetic hyperfine fields are revealed. Based on a random distribution of the non-iron coordinating atoms, a three-element theoretical model is developed to illustrate the difference of two types of martensite phase. The calculated results indicate the segregation of the non-iron atoms associated with SMAT treatment

  4. Analytical model of radiation-induced precipitation at the surface of dilute binary alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechenkin, V. A.; Stepanov, I. A.; Konobeev, Yu. V.

    2002-12-01

    Growth of precipitate layer at the foil surface of an undersaturated binary alloy under uniform irradiation is treated analytically. Analytical expressions for the layer growth rate, layer thickness limit and final component concentrations in the matrix are derived for coherent and incoherent precipitate-matrix interfaces. It is shown that the high temperature limit of radiation-induced precipitation is the same for both types of interfaces, whereas layer thickness limits are different. A parabolic law of the layer growth predicted for both types of interfaces is in agreement with experimental data on γ '-phase precipitation at the surface of Ni-Si dilute alloys under ion irradiation. Effect of sputtering on the precipitation rate and on the low temperature limit of precipitation under ion irradiation is discussed.

  5. Dissolution-Induced Nanowire Synthesis on Hot-Dip Galvanized Surface in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaretti Kaleva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we demonstrate a rapid treatment method for producing a needle-like nanowire structure on a hot-dip galvanized sheet at a temperature of 50 °C. The processing method involved only supercritical carbon dioxide and water to induce a reaction on the zinc surface, which resulted in growth of zinc hydroxycarbonate nanowires into flower-like shapes. This artificial patina nanostructure predicts high surface area and offers interesting opportunities for its use in industrial high-end applications. The nanowires can significantly improve paint adhesion and promote electrochemical stability for organic coatings, or be converted to ZnO nanostructures by calcining to be used in various semiconductor applications.

  6. Surface tension-induced high aspect-ratio PDMS micropillars with concave and convex lens tips

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei; Fan, Yiqiang; Yi, Ying; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a novel method for the fabrication of 3-dimensional (3D) Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars with concave and convex lens tips in a one-step molding process, using a CO2 laser-machined Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) mold with through holes. The PDMS micropillars are 4 mm high and have an aspect ratio of 251. The micropillars are formed by capillary force drawing up PDMS into the through hole mold. The concave and convex lens tips of the PDMS cylindrical micropillars are induced by surface tension and are controllable by changing the surface wetting properties of the through holes in the PMMA mold. This technique eliminates the requirements of expensive and complicated facilities to prepare a 3D mold, and it provides a simple and rapid method to fabricate 3D PDMS micropillars with controllable dimensions and tip shapes. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. Type of Ground Surface during Plyometric Training Affects the Severity of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage from a bout of plyometric exercise (PE; 10 × 10 vertical jumps performed in aquatic, sand and firm conditions. Twenty-four healthy college-aged men were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Aquatic (AG, n = 8, Sand (SG, n = 8 and Firm (FG, n = 8. The AG performed PE in an aquatic setting with a depth of ~130 cm. The SG performed PE on a dry sand surface at a depth of 20 cm, and the FG performed PE on a 10-cm-thick wooden surface. Plasma creatine kinase (CK activity, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS, knee range of motion (KROM, maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC of the knee extensors, vertical jump (VJ and 10-m sprint were measured before and 24, 48 and 72 h after the PE. Compared to baseline values, FG showed significantly (p < 0.05 greater changes in CK, DOMS, and VJ at 24 until 48 h. The MIVC decreased significantly for the SG and FG at 24 until 48 h post-exercise in comparison to the pre-exercise values. There were no significant (p > 0.05 time or group by time interactions in KROM. In the 10-m sprint, all the treatment groups showed significant (p < 0.05 changes compared to pre-exercise values at 24 h, and there were no significant (p > 0.05 differences between groups. The results indicate that PE in an aquatic setting and on a sand surface induces less muscle damage than on a firm surface. Therefore, training in aquatic conditions and on sand may be beneficial for the improvement of performance, with a concurrently lower risk of muscle damage and soreness.

  8. Formation of plasma induced surface damage in silica glass etching for optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, D.Y.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, D.S.; Jung, S.T.

    2004-01-01

    Ge, B, P-doped silica glass films are widely used as optical waveguides because of their low losses and inherent compatibility with silica optical fibers. These films were etched by ICP (inductively coupled plasma) with chrome etch masks, which were patterned by reactive ion etching (RIE) using chlorine-based gases. In some cases, the etched surfaces of silica glass were very rough (root-mean square roughness greater than 100 nm) and we call this phenomenon plasma induced surface damage (PISD). Rough surface cannot be used as a platform for hybrid integration because of difficulty in alignment and bonding of active devices. PISD reduces the etch rate of glass and it is very difficult to remove residues on a rough surface. The objective of this study is to elucidate the mechanism of PISD formation. To achieve this goal, PISD formation during different etching conditions of chrome etch mask and silica glass was investigated. In most cases, PISD sources are formed on a glass surface after chrome etching, and metal compounds are identified in theses sources. Water rinse after chrome etching reduces the PISD, due to the water solubility of metal chlorides. PISD is decreased or even disappeared at high power and/or low pressure in glass etching, even if PISD sources were present on the glass surface before etching. In conclusion, PISD sources come from the chrome etching process, and polymer deposition on these sources during the silica etching cause the PISD sources to grow. In the area close to the PISD source there is a higher ion flux, which causes an increase in the etch rate, and results in the formation of a pit

  9. Surface-defect induced modifications in the optical properties of α-MnO_2 nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Reenu Elizabeth; Chandran, Anoop; Thomas, Marykutty; Jose, Joshy; George, K.C.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Alpha-MnO_2 nanorods are prepared by chemical method. • Difference in surface defect density is achieved. • Characterized using XRD, Rietveld, XPS, EDS, HR-TEM, BET, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and PL spectroscopy. • Explains the bandstructure modification due to Jahn–Teller distortions using crystal field theory. • Modification in the intensity of optical emissions related to defect levels validates the concept of surface defect induced tuning of optical properties. - Abstract: The science of defect engineering via surface tuning opens a new route to modify the inherent properties of nanomaterials for advanced functional and practical applications. In this work, two independent synthesis methods (hydrothermal and co-precipitation) are adopted to fabricate α-MnO_2 nanorods with different defect structures so as to understand the effect of surface modifications on their optical properties. The crystal structure and morphology of samples are investigated with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Atomic composition calculated from energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) confirms non-stoichiometry of the samples. The surface properties and chemical environment are thoroughly studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis. Bond angle variance and bond valence sum are determined to validate distortions in the basic MnO_6 octahedron. The surface studies indicate that the concentration of Jahn–Teller manganese (III) (Mn"3"+) ion in the samples differ from each other which results in their distinct properties. Band structure modifications due to Jahn–Teller distortion are examined with the aid of ultraviolet–visible (UV) reflectance and photoluminescence (PL) studies. The dual peaks obtained in derivative spectrum conflict the current concept on the bandgap energy of MnO_2. These studies suggest that

  10. Electro-optically Induced and Manipulated Terahertz Waves from Fe-doped InGaAs Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, O.

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate the presence of dual simultaneous nonlinear mechanisms: field-induced optical rectification (FIOR) and field-induced surge current (FISC) for the generation of terahertz (THz) pulses from p-type and n-type Fe:In0.53Ga0.47As surfaces upon excitation with femtosecond laser pulses centered at 800 nm wavelength. Experimental investigations of the dependence of the generated THz waves on the incident angular optical polarization, optical irradiance, and the direction and magnitude of applied electric DC fields give confirming results to the proposed THz generation mechanisms. Applying external DC electric fields in the plane of the incident optical field shows efficient capability in manipulating the direction and phase of the generated THz waves, and controlling the refractive index of Fe:In0.53Ga0.47As material in the THz range, in addition to enhancing the emitted THz power up to two orders of magnitude. The fast and reliable response of Fe:In0.53Ga0.47As to the changes in the direction and magnitude of the optical and electrical fields suggests its use in amplitude and phase modulators, and ultrafast optoelectronic systems.

  11. Laser induced surface structuring of Cu for enhancement of field emission properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Mahreen; Bashir, Shazia; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Shahid Rafique, Muhammad; Hayat, Asma; Mahmood, Khaliq

    2018-02-01

    The effect of Nd:YAG (1064 nm, 10 ns, 10 Hz) laser induced surface structuring of copper (Cu) for enhancement of field emission (FE) properties has been investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis was employed to investigate the surface structural and compositional modifications. The surface structuring was explored by scanning electron microscope investigation. FE properties were studied under UHV conditions in a parallel plate configuration of planar un-irradiated Cu anode and laser irradiated Cu cathode. The Fowler-Nordheim plots were drawn to confirm the dominance of FE behavior of the measured I-V characteristics. The obtained values of turn-on field ‘E o’, field enhancement factor ‘β’ and maximum current density ‘J max’ come out to be to be in the range of 5.5-8.5 V μm-1, 1380-2730 and 147-375 μA cm-2 respectively for the Cu samples irradiated at laser irradiance ranging from 13 to 50 GW cm-2. The observed enhancement in the FE properties has been correlated with the growth of various surface structures such as ridged protrusions, cones and pores/tiny holes. The porous morphology is found to be responsible for a significant enhancement in the FE parameters.

  12. Graphite surface topography induced by Ta cluster impact and oxidative etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, C.T.; Olsson, L.; Erlandsson, R.; Henkel, M.; Urbassek, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Freshly cleaved highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), when baked in air at ∝630 C, forms one-monolayer(ML)-deep circular pits due to oxidation initiated at surface defect sites. We found that the areal density and depths of these pits could be modulated by deliberately introducing surface and sub-surface defects by energetic ion bombardment prior to baking. Bombardment by 555-eV/atom Ta 1 + , Ta 2 + , Ta 4 + , or Ta 9 + , always enhanced the areal density of etch pits, but only bombardment by Ta 4 + , or Ta 9 + significantly enhanced the depths of the pits. We performed molecular dynamics simulations of Ta n cluster bombardment of HOPG (n = 1, 2, 4, and 9) with the aim of characterizing the damage structures induced by the bombardment and correlating them with the experimental data. For Ta 9 + , the simulations showed a high level of damage extending from the surface down to nine MLs, in agreement with the most probable etch pit depth observed. For other cluster species, predicted etch pit depths were deeper than the observed ones. Annealing or steric requirements for initiating oxidation may account for some of the differences between simulations and experimental results. (orig.)

  13. Effect of surface grinding on chloride induced SCC of 304L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nian, E-mail: nzh@du.se [Department of Material Science, Dalarna University, SE-79188 Falun (Sweden); KTH, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Pettersson, Rachel [KTH, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Jernkontoret, SE-11187 Stockholm (Sweden); Lin Peng, Ru [Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Schönning, Mikael [Corrosion Department, Avesta Research Centre – Outokumpu Stainless AB, SE-774 22 Avesta (Sweden)

    2016-03-21

    The effect of surface grinding on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of 304L austenitic stainless steel in boiling magnesium chloride has been investigated. SCC tests were conducted both without external loading and with varied levels of four-point bend loading for as-delivered material and for specimens which had been ground parallel or perpendicular to the loading direction. Residual stresses due to the grinding operation were measured using the X-ray diffraction technique. In addition, surface stress measurements under applied load were performed before exposure to evaluate the deviation between actual applied loading and calculated values according to ASTM G39. Micro-cracks initiated by a high level of tensile residual stress in the surface layer were observed for all the ground specimens but not those in the as-delivered condition. Grinding along the loading direction increased the susceptibility to chloride induced SCC; while grinding perpendicular to the loading direction improved SCC resistance. Surface tensile residual stresses were largely relieved after the initiation of cracks.

  14. Laser ablation of liquid surface in air induced by laser irradiation through liquid medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomiya, Yuji; Kajiwara, Takashi; Nishiyama, Takashi; Nagayama, Kunihito; Kubota, Shiro; Nakahara, Motonao

    2010-10-01

    The pulse laser ablation of a liquid surface in air when induced by laser irradiation through a liquid medium has been experimentally investigated. A supersonic liquid jet is observed at the liquid-air interface. The liquid surface layer is driven by a plasma plume that is produced by laser ablation at the layer, resulting in a liquid jet. This phenomenon occurs only when an Nd:YAG laser pulse (wavelength: 1064 nm) is focused from the liquid onto air at a low fluence of 20 J/cm2. In this case, as Fresnel’s law shows, the incident and reflected electric fields near the liquid surface layer are superposed constructively. In contrast, when the incident laser is focused from air onto the liquid, a liquid jet is produced only at an extremely high fluence, several times larger than that in the former case. The similarities and differences in the liquid jets and atomization processes are studied for several liquid samples, including water, ethanol, and vacuum oil. The laser ablation of the liquid surface is found to depend on the incident laser energy and laser fluence. A pulse laser light source and high-resolution film are required to observe the detailed structure of a liquid jet.

  15. Laser-induced surface modification of biopolymers – micro/nanostructuring and functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankova, N. E.; Atanasov, P. A.; Nedyalkov, N. N.; Tatchev, Dr; Kolev, K. N.; Valova, E. I.; Armyanov, St. A.; Grochowska, K.; Śliwiński, G.; Fukata, N.; Hirsch, D.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2018-03-01

    The medical-grade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer is a widely used biomaterial in medicine for preparation of high-tech devices because of its remarkable properties. In this paper, we present experimental results on surface modification of PDMS elastomer by using ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared ns-laser system and investigation of the chemical composition and the morphological structure inside the treated area in dependence on the processing parameters – wavelength, laser fluence and number of pulses. Remarkable chemical transformations and changes of the morphological structure were observed, resulting in the formation of a highly catalytically active surface, which was successfully functionalized via electroless Ni and Pt deposition by a sensitizing-activation free process. The results obtained are very promising in view of applying the methods of laser-induced micro- and nano-structuring and activation of biopolymers’ surface and further electroless metal plating to the preparation of, e.g., multielectrode arrays (MEAs) devices in neural and muscular surface interfacing implantable systems.

  16. Effect of surface grinding on chloride induced SCC of 304L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Nian; Pettersson, Rachel; Lin Peng, Ru; Schönning, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    The effect of surface grinding on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of 304L austenitic stainless steel in boiling magnesium chloride has been investigated. SCC tests were conducted both without external loading and with varied levels of four-point bend loading for as-delivered material and for specimens which had been ground parallel or perpendicular to the loading direction. Residual stresses due to the grinding operation were measured using the X-ray diffraction technique. In addition, surface stress measurements under applied load were performed before exposure to evaluate the deviation between actual applied loading and calculated values according to ASTM G39. Micro-cracks initiated by a high level of tensile residual stress in the surface layer were observed for all the ground specimens but not those in the as-delivered condition. Grinding along the loading direction increased the susceptibility to chloride induced SCC; while grinding perpendicular to the loading direction improved SCC resistance. Surface tensile residual stresses were largely relieved after the initiation of cracks.

  17. Nitrogen ion induced nitridation of Si(111) surface: Energy and fluence dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Praveen [Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India); ISOM, Universidad Politecnia de Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Kumar, Mahesh [Physics and Energy Harvesting Group, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Nötzel, R. [ISOM, Universidad Politecnia de Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Shivaprasad, S.M., E-mail: smsprasad@jncasr.ac.in [Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India)

    2014-06-01

    We present the surface modification of Si(111) into silicon nitride by exposure to energetic N{sub 2}{sup +} ions. In-situ UHV experiments have been performed to optimize the energy and fluence of the N{sub 2}{sup +} ions to form silicon nitride at room temperature (RT) and characterized in-situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We have used N{sub 2}{sup +} ion beams in the energy range of 0.2–5.0 keV of different fluence to induce surface reactions, which lead to the formation of Si{sub x}N{sub y} on the Si(111) surface. The XPS core level spectra of Si(2p) and N(1s) have been deconvoluted into different oxidation states to extract qualitative information, while survey scans have been used for quantifying of the silicon nitride formation, valence band spectra show that as the N{sub 2}{sup +} ion fluence increases, there is an increase in the band gap. The secondary electron emission spectra region of photoemission is used to evaluate the change in the work function during the nitridation process. The results show that surface nitridation initially increases rapidly with ion fluence and then saturates. - Highlights: • A systematic study for the formation of silicon nitride on Si(111). • Investigation of optimal energy and fluence for energetic N{sub 2}{sup +} ions. • Silicon nitride formation at room temperature on Si(111)

  18. Light-Induced Surface Reactions at the Bismuth Vanadate/Potassium Phosphate Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Marco; Abdi, Fatwa F; Lamers, Marlene; Crumlin, Ethan J; Liu, Zhi; van de Krol, Roel; Starr, David E

    2018-01-18

    Bismuth vanadate has recently drawn significant research attention as a light-absorbing photoanode due to its performance for photoelectrochemical water splitting. In this study, we use in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with "tender" X-rays (4.0 keV) to investigate a polycrystalline bismuth vanadate (BiVO 4 ) electrode in contact with an aqueous potassium phosphate (KPi) solution at open circuit potential under both dark and light conditions. This is facilitated by the creation of a 25 to 30 nm thick electrolyte layer using the "dip-and-pull" method. We observe that under illumination bismuth phosphate forms on the BiVO 4 surface leading to an increase of the surface negative charge. The bismuth phosphate layer may act to passivate surface states observed in photoelectrochemical measurements. The repulsive interaction between the negatively charged surface under illumination and the phosphate ions in solution causes a shift in the distribution of ions in the thin aqueous electrolyte film, which is observed as an increase in their photoelectron signals. Interestingly, we find that such changes at the BiVO 4 /KPi electrolyte interface are reversible upon returning to dark conditions. By measuring the oxygen 1s photoelectron peak intensities from the phosphate ions and liquid water as a function of time under dark and light conditions, we determine the time scales for the forward and reverse reactions. Our results provide direct evidence for light-induced chemical modification of the BiVO 4 /KPi electrolyte interface.

  19. Noise-induced transitions at a Hopf bifurcation in a first-order delay-differential equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longtin, A.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of colored noise on the Hopf bifurcation in a first-order delay-differential equation (DDE), a model paradigm for nonlinear delayed feedback systems, is considered. First, it is shown, using a stability analysis, how the properties of the DDE depend on the ratio R of system delay to response time. When this ratio is small, the DDE behaves more like a low-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations (ODE's); when R is large, one obtains a singular perturbation limit in which the behavior of the DDE approaches that of a discrete time map. The relative magnitude of the additive and multiplicative noise-induced postponements of the Hopf bifurcation are numerically shown to depend on the ratio R. Although both types of postponements are minute in the large-R limit, they are almost equal due to an equivalence of additive and parametric noise for discrete time maps. When R is small, the multiplicative shift is larger than the additive one at large correlation times, but the shifts are equal for small correlation times. In fact, at constant noise power, the postponement is only slightly affected by the correlation time of the noise, except when the noise becomes white, in which case the postponement drastically decreases. This is a numerical study of the stochastic Hopf bifurcation, in ODE's or DDE's, that looks at the effect of noise correlation time at constant power. Further, it is found that the slope at the fixed point averaged over the stochastic-parameter motion acts, under certain conditions, as a quantitative indicator of oscillation onset in the presence of noise. The problem of how properties of the DDE carry over to ODE's and to maps is discussed, along with the proper theoretical framework in which to study nonequilibrium phase transitions in this class of functional differential equations

  20. Prediction of the shape of inline wave force and free surface elevation using First Order Reliability Method (FORM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghadirian, Amin; Bredmose, Henrik; Schløer, Signe

    2017-01-01

    theory, that is, the most likely time history of inline force around a force peak of given value. The results of FORM and NewForce are linearly identical and show only minor deviations at second order. The FORM results are then compared to wave averaged measurements of the same criteria for crest height......In design of substructures for offshore wind turbines, the extreme wave loads which are of interest in Ultimate Limit States are often estimated by choosing extreme events from linear random sea states and replacing them by either stream function wave theory or the NewWave theory of a certain...... design wave height. As these wave theories super from limitations such as symmetry around the crest, other methods to estimate the wave loads are needed. In the present paper, the First Order Reliability Method, FORM, is used systematically to estimate the most likely extreme wave shapes. Two parameters...