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Sample records for surface impoundments waste

  1. Coal combustion waste management at landfills and surface impoundments 1994-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Ranek, N. L.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-08

    On May 22, 2000, as required by Congress in its 1980 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Regulatory Determination on Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels. On the basis of information contained in its 1999 Report to Congress: Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels, the EPA concluded that coal combustion wastes (CCWs), also known as coal combustion by-products (CCBs), did not warrant regulation under Subtitle C of RCRA, and it retained the existing hazardous waste exemption for these materials under RCRA Section 3001(b)(3)(C). However, the EPA also determined that national regulations under Subtitle D of RCRA were warranted for CCWs that are disposed of in landfills or surface impoundments. The EPA made this determination in part on the basis of its findings that 'present disposal practices are such that, in 1995, these wastes were being managed in 40 percent to 70 percent of landfills and surface impoundments without reasonable controls in place, particularly in the area of groundwater monitoring; and while there have been substantive improvements in state regulatory programs, we have also identified gaps in State oversight' (EPA 2000). The 1999 Report to Congress (RTC), however, may not have reflected the changes in CCW disposal practices that occurred since the cutoff date (1995) of its database and subsequent developments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the EPA discussed this issue and decided to conduct a joint DOE/EPA study to collect new information on the recent CCW management practices by the power industry. It was agreed that such information would provide a perspective on the chronological adoption of control measures in CCW units based on State regulations. A team of experts from the EPA, industry, and DOE (with support from Argonne National Laboratory) was established to develop a mutually acceptable approach for collecting and analyzing data

  2. 30 CFR 816.84 - Coal mine waste: Impounding structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control, the probable maximum precipitation of a 6-hour precipitation event, or greater event as specified.... Runoff from areas above the disposal facility or runoff from surface of the facility that may cause...-hour design precipitation event. (e) Impounding structures constructed of or impounding coal mine waste...

  3. Closure certification report: TA-35 TSL-125 surface impoundment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the actions that were taken to clean close the TA-35 TSL-125 surface impoundment Building 125 is used for developing electron guns and related laser assemblies/equipment for a Laser Technology Research Program at the Laboratory. There is no permanent outfall from the surface impoundment; however, the impoundment accidentally overtopped on December 3, 1986, spilling an unknown volume of insulating oil and water into Ten Site Canyon. Sandbags were installed around the surface impoundment on June 25, 1988, to provide additional freeboard in the impoundment and reduce the risk of overtopping during a precipitation event. On July 1, 1988, the impoundment again overtopped releasing an unknown volume of insulating oil and water. Actions taken include removal of waste from the surface impoundment and its associated structures, decontamination of the floor trough and piping inside Building 125, grouting of the piping connecting the floor drain/trough system to the impoundment, decontamination, removal, and disposal of the impoundment liner and sandbags lining the top of the impoundment, and removal and disposal of contaminated soil underlying the impoundment area. Procedures followed to verify that clean closure objectives have been met are also documented in this report. Initial verification was performed through an extensive soil sampling and analysis program

  4. Probabilistic risk assessment for the Sandia National Laboratories Technical Area V Liquid Waste Disposal System surface impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, L.A.; Eidson, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment was completed for a former radioactive waste disposal site. The site, two unlined surface impoundment, was designed as part of the Liquid Waste Disposal System (LWDS) to receive radioactive effluent from nuclear reactors in Technical Area-V (TA-V) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). First, a statistical comparison of site sampling results to natural background, using EPA methods, and a spatial distribution analysis were performed. Risk assessment was conducted with SNL/NM's Probabilistic Risk Evaluation and Characterization Investigation System model. The risk assessment indicated that contamination from several constituents might have been high enough to require remediation. However, further analysis based on expected site closure activities and recent EPA guidance indicated that No Further Action was acceptable

  5. 30 CFR 817.84 - Coal mine waste: Impounding structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. 817.84... ACTIVITIES § 817.84 Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. New and existing impounding structures constructed of coal mine waste or intended to impound coal mine waste shall meet the requirements of § 817.81...

  6. Wind erosion of waste impoundments in arid climates and mitigation of dust pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blight, G E

    2008-12-01

    Wind can erode and disperse fine-grained material from an impoundment of mining, industrial or municipal waste that stands above the level of its surroundings. Such dust dispersion can be a serious nuisance as well as a health hazard to inhabitants and animals in nearby settlements. It can also degrade crops, making them less marketable, and pollute soil, surface water and ground water. Wind can seasonally erode waste impoundments in all types of climate, but the erosion intensifies and persists for more of each year as regional aridity increases. As clouds of dust are often observed billowing across the top surfaces of waste impoundments in dry windy weather, there is a common misconception that dust arises from erosion of the top surface of an impoundment, resulting in much effort and money being misspent on top treatments when in fact the sloped sides of the impoundments are the true source of blown dust. This paper offers a brief review of general waste impoundment wind erosion issues and then focuses in more detail on the mechanics of how wind erodes surfaces of waste impoundments. Recommendations are offered for mitigating the effects of wind-eroded dust.

  7. Distribution of aquifers, liquid-waste impoundments, and municipal water-supply sources, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, David F.; Maevsky, Anthony

    1980-01-01

    Impoundments of liquid waste are potential sources of ground-water contamination in Massachusetts. The map report, at a scale of 1 inch equals 4 miles, shows the idstribution of aquifers and the locations of municipal water-supply sources and known liquid-waste impoundments. Ground water, an important source of municipal water supply, is produced from shallow sand and gravel aquifers that are generally unconfined, less than 200 feet thick, and yield less than 2,000 gallons per minute to individual wells. These aquifers commonly occupy lowlands and stream valleys and are most extensive in eastern Massachusetts. Surface impoundments of liquid waste are commonly located over these aquifers. These impoundments may leak and allow waste to infiltrate underlying aquifers and alter their water quality. (USGS)

  8. Closure certification report: TA-35 TSL-125 surface impoundment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This closure report documents closure activities for the TA-35 TSL-125 surface impoundment and associated structures at Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory). Prior to formal approval of the closure plan, the decision was made to proceed with closure activities to prevent any further releases from the site following informal discussions with New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) personnel. The closure plan is a revision of the previously submitted draft dated July 1988. Clean closure of the TSL-125 site was accomplished through: Removal and proper disposal of all wastes contained within the surface impoundment system; Decontamination and/or removal and proper disposal of the surface impoundment, its associated structures, and contaminated soil underlying the impoundment area; Sampling and analysis of soil to determine the presence and concentrations of any hazardous constituents remaining in the soil at the TSL-125 site; and Demonstration through a risk assessment that any constituents remaining in the soil at the TSL-125 site pose no threat to human health and the environment. All remaining soil concentrations of hazardous constituents were below health-based action levels. Analytical results indicated that benzidine, n-nitrosodimethylamine, and n-nitrosodi-n-propylamine were not detected at or above their limits of quantitation and beryllium was not present at or above its laboratory detection limit. However, the limits of quantitation and detection for these constituents were greater than their calculated health-based action levels. To demonstrate that these constituents were not present, historical data was researched and it was determined that the constituents were not utilized at the Building 125 site. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  9. Gully potential in soil-covered uranium waste impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, S.R.; Hogan, S.A.; Johnson, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    Soil covers are routinely considered a design alternative to stabilize uranium waste impoundments. Gully intrusion into the cover is one of the greatest potential threats to the long-term stability of an impoundment. An investigation was conducted to estimate the maximum depth of gully intrusion, the approximate top width of the gully at the point of maximum incision, and the approximate location of the maximum intrusion. A large-scale laboratory study was conducted on seven embankments in which approximately 200 years of rainfall was simulated and the resulting gullies were documented. In addition, 11 gullies occurring in actual reclaimed impoundments were documented. An analysis of the laboratory and field data sets was performed in which the maximum depth of gully incision, top width of the gully, and location of the maximum gully incision were related to the pile height, tributary volume of runoff, and soil composition. These relations provide the designers with a means for assessing the cover design to meet the long-term stability of the waste

  10. Characterization plan for the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stansfield, R.G.; Francis, C.W.

    1986-09-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are required to comply fully with all federal and state regulations. In response to this requirement, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has established the remedial action program, to provide comprehensive management of areas where past research, development, and waste management activities have been conducted and have resulted in residual contamination of facilities or the environment. One of the objectives of this program is to define the extent of contamination at these sites. The intent is to document the known environmental characteristics of the sites and identify the additional actions, such as sampling, analytical measurements, and modeling, necessary to confirm contamination and the possible migration of contaminants from the sites. One of these sites is the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment). The 3513 impoundment is an unlined waste settling basin constructed in 1944 for collection of ORNL wastewater before its discharge into White Oak Creek. Operation of the facility ceased in 1976 when a new process waste treatment plant came into operation. Considerable site-specific environmental information has been developed over the years relative to the type and quantities of radionuclides and hazardous substances contained in the pond water and sediment. The concentrations and patterns of distribution for many of the radionuclides in the aquatic biota as well as for the terrestrial plants growing on the berm of the impoundment have been determined by DOE ecological studies. Recently, some data were collected that evaluate the extent of contaminant movement to the groundwater. Results from these studies are summarized in this report. Also included in this report is an outline of additional tasks needed to obtain the necessary information to model the transport and dose pathways of hazardous substances from the site

  11. 40 CFR 268.4 - Treatment surface impoundment exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... residues may not be placed in any other surface impoundment for subsequent management. (iv) Recordkeeping... exemption. 268.4 Section 268.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID...), the residues from treatment are analyzed, as specified in § 268.7 or § 268.32, to determine if they...

  12. Groundwater monitoring at three Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive waste impoundments: results after one year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C. W.; Stansfield, R. G.

    1986-10-01

    To determine if the migration of potential contaminants from three inactive waste impoundments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory poses a threat to groundwater quality, at least one upgradient groundwater monitoring well and threee downgradient monitoring wells were installed at each impoundment in early 1985. These three unlined impoundments, formerly used to collect and, in some instances, treat wastewater are: the 3513 impoundment; the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) impoundment; and the Homogeneous Reactor Experimnt No. 2 impoundment. Groundwater samples were collected quarterly for one year. Analyses were conducted for the groundwater protection parameters promulgated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The groundwater samples were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls, copper, nickel, zinc, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, and tritium. The contaminants found most often to affect groundwater quality at all three waste impoundments were radionuclides. For example, mean concentrations of gross beta and gross alpha activity exceeded drinking water limits at all three sites. The gross beta limit was exceeded at the 3513 and OHF impoundments by either /sup 90/Sr or tritium levels. At the 3513 impoundment, there was substantial evidence that the downgradient groundwater has been contaminated by chromium and lead and possibly by halogenated organic compounds. At the OHF impoundment, the mean level of tritium measured in the upgradient well (about 91,000 Bq/L as compared with 80,000 Bq/L in the downgradient wells) indicated that the groundwater quality has been affected by the radioactive wastes buried in the low-level radioactive waste burial ground solid waste storage area-5 upgradient of the impoundment. Testing for groundwater contamination, disclosed statistically significant contamination at all three sites.

  13. Groundwater monitoring at three Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive waste impoundments: results after one year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Stansfield, R.G.

    1986-10-01

    To determine if the migration of potential contaminants from three inactive waste impoundments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory poses a threat to groundwater quality, at least one upgradient groundwater monitoring well and threee downgradient monitoring wells were installed at each impoundment in early 1985. These three unlined impoundments, formerly used to collect and, in some instances, treat wastewater are: the 3513 impoundment; the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) impoundment; and the Homogeneous Reactor Experimnt No. 2 impoundment. Groundwater samples were collected quarterly for one year. Analyses were conducted for the groundwater protection parameters promulgated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The groundwater samples were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls, copper, nickel, zinc, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and tritium. The contaminants found most often to affect groundwater quality at all three waste impoundments were radionuclides. For example, mean concentrations of gross beta and gross alpha activity exceeded drinking water limits at all three sites. The gross beta limit was exceeded at the 3513 and OHF impoundments by either 90 Sr or tritium levels. At the 3513 impoundment, there was substantial evidence that the downgradient groundwater has been contaminated by chromium and lead and possibly by halogenated organic compounds. At the OHF impoundment, the mean level of tritium measured in the upgradient well (about 91,000 Bq/L as compared with 80,000 Bq/L in the downgradient wells) indicated that the groundwater quality has been affected by the radioactive wastes buried in the low-level radioactive waste burial ground solid waste storage area-5 upgradient of the impoundment. Testing for groundwater contamination, disclosed statistically significant contamination at all three sites

  14. Using Helicopter Electromagnetic Surveys to Identify Potential Hazards at Mine Waste Impoundments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammack, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    In July 2003, helicopter electromagnetic surveys were conducted at 14 coal waste impoundments in southern West Virginia. The purpose of the surveys was to detect conditions that could lead to impoundment failure either by structural failure of the embankment or by the flooding of adjacent or underlying mine works. Specifically, the surveys attempted to: 1) identify saturated zones within the mine waste, 2) delineate filtrate flow paths through the embankment or into adjacent strata and receiving streams, and 3) identify flooded mine workings underlying or adjacent to the waste impoundment. Data from the helicopter surveys were processed to generate conductivity/depth images. Conductivity/depth images were then spatially linked to georeferenced air photos or topographic maps for interpretation. Conductivity/depth images were found to provide a snapshot of the hydrologic conditions that exist within the impoundment. This information can be used to predict potential areas of failure within the embankment because of its ability to image the phreatic zone. Also, the electromagnetic survey can identify areas of unconsolidated slurry in the decant basin and beneath the embankment. Although shallow, flooded mineworks beneath the impoundment were identified by this survey, it cannot be assumed that electromagnetic surveys can detect all underlying mines. A preliminary evaluation of the data implies that helicopter electromagnetic surveys can provide a better understanding of the phreatic zone than the piezometer arrays that are typically used.

  15. Transport and dispersion of pollutants in surface impoundments: a finite difference model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, G.T.

    1980-07-01

    A surface impoundment model by finite-difference (SIMFD) has been developed. SIMFD computes the flow rate, velocity field, and the concentration distribution of pollutants in surface impoundments with any number of islands located within the region of interest. Theoretical derivations and numerical algorithm are described in detail. Instructions for the application of SIMFD and listings of the FORTRAN IV source program are provided. Two sample problems are given to illustrate the application and validity of the model.

  16. An experimental approach to determining subsurface leakage from a surface impoundment using a radioisotope tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Story, J.D.; Larsen, I.L.; Schultz, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    Bromine-82, a 35.3-h half-life radionuclide, was used as a tracer to determine the paths and rates of leakage from an unlined, 1,000,000-gal (3,785,000 L), surface impoundment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Since the impoundment is underlain and surrounded by storm sewer and sanitary sewer lines (most of them predating the impoundment), known and suspected leak sites in storm drain catch basins and sanitary sewer manholes were sampled periodically and analyzed for 82 Br. A series of four ground water monitoring wells - three downgradient and one upgradient from the impoundment - were also sampled for 82 Br. Although the catch basin and manhole samples picked up 82 Br in leakage from the impoundment less than 5 h after application of the tracer, the monitoring well samples did not contain detectable levels of the radionuclide. It was concluded that the monitoring wells were sampling groundwater moving through the formation, whereas the storm drains and manholes were sampling water leading rapidly through secondary porosity and along preferred pathways. The decline in tracer concentration as a function of time was used to determine the residence time of water in the pond and hence the flow rate through the pond. This flow rate, when compared with the known outflow rate, indicated that the leakage flow was small. Hence, the main value of the test was to identify rapid leakage pathways. The experiment demonstrates the need for sampling subsurface drain systems as part of an integrated monitoring system for leak detection. The effectiveness of 82 Br as a tracer for rapid leaks was also shown

  17. Technical work plan for Surface Impoundments Operable Unit engineering support studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This document provides a comprehensive work plan which, when utilized as a data collection guide for field activities, will provide the necessary information required to complete a report on geotechnical properties of the sediments contained in the Surface Impoundments Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Detailed guidance is provided for the following activities: collection of samples from the impoundments; compressive strength testing of the raw sediments; compressive strength testing of the structurally modified (lime and cement additives) sediments; testing for sediment physical properties and settling rates; testing for sediment dewatering characteristics; testing for radiation activity during the field work; testing for polymer additions that may enhance settling. The work plan additionally provides guidance and examples for the preparation of documents necessary to establish readiness for safe and satisfactory performance of the field activities. An outline for the format requested for a report of these data is also provided

  18. Technical work plan for Surface Impoundments Operable Unit engineering support studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document provides a comprehensive work plan which, when utilized as a data collection guide for field activities, will provide the necessary information required to complete a report on geotechnical properties of the sediments contained in the Surface Impoundments Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Detailed guidance is provided for the following activities: collection of samples from the impoundments; compressive strength testing of the raw sediments; compressive strength testing of the structurally modified (lime and cement additives) sediments; testing for sediment physical properties and settling rates; testing for sediment dewatering characteristics; testing for radiation activity during the field work; testing for polymer additions that may enhance settling. The work plan additionally provides guidance and examples for the preparation of documents necessary to establish readiness for safe and satisfactory performance of the field activities. An outline for the format requested for a report of these data is also provided.

  19. Results of the radiological and chemical characterization of surface impoundments 3539 and 3540 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, M.E.; Rose, D.A.; Brown, K.S.; Winton, W.; Dean, R.A.; Coe, R.H. III

    1998-03-01

    A radiological and chemical characterization survey of impoundments 3539 and 3540 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was conducted during December 1997. Impoundments 3539 and 3540 are located in the Surface Impoundments Operable Unit (SIOU) of Waste Area Group 1. The investigation was performed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Life Sciences Division of ORNL at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration. Sampling was conducted in order to quantify the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents, and other contaminants of interest in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation for the SIOU> The survey included collection of sediment/clay samples, quality control blank water samples and equipment rinsate samples for chemical and radiological analysis. Results show the samples contain traces of various organic, inorganic, and radioactive materials. Of particular interest are PCB values which demonstrate the impoundments are not regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act

  20. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the USA - Use of mill tailings impoundments as a new policy option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the United States is facing severe and immediate capacity limitations. Seemingly intractable regulatory and jurisdictional conflicts make establishment of new LLW disposal sites effectively impossible. Uranium mill tailings impoundments constructed at conventional uranium open-cast and underground mines could offer approximately 40 to 80+ million tons of disposal capacity for low activity radioactive waste. Such impoundments would provide an enhanced, high level of environmental and health and safety protection for the direct disposal of depleted uranium, special nuclear material, technologically-enhanced, naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM) and mixed waste. Many waste streams, such as TENORM and decommissioning rubble, will be high-volume, low activity materials and ideally suited for disposal in such structures. Materials in a given decay chain with a total activity from all radionuclides present of ∼820 Bq/g (2.22 x 10 -08 Ci/g) with no single radionuclide present in an activity greater than ∼104 Bq/g (2,800 pCi/g) should be acceptable for disposal. Materials of this type could be accepted without any site-specific dose modelling, so long as the total activity of the tailings impoundment not exceed its design capacity (generally 82 x 10 07 Bq/metric tonne) (0.020 Ci/short ton) and the cover design requirements to limit radon releases are satisfied. This paper provides background on US LLW disposal regulations, examines LLW disposal options under active consideration by the US Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Energy, develops generic waste acceptance criteria and identifies policy needs for federal and state governments to facilitate use of uranium mill tailings impoundments for LLW disposal. (author)

  1. Transport and dispersion of pollutants in surface impoundments: a finite element model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, G.T.

    1980-07-01

    A surface impoundment model in finite element (SIMFE) is presented to enable the simulation of flow circulations and pollutant transport and dispersion in natural or artificial lakes, reservoirs or ponds with any number of islands. This surface impoundment model consists of two sub-models: hydrodynamic and pollutant transport models. Both submodels are simulated by the finite element method. While the hydrodynamic model is solved by the standard Galerkin finite element scheme, the pollutant transport model can be solved by any of the twelve optional finite element schemes built in the program. Theoretical approximations and the numerical algorithm of SIMFE are described. Detail instruction of the application are given and listing of FORTRAN IV source program are provided. Two sample problems are given. One is for an idealized system with a known solution to show the accuracy and partial validation of the models. The other is applied to Prairie Island for a set of hypothetical input data, typifying a class of problems to which SIMFE may be applied

  2. Transport and dispersion of pollutants in surface impoundments: a finite element model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, G.T.

    1980-07-01

    A surface impoundment model in finite element (SIMFE) is presented to enable the simulation of flow circulations and pollutant transport and dispersion in natural or artificial lakes, reservoirs or ponds with any number of islands. This surface impoundment model consists of two sub-models: hydrodynamic and pollutant transport models. Both submodels are simulated by the finite element method. While the hydrodynamic model is solved by the standard Galerkin finite element scheme, the pollutant transport model can be solved by any of the twelve optional finite element schemes built in the program. Theoretical approximations and the numerical algorithm of SIMFE are described. Detail instruction of the application are given and listing of FORTRAN IV source program are provided. Two sample problems are given. One is for an idealized system with a known solution to show the accuracy and partial validation of the models. The other is applied to Prairie Island for a set of hypothetical input data, typifying a class of problems to which SIMFE may be applied.

  3. Evaluating the effect of vehicle impoundment policy on illegal construction and demolition waste dumping: Israel as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, Nissim; Hareli, Shlomo; Portnov, Boris A

    2014-08-01

    Construction and demolition (C&D) waste dumped alongside roads and in open areas is a major source of soil and underground water pollution. Since 2006, Israeli ministry for environmental protection enacted a policy of vehicle impoundment (VI) according to which track drivers caught while dumping C&D waste illegally have their vehicles impounded. The present study attempted to determine whether the VI policy was effective in increasing the waste hauling to authorized landfill sites, thus limiting the number of illegal unloads of C&D waste at unauthorized landfill sites and in open areas. During the study, changes in the ratio between the monthly amount of C&D waste brought to authorized landfills sites and the estimated total amount of C&D waste generated in different administrative districts of Israel were examined, before and after the enactment of the 2006 VI policy. Short questionnaires were also distributed among local track drivers in order to determine the degree of awareness about the policy in question and estimate its deterrence effects. According to the study's results, in the district of Haifa, in which the VI policy was stringently enacted, the ratio between C&D waste, dumped in authorized landfill sites, and the total amount of generated C&D waste, increased, on the average, from 20% in January 2004 to 35% in October 2009, with the effect attributed to the number of vehicle impoundments being highly statistically significant (t=2.324; p0.1). The analysis of the questionnaires, distributed among the local truck drivers further indicated that the changes observed in the district of Haifa are not coincident and appeared to be linked to the VI policy's enactment. In particular, 62% of the truck drivers, participated in the survey, were aware of the policy and 47% of them personally knew a driver whose vehicle was impounded. Furthermore, the drivers estimated the relative risk of being caught for unloading C&D waste in unauthorized sites, on the average, as

  4. Post-remediation action radiological report for Surface Impoundments C (3539) and D (3540) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    During August and September 1998, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC performed a remedial action within Impoundments 3539 and 3540 (Impoundments C and D, respectively) in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision (ROD) for the Surface Impoundments Operable Unit. The remedial action included removal of sediments and 0.1 ft of subimpoundment soil. A post-remedial action radiological survey was conducted to provide data to support the Bethel Valley ROD. Data was obtained from (1) a walkover survey for residual gamma radiation on the base of the impoundments, (2) smear surveys for transferable contamination on remaining riprap, and (3) representative sampling of subimpoundment soils. Walkover surveys identified no locations outside the impoundments with gamma exposure levels greater than three times background levels. Smear surveys detected no removable contamination above release limits as specified in 10 CFR 835, Appendix D. Subimpoundment soil samples quantified low levels of residual contamination

  5. Microbial communities in flowback water impoundments from hydraulic fracturing for recovery of shale gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali Mohan, Arvind; Hartsock, Angela; Hammack, Richard W; Vidic, Radisav D; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction from shale produces waste brine known as flowback that is impounded at the surface prior to reuse and/or disposal. During impoundment, microbial activity can alter the fate of metals including radionuclides, give rise to odorous compounds, and result in biocorrosion that complicates water and waste management and increases production costs. Here, we describe the microbial ecology at multiple depths of three flowback impoundments from the Marcellus shale that were managed differently. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed that bacterial communities in the untreated and biocide-amended impoundments were depth dependent, diverse, and most similar to species within the taxa γ-proteobacteria, α-proteobacteria, δ-proteobacteria, Clostridia, Synergistetes, Thermotogae, Spirochetes, and Bacteroidetes. The bacterial community in the pretreated and aerated impoundment was uniform with depth, less diverse, and most similar to known iodide-oxidizing bacteria in the α-proteobacteria. Archaea were identified only in the untreated and biocide-amended impoundments and were affiliated to the Methanomicrobia class. This is the first study of microbial communities in flowback water impoundments from hydraulic fracturing. The findings expand our knowledge of microbial diversity of an emergent and unexplored environment and may guide the management of flowback impoundments. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbial communities in flowback water impoundments from hydraulic fracturing for recovery of shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, Arvind Murali; Hartsock, Angela; Hammack, Richard W; Vidic, Radisav D; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction from shale produces waste brine known as flowback that is impounded at the surface prior to reuse and/or disposal. During impoundment, microbial activity can alter the fate of metals including radionuclides, give rise to odorous compounds, and result in biocorrosion that complicates water and waste management and increases production costs. Here, we describe the microbial ecology at multiple depths of three flowback impoundments from the Marcellus shale that were managed differently. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed that bacterial communities in the untreated and biocide-amended impoundments were depth dependent, diverse, and most similar to species within the taxa [gamma]-proteobacteria, [alpha]-proteobacteria, δ-proteobacteria, Clostridia, Synergistetes, Thermotogae, Spirochetes, and Bacteroidetes. The bacterial community in the pretreated and aerated impoundment was uniform with depth, less diverse, and most similar to known iodide-oxidizing bacteria in the [alpha]-proteobacteria. Archaea were identified only in the untreated and biocide-amended impoundments and were affiliated to the Methanomicrobia class. This is the first study of microbial communities in flowback water impoundments from hydraulic fracturing. The findings expand our knowledge of microbial diversity of an emergent and unexplored environment and may guide the management of flowback impoundments.

  7. Predictive geochemical modeling of contaminant concentrations in laboratory columns and in plumes migrating from uranium mill tailings waste impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.R.; Martin, W.J.; Serne, R.J.

    1986-04-01

    A computer-based conceptual chemical model was applied to predict contaminant concentrations in plumes migrating from a uranium mill tailings waste impoundment. The solids chosen for inclusion in the conceptual model were selected based on reviews of the literature, on ion speciation/solubility calculations performed on the column effluent solutions and on mineralogical characterization of the contacted and uncontacted sediments. The mechanism of adsorption included in the conceptual chemical model was chosen based on results from semiselective extraction experiments and from mineralogical characterization procedures performed on the sediments. This conceptual chemical model was further developed and partially validated in laboratory experiments where assorted acidic uranium mill tailings solutions percolated through various sediments. This document contains the results of a partial field and laboratory validation (i.e., test of coherence) of this chemical model. Macro constituents (e.g., Ca, SO 4 , Al, Fe, and Mn) of the tailings solution were predicted closely by considering their concentrations to be controlled by the precipitation/dissolution of solid phases. Trace elements, however, were generally predicted to be undersaturated with respect to plausible solid phase controls. The concentration of several of the trace elements were closely predicted by considering their concentrations to be controlled by adsorption onto the amorphous iron oxyhydroxides that precipitated

  8. Influence of lake surface area and total phosphorus on annual bluegill growth in small impoundments of central Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Cecil A.; Sundmark, Aaron P.

    2017-01-01

    The relationships between environmental variables and the growth rates of fishes are important and rapidly expanding topics in fisheries ecology. We used an informationtheoretic approach to evaluate the influence of lake surface area and total phosphorus on the age-specific growth rates of Lepomis macrochirus (Bluegill) in 6 small impoundments in central Georgia. We used model averaging to create composite models and determine the relative importance of the variables within each model. Results indicated that surface area was the most important factor in the models predicting growth of Bluegills aged 1–4 years; total phosphorus was also an important predictor for the same age-classes. These results suggest that managers can use water quality and lake morphometry variables to create predictive models specific to their waterbody or region to help develop lake-specific management plans that select for and optimize local-level habitat factors for enhancing Bluegill growth.

  9. 40 CFR 264.231 - Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 264.231 Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27. (a) Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22... surface impoundments managing hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27 in order to reduce...

  10. Results of the measurement survey of elevation and environmental media in surface impoundments 3513 (B) and 3524 (A) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, M.E.; Rose, D.A.; Brown, K.S.; Coe, R.H.C. III; Lawrence, J.D.; Winton, W.

    1998-07-01

    A measurement survey of the elevation and environmental media in impoundments 3513 (B) and 3524 (A) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was conducted during April 1998. The investigation was performed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Life Sciences Division of ORNL at the request of Bechtel Jacobs Company. Measurement activities were conducted at selected locations in order to determine the depth and appearance of the sediment and describe the clay underlying the impoundments prior to remediation. The survey was a follow-up to a previous elevation survey. The survey included the following: collection of sediment/clay cores from selected locations in each impoundment; measurement and documentation of the elevation at the water surface, at the top of sediment, at the top of clay, and at the bottom of each core; visual inspection of each core by a soil scientist to confirm the presence of clay and not material such as fly ash and soda lime compacted over the last 50 years; measurement and documentation of the background beta-gamma radiation level at the time and location of collection of each core, the highest beta-gamma level along the sediment portion of each core, and the highest beta-gamma level along the clay portion of each core; measurement and documentation of the length of the clay and of the sediment portion of each core; photographic documentation of each core; and replacement of each core in the impoundment

  11. 40 CFR 270.17 - Specific part B information requirements for surface impoundments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... migration of any hazardous constituents into the ground water or surface water at any future time; (2) The....19 of this chapter; (5) Proposed action leakage rate, with rationale, if required under § 264.222 of..., including the double liner system, leak detection system, cover system, and appurtenances for control of...

  12. Liners and Leak Detection Systems for Hazardous Waste Land Disposal Units - Federal Register Notice, January 29, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is amending its current regulations under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) concerning liner and leachate collection and removal systems for hazardous waste surface impoundments, landfills, and waste piles.

  13. Hydrologic effects of impoundments in Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrologic effects of proposed impoundments in Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge were found to be insignificant with respect to both ground- and surface-water flow patterns and water quality. Monitoring of water levels in 23 observation wells and of discharge in the St. Francis River during 1980 and 1981 has shown that ground water in the surf icial aquifer responds quickly to areal recharge and subsequently discharges to the St. Francis River. The impoundment of surface water in the refuge was not found to affect water levels in the refuge significantly. The impoundments may affect ground-water-flow systems beneath and adjacent to the impoundments. Quality of ground and surface water was found to be similar except ground water contained higher concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen than surface water. Phytoplankton removed dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen from surface water. The effects of impoundments on water quality are expected to be minor.

  14. Responsiveness summary for the engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of contaminated water impounded at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.L.; MacDonell, M.M.; Peterson, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Proposed Management of Contaminated Water Impounded at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant Area in July 1990. The engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) examines various alternatives for the proposed action to manage contaminated surface water impounded at the chemical plant area. The primary objective is to minimize potential migration of contaminants from surface impoundments to the local environment. The EE/CA addresses water currently impounded in four waste raffinate pits and two small ponds and water that will be impounded in the future as a result of upcoming response actions. Radioactive and chemical contaminants are migrating from the currently impounded water to underlying on-site groundwater via seepage and to off-site surface water via runoff. The treatment process and facilities that will be provided for management of currently impounded water can subsequently be used to manage other contaminated water in the future. Based on the evaluation of various alternatives in the EE/CA, DOE determined that the best approach for managing surface water impounded at the chemical plant area would be to remove contaminants from the water and release the treatment water to the Missouri River via a natural drainage channel. To establish requirements for releasing this treated water, DOE applied for a modification to its existing discharge permit from the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (DNR) under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program. The EE/CA provided a major source of technical input to the application for modifying the permit. This responsiveness summary has been prepared to address the major issues identified in oral and written comments on the proposed action. 1 tab

  15. Economic Floating Waste Detectionfor Surface Cleaning Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumroengrit Jakkrit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Removing waste out of water surface is a routine task and can be operated by using autonomous surface cleaning robots. This paper presents amethodoflaser-based floating waste detection for surface robot guidance when waste positions are unknown beforehand. Basing on concept of refraction and reflection of laser ray, the proposed laser-based technique is proven to be applicable on floating waste detection. The economic waste detector is constructed and mounted on the robot. Five DOF equations of motion are formulated for calculation of waste position incorporating distance measured by the laser and also the robot motion caused by external wind force as well as water surface tension. Experiments were conducted on a pond with calm water and results show that the presented economic waste detection successfully identify and locate position of plastic bottles floating on water surface within the range of 5 meters.

  16. Evaluation of Co and Cr mobility in soil profiles collected in a scrapyard of impounded vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Camila N.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G., E-mail: clange@usp.br, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Enzweiler, Jacinta, E-mail: jacinta@ige.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias

    2015-07-01

    The number of motor vehicles in urban environments has increased dramatically in the past years. As a result, so has the number of impounded and end-of-life vehicles. Car wastes can have a very high metal content, which can cause important environmental impacts to the soil where these vehicles are kept. Most Brazilian vehicle impound scrapyards are currently operating at their maximum capacity and soils may have become contaminated by past or current vehicle handling practices. Most of these areas do not present an impermeable surface. The level of soil contamination with heavy metals depends on the type of soil, climate and management practices. Metals, such as Co and Cr, that are present in many auto-parts, may be considered potentially toxic elements in these areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate Co and Cr levels and behavior in soil profiles located in a scrapyard of impounded vehicles of Ribeirao Pires-SP city. For this purpose, samples from distinct horizons of three soil profiles were collected. Element concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Soil parameters such as pH, organic matter content and clay, silt and sand percentage were also determined. The obtained data were statistically analyzed in order to establish correlations between elemental concentrations and the impounded vehicles scrapyard soil. Soil acidity showed to be the most remarkable property for Cr and Co mobility through soil profile. (author)

  17. Evaluation of Co and Cr mobility in soil profiles collected in a scrapyard of impounded vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Camila N.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Enzweiler, Jacinta

    2015-01-01

    The number of motor vehicles in urban environments has increased dramatically in the past years. As a result, so has the number of impounded and end-of-life vehicles. Car wastes can have a very high metal content, which can cause important environmental impacts to the soil where these vehicles are kept. Most Brazilian vehicle impound scrapyards are currently operating at their maximum capacity and soils may have become contaminated by past or current vehicle handling practices. Most of these areas do not present an impermeable surface. The level of soil contamination with heavy metals depends on the type of soil, climate and management practices. Metals, such as Co and Cr, that are present in many auto-parts, may be considered potentially toxic elements in these areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate Co and Cr levels and behavior in soil profiles located in a scrapyard of impounded vehicles of Ribeirao Pires-SP city. For this purpose, samples from distinct horizons of three soil profiles were collected. Element concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Soil parameters such as pH, organic matter content and clay, silt and sand percentage were also determined. The obtained data were statistically analyzed in order to establish correlations between elemental concentrations and the impounded vehicles scrapyard soil. Soil acidity showed to be the most remarkable property for Cr and Co mobility through soil profile. (author)

  18. Design and construction of an impoundment for precious metal mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldt, S.F.; Miller, R.G.; Johnson, K.

    1985-01-01

    An engineering study and design of impoundments for the disposal of mill tailings is presented. The site is located in central Nevada, and the mill will incorporate conventional flotation followed by a carbon-in-pulp cyanide process for extraction of gold from ore. Mill process waste will be generated as flotation tailings and cyanide residue. Permeable site soils and environmental considerations required the prevention of infiltration of cyanide residue leachate into the subgrade. Geochemical modeling of flotation tailings indicated the potential for high concentration of iron and nickel to be present in the flotation tailings leachate. On-site soils were optimized for use in construction of the separate flotation tailings and cyanide residue impoundments. Embankments were constructed on compacted on-site sandy gravels. The cyanide residue impoundment was designed using a four-layer liner, utilizing all on-site soils and chemical soil additives. The liner consists of a leachate collection system over a low-permeability layer, which in turn is underlain by a leak detection drainage blanket and a low permeability subliner. The geochemical modeling performed in the analysis indicated that placement of a thin layer of oxidized surface soils, high in soluble sulfates, on the bottom of the flotation tailings impoundment would be sufficient to react with tailings leachate and cause precipitation of ferric oxide and the associated removal of nickel, permitting flotation tailings leachate to dilute acceptably with natural groundwater

  19. Rehabilitation of uranium tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawley, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    Under Australian environmental controls relating to the management of uranium tailings, it is no longer acceptable practice to search for a rehabilitation strategy at the end of production when the generation of tailings has ceased. The uranium projects currently in production and those being proposed are tightly regulated by the authorities. The waste management plans must consider site specific factors and must include selection of appropriate disposal sites and design for long term containment. The final encapsulation in engineered facilities must take into account the probable routes to the environment of the tailings. Rehabilitation shoud be undertaken by the mining and milling operators to standards approved by appropriate authorities. Appropriate administrative arrangements are required, by way of technical committees and financial bonds to ensure that agreed standards of rehabilitation may be achieved. Past and present experience with the rehabilitation of uranium tailings impoundments in Australia is discussed

  20. Erosion protection of uranium tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.H.; Skaggs, R.L.; Foley, M.G.; Beedlow, P.A.

    1986-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this report to assist in the design and review of erosion protection works for decommissioned uranium tailings impoundments. The major causes of erosion over the long-term decommissioning period are from rainfall-runoff (overland flow) and stream channel flooding. The method of protection recommended for the impoundment side slopes and site drainage channels is rock riprap. Combinations of vegetation and rock mulch are recommended for the top surface. The design methods were developed from currently available procedures supplemented by field, laboratory, and mathematical model studies performed by PNL. Guidelines for the placement of riprap, inspection, and maintenance are presented. Other subjects discussed are rock selection and testing, slope stability, and overland erosion modeling

  1. Characterization and assessment of potential environmental risk of tailings stored in seven impoundments in the Aries river basin, Western Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine the potential environmental risk of tailings resulted after precious and base metal ores processing, stored in seven impoundments located in the Aries river basin, Romania. The tailings were characterized by mineralogical and elemental composition, contamination indices, acid rock drainage generation potential and water leachability of hazardous/priority hazardous metals and ions. Multivariate statistical methods were used for data interpretation. Results Tailings were found to be highly contaminated with several hazardous/priority hazardous metals (As, Cu, Cd, Pb), and pose potential contamination risk for soil, sediments, surface and groundwater. Two out of the seven studied impoundments does not satisfy the criteria required for inert wastes, shows acid rock drainage potential and thus can contaminate the surface and groundwater. Three impoundments were found to be highly contaminated with As, Pb and Cd, two with As and other two with Cu. The tailings impoundments were grouped based on the enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index, contamination factor and contamination degree of 7 hazardous/priority hazardous metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) considered typical for the studied tailings. Principal component analysis showed that 47% of the elemental variability was attributable to alkaline silicate rocks, 31% to acidic S-containing minerals, 12% to carbonate minerals and 5% to biogenic elements. Leachability of metals and ions was ascribed in proportion of 61% to silicates, 11% to acidic minerals and 6% to the organic matter. A variability of 18% was attributed to leachability of biogenic elements (Na, K, Cl-, NO3-) with no potential environmental risk. Pattern recognition by agglomerative hierarchical clustering emphasized the grouping of impoundments in agreement with their contamination degree and acid rock drainage generation potential. Conclusions Tailings stored in the studied impoundments were found to

  2. Characterization and assessment of potential environmental risk of tailings stored in seven impoundments in the Aries river basin, Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levei Erika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine the potential environmental risk of tailings resulted after precious and base metal ores processing, stored in seven impoundments located in the Aries river basin, Romania. The tailings were characterized by mineralogical and elemental composition, contamination indices, acid rock drainage generation potential and water leachability of hazardous/priority hazardous metals and ions. Multivariate statistical methods were used for data interpretation. Results Tailings were found to be highly contaminated with several hazardous/priority hazardous metals (As, Cu, Cd, Pb, and pose potential contamination risk for soil, sediments, surface and groundwater. Two out of the seven studied impoundments does not satisfy the criteria required for inert wastes, shows acid rock drainage potential and thus can contaminate the surface and groundwater. Three impoundments were found to be highly contaminated with As, Pb and Cd, two with As and other two with Cu. The tailings impoundments were grouped based on the enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index, contamination factor and contamination degree of 7 hazardous/priority hazardous metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn considered typical for the studied tailings. Principal component analysis showed that 47% of the elemental variability was attributable to alkaline silicate rocks, 31% to acidic S-containing minerals, 12% to carbonate minerals and 5% to biogenic elements. Leachability of metals and ions was ascribed in proportion of 61% to silicates, 11% to acidic minerals and 6% to the organic matter. A variability of 18% was attributed to leachability of biogenic elements (Na, K, Cl-, NO3- with no potential environmental risk. Pattern recognition by agglomerative hierarchical clustering emphasized the grouping of impoundments in agreement with their contamination degree and acid rock drainage generation potential. Conclusions Tailings stored in the studied

  3. 40 CFR 264.230 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 264.230 Special requirements for incompatible wastes... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special requirements for incompatible wastes. 264.230 Section 264.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  4. Mine Waste Disposal and Managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Young-Wook; Min, Jeong-Sik; Kwon, Kwang-Soo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    This research project deals with: Analysis and characterization of mine waste piles or tailings impoundment abandoned in mining areas; Survey of mining environmental pollution from mine waste impounds; Modelling of pollutants in groundwater around tailings impoundment; Demonstration of acid rock drainage from coal mine waste rock piles and experiment of seeding on waste rock surface; Development of a liner using tailings. Most of mine wastes are deposited on natural ground without artificial liners and capping for preventing contamination of groundwater around mine waste piles or containments. In case of some mine waste piles or containments, pollutants have been released to the environment, and several constituents in drainage exceed the limit of discharge from landfill site. Metals found in drainage exist in exchangeable fraction in waste rock and tailings. This means that if when it rains to mine waste containments, mine wastes can be pollutant to the environment by release of acidity and metals. As a result of simulation for hydraulic potentials and groundwater flow paths within the tailings, the simulated travel paths correlated well with the observed contaminant distribution. The plum disperse, both longitudinal and transverse dimensions, with time. Therefore liner system is a very important component in tailings containment system. As experimental results of liner development using tailings, tailings mixed with some portion of resin or cement may be used for liner because tailings with some additives have a very low hydraulic conductivity. (author). 39 refs.

  5. 30 CFR 816.49 - Impoundments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., prudent, engineering practices and any design criteria established by the regulatory authority. The... surrounding landowners for agricultural, industrial, recreational, or domestic uses. (6) The impoundment will... safely removed in accordance with current, prudent, engineering practices. Such an impoundment shall be...

  6. Dewatering tailings impoundments : interior drains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlie, W.A.; Doehring, D.O.; Durnford, D.S.

    1984-01-01

    For the design of a new uranium tailings impoundment in the western United States, it was proposed that an interior drainage system be considered to economically and reliably minimize potential short- and long-term environmental impacts. The objectives were to decrease the effective hydraulic head on the clay liner, to dewater and stabilize the tailings, and to increase the amount of water recycled to the mill. In addition, desaturation of the impoundment would induce capillary pressure (negative porewater pressure), further reducing the potential movement of dissolved pollutants. This paper presents saturated and unsaturated seepage principles and reviews the concept, criteria and design of the various interior drainage systems considered

  7. Decommissioning high-level waste surface facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    The protective storage, entombment and dismantlement options of decommissioning a High-Level Waste Surface Facility (HLWSF) was investigated. A reference conceptual design for the facility was developed based on the designs of similar facilities. State-of-the-art decommissioning technologies were identified. Program plans and cost estimates for decommissioning the reference conceptual designs were developed. Good engineering design concepts were on the basis of this work identified

  8. Surface layer effects on waste glass corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.

    1993-01-01

    Water contact subjects waste glass to chemical attack that results in the formation of surface alteration layers. Two principal hypotheses have been advanced concerning the effect of surface alteration layers on continued glass corrosion: (1) they act as a mass transport barrier and (2) they influence the chemical affinity of the glass reaction. In general, transport barrier effects have been found to be less important than affinity effects in the corrosion of most high-level nuclear waste glasses. However, they can be important under some circumstances, for example, in a very alkaline solution, in leachants containing Mg ions, or under conditions where the matrix dissolution rate is very low. The latter suggests that physical barrier effect may affect the long-term glass dissolution rate. Surface layers influence glass reaction affinity through the effects of the altered glass and secondary phases on the solution chemistry. The reaction affinity may be controlled by various precipitates and crystalline phases, amorphous silica phases, gel layer, or all the components of the glass. The surface alteration layers influence radionuclide release mainly through colloid formation, crystalline phase incorporation, and gel layer retention. This paper reviews current understanding and uncertainties

  9. Waste water treatment in surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navasardyants, M A; Esipov, V Z; Ryzhkov, Yu A

    1981-01-01

    This paper evaluates problems associated with waste water from coal surface mines of the Kemerovougol' association in the Kuzbass. Waste water treatment in the Kuzbass is of major importance as the region is supplied with water from only one river, the Tom river. Water influx to Kemerovougol' surface mines in a year amounts to 136 million m/sup 3/. The water is used during technological processes, for fire fighting, and spraying to prevent dusting; the rest, about 82.1 million m/sup 3/, is discharged into surface waters. Of this amount, 25.1 million m/sup 3/ is heavily polluted water, 46.6 million m3 are polluted but within limits, and 10.4 million m/sup 3/ are characterized as relatively clean. Waste water is polluted with: suspended matters, oils and oil products, nitrates, nitrides and chlorides. Suspended matter content sometimes reaches 4,000 and 5,000 mg/l, and oil product content in water amounts to 2.17 mg/l. Water treatment in surface mines is two-staged: sumps and sedimentation tanks are used. Water with suspended matter content of 50 to 100 mg/l in winter and summer, and 200 to 250 mg/l in spring and autumn is reduced in sumps to 25 to 30 mg/l in summer and winter and to 40 to 50 mg/l in autumn and spring. During the first stage water treatment efficiency ranges from 50 to 80%. During the second stage water is collected in sedimentation tanks. It is noted that so-called secondary pollution is one of the causes of the relatively high level of suspended matter in discharged water. Water discharged from sedimentation tanks carries clay and loam particles from the bottom and walls of water tanks and channels.

  10. The impact of uncontrolled waste disposal on surface water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main threat to the surface water quality in Addis Ababa is environmental pollution derived from domestic and industrial activities. Due to the inadequacy of controlled waste management strategies and waste treatment plants, people are forced to discharge wastes both on open surface and within water bodies.

  11. Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water quality at ring road, Ibadan, Nigeria. ... parameters showed increased concentrations over those from control sites. ... Keywords: Landfill, groundwater, surface-water, pollution.

  12. Inspection and verification of waste packages for near surface disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Extensive experience has been gained with various disposal options for low and intermediate level waste at or near surface disposal facilities. Near surface disposal is based on proven and well demonstrated technologies. To ensure the safety of near surface disposal facilities when available technologies are applied, it is necessary to control and assure the quality of the repository system's performance, which includes waste packages, engineered features and natural barriers, as well as siting, design, construction, operation, closure and institutional controls. Recognizing the importance of repository performance, the IAEA is producing a set of technical publications on quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) for waste disposal to provide Member States with technical guidance and current information. These publications cover issues on the application of QA/QC programmes to waste disposal, long term record management, and specific QA/QC aspects of waste packaging, repository design and R and D. Waste package QA/QC is especially important because the package is the primary barrier to radionuclide release from a disposal facility. Waste packaging also involves interface issues between the waste generator and the disposal facility operator. Waste should be packaged by generators to meet waste acceptance requirements set for a repository or disposal system. However, it is essential that the disposal facility operator ensure that waste packages conform with disposal facility acceptance requirements. Demonstration of conformance with disposal facility acceptance requirements can be achieved through the systematic inspection and verification of waste packages at both the waste generator's site and at the disposal facility, based on a waste package QA/QC programme established by the waste generator and approved by the disposal operator. However, strategies, approaches and the scope of inspection and verification will be somewhat different from country to country

  13. Synthesis long life storage studies surface storage of vitrified wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beziat, A.; Breton, E.; Ranc, G.; Gaillard, J.P.; Lagrave, H.; Hollender, F.; Jourdain, F.; Piault, E.; Garnier, J.; Lamare, V.; Duret, B.; Helie, M.; Ferry, C.; Mijuin, D.; Gagnier, E.

    2004-01-01

    This document is realized in the framework of the axis 3 of the law of 1991 on the radioactive wastes management. It justifies the choices concerning long time surface storage installation of vitrified wastes, called high activity wastes. The long time of the installation would reach 300 years at the maximum. These wastes represent 1 % at the maximum, of radioactive wastes in France but 95 % of the whole radioactivity. Three main objectives were followed: provide a permanent containment of radionuclides; give the possibility of wastes containers retrieval at all the time; minimize the maintenance and the control. The results allow to conclude that the long time surface storage of high activity wastes is feasible. (A.L.B.)

  14. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2181 Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181...

  15. 50 CFR 28.42 - Impounding of domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impounding of domestic animals. 28.42... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.42 Impounding of domestic animals. (a) Any animal trespassing on the lands of any national wildlife refuge may be impounded and disposed of in...

  16. Design, permitting, and construction issues associated with closure of the Panna Maria uranium tailings impoundment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, C.L.; Raabe, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992, Panna Maria Uranium Operations (PMUO) initiated licensing and engineering activities for closure of the Panna Maria mill and 150-acre tailings impoundment located in southeast Texas. Closure of the tailings impoundment is permitted by license amendment through the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission (TNRCC), and based on closure criteria outlined in Texas regulations. The closure plan for the Panna Maria tailings impoundment was submitted for Texas regulatory agency review in April 1993, with details of the closure plan modified in 1994, 1995, and 1996. The closure plan included a multi-layered cover over the regraded tailings surface which was designed for long-term isolation of tailings, reduction of radon emanation to regulated levels, and reduction of infiltration to TNRCC-accepted levels. The cover and embankment slope surfaces and surrounding areas were designed to provide acceptable erosional stability as compared to runoff velocities from the Probable Maximum Precipitation event. Cover materials were selected from on-site materials and evaluated for suitability based on permeability, radon attenuation, and soil dispersivity characteristics. Off-site materials were used when necessary. The cover over the tailings has a maximum slope of 0.5 percent, and the regraded embankment slopes outside the perimeter of the impoundment have a maximum slope of 20 percent. All reclaimed slopes are covered with topsoil and revegetated. A riprap-lined channel is to be used to convey runoff from within the perimeter of the reclaimed impoundment to the north of the impoundment

  17. Wildlife and the coal waste policy debate: proposed rules for coal waste disposal ignore lessons from 45 years of wildlife poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly; Joseph P. Skorupa

    2012-01-01

    This analysis examines wildlife poisoning from coal combustion waste (CCW) in the context of EPA's proposed policy that would allow continued use of surface impoundments as a disposal method. Data from 21 confirmed damage sites were evaluated, ranging from locations where historic poisoning has led to corrective actions that have greatly improved environmental...

  18. Design, placement, and sampling of groundwater monitoring wells for the management of hazardous waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, S.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an important technical requirement in managing hazardous waste disposal facilities. The purpose of monitoring is to assess whether and how a disposal facility is affecting the underlying groundwater system. This paper focuses on the regulatory and technical aspects of the design, placement, and sampling of groundwater monitoring wells for hazardous waste disposal facilities. Such facilities include surface impoundments, landfills, waste piles, and land treatment facilities. 8 refs., 4 figs

  19. Thermal impact of waste emplacement and surface cooling associated with geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Mangold, D.C.; Spencer, R.K.; Tsang, C.F.

    1982-08-01

    The thermal effects associated with the emplacement of aged radioactive wastes in a geologic repository were studied, with emphasis on the following subjects: the waste characteristics, repository structure, and rock properties controlling the thermally induced effects; the current knowledge of the thermal, thermomechanical, and thermohydrologic impacts, determined mainly on the basis of previous studies that assume 10-year-old wastes; the thermal criteria used to determine the repository waste loading densities; and the technical advantages and disadvantages of surface cooling of the wastes prior to disposal as a means of mitigating the thermal impacts. The waste loading densities determined by repository designs for 10-year-old wastes are extended to older wastes using the near-field thermomechanical criteria based on room stability considerations. Also discussed are the effects of long surface cooling periods determined on the basis of far-field thermomechanical and thermohydrologic considerations. The extension of the surface cooling period from 10 years to longer periods can lower the near-field thermal impact but have only modest long-term effects for spent fuel. More significant long-term effects can be achieved by surface cooling of reprocessed high-level waste.

  20. Thermal impact of waste emplacement and surface cooling associated with geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Mangold, D.C.; Spencer, R.K.; Tsang, C.F.

    1982-08-01

    The thermal effects associated with the emplacement of aged radioactive wastes in a geologic repository were studied, with emphasis on the following subjects: the waste characteristics, repository structure, and rock properties controlling the thermally induced effects; the current knowledge of the thermal, thermomechanical, and thermohydrologic impacts, determined mainly on the basis of previous studies that assume 10-year-old wastes; the thermal criteria used to determine the repository waste loading densities; and the technical advantages and disadvantages of surface cooling of the wastes prior to disposal as a means of mitigating the thermal impacts. The waste loading densities determined by repository designs for 10-year-old wastes are extended to older wastes using the near-field thermomechanical criteria based on room stability considerations. Also discussed are the effects of long surface cooling periods determined on the basis of far-field thermomechanical and thermohydrologic considerations. The extension of the surface cooling period from 10 years to longer periods can lower the near-field thermal impact but have only modest long-term effects for spent fuel. More significant long-term effects can be achieved by surface cooling of reprocessed high-level waste

  1. Effects of seasonal drawdowns on fish assemblages in sections of an impounded river-canal system in upstate New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Scott D.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Wells, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    The Mohawk River and New York State Barge Canal run together as a series of permanent and temporary impoundments for most of the distance between Rome and Albany, New York. The downstream or lower section is composed of two permanent impoundments, the middle section of a series of temporary (seasonal) impoundments, and the upper section of a series of permanent impoundments. In the middle section, movable dams are lifted from the water during winter and the wetted surface area decreases by 36–56%. We used boat electrofishing during spring 2014 and 2015 to compare the relative abundance of fish populations and the composition of fish assemblages between the permanently and seasonally impounded sections of the Barge Canal and to infer the effects of the two flow management practices. A total of 3,264 individuals from 38 species were captured, and total catch per unit effort (CPUE) ranged from 46.0 to 134.7 fish/h at sites in the seasonally impounded section, compared with 140.0–342.0 fish/h in the permanent lower section and 89.0–282.0 fish/h in the permanent upper section. The amount of drawdown explained 55% of the variation in total CPUE and was a highly significant predictor variable. Mean total CPUE in the seasonally impounded section was significantly lower (by about 50%) than that in either permanently impounded section, and the assemblage composition differed significantly between sections. The relative abundance of many lentic species was markedly lower in the seasonally impounded section, while the relative abundance of several native cyprinids and the percentage of individuals belonging to species that are native to the watershed was greater in this section. Overall, these findings suggest that winter dam removal in impounded rivers may reduce the abundance of fish but may also create more natural riverine conditions that favor some native species.

  2. Surface analysis: its uses and abuses in waste form evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVay, G.L.; Pederson, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    Surface and near-surface analytical techniques are significant aids in understanding waste form-aqueous solution interactions. They can be beneficially employed to evaluate reaction layers on waste forms, to assess surface treatments prior to and after leaching, and to identify interactions with waste forms. Surface analyses are best used in conjunction with other types of analyses, such as solution analyses, in order to obtain a better overall understanding of reaction processes. In spite of all the benefits to be gained by using surface analyses, misinterpretations can result if care is not taken to properly obtain and analyze the data. In particular, the density variations through a reaction layer must be accounted for in both sputtering and data analysis techniques

  3. The surface disposal concept for VLL waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Disposal facilities for very-low-level (VLL) waste have been designed to accommodate both residues originating from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and used components. Those residues have very low specific-activity levels that lie below a few hundreds of becquerels per gram (Bq/g). As for the average activity found in any disposal facility, it never exceeds more than a few tens of becquerels per gram. In that case, waste disposal involves no special processing or conditioning, except for handling requirements or volume-gain purposes. The main barrier against radionuclide dispersion is provided by the geological formation being used for waste disposal. Basic disposal concept The design and construction provisions allow for the optimal operation of the disposal facility without any risk of altering the required safety level. They also ensure a satisfactory containment level for several centuries at the end of the operating lifetime. Hence, the natural materials in their original context constitute a particular advantage for the safety demonstration over the long term. With due account of the nature of VLL waste, their containment envelope (drums, big bags, etc.) has no role in confining radioactivity, but rather in facilitating handling and disposal operations, while protecting operators. Approximately 30% of all waste received at the CSTFA undergo a specific treatment before disposal. Low-density residues (plastics, thermal-insulation materials, etc.) are first compacted by a baling press, then strapped and wrapped in clear plastic-sheet. Another bundle press is used to reduce the volume of scrap metal. Some waste, such as the polluted waters generated on site or the sludges sent by producers, are processed in the solidification and stabilisation unit. Disposal cells are excavated progressively, as needed, directly in the clay formation down to a depth of 8 m and are operated in sequence. Cell design has evolved to maximize the disposal volume, and now

  4. The surface disposal concept for VLL waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Disposal facilities for very-low-level (VLL) waste have been designed to accommodate both residues originating from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and used components. Those residues have very low specific-activity levels that lie below a few hundreds of becquerels per gram (Bq/g). As for the average activity found in any disposal facility, it never exceeds more than a few tens of becquerels per gram. In that case, waste disposal involves no special processing or conditioning, except for handling requirements or volume-gain purposes. The main barrier against radionuclide dispersion is provided by the geological formation being used for waste disposal. Basic disposal concept The design and construction provisions allow for the optimal operation of the disposal facility without any risk of altering the required safety level. They also ensure a satisfactory containment level for several centuries at the end of the operating lifetime. Hence, the natural materials in their original context constitute a particular advantage for the safety demonstration over the long term. With due account of the nature of VLL waste, their containment envelope (drums, big bags, etc.) has no role in confining radioactivity, but rather in facilitating handling and disposal operations, while protecting operators. Approximately 30% of all waste received at the CSTFA undergo a specific treatment before disposal. Low-density residues (plastics, thermal-insulation materials, etc.) are first compacted by a baling press, then strapped and wrapped in clear plastic-sheet. Another bundle press is used to reduce the volume of scrap metal. Some waste, such as the polluted waters generated on site or the sludges sent by producers, are processed in the solidification and stabilisation unit. Disposal cells are excavated progressively, as needed, directly in the clay formation down to a depth of 8 m and are operated in sequence. Cell design has evolved to maximize the disposal volume, and now

  5. Methodologies for evaluating long-term stabilization designs of uranium mill tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.D.; Abt, S.R.; Volpe, R.L.; Van Zye, D.; Hinkle, N.E.; Staub, W.P.

    1986-06-01

    Uranium mill tailings impoundments require long-term (200 to 1000 years) stabilization. This report reviews currently available methodologies for evaluating factors that can have a significant influence on tailings stabilization and develops methodologies in technical areas where none presently exist. Mill operators can use these methodologies to assist with (1) the selection of sites for mill tailings impoundments, (2) the design of stable impoundments, and (3) the development of reclamation plans for existing impoundments. These methodologies would also be useful for regulatory agency evaluations of proposals in permit or license applications. Methodologies were reviewed or developed in the following technical areas: (1) prediction of the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) and an accompanying Probable Maximum Flood (PMF); (2) prediction of the stability of local and regional fluvial systems; (3) design of impoundment surfaces resistant to gully erosion; (4) evaluation of the potential for surface sheet erosion; (5) design of riprap for protecting embankments from channel flood flow and overland flow; (6) selection of riprap with appropriate durability for its intended use; and (7) evaluation of oversizing required for marginal quality riprap

  6. Thermal impact of waste emplacement and surface cooling associated with geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Mangold, D.C.; Spencer, R.K.; Tsang, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    The age of nuclear waste - the length of time between its removal from the reactor cores and its emplacement in a repository - is a significant factor in determining the thermal loading of a repository. The surface cooling period as well as the density and sequence of waste emplacement affects both the near-field repository structure and the far-field geologic environment. To investigate these issues, a comprehensive review was made of the available literature pertaining to thermal effects and thermal properties of mined geologic repositories. This included a careful evaluation of the effects of different surface cooling periods of the wastes, which is important for understanding the optimal thermal loading of a repository. The results led to a clearer understanding of the importance of surface cooling in evaluating the overall thermal effects of a radioactive waste repository. The principal findings from these investigations are summarized in this paper

  7. Effects of rock riprap design parameters on flood protection costs for uranium tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, R.M.

    1984-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is studying the problem of long-term protection of earthen covers on decommissioned uranium tailings impoundments. The major erosive forces acting on these covers will be river flooding and overland flow from rainfall-runoff. For impoundments adjacent to rivers, overbank flooding presents the greater potential for significant erosion. To protect the earthen covers against flood erosion, rock riprap armoring will be placed over the cover surface. Because of the large size rock usually required for riprap, the quarrying, transport, and placement of the rock could be a significant part of the decommissioning cost. This report examines the sensitivity of riprap protection costs to certain design parameters at tailings impoundments. The parameters include flood discharge, riprap materials, impoundment side slopes, and an added safety factor. Two decommissioned tailings impoundments are used as case studies for the evaluation. These are the Grand Junction, Colorado, impoundment located adjacent to the Colorado River and the Slickrock, Colorado, impoundment located adjacent to the Dolores River. The evaluation considers only the cost of riprap protection against flood erosion. The study results show that embankment side slope and rock specific gravity can have optimum values or ranges at a specific site. For both case study sites the optimum side slope is about 5H:1V. Of the rock sources considered at Grand Junction, the optimum specific gravity would be about 2.50; however, an optimum rock specific gravity for the Slickrock site could not be determined. Other results indicate that the arbitrary safety factor usually added in riprap design can lead to large increases in protection costs. 22 references, 19 figures, 15 tables

  8. Protection of uranium tailings impoundments against overland erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.H.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This study investigates the problems involved in designing protection methods to prevent erosion of a uranium tailings impoundment cover from rainfall and runoff (overland flow) processes. The study addresses the side slopes and top surface as separate elements. The side slopes are more subject to gully erosion and require absolute protection such as that provided by rock riprap. The flatter top surface needs much less protection (vegetation/rock combinations) but some estimate of erosion rates are needed to compare alternatives. A literature review indicated that, currently, procedures are not available for the design of rock riprap to prevent gully erosion. Therefore, rock protection on the side slope will have to be based upon engineering judgment determined by the particular site conditions. The Manning-kinetic equations (velocity and depth of runoff) were investigated as a possible aid to the design of gully erosion protection. Guidelines are suggested for the use of rock riprap to prevent gully erosion. Three mathematical models were used to compute erosion rates for the top surface of a hypothetical tailings impoundment. The results recommend that one or possibly both of the regression models could be used to evaluate preliminary protection designs for the top surface. A physical process simulation model should be used for the final design. 30 refs., 13 figs., 16 tabs

  9. 36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11... ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National Forest System, which has been closed to dogs running at large, may be...

  10. 77 FR 36447 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... underflow water is an aqueous solution which seeps through the treatment zone (soils) of the North Landfarm... Trichloroethylene ND 5.00E-01 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol....... ND 2.00E+00 Vinyl chloride ND 1.56E-01 Zinc 6.05E-02 3... groundwater contamination resulting from disposal of the petitioned waste in a surface impoundment, and that a...

  11. 30 CFR 817.49 - Impoundments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... runoff from the design precipitation event when it is demonstrated by the operator and certified by a... constructed to safely pass the applicable design precipitation event specified in paragraph (a)(9)(ii) of this... this section, the required design precipitation event for an impoundment meeting the spillway...

  12. Hydrogeological aspects of radioactive waste disposal into surface formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Safe disposal is discussed of radioactive wastes in geological surface formations and basic criteria are shown of the radiological protection of population from possible effects of radioactive materials diffused in the environment. Main principles are listed governing the selection of suitable localities with respect to possible interactions of the locality and the storage site with the environment. (author)

  13. UAV Remote Sensing Surveillance of a Mine Tailings Impoundment in Sub-Arctic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anssi Rauhala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining typically involves extensive areas where environmental monitoring is spatially sporadic. New remote sensing techniques and platforms such as Structure from Motion (SfM and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs may offer one solution for more comprehensive and spatially continuous measurements. We conducted UAV campaigns in three consecutive summers (2015–2017 at a sub-Arctic mining site where production was temporarily suspended. The aim was to monitor a 0.5 km2 tailings impoundment and measure potential subsidence of tailings. SfM photogrammetry was used to produce yearly topographical models of the tailings surface, which allowed the amount of surface displacement between years to be tracked. Ground checkpoints surveyed in stable areas of the impoundment were utilized in assessing the vertical accuracy of the models. Observed surface displacements were linked to a combination of erosion, tailings settlement, and possible compaction of the peat layer underlying the tailings. The accuracy obtained indicated that UAV-assisted monitoring of tailings impoundments is sufficiently accurate for supporting impoundment management operations and for tracking surface displacements in the decimeter range.

  14. Distribution and migration of pesticide residues in mosquito control impoundments St. Lucie County, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, R. W.; Wang, T. C.; White, J. R.; David, J. R.; Hoffman, M. E.

    1993-09-01

    This project was designed to: (1) document the distribution and migration of organochlorine pesticide residues within marsh substrates of 18 St. Lucie County mosquito control impoundments located along the Indian River Lagoon estuary, and (2) evaluate the impact of water management techniques on residue mobility. Our results indicate that detectible concentrations of organochlorine compounds, applied between the late 1940s and early 1950s, are present in 16 of the 18 St. Lucie County mosquito control impoundments. These compounds are primarily restricted to the surficial, organic-rich wetland sediment, which, based upon geotechnical analysis, was exposed to the atmosphere at a time when the impoundments were subjected to pesticide treatment. Contaminated sediments are present below the surficial, organic-rich layer, suggesting that some vertical migration of pesticides has occurred. It is unlikely that leaching associated with the downward percolation of impounded water was responsible for this migration as pesticide residues were never detected within the in situ pore waters. An alternative explanation is that biological processes (e.g., rooting, burrowing) facilitated the downward flux of organochlorine compounds into sediment horizons not subjected to direct treatment. Eighty-eight surface water samples obtained from two impoundments subjected to contrasting water management techniques were analyzed for pesticide content. None of the surficial water samples collected in association with these impoundments contained detectible concentrations of organochlorine compounds. These samples were unfiltered and contained as much as 25 mg/1 of particulate organic matter. This suggests that the currently preferred management technique (RIM), which is designed to maintain water quality, limit mosquito production, and provide for ecological continuity, does not hydraulically mobilize pesticide residues into the Indian River Lagoon estuary.

  15. The Role of Small Impoundments on Flow Alteration Within River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, C. O.; Keys, T.; Scott, D.; Burgholzer, R.; Kleiner, J.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous water quality and quantity models have been established to illustrate the ecologic and hydrologic effects of large reservoirs. Smaller, unregulated ponds are often assumed to have a negligible impact on watershed flow regimes even though they overwhelmingly outnumber larger waterbodies. Individually, these small impoundments impart merely a fraction of the flow alteration larger reservoirs do; however, a network of ponds may act cumulatively to alter the flow regime. Many models have attempted to study smaller impoundments but rely on selectively available rating curves or bathymetry surveys. This study created a generalized process to model impoundments of varying size across a 58 square mile watershed exclusively using satellite imagery and publicly available information as inputs. With information drawn from public Army Corps of Engineers databases and LiDAR surveys, it was found that impoundment surface and drainage area served as useful explanatory variables, capable of predicting both pond bathymetry and outlet structure area across the 37 waterbodies modeled within the study area. Working within a flow routing model with inputs from the Chesapeake Bay HSPF model and verified with USGS gauge data, flow simulations were conducted with increasing number of impoundments to quantify how small ponds affect the overall flow regime. As the total impounded volume increased, simulations showed a notable reduction in both low and peak flows. Medium-sized floods increased as the network of ponds and reservoirs stabilized the catchment's streamflow. The results of this study illustrate the importance of including ponded waters into river corridor models to improve downstream management of both water quantity and quality.

  16. French surface disposal experience. The disposal of large waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutzer, Michel; Lecoq, Pascal; Duret, Franck; Mandoki, Robert

    2006-01-01

    More than 90 percent of the volume of radioactive waste that are generated in France can be managed in surface disposal facilities. Two facilities are presently operated by ANDRA: the Centre de l'Aube disposal facility that is dedicated to low and intermediate short lived waste and the Morvilliers facility for very low level waste. The Centre de l'Aube facility was designed at the end of the years 1980 to replace the Centre de la Manche facility that ended operation in 1994. In order to achieve as low external exposure as possible for workers it was decided to use remote handling systems as much as possible. Therefore it was necessary to standardize the types of waste containers. But taking into account the fact that these waste were conditioned in existing facilities, it was not possible to change a major part of existing packages. As a consequence, 6 mobile roofs were constructed to handle 12 different types of waste packages in the disposal vaults. The scope of Centre de l'Aube was mainly to dispose operational waste. However some packages, as 5 or 10 m 3 metallic boxes, could be used for larger waste generated by decommissioning activities. The corresponding flow was supposed to be small. After the first years of operations, it appeared interesting to develop special procedures to dispose specific large waste in order to avoid external exposure costly cutting works in the generating facilities. A 40 m 3 box and a large remote handling device were disposed in vaults that were currently used for other types of packages. Such a technique could not be used for the disposal of vessel heads that were replaced in 55 pressurised water power reactors. The duration of disposal and conditioning operation was not compatible with the flow of standard packages that were delivered in the vaults. Therefore a specific type of vault was designed, including handling and conditioning equipment. The first pressure vessel head was delivered on the 29 of July 2004, 6 heads have been

  17. Control of Eolian soil erosion from waste site surface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1994-11-01

    Physical models were tested in a wind tunnel to determine optimum surface-ravel admixtures for protecting silt-loam soil from erosion by, wind and saltating, sand stresses. The tests were performed to support the development of a natural-material surface barrier for and waste sites. Plans call for a 2-m deep silt-loam soil reservoir to retain infiltrating water from rainfall and snowmelt. The objective of the study was to develop a gravel admixture that would produce an erosion-resistant surface layer during, periods of extended dry climatic stress. Thus, tests were performed using simulated surfaces representing dry, unvegetated conditions present just after construction, after a wildfire, or during an extended drought. Surfaces were prepared using silt-loam soil mixed with various grades of sand and Travel. Wind-induced surface shear stresses were controlled over the test surfaces, as were saltating, sand mass flow rates and intensities. Tests were performed at wind speeds that approximated and exceeded local 100-year peak gust intensities. Surface armors produced by pea gravel admixtures were shown to provide the best protection from wind and saltating sand stresses. Compared with unprotected silt-loam surfaces, armored surfaces reduced erosion rates by more than 96%. Based in part on wind tunnel results, a pea gravel admixture of 15% will be added to the top 1 in of soil in a prototype barrier under construction in 1994. Field tests are planned at the prototype site to provide data for comparison with wind tunnel results

  18. Maximum surface level and temperature histories for Hanford waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, B.D.; Ha, N.D.; Huisingh, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive defense waste resulting from the chemical processing of spent nuclear fuel has been accumulating at the Hanford Site since 1944. This waste is stored in underground waste-storage tanks. The Hanford Site Tank Farm Facilities Interim Safety Basis (ISB) provides a ready reference to the safety envelope for applicable tank farm facilities and installations. During preparation of the ISB, tank structural integrity concerns were identified as a key element in defining the safety envelope. These concerns, along with several deficiencies in the technical bases associated with the structural integrity issues and the corresponding operational limits/controls specified for conduct of normal tank farm operations are documented in the ISB. Consequently, a plan was initiated to upgrade the safety envelope technical bases by conducting Accelerated Safety Analyses-Phase 1 (ASA-Phase 1) sensitivity studies and additional structural evaluations. The purpose of this report is to facilitate the ASA-Phase 1 studies and future analyses of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs) by compiling a quantitative summary of some of the past operating conditions the tanks have experienced during their existence. This report documents the available summaries of recorded maximum surface levels and maximum waste temperatures and references other sources for more specific data

  19. Application of carbon isotopes to detect seepage out of coalbed natural gas produced water impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Shikha; Baggett, Joshua K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Coalbed natural gas extraction results in large amount of produced water. → Risk of deterioration of ambient water quality. → Carbon isotope natural tracer for detecting seepage from produced water impoundments. - Abstract: Coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production from coal bed aquifers requires large volumes of produced water to be pumped from the subsurface. The produced water ranges from high quality that meets state and federal drinking water standards to low quality due to increased salinity and/or sodicity. The Powder River Basin of northeastern Wyoming is a major coalbed natural gas producing region, where water quality generally decreases moving from the southeastern portion of the basin towards the center. Most produced water in Wyoming is disposed into impoundments and other surface drainages, where it may infiltrate into shallow groundwater. Groundwater degradation caused by infiltration of CBNG produced water holding impoundments into arid, soluble salt-rich soils is an issue of immense importance because groundwater is a major source for stock water, irrigation, and drinking water for many small communities in these areas. This study examines the potential of using stable C isotope signatures of dissolved inorganic C (δ 13 C DIC ) to track the fate of CBNG produced water after it is discharged into the impoundments. Other geochemical proxies like the major cations and major anions were used in conjunction with field water quality measurements to understand the geochemical differences between CBNG produced waters and ambient waters in the study area. Samples were collected from the CBNG discharge outfalls, produced water holding impoundments, and monitoring wells from different parts of the Powder River Basin and analyzed for δ 13 C DIC . The CBNG produced waters from outfalls and impoundments have positive δ 13 C DIC values that fall within the range of +12 per mille to +22 per mille, distinct from the ambient regional surface and

  20. Low-waste electrochemical decontamination of stainless-steel surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babain, V.A.; Smirnov, I.V.; Shadrin, A.Yu.; Firsin, N.G.; Zakharchuk, G.A.; Pavlov, A.B.; Shilov, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    An electrochemical decontamination method using a formic acid-based recycling electrolyte was proposed to remove firmly fixed contaminants from stainless-steel surfaces. The following provisions make for minimisation of the amounts of waste: (i) use of specially designed electrodes with vacuum removal of spent electrolyte; (ii) inter-cycle removal of radionuclides from the electrolyte by using an inorganic sorbent; (iii) periodic regeneration of the spent electrolyte. the dissolved metals (Fe, Cr, Ni) being transformed into acidic phosphates; (iv) solidification of residues arising from the regeneration of the electrolyte and spent sorbent into iron-phosphate ceramics. The technology and equipment developed were used for decontamination of a plutonium glove-box. The level of surface contamination was reduced 100-fold in two decontamination cycles. The depth of metal skimming was 1.5 μ for the ceiling and walls and 4.5 μ for the table top. Each square meter of stainless-steel surface provides about 100 g of solid radioactive waste in the form of iron-phosphate ceramic blocks

  1. Vertical Drop Of 21-PWR Waste Package On Unyielding Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Mastilovic; A. Scheider; S.M. Bennett

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of a 21-PWR (pressurized-water reactor) Waste Package (WP) subjected to the 2-m vertical drop on an unyielding surface at three different temperatures. The scope of this calculation is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of stress intensities in two different WP components. The information provided by the sketches (Attachment I) is that of the potential design of the type of WP considered in this calculation, and all obtained results are valid for that design only

  2. Pre- and post-impoundment nitrogen in the lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Dale W.; Wilkison, Donald H.; Niesen, Shelley L.

    2013-01-01

    Large water-sample sets collected from 1899 through 1902, 1907, and in the early 1950s allow comparisons of pre-impoundment and post-impoundment (1969 through 2008) nitrogen concentrations in the lower Missouri River. Although urban wastes were not large enough to detectably increase annual loads of total nitrogen at the beginning of the 20th century, carcass waste, stock-yard manure, and untreated human wastes measurably increased ammonia and organic-nitrogen concentrations during low flows. Average total-nitrogen concentrations in both periods were about 2.5 mg/l, but much of the particulate-organic nitrogen, which was the dominant form of nitrogen around 1900, has been replaced by nitrate. This change in speciation was caused by the nearly 80% decrease in suspended-sediment concentrations that occurred after impoundment, modern agriculture, drainage of riparian wetlands, and sewage treatment. Nevertheless, bioavailable nitrogen has not been low enough to limit primary production in the Missouri River since the beginning of the 20th century. Nitrate concentrations have increased more rapidly from 2000 through 2008 (5 to 12% per year), thus increasing bioavailable nitrogen delivered to the Mississippi River and affecting Gulf Coast hypoxia. The increase in nitrate concentrations with distance downstream is much greater during the post-impoundment period. If strategies to decrease total-nitrogen loads focus on particulate N, substantial decreases will be difficult because particulate nitrogen is now only 23% of total nitrogen in the Missouri River. A strategy aimed at decreasing particulates also could further exacerbate land loss along the Gulf of Mexico, which has been sediment starved since Missouri River impoundment. In contrast, strategies or benchmarks aimed at decreasing nitrate loads could substantially decrease nitrogen loadings because nitrates now constitute over half of the Missouri's nitrogen input to the Mississippi. Ongoing restoration and creation

  3. Derivation of Waste Acceptance Criteria for Low and Intermediate Level Waste in Surface Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagner, L.; Voinis, S.

    2000-01-01

    In France, low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes are disposed in a near-surface facility, at Centre de l'Aube disposal facility. This facility, which was commissioned in 1992, has a disposal capacity of one million cubic meters, and will be operated up to about 2050. It took over the job from Centre de la Manche, which was commissioned in 1969 and shut down in 1994, after having received about 520,000 cubic meters of wastes. The Centre de l'Aube disposal facility is designed to receive a many types of waste produced by nuclear power plants, reprocessing, decommissioning, as well as by the industry, hospitals and armed forces. The limitation of radioactive transfer to man and the limitation of personnel exposure in all situations considered plausible require limiting the total activity of the waste disposed in the facility as well as the activity of each package. The paper presents how ANDRA has derived the activity-related acceptance criteria, based on the safety analysis. In the French methodology, activity is considered as end-point for deriving the concentration limits per package, whereas it is the starting point for deriving the total activity limits. For the concentration limits (called here LMA) the approach consists of five steps: the determination of radionuclides important for safety with regards to operational and long-term safety, the use of relevant safety scenarios as a tool to derive quantitative limits, the setting of dose constraint per situation associated with scenarios, the setting of contribution factor per radionuclide, and the calculation of concentration activity limits. An exhaustive survey has been performed and has shown that the totality of waste packages which should be delivered by waste generators are acceptable in terms of activity limits in the Centre de l'Aube. Examples of concentration activity limits derived from this methodology are presented. Furthermore those limits have been accepted by the French regulatory body and

  4. Hazardous-waste landfill research, US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomaker, N.B.

    1988-08-01

    The Land Pollution Control Division (LPCD), Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Lab. (HWERL), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in Cincinnati, Ohio, has responsibility for research in solid- and hazardous-waste management with respect to land disposal of wastes. To fulfill the responsibility, the LPCD is developing concepts and is documenting the environmental effects of various waste-disposal practices; and is collecting data necessary to support implementation of disposal guidelines mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA). This paper presents an overview of the land-disposal research associated with the LPCD hazardous waste program plan and will report the current status of work in the following categorical areas: Hazardous-waste facilities - landfills and surface impoundments; Non-Hazardous waste facilities; and Technology transfer.

  5. Presentations from the 1992 Coal Mining Impoundment Informational Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    On May 20 and 21, 1992, the MSHA Coal Mining Impoundment Informational Meeting was held at the National Mine Health and Safety Academy in Beckley, West Virginia. Fifteen presentations were given on key issues involved in the design and construction of dams associated with coal mining. The attendees were told that to improve the consistency among the plan reviewers, engineers from the Denver and Pittsburgh Technical Support Centers meet twice annually to discuss specific technical issues. It was soon discovered that the topics being discussed needed to be shared with anyone involved with coal waste dam design, construction, or inspection. The only way to accomplish that goal was through the issuance of Procedure Instruction Letters. The Letters present a consensus of engineering philosophy that could change over time. They do not present policy or carry the force of law. Currently, thirteen position papers have been disseminated and more will follow as the need arises. The individual paper were not even entered into the database.

  6. Cocaine and metabolites in waste and surface water across Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuijs, Alexander L.N. van [Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: alexander.vannuijs@ua.ac.be; Pecceu, Bert [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Theunis, Laetitia; Dubois, Nathalie; Charlier, Corinne [Laboratory of Clinical, Forensic and Environmental Toxicology, University of Liege, (ULg), CHU Sart-Tilman, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Jorens, Philippe G. [Department of Clinical Pharmacology/Clinical Toxicology, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), University Hospital of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Neels, Hugo [Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Laboratory of Toxicology, ZNA Stuivenberg, Lange Beeldekensstraat 267, 2060 Antwerp (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2009-01-15

    Cocaine abuse, a growing social problem, is currently estimated from population surveys, consumer interviews and crime statistics. A new approach based on the analysis of cocaine (COC) and metabolites, benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), in water samples was applied to 28 rivers and 37 waste water treatment plants in Belgium using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. While EME was undetectable, COC and BE were detectable with concentrations ranging from <1 to 753 ng/L and <1 to 2258 ng/L, respectively. BE concentrations were employed to calculate the local amount of abused cocaine. The highest values (up to 1.8 g/day cocaine per 1000 inhabitants) were found in large cities and during weekends. The estimation of cocaine abuse through water analysis can be executed on regular basis without cooperation of patients. It also gives clear geographical information, while prevention campaigns can easily be implemented and evaluated. - Cocaine consumption can be evaluated through analysis of waste and surface water.

  7. Cocaine and metabolites in waste and surface water across Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuijs, Alexander L.N. van; Pecceu, Bert; Theunis, Laetitia; Dubois, Nathalie; Charlier, Corinne; Jorens, Philippe G.; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Cocaine abuse, a growing social problem, is currently estimated from population surveys, consumer interviews and crime statistics. A new approach based on the analysis of cocaine (COC) and metabolites, benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), in water samples was applied to 28 rivers and 37 waste water treatment plants in Belgium using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. While EME was undetectable, COC and BE were detectable with concentrations ranging from <1 to 753 ng/L and <1 to 2258 ng/L, respectively. BE concentrations were employed to calculate the local amount of abused cocaine. The highest values (up to 1.8 g/day cocaine per 1000 inhabitants) were found in large cities and during weekends. The estimation of cocaine abuse through water analysis can be executed on regular basis without cooperation of patients. It also gives clear geographical information, while prevention campaigns can easily be implemented and evaluated. - Cocaine consumption can be evaluated through analysis of waste and surface water

  8. Enlargement of the Baldone near-surface radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreimanis, A.

    2007-01-01

    A unified analysis of the enlargement of the Baldone near-surface radioactive waste (RW) repository RADONS considers the interplay of the existing engineering, safety and infrastructure premises, with the foreseen newly socio-technical features. This enlargement consists in construction of two additional RW disposal vaults and in building a long-term storage facility for spent sealed sources at the RADONS territory. Our approach is based on consecutive analysis of following basic elements: - the origin of enlargement - the RADONS safety analysis and a set of optimal socio-technical solutions of Salaspils research reactor decommissioning waste management; - the enlargement - a keystone of the national RW management concept, including the long-term approach; - the enlargement concept - the result of international co-operation and obligations; - arrangement optimization of new disposal and storage space; - environmental impact assessment for the repository enlargement - the update of socio-technical studies. The study of the public opinion revealed: negative attitude to repository enlargement is caused mainly due to missing information on radiation level and on the RADONS previous operations. These results indicate: basic measures to improve the public attitude to repository enlargement: the safety upgrade, public education and compensation mechanisms. A detailed stakeholders engagement and public education plan is elaborated. (author)

  9. Surface water management at a mixed waste remediation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlotzhauer, D.S.; Warbritton, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    The Weldon Spring Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) deals with chemical and radiological contaminants. MK-Ferguson Company is managing the project under contract with the US Department of Energy. Remedial activities include demolishing buildings, constructing material storage and staging areas, excavating and consolidating waste materials, and treating and disposing of the materials in a land disposal facility. Due to the excavation and construction required during remediation, a well-planned surface water management system is essential. Planning involves characterization of source areas and surface water transport mechanisms and identification of applicable regulations. System components include: erosion control sediment control, flow attenuation, and management of contaminated water. Combinations of these components may be utilized during actual construction and remediation to obtain optimum control. Monitoring is performed during implementation in order to assess the effectiveness of control measures. This management scheme provides for comprehensive management of surface water at this site by providing control and/or treatment to appropriate standards. Although some treatment methodologies for contaminated water are specific to site contaminants, this comprehensive program provides a management approach which is applicable to many remedial projects in order to minimize contaminant release and meet Clean Water Act requirements

  10. Near-surface groundwater responses to injection of geothermal wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.C.

    1984-06-01

    Experiences with injecting geothermal fluids have identified technical problems associated with geothermal waste disposal. This report assesses the feasibility of injection as an alternative for geothermal wastewater disposal and analyzes hydrologic controls governing the upward migration of injected fluids. Injection experiences at several geothermal developments are presented, including: Raft River, Salton Sea, East Mesa, Otake and Hatchobaru in Japan, and Ahuachapan in El Salvador. Hydrogeologic and design/operational factors affecting the success of an injection program are identified. Hydrogeologic factors include subsidence, near-surface effects of injected fluids, and seismicity. Design/operational factors include hydrodynamic breakthrough, condition of the injection system and reservoir maintenance. Existing and potential effects of production/injection on these factors are assessed.

  11. A Two-Phase Cooling Loop for Fission Surface Power Waste Heat Transport, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current lunar-based Fission Surface Power (FSP) Systems that will support sustained surface outposts consist of a nuclear reactor with power converters, whose waste...

  12. Moist Soil Management of Wetland Impoundments for Plants and Invertebrates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — In year’s past an impoundment was drained (a drawdown) when floating-leaved plants covered more than 50% of the water area. Drawdowns encourage beneficial moist soil...

  13. 32 CFR 634.51 - Procedures for impoundment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... complete DD Form 2506 (Vehicle Impoundment Report) as a record of the actions taken. (i) An inventory... not be inventoried. Such articles should be opened only if necessary to identify the owner of the...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes VII Appendix VII to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VII to Part 268—LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes Table 1—Effective...

  15. Coal combustion waste management study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    Coal-fired generation accounted for almost 55 percent of the production of electricity in the United States in 1990. Coal combustion generates high volumes of ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastes, estimated at almost 90 million tons. The amount of ash and flue gas desulfurization wastes generated by coal-fired power plants is expected to increase as a result of future demand growth, and as more plants comply with Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Nationwide, on average, over 30 percent of coal combustion wastes is currently recycled for use in various applications; the remaining percentage is ultimately disposed in waste management units. There are a significant number of on-site and off-site waste management units that are utilized by the electric utility industry to store or dispose of coal combustion waste. Table ES-1 summarizes the number of disposal units and estimates of waste contained at these unites by disposal unit operating status (i.e, operating or retired). Further, ICF Resources estimates that up to 120 new or replacement units may need to be constructed to service existing and new coal capacity by the year 2000. The two primary types of waste management units used by the industry are landfills and surface impoundments. Utility wastes have been exempted by Congress from RCRA Subtitle C hazardous waste regulation since 1980. As a result of this exemption, coal combustion wastes are currently being regulated under Subtitle D of RCRA. As provided under Subtitle D, wastes not classified as hazardous under Subtitle C are subject to State regulation. At the same time Congress developed this exemption, also known as the ''Bevill Exclusion,'' it directed EPA to prepare a report on coal combustion wastes and make recommendations on how they should be managed

  16. Hazardous waste landfill research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomaker, N.B.

    1983-05-01

    The hazardous waste land disposal research program is collecting data necessary to support implementation of disposal guidelines mandated by the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA) PL 94-580. This program relating to the categorical area of landfills, surface impoundments, and underground mines encompasses state-of-the-art documents, laboratory analysis, economic assessment, bench and pilot studies, and full scale field verification studies. Over the next five years the research will be reported as Technical Resource Documents in support of the Permit Writers Guidance Manuals. These manuals will be used to provide guidance for conducting the review and evaluation of land disposal permit applications. This paper will present an overview of this program and will report the current status of work in the various categorical areas.

  17. Radioactive safety analysis and assessment of waste rock pile site in uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Changrong; Liu Zehua; Wang Zhiyong; Zhou Xinghuo

    2007-01-01

    Based on theoretical calculation and in-situ test results, distribution and emissions of radioactive nuclides of uranium tailings impoundment and waste rock pile sites are analyzed in this paper. It is pointed out that 222 Rn is the main nuclide of uranium tailings impoundment and waste rock pile site. Also 222 Rn is the main source term of public dose. 222 Rn concentrations in the atmospheric environment around and individual dose to Rn gradually decrease with increasing distances to uranium tailings impoundment and waste rock pile site. Based on in-situ tests on five uranium tailings impoundment and waste rock pile sites, a decisive method and safety protection distance are presented, which can be used to guide the validation and design of radioactive safety protection in uranium tailings impoundment and waste rock pile sites. (authors)

  18. KS 20322007 Near-Surface Disposal Radioactive Waste - Code Of Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omondi, C.

    2017-01-01

    To provide a basis for the near-surface disposal of solid radioactive waste to ensures that there is no unacceptable risk to humans, other biota or the environment. Near-Surface Disposal is the disposal of radioactive waste in below or above the natural ground surface, within app. 30 m. The code deals with management aspects associated with radioactive waste disposal only, and is not intended to cover issues related to the production and use of radionuclides. The objective of waste disposal is to isolate radioactive waste in order to ensure that there is no unacceptable health risk to humans and no long-term unacceptable effect to the environment. Radiation protection annual effective dose for exposure of members of the public should not exceed 1 mSv/year and occupational exposure of 20 mSv/year

  19. Design surface covers: an approach to long-term waste site stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; Cadwell, L.L.; McShane, M.C.

    1983-02-01

    The wide range of existing environmental conditions, potential contaminants and available cover materials at waste disposal sites necessitates site-specific designing of surface covers for effective long-term erosion resistance. This paper presents a systematic approach to designing surface covers for hazardous waste repositories that can be tailored to conditions at any site. The approach consists of three phases: (1) an assessment, during which the degree of required surface protection (erosion potential) is determined; (2) a preliminary design that integrates surface cover design with the need to minimize transport of contaminants; and (3) a final design, where the cost and effectiveness of the surface cover are determined. 1 figure

  20. Research on near-surface disposal of very low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shaowei; Yue Huiguo; Hou Jie; Chen Haiying; Zuo Rui; Wang Jinsheng

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal is one of the most sensitive environmental problems to control and solve. As the arriving of decommissioning of early period nuclear facilities in China, large amounts of very low level radioactive waste will be produced inevitably. The domestic and abroad definitions about very low level radioactive waste and its disposal were introduced, and then siting principles of near-surface disposal of very low level radioactive waste were discussed. The near- surface disposal siting methods of very low level radioactive waste were analyzed from natural and geographical conditions assessment, geological conditions analysis, hydrogeological conditions analysis, geological hazard assessment and radioactive background investigation; the near-surface disposal sites'natural barriers of very low level radioactive waste were analyzed from the crustal structure and physico-chemical characteristics, the dynamics characteristics of groundwater, the radionuclide adsorption characteristics of natural barriers and so on; the near-surface disposal sites' engineered barriers of very low level radioactive waste were analyzed from the repository design, the repository barrier materials selection and so on. Finally, the improving direction of very low level radioactive waste disposal was proposed. (authors)

  1. Derivation of activity limits for the disposal of radioactive waste in near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-12-01

    Radioactive waste must be managed safely, consistent with internationally agreed safety standards. The disposal method chosen for the waste should be commensurate with the hazard and longevity of the waste. Near surface disposal is an option used by many countries for the disposal of radioactive waste containing mainly short lived radionuclides and low concentrations of long lived radionuclides. The term 'near surface disposal' encompasses a wide range of design options, including disposal in engineered structures at or just below ground level, disposal in simple earthen trenches a few metres deep, disposal in engineered concrete vaults, and disposal in rock caverns several tens of metres below the surface. The use of a near surface disposal option requires design and operational measures to provide for the protection of human health and the environment, both during operation of the disposal facility and following its closure. To ensure the safety of both workers and the public (both in the short term and the long term), the operator is required to design a comprehensive waste management system for the safe operation and closure of a near surface disposal facility. Part of such a system is to establish criteria for accepting waste for disposal at the facility. The purpose of the criteria is to limit the consequences of events which could lead to radiation exposures and in addition, to prevent or limit hazards, which could arise from non-radiological causes. Waste acceptance criteria include limits on radionuclide content concentration in waste materials, and radionuclide amounts in packages and in the repository as a whole. They also include limits on quantity of free liquids, requirements for exclusion of chelating agents and pyrophoric materials, and specifications of the characteristics of the waste containers. Largely as a result of problems encountered at some disposal facilities operated in the past, in 1985 the IAEA published guidance on generic acceptance

  2. Uranium mill tailings: nuclear waste and natural laboratory for geochemical and radioecological investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Edward R.

    2004-01-01

    Uranium mill tailings (UMT) are a high volume, low specific activity radioactive waste typically disposed in surface impoundments. This review focuses on research on UMT and related earth materials during the past decade relevant to the assessment of: (1) mineral hosts of radionuclides; (2) the use of soil analogs in predicting long-term fate of radionuclides; (3) microbial and diagenetic processes that may alter radionuclide mobility in the surficial environment; (4) waste-management technologies to limit radionuclide migration; and (5) the impact of UMT on biota.

  3. National Enforcement Initiative: Preventing Animal Waste from Contaminating Surface and Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page describes EPA's goal in preventing animal waste from contaminating surface and ground Water. It is an EPA National Enforcement Initiative. Both enforcement cases, and a map of enforcement actions are provided.

  4. French Modular Impoundment: Final Cost and Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drown, Peter [French Development Enterprises, LLC, North Billerica, MA (United States); French, Bill [French Development Enterprises, LLC, North Billerica, MA (United States)

    2017-05-17

    This report comprises the Final Cost and Performance Report for the Department of Energy Award # EE0007244, the French Modular Impoundment (aka the “French Dam”.) The French Dam is a system of applying precast modular construction to water control structures. The “French Dam” is a term used to cover the construction means/methods used to construct or rehabilitate dams, diversion structures, powerhouses, and other hydraulic structures which impound water and are covered under FDE’s existing IP (Patents # US8414223B2; US9103084B2.)

  5. Pre-treatment of bituminized NPP wastes for disposal in near-surface repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Vanessa Mota; Tello, Clédola Cássia Oliveira de, E-mail: vanessamotavieira@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The implementation of the national repository is an important technical requirement, and a legal requirement for the entry into operation of the nuclear power plant Angra 3. The Brazilian repository is being planned to be a near-surface one. In Brazil the low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are immobilized using cement and bitumen for Angra 1 and Angra 2 NPP, respectively. The main problems due to the disposal of bituminized wastes in repositories are swelling of the waste products and their degradation in the long term. To accommodate the swelling of the bituminized wastes, the drums are filled up to 70 - 90% of their volume, which reduces the structural the repository stability and the disposal availability. Countries, which use bitumen in the solidification of NPP's radioactive waste and have near-surface repositories, need to immobilize this bituminized waste within other drums containing cement pastes or mortars to disposal them. This study aims to find solutions for the storage in surface repository of bituminized radioactive waste products, making them compatible with the acceptance criteria of cemented waste products. It was also performed a modeling with the results obtained in the leaching test using the ALT program and defined the transport model of the cesium leachate element and it was verified that in the early times the leaching was governed by the diffusion model and later by the partition model. The results obtained in this study can be used in the evaluation of performance of repositories. (author)

  6. Recent advances in yeast cell-surface display technologies for waste biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuo; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Chang, Jo-Shu; Ren, Nan-Qi; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-09-01

    Waste biorefinery aims to maximize the output of value-added products from various artificial/agricultural wastes by using integrated bioprocesses. To make waste biorefinery economically feasible, it is thus necessary to develop a low-cost, environment-friendly technique to perform simultaneous biodegradation and bioconversion of waste materials. Cell-surface display engineering is a novel, cost-effective technique that can auto-immobilize proteins on the cell exterior of microorganisms, and has been applied for use with waste biofinery. Through tethering different enzymes (e.g., cellulase, lipase, and protease) or metal-binding peptides on cell surfaces, various yeast strains can effectively produce biofuels and biochemicals from sugar/protein-rich waste materials, catalyze waste oils into biodiesels, or retrieve heavy metals from wastewater. This review critically summarizes recent applications of yeast cell-surface display on various types of waste biorefineries, highlighting its potential and future challenges with regard to commercializing this technology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pre-treatment of bituminized NPP wastes for disposal in near-surface repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Vanessa Mota; Tello, Clédola Cássia Oliveira de

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of the national repository is an important technical requirement, and a legal requirement for the entry into operation of the nuclear power plant Angra 3. The Brazilian repository is being planned to be a near-surface one. In Brazil the low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are immobilized using cement and bitumen for Angra 1 and Angra 2 NPP, respectively. The main problems due to the disposal of bituminized wastes in repositories are swelling of the waste products and their degradation in the long term. To accommodate the swelling of the bituminized wastes, the drums are filled up to 70 - 90% of their volume, which reduces the structural the repository stability and the disposal availability. Countries, which use bitumen in the solidification of NPP's radioactive waste and have near-surface repositories, need to immobilize this bituminized waste within other drums containing cement pastes or mortars to disposal them. This study aims to find solutions for the storage in surface repository of bituminized radioactive waste products, making them compatible with the acceptance criteria of cemented waste products. It was also performed a modeling with the results obtained in the leaching test using the ALT program and defined the transport model of the cesium leachate element and it was verified that in the early times the leaching was governed by the diffusion model and later by the partition model. The results obtained in this study can be used in the evaluation of performance of repositories. (author)

  8. Processing method and processing device for liquid waste containing surface active agent and radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Takashi; Matsuda, Masami; Baba, Tsutomu; Yoshikawa, Ryozo; Yukita, Atsushi.

    1998-01-01

    Washing liquid wastes containing surface active agents and radioactive materials are sent to a deaerating vessel. Ozone is blown into the deaerating vessel. The washing liquid wastes dissolved with ozone are introduced to a UV ray irradiation vessel. UV rays are irradiated to the washing liquid wastes, and hydroxy radicals generated by photodecomposition of dissolved ozone oxidatively decompose surface active agents contained in the washing liquid wastes. The washing liquid wastes discharged from the UV ray irradiation vessel are sent to an activated carbon mixing vessel and mixed with powdery activated carbon. The surface active agents not decomposed in the UV ray irradiation vessel are adsorbed to the activated carbon. Then, the activated carbon and washing liquid wastes are separated by an activated carbon separating/drying device. Radioactive materials (iron oxide and the like) contained in the washing liquid wastes are mostly granular, and they are separated and removed from the washing liquid wastes in the activated carbon separating/drying device. (I.N.)

  9. Retrievable surface storage: interim storage of solidified high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRiviere, J.R.; Nelson, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Studies have been conducted on retrievable-surface-storage concepts for the interim storage of solidified high-level wastes. These studies have been reviewed by the Panel on Engineered Storage, convened by the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council-National Academy of Sciences. The Panel has concluded that ''retrievable surface storage is an acceptable interim stage in a comprehensive system for managing high-level radioactive wastes.'' The scaled storage cask concept, which was recommended by the Panel on Engineered Storage, consists of placing a canister of waste inside a carbon-steel cask, which in turn is placed inside a thick concrete cylinder. The waste is cooled by natural convection air flow through an annulus between the cask and the inner wall of the concrete cylinder. The complete assembly is placed above ground in an outdoor storage area

  10. Near-surface storage facilities for vitrified high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kulichenko, V.V.; Kryukov, I.I.; Krylova, N.V.; Paramoshkin, V.I.; Strakhov, M.V.

    1980-01-01

    Concurrently with the development of methods for solidifying liquid radioactive wastes, reliable and safe methods for the storage and disposal of solidified wastes are being devised in the USSR and other countries. One of the main factors affecting the choice of storage conditions for solidified wastes originating from the vitrification of high-level liquid wastes from fuel reprocessing plants is the problem of removing the heat produced by radioactive decay. In order to prevent the temperature of solidified wastes from exceeding the maximum permissible level for the material concerned, it is necessary to limit either the capacity of waste containers or the specific heat release of the wastes themselves. In order that disposal of high-level wastes in geological formations should be reliable and economic, solidified wastes undergo interim storage in near-surface storage facilities with engineered cooling systems. The paper demonstrates the relative influences of specific heat release, of the maximum permissible storage temperature for vitrified wastes and of the methods chosen for cooling wastes in order for the dimensions of waste containers to be reduced to the extent required. The effect of concentrating wastes to a given level in the vitrification process on the cost of storage in different types of storage facility is also examined. Calculations were performed for the amount of vitrified wastes produced by a reprocessing plant with a capacity of five tonnes of uranium per 24 hours. Fuel elements from reactors of the water-cooled, water-moderated type are sent for reprocessing after having been held for about two years. The dimensions of the storage facility are calculated on the assumption that it will take five years to fill

  11. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. L. Schwendiman

    2006-01-01

    This Waste Management Plan describes waste management and waste minimization activities for Group 3, Other Surface Soils Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory. The waste management activities described in this plan support the selected response action presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. This plan identifies the waste streams that will be generated during implementation of the remedial action and presents plans for waste minimization, waste management strategies, and waste disposition

  12. Simulated effects of impoundment of lake seminole on ground-water flow in the upper Floridan Aquifer in southwestern Georgia and adjacent parts of Alabama and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L. Elliott; Torak, Lynn J.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrologic implications of the impoundment of Lake Seminole in southwest Georgia and its effect on components of the surface- and ground-water flow systems of the lower Apalachicola?Chattahoochee?Flint (ACF) River Basin were investigated using a ground-water model. Comparison of simulation results of postimpoundment drought conditions (October 1986) with results of hypothetical preimpoundment conditions (a similar drought prior to 1955) provides a qualitative measure of the changes in hydraulic head and ground-water flow to and from streams and Lake Seminole, and across State lines caused by the impoundment. Based on the simulation results, the impoundment of Lake Seminole changed ground-water flow directions within about 20?30 miles of the lake, reducing the amount of ground water flowing from Florida to Georgia southeast of the lake. Ground-water storage was increased by the impoundment, as indicated by a simulated increase of as much as 26 feet in the water level in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The impoundment of Lake Seminole caused changes to simulated components of the ground-water budget, including reduced discharge from the Upper Floridan aquifer to streams (315 million gallons per day); reduced recharge from or increased discharge to regional ground-water flow at external model boundaries (totaling 183 million gallons per day); and reduced recharge from or increased discharge to the undifferentiated overburden (totaling 129 million gallons per day).

  13. Impact of Water Recovery from Wastes on the Lunar Surface Mission Water Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Hogan, John Andrew; Wignarajah, Kanapathipi; Pace, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Future extended lunar surface missions will require extensive recovery of resources to reduce mission costs and enable self-sufficiency. Water is of particular importance due to its potential use for human consumption and hygiene, general cleaning, clothes washing, radiation shielding, cooling for extravehicular activity suits, and oxygen and hydrogen production. Various water sources are inherently present or are generated in lunar surface missions, and subject to recovery. They include: initial water stores, water contained in food, human and other solid wastes, wastewaters and associated brines, ISRU water, and scavenging from residual propellant in landers. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the contribution of water recovery from life support wastes on the overall water balance for lunar surface missions. Water in human wastes, metabolic activity and survival needs are well characterized and dependable figures are available. A detailed life support waste model was developed that summarizes the composition of life support wastes and their water content. Waste processing technologies were reviewed for their potential to recover that water. The recoverable water in waste is a significant contribution to the overall water balance. The value of this contribution is discussed in the context of the other major sources and loses of water. Combined with other analyses these results provide guidance for research and technology development and down-selection.

  14. Effect of weir impoundments on methane dynamics in a river

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bednařík, A.; Blaser, M.; Matoušů, Anna; Hekera, P.; Rulík, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 584, April (2017), s. 164-174 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00243S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : methane production * methane emission * methane ebullition * river impoundment * river sediment Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology OBOR OECD: Marine biology, freshwater biology, limnology Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  15. Acidity of Lakes and Impoundments in North-Central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elon S. Verry

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of lake and impoundment pH for several years, intensive sampling within years, and pH-calcium plots verify normal pH levels and do not show evidence of changes due to acid precipitation. These data in comparison with general lake data narrow the northern Lake States area in which rain or snow may cause lake acidification.

  16. Screening Assessment of Radionuclide Migration in Groundwater from the “Dneprovskoe” Tailings Impoundment (Dneprodzerzhynsk City) and Evaluation of Remedial Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalskyi, O.; Bugai, D. [Institute of Geological Sciences, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine); Ryazantsev, V. [State Nuclear Regularity Committee of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-05-15

    The paper presents results of mathematical modeling of the hydrogeological conditions at the “Dneprovskoe” (“D”) tailings impoundment –object of the former industrial association of “Pridneprovsky Chemical Plant”, which contains uranium ore processing wastes. This radioactively polluted site is located in a densely populated region (at the outskirts of Dneprodzerginsk City) near the major watercourse of the Ukraine — Dnieper River.The mathematical modeling utilized Visual Modflow (for groundwater flow) and Ecolego (Facilia AB, Sweden) radioecology modeling software (for radionuclide transport).Modeling results indicate the possibility of essential radioactive contamination in future of the phreatic aquifer in alluvial deposits between the “D” tailings and the Dnieper River (mainly due to migration of uranium). Therefore long-term management strategies should preclude water usage from the aquifer in the zone of the in-fluence of the “D” tailings. Filtration discharge of uranium to the Dnepr River does not represent a significant risk due to large dilution by surface waters. The important modeling conclusion is that besides the uranium ore processing wastes inside the tailings, the major source of radionuclide migration to groundwater is represented by contaminated geological deposits below the tailings. This last source was formed due to leakage of wastewaters during the operational period of the “D” tailings (1954–1968). Therefore an exemption and re-disposal of wastes from the “D” tailings to a more safe storage location (proposed by some remedial plans) will not provide significant benefit from the viewpoint of minimizing of radionuclide transport to the groundwater and Dnieper River (especially in short-and medium-term perspective). The rational remedial strategy for the “D” tailings is conservation of tailing wastes in-situ by means of specially designed “zero flux” soil screen, which would minimize infiltration of

  17. Surface sealing systems for dumps and old waste sites. Oberflaechenabdichtungssysteme fuer Deponien und Altlasten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egloffstein, T [ed.; ICP Ingenieurgesellschaft Prof. Czurda und Partner mbH, Karlsruhe (Germany); Burkhardt, G [ed.; ICP Ingenieurgesellschaft Prof. Czurda und Partner mbH, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1994-01-01

    The primary task of surface lining is to prevent rainwater from seeping into the wastes deposited below the surface. Its function is therefore to seal the surface. Above the sealing layer there is a drainage system; if large amount of gas are generated (domestic wastes) the gas is channeled through a gas drainage layer. The top layer of the system serves as recultivation horizon for plants. The functions of the liner are: - sealing against precipitating water; - channeling off gas or - seepage water; - plant site. (orig./EF)

  18. The surface disposal concept for LIL/SL waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Most low-level and intermediate-level short-lived (LIL/SL) waste result from the nuclear-power industry. Their specific activity level is sufficiently high to justify a protective conditioning and to ensure proper confinement until that level has decreased to harmless levels for human beings and the environment (a few centuries considering the half lives of the radionuclides contained in LIL/SL waste). The disposal concept for such residues relies on a multi-barrier protective system, each barrier being designed to fulfil different or redundant functions in order to delay or mitigate radionuclide transfers first into the environment and onwards to human beings. The originality of the concept pertains to its flexibility, since: it is adaptable to various geological environments and its overall performance may be guaranteed by modulating that of the engineered barriers, and it is suitable for the disposal of different types and sizes of waste packages, as long as their characteristics are consistent with acceptance criteria, which are de facto specific to each case. To provide its wide-ranging competences in the field of waste management and disposal, ANDRA offers multiple solutions, from consultancy and documents reviewing, to technology transfer and turnkey projects. The safety of the disposal facility is guaranteed by the combination of the package, the concrete structures, the filling materials between packages and the watertight clay cap that will be installed at the end of the operating lifetime of the facility. That layout also takes all natural risks into account. Lastly, all disposal structures are built away from any potential flood zones and from the highest possible level of the groundwater table. Concrete and metal packages are disposed of in slightly different structures. Once a structure is full, concrete packages are immobilised with gravel, whereas metal packages are blocked in place by pouring concrete between them. Once a disposal structure is

  19. The surface disposal concept for LIL/SL waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Most low-level and intermediate-level short-lived (LIL/SL) waste result from the nuclear-power industry. Their specific activity level is sufficiently high to justify a protective conditioning and to ensure proper confinement until that level has decreased to harmless levels for human beings and the environment (a few centuries considering the half lives of the radionuclides contained in LIL/SL waste). The disposal concept for such residues relies on a multi-barrier protective system, each barrier being designed to fulfil different or redundant functions in order to delay or mitigate radionuclide transfers first into the environment and onwards to human beings. The originality of the concept pertains to its flexibility, since: it is adaptable to various geological environments and its overall performance may be guaranteed by modulating that of the engineered barriers, and it is suitable for the disposal of different types and sizes of waste packages, as long as their characteristics are consistent with acceptance criteria, which are de facto specific to each case. To provide its wide-ranging competences in the field of waste management and disposal, ANDRA offers multiple solutions, from consultancy and documents reviewing, to technology transfer and turnkey projects. The safety of the disposal facility is guaranteed by the combination of the package, the concrete structures, the filling materials between packages and the watertight clay cap that will be installed at the end of the operating lifetime of the facility. That layout also takes all natural risks into account. Lastly, all disposal structures are built away from any potential flood zones and from the highest possible level of the groundwater table. Concrete and metal packages are disposed of in slightly different structures. Once a structure is full, concrete packages are immobilised with gravel, whereas metal packages are blocked in place by pouring concrete between them. Once a disposal structure is

  20. Analysis of spatial distribution and inventory of radioactivity within the uranium mill tailings impoundment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Bugai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented of the characterization of radioactivity inventory of Zapadnoe uranium mill tailings impoundment situated at Pridneprovsky Chemical Plant (PChP; Dneprodzerzhinsk, Ukraine. Analyses of radioactivity data set based on analytical studies of core material from 15 characterization boreholes allowed significantly refining waste volume and radioactivity inventory estimates. Geostatistical analyses using variogram function have established that radioactivity distribution in Zapadnoe tailings is characterized by regular spatial correlation patterns. Ordinary kriging method was applied to assess distribution of radioactivity in 3D. Results of statistical analyses suggest significant redistribution of uranium in the dissolved form in the residues (presumably due to water infiltration process. The developed structural model for radioactivity distribution is used for further risk assessment analyses. Derived radioactivity correlation scales can be used for optimization of sample collection when characterizing the PChP Site and similar contaminated sites elsewhere.

  1. Multiple containment for LSA [low specific activity] and SCO [surface contaminated objects] wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, M.H.

    1993-09-01

    Radioactive wastes are generally transported in the form of Low Specific Activity (LSA) materials or Surface Contaminated Objects (SCO). This report proposes that a method of acknowledging the beneficial effects of multiple containment for such wastes should be written into the 1996 Edition of the IAEA Transport Regulations. Experience used to assess risks from on-site movements of radioactive material in the UK can be applied to develop safety arguments justifying the alleviation of off-site transport risks. (UK)

  2. 40 CFR 264.1085 - Standards: Surface impoundments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... materials of construction and designing the cover and closure devices shall include: Organic vapor... closure device in the closed position, as applicable. (B) To remove accumulated sludge or other residues... construction and designing the cover and closure devices shall include: Organic vapor permeability; the effects...

  3. 40 CFR 265.1086 - Standards: Surface impoundments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... materials of construction and designing the cover and closure devices shall include: Organic vapor... closure device in the closed position, as applicable. (B) To remove accumulated sludge or other residues... construction and designing the cover and closure devices shall include: Organic vapor permeability; the effects...

  4. Interfacial stability of soil covers on lined surface impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.H.; Gates, T.E.

    1986-04-01

    The factors affecting the interfacial stability of soil covers on geomembranes were examined to determine the maximum stable slopes for soil cover/geomembrane systems. Several instances of instability of soil covers on geomembranes have occurred at tailings ponds, leaving exposed geomembranes with the potential for physical ddamage and possibly chemical and ultraviolet degradation. From an operator's viewpoint, it is desirable to maximize the slope of lined facilities in order to maximize the volume-to-area ratio; however, the likelihood for instability also increases with increasing slope. Frictional data obtained from direct shear tests are compared with stability data obtained using a nine-square-meter (m 2 ) engineering-scale test stand to verify that direct shear test data are valid in slope design calculations. Interfacial frictional data from direct shear tests using high-density polyethylene and a poorly graded sand cover agree within several degrees with the engineering-scale tests. Additional tests with other soils and geomembranes are planned. The instability of soil covers is not always an interfacial problem; soil erosion and limited drainage capacity are additional factors that must be considered in the design of covered slopes. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of contaminated water impounded at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.M.; Maxey, M.L.; Peterson, J.M.; Joya, I.E.

    1990-07-01

    This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support the proposed removal action for managing contaminated surface waters impounded at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site, located near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The US Department of Energy is responsible for cleanup activities at the site under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). The major goals of SFMP are to eliminate potential hazards to human health and the environment that are associated with contamination at SFMP sites and to make surplus real property available for other uses, to the extent possible. The objectives of this EE/CA report are to identify the cleanup as a removal action, document the selection of a response that will mitigate the potential release of radioactive or chemical contaminants from the impounded waters into the nearby environment, and address environmental impacts associated with the proposed action. 41 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  6. Use of special oedometer tests for the remediation of large uranium mill tailings impoundments at Wismut, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnekow, U.; Paul, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the use of recently developed special oedometer tests for designing the remediation of large uranium tailings ponds at WISMUT, Germany. Uranium ore mining and milling in eastern Germany by the former Soviet-German WISMUT company lasted from 1946 to 1990. Wastes from the hydrometallurgical uranium extraction processes were discharged into large tailings impoundments covering a total area of 5.5 km 2 and containing about 150 x 10 6 m 3 of uranium mill tailings. Tailings pond remediation is ongoing by in-place decommissioning with dewatering by technical means. Geotechnical properties and the most suitable so-called non-linear finite strain consolidation behaviour of fine uranium mill tailings are described. Decommissioning techniques comprise, among others, interim covering of under consolidated fine tailings, contouring of tailings surfaces and final covering. Contouring, in particular, has a huge potential for optimization in terms of cost reduction. For contouring total settlement portions, the spatial distribution of differential settlement portions and the time-dependent settlement rates, especially of the cohesive fine uranium mill tailings are of critical importance. A new special oedometer KD 314 S has been developed to generate all the input data needed to derive the fundamental geotechnical relationships of void ratio vs. effective stress and of permeability coefficient vs. void ratio for consolidation calculations. Since December 1999 the new special oedometer KD 314 S has been working successfully on fine uranium mill tailings from both acid and from soda alkaline milling. Results coincide with non-linear finite strain consolidation theory. The geotechnical functions derived were used as input parameters for consolidation modelling. An example of the consolidation modelling on Helmsdorf tailings pond is presented. (author)

  7. Pollution distribution of heavy metals in surface soil at an informal electronic-waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2014-02-01

    We studied distribution of heavy metals [lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)] in surface soil at an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling workshop near Metro Manila in the Philippines to evaluate the pollution size (spot size, small area or the entire workshop), as well as to assess heavy metal transport into the surrounding soil environment. On-site length-of-stride-scale (~70 cm) measurements were performed at each surface soil point using field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF). The surface soil at the e-waste recycling workshop was polluted with Cu, Zn and Pb, which were distributed discretely in surface soil. The site was divided into five areas based on the distance from an entrance gate (y-axis) of the e-waste recycling workshop. The three heavy metals showed similar concentration gradients in the y-axis direction. Zn, Pb and Cu concentrations were estimated to decrease to half of their maximum concentrations at ~3, 7 and 7 m from the pollution spot, respectively, inside the informal e-waste recycling workshop. Distance from an entrance may play an important role in heavy metal transport at the soil surface. Using on-site FP-XRF, we evaluated the metal ratio to characterise pollution features of the solid surface. Variability analysis of heavy metals revealed vanishing surficial autocorrelation over metre ranges. Also, the possibility of concentration prediction at unmeasured points using geostatistical kriging was evaluated, and heavy metals had a relative "small" pollution scales and remained inside the original workshop compared with toxic organohalogen compounds. Thus, exposure to heavy metals may directly influence the health of e-waste workers at the original site rather than the surrounding habitat and environmental media.

  8. Near-surface facilities for disposal radioactive waste from non-nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, A.

    2000-01-01

    The design features of the near-surface facilities of 'Radon', an estimation of the possible emergency situations, and the scenarios of their progress are given. The possible safety enhancing during operation of near-surface facilities, so called 'Historical facilities', and newly developed ones are described. The Moscow SIA 'Radon' experience in use of mobile module plants for liquid radioactive waste purification and principal technological scheme of the plant are presented. Upgrading of the technological scheme for treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste for new-developed facilities is shown. The main activities related to management of spent ionizing sources are mentioned

  9. Scoping survey of perceived concerns, issues, and problems for near-surface disposal of FUSRAP waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.E.; Gilbert, T.L.

    1982-12-01

    This report is a scoping summary of concerns, issues, and perceived problems for near-surface disposal of radioactive waste, based on a survey of the current literature. Near-surface disposal means land burial in or within 15 to 20 m of the earth's surface. It includes shallow land burial (burial in trenches, typically about 6 m deep with a 2-m cap and cover) and some intermediate-depth land burial (e.g., trenches and cap similar to shallow land burial, but placed below 10 to 15 m of clean soil). Proposed solutions to anticipated problems also are discussed. The purpose of the report is to provide a better basis for identifying and evaluating the environmental impacts and related factors that must be analyzed and compared in assessing candidate near-surface disposal sites for FUSRAP waste. FUSRAP wastes are of diverse types, and their classification for regulatory purposes is not yet fixed. Most of it may be characterized as low-activity bulk solid waste, and is similar to mill tailings, but with somewhat lower average specific activity. It may also qualify as Class A segregated waste under the proposed 10 CFR 61 rules, but the parent radionuclides of concern in FUSRAP (primarily U-238 and Th-232) have longer half-lives than do the radionuclides of concern in most low-level waste. Most of the references reviewed deal with low-level waste or mill tailings, since there is as yet very little literature in the public domain on FUSRAP per se

  10. Assessment of Environmental Factors of Geology on Waste and Engineering Barriers for Waste Storage Near Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimuladi SP

    2007-01-01

    Geological environment factors include features and processes occurring within that spatial and temporal (post-closure) domain whose principal effect is to determine the evolution of the physical, chemical, biological and human conditions of the domain that are relevant to estimating the release and migration of radionuclide and consequent exposure to man. Hardness of radioactive waste and engineer barrier can be decrease by environmental factors. Disposal system domain geological environment factors is a category in the International FEP list and is divided into sub-categories. There are 13 sub-factors of geological environment, 12 sub-factors influence hardness of radioactive waste and engineer barrier, thermal processes and conditions in geosphere can be excluded. (author)

  11. Evaluation of Major Dike-Impounded Ground-Water Reservoirs, Island of Oahu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Kiyoshi J.; Mink, John Francis

    1985-01-01

    Ground-water reservoirs impounded by volcanic dikes receive a substantial part of the total recharge to ground water on the island of Oahu because they generally underlie the rainiest areas. These reservoirs accumulate the infiltration from rainfall, store it temporarily, and steadily leak it to abutting basal reservoirs or to streams cutting into them. The dike reservoirs have high hydraulic heads and are mostly isolated from saline water. The most important and productive of the dike-impounded reservoirs are in an area of about 135 square miles in the main fissure zone of the Koolau volcano where the top of the dike-impounded water reaches an altitude of at least 1,000 feet. Water is impounded and stored both above and below sea level. The water stored above sea level in the 135 square mile area has been roughly estimated at 560 billion gallons. In comparison, the water stored above sea level in reservoirs underlying a dike-intruded area of about 53 square miles in the Waianae Range has been roughly estimated at 100 billion gallons. Storage below sea level is indeterminable, owing to uncertainties about the ability of the rock to store water as dike density increases and porosity decreases. Tunnels, by breaching dike controls, have reduced the water stored above sea level by at least 50 billion gallons in the Koolau Range and by 5 1/2 billion gallons in the Waianae Range, only a small part of the total water stored. Total leakage from storage in the Koolau Range has been estimated at about 280 Mgal/d (million gallons per day). This estimated leakage from the dike-impounded reservoirs makes up a significant part of the ground-water yield of the Koolau Range, which has been estimated to range from 450 to 580 Mgal/d. The largest unused surface leakage is in the Kaneohe, Kahana, and Punaluu areas, and the largest unused underflow occurs in the Waialee, Hauula-Laie, Punaluu, and Kahana areas. The unused underflow leakage is small in areas near and east of Waialae, but

  12. Application of a modified electrochemical system for surface decontamination of radioactive metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Lim, Y.K.; Yang, H.Y.; Shin, S.W.; Song, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional and modified electrolytic decontamination experiments were performed in a solution of sodium sulfate for the decontamination of carbon steel as the simulated metal wastes which are generated in large amounts from nuclear power plants. The effect of reaction time, current density and concentration of electrolytes in the modified electrolytic decontamination system were examined to remove the surface contamination of the simulated radioactive metal wastes. As for the results of this research, the modified electrochemical decontamination process can decontaminate more effectively than the conventional decontamination process by applying different anode material which causes higher induced electro-motive forces. When 0.5 M sodium sulfate, 0.4 A/cm 2 current density and 30 minutes reaction time were applied in the modified process, a 16 μm thickness change that is expected to remove most surface contamination in radioactive metal wastes was achieved on carbon steel which is the main material of radioactive metal waste in nuclear power plants. The decontamination efficiency of metal waste showed similar results with the small and large lab-scale modified electrochemical system. The application of this modified electrolytic decontamination system is expected to play a considerable role for decontamination of radioactive metal waste in nuclear power plants in the near future. (author)

  13. Utilization of surface-treated rubber particles from waste tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.]|[Environmental Technologies Alternatives, Inc., Lima, OH (United States)

    1994-12-01

    During a 12-month program, the author successfully demonstrated commercial applications for surface-treated rubber particles in two major markets: footwear (shoe soles and components) and urethane-foam carpet underlay (padding). In these markets, he has clearly demonstrated the ease of using R-4080 and R-4030 surface-treated rubber particles in existing manufacturing plants and processes and have shown that the material meets or exceeds existing standards for performance, quality, and cost-effectiveness. To produce R-4080 and R-4030, vulcanized rubber, whole-tire material is finely ground to particles of nominal 80 and mesh size respectively. Surface treatment is achieved by reacting these rubber particles with chlorine gas. In this report, the author describes the actual test and evaluations of the participant companies, and identifies other potential end uses.

  14. Assessment of sediments in the riverine impoundments of national wildlife refuges in the Souris River Basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Gleason, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated sedimentation of reservoirs and riverine impoundments is a major concern throughout the United States. Sediments not only fill impoundments and reduce their effective life span, but they can reduce water quality by increasing turbidity and introducing harmful chemical constituents such as heavy metals, toxic elements, and nutrients. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service national wildlife refuges in the north-central part of the United States have documented high amounts of sediment accretion in some wetlands that could negatively affect important aquatic habitats for migratory birds and other wetland-dependent wildlife. Therefore, information pertaining to sediment accumulation in refuge impoundments potentially is important to guide conservation planning, including future management actions of individual impoundments. Lands comprising Des Lacs, Upper Souris, and J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuges, collectively known as the Souris River Basin refuges, encompass reaches of the Des Lacs and Souris Rivers of northwestern North Dakota. The riverine impoundments of the Souris River Basin refuges are vulnerable to sedimentation because of the construction of in-stream dams that interrupt and slow river flows and because of post-European settlement land-use changes that have increased the potential for soil erosion and transport to rivers. Information regarding sediments does not exist for these refuges, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service personnel have expressed interest in assessing refuge impoundments to support refuge management decisions. Sediment cores and surface sediment samples were collected from impoundments within Des Lacs, Upper Souris, and J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuges during 2004–05. Cores were used to estimate sediment accretion rates using radioisotope (cesium-137 [137Cs], lead-210 [210Pb]) dating techniques. Sediment cores and surface samples were analyzed for a suite of elements and agrichemicals, respectively. Examination of

  15. Surface-type repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucar-Dragicevic, S.; Zarkovic, V.; Subasic, D.

    1995-01-01

    The low-level intermediate-level (LL/IL) radioactive waste repository siting and construction project is one of the activities related to establishing the rad waste management system in the Republic of Croatia. The repository project design is one in an array of project activities which also include the site selection procedure and public attitude issues. The prepared design documentation gives technical, safety and financial background relevant for making a final decision on the waste disposal type, and it includes the technological, mechanical, civil and financial documentation on the preliminary/basic design level. During the last few years, the preliminary design has been prepared and safety assessment conducted for the tunnel-type LL/IL rad waste repository. As the surface-type repository is one of alternatives for final disposal the design documentation for that repository type was prepared during 1994. (author)

  16. Contents and Sample Arguments of a Safety Case for Near Surface Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-06-01

    This publication arises from the results of two projects to assist Member States in understanding and developing safety cases for near-surface radioactive waste disposal facilities. The objective of the publication is to give detailed information on the contents of safety cases for radioactive waste disposal and the types of arguments that may be included. It is written for technical experts preparing a safety case, and decision makers in the regulatory body and government. The publication outlines the key uses and aspects of the safety case, its evolution in parallel with that of the disposal facility, the key decision steps in the development of the waste disposal facility, the components of the safety case, their place in the Matrix of Arguments for a Safety Case (the MASC matrix), and a detailed description of the development of sample arguments that might be included in a safety case for each of two hypothetical radioactive waste disposal facilities.

  17. Stochastic Modelling of the Hydraulic Anisotropy of Ash Impoundment Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slávik, Ivan

    2017-12-01

    In the case reported here the impoundments of a 400 MW coal heated power plant with an annual production of about 1.5 million tons of fuel ash are of the cross-valley type, operated by the simple and cheap „upstream method”. The aim of the research was to determine overall and local values of the permeability in horizontal as well as in vertical direction and the anisotropy of the thin-layered sedimented ash. The coal ashes are hydraulically transported through pipelines in form of a slurry and periodically floated on the beach of the impoundment. The ashes are deposited in the form of a thin-layered sediment, with random alternation of layers with a coarser or finer granularity. The ash impoundment sediment is anthropogenic sediment with horizontally laminated texture. Therefore, the sediment is anisotropic from the viewpoint of water seepage. The knowledge of the permeability and the seepage anisotropy of the sediment is a basic requirement for the design of an appropriate dewatering system. The seepage anisotropy of the ash sediment has been checked by means of stochastic modelling, based on the correlation between the effective grain diameter and the coefficient of permeability of the ash: the effective grain diameter and the thickness of individual layers have been proposed to be random events.

  18. Investigation, assessment and remediation of the water pathway in the surroundings of the Culmitzsch A tailings impoundment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, G.; Paul, M.; Priester, J.; Schoepfer, C.

    1998-01-01

    Several large tailings impoundments in Saxony and Thuringia are the result of the extensive uranium mining and milling in Eastern Germany after World War II. The Culmitzsch tailings pond in Eastern Thuringia was constructed within a former uranium open pit mine and is located within the Culmitzsch trench fault. The tailings impoundment includes two ponds (Culmitzsch A and B) which are separated by an internal dam with an impervious core. The Culmitzsch A pond covers an area of 158 ha, the maximum tailings thickness is 70 m. Between this pond (elevation of up to 340 m above sea-level) and the Lerchenbach creek (265.. 280 m above sea-level) a steep gradient exists. So the valley of the Lerchenbach is the general discharge area for the seepage of the pond which is a result of dewatering by gravity and consolidation. The seepage water migrates through the southern dam of the impoundment and through permeable layers which are in contact with the tailings. About 400 groundwater wells were installed within three aquifers in order to clarify the flow direction and the degree of contamination of the groundwater as well as to investigate the geohydraulic properties of the rocks in the surroundings of the pond. Based on the results of this investigation programme a three-dimensional hydrogeological model was built up which reflects the general relationships between the pond and its geological setting as well as the water balance of the whole system. Presently a catchment system exists which gathers all surface waters with significant uranium and salt concentrations. Moreover dewatering wells on the beach zone of the pond and catchment wells in the downstream area of the impoundment have been installed. Before being released to the receiving streams seepage and freewater are treated in a two-step water treatment plant in order to decrease their uranium, radium and arsenic contents. (orig.) [de

  19. 78 FR 46940 - Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Special Wastes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ...The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency) invites comment on additional information obtained in conjunction with the proposed rule: Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Special Wastes; Disposal of Coal Combustion Residuals From Electric Utilities that was published in the Federal Register on June 21, 2010. This information is categorized as: additional data to supplement the Regulatory Impact Analysis and risk assessment, information on large scale fill, and data on the surface impoundment structural integrity assessments. EPA is also seeking comment on two issues associated with the requirements for coal combustion residual management units. The Agency is not reopening any other aspect of the proposal or underlying support documents, and will consider comments on any issues other than those raised in the NODA to be late comments and not part of the rulemaking record.

  20. Sources and management of hazardous waste in Papua New Guinea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K. [Univ. of Papua New Guinea (Papua New Guinea)

    1996-12-31

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) has considerable mineral wealth, especially in gold and copper. Large-scale mining takes place, and these activities are the source of most of PNG`s hazardous waste. Most people live in small farming communities throughout the region. Those living adjacent to mining areas have experienced some negative impacts from river ecosystem damage and erosion of their lands. Industry is centered mainly in urban areas and Generates waste composed of various products. Agricultural products, pesticide residues, and chemicals used for preserving timber and other forestry products also produce hazardous waste. Most municipal waste comes from domestic and commercial premises; it consists mainly of combustibles, noncombustibles, and other wastes. Hospitals generate pathogenic organisms, radioactive materials, and chemical and pharmaceutical laboratory waste. Little is known about the actual treatment of waste before disposal in PNG. Traditional low-cost waste disposal methods are usually practiced, such as use of landfills; storage in surface impoundments; and disposal in public sewers, rivers, and the sea. Indiscriminate burning of domestic waste in backyards is also commonly practiced in urban and rural areas. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  1. A methodology for evaluating alternative sites for a near-surface radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.R.; Brownlow, S.A.

    1986-02-01

    This report addresses the issue of constructing an evaluation procedure for a near-surface radioactive waste repository. It builds on earlier work of the authors, and describes a basis for a practicable methodology for assessing the relative merits of different sites. (author)

  2. Waste-surface mapping of the Fernald K-65 silos using a structured light measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Dinkins, M.A.; Rowe, J.C.; Selleck, C.B.; Jacoboski, D.L.

    1992-10-01

    A remotely operated surface-mapping measurement system was developed by the Robotics ampersand Process Systems Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in the K-65 waste-storage silos at Fernald, Ohio. The mapping system used three infrared line-generating laser diodes as illumination sources and three high-resolution, low-lux, calibrated, black-and-white, charge-coupled-device video cameras as receivers. These components were combined to form structured light source range and direction sensors with six different possible emitter-receiver pairs. A technology demonstration and predeployment tests were performed at Fernald using the empty Silo 4 into which was placed rectangular objects of known dimensions. These objects were scanned by the structured light sources to demonstrate functionality and verify that the system was giving sufficiently accurate range data in three dimensions. The structured light sources were deployed in Silos 1 and 2 to scan the waste surfaces. The resulting data were merged to create three-dimensional maps of those surfaces. A bentonite clay cap was placed over the waste surfaces and surface maps were obtained. The change in surface height before and after bentonite addition was utilized as a measure of clay cap thickness

  3. Weathering behavior of mine tailings and waste rock: A surface investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domvile, S.J.; Li, M.G.; Sollner, D.D.; Nesbitt, W.

    1994-01-01

    A study focusing on the ion movement in the near surface of sulfide minerals was conducted to better understand the weathering mechanisms of mine waste materials. Tailings and waste rock samples from Canadian mines were subjected to controlled weathering studies using various chemical leachants. Leachates were analyzed for various parameters, and petrographic analyses were conducted on the solid residues. Laboratory oxidation studies of pure pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite were carried out using the surface techniques X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The data derived from the weathering study and the surface techniques were correlated to determine mechanisms of oxidation. Several results were observed during the project: ferric iron constitutes one third of the iron present in pyrrhotite, sulfide oxidation is initiated when rock is blasted, sulfide sulfur is oxidized to di- and poly-sulfides prior to forming sulfates, and significantly more sulfate is produced upon exposure to aqueous environments than to air alone

  4. Treatment and utilization of waste waters of surface mines in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khmel' , N S

    1981-01-01

    Waste water of brown coal surface mines in the Dnieper basin is characterized. The water's pH value is 7, alkalinity ranges from 5.1 to 5.9 mg equivalent/1, it has no odor, a low mineralization level ranging from 1000 to 1100 mg/l. Concentration of mechanical impurities (suspended matter) ranges from 90 to 900 mg/l, and its maximum level can reach 5000 mg/l. An improved design of tanks in which waste water from surface mines is treated, and mechanical impurities settle, is proposed. Conventional design of a water sedimentation tank consists of a long ditch in which suspended matter settles, and a rectangular water reservoir at its end. In the improved version the long ditch is enlarged in some places to create additional tanks and to reduce velocity of flowing waste water. This improvement increases the amount of suspended matter which settles in the ditch and in its enlarged zones. When water reaches the rectangular sedimentation tank at the end of the system its suspended matter content is reduced to 40-45 mg/l. Formulae used to calculate dimensions of water treatment system, gradient of the ditch and size of sedimentation tank are presented. Methods of discharging treated waste water to surface water, rivers and stagnant waters, are evaluated. (In Russian)

  5. Synthesis of long live storage studies surface storage of MA-VL wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollender, F.; Jourdain, F.; Piault, E.; Blanchet, Y.; Avakian, G.; Goger, F.; Caillaud, J.; Devictor, N.; Bary, B.; Moitier, C.; Breton, E.; Ranc, G.; Gaillard, J.P.; Lagrave, H.

    2004-01-01

    This document is realized in the framework of the axis 3 of the law of 1991 on the radioactive wastes management. It presents a long time surface storage installation of medium activity long life wastes. The long time of the installation would reach 300 years at the maximum. The feasibility is demonstrated and the design choices are presented and justified. The specific points of the long time storage installation, which are different from a classical industrial storage installation, are also discussed. (A.L.B.)

  6. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Gilliam, T.M.; Harrington, E.S.; Youngblood, E.L.; Baer, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now know as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) prepared two mixed-waste surface impoundments for closure by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage of the stabilized waste was planned until final disposition. The strategy for disposal included delisting the stabilized pond sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, ∼46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and ∼32,000 drums of unprocessed sludge are presently being stored. In addition, the abandoned treatment facility still contains ∼16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such conditions do not comply with the requirements set forth by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for the storage of listed waste. Various steps are being taken to bring the storage of ∼78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. This paper (1) reviews the current situation, (2) discusses the plan for remediation of regulatory noncompliances, including decanting liquid from stabilized waste and dewatering untreated waste, and (3) provides an assessment of alternative raw-waste treatment processes. 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Vertical Drop of the Naval SNF Long Waste Package On Unyielding Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Mastilovic

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the structural response of a Naval SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) Long Waste Package (WP) subjected to 2 m-vertical drop on unyielding surface (US). The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of maximum stress intensities. This calculation is associated with the waste package design; calculation is performed by the Waste Package Design group. AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, Calculations, is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The finite element calculation is performed by using the commercially available ANSYS Version (V) 5.4 finite element code. The result of this calculation is provided in terms of maximum stress intensities

  8. Run-of-River Impoundments Can Remain Unfilled While Transporting Gravel Bedload: Numerical Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, A.; Pizzuto, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Previous work at run-of-river (ROR) dams in northern Delaware has shown that bedload supplied to ROR impoundments can be transported over the dam when impoundments remain unfilled. Transport is facilitated by high levels of sand in the impoundment that lowers the critical shear stresses for particle entrainment, and an inversely sloping sediment ramp connecting the impoundment bed (where the water depth is typically equal to the dam height) with the top of the dam (Pearson and Pizzuto, in press). We demonstrate with one-dimensional bed material transport modeling that bed material can move through impoundments and that equilibrium transport (i.e., a balance between supply to and export from the impoundment, with a constant bed elevation) is possible even when the bed elevation is below the top of the dam. Based on our field work and previous HEC-RAS modeling, we assess bed material transport capacity at the base of the sediment ramp (and ignore detailed processes carrying sediment up and ramp and over the dam). The hydraulics at the base of the ramp are computed using a weir equation, providing estimates of water depth, velocity, and friction, based on the discharge and sediment grain size distribution of the impoundment. Bedload transport rates are computed using the Wilcock-Crowe equation, and changes in the impoundment's bed elevation are determined by sediment continuity. Our results indicate that impoundments pass the gravel supplied from upstream with deep pools when gravel supply rate is low, gravel grain sizes are relatively small, sand supply is high, and discharge is high. Conversely, impoundments will tend to fill their pools when gravel supply rate is high, gravel grain sizes are relatively large, sand supply is low, and discharge is low. The rate of bedload supplied to an impoundment is the primary control on how fast equilibrium transport is reached, with discharge having almost no influence on the timing of equilibrium.

  9. Consideration of Criteria for a Conceptual Near Surface Radioactive Waste disposal Facility in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nderitu, Stanley Werugia; Kim, Changlak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of the criteria is to limit the consequences of events which could lead to radiation exposures. This study will present an approach for establishing radiological waste acceptance criteria using a safety assessment methodology and illustrate some of its application in establishing limits on the total activity and the activity concentrations of radioactive waste to be disposed in a conceptual near surface disposal facility in Kenya. The approach will make use of accepted methods and computational schemes currently used in assessing the safety of near surface disposal facilities. The study will mainly focus on post-closure periods. The study will employ some specific inadvertent human intrusion scenarios in the development of example concentration ranges for the disposal of near-surface wastes. The overall goal of the example calculations is to illustrate the application of the scenarios in a performance assessment to assure that people in the future cannot receive a dose greater than an established limit. The specific performance assessments will use modified scenarios and data to establish acceptable disposal concentrations for specific disposal sites and conditions. Safety and environmental impacts assessments is required in the post-closure phase to support particular decisions in development, operation, and closure of a near surface repository.

  10. Considerations in the development of near surface repositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The report presents an integrated, stepwise approach for the development (includes pre-operational, operational and post-closure phases) of near surface disposal facilities for low and intermediate level radioactive waste. It has been developed in light of the considerable experience that has accumulated on the development of such disposal systems and is consistent with the current international requirements, principles, standards and guidance for the disposal of radioactive waste. It is considered that the systematic application of the various steps of the approach can contribute to the successful development of a repository programme. The approach is designed to be generic, integrating the various technical and nontechnical factors, and flexible enough to be suitable for use in the various Member States, ranging from countries that have nuclear power plants to countries that have small inventories of radioactive waste from nuclear applications. It is anticipated that this report will be particularly useful and of direct relevance to Member States that are currently developing, or have plans to develop, disposal facilities for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in the near future. The report is intended to respond to the disposal needs of the various Member States, ranging from countries with nuclear power plants to countries having small inventories of radioactive waste from nuclear applications. It was developed with the help of consultants and through an Advisory Group Meeting held in November 2001

  11. Waste Tyres as Heat Sink to Reduce the Driveway Surface Temperatures in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniza Abdul Aziz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of roads and driveways are on the rise as automobiles are now a necessity to all. This excessive development with its requirements increased the urban heat temperature and the generation of waste tyres. Waste tyre management has therefore been taken seriously by developed countries and since the European directive to ban used tyre products and whole tire disposal from landfill in 2003 and 2006 respectively, many researchers have looked for alternative ways to use the waste tyre. In Malaysia, The Smart and Cool Home Developer attempted to develop an eco-house by utilising waste tyre as the foundation for the driveway and claimed that the buried tyres act as a heat sink for the concrete and reduce the surface temperature of the driveway. Hence investigations were conducted on two sample houses to investigate this phenomenon. Findings from this pilot study show that waste tyres do act as a heat sink to the concrete driveways which affect the ambient temperature and relative humidity of the immediate surroundings.

  12. Evaluation of bubbler/diaphragm techniques to measure surface level in the waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, T.J.; Hickman, B.J.; Colson, J.B.

    1993-10-01

    This report describes the results of tests conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine if a bubbler technique can be used to determine the surface level in the waste tanks. Two techniques were evaluated. The first technique is a standard bubbler system in which a tube is placed below the surface of the liquid to be measured and air pressure inside a tube is increased until bubbles begin to become emitted from the tube. The air pressure then is a function of the pressure at the bottom of the tube. The second technique involves a system similar to the standard bubbler technique, but instead of bubbles being released into the material to be gauged, air pressure is increased against a diaphragm until enough pressure is applied to overcome the pressure of the liquid at the given depth, at which time the air then flows in a return loop back to a vent. The advantage of the diaphragm system is that it is a sealed system; thus no air is released into the waste tank materials, and it is not possible for the waste tank materials to get into the air flow. Based on the results of the tests conducted in this program, it appears that the bubbler and diaphragm systems that were tested could not be used for accurate measurements of the level in the waste tanks. Both exhibited deposits of simulated waste tank material at the end of the devices which affected the ability of the gauge to accurately determine changes in the surface level even though the measured value of the level was inaccurate. Further investigations into the cause of this inaccuracy may be warranted. Alternate diaphragm materials may improve the performance of this gauge

  13. Technical considerations in the design of near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    Good design is an important step towards ensuring operational as well as long term safety of low and intermediate level waste (LILW) disposal. The IAEA has produced this report with the objective of outlining the most important technical considerations in the design of near surface disposal facilities and to provide some examples of the design process in different countries. This guidance has been developed in light of experience gained from the design of existing near surface disposal facilities in a range of Member States. In particular the report provide information on design objective, design requirements, and design phases. The report focuses on: near surface disposal facilities accepting solidified LILW; disposal facilities on or just below the ground surface, where the final protective covering is of the order of a few metres thick; and disposal facilities several tens of metres below the ground surface (including rock cavern type facilities)

  14. Reestablishing the Dominance of Biogeochemical Pathways for Reducing Downstream Nutrient Losses from Aged Impounded Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S.; Shukla, A.

    2017-12-01

    Water and phosphorus (P) dynamics and loss pathways at two stormwater impoundments (SIs) were analyzed using measured fluxes between 2008 and 2011. These SIs are a decade old. Analyses of water and P budgets along with the discernment of various P pools and characterization of the intermediary processes revealed that soil adsorption and plant uptake are secondary to volume reduction apropos of P treatment. At one site, extreme wet conditions in a year combined with soil P saturation resulted in it being a P source rather than a sink. The impoundment (SI-1) discharged 12% more P than incoming due to soil P desorption, a consequence of dilution of incoming stormwater with large water input from an extreme tropical rain event. The second impoundment (SI-2) was a consistent sink of P; 55% and 95% of the incoming total P was retained in the two years, mainly as a result of 49% and 84% volume retention, respectively. Analysis of plant available aluminum, iron, and phosphorus showed the surface soil to be P saturated and at risk of releasing P to a limit of environmental concern. These results when seen in light of more frequent extreme precipitation events under the changed climate scenario call for alternatives to revive the role of biogeochemical processes in P treatment because volume reduction may not always be the viable option, especially for wet conditions. Aboveground biomass harvesting and removal was evaluated to transform the SIs from a frequent P source to sink and maintain the long-term sink functions of the SIs. Use of harvested biomass as a source of nutrients (N and P) and carbon to agricultural soil can result in beneficial use of biomass and offset the cost of harvesting. Other avenues such as altering the hydrology of the SIs by compartmentalizing the system and increasing the storage were also explored for short-term benefits. Results provided a combination of hydraulic and biochemical options for achieving long-term water and nutrient retentions in

  15. Durability of simulated waste glass: effects of pressure and formation of surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Mosley, W.C.; Whitkop, P.G.; Saturday, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    The leaching behavior of simulated Savannah River Plant (SRP) waste glass was studied at elevated pressures and anticipated storage temperatures. An integrated approach, which combined leachate solution analyses with both bulk and surface studies, was used to study the corrosion process. Compositions of leachates were evaluated by colorimetry and atomic absorption. Used in the bulk and surface analyses were optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray energy spectroscopy, wide-angle x-ray, diffraction, electron microprobe analysis, infrared reflectance spectroscopy, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and Auger electron spectroscopy. Results from this study show that there is no significant adverse effect of pressure, up to 1500 psi and 90 0 C, on the chemical durability of simulated SPR waste glass leached for one month in deionized water. In addition, the leached glass surface layer was characterized by an adsorbed film rich in minor constituents from the glass. This film remained on the glass surface even after leaching in relatively alkaline solutions at elevated pressures at 90 0 C for one month. The sample surface area to volume of leachant ratios (SA/V) was 10:1 cm -1 and 1:10 cm -1 . The corrosion mechanisms and surface and subsurface layers produced will be discussed along with the potential importance of these results to repository storage

  16. 25 CFR 700.727 - Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized livestock. 700... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.727 Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized livestock. Unauthorized livestock within any range unit of the New Lands which are not removed therefrom within the...

  17. 25 CFR 168.16 - Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized livestock. 168... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.16 Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized livestock. Unauthorized livestock within any range unit of the Hopi Partitioned Lands which are not removed therefrom...

  18. The Authority of the President to Impound Funds Appropriated by Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James R.

    During fiscal year 1973, President Nixon ordered the impoundment of about 18 billion dollars in Federal funds for domestic programs. A large portion of that amount was used to slash federal funding for education programs. The entire impoundment controversy revolves around the doctrine of separation of powers. Insofar as the President has refused…

  19. Geologic waste disposal and a model for the surface movement of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.; Iman, R.; Brown, J.; Schreurs, S.

    1979-01-01

    A model for the surface movement of radionuclides is presented. This model, which is referred to as the Pathways Model, was constructed in a NRC project to develop a methodology to assess the risk associated with the goelogic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The methodology development involves work in two major areas: (a) models for physical processes, and (b) statistical techniques for the use and assessment of these models. The presentation of the Pathways Model involves topics from both areas

  20. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Site characterization field manual for near surface geologic disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCray, J.G.; Nowatzki, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    This field manual has been developed to aid states and regions to do a detailed characterization of a proposed near-surface low-level waste disposal site. The field manual is directed at planners, staff personnel and experts in one discipline to acquaint them with the requirements of other disciplines involved in site characterization. While it can provide a good review, it is not designed to tell experts how to do their job within their own discipline

  2. Direct Measurement of Surface Dissolution Rates in Potential Nuclear Waste Forms: The Example of Pyrochlore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Cornelius; Finkeldei, Sarah; Brandt, Felix; Bosbach, Dirk; Luttge, Andreas

    2015-08-19

    The long-term stability of ceramic materials that are considered as potential nuclear waste forms is governed by heterogeneous surface reactivity. Thus, instead of a mean rate, the identification of one or more dominant contributors to the overall dissolution rate is the key to predict the stability of waste forms quantitatively. Direct surface measurements by vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) and their analysis via material flux maps and resulting dissolution rate spectra provide data about dominant rate contributors and their variability over time. Using pyrochlore (Nd2Zr2O7) pellet dissolution under acidic conditions as an example, we demonstrate the identification and quantification of dissolution rate contributors, based on VSI data and rate spectrum analysis. Heterogeneous surface alteration of pyrochlore varies by a factor of about 5 and additional material loss by chemo-mechanical grain pull-out within the uppermost grain layer. We identified four different rate contributors that are responsible for the observed dissolution rate range of single grains. Our new concept offers the opportunity to increase our mechanistic understanding and to predict quantitatively the alteration of ceramic waste forms.

  3. Acidic Microenvironments in Waste Rock Characterized by Neutral Drainage: Bacteria–Mineral Interactions at Sulfide Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Dockrey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial populations and microbe-mineral interactions were examined in waste rock characterized by neutral rock drainage (NRD. Samples of three primary sulfide-bearing waste rock types (i.e., marble-hornfels, intrusive, exoskarn were collected from field-scale experiments at the Antamina Cu–Zn–Mo mine, Peru. Microbial communities within all samples were dominated by neutrophilic thiosulfate oxidizing bacteria. However, acidophilic iron and sulfur oxidizers were present within intrusive waste rock characterized by bulk circumneutral pH drainage. The extensive development of microbially colonized porous Fe(III (oxyhydroxide and Fe(III (oxyhydroxysulfate precipitates was observed at sulfide-mineral surfaces during examination by field emission-scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FE-SEM-EDS. Linear combination fitting of bulk extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS spectra for these precipitates indicated they were composed of schwertmannite [Fe8O8(OH6–4.5(SO41–1.75], lepidocrocite [γ-FeO(OH] and K-jarosite [KFe3(OH6(SO42]. The presence of schwertmannite and K-jarosite is indicative of the development of localized acidic microenvironments at sulfide-mineral surfaces. Extensive bacterial colonization of this porous layer and pitting of underlying sulfide-mineral surfaces suggests that acidic microenvironments can play an important role in sulfide-mineral oxidation under bulk circumneutral pH conditions. These findings have important implications for water quality management in NRD settings.

  4. An overview of technical requirements on durable concrete production for near surface disposal facilities for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolentino, Evandro; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste can be generated by a wide range of activities varying from activities in hospitals to nuclear power plants, to mines and mineral processing facilities. General public have devoted nowadays considerable attention to the subject of radioactive waste management due to heightened awareness of environmental protection. The preferred strategy for the management of all radioactive waste is to contain it and to isolate it from the accessible biosphere. The Federal Government of Brazil has announced the construction for the year of 2014 and operation for the year of 2016 of a near surface disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of technical requirements related to production of durable concrete to be used in near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste concrete structures. These requirements have been considered by researchers dealing with ongoing designing effort of the Brazilian near surface disposal facility. (author)

  5. Evaluation of pressure transducers to measure surface level in the waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, T.J.; Colson, J.B.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes the results of tests conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine if pressure transducers can be used to measure the surface level in the waste tanks. A survey was first conducted to evaluate which, if any, commercially available pressure transducers were available that could meet the requirements for use in the waste tanks. More than 35 companies were contacted to determine if they manufactured a pressure transducer that could be used in the 101-SY waste tank. The three basic requirements for a pressure transducer for this application were that they were radiation-hardened, could withstand a caustic environment, and were certified to be intrinsically safe. No manufacturer was able to meet all three of these requirements with a commercially available product. Seven companies were able to meet the requirements for being radiation-hardened and being able to withstand the caustic environment. However, only two of the nine companies were willing to supply a pressure transducer for laboratory testing. The two pressure transducers that were tested in this program were the VEGA D36-38 from HiTech Technologies, Inc., and the KP-1911-A from Kaman Instrumentation Corporation. Pressure transducers operate on the principle that the pressure at the location of a sensor increases directly with the depth of the liquid above it. A liquid is required in order for these devices to operate. For these tests, water was first used to determine the ideal operation of the devices, then the devices were placed in a 101-SY waste tank simulant. The simulant had a specific gravity of 1.96 and had the consistency similar to the convective layer in the 101-SY waste tank. In order to determine the surface level with pressure transducers, the density of the material needs to be known

  6. Assessment of management alternatives for LWR wastes. Volume 8. Cost and radiological impact associated with near-surface disposal of reactor waste (Spanish concept)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamo Berna, S.; Sanchez Delgado, N.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the determination of the cost and the radiological impact associated with a near-surface disposal site (Spanish concept) for low and medium-level radioactive waste generated during operation of a 20 GWe nuclear park composed of LWRs for 30 years. This study is part of an overall theoretical exercise aimed at evaluating a selection of management routes for LWR waste based on economical and radiological criteria

  7. Assessment of management alternatives for LWR wastes. Volume 7. Cost and radiological impact associated with near-surface disposal of reactor waste (French concept)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malherbe, J.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the determination of the cost and the radiological impact associated with a near-surface disposal site (French concept) for low and medium-level radioactive waste generated during operation of a 20 GWe nuclear park composed of LWRs for 30 years. This study is part of an overall theoretical exercise aimed at evaluating a selection of management routes for LWR waste based on economical and radiological criteria

  8. Bacterial community dynamics in surface flow constructed wetlands for the treatment of swine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, A M; Ma, J; Murinda, Shelton; Reddy, G B

    2016-02-15

    Constructed wetlands are generally used for the removal of waste from contaminated water. In the swine production system, wastes are traditionally flushed into an anaerobic lagoon which is then sprayed on agricultural fields. However, continuous spraying of lagoon wastewater on fields can lead to high N and P accumulations in soil or lead to runoff which may contaminate surface or ground water with pathogens and nutrients. In this study, continuous marsh constructed wetland was used for the removal of contaminants from swine waste. Using pyrosequencing, we assessed bacterial composition within the wetland using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) which showed that bacterial composition from manure influent and lagoon water were significantly different (P=0.001) from the storage pond to the final effluent. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that different bacterial populations were significantly impacted by ammonium--NH4 (P=0.035), phosphate--PO4(3-) (P=0.010), chemical oxygen demand--COD (P=0.0165), total solids--TS (P=0.030), and dissolved solids--DS (P=0.030) removal, with 54% of the removal rate explained by NH4+PO4(3-) according to a partial CCA. Our results showed that different bacterial groups were responsible for the composition of different wetland nutrients and decomposition process. This may be the major reason why most wetlands are very efficient in waste decomposition. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Removal of selenium species from waters using various surface-modified natural particles and waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yigit, Nevzat O.; Tozum, Seda [Department of Environmental Engineering, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey)

    2012-07-15

    Waste red mud and natural pumice/volcanic slag particles were surface modified and their selenium adsorption from waters was investigated. Acid activation/heat treatment of original red mud (ORM) particles significantly increased their micropore and external surface area and cumulative volume of pores. Iron oxide coating of pumice/slags and acid activation of ORM decreased their pH{sub pzc} values and increased surface acidity. Selenite/selenate adsorption on iron oxide surfaces and acid activated red mud (AARM) was very fast with approximately first-order adsorption kinetics. Iron oxide coating of pumice/slag and acid activation of ORM particles significantly enhanced their selenite and selenate uptakes. Maximum Se adsorption capacities as high as 6.3 (mg Se/g adsorbent) were obtained by AARM. The extent of selenate uptakes by the surface modified particles was generally lower than those of selenite. Due to competition among Se species and other background water matrix for iron oxide adsorption sites, reduced selenite/selenate uptakes were found in natural water compared to single solute tests. Higher Se uptakes by iron oxide surfaces were found at pH 7.5 compared to pH 8.9, due to increased electrostatic repulsion among iron oxides and Se species at higher pH. The most effective adsorbents among the tested 17 different particles for Se uptake were AARM and iron oxide coated pumice. Se concentrations less than drinking water standards (5-10 {mu}g/L) can be achieved by these particles. These low-cost, natural, or recyclable waste particles appear to be promising adsorbents for Se removal after their surface modification. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. A review of construction techniques available for surface and underground radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, D.G.; Davies, I.L.; MacKenzie, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    In terms of engineering requirements the construction of surface or indeed underground radioactive waste repositories is not unduly difficult. The civil engineering techniques likely to be required have generally been carried out previously, albeit not in the context of radioactive waste repositories in this country. The emphasis will have to be very much on the quality of construction. This paper emphasises the need for quality construction and describes the techniques likely to be used in the construction of repositories. Reference is made to the materials likely to be used in the construction of repositories and also to the need for being able to convince the designers, regulating authorities and the general public that the materials used will indeed last for the required time. Brief reference is made at the end of the paper to the civil engineering parameters requiring consideration in the location of repository siting. (author)

  11. Study of waterproof capabilities of the engineered barrier containing bentonite in near surface radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luu Cao Nguyen; Nguyen Ba Tien; Doan Thi Thu Hien; Nguyen Van Chinh; Vuong Huu Anh

    2017-01-01

    In Vietnam, the study of nuclear fuel cycle is in first steps, such as the exploitation and uranium processing. These processes generated large amounts of radioactive waste over-timing. The naturally occurring radioactive material and technologically enhanced radioactive material (NORM/TENORM) waste, which would be large, needs to be managed and disposed reasonably by effective methods. These wastes were used to be disposal in the near surface. It was therefore very important to study the model of radioactive waste repository, where bentonite waterproofing layer would be applied for the engineered barrier. The aim of this study was to obtain the preliminary parameters for low-level radioactive waste disposal site being suitable with the conditions of Vietnam. The investigation of the ratio between soil and bentonite was taken part. The experiments with some layers of waterproofing material with the ratio of soil and bentonite as 75/25, 50/50 and 25/75 were carried out to test the moving of uranium nuclide through these waterproofing material layers. Analyzing the uranium content in each layer (0.1 cm) of pressed soil - bentonite mixture (as a block) to determine the uranium nuclide adsorption from solution into the materials in the different ratios at the different times: 1, 2 and 3 months was carried out. The results showed that the calculated average rate of uranium nuclide migration into the soil - bentonite layer was 5.4x10 -10 , 5.4x10 -10 and 3.85x10 -10 m/s corresponding to the waterproofing layer thickness (for 300 years) 4.86 m, 4.86 m and 3.63 m respectively, which was due on the ratio of soil and bentonite 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 to keep the safety for the repository. (author)

  12. A literature review of surface alteration layer effects on waste glass behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Cunnane, J.C.; Bates, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    When in contact with an aqueous solution, nuclear waste glass is subject to a chemical attack that results in progressive alteration. During tills alteration, constituent elements of the glass pass into the solution; elements initially in solution diffuse into, or are adsorbed onto, the solid; and new phases appear. This results in the formation of surface layers on the reacted glass. The glass corrosion and radionuclide release can be better understood by investigating these surface layer effects. In the past decade, there have been numerous studies regarding the effects of surface layers on glass reactions. This paper presents a systematic analysis and summary of the past knowledge regarding the effects of surface layers on glass-water interaction. This paper describes the major formation mechanisms of surface layers; reviews the role of surface layers in controlling mass transport and glass reaction affinity (through crystalline phases, an amorphous silica, a gel layer, or all the components in the glass); and discusses how the surface layers contribute to the retention of radionuclides during glass dissolution

  13. A technique for the geometric modeling of underground surfaces: Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.L.

    1988-03-01

    There is a need within the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) project to develop three-dimensional surface definitions for the subterranean stratigraphies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The nature of the data samples available to the project require an interpolation technique that can perform well with sparse and irregularly spaced data. Following an evaluation of the relevant existing methods, a new technique, Multi-Kernel Modulation (MKM), is presented. MKM interpolates sparse and irregularly spaced data by modulating a polynomial trend surface with a linear summation of regular surfaces (kernels). A perspective discussion of MKM, Kriging, and Multiquadric Analysis reveals that MKM has the advantage of simplicity and efficiency when used with sparse samples. An example of the use of MKM to model a complex topography is presented. 24 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Reestablishment of woody plants on mine spoils and management of mine water impoundments: an overview of Forest Service research on the northern High Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjugstad, A J

    1977-01-01

    The function of the research unit at Rapid city, S. Dakota, is to provide guidelines for the reestablisment of shrubs and trees on land characteristic of the High Plains, and for the mitigation of possible detrimental effects of surface mining on ground water and surface water. One possible problem posed by surface mining concerns the formation of land drainage patterns that could result in post-mining formations of large salt playas. Surface mining could affect shallow ground water aquifers up to /sup 1///sub 4/ mile from the mine site. Research is being conducted on the reclamation of mine spoils and on the rehabilitation and management of impounded mine water.

  15. A generic model of contaminant migration from uranium tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, T.A.; Brown, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical hydrogeochemical model based upon acid consumption-neutralization front movement. The development of contaminant plumes is discussed and distinct zones within these plumes are identified and characterized. The most important process influencing the rate and extent of contaminant migration at acid-leach uranium tailings impoundments is the neutralization of seepage water by soils along ground water flow paths. The chemical characteristics of the ground water is determined in order to identify and characterize zones within migrating plumes of tailings-derived water. It is concluded that the characterization of specific zones is useful in the interpretation of existing conditions, in the evaluation of future migration, and in the determination of appropriate models for the specific situation

  16. Eutrophication levels of some South African impoundments. IV. Vaal Dam

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, DJ

    1976-04-01

    Full Text Available inere;iae(l the \\G P In? between 7,1- and I 1,2 mg/r? lbr t?verv nile pet? t?t?ttt v/v) added_Nitrogen and phosphorus wert? the important algal growth?limiting ntltrients in the impoundment. Plant nntt-ients adsorbed onto clay particles could ht... stream_source_info Steyn2_1976.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 20870 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Steyn2_1976.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Za~3n Abstract The Vital...

  17. Radionuclide transport modelling for a buried near surface low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzi, R.

    2004-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste, which is the last step of any radioactive waste management policy, has not yet been developed in Turkey. The existing legislation states only the discharge limits for the radioactive wastes to be discharged to the environment. The objective of this modelling study is to assist in safety assessment and selecting disposal site for gradually increasing non-nuclear radioactive wastes. This mathematical model has been developed for the environmental radiological assessment of near surface disposal sites for the low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The model comprised of three main components: source term, geosphere transport and radiological assessment. Radiation dose for the babies (1 years age) and adults (≥17 years age) have been computed for the radionuclides Cesium 137 (Cs-137) and Strontium 90 (Sr-90), having the activity of 1.10 12 Becquerel(Bq), in radioactive waste through transport of radionuclide in liquid phase with the various pathways. The model consisted of first order ordinary differential equations was coded as a TCODE file in MATLAB program. The radiation dose to man for the realist case and low probability case have been calculated by using Runge-Kutta solution method in MATLAB programme for radionuclide transport from repository to soil layer and then to the ground water(saturated zone) through drinking water directly and consuming agricultural and animal products pathways in one year period. Also, the fatal cancer risk assessment has been made by taking into account the annual dose received by people. Various dose values for both radionuclides have been found which depended on distribution coefficient, retardation factor and dose conversion factors. The most important critical parameters on radiological safety assessment are the distribution coefficient in soil layer, seepage velocity in unsaturated zone and thickness of the unsaturated zone (soil zone). The highest radiation dose and average dose to

  18. Sedimentation in Lake Onalaska, Navigation Pool 7, upper Mississippi River, since impoundment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korschgen, C.E.; Jackson, G.A.; Muessig, L.F.; Southworth, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    Sediment accumulation was evaluated in Lake Onalaska, a 2800-ha backwater impoundment on the Upper Mississippi River. Computer programs were used to process fathometric charts and generate an extensive data set on water depth for the lake. Comparison of 1983 survey data with pre-impoundment (before 1937) data showed that Lake Onalaska had lost less than 10 percent of its original mean depth in the 46 years since impoundment. Previous estimates of sedimentation rates based on Cesium-137 sediment core analysis appear to have been too high. (DBO)

  19. Application of autonomous robotics to surveillance of waste storage containers for radioactive surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, F.J.; Beckerman, M.; Butler, P.L.; Jones, J.P.; Reister, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a proof-of-principal demonstration performed with the HERMIES-III mobile robot to automate the inspection of waste storage drums for radioactive surface contamination and thereby reduce the human burden of operating a robot and worker exposure to potentially hazardous environments. Software and hardware for the demonstration were developed by a team consisting of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Universities of Florida, Michigan, Tennessee, and Texas. Robot navigation, machine vision, manipulator control, parallel processing and human-machine interface techniques developed by the team were demonstrated utilizing advanced computer architectures. The demonstration consists of over 100,000 lines of computer code executing on nine computers

  20. Condensed listing of surface boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project through 31 December 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.R.; Aguilar, R.; Mercer, J.W.; Newman, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains a condensed listing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project surface boreholes drilled for the purpose of site selection and characterization through 31 December 1995. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the drilling activities, which were conducted primarily by Sandia National Laboratories. The listing provides physical attributes such as location (township, range, section, and state-plane coordinates), elevation, and total borehole depth, as well as the purpose for the borehole, drilling dates, and information about extracted cores. The report also presents the hole status (plugged, testing, monitoring, etc.) and includes salient findings and references. Maps with borehole locations and times-of-drilling charts are included

  1. On release of radionuclides from a near-surface radioactive waste repository to the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudelis Arūnas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A closed near-surface radioactive waste repository is the source of various radionuclides causing the human exposure. Recent investigations confirm an effectiveness of the engineering barriers installed in 2006 to prevent the penetration of radionuclides to the environment. The tritium activity concentration in groundwater decreased from tens of kBq/l to below hundreds of Bq/l. The monitoring and groundwater level data suggest the leaching of tritium from previously contaminated layers of unsaturated zone by rising groundwater while 210Pb may disperse as a decay product of 226Ra daughters.

  2. Procedures and techniques for closure of near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    The overall objective of this report is to provide Member States with guidance on planning and implementation of closure of near surface disposal facilities for low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The specific objectives are to review closure concepts, requirements, and components of closure systems; to discuss issues and approaches to closure, including regulatory, economic, and technical aspects; and to present major examples of closure techniques used and/or considered by Member States. Some examples of closure experience from Member States are presented in the Appendix and were indexed separately

  3. Heavy metal contamination of surface soil in electronic waste dismantling area: site investigation and source-apportionment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhui Li; Huabo Duan; Pixing Shi

    2011-07-01

    The dismantling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in developing countries is causing increasing concern because of its impacts on the environment and risks to human health. Heavy-metal concentrations in the surface soils of Guiyu (Guangdong Province, China) were monitored to determine the status of heavy-metal contamination on e-waste dismantling area with a more than 20 years history. Two metalloids and nine metals were selected for investigation. This paper also attempts to compare the data among a variety of e-waste dismantling areas, after reviewing a number of heavy-metal contamination-related studies in such areas in China over the past decade. In addition, source apportionment of heavy metal in the surface soil of these areas has been analysed. Both the MSW open-burning sites probably contained invaluable e-waste and abandoned sites formerly involved in informal recycling activities are the new sources of soil-based environmental pollution in Guiyu. Although printed circuit board waste is thought to be the main source of heavy-metal emissions during e-waste processing, requirement is necessary to soundly manage the plastic separated from e-waste, which mostly contains heavy metals and other toxic substances.

  4. A relationship between leach rate of nuclear waste glass and residual amount of sodium on the glass surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamizono, Hiroshi; Banba, Tsunetaka

    1984-12-01

    Leach tests of simulated high-level waste glass were carried out in order to examine the quantitative relationship between the amount of elements on the sample surface and that in the leachate. An experimental equation was obtained expressing the relationship between the amount of Na on the sample surface and that in the leachate. This shows that it is possible in some cases to estimate the amount of Na in the leachate by measuring the amount of Na on the sample surface. One example of such an estimation was observed with the simulated high-level waste glass leached at 100 0 C in the presence of a backfill material. (author)

  5. Impacts of Solid Waste Leachate on Groundwater and Surface Water Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, S.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to assess the impacts of solid waste leachate on groundwater and surface water quality at unlined dumping site. Six leachate samples collected from different locations have average values of COD and BOD 2563 mg/L and 442 mg/L, respectively. Surface water samples were collected in two different seasons (rainy and non- rainy). Samples collected during non-rainy season were found to be more contaminated than rainy season. Soil samples collected from the depth of 1.5 m are contaminated with heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Fe and Zn) and E.coli. Presence of E.coli shows that leachate has deteriorated groundwater quality. (author)

  6. Engineered surface barriers for waste disposal sites: lysimeter facility design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Ruben, M.S.; Kirkham, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    A facility to evaluate performance of engineered surface carriers for confinement of buried wastes has been designed, constructed, and operations initiated. The Field Lysimeter Test Facility is located at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The facility consists of 18 one-dimensional drainage and weighing lysimeters used to evaluate 7 replicated barrier treatments. Distinct layers of natural earth materials were used to construct layered soil and rock barriers in each lysimeter. These barrier designs are capable in principal of significantly reducing or precluding infiltration of meteoric water through barriers into underlying contaminated zones. This paper summarizes salient facility design and construction features used in testing of the Hanford Site's engineered surface barriers

  7. Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, Pierre

    The origin of the wastes (power stations, reprocessing, fission products) is determined and the control ensuring the innocuity with respect to man, public acceptance, availability, economics and cost are examined [fr

  8. Environment on the Surfaces of the Drip Shield and Waste Package Outer Barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Wolery

    2005-01-01

    This report provides supporting analysis of the conditions at which an aqueous solution can exist on the drip shield or waste package surfaces, including theoretical underpinning for the evolution of concentrated brines that could form by deliquescence or evaporation, and evaluation of the effects of acid-gas generation on brine composition. This analysis does not directly feed the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA), but supports modeling and abstraction of the in-drift chemical environment (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169863]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). It also provides analyses that may support screening of features, events, and processes, and input for response to regulatory inquiries. This report emphasizes conditions of low relative humidity (RH) that, depending on temperature and chemical conditions, may be dry or may be associated with an aqueous phase containing concentrated electrolytes. Concentrated solutions at low RH may evolve by evaporative concentration of water that seeps into emplacement drifts, or by deliquescence of dust on the waste package or drip shield surfaces. The minimum RH for occurrence of aqueous conditions is calculated for various chemical systems based on current understanding of site geochemistry and equilibrium thermodynamics. The analysis makes use of known characteristics of Yucca Mountain waters and dust from existing tunnels, laboratory data, and relevant information from the technical literature and handbooks

  9. Preparation and Surface Sizing Application of Sizing Agent Based on Collagen from Leather Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuechuan Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Collagen extracted from leather waste was modified with maleic anhydride. Then, using ammonium persulfate as an initiator, by pre-modifying collagen reacted with styrene and ethyl acrylate monomers, a vinyl-grafted collagen sizing agent (VGCSA for paper was prepared. Before the experiment, the performance of VGCSA was tested and VGCSA emulsion was applied to the surface sizing of the corrugated paper. Effects of the amount of VGCSA, the compound proportion of VGCSA, and starch and styrene-acrylic emulsion were studied relative to paper properties. The morphological changes of the paper before and after sizing were characterized by SEM. It was found that the collagen reacted with styrene and ethyl acrylate monomers. Through the grafting of vinyl and collagen, the crystallinity and thermal stability of VGCSA increased. The structure of VGCSA was spherical with a uniform size, and the average particle size was approximately 350 to 400 nm. After being sized, the surface fibers of paper became smooth and orderly. The optimal sizing of VGCSA was 8 g/m2. The optimal proportion of VGCSA with starch was 4:6, and the optimal proportion of VGCSA with SAE was 2:8. The research indicates that collagen extracted from leather waste could be used as a biomaterial, and environmental and economic benefits could be created as well.

  10. Environment on the Surfaces of the Drip Shield and Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Wolery

    2005-02-22

    This report provides supporting analysis of the conditions at which an aqueous solution can exist on the drip shield or waste package surfaces, including theoretical underpinning for the evolution of concentrated brines that could form by deliquescence or evaporation, and evaluation of the effects of acid-gas generation on brine composition. This analysis does not directly feed the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA), but supports modeling and abstraction of the in-drift chemical environment (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169863]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). It also provides analyses that may support screening of features, events, and processes, and input for response to regulatory inquiries. This report emphasizes conditions of low relative humidity (RH) that, depending on temperature and chemical conditions, may be dry or may be associated with an aqueous phase containing concentrated electrolytes. Concentrated solutions at low RH may evolve by evaporative concentration of water that seeps into emplacement drifts, or by deliquescence of dust on the waste package or drip shield surfaces. The minimum RH for occurrence of aqueous conditions is calculated for various chemical systems based on current understanding of site geochemistry and equilibrium thermodynamics. The analysis makes use of known characteristics of Yucca Mountain waters and dust from existing tunnels, laboratory data, and relevant information from the technical literature and handbooks.

  11. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW [low-level radioactive waste] disposal units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.; O'Donnell, E.O.

    1990-12-01

    Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers a barriers to water infiltration are being investigated. They are: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earthen material (e.g. clay). The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover. Remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier, or perhaps even better, a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. This latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry to waste and without institutional care. These various concepts are being assessed in six large (70ft x 45ft x 10ft each) lysimeters at Beltsville, Maryland. 6 refs., 20 figs.,

  12. Seismic surface wave tomography of waste sites. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, T.L.

    1997-01-01

    'The objective of the Seismic Surface Wave Tomography of Waste Sites is to develop a robust technique for field acquisition and analysis of surface wave data for the interpretation of shallow structures, such as those associated with the burial of wastes. The analysis technique is to be developed and tested on an existing set of seismic data covering the K-901 burial site at the East Tennessee Technology Park. Also, a portable prototype for a field acquisition system will be designed and developed to obtain additional data for analysis and testing of the technique. The K-901 data have been examined and a preliminary Single Valued Decomposition inversion has been obtained. The preliminary data indicates a need for additional seismic data to ground-truth the inversion. The originally proposed gravity data acquisition has been dropped because sufficient gravity data are now available for a preliminary analysis and because the seismic data are considered more critical to the interpretation. The proposed prototype for the portable acquisition and analysis system was developed during the first year and will be used in part of the acquisition of additional seismic data.'

  13. Types of safety assessments of near surface repository for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateeva, M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to presents the classification of different types safety assessments of near surface repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste substantiated with results of safety assessments generated in Bulgaria. The different approach of safety assessments applied for old existing repository as well as for site selection for construction new repository is outlined. The regulatory requirements in Bulgaria define three main types of assessments: Safety assessment; Technical substation of repository safety; Assessment of repository influence on environment that is in form of report prepared from the Ministry of environment and waters on the base of results obtained in two first types of assessments. Additionally first type is subdivided in three categories - preliminary safety assessment, safety assessment and post closure safety assessment, which are generated using deterministic approach. The technical substation of repository safety is generated using probabilistic approach. Safety assessment results that are presented here are based on evaluation of existing old repository type 'Radon' in Novi Han and real site selection procedure for new near surface repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste from nuclear power station in Kozloduy. The important role of safety assessment for improvement the repository safety as well as for repository licensing, correct site selection and right choice of engineer barriers and repository design is discussed using generated results. (author)

  14. Waste Volume Reduction Using Surface Characterization and Decontamination By Laser Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellin, Michael J.; Savina, Michael R.; Reed, Claude B.; Zhiyue, Xu; Yong, Wang

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's nuclear complex, a nation-wide system of facilities for research and production of nuclear materials and weapons, contains large amounts of radioactively contaminated concrete[1]. This material must be disposed of prior to the decommissioning of the various sites. Often the radioactive contaminants in concrete occupy only the surface and near-surface (∼3-6 mm deep) regions of the material. Since many of the structures such as walls and floors are 30 cm or more thick, it makes environmental and economic sense to try to remove and store only the thin contaminated layer rather than to treat the entire structure as waste. Current mechanical removal methods, known as scabbling, are slow and labor intensive, suffer from dust control problems, and expose workers to radiation fields. Improved removal methods are thus in demand[2-5]. Prior to decontamination, the surface must be characterized to determine the types and amounts of contaminants present i n order to decide on an appropriate cleaning strategy. Contamination occurs via exposure to air and water-borne radionuclides and by neutron activation. The radionuclides of greatest concern are (in order of abundance) [1]: 137Cs and 134Cs, 238U, 60Co, and 90Sr, followed by 3H, radioactive iodine, and a variety of Eu isotopes and transuranics. A system capable of on- line analysis is valuable since operators can determine the type of contaminants in real time and make more efficient use of costly sampling and characterization techniques. Likewise, the removed waste itself must be analyzed to insure that proper storage and monitoring techniques are used. The chemical speciation of radionuclides in concrete is largely unknown. Concrete is a complex material comprising many distinct chemical and physical phases on a variety of size scales[6-8]. Most studies of radionuclides in cements and concrete are for the most part restricted to phenomenological treatments of diffusion of ion s, particularly

  15. Review of environmental surveillance data around low-level waste disposal areas at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Shank, K.E.

    1979-01-01

    White Oak Creek and Melton Branch tributary surface streams flow through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reservation and receive treated low-level radioactive liquid waste which originates from various Laboratory operations. The streams receive additional low-level liquid waste generated by seepage of radioactive materials from solid-waste burial grounds, hydrofracture sites, and intermediate-level liquid-waste sites. Over the years, various liquid-waste treatment and disposal processes have been employed at ORNL; some of these processes have included: settling basins, impoundment, storage tanks, evaporation, ground disposal in trenches and pits, and hydrofracture. Burial of solid radioactive waste was initiated in the early 1940's, and there are six burial grounds at ORNL with two currently in use. Monitoring at White Oak Dam, the last liquid control point for the Laboratory, was started in the late 1940's and is continuing. Presently, a network of five environmental monitoring stations is in operation to monitor the radionuclide content of surface waters in the White Oak watershed. In this paper, the solid waste burial grounds will be described in detail, and the environmental data tabulated over the past 29 years will be presented. The various monitoring systems used during the years will also be reviewed. The liquid effluent discharge trends at ORNL from the radioactive waste operations will be discussed

  16. Effects of impoundment and regulation upon the stomach contents of fish at Cow Green, Upper Teesdale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisp, D.T.; Mann, R.H.K.; McCormack, J.C.

    1978-04-01

    The stomach contents of 1003 brown trout, 1551 bullheads and 800 minnows taken from the reservoir basin and below the dam, before and after impoundment of the river Tees, were examined. Their composition reflected observations by other workers on river and reservoir benthos, except for the increase in numbers of Hydra and Nais below the dam, and Mollusca, Hirudinea and oligochaetes in the reservoir. Trout below the dam ate more Ephemeroptera nymphs and Chironomidae larvae but fewer terrestrial casualties after river regulation, whereas bullheads ate more Mollusca but fewer Plecoptera nymphs. In both species Baetidae nymphs increased in numerical importance relative to Ecdyonuridae. Trout, but not bullheads, took zooplankton discharged from the reservoir. Before impoundment, trout within the reservoir basin ate chiefly benthic organisms and terrestrial casualties. Inundated terrestrial material, mainly earthworms, formed the bulk of their food for at least three years after impoundment, whilst from the second year onwards Chironomidae and, in some years, Gammarus became increasingly important. Zooplankton was taken by all sizes of reservoir trout. Bullheads within the reservoir basin ate chiefly river benthos before impoundment, with Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera nymphs predominant in older fish, and aquatic Diptera and Coleoptera also important in the fry. After impoundment, Chironomidae and Gammarus were the main items taken by older bullheads, and Chironomidae and micro-crustacea by the fry. Among all sizes of minnow, Chironomidae, micro-crustacea and detritus increased in numerical importance after impoundment.

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area,. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The 100-B-1 waste site was a dumping site that was divided into two areas. One area was used as a laydown area for construction materials, and the other area was used as a chemical dumping area. The 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  18. Origin and evolution of cup-shaped structures on leached nuclear waste containment glass surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, C.; Villa, F.; Chambaudet, A.; Vernaz, E.

    1994-01-01

    A three-dimensional surface microanalysis system equipped with a sensitive topographical probe was used to quantify the evolution of cup-shaped structures formed by aqueous leaching of nuclear waste containment glass. A model of the dissolution phenomenon provides satisfactory correlation between calculated and measured cup radius and depth. Dissolution cups form from cracks on the initially cut glass surface. Large cracks control the phenomenon by forming the largest cups, which gradually absorb smaller ones. The evolution of the size and shape of the dissolution cups was described by a model that assumes a constant dissolution rate on the surface, diminishing with crack depth. The best fit with the experimental data was obtained with a dissolution rate one hundred times lower at the bottom of the crack than at the surface. Moreover, it is predictable that all the cups will gradually disappear as they grow larger and flatter over a leaching period of some 2 years, for the glass composition and experimental leaching procedures used in this work

  19. Mass transfer of CO2 to groundwaters from a near-surface waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, F.; Wilkinson, S.R.; Manni, G.; Torok, J.

    1995-01-01

    Gaseous 14 CO 2 originating from buried low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW) in a near-surface disposal site can be released to the environment via two major paths: gas-phase diffusion through soils to the atmosphere, and dissolution in groundwater, followed by aqueous migration. Aqueous migration would give the highest dose to an individual, especially if C-14 was converted to an organic form and ingested. Gaseous diffusion would give a lower dose, largely because of atmospheric dispersion and dilution. The objective of this study was to develop the capability to estimate which of the two paths will likely be dominant for typical near-surface disposal facilities. The main missing parameter for making this estimate was a mass-transfer coefficient (K L ) of 14 CO 2 to groundwaters, which was determined experimentally using a large sand box. The K L thus determined was approximately 10 to 20 times smaller than for an open liquid surface. This suggests that there is a potential resistance to mass transfer, probably caused by the capillary fringe. The value obtained was incorporated into a simple model of CO 2 transport around a typical near-surface disposal site. The model suggests that CO 2 transport via both gaseous release and aqueous migration paths are of similar magnitude for a repository located ∼2 m above the water table. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  20. The surface water model for assessing Canada's nuclear fuel waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, G.A.; Stephenson, M.; Cornett, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (NFWMP) is investigating the concept of disposal of nuclear fuel waste in a vault excavated deep in crystalline rock on the Canadian Shield. Probabilistic vault, geosphere, and biosphere models are implemented using Monte Carlo simulation techniques to trace nuclides transported in groundwater to the surface environment and humans far into the future. This paper describes the surface water submodel and its parameter values, sensitivity analysis, and validation. The surface water model is a simple, time-dependent, mass balance model of a lake that calculates radioactive and stable isotope contaminant concentrations in lake water and sediment. These concentrations are input to the other submodels and used to predict the radiological dose to humans and other biota. Parameter values in the model are based on the literature and the author's own data, and are generic to Canadian Shield lakes. Most parameters are represented by log normally distributed probability density functions. Sensitivity analysis indicates that nuclide concentrations in lake water and sediment are governed primarily by hydrological flushing with catchment area being the most important parameter. When catchment area is held constant lake area and nuclide transfer rate from water to sediment strongly influence concentrations in both water and sediment. For volatile nuclides, gaseous evasion also has a marked influence on concentrations in both water and sediment, whereas sedimentation rate strongly influences sediment nuclide concentrations. Validation tests demonstrate that the models predictions for 60 Co, 134 Cs, 3 H, P, Cd and Ca are consistent with empirical data when uncertainties are taken into account

  1. Implications of long-term surface or near-surface storage of intermediate and low-level wastes in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, N.; Vande Putte, D.; Ware, R.J.

    1986-02-01

    Various options for 200 year-long storage of all Low- and Intermediate-Level wastes generated to the year 2030 are considered. On-site storage and centralised storage have been examined and compared. The feasibility of storing some of the wastes in underground facilities that are convertible to repositories has been demonstrated, but it is shown that centralised, surface storage of wastes would be more economical. There appears to be little merit in storing Intermediate Level wastes in separate facilities that could be converted to repositories. Storage is shown to be more expensive than direct disposal, except if future costs are discounted by more than about 10%. With carefully designed stores and remote handling, the collective dose to operators could be limited to about 20-40 man Sv over the whole period of storage. (author)

  2. Kinetic and mechanism studies of the adsorption of lead onto waste cow bone powder (WCBP) surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jihoon; Cui, Mingcan; Jang, Min; Cho, Sang-Hyun; Moon, Deok Hyun; Khim, Jeehyeong

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the adsorption isotherms, kinetics and mechanisms of Pb²(+) sorption onto waste cow bone powder (WCBP) surfaces. The concentrations of Pb²(+) in the study range from 10 to 90 mg/L. Although the sorption data follow the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm, a detailed examination reveals that surface sorption or complexation and co-precipitation are the most important mechanisms, along with possibly ion exchange and solid diffusion also contributing to the overall sorption process. The co-precipitation of Pb²(+) with the calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca-HAP) is implied by significant changes in Ca²(+) and PO₄³⁻ concentrations during the metal sorption processes. The Pb²(+) sorption onto the WCBP surface by metal complexation with surface functional groups such as ≡ POH. The major metal surface species are likely to be ≡ POPb(+). The sorption isotherm results indicated that Pb²(+) sorption onto the Langmuir and Freundlich constant q(max) and K( F ) is 9.52 and 8.18 mg g⁻¹, respectively. Sorption kinetics results indicated that Pb²(+) sorption onto WCBP was pseudo-second-order rate constants K₂ was 1.12 g mg⁻¹ h⁻¹. The main mechanism is adsorption or surface complexation (≡POPb(+): 61.6%), co-precipitation or ion exchange [Ca₃(.)₉₃ Pb₁(.)₀₇ (PO₄)₃ (OH): 21.4%] and other precipitation [Pb 50 mg L⁻¹ and natural pH: 17%). Sorption isotherms showed that WCBP has a much higher Pb²(+) removal rate in an aqueous solution; the greater capability of WCBP to remove aqueous Pb²(+) indicates its potential as another promising way to remediate Pb²(+)-contaminated media.

  3. Autogenous Tumbling Media Assessment to Clean Weathered Surfaces of Waste-Rock Particles from a Basalt Quarry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran Tufan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the optimum feed composition in autogenous tumbling of basalt waste-rock particles to clean their weathered surface was determined. The weathered surfaces of basalt are generally cut out consequent to extraction of basalt columns in quarry operations. The inefficiently cut out portions of basalt cause formation of huge quarry waste dumps causing visual pollution on roadsides. Mixtures of different particle size fractions of basalt waste-rock particles were experimented to achieve the optimum feed material composition. The minimum loss of commercially available basalt particles and maximum clear surface was intended. The results were compared with respect to weight loss (% and reflectance values of used and generated samples.

  4. Hydrologic considerations for rock RIPRAP protection of uranium tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.H.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting an in-depth study of the application of rock riprap for the long-term protection of uranium tailings impoundments. Decommissioned tailings sites at Grand Junction and Slickrock, Colorado were selected to review the application of riprap design methods and evaluate variable sensitivity and data requirements. Preliminary results from the Grand Junction case study indicate that the use of a safety factor in sizing the rock riprap may provide an overly conservative design that may not be justified. Some safety factor, usually a value of 1.5 to 2.0 is normally used in riprap design to allow for the uncertainties in the hydraulic calculations. The computation of the hydraulic designs variables using the probable maximum flood (PMF) event introduces conservatism into the design and the added safety factor may not be warranted. This paper presents some preliminary results from the Grand Junction site concerning the implications of using a safety factor for riprap design. 9 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  5. Water-quality study of Tulpehocken Creek, Berks County, Pennsylvania, prior to impoundment of Blue Marsh Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, James L.

    1977-01-01

    Blue Marsh Lake is planned as a multipurpose impoundment to be constructed on Tulpehocken Creek near Bernville, Berks County, Pennsylvania. Prior to construction, samples of water, bed material, and soil were collected throughout the impoundment site to determine concentrations of nutrients, insecticides, trace metals, suspended sediment, and bacteria. Analyses of water suggest the Tulpehocken Creek basin to be a highly fertile environment. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations near the proposed dam site had median values of 4.5 and 0.13 mg/L, respectively. Suspended sediment discharges average between 100 and 200 tons (90.7 to 181.4 metric tons) per day during normal flows but may exceed 10,000 tons (9,070 metric tons) per day during storm runoff. Highest yields were measured during winter and early spring. Concentrations range from 3 mg/L to more than 500 mg/L. Bed material samples contain trace quantities of aldrin, DDT, DDD, DDE, dieldrin, and chlordane. Polychlorinated biphyenyls (PCB's) ranged from 10 to 100 μg/kg. Soils at the impoundment site are of average fertility. However, the silt loam texture is ideal for attachment and growth of aquatic plants. Bacteria populations indicative of recent fecal contamination are prevalent in the major inflows to the proposed lake. Fecal Coliform exceeded the standards recommended by the Federal Water Pollution Administration Committee on Water Quality Criteria for public water supply in 29 percent of the monthly samples, and exceeded the recommended public bathing waters standard in 83 percent of the samples collected from June to September. Arsenic from an industrial waste was found in the water, suspended sediment, and bed material of Tulpehocken Creek in concentrations of 0 to 30 μg/l, 2 to 879 μg/l, and 1 to 79 μg/g, respectively. It represents a potential environmental hazard; however, the measured concentrations are less than that known to be harmful to man, fish, or wildlife, according to published water

  6. Incineration of hazardous waste: A critical review update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, C.R.; Oppelt, E.T.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, concern over improper disposal practices of the past has manifested itself in the passage of a series of federal and state-level hazardous waste cleanup and control statutes of unprecedented scope. The more traditional and lowest-cost methods of direct landfilling, storage in surface impoundments and deep-well injection are being replaced in large measure by waste minimization at the source of generation, waste reuse, physical/chemical/biological treatment, incineration and chemical stabilization/solidification methods. Of all of the 'permanent' treatment technologies, properly designed incineration systems are capable of the highest overall degree of destruction and control for the broadest range of hazardous waste streams. Substantial design and operation experience exists in this area and a wide variety of commercial systems are available. Consequently, significant growth is anticipated in the use of incineration and other thermal destruction methods. The objective of this review is to examine the current state of knowledge regarding hazardous waste incineration in an effort to put these technological and environmental issues into perspective

  7. Development of performance assessment methodology for establishment of quantitative acceptance criteria of near-surface radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C. R.; Lee, E. Y.; Park, J. W.; Chang, G. M.; Park, H. Y.; Yeom, Y. S. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    The contents and the scope of this study are as follows : review of state-of-the-art on the establishment of waste acceptance criteria in foreign near-surface radioactive waste disposal facilities, investigation of radiological assessment methodologies and scenarios, investigation of existing models and computer codes used in performance/safety assessment, development of a performance assessment methodology(draft) to derive quantitatively radionuclide acceptance criteria of domestic near-surface disposal facility, preliminary performance/safety assessment in accordance with the developed methodology.

  8. Investigation of waste biomass co-pyrolysis with petroleum sludge using a response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Zhang, Xinying; Li, Yubao

    2017-05-01

    The treatment of waste biomass (sawdust) through co-pyrolysis with refinery oily sludge was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor. Response surface method was applied to evaluate the main and interaction effects of three experimental factors (sawdust percentage in feedstock, temperature, and heating rate) on pyrolysis oil and char yields. It was found that the oil and char yields increased with sawdust percentage in feedstock. The interaction between heating rate and sawdust percentage as well as between heating rate and temperature was significant on the pyrolysis oil yield. The higher heating value of oil originated from sawdust during co-pyrolysis at a sawdust/oily sludge ratio of 3:1 increased by 5 MJ/kg as compared to that during sawdust pyrolysis alone, indicating a synergistic effect of co-pyrolysis. As a result, petroleum sludge can be used as an effective additive in the pyrolysis of waste biomass for improving its energy recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The fish community of a small impoundment in upstate New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, C. Mead; Madenjian, Charles P.; Adams, Jean V.; Harman, Willard N.

    2001-01-01

    Moe Pond is a dimictic impoundment with surface area of 15.6 ha, a mean depth of 1.8 m, and an unexploited fish community of only two species: brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas). The age-1 and older brown bullhead population was estimated to be 4,057 individuals, based on the Schnabel capture-recapture method of population estimation. Density and biomass were respectively estimated at 260 individuals/ha and 13 kg/ha. Annual survival rate of age-2 through age-5 brown bullheads was estimated at 48%. The golden shiner length-frequency distribution was unimodal with modal length of 80 mm and maximum total length of 115 m. The golden shiner population estimate was 7,154 individuals, based on seven beach seine haul replicate samples; the density and biomass were 686 shiners/ha and 5 kg/ha, respectively. This study provides an information baseline that may be useful in understanding food web interactions and whole-pond nutrient flux.

  10. Trench 'bathtubbing' and surface plutonium contamination at a legacy radioactive waste site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Timothy E; Harrison, Jennifer J; Hughes, Catherine E; Johansen, Mathew P; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry L; Cendón, Dioni I; Hankin, Stuart I; Rowling, Brett; Zawadzki, Atun

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide content of trench water and the response of the water level to rainfall to be studied. The trench water contains readily measurable Pu activity (~12 Bq/L of (239+240)Pu in 0.45 μm-filtered water), and there is an associated contamination of Pu in surface soils. The highest (239+240)Pu soil activity was 829 Bq/kg in a shallow sample (0-1 cm depth) near the trench sampling point. Away from the trenches, the elevated concentrations of Pu in surface soils extend for tens of meters down-slope. The broader contamination may be partly attributable to dispersion events in the first decade after disposal, after which a layer of soil was added above the trenched area. Since this time, further Pu contamination has occurred near the trench-sampler within this added layer. The water level in the trench-sampler responds quickly to rainfall and intermittently reaches the surface, hence the Pu dispersion is attributed to saturation and overflow of the trenches during extreme rainfall events, referred to as the 'bathtub' effect.

  11. Trench ‘Bathtubbing’ and Surface Plutonium Contamination at a Legacy Radioactive Waste Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide content of trench water and the response of the water level to rainfall to be studied. The trench water contains readily measurable Pu activity (∼12 Bq/L of 239+240Pu in 0.45 μm-filtered water), and there is an associated contamination of Pu in surface soils. The highest 239+240Pu soil activity was 829 Bq/kg in a shallow sample (0–1 cm depth) near the trench sampling point. Away from the trenches, the elevated concentrations of Pu in surface soils extend for tens of meters down-slope. The broader contamination may be partly attributable to dispersion events in the first decade after disposal, after which a layer of soil was added above the trenched area. Since this time, further Pu contamination has occurred near the trench-sampler within this added layer. The water level in the trench-sampler responds quickly to rainfall and intermittently reaches the surface, hence the Pu dispersion is attributed to saturation and overflow of the trenches during extreme rainfall events, referred to as the ‘bathtub’ effect. PMID:24256473

  12. Surface complexation modeling of uranyl adsorption on corrensite from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang-Won; Leckie, J.O. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Siegel, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Corrensite is the dominant clay mineral in the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The surface characteristics of corrensite, a mixed chlorite/smectite clay mineral, have been studied. Zeta potential measurements and titration experiments suggest that the corrensite surface contains a mixture of permanent charge sites on the basal plane and SiOH and AlOH sites with a net pH-dependent charge at the edge of the clay platelets. Triple-layer model parameters were determined by the double extrapolation technique for use in chemical speciation calculations of adsorption reactions using the computer program HYDRAQL. Batch adsorption studies showed that corrensite is an effective adsorbent for uranyl. The pH-dependent adsorption behavior indicates that adsorption occurs at the edge sites. Adsorption studies were also conducted in the presence of competing cations and complexing ligands. The cations did not affect uranyl adsorption in the range studied. This observation lends support to the hypothesis that uranyl adsorption occurs at the edge sites. Uranyl adsorption was significantly hindered by carbonate. It is proposed that the formation of carbonate uranyl complexes inhibits uranyl adsorption and that only the carbonate-free species adsorb to the corrensite surface. The presence of the organic complexing agents EDTA and oxine also inhibits uranyl sorption.

  13. Surface complexation modeling of uranyl adsorption on corrensite from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang-Won; Leckie, J.O.; Siegel, M.D.

    1995-09-01

    Corrensite is the dominant clay mineral in the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The surface characteristics of corrensite, a mixed chlorite/smectite clay mineral, have been studied. Zeta potential measurements and titration experiments suggest that the corrensite surface contains a mixture of permanent charge sites on the basal plane and SiOH and AlOH sites with a net pH-dependent charge at the edge of the clay platelets. Triple-layer model parameters were determined by the double extrapolation technique for use in chemical speciation calculations of adsorption reactions using the computer program HYDRAQL. Batch adsorption studies showed that corrensite is an effective adsorbent for uranyl. The pH-dependent adsorption behavior indicates that adsorption occurs at the edge sites. Adsorption studies were also conducted in the presence of competing cations and complexing ligands. The cations did not affect uranyl adsorption in the range studied. This observation lends support to the hypothesis that uranyl adsorption occurs at the edge sites. Uranyl adsorption was significantly hindered by carbonate. It is proposed that the formation of carbonate uranyl complexes inhibits uranyl adsorption and that only the carbonate-free species adsorb to the corrensite surface. The presence of the organic complexing agents EDTA and oxine also inhibits uranyl sorption

  14. Formation of filtration fields close to near-surface radioactive waste storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mart'yanov, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    Data on the formation of filtration fields in the location of near-surface radioactive waste storages for the conditions of uniformly isotropic properties of bearing strata are demonstrated. The possibility for changing parameters of mean-caused ground flow depending on water permeability of the storages and their dimensions in plan is noted. Comparison of different filtration fields permits to determine a state of its isolating properties. Assessment criteria of the storage engineering barriers integrity are given. Conditions for uniformly isotropic properties of bearing strata by three scenarios, when engineering barriers of the storage are waterproof, distracted or lost protective properties in full, have been determined. Changing filtration field, geochemical and radiochemical situations in bearing strata are noted to represent one of basic characteristics of the integrity of the storage [ru

  15. Conceptual model to determine maximum activity of radioactive waste in near-surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iarmosh, I.; Olkhovyk, Yu.

    2016-01-01

    For development of the management strategy for radioactive waste to be placed in near - surface disposal facilities (NSDF), it is necessary to justify long - term safety of such facilities. Use of mathematical modelling methods for long - term forecasts of radwaste radiation impact and assessment of radiation risks from radionuclides migration can help to resolve this issue. The purpose of the research was to develop the conceptual model for determining the maximum activity of radwaste to be safely disposed in the NSDF and to test it in the case of Lot 3 Vector NSDF (Chornobyl exclusion zone). This paper describes an approach to the development of such a model. The conceptual model of "9"0 Sr migration from Lot 3 through aeration zone and aquifer soils was developed. The results of modelling are shown. The proposals on further steps for the model improvement were developed

  16. Enhanced Production of Cellulase from Pineapple Waste by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Saravanan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the media components for cellulase production using Trichoderma reesei was carried out. The optimization of cellulase production using pineapple waste as substrate was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of nutrients and their influence on the cellulase production was studied using a Plackett-Burman design. Avicel, soybean cake flour, KH2PO4, and yeast extract were found to have the positive influence for the production of cellulase. The selected components were optimized using response surface methodology. The optimum concentrations are avicel: 26.5 g/L, soybean cake flour: 22.5 g/L, KH2PO4: 4.5 g/L, and yeast extract: 12.3 g/L. A maximum cellulase activity of 8.61 IU/mL was obtained under the optimized medium in the validation experiment.

  17. The dispersal and impact of salt from surface storage piles the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, C.C.; Louderbough, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive program of ecological studies occurs at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in an effort to detect and quantify impacts of excavated salt which is stored on the surface in two piles: one having originated in 1980, the other in 1984. Both piles are surrounded by berms which channel runoff to holding ponds, so nearly all dispersal is due to the resuspension, transport, and deposition of salt particles by wind. Ecological parameters which have been monitored since 1984 include: visual evidence (via photography), soil properties, microbial activity, leaf-litter decomposition, seedling emergence, plant foliar cover, and plant species diversity. These are periodically assessed at experimental plots near the salt piles, and at control plots several kilometers away

  18. Use of artificial barriers in a site for surface storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gros, J.C.; Madoz-Escande, C.; Metivier, J.M.; Grimaud, P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is the on site study of the influence of an injection screen on the flow in a water table of a porous medium, in order to improve the safety of a surface radioactive waste storage site. A hydrodispersive study has provided information for the definition of the role of the screen: the transfer times of the pollutant in the water table are increased by a factor of 2 and, in comparison, the concentration are clearly reduced by a factor of 10. The implantation of an injection screen in the ground should result in an improvement in the restrictive quality of the barrier and the contamination of an aquifer should be slower without interruption to the flow

  19. Scientific and technical basis for the near surface disposal of low and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the scientific and technical basis for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste in near surface repositories. The focus is on basic principles, approaches, methodologies and technical criteria that can be used to develop and assess the performance of a disposal facility, and for building confidence in repository safety. This includes consideration of the multiple barrier concept, the performance of engineered barriers, the role of natural barriers and the development of a safety case. The emphasis is on defining the conditions relevant to the containment of the radionuclides in the repository and the processes that may affect the integrity of the engineered barriers. Both generic and specific data requirements for repository development and the assurance of safety are addressed. A large number of bibliographical references are given to support the information provided in this report

  20. Egg shell waste as heterogeneous nanocatalyst for biodiesel production: Optimized by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Priti R; Fulekar, M H

    2017-08-01

    Worldwide consumption of hen eggs results in availability of large amount of discarded egg waste particularly egg shells. In the present study, the waste shells were utilized for the synthesis of highly active heterogeneous calcium oxide (CaO) nanocatalyst to transesterify dry biomass into methyl esters (biodiesel). The CaO nanocatalyst was synthesied by calcination-hydration-dehydration technique and fully characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), brunauer-emmett-teller (BET) elemental and thermogravimetric analysis. TEM image showed that the nano catalyst had spherical shape with average particle size of 75 nm. BET analysis indicated that the catalyst specific surface area was 16.4 m 2  g -1 with average pore diameter of 5.07 nm. The effect of nano CaO catalyst was investigated by direct transesterification of dry biomass into biodiesel along with other reaction parameters such as catalyst ratio, reaction time and stirring rate. The impact of the transesterification reaction parameters and microalgal biodiesel yield were analyzed by response surface methodology based on a full factorial, central composite design. The significance of the predicted mode was verified and 86.41% microalgal biodiesel yield was reported at optimal parameter conditions 1.7% (w/w), catalyst ratio, 3.6 h reaction time and stirring rate of 140.6 rpm. The biodiesel conversion was determined by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The fuel properties of prepared biodiesel were found to be highly comply with the biodiesel standard ASTMD6751 and EN14214. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Definition of intrusion scenarios and example concentration ranges for the disposal of near-surface waste at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberg, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1990-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of conducting performance assessments of its radioactive waste sites and disposal systems to ensure that public health and safety are protected, the environment is preserved, and that no remedial actions after disposal are required. Hanford Site low-level waste performance assessments are technical evaluations of waste sites or disposal systems that provide a basis for making decisions using established criteria. The purpose of this document is to provide a family of scenarios to be considered when calculating radionuclide exposure to individuals who may inadvertently intrude into near-surface waste disposal sites. Specific performance assessments will use modifications of the general scenarios described here to include additional site/system details concerning the engineering design, waste form, inventory, and environmental setting. This document also describes and example application of the Hanford-specific scenarios in the development of example concentration ranges for the disposal of near-surface wastes. The overall goal of the example calculations is to illustrate the application of the scenarios in a performance assessment to assure that people in the future cannot receive a dose greater than an established limit. 24 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  2. The hydrogeochemistry of four inactive tailings impoundments: Perspectives on tailings pore-water evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowes, D.W.; Cherry, J.A.; Reardon, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive hydrogeochemical investigations are currently underway at three inactive tailings impoundments in Canada. These programs include detailed measurements of pore-water and gas-phase geochemistry through the vadose zone and the groundwater zone. An extensive piezometer network has been installed at each location to monitor the groundwater flow regime. All of the impoundments studied have been inactive for 15 to 25 years, sufficient time for extensive tailings pore-water evolution. The study areas include a very high-sulfide impoundment, a low-sulfide, high-carbonate impoundment, a low-sulfide, very low-carbonate impoundment, and a moderately high-sulfide impoundment. The pore water at each of the sites has evolved in a distinctly different and characteristic manner, representing broad styles of tailings pore-water evolution. At the high sulfide impoundment the oxidation of sulfide minerals has resulted in low pH, high redox potential conditions, with Fe 2+ concentrations in excess of 60,000 mg/L. At a depth of about 40 cm a 10 cm thick layer of ferrous and calcium sulfate minerals has precipitated. This hardpan layer limits the downward movement of O 2 and infiltrating pore waters. As a result, the pore water chemistry, both above and below the hardpan layer, has remained relatively unchanged over the past 10 years. The low-sulfide, high-carbonate tailings are sufficiently well buffered that no low pH conditions are present. The high pH conditions limit the concentrations of the metals released by sulfide mineral oxidation to levels that are two or three orders of magnitude less than is observed at the high-sulfide site. Pore waters at the low-sulfide, low-carbonate site were sampled by other researchers from the University of Waterloo

  3. Quality assurance program for environmental assessment of Savannah River Plant waste sites: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.; King, C.M.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1987-03-01

    Forty-eight locations were identified that received a variety of radioactive and nonradioactive constituents during the past 35 years including surface impoundments and shallow land burial facilities. Detailed environmental assessments of existing waste disposal areas, as well as new waste disposal techniques and disposition of tritiated water, were completed to air in an evaluation of the low level, mixed and hazardous waste management activities. These assessments result in estimation of risk, or residual risk, posed by each disposal area to various receptors as a function of waste management alternative. For example, at existing waste sites, the closure actions evaluated were waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action; several pathways/receptors were considered, including groundwater to river, groundwater to well, atmospheric transport, occupational exposure, direct exposure, and contamination followed by ingestion of crops and meat. Modeling of chemical transport in a variety of media was an integral part of the assessment process. The quality of the models used and the application of these models were assured by an explicit quality assurance program

  4. Purifying waste waters in the surface treatment industry; Depuracion de las aguas residuales en la industria de tratamiento de superficies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queralt Torrell, R.; Martinez Hidalgo, E. [Generalitat de Catalunya. Barcelona (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    The electrolytic coating industry in Spain comprises some 2,000 firms whose waste waters are highly problematic, mainly due to the presence of heavy metals and cyanides. This article sets out series of internal measures for conserving the baths, reducing entrainment and optimising washes, thereby minimising the volume and concentration of the waste waters. It also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the different chemical reagents employed in the physicochemical treatment of waste waters during the oxidation/reduction and metal precipitation processes. In addition, it mentions other techniques such as the use of ion exchange resins, membranes and electro-coagulation, which are becoming increasingly widespread. Finally, it offers a summary report on 11 waste water treatment facilities installed in different surface treatment factories. (Author) 21 refs.

  5. The role of cassiterite controlling arsenic mobility in an abandoned stanniferous tailings impoundment at Llallagua, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Francisco Martín; Canet, Carles; Alfonso, Pura; Zambrana, Rubén N; Soto, Nayelli

    2014-05-15

    The surface water contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTE) leached from mine tailings is a major environmental concern. However, the formation of insoluble solid phases can control the mobility of PTE, with subsequent decrease of the risk that tailings suppose to the environment. We characterized the tailings from a tin inactive mine in Llallagua, Bolivia in order to assess the risk for surface water quality. These tailings contain high concentrations of PTE, with up to 94,344 mg/kg Fe, 9,135 mg/kg Sn, 4,606 mg/kg As, 1,362 mg/kg Cu, 1,220 mg/kg Zn, 955 mg/kg Pb and 151 mg/kg Cd. Oxidation of sulfide minerals in these tailings generates acid leachates (pH=2.5-3.5), rich in SO4(2-) and dissolved PTE, thereby releasing contaminants to the surface waters. Nevertheless, the concentrations of dissolved Sn, As and Pb in acid leachates are low (Sntailing deposits; it should be the main solid phase controlling Sn and As mobility in the impoundment. Additionally, jarosite and plumbojarosite, identified among the secondary minerals, could also play an important role controlling the mobility of As and Pb. Taking into account (a) the low solubility constants of cassiterite (Ksp=10(-64.2)), jarosite (Ksp=10(-11)) and plumbojarosite (Ksp=10(-28.66)), and (b) the stability of these minerals under acidic conditions, we can conclude that they control the long-term fate of Sn, As and Pb in the studied tailings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimation of mean time to failure of a near surface radioactive waste repository for PWR power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Lais A. de; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F.; Alvim, Antonio C.M.

    2007-01-01

    This work aims at estimating the mean time to failure (MTTF) of each barrier of a near surface radioactive waste repository. It is assumed that surface water infiltrates through the barriers, reaching the matrix where radionuclides are contained, releasing them to the environment. Radioactive wastes considered in this work are low and medium level wastes (produced during operation of a PWR nuclear power station) fixed on cement. The repository consists of 6 saturated porous media barriers (top cover, upper layer, packages, basis, repository walls and geosphere). It has been verified that the mean time to failure (MTTF) of each barrier increases for radionuclides having higher retardation factor (Fr) and also that the MTTF for concrete is larger for Nickel , while for the geosphere, Plutonium gives the largest MTTF. (author)

  7. Surface erosion and hydrology of earth covers used in shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bent, G.C.

    1988-01-01

    Shallow land burial is the current method of disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the United States. The most serious technical problems encountered in shallow land burial are water-related. Water is reported to come into contact with the waste by erosion of earth covers or through infiltration of precipitation through the earth covers. The objectives of this study were to: compare and evaluate the effects of crested wheatgrass and streambank wheatgrass on surface erosion of simulated earth covers at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), characterize the surface hydrology, and estimate cumulative soil loss for average and extreme rainfall events and determine if the waste will become exposed during its burial life due to erosion. 30 refs., 26 figs., 21 tabs

  8. Developments in the management of radioactive waste from the mining and milling of radioactive ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawley, H.

    1990-01-01

    The philosophy of a waste management system is discussed. The origins of the various wastes from the mining and milling processes are outlined and the development of a waste management program described. The technical aspects of a waste management plan, namely water management systems, waste rock and ore stockpile management, tailings impoundment and decommissioning and rehabilitation are discussed in detail. 12 refs., 4 tabs, 15 figs

  9. The impact of impoundment on the rotifer communities in two tropical floodplain environments: interannual pulse variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC. Bonecker

    Full Text Available Hydrological pulses are the main factor regulating the structure of biological communities in floodplains. Reservoirs above this ecosystem change the environment's dynamics and the community's biodiversity. This study evaluated the structure and stability of the rotifer community in response to changes in hydrological pulses after the Porto Primavera impoundment in the Upper Paraná River floodplain. The community was studied in a river and in a floodplain lake downstream of the dam over a four-year period before and after the impoundment. A decrease in species richness and abundance was observed soon after the impoundment, followed by an increase in these attributes and in specific diversity when the hydrometric level of the Paraná River rose and, consequently, increased the connectivity between the floodplain environments. Conochilus coenobasis, Filinia longiseta, Keratella cochlearis, Lecane proiecta and Polyarthra dolichoptera persisted throughout the study and contributed to community stability (the maintenance of rank in species abundance over time, which was high in the floodplain lake, mainly after the impoundment. Reductions in the frequency, intensity and amplitude of potamophase pulses after the impoundment led to the decrease in species richness and the increases in abundance, community stability, and species diversity, which determine community resilience.

  10. Surface displacements and pillar stresses associated with nuclear waste disposal in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, M.P.; St John, C.M.

    1977-01-01

    A numerical model for regional analysis of stresses and displacement, resulting from heat generating waste placement in underground salt excavations, is presented. The model, which is an extension of that described by McClain and Starfield (1971), is based upon the displacement discontinuity method of stress analysis. It incorporates an empirical characterization of creep behavior of material on the excavation horizon and accounts for thermally induced stresses and displacements. The versatility of this approach is illustrated by the results of three relatively short simulations of test scale disposal facilities at shallow and greater depths. In addition, a three-dimensional code was used to evaluate the surface displacement history for a full-scale repository. This latter code, a thermoelastic analysis, gives an upper bound for the surface movements. It is concluded that the pillar stresses are the result of a complex non-linear interaction of many variables, and the maximum pillar stress can reach several multiples of the tributory-area pillar stress

  11. Development of a methodology for the safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, I.; Cancio, D.; Alonso, L.F.; Agueero, A.; Lopez de la Higuera, J.; Gil, E.; Garcia, E.

    2000-01-01

    The Project on the Environmental Radiological Impact in CIEMAT is developing, for the Spanish regulatory body Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), a methodology for the Safety Assessment of near surface disposal facilities. This method has been developed incorporating some elements developed through the participation in the IAEA's ISAM Programme (Improving Long Term Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities). The first step of the approach is the consideration of the assessment context, including the purpose of the assessment, the end-Points, philosophy, disposal system, source term and temporal scales as well as the hypothesis about the critical group. Once the context has been established, and considering the peculiarities of the system, an specific list of features, events and processes (FEPs) is produced. These will be incorporated into the assessment scenarios. The set of scenarios will be represented in the conceptual and mathematical models. By the use of mathematical codes, calculations are performed to obtain results (i.e. in terms of doses) to be analysed and compared against the criteria. The methodology is being tested by the application to an hypothetical engineered disposal system based on an exercise within the ISAM Programme, and will finally be applied to the Spanish case. (author)

  12. Seismic surface-wave tomography of waste sites. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    'The objective of the Seismic Surface Wave Tomography of Waste Sites is to develop a robust technique for field acquisition and analysis of surface wave data for the interpretation of shallow structures, such as those associated with the burial of wastes. The analysis technique is to be developed and tested on an existing set of seismic data covering the K-901 burial site at the East Tennessee Technology Park. Also, a portable prototype for a field acquisition system will be designed and developed to obtain additional data for analysis and testing of the technique. The portable analysis system will display an image representing the shear-wave velocity structure. The image would be developed in the field from successive data samples. As of May 1998, the author established compatibility with computer programs at Georgia Tech and computed a preliminary singular value decomposition solution for the K-901 data. The analysis included modeling of surface wave dispersion and analysis of velocity structure. The analysis demonstrated that the authors needed additional field data to verify the conclusions and provide independent confirmation of velocity structure. The K-901 site data were obtained with 8 Hz geophones. The frequencies below 8 Hz are strongly attenuated in such recording instruments and are difficult to analyze. In particular, group velocities can have multiple answers for a given frequency. Consequently, without a record of the low-frequency energy, the authors found it difficult to identify the portion of the dispersion curve responsible for the seismogram. In particular, it was difficult to determine if the reverse dispersion observed in the frequencies above 8 Hz was caused by a low velocity layer or caused by observing only the frequencies above the group velocity minimum. In either model, synthetic seismograms can be made to match the observed data for the higher frequencies. The contract for the proposed work was completed in December. The field work was

  13. Radionuclide transport from near-surface repository for radioactive waste - The unsaturated zone approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakimaviciute-Maseliene, V. [Vilnius University (Lithuania); Mazeika, J. [Nature Research Centre (Lithuania); Motiejunas, S. [Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Lithuania)

    2014-07-01

    About 100 000 m{sup 3} of solid conditioned Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW), generated during operation and decommissioning of the Ignalina nuclear power plant (INPP), are to be disposed of in a near-surface repository (NSR) - a 'hill'-type repository with reinforced concrete vaults and with engineered and natural barriers. The northeastern Lithuania and the environment of the INPP in particular were recognized as the areas most suitable for a near-surface repository (Stabatiske Site). The engineered barriers of the repository consist of concrete cells surrounded by clay-based material of low permeability with about the same isolating capacity in all directions. The clay materials must be effectively compactable so that required hydraulic conductivity is reached. The Lithuanian Triassic clay turned out to be sufficiently rich in smectites and was proposed as main candidate for sealing of the repository. When the concrete vaults are filled, the repository cover will be constructed. The surface of the mound will be planted with grass. In this study a computer code FEFLOW 5.0 was applied for simulating the transport of the most mobile radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 94}Nb) with moisture through an unsaturated vault of the near-surface repository in Stabatiske Site. The HYDRUS-1D analysis was used to assess the radionuclide transport in the repository and to estimate initial activity concentrations of radionuclides transported from the cemented waste matrix. Radionuclide release from the vault in the unsaturated conditions after closure of the repository and consequent contaminant plume transport has been assessed taking into account site-specific natural and engineering conditions and based on a normal evolution scenario. The highest peak radionuclide activity concentrations were estimated applying the FEFLOW code. The highest value of {sup 14}C activity concentration(about 1.3x10{sup 8} Bq/m{sup 3}) at the groundwater table

  14. Coal waste management practices in the USA:an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoginder P. Chugh; Paul T. Behum

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of coal waste management practices with two case studies and an estimate of management cost in 2010 US dollars. Processing of as-mined coal typically results in considerable amount of coarse and fine coal processing wastes because of in-seam and out-of-seam dilution mining. Processing plant clean coal recovery values run typically 50%–80%. Trace metals and sulfur may be present in waste materials that may result in leachate water with corrosive charac-teristics. Water discharges may require special measures such as liner and collection systems, and treatment to neutralize acid drainage and/or water quality for trace elements. The potential for variations in coal waste production and quality depends upon mining or processing, plus the long-term methods of waste placement. The changes in waste generation rates and engineering properties of the coal waste during the life of the facility must be considered. Safe, economical and environmentally acceptable management of coal waste involves consideration of geology, soil and rock mechanics, hydrology, hydraulics, geochemistry, soil science, agronomy and environmental sciences. These support all aspects of the regulatory environment including the design and construction of earth and rock embankments and dams, as well as a wide variety of waste disposal structures. Development of impoundments is critical and require considerations of typical water-impounding dams and additional requirements of coal waste disposal impoundments. The primary purpose of a coal waste disposal facility is to dispose of unusable waste materials from mining. However, at some sites coal waste impoundments serve to provide water storage capacity for processing and flood attenuation.

  15. The surface water submodel for the assessment of Canada's nuclear fuel waste management concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, G.A.; Stephenson, M.; Cornett, R.J.

    1992-12-01

    A requirement in assessing the safety of Canada's nuclear fuel waste management concept is the prediction of radiological doses to humans and other biota, which may occur far in the future as a result of releases of nuclides to the biosphere. A biosphere model has been developed, consisting of four integrated submodels describing surface water, soil, atmosphere, and food-dose components. This report documents the surface water submodel, which is a simple, generic mass balance model of a Canadian Shield lake. Nuclide input to the lake is the time-dependent mass output from the geosphere model. Nuclides enter the lake from compacted sediments. The surface water submodel calculates nuclide concentrations in lake water and sediment. These concentrations are used in the other biosphere submodels to predict the radiological dose to biota. Selection of parameter values for the model is based on the literature, our own data, and conservative assumptions to ensure that doses are not underestimated. MOst parameters are represented by log normal. This probabilistic approach of using distributed parameter values accounts for variability and uncertainty in parameter values, and short-term environmental fluctuations. Long-term environmental changes, such as glaciation, are not considered in the model. Sensitivity analysis indicates that nuclide concentrations in lake water and sediment are governed primarily by hydrological flushing, with lake catchment area being the most important parameter. When catchment area is held constant, as would occur at a specific site, lake area and nuclide transfer rate from water to sediment strongly influence concentrations in both water and sediment. Sediment accumulation rate also strongly influences sediment nuclide concentrations. Validation of model predictions using published studies and other data demonstrates that our model is realistic and suitable for assessing Canada's disposal concept. (Author)

  16. Safety assessment on the human intrusion scenarios of near surface disposal facility for low and very low level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Wook; Park, Jin Baek [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Ho [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The second-stage near surface disposal facility for low and very low level radioactive waste's permanent disposal is to be built. During the institutional control period, the inadvertent intrusion of the general public is limited. But after the institutional control period, the access to the general public is not restricted. Therefore human who has purpose of residence and resource exploration can intrude the disposal facility. In this case, radioactive effects to the intruder should be limited within regulatory dose limits. This study conducted the safety assessment of human intrusion on the second-stage surface disposal facility through drilling and post drilling scenario. Results of drilling and post drilling scenario were satisfied with regulatory dose limits. The result showed that post-drilling scenario was more significant than drilling scenario. According to the human intrusion time and behavior after the closure of the facility, dominant radionuclide contributing to the intruder was different. Sensitivity analyses on the parameters about the human behavior were also satisfied with regulatory dose limits. Especially, manual redistribution factor was the most sensitive parameter on exposure dose. A loading plan of spent filter waste and dry active waste was more effective than a loading plan of spent filter waste and other wastes for the radiological point of view. These results can be expected to provide both robustness and defense in depth for the development of safety case further.

  17. Design and operational considerations of United States commercial near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk, S.M.

    1997-10-01

    In accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, states are responsible for providing for disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) within their borders. LLW in the US is defined as all radioactive waste that is not classified as spent nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or by-product material resulting from the extraction of uranium from ore. Commercial waste includes LLW generated by hospitals, universities, industry, pharmaceutical companies, and power utilities. LLW generated by the country''s defense operations is the responsibility of the Federal government and its agency, the Department of Energy. The commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed in this report are located near: Sheffield, Illinois (closed); Maxey Flats, Kentucky (closed); Beatty, Nevada (closed); West Valley, New York (closed); Barnwell, South Carolina (operating); Richland, Washington (operating); Ward Valley, California, (proposed); Sierra Blanca, Texas (proposed); Wake County, North Carolina (proposed); and Boyd County, Nebraska (proposed). While some comparisons between the sites described in this report are appropriate, this must be done with caution. In addition to differences in climate and geology between sites, LLW facilities in the past were not designed and operated to today''s standards. This report summarizes each site''s design and operational considerations for near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The report includes: a description of waste characteristics; design and operational features; post closure measures and plans; cost and duration of site characterization, construction, and operation; recent related R and D activities for LLW treatment and disposal; and the status of the LLW system in the US

  18. Diet and trophic structure of the fish fauna in a subtropical ecosystem: impoundment effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilene Luciana Delariva

    Full Text Available This study examined the diet and trophic structure of the fish fauna, over temporal and spatial scales, as affected by the impoundment of the Iguaçu River in the region of Salto Caxias, Paraná State, Brazil. Sampling was conducted before (March 1997 - February 1998 and after the impoundment (March 1999 - February 2000, at four sampling sites. The stomach contents were analyzed by the volumetric method. The species could be organized in 10 trophic guilds: algivores, carcinophages, detritivores, herbivores, aquatic insectivores, terrestrial insectivores, invertivores, omnivores, piscivores, and planktivores; the first and last guilds were represented only in the post-impoundment period. Similarity patterns and feeding changes were summarized by a non-metric Multi-dimensional Scaling (nMDS analysis and statistically tested by a Permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA. Most species showed feeding changes, except for the piscivores and detritivores. These changes were related to the temporal factor (impoundment phases, such as reduced intake of benthic organisms and allochthonous food, which were usually replaced by resources from the reservoir itself (algae, microcrustaceans, and fish, simplifying the food spectrum of the fish fauna. A different indicator of food resources (IndVal corroborated these changes in the feeding of the species. The proportions of the trophic guilds evaluated based on the catch per unit of effort (CPUE and tested by ANOSIM were significantly different before and after the impoundment. Herbivores and piscivores were the guilds that contributed (SIMPER to these differences, especially the high increase in biomass of the piscivore guild after the impoundment. Variations in the abundance of trophic guilds were more directly related to changes in the feeding habits of the fish fauna than to increases in the number and biomass of the species that constitute these guilds.

  19. A summary of the sources of input parameter values for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant final porosity surface calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, B.M.

    1997-08-01

    A summary of the input parameter values used in final predictions of closure and waste densification in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal room is presented, along with supporting references. These predictions are referred to as the final porosity surface data and will be used for WIPP performance calculations supporting the Compliance Certification Application to be submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The report includes tables and list all of the input parameter values, references citing their source, and in some cases references to more complete descriptions of considerations leading to the selection of values

  20. A summary of the sources of input parameter values for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant final porosity surface calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, B.M.

    1997-08-01

    A summary of the input parameter values used in final predictions of closure and waste densification in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal room is presented, along with supporting references. These predictions are referred to as the final porosity surface data and will be used for WIPP performance calculations supporting the Compliance Certification Application to be submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The report includes tables and list all of the input parameter values, references citing their source, and in some cases references to more complete descriptions of considerations leading to the selection of values.

  1. Design and operational considerations of United States commercial nea-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk, Sandra M.

    1997-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste disposal standards and techniques in the United States have evolved significantly since the early 1960's. Six commercial LLW disposal facilities(Barnwell, Richland, Ward Valley, Sierra Blanca, Wake County and Boyd County) operated and proposed between 1962 and 1997. This report summarizes each site's design and operational considerations for near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste. These new standards and mitigating efforts at closed facilities (Sheffield, Maxey Flats, Beatty and West Valley) have helped to ensure that the public has been safely protected from LLW. 15 refs

  2. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Harrington, E.S.; Mattus, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now known as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) closed two mixed-waste surface impoundments by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage included delisting the stabilized sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as Class 1 radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, ∼46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and ∼32,000 barrels of unprocessed sludge are stored. The abandoned treatment facility still contains ∼16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such storage of mixed waste does not comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) guidelines. This paper describes actions that are under way to bring the storage of ∼78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. Remediation of this problem by treatment to meet regulatory requirements is the focus of the discussion. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Preliminary safety evaluation of an aircraft impact on a near-surface radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Frano, R.; Forasassi, G.; Pugliese, G. [Department of Industrial and Civil Engineering (DICI), University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    The aircraft impact accident has become very significant in the design of a nuclear facilities, particularly, after the tragic September 2001 event, that raised the public concern about the potential damaging effects that the impact of a large civilian airplane could bring in safety relevant structures. The aim of this study is therefore to preliminarily evaluate the global response and the structural effects induced by the impact of a military or commercial airplane (actually considered as a 'beyond design basis' event) into a near surface radioactive waste (RWs) disposal facility. The safety evaluation was carried out according to the International safety and design guidelines and in agreement with the stress tests requirements for the security track. To achieve the purpose, a lay out and a scheme of a possible near surface repository, like for example those of the El Cabril one, were taken into account. In order to preliminarily perform a reliable analysis of such a large-scale structure and to determine the structural effects induced by such a types of impulsive loads, a realistic, but still operable, numerical model with suitable materials characteristics was implemented by means of FEM codes. In the carried out structural analyses, the RWs repository was considered a 'robust' target, due to its thicker walls and main constitutive materials (steel and reinforced concrete). In addition to adequately represent the dynamic response of repository under crashing, relevant physical phenomena (i.e. penetration, spalling, etc.) were simulated and analysed. The preliminary assessment of the effects induced by the dynamic/impulsive loads allowed generally to verify the residual strength capability of the repository considered. The obtained preliminary results highlighted a remarkable potential to withstand the impact of military/large commercial aircraft, even in presence of ongoing concrete progressive failure (some penetration and spalling of the

  4. Investigation of siting parameters for near surface disposal of low-level nuclear waste. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, W.R.; Sanchez, A.L.; Thomas, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    A study was initiated in April 1984 to evaluate actual problems associated with and to recommend improvements for near surface disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in the State of Pennsylvania and the humid Northeast. The results of field measurements showed some vertical transport of 137 Cs and other fallout radionuclides in 210 Pb dated peat cores from the unsaturated zone. Under the natural acid rain conditions (pH 4.0), the most mobile radionuclide, 137 Cs, gave diffusion coefficients of 10 -7 to 10 -9 cm 2 /sec in the different organic rich soils. Both the upward and downward migration of radionuclides resulted from the hydrological cycle of evapotranspiration and precipitation which gave diffusive mixing of mobile radionuclides. The distribution coefficient, K/sub d/ values, for several radionuclides in the organic rich soils were found to be equal to or greater than those measured previously for inorganic clay and sediment matrices. To insure that radionuclides do not enter water supplies in the humid Northeast where pH 4.0 rain is encountered, a peat liner should be considered in the multibarrier design of repositories. 32 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs

  5. Microencapsulation of Theobroma cacao L. waste extract: optimization using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay Alves, Taís Vanessa; Silva da Costa, Russany; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Casazza, Alessandro Alberto; Perego, Patrizia; Carréra Silva Júnior, José Otávio; Ribeiro Costa, Roseane Maria; Converti, Attilio

    2017-03-01

    The cocoa extract (Theobroma cacao L.) has a significant amount of polyphenols (TP) with potent antioxidant activity (AA). This study aims to optimise microencapsulation of the extract of cocoa waste using chitosan and maltodextrin. Microencapsulation tests were performed according to a Box-Behnken factorial design, and the results were evaluated by response surface methodology with temperature, maltodextrin concentration (MD) and extract flowrate (EF) as independent variables, and the fraction of encapsulated TP, TP encapsulation yield, AA, yield of drying and solubility index as responses. The optimum conditions were: inlet temperature of 170 °C, MD of 5% and EF of 2.5 mL/min. HPLC analysis identified epicatechin as the major component of both the extract and microparticles. TP release was faster at pH 3.5 than in water. These results as a whole suggest that microencapsulation was successful and the final product can be used as a nutrient source for aquatic animal feed. Highlights Microencapsulation is optimised according to a factorial design of the Box-Behnken type. Epicatechin is the major component of both the extract and microcapsules. The release of polyphenols from microcapsules is faster at pH 3.5 than in water.

  6. Optimisation of gelatin extraction from Unicorn leatherjacket (Aluterus monoceros) skin waste: response surface approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanjabam, Mandakini Devi; Kannaiyan, Sathish Kumar; Kamei, Gaihiamngam; Jakhar, Jitender Kumar; Chouksey, Mithlesh Kumar; Gudipati, Venkateshwarlu

    2015-02-01

    Physical properties of gelatin extracted from Unicorn leatherjacket (Aluterus monoceros) skin, which is generated as a waste from fish processing industries, were optimised using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A Box-Behnken design was used to study the combined effects of three independent variables, namely phosphoric acid (H3PO4) concentration (0.15-0.25 M), extraction temperature (40-50 °C) and extraction time (4-12 h) on different responses like yield, gel strength and melting point of gelatin. The optimum conditions derived by RSM for the yield (10.58%) were 0.2 M H3PO4 for 9.01 h of extraction time and hot water extraction of 45.83 °C. The maximum achieved gel strength and melting point was 138.54 g and 22.61 °C respectively. Extraction time was found to be most influencing variable and had a positive coefficient on yield and negative coefficient on gel strength and melting point. The results indicated that Unicorn leatherjacket skins can be a source of gelatin having mild gel strength and melting point.

  7. Application to cleaning of waste plastic surfaces using atmospheric non-thermal plasma jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araya, Masayuki [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Yuji, Toshifumi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)]. E-mail: t-yuji@hiroshima-cmt.ac.jp; Watanabe, Takayuki [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Kashihara, Junzou [SHARP corporation, 1-9-2 Nakase, Mihama-Ku, Chiba 261-8520 (Japan); Sumida, Yoshitake [SHARP corporation, 2613-1 Ichinomoto-cho, Tenri 632-8567 (Japan)

    2007-03-12

    The removal of paint on the surface of waste plastics is difficult by the conventional process; in this research, a new cleaning mechanism using atmospheric plasmas was examined through optical emission spectroscopy, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicate that an increase of pulse frequency enables for a short processing time for the removal of the paint film, signifying that the production of radicals in plasma, especially oxygen radicals, can be controlled by pulse frequency. Plasma jets were generated under the experimental conditions of an input power of 250 W to 400 W, a pulse frequency of 2 kHz to 12 kHz, and a plasma gas flow rate of 30 L/min. Examination of the intensity ratio of the reactive species, as measured by emission spectroscopy, showed that the O/N value increased with an increase in pulse frequency. Results of analysis with electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis show that nitrogen atoms and molybdenum in only the paint film decreased through plasma processing.

  8. Application to cleaning of waste plastic surfaces using atmospheric non-thermal plasma jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araya, Masayuki; Yuji, Toshifumi; Watanabe, Takayuki; Kashihara, Junzou; Sumida, Yoshitake

    2007-01-01

    The removal of paint on the surface of waste plastics is difficult by the conventional process; in this research, a new cleaning mechanism using atmospheric plasmas was examined through optical emission spectroscopy, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicate that an increase of pulse frequency enables for a short processing time for the removal of the paint film, signifying that the production of radicals in plasma, especially oxygen radicals, can be controlled by pulse frequency. Plasma jets were generated under the experimental conditions of an input power of 250 W to 400 W, a pulse frequency of 2 kHz to 12 kHz, and a plasma gas flow rate of 30 L/min. Examination of the intensity ratio of the reactive species, as measured by emission spectroscopy, showed that the O/N value increased with an increase in pulse frequency. Results of analysis with electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis show that nitrogen atoms and molybdenum in only the paint film decreased through plasma processing

  9. Comprehensive evaluation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in surface soils and river sediments from e-waste-processing sites in a village in northern Vietnam: Heading towards the environmentally sound management of e-waste

    OpenAIRE

    Go Suzuki; Masayuki Someya; Hidenori Matsukami; Nguyen Minh Tue; Natsuyo Uchida; Le Huu Tuyen; Pham Hung Viet; Shin Takahashi; Shinsuke Tanabe; Abraham Brouwer; Hidetaka Takigami

    2016-01-01

    The management of electronic waste (e-waste), which can be a source of both useful materials and toxic substances, depending on the processing method, is important for promoting material cycling. In this study, we used the dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX) assay combined with gas chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry to evaluate the levels of dioxin-like compounds in surface soils and river sediments collected in and around an e-waste-proces...

  10. Waste Tyres as Heat Sink to Reduce the Driveway Surface Temperatures in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Aniza Abdul Aziz; Sreenivasaiah Purushothama Rao; Elias Salleh

    2013-01-01

    The development of roads and driveways are on the rise as automobiles are now a necessity to all. This excessive development with its requirements increased the urban heat temperature and the generation of waste tyres. Waste tyre management has therefore been taken seriously by developed countries and since the European directive to ban used tyre products and whole tire disposal from landfill in 2003 and 2006 respectively, many researchers have looked for alternative ways to use the waste tyr...

  11. Limnology and fisheries of three recently impounded reservoirs in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, K.H.G.M De

    1990-01-01

    The hydroelectric reservoirs of Kotmale, Victoria, and Randenigala were impounded in 1985, 1984, and 1986, respectively, by damming the Mahaweli River. The surface area, maximum depth, and mean depth of the three reservoirs are 6.3 km 2 , 78 m, 27.6 m; 23.7 km 2 , 102 m, 30.8 m; and 23.5 km 2 , 90 m, 36.6 m respectively, at their full supply levels of 703, 438, and 232 m above mean sea level. Important physicochemical factors and phytoplankton were studied by sampling of subsurface waters every two weeks in 12 randomly chosen stations in Randenigala and Victoria, and in 10 stations in Kotmale over 24 months. Mean water temperature, pH, conductivity, and the total alkalinity during the study period were 25.6 degree C, 6.6, 50.7 μsieverts, and 0.31 millimoles/l in Kotmale, 26.9 degree C, 7.1, 77.4 μsieverts, and 0.62 millimoles/l in Victoria, and 28.3 degree C, 7.4, 90.0 μsieverts, and 0.79 millimoles/l in Randenigala. The gill-net catches of Kotmale and Victoria are ca 38 and 70 kg/hectare/y, respectively. Randenigala has a fishery potential of ca 70 kg/hectare/y. Tilapia formed ca 68%, 59%, and 69% of the catches of Kotmale, Victoria, and Randenigala, respectively. The catch at Kotmale was mainly Java tilapia and Nile tilapia, whereas at the other two reservoirs it was mainly Java tilapia. Indigenous species constituted only ca 10% of the catch. 16 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Safety assessment methodologies and their application in development of near surface waste disposal facilities - the ASAM project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, P.

    2003-01-01

    The scope of ASAM project covers near surface disposal facilities for all types of low and intermediate level wastes with emphasis of the post-closure safety assessment.The objectives are to explore practical application to a range of disposal facilities for a number of purposes e.g. development of design concepts, safety re-assessment, upgrading safety and to develop practical approaches to assist regulators, operators and other experts in review of safety assessment. The task of the Co-ordination Group are: reassessment of existing facilities - use of safety assessment in decision making on selection of options (volunteer site Hungary); disused sealed sources - evaluation of disposability of disused sealed sources in near surface facilities (volunteer site Saratov, Russia); mining and minerals processing waste - evaluation of long-term safety (volunteer site pmc S. Africa). An agreement on the scope and objectives of the project are reached and the further consideration, such as human intrusion/institutional control/security; waste from oil/gas industry; very low level waste; categorization of sealed sources coordinated with other IAEA activities are outlined

  13. Study of 'inadvertent human intrusion or rare natural event scenarios' for sub-surface disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatani, Takayoshi; Ishitoya, Kimihide; Funabashi, Hideyuki; Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Sone, Tomoyuki; Shimada, Hidemitsu; Nakai, Kunihiro

    2010-03-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is making preparations for the sub-surface disposal of radioactive wastes, in an integrated fashion according to the properties of the waste material regardless of the generators or waste sources. In this study, 'Inadvertent Human Intrusion or Rare Natural Event Scenarios' of 'Three Types scenarios' was considered according to the standard of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) on the sub-surface disposal system that was based on 'Basic Policy for Safety Regulation Concerning Land Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste (Interim Report)' by Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC). Selection of the assessed scenarios, development of the assessment tool and preliminary exposure dose assessment for general public were conducted. Among the assessed scenarios, the exposure dose of 'well water drinking scenario' was the highest under the very conservative assessment condition. This scenario assumed that the groundwater in Excavation Disturbed Zone (EDZ) was directly used as drinking water without any dilution. Although this was very conservative condition and the result exceeded 10 mSv/y, it stayed under the upper limit of standard dose value for 'Inadvertent Human Intrusion or Rare Natural Event Scenarios' (10 - 100 mSv/y). (author)

  14. Socio-economic and other non-radiological impacts of the near surface disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    The objective of this report is to introduce, in a generic sense, the elements that could comprise a socio-economic and non-radiological environmental impact assessment. The various social, economic and environmental impacts that could be associated with surface and near surface disposal are discussed through factors that could apply at the local, regional or national level. Impact management is also discussed. The report also introduces concepts to help Member States develop their own approaches to undertaking impact assessment and management. The report is intended to complement IAEA documents on the technology and safety aspects of the near surface disposal of radioactive waste. The scope of this report includes a discussion of a range of social, economic and nonradiological environmental impacts relevant to surface and near surface disposal and illustrations of some impact management measures

  15. Status of siting studies for a near surface repository site for radioactive wastes in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, E.M.; Palattao, M.V.B.; Marcelo, E.A.; Caseria, E.S.; Venida, L.L.; Cruz, J.M. dela

    2002-01-01

    The Philippines, through the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), decided to conduct a study on siting a low level radioactive waste disposal facility. The infrastructure set up for this purpose, the radioactive waste disposal concept, the overall siting process, the methodology applied and preliminary results obtained are described in this paper. (author)

  16. Effects of increased summer flooding on nitrogen dynamics in impounded mangroves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Jos T A; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J; Rains, Mark C; Whigham, Dennis F

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are important for coastal protection, carbon sequestration and habitat provision for plants and animals in the tropics and subtropics. Mangroves are threatened by habitat destruction and sea level rise, but management activities such as impounding for mosquito control can also have

  17. Effect of soil erosion on the long-term stability of FUSRAP near-surface waste-burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Decontamination of FUSRAP sites could result in the generation of large volumes (in excess of 400,000 m 3 ) of low-activity radioactive wastes (primarily contaminated soil and building materials) requiring subsequent disposal. It is likely that near-surface burial will be seriously considered as an option for disposal of these materials. A number of factors - including soil erosion - could adversely affect the long-term stability of a near-surface waste-burial site. The majority of FUSRAP sites are located in the humid eastern United States, where the principal cause of erosion is the action of water. This report examines the effect of soil erosion by water on burial-site stability based on analysis of four hypothetical near-surface burial sites. The Universal Soil Loss Equation was employed to estimate average annual soil loss from burial sites and the 1000-year effects of soil loss on the soil barrier (burial trench cap) placed over low-activity wastes. Results suggest that the land use of the burial site and the slope gradient of the burial trench cap significantly affect the rate of soil erosion. The development of measures limiting the potential land use of a burial site (e.g., mixing large rocks into the burial trench cap) may be required to preserve the integrity of a burial trench for long periods of time

  18. ASAM - The international programme on application of safety assessment methodologies for near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batandjieva, B.

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA has launched a new Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Application of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities (ASAM). The CRP will focus on the practical application of the safety assessment methodology, developed under the ISAM programme, for different purposes, such as developing design concepts, licensing, upgrading existing repositories, reassessment of operating disposal facilities. The overall aim of the programme is to assist safety assessors, regulators and other specialists involved in the development and review of safety assessment for near surface disposal facilities in order to achieve transparent, traceable and defendable evaluation of safety of these facilities. (author)

  19. Cumulative impoundment evaporation in water resource management within the mid-Atlantic: A case study in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D.; Burgholzer, R.; Kleiner, J.; Brogan, C. O.; Julson, C.; Withers, E.

    2017-12-01

    Across the eastern United States, successful management of water resources to satisfy the competing demands for human consumption, industry, agriculture, and ecosystems requires both water quality and water quantity considerations. Over the last 2 decades, low streamflows during dry summers have increased scrutiny on water supply withdrawals. Within Virginia, a statewide hydrologic model provides quantitative assessments on impacts from proposed water withdrawals to downstream river flow. Currently, evaporative losses are only accounted for from the large reservoirs. In this study, we sought to provide a baseline estimate for the cumulative evaporation from impoundments across all of the major river basins in Virginia. Virginia provides an ideal case study for the competing water demands in the mid-Atlantic region given the unique tracking of water withdrawals throughout the river corridor. In the over 73,000 Virginia impoundments, the cumulative annual impoundment evaporation was 706 MGD, or 49% of the permitted water withdrawal. The largest reservoirs (>100 acres) represented over 400 MGD, and 136 MGD for the smaller impoundments (water loss (evaporation + demand), with some areas where impoundment evaporation was greater than human water demand. Seasonally, our results suggest that cumulative impoundment evaporation in some watersheds greatly impacts streamflow during low flow periods. Our results demonstrate that future water supply planning will require not only understanding evaporation within large reservoirs, but also the thousands of small impoundments across the landscape.

  20. Control of water infiltration into near-surface, low-level waste-disposal units in humid regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, E.; Ridky, R.W.; Schulz, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    This study's objective is to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste-disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large-scale lysimeters (75 ft x 45 ft x 10 ft) at Beltsville, Maryland. Results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste-disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration are being investigated: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earthen material (e.g., clay). The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained, the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below-grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover, and remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier or, perhaps even better, by a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. The latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry into waste without institutional care

  1. Safety Assessment Methodologies and Their Application in Development of Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities--ASAM Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batandjieva, B.; Metcalf, P.

    2003-01-01

    Safety of near surface disposal facilities is a primary focus and objective of stakeholders involved in radioactive waste management of low and intermediate level waste and safety assessment is an important tool contributing to the evaluation and demonstration of the overall safety of these facilities. It plays significant role in different stages of development of these facilities (site characterization, design, operation, closure) and especially for those facilities for which safety assessment has not been performed or safety has not been demonstrated yet and the future has not been decided. Safety assessments also create the basis for the safety arguments presented to nuclear regulators, public and other interested parties in respect of the safety of existing facilities, the measures to upgrade existing facilities and development of new facilities. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has initiated a number of research coordinated projects in the field of development and improvement of approaches to safety assessment and methodologies for safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities, such as NSARS (Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Safety Assessment Reliability Study) and ISAM (Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities) projects. These projects were very successful and showed that there is a need to promote the consistent application of the safety assessment methodologies and to explore approaches to regulatory review of safety assessments and safety cases in order to make safety related decisions. These objectives have been the basis of the IAEA follow up coordinated research project--ASAM (Application of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities), which will commence in November 2002 and continue for a period of three years

  2. Environmental assessment for the Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility: Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0466) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 for the proposed completion of construction and subsequent operation of a central Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility (RMWMF), in the southeastern portion of Technical Area III at Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque (SNLA). The RMWMF is designed to receive, store, characterize, conduct limited bench-scale treatment of, repackage, and certify low-level waste (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) (as necessary) for shipment to an offsite disposal or treatment facility. The RMWMF was partially constructed in 1989. Due to changing regulatory requirements, planned facility upgrades would be undertaken as part of the proposed action. These upgrades would include paving of road surfaces and work areas, installation of pumping equipment and lines for surface impoundment, and design and construction of air locks and truck decontamination and water treatment systems. The proposed action also includes an adjacent corrosive and reactive metals storage area, and associated roads and paving. LLW and MW generated at SNLA would be transported from the technical areas to the RMWMF in containers approved by the Department of Transportation. The RMWMF would not handle nonradioactive hazardous waste. Based on the analysis in the EA, the proposed completion of construction and operation of the RMWMF does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement for the proposed action is not required

  3. A reliability study on influence of the geosphere thickness over the activity release from a near surface radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Lais Alencar de, E-mail: laguiar@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Damaso, Vinicius Correa, E-mail: vcdamaso@gmail.com [Estado-Maior do Exercito (EME/EB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Infiltration of water into a waste disposal facility and into the waste region is the main factor inducing the release of radionuclides from a disposal facility. Since infiltrating water flow is dependent on the natural percolation at the site and the performance of engineered barriers, its prediction requires modelling of unsaturated water flow through intact or partially/completely failed components of engineered barriers and through the rock layer of the geosphere on which the repository is constructed. The engineered barriers include the cover systems, concrete vault, backfill, waste forms, and overpacks. This paper aims to carry out a performance study regarding a near surface repository in terms of reliability engineering. It is assumed that surface water infiltrates through the barriers reaching the matrix where radionuclides are contained, thus releasing them into the environment. The repository consists of a set of barriers which are considered saturated porous medium. As results, this paper presents the relation between the thickness of the geosphere layer and the radionuclide release rate in terms of activity. Such results represent a useful information for choosing the repository sites in order to keep the released activity in acceptable levels over time. (author)

  4. “Sapsan”-carriages defrosting station of Nizhniy Novgorod railway service enterprise and its surface waste water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelkov, Alexander; Teplykh, Svetlana; Gorshkalev, Pavel; Bystranova, Anastasia

    2017-10-01

    Surface water disposal is one of the most relevant problems for Nizhniy Novgorod railway service enterprises. Waste water must be quickly removed with special drainage devices and water drainage facilities (culverts, slope drains, pipes, ditches, etc.). During “Sapsan”-carriages defrosting watse water is aggregated on railroad tracks. It leads to track bed structure sagging, roadbed washaway and damages to point switches. In this paper the authors describe a concrete system of waste water disposal from railway service enterprises. This system is realized through culverts readjusted at the foot of ballast section. Thereafter, the collected water is pumped into a water collector and to local sewage waste-disposal plants. For railway stations with three or more tracks surface runoff diversion scheme depends on topography, railway tracks types, flow discharge and is compiled individually for each object. This paper examines “Sapsan”-carriages defrosting station of Nizhniy Novgorod railway service enterprise. It presents a technology scheme and equipment consisting of Sand catcher LOS-P, Oil catcher LOS-N, pressure-tight flotation unit; drain feed pump; solution-consuming tank of the coagulant, the solution-consuming tank of flocculant. The proposed technology has been introduced into the project practice.

  5. Waste Field Characteristics, Ultimate Mixing and Dilution in Surface Discharge of Dense Jets into Stagnant Water Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct discharges of municipal and industrial waste waters into water bodies through marine outfalls are considered as a common way to dispose the generated waste in coastal zones. Marine discharge, intensifying flow mixing and entrainment, decrease the concentration of polutant up to accepted concentration and meet the guideline values and to make possible continues discharge of flow into matine environment. During last years due to quick development of coastal desalination plants, surface discharge of preduced salty water into seas and oceans has increased significantly. In this study, releases of dense jets from surface rectangular channel into stagnant bodies are experimentally studied. The location of flow plunge point, impact point and discharge ultimate dilution were drown out by a digital video technology. In addition, using some conductivity probes located in ambient floor, waste filed dilution in flow impact point and discharge ultimate dilution were identified. Finally the obtained results were plotted and explained along with some diagrams to show flow non-dimensional behavior. The results showed that the properties of flow are changing directly with ambient water depth and discharge initial fluxes.

  6. A reliability study on influence of the geosphere thickness over the activity release from a near surface radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Lais Alencar de; Damaso, Vinicius Correa

    2013-01-01

    Infiltration of water into a waste disposal facility and into the waste region is the main factor inducing the release of radionuclides from a disposal facility. Since infiltrating water flow is dependent on the natural percolation at the site and the performance of engineered barriers, its prediction requires modelling of unsaturated water flow through intact or partially/completely failed components of engineered barriers and through the rock layer of the geosphere on which the repository is constructed. The engineered barriers include the cover systems, concrete vault, backfill, waste forms, and overpacks. This paper aims to carry out a performance study regarding a near surface repository in terms of reliability engineering. It is assumed that surface water infiltrates through the barriers reaching the matrix where radionuclides are contained, thus releasing them into the environment. The repository consists of a set of barriers which are considered saturated porous medium. As results, this paper presents the relation between the thickness of the geosphere layer and the radionuclide release rate in terms of activity. Such results represent a useful information for choosing the repository sites in order to keep the released activity in acceptable levels over time. (author)

  7. Dam-break studies for mine tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyapalan, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes simple procedures for performing dam-break analyses. Tailings from dam failures usually liquefy and flow for substantial distances as a viscous fluid. The prediction of the possible extent of flow slide movement is illustrated using two case histories. Topics considered include the flow behavior of liquefied talings, dimensionsless numbers for mine tailings and associated flow regimes, laminar flow, and turbulent flow. The potential inundation regions downstream of mine tailings dams are assessed. It is concluded that instances of flow slides of mine waste embankments indicate that the failure of these structures has considerable potential for damage to life and property in many cases

  8. Hazardous waste landfill research: U. S. E. P. A. (United States Environmental Protection Agency) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomaker, N.B.

    1984-06-01

    The hazardous waste land disposal research program is collecting data necessary to support implementation of disposal guidelines mandated by the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA) PL 94-580. This program relating to the categorical areas of landfills, surface impoundments, and underground mines encompasses state-of-the-art documents, laboratory analysis, economic assessment, bench and pilot studies, and full-scale field verification studies. Over the next five years the research will be reported as Technical Resource Documents in support of the RCRA Guidance Documents. These documents will be used to provide guidance for conducting the review and evaluation of land disposal permit applications. This paper will present an overview of this program and will report the current status of the work.

  9. A hydrochemical and isotopic case study around a near surface radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szanto, Zs.; Svingor, E.; Futo, I.; Palcsu, L.; Molnar, M.; Rinyu, L.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the site characterisation program for the near surface radioactive waste treatment and disposal facility (RWTDF) at Puespoekszilagy, Hungary, water quality and environmental isotope investigations have been carried out. Water samples for major ion chemistry, tritium, 14 C and stable isotope ratio measurements (δ 18 O, δD, δ 34 S, δ 13 C) were taken quarterly from the observation wells, the streams and the precipitation during the period 1999-2001. The chemical composition of groundwaters presented a continuous transition from waters situated on one side to waters on the top and on the other slope of the disposal suggesting the mixing of the three hydrochemical ''endmembers''. Most of δD and δ 18 O data were situated between GMWL and LMWL (δD = 7.2 x δ 18 O - 1 permille) with Oligocene aquifer presenting recharge of Pleistocene origin and water on the top and the gentle slope of the hill presenting recharge of Holocene origin. δ 34 S values of dissolved sulphates varied in a wide range (-14.2 permille to +5.4 permille). The tritium in precipitation varied between 4.4 and 18.1 TU with an annual weighted average of 10 ± 0.3 TU. The streams showed larger fluctuations than the wells, but the changes of δ 18 O, δD and T were small compared to those in precipitation (showing seasonal variation). Stable isotope, tritium and radiocarbon data proved that the replenishment of groundwater is slow on the steeper side and the direction of water movement is toward the gentle slope of the hill. It was judged that this path is the one that is most likely to give rise to high doses and, therefore, was used in the hydrological modelling of the safety assessment that followed the present work. The possibility that there may also be transport through the unsaturated zone and systems of perched water tables in layers 1 and 2 to both the Szilagyi and Nemedi streams cannot be excluded; the transport along these pathways is likely to be intermittent. (orig.)

  10. Surface Water Modeling Using an EPA Computer Code for Tritiated Waste Water Discharge from the heavy Water Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1998-06-01

    Tritium releases from the D-Area Heavy Water Facilities to the Savannah River have been analyzed. The U.S. EPA WASP5 computer code was used to simulate surface water transport for tritium releases from the D-Area Drum Wash, Rework, and DW facilities. The WASP5 model was qualified with the 1993 tritium measurements at U.S. Highway 301. At the maximum tritiated waste water concentrations, the calculated tritium concentration in the Savannah River at U.S. Highway 301 due to concurrent releases from D-Area Heavy Water Facilities varies from 5.9 to 18.0 pCi/ml as a function of the operation conditions of these facilities. The calculated concentration becomes the lowest when the batch releases method for the Drum Wash Waste Tanks is adopted

  11. Preparation of safety analysis reports (SARs) for near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities. Format and content of SARs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    All facilities at which radioactive wastes are processed, stored and disposed of have the potential for causing hazards to humans and to the environment. Precautions must be taken in the siting, design and operation of the facilities to ensure that an adequate level of safety is achieved. The processes by which this is evaluated is called safety assessment. An important part of safety assessment is the documentation of the process. A well prepared safety analysis report (SAR) is essential if approval of the facility is to be obtained from the regulatory authorities. This TECDOC describes the format and content of a safety analysis report for a near surface radioactive waste disposal facility and will serve essentially as a checklist in this respect

  12. A case study on the safety assessment for groundwater pathway in a near-surface radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Wan; Chang, Keun Moo; Kim, Chang Lak

    2002-01-01

    A safety assessment is carried out for the near-surface radioactive waste disposal in the reference engineered vault facility. The analysis is mainly divided into two parts. One deals with the release and transport of radionuclide in the vault and unsaturated zone. The other deals with the transport of radionuclide in the vault and unsaturated zone. The other deals with the transport of radionuclide in the saturated zone and radiological impacts to a human group under well drinking water scenario. The parameters for source-term, geosphere and biosphere models are mainly obtained from the site specific data. The results show that the annual effective doses are dominated by long lived, mobile radionuclides and their associated daughters. And it is found that the total effective dose for drinking water is far below the general criteria of regulatory limit for radioactive waste disposal facility

  13. Surface radiological investigations at the 0816 Site, Waste Area Grouping 13, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiner, P.F.; Uziel, M.S.

    1994-12-01

    A surface radiological investigation was conducted intermittently from July through September 1994 at the 0816 site, located within Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 13. The survey was performed by members of the Measurement Applications and Development Group, Health Sciences Research Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of ORNL Site Environmental Restoration Program Facility Management. The purpose of the survey was to ascertain and document the surface radiological condition of the site subsequent to remedial action activities completed in May 1994. The survey was designed to determine whether any residual surface sod contamination in excess of 120 pCi/g 137 Cs (Specified by the Interim Record of Decision) remained at the site

  14. 30 CFR 715.18 - Dams constructed of or impounding waste material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... overtopping by wind and wave action. (iii) Dams shall have minimum safety factors as follows: Case Loading... title and the name of the person operating or controlling the dam, shall be located on or immediately...

  15. 30 CFR 717.18 - Dams constructed of or impounding waste material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... at least 3 feet to avoid overtopping by wind and wave action. (iii) Dams shall have minimum safety... pursuant to § 77.216-1 of this title and the name of the person operating or controlling the dam, shall be...

  16. The Impact of Impoundment on Mercury Bioaccumulation in Fish Downstream from a Newly Constructed Reservoir, Wujiang River, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sixin; Zhou, Lianfeng; Chang, Jianbo; Yang, Zhi; Hu, Juxiang; Hongjun, Wang

    2017-11-01

    Mercury concentrations in fish were investigated downstream from a newly impounded subtropical reservoir in August 2008. After 6-7 months of reservoir impoundment, mean mercury concentration in fish from downstream is significantly increased by 1.9 times. Not only carnivorous fish but also benthic fish had significantly higher total mercury concentrations than others. No significant correlation was found between total mercury concentrations and body length or weight of 13 fish species. Compared with the pre-impoundment, total mercury in fish from downstream is significantly increased by reservoir impoundment, but the increased rate is lower than those in subarctic and temperate areas. Fish samples surpassed the Chinese hygienic standard for tolerances of mercury in foods increased by 4.3%. More attention should be given to fish mercury levels from downstream sites to prevent possible adverse effects on the health of local people.

  17. Organochlorine pesticide levels in Clarias gariepinus from polluted freshwater impoundments in South Africa and associated human health risks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnhoorn, IEJ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing concerns regarding the safe human consumption of fish from polluted, freshwater impoundments. The aim of this study was to analyse the muscle tissue of the sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus for selected organo-chlorine...

  18. 30 CFR 77.216-2 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; minimum plan requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND... instrumentation. (9) Graphs showing area-capacity curves. (10) A statement of the runoff attributable to the probable maximum precipitation of 6-hour duration and the calculations used in determining such runoff. (11...

  19. Adsorption of dyes by ACs prepared from waste tyre reinforcing fibre. Effect of texture, surface chemistry and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Beatriz; Rocha, Raquel P; Pereira, Manuel F R; Figueiredo, José L; Barriocanal, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    This paper compares the importance of the texture and surface chemistry of waste tyre activated carbons in the adsorption of commercial dyes. The adsorption of two commercial dyes, Basic Astrazon Yellow 7GLL and Reactive Rifafix Red 3BN on activated carbons made up of reinforcing fibres from tyre waste and low-rank bituminous coal was studied. The surface chemistry of activated carbons was modified by means of HCl-HNO3 treatment in order to increase the number of functional groups. Moreover, the influence of the pH on the process was also studied, this factor being of great importance due to the amphoteric characteristics of activated carbons. The activated carbons made with reinforcing fibre and coal had the highest SBET, but the reinforcing fibre activated carbon samples had the highest mesopore volume. The texture of the activated carbons was not modified upon acid oxidation treatment, unlike their surface chemistry which underwent considerable modification. The activated carbons made with a mixture of reinforcing fibre and coal experienced the largest degree of oxidation, and so had more acid surface groups. The adsorption of reactive dye was governed by the mesoporous volume, whilst surface chemistry played only a secondary role. However, the surface chemistry of the activated carbons and dispersive interactions played a key role in the adsorption of the basic dye. The adsorption of the reactive dye was more favored in a solution of pH 2, whereas the basic dye was adsorbed more easily in a solution of pH 12. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface treated carbon catalysts produced from waste tires for fatty acids to biofuel conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Zachary D.; Adhikari, Shiba P.; Wright, Marcus W.; Lachgar, Abdessadek; Li, Yunchao; Naskar, Amit K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2018-02-06

    A method of making solid acid catalysts includes the step of sulfonating waste tire pieces in a first sulfonation step. The sulfonated waste tire pieces are pyrolyzed to produce carbon composite pieces having a pore size less than 10 nm. The carbon composite pieces are then ground to produce carbon composite powders having a size less than 50 .mu.m. The carbon composite particles are sulfonated in a second sulfonation step to produce sulfonated solid acid catalysts. A method of making biofuels and solid acid catalysts are also disclosed.

  1. Rock riprap design methods and their applicability to long-term protection of uranium mill tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.H.

    1982-08-01

    This report reviews the more accepted or recommended riprap design methods currently used to design rock riprap protection against soil erosion by flowing water. The basic theories used to develop the various methods are presented. The Riprap Design with Safety Factors Method is identified as the logical choice for uranium mill tailings impoundments. This method is compared to the other methods and its applicability to the protection requirements of tailings impoundments is discussed. Other design problems are identified and investigative studies recommended

  2. Geomorphological assessment of sites and impoundments for the long term containment of uranium mill tailings in the Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    East, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a program of current and future research into those geomorphological processes likely to affect the long term containment of uranium mill tailings in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory. Research is directed at three main areas: identification of geomorphic hazards at proposed impoundment sites; determination of erosion rates on impoundment slopes; and prediction of patterns of fluvial dispersal of released tailings. Each necessitates consideration of present and future geomorphic processes

  3. Profiling of Sediment Microbial Community in Dongting Lake before and after Impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The sediment microbial community in downstream-linked lakes can be affected by the operation of large-scale water conservancy projects. The present study determined Illumina reads (16S rRNA gene amplicons to analyze and compare the bacterial communities from sediments in Dongting Lake (China before and after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD, the largest hydroelectric project in the world. Bacterial communities in sediment samples in Dongting Lake before impoundment of the TGD (the high water period had a higher diversity than after impoundment of the TGD (the low water period. The most abundant phylum in the sediment samples was Proteobacteria (36.4%–51.5%, and this result was due to the significant abundance of Betaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria in the sediment samples before impoundment of the TGD and the abundance of Gammaproteobacteria in the sediment samples after impoundment of the TGD. In addition, bacterial sequences of the sediment samples are also affiliated with Acidobacteria (11.0% on average, Chloroflexi (10.9% on average, Bacteroidetes (6.7% on average, and Nitrospirae (5.1% on average. Variations in the composition of the bacterial community within some sediment samples from the river estuary into Dongting Lake were related to the pH values. The bacterial community in the samples from the three lake districts of Dongting Lake before and after impoundment of the TGD was linked to the nutrient concentration.

  4. Geochemically structural characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash particles and mineralogical surface conversions by chelate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Hiroki; Sawada, Takaya; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Takahashi, Fumitake

    2016-01-01

    Leaching behaviors of heavy metals contained in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash have been studied well. However, micro-characteristics of MSWI fly ash particles are still uncertain and might be non-negligible to describe their leaching behaviors. Therefore, this study investigated micro-characteristics of MSWI fly ash particles, especially their structural properties and impacts of chelate treatment on surface characteristics. According to SEM observations, raw fly ash particles could be categorized into four types based on their shapes. Because chelate treatment changed the surface of fly ash particles dramatically owing to secondary mineral formations like ettringite, two more types could be categorized for chelate-treated fly ash particles. Acid extraction experiments suggest that fly ash particles, tested in this study, consist of Si-base insoluble core structure, Al/Ca/Si-base semi-soluble matrices inside the body, and KCl/NaCl-base soluble aggregates on the surface. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations of the same fly ash particles during twice moistening treatments showed that KCl/NaCl moved under wet condition and concentrated at different places on the particle surface. However, element mobility depended on secondary mineral formations. When insoluble mineral like gypsum was generated and covered the particle surface, it inhibited element transfer under wet condition. Surface characteristics including secondary mineral formation of MSWI fly ash particles are likely non-negligible to describe trace element leaching behaviors.

  5. Restoration of Tidal Flow to Impounded Salt Marsh Exerts Mixed Effect on Leaf Litter Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, B. A.; Schade, J. D.; Foreman, K.

    2015-12-01

    Salt marsh impoundments (e.g. roads, levees) disconnect marshes from ocean tides, which impairs ecosystem services and often promotes invasive species. Numerous restoration projects now focus on removing impoundments. Leaf litter decomposition is a central process in salt marsh carbon and nutrient cycles, and this study investigated the extent to which marsh restoration alters litter decomposition rates. We considered three environmental factors that can potentially change during restoration: salinity, tidal regime, and dominant plant species. A one-month field experiment (Cape Cod, MA) measured decay of litter bags in impounded, restored, and natural marshes under ambient conditions. A two-week lab experiment measured litter decay in controlled incubations under experimental treatments for salinity (1ppt and 30 ppt), tidal regime (inundated and 12 hr wet-dry cycles), and plant species (native Spartina alterniflora and invasive Phragmites australis). S. alterniflora decomposed faster in situ than P. australis (14±1.0% mass loss versus 0.74±0.69%). Corroborating this difference in decomposition, S. alterniflora supported greater microbial respiration during lab incubation, measured as CO2 flux from leaf litter and biological oxygen demand of water containing leached organic matter (OM). However, nutrient analysis of plant tissue and leached OM show P. australis released more nitrogen than S. alterniflora. Low salinity treatments in both lab and field experiments decayed more rapidly than high salinity treatments, suggesting that salinity inhibited microbial activity. Manipulation of inundation regime did not affect decomposition. These findings suggest the reintroduction of tidal flow to an impounded salt marsh can have mixed effects; recolonization by the native cordgrass could supply labile OM to sediment and slow carbon sequestration, while an increase in salinity might inhibit decomposition and accelerate sequestration.

  6. Modelling of contaminant migration in acidic groundwater plumes at uranium tailings impoundments: ADNEUT3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, J.A.; Morin, K.A.; Dubrovsky, N.M.

    1984-06-01

    This report describes the creation and application of ADNEUT3, the latest addition to the ADNEUT (Acid-Drainage NEUTralization) family of computer programs for simulating acid-drainage transport and neutralization. The creation of ADNEUT3 involved the expansion of ADNEUT1 to allow variable input conditions such as changing input solution with time, variable initial amounts of minerals through the simulated streamtube, variable velocities through the streamtube, and variable solubilities for relevant minerals dependent on aqueous chemical composition. Concepts for simulating acid-drainage neutralization are reviewed and ADNEUT3 is then applied to a field-study site of acidic contaminant migration from the Nordic Main uranium-tailings impoundment near Elliot Lake, Ontario. A sensitivity study is first implemented to calibrate ADNEUT3 to the results of the 1979 to 1983 field studies. Then ADNEUT3 is used to define probable past conditions at the site which are not reliably known. In particular, ADNEUT3 is used to help identify: 1) the approximate year when acidic seepage began leaving the tailings impoundment (1966-1967), 2) the past chemical composition of the seepage (somewhat more acidic for a short period of time), and 3) the location of the source area within the tailings for the acidic seepage (near the impoundment dam, close to the field site). Finally, ADNEUT3 is used to predict future contaminant migration. Results indicate that hundreds of years are required under present conditions for the most acidic water with associated high levels of contaminants to migrate about 100 m from the tailings impoundment. The cause of this slow movement is the significant neutralization capacity of the aquifer. If acid production within the tailings decreases in the future, migration rates of contaminants will also decrease

  7. Impacts of Freshwater Impoundment in the West Loch of Pearl Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    absence of applicable non-point standards, the "Yellow Book" criteria for freshwater aquatic life or domestic water supply could be applied to evaluate the...Waimalu, Waipahu, Wahiawa, and Ewa water use districts and contains the largest groundwater body on Oahu, supplying more than 50 percent of the island’s...irrigation; desalt existing brackish water supplies, and; 3 create a freshwater impoundment in West Loch. 6I I I The Board of Water Supply (BWS) and

  8. Ammonia in simulated Hanford double-shell tank wastes: Solubility and effects on surface tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, J.D.; Pederson, L.R.

    1994-09-01

    Radioactive and wastes left from defense materials production activities are temporarily stored in large underground tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State (Tank Waste Science Panel 1991). Some of these wastes are in the form of a thick slurry (''double-shell slurry'') containing sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium aluminate, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, organic complexants and buffering agents, complexant fragments and other minor components (Herting et al. 1992a; Herting et al. 1992b; Campbell et al. 1994). As a result of thermal and radiolytic processes, a number of gases are known to be produced by some of these stored wastes, including ammonia, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, hydrogen, and methane (Babad et al. 1991; Ashby et al. 1992; Meisel et al. 1993; Ashby et al. 1993; Ashby et al. 1994; Bryan et al. 1993; US Department of Energy 1994). Before the emplacement of a mixer pump, these gases were retained in and periodically released from Tank 241-SY-101, a double-shell tank at the Hanford Site (Babad et al. 1992; US Department of Energy 1994). Gases are believed to be retained primarily in the form of bubbles attached to solid particles (Bryan, Pederson, and Scheele 1992), with very little actually dissolved in the liquid. Ammonia is an exception. The relation between the concentration of aqueous ammonia in such concentrated, caustic mixtures and the ammonia partial pressure is not well known, however

  9. Elevation of water table and various stratigraphic surfaces beneath e area low level waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, Laura [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bennett, Patti [; Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-02

    This memorandum describes work that supports revision of the Radiological Performance Assessment (PA) for the E Area Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF). The work summarized here addresses portions of the PA Strategic Planning Team's recommendation #148b (Butcher and Phifer, 2016).

  10. Surface storage of vitrified high-level radioactive waste in reinforced-concrete casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, H.; George, M.W.; Robertson, T.J.M.

    1982-06-01

    The feasibility of storing canisters containing vitrified high level radioactive waste in reinforced concrete casks is examined. This preliminary study identifies the limitations and probable cost of such a store and leads to the conclusion that the concept is feasible. (author)

  11. Characterization of leached surface layers on simulated high-level waste glasses by sputter-induced optical emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houser, C.; Tsong, I.S.T.; White, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    The leaching process in simulated waste encapsulant glasses was studied by measuring the compositional depth-profiles of H (from water), the glass framework formers Si and B, the alkalis Na and Cs, the alkaline earths Ca and Sr, the transition metals Mo and Fe, the rare-earths La, Ce, and Nd, using the technique of sputter-induced optical emission. The leaching process of these glasses is highly complex. In addition to alkali/hydrogen exchange, there is breakdown of the glass framework, build-up of barrier layers on the surface, and formation of layered reaction zones of distinctly different chemistry all within the outer micrometer of the glass

  12. Risk-based approach to long-term safety assessment for near surface disposal of radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, C.W.; Kim, K.I.; Lee, J.I.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the Korean regulatory approach to safety assessment consistent with probabilistic, risk-based long-term safety requirements for near surface disposal facilities. The approach is based on: (1) From the standpoint of risk limitation, normal processes and probabilistic disruptive events should be integrated in a similar manner in terms of potential exposures; and (2) The uncertainties inherent in the safety assessment should be reduced using appropriate exposure scenarios. In addition, this paper emphasizes the necessity of international guidance for quantifying potential exposures and the corresponding risks from radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  13. The geo-environmental design of a coal refuse impoundment in Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripp, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The coal refuse impoundment discussed was one of the first permitted under new regulatory standards within the State of Illinois. The new standards go beyond the geotechnial stability of the structure and must address the groundwater quality of the area and the impact of the impoundment on the groundwater system. The geotechnial design of the coal refuse impoundment dam and associated structures had its own particular challenges such as: 1) the construction of the structure over mined workings; 2) the close proximity of seismically active fault zones; and 3) the embankment configuration being controlled by the material balance of the mine refuse. The implementation of the groundwater protection plan included: 1) incorporating the groundwater quality standards and sampling protocols of several state agencies while the standards were being drafted; 2) sampling of the potential sources of groundwater impact; 3) establishing background levels; and 4) establishing the groundwater class. An initial groundwater transport model was developed and used as the basis for recommending a groundwater monitoring design in place of constructing a soil or synthetic liner. 15 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Effect of ship locking on sediment oxygen uptake in impounded rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorke, A.; McGinnis, D. F.; Maeck, A.

    2012-01-01

    In the majority of large river systems, flow is regulated and/or otherwise affected by operational and management activities, such as ship locking. The effect of lock operation on sediment-water oxygen fluxes was studied within a 12.9 km long impoundment at the Saar River (Germany) using eddy....... Additional means by which the oxygen budget of the impoundment is affected by lock-induced flow variations are discussed. Citation: Lorke, A., D. F. McGinnis, A. Maeck, and H. Fischer (2012), Effect of ship locking on sediment oxygen uptake in impounded rivers, Water Resour. Res., 48, W12514, doi: 10....... These wave-induced flow variations cause variations in sediment-water oxygen fluxes. While the mean flux during time periods without lock operation was 0.5 +/- 0.1 g m(-2) d(-1), it increased by about a factor of 2 to 1.0 +/- 0.5 g m(-2) d(-1) within time periods with ship locking. Following the daily...

  15. Dose assessment of remedial action for uranium tailing impoundment of a nuclear factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xutong; Ma Ruwei; Guo Zede

    2000-01-01

    A large uranium tailing impoundment in China will be closure and remedial action have been planned. The remedial action will include shaping and covering the dam and beach in order to prevent the impoundment from damage and restrict spread of tailing sands and emission of radon. The author presents the analysis and estimation of the exposure to workers for remedial action and to public after the remedial action. To estimate the exposure to workers, the pathway of inhalation of radon, tailing sands in suspension and external γ exposure were taken into consideration. The exposure scenario is considered as probably maximum exposure to the workers who work on the tailing pile without any protection measures, the dose is 6.0 mSv/a. Two situation for the exposure to public after remedial action were considered: normal and abnormal condition. For the normal condition, inhalation of radon emitted from impoundment is only the pathway to public for the exposure, and individual dose for critical group of public is 0.053 mSv/a, collective dose for population within 80 km is 1.0 man·Sv/a. For the abnormal conditions, four scenarios were considered, i.e. dwelling on tailing pile, farming on tailing pile, living in a house built by contaminated materials and some temporal activities on the pile. The scenarios of dwellings is living in a house on the pile and drinking contaminated water. The maximum individual dose is 27 mSv/a

  16. An Improvement in Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil by Applying Thought Multi-Response Surface Methodology Using Desirability Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Corral Bobadilla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The exhaustion of natural resources has increased petroleum prices and the environmental impact of oil has stimulated the search for an alternative source of energy such as biodiesel. Waste cooking oil is a potential replacement for vegetable oils in the production of biodiesel. Biodiesel is synthesized by direct transesterification of vegetable oils, which is controlled by several inputs or process variables, including the dosage of catalyst, process temperature, mixing speed, mixing time, humidity and impurities of waste cooking oil that was studied in this case. Yield, turbidity, density, viscosity and higher heating value are considered as outputs. This paper used multi-response surface methodology (MRS with desirability functions to find the best combination of input variables used in the transesterification reactions to improve the production of biodiesel. In this case, several biodiesel optimization scenarios have been proposed. They are based on a desire to improve the biodiesel yield and the higher heating value, while decreasing the viscosity, density and turbidity. The results demonstrated that, although waste cooking oil was collected from various sources, the dosage of catalyst is one of the most important variables in the yield of biodiesel production, whereas the viscosity obtained was similar in all samples of the biodiesel that was studied.

  17. Optimising conventional treatment of domestic waste water: quality, required surface area, solid waste minimisation and biogas production for medium and small-scale applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Municipal waste water, or sewage, is a combination of domestic and industrial effluent. The increasing volume of sewage due to urbanisation and economic growth places pressure on the treatment performance of existing waste treatment systems...

  18. Optimizing supercritical carbon dioxide in the inactivation of bacteria in clinical solid waste by using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Md. Sohrab [Department of Environmental Technology, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Nik Ab Rahman, Nik Norulaini [School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Balakrishnan, Venugopal [Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Alkarkhi, Abbas F.M. [Department of Environmental Technology, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Ahmad Rajion, Zainul [School of Dental Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia); Ab Kadir, Mohd Omar, E-mail: akmomar@usm.my [Department of Environmental Technology, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Supercritical carbon dioxide sterilization of clinical solid waste. • Inactivation of bacteria in clinical solid waste using supercritical carbon dioxide. • Reduction of the hazardous exposure of clinical solid waste. • Optimization of the supercritical carbon dioxide experimental conditions. - Abstract: Clinical solid waste (CSW) poses a challenge to health care facilities because of the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, leading to concerns in the effective sterilization of the CSW for safe handling and elimination of infectious disease transmission. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO{sub 2}) was applied to inactivate gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and gram-negative Escherichia coli in CSW. The effects of SC-CO{sub 2} sterilization parameters such as pressure, temperature, and time were investigated and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Results showed that the data were adequately fitted into the second-order polynomial model. The linear quadratic terms and interaction between pressure and temperature had significant effects on the inactivation of S. aureus, E. coli, E. faecalis, and B. subtilis in CSW. Optimum conditions for the complete inactivation of bacteria within the experimental range of the studied variables were 20 MPa, 60 °C, and 60 min. The SC-CO{sub 2}-treated bacterial cells, observed under a scanning electron microscope, showed morphological changes, including cell breakage and dislodged cell walls, which could have caused the inactivation. This espouses the inference that SC-CO{sub 2} exerts strong inactivating effects on the bacteria present in CSW, and has the potential to be used in CSW management for the safe handling and recycling-reuse of CSW materials.

  19. Decreased blood hepatitis B surface antibody levels linked to e-waste lead exposure in preschool children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xijin [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Chen, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jian [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Guo, Pi [Department of Public Health, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Fu, Tingzao; Dai, Yifeng [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Lin, Stanley L. [Department of Pathophysiology and Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Huo, Xia, E-mail: xhuo@stu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Secondary exploratory analyses displayed a correlation of blood Pb to HBsAb levels. • Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze two-phase data. • Children from an e-waste area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers. • Nearly 50% of Pb-exposed children fail to develop sufficient HBV immunity. • Different vaccination strategies are required for in e-waste areas. - Abstract: Lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental contaminant that can profoundly affect the immune system in vaccinated children. To explore the association between blood Pb and HBsAb levels in children chronically exposed to Pb, we measured hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) titers, to reflect the immune response in the children of Guiyu, an electronic and electrical waste (e-waste) recycling area well known for environmental Pb contamination. We performed secondary exploratory analyses of blood Pb levels and plasma HBsAb titers in samples, taken in two phases between 2011 and 2012, from 590 children from Guiyu (exposed group) and Haojiang (reference group). Children living in the exposed area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers compared with children from the reference area. At each phase, generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) showed that HBsAb titers were significantly negatively associated with child blood Pb levels. This work shows that a decreased immune response to hepatitis B vaccine and immune system might have potential harm to children with chronic Pb exposure. Importantly, nearly 50% of chronically exposed children failed to develop sufficient immunity to hepatitis in response to vaccination. Thus different vaccination strategies are needed for children living under conditions of chronic Pb exposure.

  20. Optimizing supercritical carbon dioxide in the inactivation of bacteria in clinical solid waste by using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Md. Sohrab; Nik Ab Rahman, Nik Norulaini; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Alkarkhi, Abbas F.M.; Ahmad Rajion, Zainul; Ab Kadir, Mohd Omar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Supercritical carbon dioxide sterilization of clinical solid waste. • Inactivation of bacteria in clinical solid waste using supercritical carbon dioxide. • Reduction of the hazardous exposure of clinical solid waste. • Optimization of the supercritical carbon dioxide experimental conditions. - Abstract: Clinical solid waste (CSW) poses a challenge to health care facilities because of the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, leading to concerns in the effective sterilization of the CSW for safe handling and elimination of infectious disease transmission. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 ) was applied to inactivate gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and gram-negative Escherichia coli in CSW. The effects of SC-CO 2 sterilization parameters such as pressure, temperature, and time were investigated and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Results showed that the data were adequately fitted into the second-order polynomial model. The linear quadratic terms and interaction between pressure and temperature had significant effects on the inactivation of S. aureus, E. coli, E. faecalis, and B. subtilis in CSW. Optimum conditions for the complete inactivation of bacteria within the experimental range of the studied variables were 20 MPa, 60 °C, and 60 min. The SC-CO 2 -treated bacterial cells, observed under a scanning electron microscope, showed morphological changes, including cell breakage and dislodged cell walls, which could have caused the inactivation. This espouses the inference that SC-CO 2 exerts strong inactivating effects on the bacteria present in CSW, and has the potential to be used in CSW management for the safe handling and recycling-reuse of CSW materials

  1. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) responses for sub-surface salt contamination and solid waste: modeling and controlled lysimeter studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijewardana, Y N S; Shilpadi, A T; Mowjood, M I M; Kawamoto, K; Galagedara, L W

    2017-02-01

    The assessment of polluted areas and municipal solid waste (MSW) sites using non-destructive geophysical methods is timely and much needed in the field of environmental monitoring and management. The objectives of this study are (i) to evaluate the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) wave responses as a result of different electrical conductivity (EC) in groundwater and (ii) to conduct MSW stratification using a controlled lysimeter and modeling approach. A GPR wave simulation was carried out using GprMax2D software, and the field test was done on two lysimeters that were filled with sand (Lysimeter-1) and MSW (Lysimeter-2). A Pulse EKKO-Pro GPR system with 200- and 500-MHz center frequency antennae was used to collect GPR field data. Amplitudes of GPR-reflected waves (sub-surface reflectors and water table) were studied under different EC levels injected to the water table. Modeling results revealed that the signal strength of the reflected wave decreases with increasing EC levels and the disappearance of the subsurface reflection and wave amplitude reaching zero at higher EC levels (when EC >0.28 S/m). Further, when the EC level was high, the plume thickness did not have a significant effect on the amplitude of the reflected wave. However, it was also found that reflected signal strength decreases with increasing plume thickness at a given EC level. 2D GPR profile images under wet conditions showed stratification of the waste layers and relative thickness, but it was difficult to resolve the waste layers under dry conditions. These results show that the GPR as a non-destructive method with a relatively larger sample volume can be used to identify highly polluted areas with inorganic contaminants in groundwater and waste stratification. The current methods of MSW dumpsite investigation are tedious, destructive, time consuming, costly, and provide only point-scale measurements. However, further research is needed to verify the results under heterogeneous aquifer

  2. Decreased blood hepatitis B surface antibody levels linked to e-waste lead exposure in preschool children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xijin; Chen, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Pi; Fu, Tingzao; Dai, Yifeng; Lin, Stanley L.; Huo, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Secondary exploratory analyses displayed a correlation of blood Pb to HBsAb levels. • Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze two-phase data. • Children from an e-waste area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers. • Nearly 50% of Pb-exposed children fail to develop sufficient HBV immunity. • Different vaccination strategies are required for in e-waste areas. - Abstract: Lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental contaminant that can profoundly affect the immune system in vaccinated children. To explore the association between blood Pb and HBsAb levels in children chronically exposed to Pb, we measured hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) titers, to reflect the immune response in the children of Guiyu, an electronic and electrical waste (e-waste) recycling area well known for environmental Pb contamination. We performed secondary exploratory analyses of blood Pb levels and plasma HBsAb titers in samples, taken in two phases between 2011 and 2012, from 590 children from Guiyu (exposed group) and Haojiang (reference group). Children living in the exposed area had higher blood Pb levels and lower HBsAb titers compared with children from the reference area. At each phase, generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) showed that HBsAb titers were significantly negatively associated with child blood Pb levels. This work shows that a decreased immune response to hepatitis B vaccine and immune system might have potential harm to children with chronic Pb exposure. Importantly, nearly 50% of chronically exposed children failed to develop sufficient immunity to hepatitis in response to vaccination. Thus different vaccination strategies are needed for children living under conditions of chronic Pb exposure

  3. Impact of metals in surface matrices from formal and informal electronic-waste recycling around Metro Manila, the Philippines, and intra-Asian comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takigami, Hidetaka; Agusa, Tetsuro; Eguchi, Akifumi; Bekki, Kanae; Yoshida, Aya; Terazono, Atsushi; Ballesteros, Florencio C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We quantified 11 metals in surface matrices from e-waste recycling sites at the Philippines. ► Dust had statistical higher levels of metal contamination and health risk compared to soil. ► Formal and informal sites had different metal contaminations. ► Intra-Asian comparison provided common insight on metal contamination from e-waste recycling. - Abstract: We report concentrations, enrichment factors, and hazard indicators of 11 metals (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, In, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in soil and dust surface matrices from formal and informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sites around Metro Manila, the Philippines, referring to soil guidelines and previous data from various e-waste recycling sites in Asia. Surface dust from e-waste recycling sites had higher levels of metal contamination than surface soil. Comparison of formal and informal e-waste recycling sites (hereafter, “formal” and “informal”) revealed differences in specific contaminants. Formal dust contained a mixture of serious pollutant metals (Ni, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and Cd (polluted modestly), quite high enrichment metals (Ag and In), and crust-derived metals (As, Co, Fe, and Mn). For informal soil, concentration levels of specific metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were similar among Asian recycling sites. Formal dust had significantly higher hazardous risk than the other matrices (p < 0.005), excluding informal dust (p = 0.059, almost significant difference). Thus, workers exposed to formal dust should protect themselves from hazardous toxic metals (Pb and Cu). There is also a high health risk for children ingesting surface matrices from informal e-waste recycling sites.

  4. Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of a neutral, low-sulfide/high-carbonate tailings impoundment, Markušovce, eastern Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Edgar; Petrák, Marián; Tóth, Roman; Lalinská-Voleková, Bronislava; Jurkovič, L'ubomír; Kučerová, Gabriela; Radková, Anežka; Sottník, Peter; Vozár, Jaroslav

    2013-11-01

    mineral assemblage and their occurrence follows the order: chalcopyrite > pyrite > tetrahedrite>arsenopyrite. The mineralogical composition of the tailings corresponds well to the primary mineralization mined. The neutralization capacity of the tailings is high, as confirmed by the values of neutralization potential to acid generation potential ratio, ranging from 6.7 to 63.9, and neutral to slightly alkaline pH of the tailings (paste pH 7.16-8.12) and the waters (pH 7.00-8.52). This is explained by abundant occurrence of carbonate minerals in the tailings, which readily neutralize the acidity generated by sulfide oxidation. The total solid-phase concentrations of metal(loid)s decrease as Cu>Sb>Hg>As and reflect the proportions of sulfides present in the tailings. Sulfide oxidation generally extends to a depth of 2 m. μ-XRD and EMPA were used to study secondary products developed on the surface of sulfide minerals and within the tailings. The main secondary minerals identified are goethite and X-ray amorphous Fe oxyhydroxides and their occurrence decreases with increasing tailings depth. Secondary Fe phases are found as mineral coatings or individual grains and retain relatively high amounts of metal(loid)s (up to 57.6 wt% Cu, 1.60 wt% Hg, 23.8 wt% As, and 2.37 wt% Sb). Based on batch leaching tests and lysimeter results, the mobility of potentially toxic elements in the tailings is low. The limited mobility of metals and metalloids is due to their retention by Fe oxyhydroxides and low solubilities of metal(loid)-bearing sulfides. The observations are consistent with PHREEQC calculations, which predict the precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxides as the main solubility-controlling mineral phases for As, Cu, Hg, and Sb. Waters discharging from tailings impoundment are characterized by a neutral to slightly alkaline pH (7.52-7.96) and low concentrations of dissolved metal(loid)s (tailings impoundment.

  5. Development of a quality assurance safety assessment database for near surface radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. W.; Kim, C. L.; Park, J. B.; Lee, E. Y.; Lee, Y. M.; Kang, C. H.; Zhou, W.; Kozak, M. W.

    2003-01-01

    A quality assurance safety assessment database, called QUARK (QUality Assurance program for Radioactive waste management in Korea), has been developed to manage both analysis information and parameter database for safety assessment of Low- and Intermediate-Level radioactive Waste (LILW) disposal facility in Korea. QUARK is such a tool that serves QA purposes for managing safety assessment information properly and securely. In QUARK, the information is organized and linked to maximize the integrity of information and traceability. QUARK provides guidance to conduct safety assessment analysis, from scenario generation to result analysis, and provides a window to inspect and trace previous safety assessment analysis and parameter values. QUARK also provides default database for safety assessment staff who construct input data files using SAGE(Safety Assessment Groundwater Evaluation), a safety assessment computer code

  6. Properties of concrete for use in near surface low-level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.; Shuman, R.; Nielson, K.; Conner, J.

    1989-01-01

    The majority of alternative low-level waste disposal technologies strive to isolate the radioactive waste from the environment through the implementation of engineered man-made barriers. Of the materials used in the construction of these barriers, concrete is, by far, the most prevalent. As alternative facility designs are developed, it will be necessary to assess the features and long-term performance of the technologies. Reliable assessments will depend, in part, on an accurate understanding of the engineered barriers used in construction. Towards these ends an investigation into the properties and behavior of two types of concrete was conducted. Results are presented. Two concrete mix designs were used in the investigation. The first of these employs a Type II cement with a microsilica (silica fume) admixture. The second concrete mix uses a Type V cement with a pozzolan admixture and has approximately four percent entrained air

  7. Operational safety of near surface waste disposal facilities in the Republic of Moldova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursulean, I.; Balaban, V.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last few years, the Republic of Moldova, with assistance from the IAEA, undertook the establishment of the legislative and normative basis consisting of a regulatory body infrastructure, including a monitoring optimization strategy concerning radioactive waste management safety. At present the following work is underway: the introduction of a new law 'About Radiation Safety and Population Protection', the re-implementation of a normative base, and the incorporation of the IAEA Basic Safety Standards through the national legislation. Presently in the Republic of Moldova, there exists a system of radioactive waste management, comprising collection, disposal, transportation and storage. This system consists of the radioactive material users, the designated disposal facility and the regulatory bodies. (author)

  8. Adhesion characterization of tungsten mine waste geopolymeric binder. Influence of OPC concrete substance surface treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Gomes, J. P. Castro; Jalali, Said

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten mine waste mud (TMWM) was investigated for its potential use as repair material of ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete. Bond strength between OPC concrete substrate and three repair materials was analysed. TMWM geopolymeric binder and two commercial repair products were used as repair materials. Bond strength behaviour was assessed from slant shear tests. A total of 128 slant shear specimens were made in order to evaluate bond strength at 1, 3, 7 and 28 days curing. Four ki...

  9. Environmental impact of APC residues from municipal solid waste incineration: reuse assessment based on soil and surface water protection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quina, Margarida J; Bordado, João C M; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2011-01-01

    Waste management and environmental protection are mandatory requirements of modern society. In our study, air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) were considered as a mixture of fly ash and fine particulate solids collected in scrubbers and fabric filters. These are hazardous wastes and require treatment before landfill. Although there are a number of treatment options, it is highly recommended to find practical applications rather than just dump them in landfill sites. In general, for using a construction material, beyond technical specifications also soil and surface water criteria may be used to ensure environmental protection. The Dutch Building Materials Decree (BMD) is a valuable tool in this respect and it was used to investigate which properties do not meet the threshold criteria so that APC residues can be further used as secondary building material. To this end, some scenarios were evaluated by considering release of inorganic species from unmoulded and moulded applications. The main conclusion is that the high amount of soluble salts makes the APC residues a building material prohibited in any of the conditions tested. In case of moulding materials, the limits of heavy metals are complied, and their use in Category 1 would be allowed. However, also in this case, the soluble salts lead to the classification of "building material not allowed". The treatments with phosphates or silicates are able to solve the problem of heavy metals, but difficulties with the soluble salts are still observed. This analysis suggests that for APC residues to comply with soil and surface water protection criteria to be further used as building material at least a pre-treating for removing soluble salts is absolutely required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Monitoring of surface deformation and microseismicity applied to radioactive waste disposal through hydraulic fracturing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stow, S.H.; Haase, C.S.; Switek, J.; Holzhausen, G.R.; Majer, E.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level liquid nuclear wastes are disposed of at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by the hydrofracture process. Wastes are mixed with cement and other additives to form a slurry that is injected into shale of low permeability at 300 m depth. The slurry spreads radially along bedding plane fractures before setting as a grout. Different methods for monitoring the location and behavior of the fractures have been investigated. Radioactive grout sheets can be located by gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells. Two other methods are based on the fact that the ground surface is deformed by the injection. The first entails surface leveling of a series of benchmarks; uplift up to 2.5 cm occurs. The second method involves use of tiltmeters that are sensitive and measure ground deformation in real time during an injection. Both methods show subsidence during the weeks following an injection. Interpretive models for the tiltmeter data are based on the elastic response of isotropic and anisotropic media to the inflation of a fluid-filled fracture. A fourth monitoring method is based on microseismicity. Geophone arrays were used to characterize the fracture process and to provide initial assessment of the feasibility of using seismic measurements to map the fractures as they form. An evaluation of each method is presented. 8 refs., 6 figs

  11. Monitoring of surface deformation and microseismicity applied to radioactive waste disposal through hydraulic fracturing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stow, S.H.; Haase, C.S.; Switek, J.; Holzhausen, G.R.; Majer, E.; Applied Geomechanics, Inc., Santa Cruz, CA; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA)

    1985-01-01

    Low-level liquid nuclear wastes are disposed of at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by the hydrofracture process. Wastes are mixed with cement and other additives to form a slurry that is injected into shale of low permeability at 300 m depth. The slurry spreads radially along bedding plane fractures before setting as a grout. Different methods for monitoring the location and behavior of the fractures have been investigated. Radioactive grout sheets can be located by gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells. Two other methods are based on the fact that the ground surface is deformed by the injection. The first entails surface leveling of a series of benchmarks; uplift up to 2.5 cm occurs. The second method involves use of tiltmeters that are sensitive and measure ground deformation in real time during an injection. Both methods show subsidence during the weeks following an injection. Interpretive models for the tiltmeter data are based on the elastic response of isotropic and anisotropic media to the inflation of a fluid-filled fracture. A fourth monitoring method is based on microseismicity. Geophone arrays were used to characterize the fracture process and to provide initial assessment of the feasibility of using seismic measurements to map the fractures as they form. An evaluation of each method is presented

  12. Derivation of quantitative acceptance criteria for disposal of radioactive waste to near surface facilities: Development and implementation of an approach for the post-closure phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, C.

    2000-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has established a project to develop and illustrate, through practical examples, an approach that allows the derivation of quantitative waste acceptance criteria for near surface disposal of radioactive waste. The first phase focussed on the derivation of example post-closure safety waste acceptance criteria through the use of a safety assessment approach that allows for the derivation of values in a clear and well documented manner. The approach consists of five steps: the specification of the assessment context; the description of the disposal system; the development and justification of scenarios; the formulation and implementation of models; and the calculation and derivation of example values. The approach has been successfully used to derive activity values for the disposal of radioactive waste to illustrative near surface facilities. (author)

  13. The management system for the disposal of radioactive waste. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations on developing and implementing management systems for all phases of facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste and related activities. It covers the management systems for managing the different stages of waste disposal facilities, such as siting, design and construction, operation (i.e. the activities, which can extend over several decades, involving receipt of the waste product in its final packaging (if it is to be disposed of in packaged form), waste emplacement in the waste disposal facility, backfilling and sealing, and any subsequent period prior to closure), closure and the period of institutional control (i.e. either active control - monitoring, surveillance and remediation; or passive control - restricted land use). The management systems apply to various types of disposal facility for different categories of radioactive waste, such as: near surface (for low level waste), geological (for low, intermediate and/or high level waste), boreholes (for sealed sources), surface impoundment (for mining and milling waste) and landfill (for very low level waste). It also covers management systems for related processes and activities, such as extended monitoring and surveillance during the period of active institutional control in the post-closure phase, safety and performance assessments and development of the safety case for the waste disposal facility and regulatory authorization (e.g. licensing). This Safety Guide is intended to be used by organizations that are directly involved in, or that regulate, the facilities and activities described in paras 1.15 and 1.16, and by the suppliers of nuclear safety related products that are required to meet some or all of the requirements established in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-3 'The Management System for Facilities and Activities'. It will also be useful to legislators and to members of the public and other parties interested in the nuclear

  14. Development of Risk Insights for Regulatory Review of a Near-Surface Disposal Facility for Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esh, D.W.; Ridge, A.C.; Thaggard, M.

    2006-01-01

    Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consult with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) about non-High Level Waste (HLW) determinations. In its consultative role, NRC performs technical reviews of DOE's waste determinations but does not have regulatory authority over DOE's waste disposal activities. The safety of disposal is evaluated by comparing predicted disposal facility performance to the performance objectives specified in NRC regulations for the disposal of low-level waste (10 CFR Part 61 Subpart C). The performance objectives contain criteria for protection of the public, protection of inadvertent intruders, protection of workers, and stability of the disposal site after closure. The potential radiological dose to receptors typically is evaluated with a performance assessment (PA) model that simulates the release of radionuclides from the disposal site, transport of radionuclides through the environment, and exposure of potential receptors to residual contamination for thousands of years. This paper describes NRC's development and use of independent performance assessment modeling to facilitate review of DOE's non-HLW determination for the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) at the Savannah River Site. NRC's review of the safety of near-surface disposal of radioactive waste at the SDF was facilitated and focused by risk insights developed with an independent PA model. The main components of NRC's performance assessment model are presented. The development of risk insights that allow the staff to focus review efforts on those areas that are most important to satisfying the performance objectives is discussed. Uncertainty analysis was performed of the full stochastic model using genetic variable selection algorithms. The results of the uncertainty analysis were then used to guide the development of simulations of other scenarios to understand the key risk

  15. Modeling of 3d Space-time Surface of Potential Fields and Hydrogeologic Modeling of Nuclear Waste Disposal Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestopalov, V.; Bondarenko, Y.; Zayonts, I.; Rudenko, Y.

    Introduction After the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) disaster (04.26.1986) a huge amount (over 2000 sq. km) of nuclear wastes appeared within so-called "Cher- nobyl Exclusion Zone" (CEZ). At present there are not enough storage facilities in the Ukraine for safe disposal of nuclear wastes and hazardous chemical wastes. The urgent problem now is safe isolation of these dangerous wastes. According to the developed state program of radioactive waste management, the construction of a na- tional storage facility of nuclear wastes is planned. It is also possible to create regional storage facilities for hazardous chemical wastes. The region of our exploration cov- ers the eastern part of the Korosten Plutone and its slope, reaching the CNPP. 3D Space-Time Surface Imaging of Geophysical Fields. There are only three direct meth- ods of stress field reconstruction in present practice, namely the field investigations based on the large-scale fracturing tests, petrotectonic and optical polarization meth- ods. Unfortunately, all these methods are extremely laborious and need the regular field tests, which is difficult to conduct in the areas of anisotropic rock outcrops. A compilation of magnetic and gravity data covering the CNPP area was carried out as a prelude to an interpretation study. More than thirty map products were generated from magnetic, gravity and geodesy data to prepare the 3D Space-Time Surface Images (3D STSI). Multi-layer topography and geophysic surfaces included: total magnetic intensity, isostatically-corrected Bouguer gravity, aspect and slope, first and second derivatives, vertical and horizontal curvature, histogram characteristics and space cor- relation coefficients between the gradient fields. Many maps shows the first and sec- ond derivatives of the potential fields, with the results of lineament (edge) structure detection superimposed. The lineament or edges of the potential fields are located from maximal gradient in many directions

  16. Consideration of post-closure controls for a near surface low level waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, R.; Pinner, A.; Smith, A.; Quartermaine, J.

    1997-01-01

    There is currently an ongoing programme of disposal of low level radioactive wastes by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) at Drigg, Cumbria, and this programme is likely to continue through the first few decades of the 21st century. Although control of the site is anticipated for a period of about 100 years post-closure, eventually restrictions on access will lapse. Thereafter, the possibility of human actions leading to exposure to, and/or exhumation of, the wastes exists and has to be addressed in post-closure radiological performance assessments. Potential modes of intrusion into the Drigg site have been studied using a suite of computer codes developed specifically for this purpose. Required inputs to these codes include information on possible future uses of the site and the various human actions associated with those uses. This information was obtained from a group of experts using formal elicitation procedures. Although the most likely site uses, notably those involving agricultural activities, are unlikely to result in intrusion into the wastes, others, such a urban development, do have the potential to result in such intrusion. In these circumstances, it seemed appropriate to give consideration to the degree to which documentary records and markers could protect the Drigg site against intrusive activities. Overall, it is concluded that provided that a variety of documentary records are established, ranging from local council archives to mass produced maps, then memory of the site can realistically be assumed whilst civilization continues to exist. However, if this first line of defence fails, markers constitute a second warning system. Finally, assessment calculations can be used to demonstrate that, even if these two lines of defence fail, risks from intrusion and radiation doses contingent upon intrusive events having occurred would not be unacceptably large. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Sediment transport to and from small impoundments in northeast Kansas, March 2009 through September 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Guy M.; Lee, Casey J.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Water Office, investigated sediment transport to and from three small impoundments (average surface area of 0.1 to 0.8 square miles) in northeast Kansas during March 2009 through September 2011. Streamgages and continuous turbidity sensors were operated upstream and downstream from Atchison County, Banner Creek, and Centralia Lakes to study the effect of varied watershed characteristics and agricultural practices on sediment transport in small watersheds in northeast Kansas. Atchison County Lake is located in a predominantly agricultural basin of row crops, with wide riparian buffers along streams, a substantial amount of tile drainage, and numerous small impoundments (less than 0.05 square miles; hereafter referred to as “ponds”). Banner Creek Lake is a predominantly grassland basin with numerous small ponds located in the watershed, and wide riparian buffers along streams. Centralia Lake is a predominantly agricultural basin of row crops with few ponds, few riparian buffers along streams, and minimal tile drainage. Upstream from Atchison County, Banner Creek, and Centralia Lakes 24, 38, and 32 percent, respectively, of the total load was transported during less than 0.1 percent (approximately 0.9 days) of the time. Despite less streamflow in 2011, larger sediment loads during that year indicate that not all storm events transport the same amount of sediment; larger, extreme storms during the spring may transport much larger sediment loads in small Kansas watersheds. Annual sediment yields were 360, 400, and 970 tons per square mile per year at Atchison County, Banner, and Centralia Lake watersheds, respectively, which were less than estimated yields for this area of Kansas (between 2,000 and 5,000 tons per square mile per year). Although Centralia and Atchison County Lakes had similar percentages of agricultural land use, mean annual sediment yields upstream from Centralia Lake were about 2.7 times

  18. ORNL results for Test Case 1 of the International Atomic Energy Agency's research program on the safety assessment of Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, D.J.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.; Kocher, D.C.; Little, C.A.; Roemer, E.K.

    1993-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started the Coordinated Research Program entitled '''The Safety Assessment of Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities.'' The program is aimed at improving the confidence in the modeling results for safety assessments of waste disposal facilities. The program has been given the acronym NSARS (Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Safety Assessment Reliability Study) for ease of reference. The purpose of this report is to present the ORNL modeling results for the first test case (i.e., Test Case 1) of the IAEA NSARS program. Test Case 1 is based on near-surface disposal of radionuclides that are subsequently leached to a saturated-sand aquifer. Exposure to radionuclides results from use of a well screened in the aquifer and from intrusion into the repository. Two repository concepts were defined in Test Case 1: a simple earth trench and an engineered vault

  19. Bentonite engineered barrier building method for radioactive waste on sub-surface disposal test project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Takuo; Takahashi, Shinichi; Takeuchi, Kunifumi; Namiki, Kazuto

    2008-01-01

    The engineering barriers such as clay and concrete materials are planned to use for covering radioactive waste in cavern-type disposal facility. The requirement to clay barrier is very low permeability, which could be satisfied by high density Bentonite, and such a compaction method will be needed. Two methods, compaction and air shot, were tested in engineering scale for constructing a high-density clay barrier. Two types of compaction equipments, 'Teasel plate' and 'Plate compacter', were developed and engineering scale experiments were performed for compacting Bentonite only and Bentonite-sand-aggregate mixture. As a result, the Teasel plate can reach higher density Bentonite in relatively short time in comparison to other equipments. While, regarding air shot method, an air-shot machine in a tunnel construction site was tested by different water adding methods (wet, dry, and half wet). It is concluded that the dry and half wet constructing methods will achieve reasonable workability. As a result, the best construction option can be chosen according to the locations of radioactive waste facility. (author)

  20. Geomorphological assessment of sites and impoundments for the long term containment of uranium mill tailings in the Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    East, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Current and future research into the geomorphological processes likely to affect the long term containment of uranium mill tailings in the Alligator Rivers Region is directed at three main areas: identification of geomorphic hazards at proposed impoundment sites; determination of erosion rates on impoundment slopes; and prediction of patterns of fluvial dispersal of released tailings. Each necessitates consideration of present and future geomorphic processes. Process rates during the next few thousand years might be predictable by extrapolation of contemporary and past (i.e. Holocene) climates, sea-levels and depositional environments, evidence for which is preserved in the sedimentary record. In current projects, the Late Quarternary stratigraphy of Magela Creek are examined to provide data for modelling of present and future sedimentological processes. Site stability evaluation entails recognition of present and future geomorphic hazards at impoundment sites, and includes fluvial and hillslope erosion, extreme flood events and mass movements. The life of a tailings impoundment is further determined by the intensity of erosional processes acting upon its slopes and their cover materials. A knowledge of present and future erosion rates will allow the optimisation of slope characteristics and materials in the impoundment design

  1. ECONOMIC INDICATORS OF ROAD SURFACES RECONSTRUCTIONS IN THE WORLD USING NON-WASTE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilyara Kyazymovna Izmaylova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the cost formation of restoration of road surfaces using the methods of replacing and processing the damaged layers. There is a mathematical model of cost of the one unit of production including the cost of building materials with delivery. The estimation of the total cost of repairs in the variable amount using the technology of full replacement of the surface and processing technology of the 50% of the material on the site.

  2. Preparation and characterization of high-surface-area activated carbon fibers from silkworm cocoon waste for congo red adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jia; Ng, Dickon H.L.; Song, Peng; Kong, Chao; Song, Yi; Yang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report the preparation of activated carbon fibers from silkworm cocoon waste via the combination of (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 -pretreatment and KOH activation. The morphology, phase structure and surface chemistry constitute of the obtained ACFs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, Micro Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis and N 2 adsorption–desorption isotherm. The effects of various factors such as the concentration of (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 and the activation time of KOH were also evaluated. These results demonstrated that the synthesized ACFs retained the fibrous morphology of silkworm cocoon waste, and exhibited highly defective graphite layer structure. A large amount of surface oxygen-containing functional groups were found on the ACFs surface. The obtained samples exhibited high BET surface areas ranging from 1153 to 2797 m 2  g −1 , total pore volumes of 0.64–1.74 cm 3  g −1 with micropore volume fractions between 75.2 and 93.6%. In addition, we also evaluated the congo red (CR) adsorption performance of the obtained ACFs. The CR adsorption fitted well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Adsorption isotherm data indicated that the adsorption of CR onto ACFs was monolayer adsorption which followed well the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity of CR was 512 g kg −1 . The mechanism of the adsorption process was also described from the intraparticle diffusion model. - Highlights: • A new biomass fibroin precursor for activated carbon fibers (ACFs) was proposed. • High specific surface area (2797 m 2  g −1 ) and total pore volume (1.74 cm 3  g −1 ) were obtained. • The original fibrous structure of raw silkworm cocoons was retained in the ACF product. • Congo red maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of our ACF product was up to 1100 g kg −1

  3. Optimization of the Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil with Mg-Al Hydrotalcite Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureano Costarrosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, biodiesel has become a very promising alternative to fossil diesel fuel, regarding environmental concerns and fuel resource depletion. Biodiesel is usually produced through homogeneous or heterogeneous transesterification of different fatty raw materials. Although main research has been carried out with homogenous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts may be of interest due to ease of recovery and recycling, as well as readiness for continuous processing. In this work, calcined Mg-Al hydrotalcite (HT was used for the heterogeneous transesterification of waste cooking oil. Three reaction parameters, namely, reaction time, amount of catalyst, and methanol-to-oil molar ratio, were optimized by means of Response Surface Methodology (RSM at constant temperature (65 °C, using a Box-Behnken design. Optimal fatty acid methyl ester (FAME content (86.23% w/w FAME/sample was predicted by the model with an R-squared value of 98.45%, using 3.39 g of HT (8.5% w/w oil and an 8:1 methanol-oil molar ratio, for a duration of 3.12 h. It was observed that calcination of HT, while avoiding the previous washing step, allowed the presence of chemical species that enhanced the effect of the catalyst. It can be concluded from this field trial that calcined and nonwashed Mg-Al hydrotalcite may be considered an effective basic catalyst for the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. Also, RSM proved to be a useful tool for predicting biodiesel yield.

  4. Transesterification of Waste Cooking Sunflower Oil by Porcine Pancreas Lipase Using Response Surface Methodology for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Ebrahimi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Biodiesel production from recycled vegetable oils is considered as an economically acceptable alternative for fossil fuels in the recent years. In this work, porcine pancreas lipase as an active catalyst in transesterification reaction of waste cooking sunflower oil with methanol for biodiesel production was used.Material and Methods: In order to define optimum process parameters and predict the best results, response surface methodology and the central composite design was performed. The effects of methanol to oil molar ratio, lipase concentration and reaction temperature on transesterification were investigated. Biodiesel production was carried out in 25 ml shake flasks at 180 rpm for 72 h.Results and Conclusion: Under optimal conditions, the biodiesel yield was 75% which was nearly consistent with the predicted yield of 76%. At optimal conditions the molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction temperature, and lipase percent were determined as 3:1, 44°C and 4.4%, respectively. Due to relatively high obtained yield, biodiesel production from waste cooking sunflower oil has provided a sound environmental and commercial process.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  5. Application of Response Surface Methodology on Leaching of Iron from Partially Laterised Khondalite Rocks: A Bauxite Mining Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Ranjita; Bhima Rao, R.

    2018-04-01

    In the present investigation, response surface methodology (RSM) is used for a quadratic model that continuously controls the process parameters. This model is used to optimize the removal of iron oxide from Partially Laterised Khondalite (PLK) rocks which is influenced by several independent variables namely acid concentration, time and temperature. Second order response functions are produced for leaching of iron oxide from PLK rocks-a bauxite mining waste. In RSM, Box-Behnken design is used for the process optimization to achieve maximum removal of iron oxide. The influence of the process variables of leaching of iron oxide is presented in the form of 3-D response graphs. The results of this investigation reveals that 3 M hydrochloric acid concentration, 240 min time and 373 K temperature are found to be the best conditions for removal of 99% Fe2O3. The product obtain at this condition contain 80% brightness which is suitable for ceramic and filler industry applications. The novelity of the work is that the waste can be a value added product after suitable physical beneficiation and chemical treatment.

  6. Effects of vegetation and soil-surface cover treatments on the hydrologic behavior of low-level waste trench caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, E.A.; Barnes, F.J.; Antonio, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented on a three-year field study at Los Alamos National Laboratory to evaluate the influence of different low-level radioactive waste trench cap designs on water balance under natural precipitation. Erosion plots having two different vegetative covers (shrubs and grasses) and with either gravel-mulched or unmulched soil surface treatments have been established on three different soil profiles on a decommissioned waste site. Total runoff and soil loss from each plot is measured after each precipitation event. Soil moisture is measured biweekly while plant canopy cover is measured seasonally. Preliminary results from the first year show that the application of a gravel mulch reduced runoff by 73 to 90%. Total soil loss was reduced by 83 to 93% by the mulch treatment. On unmulched plots, grass cover reduced both runoff and soil loss by about 50% compared to the shrub plots. Continued monitoring of the study site will provide data that will be used to analyze complex interactions between independent variables such rainfall amount and intensity, antecedent soil moisture, and soil and vegetation factors, as they influence water balance, and soil erosion. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Standard criteria for disposal of liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants into surface waters (river systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarev, V.V.; Tsybizov, I.S.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive products discharge into natural water streams results in the necessity to regulate nuclear power plant discharges to ensure radiation safety (RS) for population using a river and surrounding river territory. To ensure RS it is necessary to set scientific-founded standards of permissible discharge level of liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) from nuclear power plant assuring observance of hygienic requirements for surface water puring. Volume of permissible LRW discharge into river systems must be set both with provision for concrete physical-geographycal conditions, specficity of utilizing the river and river valley and social-economical peculiarities of crtical population groups. The value of permissible LRW discharge into river systems is determined by three criterion groups: radiological, ecological and hydrological ones. By means of radiological group the internal and external irradiation doses for the whole body and its separate organs are set and RS of population is determined. Ecological criteria include a number of parameters (coefficients of accumulation, distribution and transition) determining quantitative ratios between radioactive element contents in water and separate links of biological chains: soil/water, fish/water, vegetables/water and others. Hydrological criteria determine the degree of waste dilution in rivers, control radioactive contamination of flood-lands areas and in common with ecological criteria determine radionuclide contents in soil and food products. A method of determining average annual values of LRW dilution in river waters is presented [ru

  8. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in Taiwan's surface waters: impact of waste streams from hospitals and pharmaceutical production facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Tsai, Yu-Ting

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the occurrence and distribution of pharmaceuticals (including antibiotics, estrogens, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), beta-blockers, and lipid regulators) in three rivers and in the waste streams of six hospitals and four pharmaceutical production facilities in Taiwan. The most frequently detected pharmaceuticals were acetaminophen, erythromycin-H(2)O, sulfamethoxazole, and gemfibrozil. NSAIDs were the next most-often detected compounds, with a detection frequency >60%. The other analytes were not detected or were seen in only a few samples at trace concentrations. The present study demonstrates a significant discharge of human medications from hospital and drug production facilities into surface waters in the Taipei district. The high concentrations of pharmaceuticals found in the Sindian and Dahan rivers demonstrate the alarming degree to which they have been impacted by urban drainage (waste effluents from hospitals, households, and pharmaceutical production facilities). The ubiquitous occurrence at extremely high concentrations of acetaminophen and erythromycin-H(2)O in both rivers (up to 15.7 and 75.5 microg/L) and in wastewater from hospitals and pharmaceutical production facilities (up to 417.5 and 7.84 microg/L) was unique. This finding, in combination with acetaminophen's status as the drug most often prescribed by Taiwan's dominant clinical institute, suggests the potential use of acetaminophen as a molecular indicator of contamination of Taiwan's aqueous environments with untreated urban drainage.

  9. Application of Response Surface Methodology on Leaching of Iron from Partially Laterised Khondalite Rocks: A Bauxite Mining Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Ranjita; Bhima Rao, R.

    2017-08-01

    In the present investigation, response surface methodology (RSM) is used for a quadratic model that continuously controls the process parameters. This model is used to optimize the removal of iron oxide from Partially Laterised Khondalite (PLK) rocks which is influenced by several independent variables namely acid concentration, time and temperature. Second order response functions are produced for leaching of iron oxide from PLK rocks-a bauxite mining waste. In RSM, Box-Behnken design is used for the process optimization to achieve maximum removal of iron oxide. The influence of the process variables of leaching of iron oxide is presented in the form of 3-D response graphs. The results of this investigation reveals that 3 M hydrochloric acid concentration, 240 min time and 373 K temperature are found to be the best conditions for removal of 99% Fe2O3. The product obtain at this condition contain 80% brightness which is suitable for ceramic and filler industry applications. The novelity of the work is that the waste can be a value added product after suitable physical beneficiation and chemical treatment.

  10. 40 CFR 63.134 - Process wastewater provisions-surface impoundments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and semi-annually thereafter, for improper work practices and control equipment failures in accordance... this subpart, when an improper work practice or a control equipment failure is identified, first... treats a Group 1 wastewater stream or a residual removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream, the owner or...

  11. Relationships among catch, angler catisfaction, and fish assemblage characteristics of an urban small impoundment fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivasauskas, Tomas J.; Xiong, Wilson N.; Engman, Augustin C.; Fischer, Jesse R.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Rundle, Kirk R.

    2017-01-01

    Urban fisheries provide unique angling opportunities for people from traditionally underrepresented demographics. Lake Raleigh is a 38-ha impoundment located on the North Carolina State University campus in Raleigh. Like many urban fisheries, little is known about angler use and satisfaction or how angling catch rate is related to fish availability in Lake Raleigh. We characterized the recreational fishery and fish assemblage with concurrent creel and boat electrofishing surveys over the course of one year. In total, 245 anglers were interviewed on 68 survey days. On average, anglers spent 1.7 h fishing per trip and caught 0.385 fish h –1. A large proportion of anglers (43.9%) targeted multiple species, whereas 36.5% targeted largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), 10.0% targeted panfish (i.e., sunfishes [Lepomis spp.] and crappies [Pomoxis spp.]), and 9.6% targeted catfish (Ameiurus spp. and Ictalurus spp.). Most anglers (69.4%) were satisfied with their experience, and overall satisfaction was unrelated to catch rate. Pulsed-DC boat electrofishing was conducted on 25 dates, and 617 fish were sampled. Angler catch rate was unrelated to electrofishing catch rate, implying that anglers' catch rate was independent of fish density or availability. Our results demonstrate that even minimally managed urban fisheries can provide high angler satisfaction, with limited dedication of management resources. Relationships Among Catch, Angler Satisfaction, and Fish Assemblage Characteristics of an Urban Small Impoundment Fishery (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/316636550_Relationships_Among_Catch_Angler_Satisfaction_and_Fish_Assemblage_Characteristics_of_an_Urban_Small_Impoundment_Fishery [accessed Aug 11, 2017].

  12. Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins are present in drinking water impoundments and groundwater wells in desert environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziefthimiou, Aspassia D; Metcalf, James S; Glover, W Broc; Banack, Sandra A; Dargham, Soha R; Richer, Renee A

    2016-05-01

    Desert environments and drylands experience a drastic scarcity of water resources. To alleviate dependence on freshwater for drinking water needs, countries have invested in infrastructure development of desalination plants. Collectively, the countries of the Arabian Gulf produce 45% of the world's desalinated water, which is stored in dams, mega-reservoirs and secondary house water tanks to secure drinking water beyond daily needs. Improper storage practices of drinking water in impoundments concomitant with increased temperatures and light penetration may promote the growth of cyanobacteria and accumulation of cyanotoxins. To shed light on this previously unexplored research area in desert environments, we examined drinking and irrigation water of urban and rural environments to determine whether cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins are present, and what are the storage and transportation practices as well as the environmental parameters that best predict their presence. Cyanobacteria were present in 80% of the urban and 33% of the rural water impoundments. Neurotoxins BMAA, DAB and anatoxin-a(S) were not detected in any of the water samples, although they have been found to accumulate in the desert soils, which suggests a bioaccumulation potential if they are leached into the aquifer. A toxic BMAA isomer, AEG, was found in 91.7% of rural but none of the urban water samples and correlated with water-truck transportation, light exposure and chloride ions. The hepatotoxic cyanotoxin microcystin-LR was present in the majority of all sampled impoundments, surpassing the WHO provisional guideline of 1 μg/l in 30% of the urban water tanks. Finally, we discuss possible management strategies to improve storage and transportation practices in order to minimize exposure to cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins, and actions to promote sustainable use of limited water resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Converting biomass waste into microporous carbon with simultaneously high surface area and carbon purity as advanced electrochemical energy storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Wang, Lijie; Peng, Yiting; Gao, Jihui; Pi, Xinxin; Qu, Zhibin; Zhao, Guangbo; Qin, Yukun

    2018-04-01

    Developing carbon materials featuring both high accessible surface area and high structure stability are desirable to boost the performance of constructed electrochemical electrodes and devices. Herein, we report a new type of microporous carbon (MPC) derived from biomass waste based on a simple high-temperature chemical activation procedure. The optimized MPC-900 possesses microporous structure, high surface area, partially graphitic structure, and particularly low impurity content, which are critical features for enhancing carbon-based electrochemical process. The constructed MPC-900 symmetric supercapacitor exhibits high performances in commercial organic electrolyte such as widened voltage window up to 3 V and thereby high energy/power densities (50.95 Wh kg-1 at 0.44 kW kg-1; 25.3 Wh kg-1 at 21.5 kW kg-1). Furthermore, a simple melt infiltration method has been employed to enclose SnO2 nanocrystals onto the carbon matrix of MPC-900 as a high-performance lithium storage material. The obtained SnO2-MPC composite with ultrafine SnO2 nanocrystals delivers high capacities (1115 mAh g-1 at 0.2 A g-1; 402 mAh g-1 at 10 A g-1) and high-rate cycling lifespan of over 2000 cycles. This work not only develops a microporous carbon with high carbon purity and high surface area, but also provides a general platform for combining electrochemically active materials.

  14. Surface treatment with Fenton for separation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and polyvinylchloride waste plastics by flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Chao; Wang, Hui; Huang, Luo-Luo; Wang, Chong-Qing

    2017-09-01

    Surface treatment with Fenton was applied to flotation separation of acrylonitrile-butadienestyrene (ABS) and polyvinylchloride (PVC). After treatment, the floatability of ABS has a dramatic decrease, while the floatability of PVC is not affected. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra were recorded to ascertain the mechanism of Fenton treatment. FT-IR and XPS analysis confirms that the introduction of oxygen-containing group occurs on the surface of ABS. The optimum conditions are molar ration (H 2 O 2 :Fe 2+ ) 10000, H 2 O 2 concentration 0.4M/L, pH 5.8, treatment time 2min and temperature 25°C, frother concentration 15mg/L and flotation time 3min. Particle sizes and mixing ratios were also investigated. Plastic mixtures of ABS and PVC with different particle sizes and mixing ratios can be effectively separated. The purity of ABS and PVC are up to 100% and 99.78%, respectively; the recovery of ABS and PVC are up to 99.89% and 100%, respectively. A practical, environmentally friendly and effective reagent, namely Fenton, was originally applied to surface treatment of ABS and PVC waste plastics for flotation separation of their mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of the surface crystallization and resistance to dissolution of niobium phosphate glasses for nuclear waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Heveline

    2008-01-01

    The surface crystallization and the dissolution rate of three phosphate glass compositions containing different amounts of niobium oxide were studied. The glasses were named Nb30, Nb37, and Nb44 according to the nominal content of niobium oxide in the glass composition. The three compositions were evaluated keeping the P 2 O 5 /K 2 O ratio constant and varying the amount of Nb 2 O 5 . These glasses were produced by melting appropriate chemical compounds at 1500 deg C for 0.5 hour. The crystalline phases which were nucleated on the glass surface after heat treatment were determined by X-ray diffraction. The crystalline structures depend on the amount of niobium oxide in the glass composition. The crystal morphologies were observed by using an optical microscope, and their characteristics are specific for each kind of crystalline phase. The crystal growth rate and the surface nuclei density were determined for each glass composition, and they depend on each crystalline phase nucleated on the surface. From the differential thermal analysis curves it was determined that the Nb44 glass containing 46.5 mol por cent of niobium oxide is the most thermally stable against crystallization when compared to the Nb30 and Nb37 glasses. According to the activation energies determined for crystal growth on the surface of each glass type, the Nb44 glass can also be considered the most resistant one against crystallization. The dissolution rate for the Nb44 glass after 14 days immersed in an aqueous solution with pH equals to 7 at 90 deg C is the lowest (9.0 x 10 -7 g. cm -2 . day -1 ) when compared to the other two glass compositions. The dissolution rates in acidic and neutral solutions of all studied glasses meet the international standards for materials which can be used in the immobilization of nuclear wastes. (author)

  16. Decommissioning of surface facilities associated with repositories for the deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.

    1978-11-01

    A methodology is presented in this paper to evaluate the decommissioning of the surface facilities associated with repositories for the deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. A cost/risk index (figure of merit), expressed as $/manrem, is proposed as an evaluation criteria. On the basis of this cost/risk index, we gain insight into the advisability of adapting certain decontamination design options into the original facility. Three modes are considered: protective storage, entombment, and dismantlement. Cost estimates are made for the direct labor involved in each of the alternative modes for a baseline design case. Similarly, occupational radiation exposures are estimated, with a larger degree of uncertainty, for each of the modes. Combination of these estimates produces the cost/risk index. To illustrate the methodology, an example using a preliminary baseline repository design is discussed

  17. contaminant migration in a sand aquifer near an inactive uranium tailings impoundment, Elliot Lake, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, K.A.; Cherry, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of the movement of contaminated groundwater from inactive uranium tailings through a sand aquifer is being conducted at the Nordic Main tailings impoundment near Elliot Lake, Ontario. During 1979 and 1980, multilevel bundle-type piezometers were installed at several locations around the edge of the tailings impoundment. Chemical analysis of water samples from the bundle piezometers indicate that a major contaminant plume extends outward through a sand aquifer from the southeastern part of the Nordic Main impoundment dam. In the vincinity of the contaminant plume, the sand aquifer varies in thickness from about 9 to 15 m. The plume has two distinct segments, referred to as the inner core and the outer zone. The inner core, which has a pH of 4.3-5.0 and extends about 15 m from the foot of the tailings dam, contains several grams per litre of iron and sulfate, and tens of pCi/L of 226 Ra and 210 Pb. Water levels in piezometers within the inner core show that groundwater is moving horizontally, away from the tailings impoundment, with a velocity of up to several hundred metres per year. The outer zone, which extends a few hundred metres downgradient from the dam, is characterized by hundreds to thousands of milligrams per litre of iron and sulfate, less than 15pCi/L of 226 Ra, and a pH greater than 5.7. Comparison of 1979 and 1980 data shows that the front of the inner core is advancing a few metres per year, which is less than a few percent of the groundwater velocity. This retardation of movement of the inner core is caused by neutralization of the acidic water as a result of dissolution of calcium carbonate in the sand. With the rise in pH, precipitation of iron carbonate and possibly some iron hydroxide occurs and the contaminants of main concern such as 226 Ra, 210 Pb, and uranium are removed from solution by adsorption or coprecipitation

  18. Identification of candidate sites for a near surface repository for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motiejunas, S.

    2004-01-01

    This Report comprises results of the area survey stage, which involves regional screening to define the regions of interest and identification of potential sites within suitable regions. The main goal was to define a few sites potentially suitable for constructing of the near surface repository. It was concluded that a vicinity of Ignalina NPP is among the best suitable regions for the near surface repository. At the present investigation level a ridge in Galilauke village has the most favorable conditions. However, Apvardai site is potentially suitable for the repository too

  19. Environmental impact of APC residues from municipal solid waste incineration: Reuse assessment based on soil and surface water protection criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quina, Margarida J.; Bordado, Joao C.M.; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The Dutch Building Material Decree (BMD) was used to APC residues from MSWI. → BMD is a straightforward tool to calculate expectable loads to the environment of common pollutants. → Chloride load to the environment lead to classification of building material not allowed. → At least a pre-treatment (e.g. washing) is required in order to remove soluble salts. → The stabilization with phosphates or silicates eliminate the problem of heavy metals. - Abstract: Waste management and environmental protection are mandatory requirements of modern society. In our study, air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) were considered as a mixture of fly ash and fine particulate solids collected in scrubbers and fabric filters. These are hazardous wastes and require treatment before landfill. Although there are a number of treatment options, it is highly recommended to find practical applications rather than just dump them in landfill sites. In general, for using a construction material, beyond technical specifications also soil and surface water criteria may be used to ensure environmental protection. The Dutch Building Materials Decree (BMD) is a valuable tool in this respect and it was used to investigate which properties do not meet the threshold criteria so that APC residues can be further used as secondary building material. To this end, some scenarios were evaluated by considering release of inorganic species from unmoulded and moulded applications. The main conclusion is that the high amount of soluble salts makes the APC residues a building material prohibited in any of the conditions tested. In case of moulding materials, the limits of heavy metals are complied, and their use in Category 1 would be allowed. However, also in this case, the soluble salts lead to the classification of 'building material not allowed'. The treatments with phosphates or silicates are able to solve the problem of heavy metals, but

  20. Crumb waste tire rubber surface modification by plasma polymerization of ethanol and its application on oil-well cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaowei, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); Sheng, Huang [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); School of Oil and Natural Gas Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); Xiaoyang, Guo, E-mail: guoxiaoyangswpi@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); School of Oil and Natural Gas Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); Wenhui, Duan, E-mail: wenhui.duan@monash.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Melbourne 3800 (Australia)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • The crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was modified by plasma polymerization of ethanol. • Hydrophilic groups were introduced onto WTR surface and improved its hydrophilia. • The functionalized crumb WTR was applied in oil-well cement. • The mechanical properties of modified oil-well cement were intensively enhanced. - Abstract: Crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was pretreated by oxygen low temperature plasma (LTP) and modified by LTP polymerization process of ethanol monomer to improve the adhesion property with oil-well cement matrix and the mechanical properties of cement. The surface properties of modified crumb WTR and the mechanical properties and structures of modified oil-well cement were investigated by means of contact angle measurement, dispersion test, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), mechanics performance tests, permeability test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was demonstrated that LTP treatment changed both the surface composition and roughness. The contact angle of pretreated crumb WTR dramatically fell from 122° to 34°, and sample with ethanol LPT polymer film decreased even further to 11°. The ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis results demonstrated that hydrophilic groups, such as –COOH, C–OH, and –CHO, were introduced on the WTR surface. The oxygen atomic percent increased from 8.11% to 14.50% and 24.83%. The mechanical properties, porosity and permeability of raw cement were compared to samples modified by untreated crumb WTR, pretreated crumb WTR and ethanol LTP polymerization treated crumb WTR. It was found that after 28 days, the compressive strength of the samples with the untreated crumb WTR decreased to 80% with respect to raw cement. The tensile strength and flexural strength also had a slight reduction compared with the raw cement. On the contrary, after 28 days, the tensile strength of cement modified by LTP polymerization

  1. Crumb waste tire rubber surface modification by plasma polymerization of ethanol and its application on oil-well cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaowei, Cheng; Sheng, Huang; Xiaoyang, Guo; Wenhui, Duan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was modified by plasma polymerization of ethanol. • Hydrophilic groups were introduced onto WTR surface and improved its hydrophilia. • The functionalized crumb WTR was applied in oil-well cement. • The mechanical properties of modified oil-well cement were intensively enhanced. - Abstract: Crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was pretreated by oxygen low temperature plasma (LTP) and modified by LTP polymerization process of ethanol monomer to improve the adhesion property with oil-well cement matrix and the mechanical properties of cement. The surface properties of modified crumb WTR and the mechanical properties and structures of modified oil-well cement were investigated by means of contact angle measurement, dispersion test, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), mechanics performance tests, permeability test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was demonstrated that LTP treatment changed both the surface composition and roughness. The contact angle of pretreated crumb WTR dramatically fell from 122° to 34°, and sample with ethanol LPT polymer film decreased even further to 11°. The ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis results demonstrated that hydrophilic groups, such as –COOH, C–OH, and –CHO, were introduced on the WTR surface. The oxygen atomic percent increased from 8.11% to 14.50% and 24.83%. The mechanical properties, porosity and permeability of raw cement were compared to samples modified by untreated crumb WTR, pretreated crumb WTR and ethanol LTP polymerization treated crumb WTR. It was found that after 28 days, the compressive strength of the samples with the untreated crumb WTR decreased to 80% with respect to raw cement. The tensile strength and flexural strength also had a slight reduction compared with the raw cement. On the contrary, after 28 days, the tensile strength of cement modified by LTP polymerization

  2. ANDRA's Centre de l'Aube: Design, construction, operation of a state of the art surface disposal facility for low and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potier, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The ANDRA's Centre de I'Aube disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste may be considered as a state-of-the-art repository. Since its implementation in the early nineties, the French facility has been used as a model by many countries worldwide for the surface disposal of radioactive waste. The disposal concept developed by ANDRA, the French Radioactive Waste Management Agency, consists of a multiple-barrier system designed to isolate radioactivity and provide protection to the public and to the environment. Waste operations at ANDRA's Centre de I'Aube are largely automated to ensure better protection to site workers. The paper reviews all aspects of the repository implementation: siting, design, construction, operation and future closure, and environmental monitoring. (author)

  3. Optimization of volatile fatty acid production with co-substrate of food wastes and dewatered excess sludge using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chen; Haiyun, Wu

    2010-07-01

    Central-composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize the parameters of volatile fatty acid (VFA) production from food wastes and dewatered excess sludge in a semi-continuous process. The effects of four variables (food wastes composition in the co-substrate of food wastes and excess sludge, hydraulic retention time (HRT), organic loading rate (OLR), and pH) on acidogenesis were evaluated individually and interactively. The optimum condition derived via RSM was food wastes composition, 88.03%; HRT, 8.92 days; OLR, 8.31 g VSS/ld; and pH 6.99. The experimental VFA concentration was 29,099 mg/l under this optimum condition, which was well in agreement with the predicted value of 28,000 mg/l. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. WasteChem Corporation's Volume Reduction and Solidification (VRS) system for low-level radwaste treatment: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Since 1965, low and medium level radwastes from nuclear power stations, reprocessing plants and nuclear research centers have been stabilized using the Volume Reduction and Solidification (VRS) system. The VRS system uses an extruder/evaporator to evaporate the liquids from waste influents, while simultaneously incorporating the remaining radioactive solids in an asphalt binder. In the period 1965 to 1986 a minimum of 700,000 cubic feet of wastes have been processed with the VRS system. This report provides current operating data from various systems including the volume reduction factors achieved, and the progress of start-ups in the US. The report also provides previously unpublished experience with mixed wastes including uranium raffinate and nitrate-bearing sludges from surface impoundments. VRS systems in the US are currently operating at the Palisades and Hope Creek nuclear stations. These systems produce a variety of waste types including boric acid, bead resin, sodium sulfate and powdered resins. There are three start-ups of VRS systems scheduled in the US in 1987. These systems are at Fermi 2, Seabrook, and Nine Mile Point 2. Overseas, the startup of new systems continues with three VRS process lines coming on-line at the LaHague Reprocessing Center in France in 1986 and a start-up scheduled for 1987 at the Laguna Verde plant in Mexico. The US systems are operating continuously and with little required maintenance. Data on maintenance and the operator exposure are provided in this report. 6 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs

  5. Site selection report basalt waste isolation program near-surface test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, S.D.

    1978-01-01

    A site selection committee was established to review the information gathered on potential sites and to select a site for the Near-Surface Test Facility Phase I. A decision was made to use a site on the north face of Gable Mountain located on the Hanford Site. This site provided convenient access to the Pomona Basalt Flow. This flow was selected for use at this site because it exhibited the characteristics established in the primary criteria. These criteria were: the flows thickness; its dryness; its nearness to the surface; and, its similarities to basalt units which are candidates for the repository. After the selection of the Near-Surface Test Facility Phase I Site, the need arose for an additional facility to demonstrate safe handling, storage techniques, and the physical effects of radioactive materials on an in situ basalt formation. The committee reviewed the sites selected for Phase I and chose the same site for locating Phase II of the Near-Surface Test Facility

  6. Statistical approach for derivation of quantitative acceptance criteria for radioactive wastes to near surface disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Beak; Park, Joo Wan; Lee, Eun Yong; Kim, Chang Lak

    2003-01-01

    For reference human intrusion scenarios constructed in previous study, a probabilistic safety assessment to derive the radionuclide concentration limits for the low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste disposal facility is conducted. Statistical approach by the latin hypercube sampling method is introduced and new assumptions about the disposal facility system are examined and discussed. In our previous study of deterministic approach, the post construction scenarios appeared as most limiting scenario to derive the radionuclide concentration limits. Whereas, in this statistical approach, the post drilling and the post construction scenarios are mutually competing for the scenario selection according to which radionuclides are more important in safety assessment context. Introduction of new assumption shows that the post drilling scenario can play an important role as the limiting scenario instead of the post-construction scenario. When we compare the concentration limits between the previous and this study, concentrations of radionuclides such as Nb-94, Cs-137 and alpha-emitting radionuclides show elevated values than the case of the previous study. Remaining radionuclides such as Sr-90, Tc-99 I-129, Ni-59 and Ni-63 show lower values than the case of the previous study

  7. Adsorption of Methylene Blue Malachite Green from aqueous solution on the surface of Wool Carbonizing Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A. R.; Tahir, H.; Fahimuddin; Waqar, S. S.

    2005-01-01

    With ever increasing environmental pollution problems, the present day study was related to the removal of colorants. Synthetic colorants represented a relatively large group of organic chemicals. Such chemicals have undesirable effects not only on the environment but also on human beings. Present study is related with the removal of basic dyes methylene blue and malachite green using wool carbonizing waste materials as adsorbent. Adsorption of dyes is carried out as a function of temperature, amount of adsorbent, pH and duration. Spectrophotomeric technique was adopted for measuring the extent of adsorption. The data are fitted in Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations and their corresponding constants are calculated. Thermodynamic study is also carried out by calculating the values of thermodynamic parameters such as, enthalpy change (delta H), free energy change (delta G) and entropy change (delta S). The values of percent removal and KD for each dye system is also calculated at the range of temperatures ranging from 293-323K with the intervals of 10C+-0.2C. (author)

  8. Modelling On Photogeneration Of Hydroxyl Radical In Surface Waters And Its Reactivity Towards Pharmaceutical Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Radha; Vione, Davide; Rubertelli, Francesca; Maurino, Valter; Minero, Claudio; Barbati, Stephane; Chiron, Serge

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a simple model to describe the formation and reactivity of hydroxyl radicals in the whole column of freshwater lakes. It is based on empirical irradiation data and is a function of the water chemical composition (the photochemically significant parameters NPOC, nitrate, nitrite, carbonate and bicarbonate), the lake conformation best expressed as the average depth, and the water absorption spectrum in a simplified Lambert-Beer approach. The purpose is to derive the lifetime of dissolved molecules, due to reaction with OH, on the basis of their second-order rate constants with the hydroxyl radical. The model was applied to two compounds of pharmaceutical wastes ibuprofen and carbamazepine, for which the second-order rate constants for reaction with the hydroxyl radical were measured by means of the competition kinetics with 2-propanol. The measured values of the rate constants are 1.0x10 10 and 1.6x10 10 M -1 s -1 for ibuprofen and carbamazepine, respectively. The model suggests that the lifetime of a given compound can be very variable in different lakes, even more than the lifetime of different compounds in the same lake. It can be concluded that as far as the reaction with OH, is concerned the concepts of photolability and photostability, traditionally attached to definite compounds, are ecosystem-dependent at least as much as they depend on the molecule under consideration.

  9. An Object-Based Machine Learning Classification Procedure for Mapping Impoundments in Brazil's Amazon-Cerrado Agricultural Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvik, K.; Macedo, M.; Graesser, J.; Lathuilliere, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Large-scale agriculture and cattle ranching in Brazil has driving the creation of tens of thousands of small stream impoundments to provide water for crops and livestock. These impoundments are a source of methane emissions and have significant impacts on stream temperature, connectivity, and water use over a large region. Due to their large numbers and small size, they are difficult to map using conventional methods. Here, we present a two-stage object-based supervised classification methodology for identifying man-made impoundments in Brazil. First, in Google Earth Engine pixels are classified as water or non-water using satellite data and HydroSHEDS products as predictors. Second, using Python's scikit-learn and scikit-image modules the water objects are classified as man-made or natural based on a variety of shape and spectral properties. Both classifications are performed by a random forest classifier. Training data is acquired by visually identifying impoundments and natural water bodies using high resolution satellite imagery from Google Earth.This methodology was applied to the state of Mato Grosso using a cloud-free mosaic of Sentinel 1 (10m resolution) radar and Sentinel 2 (10-20m) multispectral data acquired during the 2016 dry season. Independent test accuracy was estimated at 95% for the first stage and 93% for the second. We identified 54,294 man-made impoundments in Mato Grosso in 2016. The methodology is generalizable to other high resolution satellite data and has been tested on Landsat 5 and 8 imagery. Applying the same approach to Landsat 8 images (30 m), we identified 35,707 impoundments in the 2015 dry season. The difference in number is likely because the coarser-scale imagery fails to detect small (work will apply this approach to satellite time series for the entire Amazon-Cerrado frontier, allowing us to track changes in the number, size, and distribution of man-made impoundments. Automated impoundment mapping over large areas may help with

  10. Validation and application of help code used for design and review of cover of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal in near-surface facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Zhiwen; Gu Cunli; Zhang Jinsheng; Liu Xiuzhen

    1996-01-01

    The authors describes validation and application of HELP code used by the United States Environmental Protective Agency for design and review of cover of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal in near-surface facilities. The HELP code was validated using data of field aerated moisture movement test by China Institute for Radiation Protection. The results show that simulation of HELP code is reasonable. Effects of surface layer thickness and surface treatment on moisture distribution in a cover was simulated with HELP code in the conditions of south-west China. The simulation results demonstrated that surface plantation of a cover plays very important role in moisture distribution in the cover. Special attention should be paid in cover design. In humid area, radioactive waste disposal safety should take full consideration with functions of chemical barrier. It was recommended that engineering economy should be added in future cover research so as to achieve optimization of cover design

  11. Hybrid selective surface hydrophilization and froth flotation separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste with novel nanoscale metallic calcium composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy, E-mail: srireddys@ulsan.ac.kr; Heo, Je Haeng; Park, Min Hee

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • Nanometallic Ca/CaO treatment significantly enhanced PVC surface hydrophilicity. • The contact angle of PVC significantly decreased compared to other E-waste plastics. • 100% of PVC was selectively separated with 96.4% purity from E-waste plastics. • SEM/XPS results indicated an oxidative degradation of chlorides on the PVC surface. • Hybrid treatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO and froth flotation is effective. - Abstract: Treatment by a nanometallic Ca/CaO composite has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), enhancing its wettability and thereby promoting its separation from E-waste plastics by means of froth flotation. The treatment considerably decreased the water contact angle of PVC, by about 18°. The SEM images of the PVC plastic after treatment displayed significant changes in their surface morphology compared to other plastics. The SEM-EDS results reveal that a markedly decrease of [Cl] concentration simultaneously with dramatic increase of [O] on the surface of the PCV samples. XPS results further confirmed an increase of hydrophilic functional groups on the PVC surface. Froth flotation at 100 rpm mixing speed was found to be optimal, separating 100% of the PVC into a settled fraction of 96.4% purity even when the plastics fed into the reactor were of nonuniform size and shape. The total recovery of PVC-free plastics in E-waste reached nearly 100% in the floated fraction, significantly improved from the 20.5 wt% of light plastics that can be recovered by means of conventional wet gravity separation. The hybrid method of nanometallic Ca/CaO treatment and froth flotation is effective in the separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste plastics.

  12. Hybrid selective surface hydrophilization and froth flotation separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste with novel nanoscale metallic calcium composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Heo, Je Haeng; Park, Min Hee

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanometallic Ca/CaO treatment significantly enhanced PVC surface hydrophilicity. • The contact angle of PVC significantly decreased compared to other E-waste plastics. • 100% of PVC was selectively separated with 96.4% purity from E-waste plastics. • SEM/XPS results indicated an oxidative degradation of chlorides on the PVC surface. • Hybrid treatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO and froth flotation is effective. - Abstract: Treatment by a nanometallic Ca/CaO composite has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), enhancing its wettability and thereby promoting its separation from E-waste plastics by means of froth flotation. The treatment considerably decreased the water contact angle of PVC, by about 18°. The SEM images of the PVC plastic after treatment displayed significant changes in their surface morphology compared to other plastics. The SEM-EDS results reveal that a markedly decrease of [Cl] concentration simultaneously with dramatic increase of [O] on the surface of the PCV samples. XPS results further confirmed an increase of hydrophilic functional groups on the PVC surface. Froth flotation at 100 rpm mixing speed was found to be optimal, separating 100% of the PVC into a settled fraction of 96.4% purity even when the plastics fed into the reactor were of nonuniform size and shape. The total recovery of PVC-free plastics in E-waste reached nearly 100% in the floated fraction, significantly improved from the 20.5 wt% of light plastics that can be recovered by means of conventional wet gravity separation. The hybrid method of nanometallic Ca/CaO treatment and froth flotation is effective in the separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste plastics.

  13. Microcrustaceans (Branchipoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBiase, Adrienne E; Taylor, Barbara E

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  14. Characterization of transient groundwater flow through a high arch dam foundation during reservoir impounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifeng Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Even though a large number of large-scale arch dams with height larger than 200 m have been built in the world, the transient groundwater flow behaviors and the seepage control effects in the dam foundations under difficult geological conditions are rarely reported. This paper presents a case study on the transient groundwater flow behaviors in the rock foundation of Jinping I double-curvature arch dam, the world's highest dam of this type to date that has been completed. Taking into account the geological settings at the site, an inverse modeling technique utilizing the time series measurements of both hydraulic head and discharge was adopted to back-calculate the permeability of the foundation rocks, which effectively improves the uniqueness and reliability of the inverse modeling results. The transient seepage flow in the dam foundation during the reservoir impounding was then modeled with a parabolic variational inequality (PVI method. The distribution of pore water pressure, the amount of leakage, and the performance of the seepage control system in the dam foundation during the entire impounding process were finally illustrated with the numerical results.

  15. Recovery of the Three-Gorges Reservoir Impoundment Signal from ICESat altimetry and GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabajal, C. C.; Boy, J.; Luthcke, S. B.; Harding, D. J.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2006-12-01

    The Three Gorges Dam along the Yangtze River in China is one of the largest dams in the world. The water impoundment of the Three-Gorges Reservoir started in June 2003, and the volume of water will continuously increase up to about 40 km3 in 2009, over a length of about 600 km. Although water-level changes along the Yangtze River and the Three Gorges Reservoir are measured by in situ water gauges, access to these data can be quite difficult. Estimates of inland water height and extent can also be recovered from altimetry measurements performed from satellite platforms, such as those acquired by the Geoscience laser Altimetry System (GLAS) on board the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). ICESat has produced a comprehensive, highly precise, set of along-track elevation measurements, every three months since its launch in 2003, which intersect the Yangtze River along its East-West extent. In addition, the water impoundment of major artificial reservoirs induces variations of global geodetic quantities, such as the gravity field and Earth rotation (Chao, 1995, Boy & Chao, 2002). Water level changes within the reservoir are compared to GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) recovered water mass changes. In addition, we compare the GRACE observations of mass change in the Yangtze region to hydrological changes computed from different global soil-moisture and snow models, such as GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System).

  16. On the problem of radiation purification of waste waters containing synthetic surface-active agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buslaeva, S.P.; Kon'kov, N.G.; Makarochkina, L.M.; Panin, Yu.A.; Upadyshev, L.B.; Filippov, M.T.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation decomposition of artificial solutions containing surface-active substances and the real sewage of textile factories is studied. Experiments on treatment of sewage in a foamed state were conducted (since the irradiation of sewage in a liquid form did not result in the desired effect) with a laboratory installation that made it possible to irradiate sewage by an electron beam both under stationary and flowing conditions. The dose rate was about 140 w/kg. The results of determination of the dependence of the decomposition rate for solutions that contain surface-active substances on the absorbed dose and the magnitude of the beam current are presented. It is demonstrated that the decrease of dose rate is accompanied by the increase of the yield of the surface-active substance decomposition in the foam. During irradiation of real sewage the improvement of their coloring as well as the acceleration of coagulation and the sedimentation of dissolved and suspended substances were observed. Recommendations are suggested for design of an experimental-industrial installation for irradiation of sewage. It is established that with the efficiency of 1000 m 3 /day the cost of sewage treatment will be 35-40 kop/m 3

  17. CESARR V.2 manual: Computer code for the evaluation of surface storage of low and medium level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya Rivera, J.A.; Bolado Lavin, R.

    1997-01-01

    CESARR (Code for the safety evaluation of low and medium level radioactive waste storage). This code was developed for the safety probabilistic evaluations in the facilities of low-and medium level radioactive waste storage

  18. Safety cases for the co-ordinated research project on improvement of safety assessment methodologies for near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities (ISAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Torres-Vidal, C.; Kelly, E.; Guskov, A.; Blerk, J. van

    2002-01-01

    A Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) has recently been completed on the Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities (ISAM). A major aspect of the project was the use of safety cases for the practical application of safety assessment. An overview of the ISAM safety cases is given in this paper. (author)

  19. Evaluation of a gas chromatograph with a novel surface acoustic wave detector (SAW GC) for screening of volatile organic compounds in Hanford waste tank samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    A novel instrument, a gas chromatograph with a Surface Acoustic Wave Detector (SAW GC), was evaluated for the screening of organic compounds in Hanford tank headspace vapors. Calibration data were developed for the most common organic compounds, and the accuracy and precision were measured with a certified standard. The instrument was tested with headspace samples collected from seven Hanford waste tanks

  20. High surface area bio-waste based carbon as a superior electrode for vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Makhan; Bhattarai, Arjun; Ulaganathan, Mani; Wai, Nyunt; Oo, Moe Ohnmar; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Lim, Tuti Mariana

    2017-09-01

    Activated carbon (AC) with high surface area (1901 m2 g-1) is synthesized from low cost bio-waste orange (Citrus sinensis) peel for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB). The composition, structure and electrochemical properties of orange peel derived AC (OP-AC) are characterized by elemental analyzer, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. CV results show that OP-AC coated bipolar plate demonstrates improved electro-catalytic activity in both positive and negative side redox couples than the pristine bipolar plate electrode and this is ascribed to the high surface area of OP-AC which provides effective electrode area and better contact between the porous electrode and bipolar plate. Consequently, the performance of VRB in a static cell shows higher energy efficiency for OP-AC electrode than the pristine electrode at all current densities tested. The results suggest the OP-AC to be a promising electrode for VRB applications and can be incorporated into making conducting plastics electrode to lower the VRB cell stack weight and cost.

  1. Geometrical and hydrogeological impact on the behaviour of deep-seated rock slides during reservoir impoundment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Heidrun; Zangerl, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Given that there are still uncertainties regarding the deformation and failure mechanisms of deep-seated rock slides this study concentrates on key factors that influence the behaviour of rock slides in the surrounding of reservoirs. The focus is placed on the slope geometry, hydrogeology and kinematics. Based on numerous generic rock slide models the impacts of the (i) rock slide geometry, (ii) reservoir impoundment and level fluctuations, (iii) seepage and buoyancy forces and (iv) hydraulic conductivity of the rock slide mass and the basal shear zone are examined using limit equilibrium approaches. The geometry of many deep-seated rock slides in metamorphic rocks is often influenced by geological structures, e.g. fault zones, joints, foliation, bedding planes and others. With downslope displacement the rock slide undergoes a change in shape. Several observed rock slides in an advanced stage show a convex, bulge-like topography at the foot of the slope and a concave topography in the middle to upper part. Especially, the situation of the slope toe plays an important role for stability. A potentially critical situation can result from a partially submerged flat slope toe because the uplift due to water pressure destabilizes the rock slide. Furthermore, it is essential if the basal shear zone daylights at the foot of the slope or encounters alluvial or glacial deposits at the bottom of the valley, the latter having a buttressing effect. In this study generic rock slide models with a shear zone outcropping at the slope toe are established and systematically analysed using limit equilibrium calculations. Two different kinematic types are modelled: (i) a translational or planar and (ii) a rotational movement behaviour. Questions concerning the impact of buoyancy and pore pressure forces that develop during first time impoundment are of key interest. Given that an adverse effect on the rock slide stability is expected due to reservoir impoundment the extent of

  2. Investigation of structural transformations in surface layer of phosphate glasses incorporating radiactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloj, A.S.; Kolycheva, T.I.; Trofimenko, A.V.; Shashukov, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the paper was to clarify possibilities of detection of structural transformations initial stages on the surface of phosphate glasses using the method of infrared reflection spectroscopy. Phase composition of crystalline compounds formed in surface glass layer is determined by the method of X-ray diffraction. All experiments were performed using sodium alumophosphate glass comprising the model mixture of fission product of the following compostion (mass%): Na 2 O-22.0, Al 2 O 3 -14.0, P 2 O 5 -50.0, Fe 2 O 3 -3.5, Cs 2 O-3.5, SrO-3.0, Ln 2 O 3 -4.0, where Ln 2 O 3 is a mixture of cerium, lanthanum and europium oxides. Sample preparation were carried out by molten glass deposition on platinum forms 15mm in diameter and 4mm thick. Glasses were treated within the 600-400deg.C temperature range. Fixing of processes accompanied by structural transformations was accomplished the method of rapid cooling. It has been shown that phase transformations, taking place in investigated phosphate glasses under the action of heat, result in deterioration of chemical properties. Analysis of IR spectra has revealed that emergence of structural transformations in surface layer of investigated glasses results in variation of a ratio of 1060 and 1140cm - 1 reflection band intensities. Experimental dependences of the time of beginning of variation of 1060 and 1140cm - 1 bands relative intensity on temperature are presented. Insemilogarithmic coordinates this dependence has a straight line form within the 600-400 deg C temperature range and is desc ribed by the following formular: lg r=-7.41+5.70x10 3 x1/T, where r is the time of process beginning, h. Extrapolation of established to the region of low temperature is shown. Competence of such extrapolation may be confirmed in the course of further experiments

  3. Application of electrochemical peroxidation (ECP) process for waste-activated sludge stabilization and system optimization using response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholikandi, Gagik Badalians; Kazemirad, Khashayar

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the performance of the electrochemical peroxidation (ECP) process for removing the volatile suspended solids (VSS) content of waste-activated sludge was evaluated. The Fe 2+ ions required by the process were obtained directly from iron electrodes in the system. The performance of the ECP process was investigated in various operational conditions employing a laboratory-scale pilot setup and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). According to the results, the ECP process showed its best performance when the pH value, current density, H 2 O 2 concentration and the retention time were 3, 3.2 mA/cm 2 , 1,535 mg/L and 240 min, respectively. In these conditions, the introduced Fe 2+ concentration was approximately 500 (mg/L) and the VSS removal efficiency about 74%. Moreover, the results of the microbial characteristics of the raw and the stabilized sludge demonstrated that the ECP process is able to remove close to 99.9% of the coliforms in the raw sludge during the stabilization process. The energy consumption evaluation showed that the required energy of the ECP reactor (about 1.8-2.5 kWh (kg VSS removed) -1 ) is considerably lower than for aerobic digestion, the conventional waste-activated sludge stabilization method (about 2-3 kWh (kg VSS removed) -1 ). The RSM optimization process showed that the best operational conditions of the ECP process comply with the experimental results, and the actual and the predicted results are in good conformity with each other. This feature makes it possible to predict the introduced Fe 2+ concentrations into the system and the VSS removal efficiency of the process precisely.

  4. Crumb waste tire rubber surface modification by plasma polymerization of ethanol and its application on oil-well cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaowei, Cheng; Sheng, Huang; Xiaoyang, Guo; Wenhui, Duan

    2017-07-01

    Crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was pretreated by oxygen low temperature plasma (LTP) and modified by LTP polymerization process of ethanol monomer to improve the adhesion property with oil-well cement matrix and the mechanical properties of cement. The surface properties of modified crumb WTR and the mechanical properties and structures of modified oil-well cement were investigated by means of contact angle measurement, dispersion test, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), mechanics performance tests, permeability test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was demonstrated that LTP treatment changed both the surface composition and roughness. The contact angle of pretreated crumb WTR dramatically fell from 122° to 34°, and sample with ethanol LPT polymer film decreased even further to 11°. The ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis results demonstrated that hydrophilic groups, such as -COOH, C-OH, and -CHO, were introduced on the WTR surface. The oxygen atomic percent increased from 8.11% to 14.50% and 24.83%. The mechanical properties, porosity and permeability of raw cement were compared to samples modified by untreated crumb WTR, pretreated crumb WTR and ethanol LTP polymerization treated crumb WTR. It was found that after 28 days, the compressive strength of the samples with the untreated crumb WTR decreased to 80% with respect to raw cement. The tensile strength and flexural strength also had a slight reduction compared with the raw cement. On the contrary, after 28 days, the tensile strength of cement modified by LTP polymerization treated WTR increased 11.03% and 13.36%, and the flexural strength increased 9.65% and 7.31%, respectively. A decrease in the compressive strength also occurred but was inconspicuous. A tight interface bonding for ethanol LTP polymerization treated WTR with cement matrix was observed via an SEM image.

  5. Levels and isomer profiles of Dechlorane Plus in the surface soils from e-waste recycling areas and industrial areas in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Zhiqiang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Lu Shaoyou; Gao Shutao; Wang Jingzhi [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li Huiru, E-mail: huiruli@gig.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zeng Xiangying; Sheng Guoying; Fu Jiamo [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Dechlorane Plus (DP) is a highly chlorinated flame retardant. Levels of DP were measured in surface soils from e-waste recycling areas and industrial areas in South China. Higher DP levels were found in e-waste recycling areas (undetectable-47.4 ng/g) than those in industrial areas (0.0336-4.65 ng/g) in South China. The highest DP concentration (3327 ng/g) was found at the e-waste recycling site in Qingyuan, while DP levels fell dramatically with increasing distance away from the recycling site, suggesting that the e-waste recycling activities are an important source of DP emissions. The mean ratios of anti-DP to total DP (f{sub anti}) for different sampling areas ranged from 0.58 to 0.76 and showed no significant difference from the ratio for the technical DP products (t-test, p > 0.05). Further intensive studies are needed to investigate the process of DP degradation and its degradation products. - High DP concentrations were found in the soils from e-waste recycling regions, and e-waste recycling was the major source of DP emissions in South China.

  6. Selection of replacement material for the failed surface level gauge wire in Hanford waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantatmula, R.P.; Pitman, S.G.; Lund, A.L.

    1995-10-01

    Surface level gauges fabricated from AISI Type 316 stainless steel (316) wire failed after only a few weeks of operation in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The wire failure was determined to be due to chloride ion assisted corrosion of the 316 wire. Radiation-induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liners is suspected to be the primary source of the chloride ions. An extensive literature search followed by expert concurrence was undertaken to select a replacement material for the wire. Platinum (Pt)-20 % Iridium (Ir) alloy was selected as the replacement material from tile candidate materials, P-20% Ir, Pt-1O% Rhodium (Rh), Pt-20%Rh and Hastelloy C-22. The selection was made on the basis of the alloy's immunity towards acidic and basic environments as well as its adequate tensile properties in the fully annealed state

  7. Methodology for safety assessment of near-surface radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateeva, M.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the work is to present the conceptual model of the methodology of safety assessment of near-surface radioactive disposal facilities. The widely used mathematical models and approaches are presented. The emphasis is given on the mathematical models and approaches, which are applicable for the conditions in our country. The different transport models for analysis and safety assessment of migration processes are presented. The parallel between the Mixing-Cell Cascade model and model of Finite-Differences is made. In the methodology the basic physical and chemical processes and events, concerning mathematical modelling of the flow and the transport of radionuclides from the Near Field to Far Field and Biosphere are analyzed. Suitable computer codes corresponding to the ideology and appropriate for implementing of the methodology are shown

  8. The use of artificial impoundments by two amphibian species in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, J.T.; Snyder, C.D.; Young, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    We compared breeding activity of Ambystoma maculatum (Spotted Salamander) and Rana sylvatica (Wood Frog) in artificial impoundments to patterns in natural wetlands over a three-year period in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Rana sylvatica were 5.6 times more likely to use natural bodies of water for breeding than artificial impoundments, while A. maculatum were 2.7 times more likely to use natural bodies of water. Both species were approximately 9 times more likely to breed in fishless bodies of water than in waters with predatory fish. Ambystoma maculatum were 6 times more likely to breed in wetlands with more stable seasonal hydroperiods, while R. sylvatica were only 2 times more likely to do so. We conclude that the high likelihood of fish presence in impoundments was the primary explanation for why both species were less likely to use impoundments than natural wetlands, while the tendency of A. maculatum to avoid natural wetlands with shorter hydroperiods explained why differences in use between pond types was more pronounced for R. sylvatica.

  9. Radioactive waste safety appraisal. An international peer review of the licence application for the Australian near surface radioactive waste disposal facility. Report of the IAEA International Review Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-05-01

    Radioactive waste has been generated in Australia for a number of decades from the production and use of radioactive materials in medicine and industry, from the processing of various minerals containing natural radionuclides and from various research activities. It has been decided in the overall interest of safety and security to develop a radioactive waste disposal facility to accommodate the low level and short lived intermediate level waste, which make up the bulk of the waste, other than mining and minerals processing residues. A site selection process has been undertaken and environmental impact statement report prepared and approved. A licence application has been submitted to the national nuclear regulatory authority, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) for siting, construction and operation of the facility. In order to assist the CEO of ARPANSA with his deliberations in this regard a request was made to the IAEA, in terms of its statutory mandate to establish international safety standards for radioactive waste safety and to provide for their application, to undertake an international peer review of the licence application and to advise the CEO accordingly. The outcome and recommendations of this peer review are presented in the report

  10. Safety assessment of near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities: Model intercomparison using simple hypothetical data (Test Case 1). First report of NSARS. Part of the co-ordinated research programme on the safety assessment of near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities (NSARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    In many countries near surface disposal is the preferred option for the comparatively large volumes of low and intermediate level wastes which arise during nuclear power plant operations, nuclear fuel reprocessing and also for the wastes arising from radionuclide applications in hospitals and research establishments. Near surface disposal is also widely practised in the case of hazardous wastes from chemical industries. It is obviously necessary to show that waste disposal methods are safe and that both man and the environment will be adequately protected. Following a previous related Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Migration and Biological Transfer of Radionuclides from Shallow Land Burial'' during 1985 to 1989 (IAEA-TECDOC-579, Vienna, 1990), the issue of reliability of safety assessments was identified as an important topic for further support and development. A new CRP was formulated with the acronym NSARS (Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Safety Assessment Reliability Study). This technical document is the first report of from the CRP and contains the intercomparison of results of the first test exercise (Test Case 1) on modelling of potential radiation exposures as a result of near surface disposal. Test Case 1 is based on entirely hypothetical data and includes consideration of exposures due to leaching and as a result of human intrusion into the site. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Safety assessment of near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities: Model intercomparison using simple hypothetical data (Test Case 1). First report of NSARS. Part of the co-ordinated research programme on the safety assessment of near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities (NSARS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    In many countries near surface disposal is the preferred option for the comparatively large volumes of low and intermediate level wastes which arise during nuclear power plant operations, nuclear fuel reprocessing and also for the wastes arising from radionuclide applications in hospitals and research establishments. Near surface disposal is also widely practised in the case of hazardous wastes from chemical industries. It is obviously necessary to show that waste disposal methods are safe and that both man and the environment will be adequately protected. Following a previous related Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ``Migration and Biological Transfer of Radionuclides from Shallow Land Burial`` during 1985 to 1989 (IAEA-TECDOC-579, Vienna, 1990), the issue of reliability of safety assessments was identified as an important topic for further support and development. A new CRP was formulated with the acronym NSARS (Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Safety Assessment Reliability Study). This technical document is the first report of from the CRP and contains the intercomparison of results of the first test exercise (Test Case 1) on modelling of potential radiation exposures as a result of near surface disposal. Test Case 1 is based on entirely hypothetical data and includes consideration of exposures due to leaching and as a result of human intrusion into the site. Refs, figs and tabs.

  12. Performance of a Surface Barrier for Waste Isolation and Flux Reduction at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Morse, John G.; Leary, Kevin D.; Freshley, Mark D.

    2016-05-13

    Based on the knowledge gained from a decade of laboratory, field, and numerical studies, the Prototype Hanford Barrier (PHB) was designed and constructed between late 1993 and late 1994 over the 216-B-57 Crib in the 200-BP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site. The PHB has been monitored since 1994 to evaluate the physical, hydrologic, and ecological performance. Two stress tests were carried out in the past: (1) an enhanced (about 3 times the multi-year average of 160 mm/year) precipitation test from water year (WY) 1995 to WY1997, which included a man-made 1000-year return 24-hour rainstorms in March each year, and (2) a controlled fire test in 2008. The purpose of this article is to present the main findings of the PHB demonstration since 1994. From 1994 to present, the PHB has limited drainage of less than 0.2 mm yr-1, which is below the 0.5 mm yr-1 design goal, and minimized erosion. The observations suggest the PHB is robust enough to endure the hydrological stress of three times average precipitation and 1000-year return 24-hour rainstorms. After the controlled fire, far less vegetation grows and grasses are the dominant vegetation (compared to shrubs on the unburned section). Even so, the grasses can remove nearly all the stored water in the burned section, although during a longer period of time than in the unburned section. The findings at the PHB are useful for the design and monitoring of future surface barriers at Hanford and elsewhere.

  13. Batch versus column modes for the adsorption of radioactive metal onto rice husk waste: conditions optimization through response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausar, Abida; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Iqbal, Munawar; Ashraf, Aisha

    2017-09-01

    Batch and column adsorption modes were compared for the adsorption of U(VI) ions using rice husk waste biomass (RHWB). Response surface methodology was employed for the optimization of process variables, i.e., (pH (A), adsorbent dose (B), initial ion concentration (C)) in batch mode. The B, C and C 2 affected the U(VI) adsorption significantly in batch mode. The developed quadratic model was found to be validated on the basis of regression coefficient as well as analysis of variance. The predicted and actual values were found to be correlated well, with negligible residual value, and B, C and C 2 were significant terms. The column study was performed considering bed height, flow rate and initial metal ion concentration, and adsorption efficiency was evaluated through breakthrough curves and bed depth service time and Thomas models. Adsorption was found to be dependent on bed height and initial U(VI) ion concentration, and flow rate decreased the adsorption capacity. Thomas models fitted well to the U(VI) adsorption onto RHWB. Results revealed that RHWB has potential to remove U(VI) ions and batch adsorption was found to be efficient versus column mode.

  14. Permeability and pore structure connectivity of basic concrete formulations to use in near-surface repositories for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolentino, Evandro; Santos, Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira; Tello, Clédola Cássia Oliveira de

    2017-01-01

    The main concern of engineers who prepare concrete specifications for a particular application is to predict the deteriorative exposures that could cause concrete degradation over its intended service life. A durable concrete is able to resist destructive environmental conditions, without requiring excessive maintenance. Durability of cementitious materials largely depends on the possibilities of penetration of hazardous ions into the porous material with water as medium. Therefore, the water permeability of cementitious materials is related to its durability. Permeability and porosity should not instinctively be regarded as manifestations of the same phenomenon. Usually, when permeability increases, porosity increases as well. The connectivity of pore network exerts an important control on preferential flow into cementitious materials. This work presents results of quantitative evaluation of permeability and pore connectivity of Portland cement concretes. Two concrete mixture proportions with limestone and gneiss as coarse aggregate were produced. A modified polycarboxyl ether plasticizer GLENIUM 51 was added to one of the concrete mixtures in order to reduce the water content. Permeability tests were performed on all the specimens and a geometric modeling considering pore with cylindrical shape was applied in order to evaluate the pore network connectivity. The results showed that pore structure connectivity of concrete with plasticizer admixture decreased. The purpose of this research is to expand the knowledge concerning concrete durability and to provide the technical requirements related to the production the Brazilian near-surface repository of radioactive wastes. (author)

  15. Feasibility of electrocoagulation/flotation treatment of waste offset printing developer based on the response surface analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savka Adamovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the printing plate developing process, the offset printing developer undergoes changes, as well as enrichment by the various chemicals, i.e. metals, organic binders and photosensitive compounds. The objective of this study was to investigate the electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF treatment efficiency for the removal of copper, turbidity and organic substances from the waste offset printing developer (WOPD. The effect of operational parameters, such as electrode materials, current density, interelectrode distance and operating time, was studied. Also, the response surface analysis was applied to evaluate the effect of main operational variables and to get a balanced removal efficiency of investigated WOPD parameters by ECF treatment. The removal efficiency increases significantly with the increasing of operating time and mainly increases with the increasing of current density. The obtained results show that the interelectrode distance and combinations of electrodes determine the removal efficiency of copper, turbidity and organic substances. Based on the obtained results, the optimized parameters for the ECF treatment removal of investigated WOPD parameters were identified as: Al(−/Fe(+ electrode combination with interelectrode distance of 1.0 cm, operating time of 5 min and current density of 8 mA cm−2. This study confirms the practical feasibility of ECF method for treating real printing industrial effluent under optimum conditions.

  16. Permeability and pore structure connectivity of basic concrete formulations to use in near-surface repositories for radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolentino, Evandro; Santos, Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira [Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Timóteo, MG (Brazil); Tello, Clédola Cássia Oliveira de, E-mail: tolentino@timoteo.cefetmg.br, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The main concern of engineers who prepare concrete specifications for a particular application is to predict the deteriorative exposures that could cause concrete degradation over its intended service life. A durable concrete is able to resist destructive environmental conditions, without requiring excessive maintenance. Durability of cementitious materials largely depends on the possibilities of penetration of hazardous ions into the porous material with water as medium. Therefore, the water permeability of cementitious materials is related to its durability. Permeability and porosity should not instinctively be regarded as manifestations of the same phenomenon. Usually, when permeability increases, porosity increases as well. The connectivity of pore network exerts an important control on preferential flow into cementitious materials. This work presents results of quantitative evaluation of permeability and pore connectivity of Portland cement concretes. Two concrete mixture proportions with limestone and gneiss as coarse aggregate were produced. A modified polycarboxyl ether plasticizer GLENIUM 51 was added to one of the concrete mixtures in order to reduce the water content. Permeability tests were performed on all the specimens and a geometric modeling considering pore with cylindrical shape was applied in order to evaluate the pore network connectivity. The results showed that pore structure connectivity of concrete with plasticizer admixture decreased. The purpose of this research is to expand the knowledge concerning concrete durability and to provide the technical requirements related to the production the Brazilian near-surface repository of radioactive wastes. (author)

  17. Enhanced styrene recovery from waste polystyrene pyrolysis using response surface methodology coupled with Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yu; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Zhonghui; Chen, Chia-Lung; Tan, Giin-Yu Amy; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2014-04-01

    A work applied response surface methodology coupled with Box-Behnken design (RSM-BBD) has been developed to enhance styrene recovery from waste polystyrene (WPS) through pyrolysis. The relationship between styrene yield and three selected operating parameters (i.e., temperature, heating rate, and carrier gas flow rate) was investigated. A second order polynomial equation was successfully built to describe the process and predict styrene yield under the study conditions. The factors identified as statistically significant to styrene production were: temperature, with a quadratic effect; heating rate, with a linear effect; carrier gas flow rate, with a quadratic effect; interaction between temperature and carrier gas flow rate; and interaction between heating rate and carrier gas flow rate. The optimum conditions for the current system were determined to be at a temperature range of 470-505°C, a heating rate of 40°C/min, and a carrier gas flow rate range of 115-140mL/min. Under such conditions, 64.52% WPS was recovered as styrene, which was 12% more than the highest reported yield for reactors of similar size. It is concluded that RSM-BBD is an effective approach for yield optimization of styrene recovery from WPS pyrolysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimization Of Activated Carbon Preparation From Spent Mushroom Farming Waste (SMFW) Via Box- Behnken Design Of Response Surface Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Shuhada Md Desa; Zaidi Ab Ghani; Suhaimi Abdul-Talib; Chia-Chay, T.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on activated carbon preparation from spent mushroom farming waste (SMFW) via chemical activation using Box-Behnken design (BBD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Potassium hydroxide (KOH) functions as activating reagent and it play an important role in enhancing the activated carbon porosity. Three input parameters and two responses were evaluated via this software generated experimental design. The effects of three preparation parameters of impregnation ratio, activation time and activation temperature as well as two responses of carbon yield and iodine number were investigated. The optimum conditions for preparing activated carbon from SMFW was found at SMFW: KOH impregnation ratio of 0.25, activation time of 30 min and activation temperature of 400 degree Celsius which resulted in 28.23 % of carbon yield and 314.14 mg/ g of iodine number with desirability of 0.994. The predicted results were well corresponded with experimental results. This study is important in economical large scale SMFW activated carbon preparation for application study of adsorption process for metal treatment in wastewater with minimum chemical and energy input. (author)

  19. Direct releases to the surface and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: direct brine release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoelzel, D.M.; O'Brien, D.G.; Garner, J.W.; Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; Smith, L.N.

    2000-01-01

    The following topics related to the treatment of direct brine releases to the surface environment in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented: (i) mathematical description of models; (ii) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e. epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases; (iii) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e. aleatory) uncertainty; and (iv) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented analyses indicate that direct brine releases do not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for direct brine releases fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194)

  20. Direct releases to the surface and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: cuttings, cavings and spallings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, J.W.; Garner, J.W.; Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; Smith, L.N.

    2000-01-01

    The following topics related to the treatment of cuttings, cavings and spallings releases to the surface environment in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented: (i) mathematical description of models; (ii) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e. epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases; (iii) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e. aleatory) uncertainty; and (iv) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented results indicate that direct releases due to cuttings, cavings and spallings do not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for cuttings, cavings and spallings releases fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194)

  1. Direct releases to the surface and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Cuttings, cavings and spallings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, J.W.; Garner, J.W.; Helton, Jon Craig; Johnson, J.D.; Smith, L.N.; Anderson, R.P.

    2000-01-01

    The following topics related to the treatment of cuttings, cavings and spallings releases to the surface environment in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented: (1) mathematical description of models. (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases, (3) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainty, and (4) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented results indicate that direct releases due to cuttings, cavings and spallings do not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for cuttings, cavings and spallings releases fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194)

  2. Chlorophyll Detection and Mapping of Shallow Water Impoundments Using Image Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artigas, F.; Pechmann, I.; Marti, A.; Yao, N.; Pechmann, I.

    2008-01-01

    There exists a common perception that chlorophyll a concentrations in tidal coastal waters are unsuitable to be captured by remote sensing techniques because of high water turbidity. In this study, we use band index measurements to separate active chlorophyll pigments from other constituents in the water. Published single- and multiband spectral indices are used to establish a relationship between algal chlorophyll concentration and reflectance data. We find an index which is suitable to map chlorophyll gradients in the impoundments, ditches, and associated waterways of the Hackensack Meadow lands (NJ, USA). The resulting images clearly depict the spatial distribution of plant pigments and their relationship with the biological conditions of the waters in the estuary. Since these biological conditions are often determined by land usage, the methods in this paper provide a simple tool to address water quality management issues in fragmented urban estuaries.

  3. Effects of hydrologic variables on rock riprap design for uranium tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.H.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is studying the mitigation of erosion of earthen radon suppression covers for uranium tailings impoundments. Because the covers will require erosion protection for upwards of 1000 years, rock riprap (armoring) has been proposed as the primary protection method. This study investigates the sensitivity of riprap design procedures to extreme flood events that can generate high flow velocities and shear stresses. The study uses two decommissioned tailings sites (Grand Junction and Slick Rock, Colorado) as case studies to evaluate the sensitivity of design rock size with respect to variables such as flood discharge, side slope, specific gravity, safety factor, and channel roughness. The results indicate that design rock size can vary significantly for different design procedures. Other significant results indicate that embankment side slopes of about 4H:1V are optimum for rock riprap and that the use of rock material with specific gravities less than about 2.50 may prove too costly

  4. A model for evaluating effects of climate, water availability, and water management on wetland impoundments--a case study on Bowdoin, Long Lake, and Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian A.; Gleason, Robert A.; Stamm, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Many wetland impoundments managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) National Wildlife Refuge System throughout the northern Great Plains rely on rivers as a primary water source. A large number of these impoundments currently are being stressed from changes in water supplies and quality, and these problems are forecast to worsen because of projected changes to climate and land use. For example, many managed wetlands in arid regions have become degraded owing to the long-term accumulation of salts and increased salinity associated with evapotranspiration. A primary goal of the USFWS is to provide aquatic habitats for a diversity of waterbirds; thus, wetland managers would benefit from a tool that facilitates evaluation of wetland habitat quality in response to current and anticipated impacts of altered hydrology and salt balances caused by factors such as climate change, water availability, and management actions. A spreadsheet model that simulates the overall water and salinity balance (WSB model) of managed wetland impoundments is presented. The WSB model depicts various habitat metrics, such as water depth, salinity, and surface areas (inundated, dry), which can be used to evaluate alternative management actions under various water-availability and climate scenarios. The WSB model uses widely available spreadsheet software, is relatively simple to use, relies on widely available inputs, and is readily adaptable to specific locations. The WSB model was validated using data from three National Wildlife Refuges with direct and indirect connections to water resources associated with rivers, and common data limitations are highlighted. The WSB model also was used to conduct simulations based on hypothetical climate and management scenarios to demonstrate the utility of the model for evaluating alternative management strategies and climate futures. The WSB model worked well across a range of National Wildlife Refuges and could be a valuable tool for USFWS

  5. Fishers' knowledge identifies environmental changes and fish abundance trends in impounded tropical rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallwass, Gustavo; Lopes, Priscila F; Juras, Anastácio A; Silvano, Renato A M

    2013-03-01

    The long-term impacts of large hydroelectric dams on small-scale fisheries in tropical rivers are poorly known. A promising way to investigate such impacts is to compare and integrate the local ecological knowledge (LEK) of resource users with biological data for the same region. We analyzed the accuracy of fishers' LEK to investigate fisheries dynamics and environmental changes in the Lower Tocantins River (Brazilian Amazon) downstream from a large dam. We estimated fishers' LEK through interviews with 300 fishers in nine villages and collected data on 601 fish landings in five of these villages, 22 years after the dam's establishment (2006-2008). We compared these two databases with each other and with data on fish landings from before the dam's establishment (1981) gathered from the literature. The data obtained based on the fishers' LEK (interviews) and from fisheries agreed regarding the primary fish species caught, the most commonly used type of fishing gear (gill nets) and even the most often used gill net mesh sizes but disagreed regarding seasonal fish abundance. According to the interviewed fishers, the primary environmental changes that occurred after the impoundment were an overall decrease in fish abundance, an increase in the abundance of some fish species and, possibly, the local extinction of a commercial fish species (Semaprochilodus brama). These changes were corroborated by comparing fish landings sampled before and 22 years after the impoundment, which indicated changes in the composition of fish landings and a decrease in the total annual fish production. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that large dams may adversely affect small-scale fisheries downstream and establish a feasible approach for applying fishers' LEK to fisheries management, especially in regions with a low research capacity.

  6. Hybrid selective surface hydrophilization and froth flotation separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste with novel nanoscale metallic calcium composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Heo, Je Haeng; Park, Min Hee

    2016-04-05

    Treatment by a nanometallic Ca/CaO composite has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), enhancing its wettability and thereby promoting its separation from E-waste plastics by means of froth flotation. The treatment considerably decreased the water contact angle of PVC, by about 18°. The SEM images of the PVC plastic after treatment displayed significant changes in their surface morphology compared to other plastics. The SEM-EDS results reveal that a markedly decrease of [Cl] concentration simultaneously with dramatic increase of [O] on the surface of the PCV samples. XPS results further confirmed an increase of hydrophilic functional groups on the PVC surface. Froth flotation at 100rpm mixing speed was found to be optimal, separating 100% of the PVC into a settled fraction of 96.4% purity even when the plastics fed into the reactor were of nonuniform size and shape. The total recovery of PVC-free plastics in E-waste reached nearly 100% in the floated fraction, significantly improved from the 20.5wt% of light plastics that can be recovered by means of conventional wet gravity separation. The hybrid method of nanometallic Ca/CaO treatment and froth flotation is effective in the separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste plastics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of Surface Leaching Processes in Vitrified High-Level Nuclear Wastes Using In-Situ Raman Imaging and Atomistic Modeling - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Joseph H.

    2001-01-01

    The in situ analysis of surface conditions of vitrified nuclear wastes can provide an important check of the burial status of radioactive objects without risk of radiation exposure. Raman spectroscopy was initially chosen as the most promising method for testing the surface conditions of glasses undergoing chemical corrosion, and was used extensively during the first year. However, it was determined that infrared reflection spectroscopy was better suited to this particular need and was used for the remaining two years to investigate the surface corrosion behavior of model silicate glasses for extension to nuclear waste glasses. The developed methodology is consistent with the known theory of optical propagation of dielectric media and uses the Kramers-Kronig formalism. The results show that it is possible to study the corrosion of glass by analyzing the glass surface using reflection fast Fourier infrared measurements and the newly developed ''dispersion analysis method.'' The data show how this analysis can be used to monitor the corrosion behavior of vitrified waste glasses over extended periods of storage

  8. Durability test of geomembrane liners presumed to avail near surface disposal facilities for low-level waste generated from research, industrial and medical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakai, Akihiro; Kurosawa, Ryohei; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Kanno, Naohiro; Kashima, Takahiro

    2014-02-01

    The Low-level Radioactive Waste Disposal Project Center will construct near surface disposal facilities for radioactive wastes from research, industrial and medical facilities. The disposal facilities consist of “concrete pit type” for low-level radioactive wastes and “trench type” for very low level radioactive wastes. As for the trench type disposal facility, two kinds of facility designs are on projects – one for a normal trench type disposal facility without any of engineered barriers and the other for a trench type disposal facility with geomembrane liners that could prevent from causing environmental effects of non radioactive toxic materials contained in the waste packages. The disposal facility should be designed taking basic properties of durability on geomembrane liners into account, for it is exposed to natural environment on a long-term basis. This study examined mechanical strength and permeability properties to assess the durability on the basis of an indoor accelerated exposure experiment targeting the liner materials presumed to avail the conceptual design so far. Its results will be used for the basic and detailed design henceforth by confirming the empirical degradation characteristic with the progress of the exposure time. (author)

  9. The long-term safety and performance analyses of the surface disposal facility for the Belgian category a waste at Dessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, Wim; Vermarien, Elise; Wacquier, William [ONDRAF/NIRAS Avenue des Arts 14, BE-1210 Bruxelles (Belgium); Perko, Janez [SCK-CEN Boeretang 200, BE-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, and its partners have developed long-term safety and performance analyses in the framework of the license application for a surface disposal facility for low level radioactive waste (category A waste) at Dessel, Belgium. This paper focusses on the methodology of the safety assessments and on key results from the application of this methodology. An overview is given (1) of the performance analyses for the containment safety function of the disposal system and (2) of the radiological impact analyses confirming that radiological impacts are below applicable reference values and constraints and leading to radiological criteria for the waste and the facility. In this discussion, multiple indicators for performance and safety are used to illustrate the multi-faceted nature of long-term performance and safety of the surface disposal. This contributes to the multiple lines of reasoning for confidence building that a positive decision to proceed to the next stage of construction is justified. (authors)

  10. Mine waste disposal and managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Young Wook; Min, Jeong Sik; Kwon, Kwang Soo; Kim, Ok Hwan; Kim, In Kee; Song, Won Kyong; Lee, Hyun Joo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) is the product formed by the atmospheric oxidation of the relatively common pyrite and pyrrhotite. Waste rock dumps and tailings containing sulfide mineral have been reported at toxic materials producing ARD. Mining in sulphide bearing rock is one of activity which may lead to generation and release of ARD. ARD has had some major detrimental affects on mining areas. The purpose of this study was carried out to develop disposal method for preventing contamination of water and soil environment by waste rocks dump and tailings, which could discharge the acid drainage with high level of metals. Scope of this study was as following: environmental impacts by mine wastes, geochemical characteristics such as metal speciation, acid potential and paste pH of mine wastes, interpretation of occurrence of ARD underneath tailings impoundment, analysis of slope stability of tailings dam etc. The following procedures were used as part of ARD evaluation and prediction to determine the nature and quantities of soluble constituents that may be washed from mine wastes under natural precipitation: analysis of water and mine wastes, Acid-Base accounting, sequential extraction technique and measurement of lime requirement etc. In addition, computer modelling was applied for interpretation of slope stability od tailings dam. (author). 44 refs., 33 tabs., 86 figs.

  11. Seasonal dynamics in leachate hydrochemistry and natural attentuation in surface run-off waste from a tropical landfill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangimbulude, J.C.; van Breukelen, B.M.; Krave, A.S.; van Straalen, N.M.; Roling, W.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Open waste dump systems are still widely used in Indonesia. The Jatibarang landfill receives 650-700 tons of municipal waste per day from the city of Semarang, Central Java. Some of the leachate from the landfill flows via several natural and collection ponds to a nearby river. The objectives of the

  12. Consequences of a radioactive surface pool resulting from waste transfer operations between tanks 214-C-106 and 241-AY-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Vleet, R.J.

    1997-08-05

    This document contains supporting calculations for quantifying the dose consequences from a pool formed from an underground leak or a-leak from an above grade structure for the Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (Project W-320), i.e., sluicing the contents of Tank 241-C-106 (high heat, SST) into Tank 241-AY-102 (aging waste, DST).

  13. Consequences of a radioactive surface pool resulting from waste transfer operations between tanks 214-C-106 and 241-AY-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Vleet, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    This document contains supporting calculations for quantifying the dose consequences from a pool formed from an underground leak or a-leak from an above grade structure for the Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (Project W-320), i.e., sluicing the contents of Tank 241-C-106 (high heat, SST) into Tank 241-AY-102 (aging waste, DST)

  14. Comprehensive evaluation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in surface soils and river sediments from e-waste-processing sites in a village in northern Vietnam: Heading towards the environmentally sound management of e-waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Suzuki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The management of electronic waste (e-waste, which can be a source of both useful materials and toxic substances, depending on the processing method, is important for promoting material cycling. In this study, we used the dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX assay combined with gas chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry to evaluate the levels of dioxin-like compounds in surface soils and river sediments collected in and around an e-waste-processing village in northern Vietnam. The WHO-TEQs (Toxic equivalents of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs, and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs in soils collected in January 2012 ranged from 0.29 to 310 pg/g (median 2.9 pg/g, n = 32, and the WHO-TEQs in sediments ranged from 0.96 to 58 pg/g (median 4.4 pg/g, n = 8. Dioxin-like activities (CALUX-TEQs [2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalent] in soils collected in January 2012, 2013, and 2014 ranged from <30 to 4300 pg/g (median <30 pg/g, n = 96, and the activities in sediments ranged from <30 to 4000 pg/g (median 33 pg/g, n = 24. Dioxin-like compounds accumulated in samples collected around e-waste-processing areas such as open-burning sites and e-waste-processing workshops, and the compounds may be transported from their sources to surrounding areas over the course of several years. Some of the CALUX-TEQs, but not WHO-TEQs, values were higher than the maximum acceptable WHO-TEQs promulgated by various authorities, indicating that all dioxin-like compounds should be evaluated in samples collected from e-waste-processing areas. Our findings suggest that open burning and open storage of e-waste should be prohibited and that wastewater treatment should be implemented at each workshop to reduce contamination by dioxin-like compounds from e-waste.

  15. Readiness Review Plan for the Interim Remedial Action on Surface Debris in Waste Area Grouping 11 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This Readiness Review Plan was prepared by the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 11 Site Project Readiness Review Team as an overview of the Interim Remedial Action on Surface Debris in WAG 11 project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, including major readiness milestones, criteria development methodology, and a list of events to occur as part of the review process for determining readiness for each project phase

  16. Review to give the public clear information on near surface disposal project of low-level radioactive wastes generated from research, industrial and medical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shobu, Nobuhiro; Amazawa, Hiroya; Koibuchi, Hiroto; Nakata, Hisakazu; Kato, Masatoshi; Takao, Tomoe; Terashima, Daisuke; Tanaka, Yoshie; Shirasu, Hisanori

    2013-12-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereafter abbreviated as “JAEA”) has promoted near surface disposal project for low-level radioactive wastes generated from research, industrial and medical facilities after receiving project approval from the government in November 2009. JAEA has carried out public information about low-level radioactive wastes disposal project on the web site. When some town meetings are held toward mutual understanding with the public, more detailed and clear explanations for safety management of near surface disposal are needed especially. Therefore, the information provision method to make the public understand should be reviewed. Moreover, a web-based survey should be carried out in order to get a sense of what the public knows, what it values and where it stands on nuclear energy and radiation issues, because the social environment surrounding nuclear energy and radiation issues has drastically changed as a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on March 11, 2011. This review clarified the points to keep in mind about public information on near surface disposal project for low-level radioactive wastes generated from research, industrial and medical facilities, and that public awareness and understanding toward nuclear energy and radiation was changed before and after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  17. Study of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities exposed to buckeye reclamation landfill drainage wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemm, D.J.; Thoeny, W.T.; McCarthy, H.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Buckeye Reclamation Landfill (BRL), a Superfund site, incorporates approximately 50 acres of a 658 acre tract of land. The BRL consists of past underground mining voids, including some surface-mined lands, and mine refuse piles from processed bituminous coal. The area was subsequently used as a nonhazardous public and municipal solid waste landfill, and industrial sludge and liquid wastes were also deposited in an impoundment in the northern section of the landfill. The entire landfill area was completely covered with soil and revegetated in the late 1980's and early 1990's. The BRL produces acidic and highly mineralized drainage causing a widespread problem of serious mine drainage pollution in the watershed. A study was undertaken to assess the exposure of pollutants to the macroinvertebrate assemblages and to determine the extent of pollution of the BRL watershed. Samples were collected from ten sites in 1995. Nine systematic and spatial transect samples were taken at each collection site for macroinverbrates with a 595 microm mesh, modified kick net from riffle/run and glide/pool habitats of streams above and below the BRL watershed. All macroinverbrates were identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible. The levels for total Zn ranged from 22--604 microg/L; pH ranged from 4.4 to 8.1. The data distinguished the exposed sites receiving landfill leachates and sedimentation runoff from the less impacted sites

  18. Planning for closures of hazardous waste land disposal units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, S.H.; Kelly, B.A.; DeLozier, M.F.P.; Manrod, W.E.

    1988-01-01

    Eight hazardous waste land disposal units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant are being closed in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) under an integrated multi-year program. The units, some of which date back to the early 1950s and include five surface impoundments, two landfills and a land treatment unit, have been used for the management of a variety of types of hazardous wastes. Closure plans for the units have been submitted and are in various stages of revision and regulatory review. The units will be closed by various combinations of methods, including liquid removal and treatment, sludge stabilization, contaminated sludge and/or soil removal, and capping. Closure of all eight units must be initiated by November 8, 1988. Funding for the eight closures is being provided by a new Department of Energy budget category, the environmental Restoration Budget Category (ERBC), which is intended to allow for a more rapid response to environmental problems and regulatory requirements. A major project, Closure and Post-Closure Activities (CAPCA) has been identified for ERBC funding to close the land disposal units in accordance with RCRA requirements. Establishing the project scope has required the development of a detailed set of assumptions and a confirmation program for each assumption. Other significant activities in the CAPCA project include risk assessments and the preparation of an integrated project schedule

  19. Process and associated equipment for decontaminating, cleaning all surfaces which are covered with transferrable contamination of a nuclear nature, without creating other wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiesse, J.-C.G.; Chauvet, S.; Chabert, R.E.; Dezu, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for removing all transferrable contamination of a nuclear nature without creating new nuclear contamination wastes. This process is characterised by the following three stages: spraying and covering the contaminated surfaces with dry ice, without causing any blast; spraying a jet of steam or hot air on to the coated surfaces from very close range; forced ventilation causing total evaporation of the dry ice, bringing about the phenomenon of sublimation. The device for applying the process comprises a dry ice emitter and a spray nozzle for water vapour at a temperature in excess of 70 0 C. (author)

  20. Analysis of surface leaching processes in vitrified high-level nuclear wastes using in-situ raman imaging and atomistic modeling. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.; Simmons, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    'The research objective was to test and develop optical methods for real-time, remote and in-situ testing of corrosion processes on the surface of vitrified nuclear wastes. This report summarizes the research conducted in the first 1.5 years of a 3 year grant. At this point, the authors have identified the conditions for optimal tests and demonstrated that both IR reflection and Raman spectroscopies can be used to determine the dealkalization process in the surface of simple glasses in real time.'

  1. Transuranic waste management program waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, W.S.; Crisler, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    To ensure that all technology necessary for long term management of transuranic (TRU) wastes is available, the Department of Energy has established the Transuranic Waste Management Program. A principal focus of the program is development of waste forms that can accommodate the very diverse TRU waste inventory and meet geologic isolation criteria. The TRU Program is following two approaches. First, decontamination processes are being developed to allow removal of sufficient surface contamination to permit management of some of the waste as low level waste. The other approach is to develop processes which will allow immobilization by encapsulation of the solids or incorporate head end processes which will make the solids compatible with more typical waste form processes. The assessment of available data indicates that dewatered concretes, synthetic basalts, and borosilicate glass waste forms appear to be viable candidates for immobilization of large fractions of the TRU waste inventory in a geologic repository

  2. Conceptual designs of near surface disposal facility for radioactive waste arising from the facilities using radioisotopes and research facilities for nuclear energy development and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Akihiro; Yoshimori, Michiro; Okoshi, Minoru; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Abe, Masayoshi

    2001-03-01

    Various kinds of radioactive waste is generating from the utilization of radioisotopes in the field of science, technology, etc. and the utilization and development of nuclear energy. In order to promote the utilization of radionuclides and the research activities, it is necessary to treat and dispose of radioactive waste safely and economically. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), which are the major waste generators in Japan in these fields, are promoting the technical investigations for treatment and disposal of the radioactive waste co-operately. Conceptual design of disposal facility is necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of waste disposal business and to determine the some conditions such as the area size of the disposal facility. Three institutes share the works to design disposal facility. Based on our research activities and experiences of waste disposal, JAERI implemented the designing of near surface disposal facilities, namely, simple earthen trench and concrete vaults. The designing was performed based on the following three assumed site conditions to cover the future site conditions: (1) Case 1 - Inland area with low groundwater level, (2) Case 2 - Inland area with high groundwater level, (3) Case 3 - Coastal area. The estimation of construction costs and the safety analysis were also performed based on the designing of facilities. The safety assessment results show that the safety for concrete vault type repository is ensured by adding low permeability soil layer, i.e. mixture of soil and bentonite, surrounding the vaults not depending on the site conditions. The safety assessment results for simple earthen trench also show that their safety is ensured not depending on the site conditions, if they are constructed above groundwater levels. The construction costs largely depend on the depth for excavation to build the repositories. (author)

  3. Organohalogen pollutants in surface particulates from workshop floors of four major e-waste recycling sites in China and implications for emission lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan-Hong; Tang, Bin; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Peng, Ping-An; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-11-01

    To examine the environmental pollution associated with e-waste recycling activities, the concentrations of organohologenated pollutants (OHPs), i.e., short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and several other halogenated flame retardants (OHFRs), were investigated in surface particulates from the workshop floors of four major e-waste recycling sites (Taizhou, Guiyu, Dali and Qingyuan) in China. The mean levels of SCCPs, MCCPs, PCBs, PBDEs and OHFRs in surface particulates ranged from 30,000-61,000, 170,000-890,000, 2700-27,000, 52,000-240,000, and 62,000-140,000ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. OHFRs, including decabromodiphenyl ethane, dechlorane plus, 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane, tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecanes, polybrominated biphenyls, hexabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene, and pentabromoethylbenzene, were frequently (>50% detection frequency) detected in surface particulates with mean concentration ranges of 39,000-63,000, 310-2700, 98-16,000, 21,000-56,000, 55-5700, 1700-27,000, 42-1600, 3.2-220, and 5.8-12ng/g dw, respectively. The composition of OHPs varied depend on the e-waste items processing in different regions. Guiyu and Dali were typical sites contaminated by halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and CPs, respectively, while Qingyuan, and Taizhou were representative PCB-polluted regions. The evidence produced by this preliminary study indicated that electronic devices and plastics may account for the high content of HFRs and the metal products are likely the major source of CPs in these e-waste sites. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Using response surface methodology in optimisation of biodiesel production via alkali catalysed transesterification of waste cooking oil

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, R

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The report focuses on optimisation of alkali catalysis as a process for producing biodiesel from waste cooking oils. Biodiesel production parameters that were optimised were methanol to oil ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature...

  5. [Influence of 175-m-impoundment in Three Gorges Reservoir area on the food web energy sources of main commercial fishes in backwater area of xiaojiang River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Yue, Xing-Jian; Wang, Yong-Ming; Jin, Li; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2013-06-01

    The impoundment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) was first reached 175 m in 2010. To approach the influence of this impoundment on the food web energy sources of fishes in the tributaries of TRGA, an analysis was made on the food web energy sources of seven economically important fishes (Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio, Silurus asotus, Culter mongolicus mongolicus, Mystus macropterus, Pelteobagrus vachelli, and Pelteobagrus nitidus) in the backwater area of Xiaojiang River by using stable isotope method in combining with IsoSource Model. The results showed that before this impoundment (July 2010), microalgae were the main energy sources for the seven species. After this impoundment (December 2010), the contribution ratio of the microalgae decreased somewhat, while the relative contribution of terrestrial C4 plants had an obvious increase. Especially for crucian carp (C. auratus) and catfish (S. asotus), the contribution rate of the C4 plants reached 38-54% and 32-50%, respectively. After the impoundment, at least 30% of the energy resources of these two fishes were come from terrestrial C4 plants, suggesting that the impoundment in TGRA increased the contribution rate of exogenous terrestrial C4 plants as the energy sources of fishes.

  6. United Kingdom. Development plan for the eventual closure of the UK Drigg nuclear surface low level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Drigg site, owned and operated by BNFL, is the UK's principal site for the disposal of low level radioactive waste. The site has operated since 1959 and receives wastes from a wide range of sources including nuclear power stations, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, isotope manufacturing sites, universities, general industry and cleanup of historically contaminated sites. Disposals until the late 1980s were solely by tipping essentially loose wastes into excavated trenches. More recently, trench disposals have been phased out in preference to emplacement of containerised, conditioned wastes in concrete vaults. The standardised wasteform consists of high force compacted (or non-compactable) waste immobilised within 20 m 3 steel overpack containers by the addition of cementitious grout. Larger items of wastes are grouted directly, in situ in the vault. The disposal trenches have been completed with an interim cap, as will the vaults when filled. It is currently estimated that sufficient capacity remains at Drigg for disposals to continue until at least 2050. Post-operations it is planned that the site will enter a phase including shut down of operational facilities, emplacement of long term site closure features including a final closure cap and then to an institutional management phase. Planning has therefore been carried out as to the strategy for eventual closure of the site. This closure strategy is also underpinned by an engineering evaluation studies programme to develop and evaluate appropriate closure measures including assessment of the long term performance of such measures. This appendix summarizes some of this work

  7. Arsenic mobility from anthropogenic impoundment sediments - Consequences of contamination to biota, water and sediments, Posa, Eastern Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, E.; Jurkovic, L.; Kordik, J.; Slaninka, I.; Jankular, M.; Majzlan, J.; Gottlicher, J.; Steininger, R. [Geological Survey of Slovak Republic, Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Environmental Geochemistry

    2009-11-15

    An impoundment located near the village of Posa, Slovakia, is a significant source of contamination with As originating from the deposited coal fly-ash. Waters penetrating the impoundment are enriched in As and other potentially toxic elements. As a consequence of the contamination, the Kyjov Brook and the Ondava River have been extensively polluted. The mobility and solid-state partitioning of As in the impoundment material and stream sediments were investigated using column leaching and batch extraction tests, and a five-step sequential extraction procedure. Moreover, to investigate the bioavailability of As, two native plant species (Typha latifolia, or cattail, and Phragmites australis, or common reed) growing at the site were collected and analyzed. The As concentrations in representative sediment and water samples ranged from 36.3 to 3210 mg/kg and from 4.05 to 613 {mu} g/L, respectively, both being many times above the background levels. Although a part of As was present in a readily soluble form (6.6%), the majority of As was mainly associated with Fe and Mn oxides (37%) and residual phases (51%). Combined results of the column leaching, batch extraction, and sequential extraction tests, as well as mineralogical analysis, indicated that As mobilisation potential from the sediments is likely controlled by Fe, Al and Mn oxides, and by pH. There was no influence of various anions (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sup 3-}, Cl{sup -} and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) on As mobility when present in aqueous solution at concentrations analogous to those in the water of the Kyjov Brook. Plants growing in the impoundment had As concentrations 10-100 times greater than did the same plants growing in a relatively non-polluted area.

  8. Evaluation of behaviors of earth and rockfill dams during construction and initial impounding using instrumentation data and numerical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rashidi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the behavior of Gavoshan dam was evaluated during construction and the first impounding. A two-dimensional (2D numerical analysis was conducted based on a finite difference method on the largest cross-section of the dam using the results of instrument measurements and back analysis. These evaluations will be completed in the case that back analysis is carried out in order to control the degree of the accuracy and the level of confidence of the measured behavior since each of the measurements could be controlled by comparing it to the result obtained from the numerical model. Following that, by comparing the results of the numerical analysis with the measured values, it is indicated that there is a proper consistency between these two values. Moreover, it was observed that the dam performance was suitable regarding the induced pore water pressure, the pore water pressure ratio ru, settlement, induced stresses, arching degree, and hydraulic fracturing probability during the construction and initial impounding periods. The results demonstrated that the maximum settlement of the core was 238 cm at the end of construction. In the following 6 years after construction (initial impounding and exploitation period, the accumulative settlement of the dam was 270 cm. It is clear that 88% of the total settlement of the dam took place during dam construction. The reason is that the clay core was smashed in the wet side, i.e. the optimum moisture content. Whereas the average curving ratio was 0.64 during dam construction; at the end of the initial impounding, the maximum amount of curving ratio in the upstream was 0.81, and the minimum (critical amount in the downstream was 0.52. It was also concluded that this dam is safe in comparison with the behaviors of other similar dams in the world.

  9. Hypersalinity reduces the risk of cyanide toxicosis to insectivorous bats interacting with wastewater impoundments at gold mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Donato, David B; Lumsden, Linda F; Coulson, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife and livestock that ingest bioavailable cyanide compounds in gold mining tailings dams are known to experience cyanide toxicosis. Elevated levels of salinity in open impoundments have been shown to prevent wildlife cyanide toxicosis by reducing drinking and foraging. This finding appears to be consistent for diurnal wildlife interacting with open impoundments, however the risks to nocturnal wildlife of cyanide exposure are unknown. We investigated the activity of insectivorous bats in the airspace above both fresh (potable to wildlife) and saline water bodies at two gold mines in the goldfields of Western Australian. During this study, cyanide-bearing solutions stored in open impoundments at both mine sites were hypersaline (range=57,000-295,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS)), well above known physiological tolerance of any terrestrial vertebrate. Bats used the airspace above each water body monitored, but were more active at fresh than saline water bodies. In addition, considerably more terminal echolocation buzz calls were recorded in the airspace above fresh than saline water bodies at both mine sites. However, it was not possible to determine whether these buzz calls corresponded to foraging or drinking bouts. No drinking bouts were observed in 33 h of thermal video footage recorded at one hypersaline tailings dam, suggesting that this water is not used for drinking. There is no information on salinity tolerances of bats, but it could be assumed that bats would not tolerate salinity in drinking water at concentrations greater than those documented as toxic for saline-adapted terrestrial wildlife. Therefore, when managing wastewater impoundments at gold mines to avoid wildlife mortalities, adopting a precautionary principle, bats are unlikely to drink solutions at salinity levels ≥50,000 mg/L TDS. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive waste, as a unavoidable remnant from the use of radioactive substances and nuclear technology. It is potentially hazardous to health and must therefore be managed to protect humans and the environment. The main bulk of radioactive waste must be permanently disposed in engineered repositories. Appropriate safety standards for repository design and construction are required along with the development and implementation of appropriate technologies for the design, construction, operation and closure of the waste disposal systems. As backend of the fuel cycle, resolving the issue of waste disposal is often considered as a prerequisite to the (further) development of nuclear energy programmes. Waste disposal is therefore an essential part of the waste management strategy that contributes largely to build confidence and helps decision-making when appropriately managed. The International Atomic Energy Agency provides assistance to Member States to enable safe and secure disposal of RW related to the development of national RWM strategies, including planning and long-term project management, the organisation of international peer-reviews for research and demonstration programmes, the improvement of the long-term safety of existing Near Surface Disposal facilities including capacity extension, the selection of potential candidate sites for different waste types and disposal options, the characterisation of potential host formations for waste facilities and the conduct of preliminary safety assessment, the establishment and transfer of suitable technologies for the management of RW, the development of technological solutions for some specific waste, the building of confidence through training courses, scientific visits and fellowships, the provision of training, expertise, software or hardware, and laboratory equipment, and the assessment of waste management costs and the provision of advice on cost minimisation aspects

  11. Modulation of Extreme Flood Levels by Impoundment Significantly Offset by Floodplain Loss Downstream of the Three Gorges Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xuefei; Dai, Zhijun; Darby, Stephen E.; Gao, Shu; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Weiguo

    2018-04-01

    River flooding—the world's most significant natural hazard—is likely to increase under anthropogenic climate change. Most large rivers have been regulated by damming, but the extent to which these impoundments can mitigate extreme flooding remains uncertain. Here the catastrophic 2016 flood on the Changjiang River is first analyzed to assess the effects of both the Changjiang's reservoir cascade and the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the world's largest hydraulic engineering project on downstream flood discharge and water levels. We show that the Changjiang's reservoir cascade impounded over 30.0 × 103 m3/s of flow at the peak of the flood on 25 July 2016, preventing the occurrence of what would otherwise have been the second largest flood ever recorded in the reach downstream of the TGD. Half of this flood water storage was retained by the TGD alone, meaning that impoundment by the TGD reduced peak water levels at the Datong hydrometric station (on 25 July) by 1.47 m, compared to pre-TGD conditions. However, downstream morphological changes, in particular, extensive erosion of the natural floodplain, offset this reduction in water level by 0.22 m, so that the full beneficial impact of floodwater retention by the TGD was not fully realized. Our results highlight how morphological adjustments downstream of large dams may inhibit their full potential to mitigate extreme flood risk.

  12. Evaluation of factors related to increased zooplankton biomass and altered species composition following impoundment of a Newfoundland reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.E.; Knoechel, R.; Copeman, D.

    1998-01-01

    An 11-year study of the zooplankton community in Cat Arm Hydroelectric Reservoir in Newfoundland was conducted to assess long-term zooplankton community dynamics in a subarctic system. Zooplankton biomass and species compositions were monitored from 1983 to 1993. The monitoring program documented the trophic evolution of the Cat Arm system as it changed from a shallow lake with short water retention time to a deep reservoir with a much lower flushing rate. Zooplankton biomass increased approximately 19-fold in the oligotrophic hydroelectric reservoir following impoundment in 1984, relative to biomass in the preexisting lake. During the first three years of impoundment, there were no increases in either phytoplankton biomass or primary productivity. Natality of the dominant cladoceran (Daphnia catawba) did not increase. Summer water retention time increased from pre-impoundment levels of 4 days in 1983 to 338 days in 1993. The study showed that zooplankton biomass was greatly correlated with water retention time, and showed no major correlation with phytoplankton biomass, primary productivity, nutrient concentrations, pH, colour, or epilimnetic temperature. It was concluded that changes in the zooplankton community in the hydroelectric reservoir were a result of decreases in losses due to washout. 41 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  13. [Effects of Three Gorges Reservoir impoundment on the wetland ecosystem service value of Dongting Lake, South-central China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Bao; Dai, Yong; Yin, Ri-Xin; Yang, Yan; Li, Yu-dan; Wang, Ke-ying

    2013-03-01

    Based on the field investigation and measurement, and by using the monetary method, this paper estimated the wetland ecosystem service value of Dongting Lake before and after the impoundment of Three Gorges Reservoir (in 1996 and 2010, respectively). After the impoundment, the total ecosystem service value increased from 156.69x10(8) yuan in 1996 to 177.11x10(8) yuan in 2010. The main services value in 1996 was in the order of flood storage and regulation > water storage and supply > air regulation > scientific research and education, while that in 2010 was leisure tourism > shipping transportation > air regulation > water storage and supply. In the total service value of the wetland ecosystem, the direct value associated with water decreased from 110. 85x10(8) in 1996 to 27.47x10(8) in 2010, with a decrement of 75.2%. Though the proportion of the direct value in the production and supply of material products had somewhat increase, the indirect value in ecological environment regulation and maintenance and in culture and society still maintained at about 80% of the total value. In addition to climate factors, the impoundment of Three Gorges Reservoir and the reduction of water and sediment from Yangtze River to the Lake were the crucial reasons leading to the changes of the wetland ecosystem service value of Dongting Lake.

  14. Effect of fishing effort on catch rate and catchability of largemouth bass in small impoundments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, M. G.; Schramm, Harold; Neal, J. W.; Gerard, P.D.

    2018-01-01

    Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède) catch rates decline with sustained fishing effort, even without harvest. It is unclear why declines in catch rate occur, and little research has been directed at how to improve catch rate. Learning has been proposed as a reason for declining catch rate, but has never been tested on largemouth bass. If catch rate declines because fish learn to avoid lures, periods of no fishing could be a management tool for increasing catch rate. In this study, six small impoundments with established fish populations were fished for two May to October fishing seasons to evaluate the effect of fishing effort on catch rate. Closed seasons were implemented to test whether a 2‐month period of no fishing improved catch rates and to determine whether conditioning from factors other than being captured reduced catch rate. Mixed‐model analysis indicated catch rate and catchability declined throughout the fishing season. Catch rate and catchability increased after a 2‐month closure but soon declined to the lowest levels of the fishing season. These changes in catch rate and catchability support the conclusion of learned angler avoidance, but sustained catchability of fish not previously caught does not support that associative or social learning affected catchability.

  15. Evidence for serial discontinuity in the fish community of a heavily impounded river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Dembkowski, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    In the Tennessee River, USA, we examined lengthwise patterns in fish community structure and species richness within and among nine reservoirs organized in sequence and connected through navigational locks. Within reservoirs, the riverine, transition and lacustrine zones supported distinct, although overlapping, nearshore fish assemblages; differences were also reflected in measures of species richness. Spatial patterns were most apparent for rheophilic species, which increased in species richness and representation upstream within each reservoir and downstream across the chain of reservoirs. This pattern resembled a sawtooth wave, with the amplitude of the wave peaking in the riverine zone below each dam, and progressively higher wave amplitude developing downstream in the reservoir chain. The observed sawtooth pattern supports the serial discontinuity concept in that the continuity of the riverine fish community is interrupted by the lacustrine conditions created behind each dam. Upstream within each reservoir, and downstream in the chain of reservoirs, habitat characteristics become more riverine. To promote sustainability of rheophilic fishes and maintain biodiversity in impounded rivers, conservation plans could emphasize maintenance and preservation of riverine environments of the reservoir's upper reaches, while remaining cognizant of the broader basin trends that provide opportunities for a lengthwise array of conservation and management policy. 

  16. Survivability of ancient man-made earthen mounds: implications for uranium mill tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, C.G.; Mishima, J.; King, S.E.; Walters, W.H.

    1983-06-01

    As part of a study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating long-term stabilization techniques for uranium mill impoundments. Part of this investigation involves the design of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of the underlying soil cover, which in turn prevents exposure of the tailings to the environment. However, the need for the armoring blanket, as well as the blanket's effectiveness, depends on the stability of the underlying soil cap (radon suppression cover) and on the tailings themselves. Compelling evidence in archaeological records suggests that large man-made earthen structures can remain sound and intact for time periods comparable to those required for the stabilization of the tailings piles if properly constructed. We present archaeological evidence on the existence and survivability of man-made earthen and rock structures through specific examples of such structures from around the world. We also review factors contributing to their survival or destruction and address the influence of climate, building materials, and construction techniques on survivability

  17. Methane Oxidation and Molecular Characterization of Methanotrophs from a Former Mercury Mine Impoundment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun M. Baesman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Herman Pit, once a mercury mine, is an impoundment located in an active geothermal area. Its acidic waters are permeated by hundreds of gas seeps. One seep was sampled and found to be composed of mostly CO2 with some CH4 present. The δ13CH4 value suggested a complex origin for the methane: i.e., a thermogenic component plus a biological methanogenic portion. The relatively 12C-enriched CO2 suggested a reworking of the ebullitive methane by methanotrophic bacteria. Therefore, we tested bottom sediments for their ability to consume methane by conducting aerobic incubations of slurried materials. Methane was removed from the headspace of live slurries, and subsequent additions of methane resulted in faster removal rates. This activity could be transferred to an artificial, acidic medium, indicating the presence of acidophilic or acid-tolerant methanotrophs, the latter reinforced by the observation of maximum activity at pH = 4.5 with incubated slurries. A successful extraction of sterol and hopanoid lipids characteristic of methanotrophs was achieved, and their abundances greatly increased with increased sediment methane consumption. DNA extracted from methane-oxidizing enrichment cultures was amplified and sequenced for pmoA genes that aligned with methanotrophic members of the Gammaproteobacteria. An enrichment culture was established that grew in an acidic (pH 4.5 medium via methane oxidation.

  18. Methane oxidation and molecular characterization of methanotrophs from a former mercury mine impoundment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baesman, Shaun; Miller, Laurence G.; Wei, Jeremy H.; Cho, Yirang; Matys, Emily D.; Summons, Roger E.; Welander, Paula V.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    The Herman Pit, once a mercury mine, is an impoundment located in an active geothermal area. Its acidic waters are permeated by hundreds of gas seeps. One seep was sampled and found to be composed of mostly CO2 with some CH4 present. The δ13CH4 value suggested a complex origin for the methane: i.e., a thermogenic component plus a biological methanogenic portion. The relatively 12C-enriched CO2 suggested a reworking of the ebullitive methane by methanotrophic bacteria. Therefore, we tested bottom sediments for their ability to consume methane by conducting aerobic incubations of slurried materials. Methane was removed from the headspace of live slurries, and subsequent additions of methane resulted in faster removal rates. This activity could be transferred to an artificial, acidic medium, indicating the presence of acidophilic or acid-tolerant methanotrophs, the latter reinforced by the observation of maximum activity at pH = 4.5 with incubated slurries. A successful extraction of sterol and hopanoid lipids characteristic of methanotrophs was achieved, and their abundances greatly increased with increased sediment methane consumption. DNA extracted from methane-oxidizing enrichment cultures was amplified and sequenced for pmoA genes that aligned with methanotrophic members of the Gammaproteobacteria. An enrichment culture was established that grew in an acidic (pH 4.5) medium via methane oxidation.

  19. The Effect of Zebra Mussels on Algal Community Structure in an Impounded River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumble, A. F.; Luttenton, M.

    2005-05-01

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, invaded the Great Lakes Region in the mid 1980's, and subsequently colonized inland lakes and coastal river systems through secondary invasions. The Muskegon River below Croton Dam was colonized by zebra mussels in 2000 following their introduction into Croton impoundment in the late 1990's. No zebra mussels were found below Croton Dam in 1999 but had increased to 25,000 m-2 by 2001. We examined the affect of zebra mussels on epilithic periphyton communities by comparing plots that were and were not colonized by zebra mussels. Chlorophyll a increased in both treatments over time but was significantly higher in control plots than in zebra mussel plots. The concentration of chlorophyll a in the control plots increased from 14 µgcm-2 to 26 µgcm-2 and the concentration in the zebra mussel plots started at 12 µgcm-2, peaked at 19 µgcm-2, and then decreased to 15 µgcm-2 over a 6 week period. In a related experiment using artificial streams, chlorophyll a increased with increasing zebra mussel density, but differences were not significant. The different trends observed between the two experiments may be explained in part by arthropod invertebrates associated with zebra mussel populations.

  20. Quantifying downstream impacts of impoundment on flow regime and channel planform, lower Trinity River, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmeyer, Jessica L.; Slattery, Michael C.; Phillips, Jonathan D.

    2005-07-01

    As human population worldwide has grown, so has interest in harnessing and manipulating the flow of water for the benefit of humans. The Trinity River of eastern Texas is one such watershed greatly impacted by engineering and urbanization. Draining the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex, just under 30 reservoirs are in operation in the basin, regulating flow while containing public supplies, supporting recreation, and providing flood control. Lake Livingston is the lowest, as well as largest, reservoir in the basin, a mere 95 km above the Trinity's outlet near Galveston Bay. This study seeks to describe and quantify channel activity and flow regime, identifying effects of the 1968 closure of Livingston dam. Using historic daily and peak discharge data from USGS gauging stations, flow duration curves are constructed, identifying pre- and post-dam flow conditions. A digital historic photo archive was also constructed using six sets of aerial photographs spanning from 1938 to 1995, and three measures of channel activity applied using a GIS. Results show no changes in high flow conditions following impoundment, while low flows are elevated. However, the entire post-dam period is characterized by significantly higher rainfall, which may be obscuring the full impact of flow regulation. Channel activity rates do not indicate a more stabilized planform following dam closure; rather they suggest that the Trinity River is adjusting itself to the stress of Livingston dam in a slow, gradual process that may not be apparent in a modern time scale.

  1. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) research program to improve safety assessment methodologies for near-surface radioactive waste disposal facilities (ISAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Vidal, C.; Kozak, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) launched a Coordinated Research Program in November 1997 on Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities (ISAM). The purpose of this paper is to describe the program and its goals, and to describe achievements of the program to date. The main objectives of the ISAM program are outlined. The primary focus of ISAM is on the practical application of safety assessment methodologies. Three kinds of practical situations are being addressed in the program: safety assessments for large vaults typical of those in Western Europe and North America, smaller vaults for medium and industrial wastes typical in eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, and a proposed borehole technology for disposal of spent sources in low-technology conditions. (author)

  2. Site characterization summary report for Waste Area Grouping 10 Wells at the Old Hydrofracture Facility, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems). As part of its DOE mission, ORNL has pioneered waste disposal technologies throughout the years of site operations since World War II. In the late 1950s, efforts were made to develop a permanent disposal alternative to the surface impoundments at ORNL at the request of the National Academy of Sciences. One such technology, the hydrofracture process, involved forming fractures in an underlying geologic host formation (a low-permeability shale) at depths of up to 1000 ft and subsequently injecting a grout slurry containing low-level liquid waste, cement, and other additives at an injection pressure of about 2000 psi. The objective of the effort was to develop a grout slurry that could be injected as a liquid but would solidify after injection, thereby immobilizing the radioisotopes contained in the low-level liquid waste. The scope of this site characterization was the access, sampling, logging, and evaluation of observation wells near the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) in preparation for plugging, recompletion, or other final disposition of the wells

  3. Automated data acquisition and analysis system used in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project's Near-Surface Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, J.L.

    1982-12-01

    A large minicomputer-based data acquisition and analysis system has been developed by the Basalt Waste Isolation project and is being applied to support research efforts on the response of rock (basalt) to thermal loads from simulated nuclear wastes. This system is believed to be the largest and most powerful system of its type in existence. It scans over 1000 different instruments, for three separate experiments, at a maximum frequency of once every 5 minutes. In addition to data acquisition, the system also performs the functions of data reduction, analog-to-digital conversion, computation of engineering units, data archiving, statistical analysis, and interactive graphics and reports. The system should be of general interest to those concerned with automated monitoring of instrumentation and computer graphics, as applied to large-scale engineering and scientific experimentation, especially in the fields of rock mechanics and nuclear waste disposal

  4. Organohalogen pollutants in surface particulates from workshop floors of four major e-waste recycling sites in China and implications for emission lists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yan-Hong [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tang, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo, Xiao-Jun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zheng, Xiao-Bo [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Peng, Ping-An [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Mai, Bi-Xian, E-mail: nancymai@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2016-11-01

    To examine the environmental pollution associated with e-waste recycling activities, the concentrations of organohologenated pollutants (OHPs), i.e., short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and several other halogenated flame retardants (OHFRs), were investigated in surface particulates from the workshop floors of four major e-waste recycling sites (Taizhou, Guiyu, Dali and Qingyuan) in China. The mean levels of SCCPs, MCCPs, PCBs, PBDEs and OHFRs in surface particulates ranged from 30,000–61,000, 170,000–890,000, 2700–27,000, 52,000–240,000, and 62,000–140,000 ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. OHFRs, including decabromodiphenyl ethane, dechlorane plus, 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane, tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecanes, polybrominated biphenyls, hexabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene, and pentabromoethylbenzene, were frequently (> 50% detection frequency) detected in surface particulates with mean concentration ranges of 39,000–63,000, 310–2700, 98–16,000, 21,000–56,000, 55–5700, 1700–27,000, 42–1600, 3.2–220, and 5.8–12 ng/g dw, respectively. The composition of OHPs varied depend on the e-waste items processing in different regions. Guiyu and Dali were typical sites contaminated by halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and CPs, respectively, while Qingyuan, and Taizhou were representative PCB-polluted regions. The evidence produced by this preliminary study indicated that electronic devices and plastics may account for the high content of HFRs and the metal products are likely the major source of CPs in these e-waste sites. - Highlights: • Report of characterizing the types and possible sources of OHPs in e-waste sites • Guiyu was a typical site contaminated by HFRs, while Dali was dominated by CPs. • Qingyuan and Taizhou were representative PCB-polluted regions. • Electronic devices and plastics may account for the

  5. Organohalogen pollutants in surface particulates from workshop floors of four major e-waste recycling sites in China and implications for emission lists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Yan-Hong; Tang, Bin; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Peng, Ping-An; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-01-01

    To examine the environmental pollution associated with e-waste recycling activities, the concentrations of organohologenated pollutants (OHPs), i.e., short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and several other halogenated flame retardants (OHFRs), were investigated in surface particulates from the workshop floors of four major e-waste recycling sites (Taizhou, Guiyu, Dali and Qingyuan) in China. The mean levels of SCCPs, MCCPs, PCBs, PBDEs and OHFRs in surface particulates ranged from 30,000–61,000, 170,000–890,000, 2700–27,000, 52,000–240,000, and 62,000–140,000 ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. OHFRs, including decabromodiphenyl ethane, dechlorane plus, 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane, tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecanes, polybrominated biphenyls, hexabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene, and pentabromoethylbenzene, were frequently (> 50% detection frequency) detected in surface particulates with mean concentration ranges of 39,000–63,000, 310–2700, 98–16,000, 21,000–56,000, 55–5700, 1700–27,000, 42–1600, 3.2–220, and 5.8–12 ng/g dw, respectively. The composition of OHPs varied depend on the e-waste items processing in different regions. Guiyu and Dali were typical sites contaminated by halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and CPs, respectively, while Qingyuan, and Taizhou were representative PCB-polluted regions. The evidence produced by this preliminary study indicated that electronic devices and plastics may account for the high content of HFRs and the metal products are likely the major source of CPs in these e-waste sites. - Highlights: • Report of characterizing the types and possible sources of OHPs in e-waste sites • Guiyu was a typical site contaminated by HFRs, while Dali was dominated by CPs. • Qingyuan and Taizhou were representative PCB-polluted regions. • Electronic devices and plastics may account for the

  6. Surface water sampling and analysis plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses surface water monitoring, sampling, and analysis activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Surface water monitoring will be conducted at nine sites within WAG 6. Activities to be conducted will include the installation, inspection, and maintenance of automatic flow-monitoring and sampling equipment and manual collection of various water and sediment samples. The samples will be analyzed for various organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. The information derived from the surface water monitoring, sampling, and analysis will aid in evaluating risk associated with contaminants migrating off-WAG, and will be used in calculations to establish relationships between contaminant concentration (C) and flow (Q). The C-Q relationship will be used in calculating the cumulative risk associated with the off-WAG migration of contaminants.

  7. Surface water sampling and analysis plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses surface water monitoring, sampling, and analysis activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Surface water monitoring will be conducted at nine sites within WAG 6. Activities to be conducted will include the installation, inspection, and maintenance of automatic flow-monitoring and sampling equipment and manual collection of various water and sediment samples. The samples will be analyzed for various organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. The information derived from the surface water monitoring, sampling, and analysis will aid in evaluating risk associated with contaminants migrating off-WAG, and will be used in calculations to establish relationships between contaminant concentration (C) and flow (Q). The C-Q relationship will be used in calculating the cumulative risk associated with the off-WAG migration of contaminants

  8. The Impact of Biofilms upon Surfaces Relevant to an Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Geological Disposal Facility under Simulated Near-Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Charles

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of biofilms to form on a range of materials (cementious backfill (Nirex Reference Vault Backfill (NRVB, graphite, and stainless steel relevant to potential UK intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW disposal concepts was investigated by exposing these surfaces to alkaliphilic flocs generated by mature biofilm communities. Flocs are aggregates of biofilm material that are able to act as a transport vector for the propagation of biofilms. In systems where biofilm formation was observed there was also a decrease in the sorption of isosaccharinic acids to the NRVB. The biofilms were composed of cells, extracellular DNA (eDNA, proteins, and lipids with a smaller polysaccharide fraction, which was biased towards mannopyranosyl linked carbohydrates. The same trend was seen with the graphite and stainless steel surfaces at these pH values, but in this case the biofilms associated with the stainless steel surfaces had a distinct eDNA basal layer that anchored the biofilm to the surface. At pH 13, no structured biofilm was observed, rather all the surfaces accumulated an indistinct organic layer composed of biofilm materials. This was particularly the case for the stainless steel coupons which accumulated relatively large quantities of eDNA. The results demonstrate that there is the potential for biofilm formation in an ILW-GDF provided an initiation source for the microbial biofilm is present. They also suggest that even when conditions are too harsh for biofilm formation, exposed surfaces may accumulate organic material such as eDNA.

  9. Surface radiological investigations of Trench 6 and low-level waste Line Leak Site 7.4b at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uziel, M.S.; Tiner, P.F.; Williams, J.K.

    1991-08-01

    A surface radiological investigation of Trench 6 and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) Line Leak Site 7.4b was conducted in July and August 1989 and January 1990 by the Measurement Applications and Development Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The purposes of this survey were (1) to determine the presence, nature, and extent of surface radiological contamination and (2) to recommend interim corrective action to limit human exposures to radioactivity and minimize the potential for contaminant dispersion. Highest surface gamma levels encountered during the survey (39 mR/h) were found just south of the asphalt covering LLW Line Leak Site 7.4b. Elevated surface gamma levels (measuring 28 to 560 μR/h) extended from this area to a width of 100 ft, westward 250 ft, and beyond the survey boundary. Beta-gamma levels up to 17 mrad/h measured on contact with the trunks of trees growing in the area southwest of Trench 6 suggest that three roots are reaching contamination deep within the ground. Since no gamma activity is associated with the trees or their leaves, the elevated beta levels are probably due to the uptake of residual 90 Sr originating from the documented seepage at the Trench 6/Leak Site 7.4b area. Beta activity present in the leaf litter and surface soil indicate that decaying leaves are depositing measurable contaminants on the ground surface. Recommendations for corrective actions are included. 7 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Assessment of soil and groundwater contamination by potentially toxic and trace elements in an impounded vehicle scrapyard: Case study: Ribeirão Pires, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Camila Neves

    2018-01-01

    Impounded vehicle scrapyard (IVS) overcrowding is currently a subject of concern in Brazilian scenario. The aim of this study was to assess the total levels of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and trace elements (TE) in soil and groundwater in an IVS located in the city of Ribeirão Pires. In order to achieve this objective, topsoil, three soil cores and groundwater of three monitoring wells were analyzed. It was verified that the area is mainly affected by three factors: (1) a landfill layer with construction waste; (2) an oily residue from past industrial activities in the area; (3) vehicles parked on topsoil. For the evaluation of the results, statistical techniques, such as multivariate analysis, calculation of pollution, ecological and human health risk index were used. Mass fractions of all PTEs, except Co, Cu, Mo and Zn, were higher than reference values. Hot spots were observed for most elements suggesting vehicular source. The Geoaccumulation Index showed minimal to moderate pollution in soil for most elements, except for As and Ba, which showed higher accumulation than other elements. The enrichment factor pointed to a significant enrichment of As and Pb. Arsenic content in soil may pose a moderate to high potential ecological risk. The results of PTEs and as statistical approaches indicated that As, Ce, Co, Cu, Mn, Nb, Ni, Pb and Zn are mainly from anthropogenic sources. The content of most PTEs in topsoil does not pose a potential human health risk, except Cr content. Groundwater levels for most PTEs were below the drinking water recommendation limits, except Mn and Fe content. (author)

  11. French experience in design and construction of near-surface disposal facilities for low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jousselin, D.; Medal, G.; Augustin, X.; Wavrechin, B. de

    1993-01-01

    France disposes of all radioactive waste produced on its territory. Short-lived waste (with a half-life shorter than 30 years) are disposed of, since 1969 on the 'La Manche' disposal facility (CSM 'Centre de La Manche'). As this center will be saturated in 1994, ANDRA (French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management) has undertaken in 1984 the studies and works necessary to the realization of a new disposal facility. TECHNICATOME was associated, since the beginning of those studies and was chosen by ANDRA as Prime Contractor for the new Radwaste Disposal Center. French conception was chosen by Spanish Authorities in 1987, ENRESA (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos SA) selected the Cabril Site in the South of Spain as disposal of low and medium activity radwaste. TECHNICATOME was associated with this project, through a joint French-Spanish engineering team. Authority of North Carolina State (USA) decided in 1989 to build a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and the contract has been awarded to CNSI (Chem Nuclear System Inc.) with a proposal based on the French experience. A french team ANDRA/TECHNICATOME/SGN is in charge of the design of the disposal facility

  12. RATES OF IRON OXIDATION AND ARSENIC SORPTION DURING GROUND WATER-SURFACE WATER MIXING AT A HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate of arsenic discharged from contaminated ground water to a pond at a hazardous waste site is controlled, in part, by the rate of ferrous iron oxidation-precipitation and arsenic sorption. Laboratory experiments were conducted using site-derived water to assess the impact...

  13. Radioactivity and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive wastes generated by nuclear activities must be reprocessed using specific treatments before packaging, storage and disposal. This digest paper gives first a classification of radioactive wastes according to their radionuclides content activity and half-life, and the amount of wastes from the different categories generated each year by the different industries. Then, the radiotoxicity of nuclear wastes is evaluated according to the reprocessing treatments used and to their environmental management (surface storage or burial). (J.S.)

  14. The safety case in support of the license application of the surface repository of low-level waste in Dessel, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacquier, William; Cool, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The modern concept of the safety case, developed by the OECD/NEA for geological repositories of high- and medium-level waste has been successfully applied by ONDRAF/ NIRAS for a surface repository for Category A waste (i.e. low-level waste) in Belgium in the current project phase 2006-2012. This resulted in the submission on 31 January 2013 by ONDRAF/NIRAS of an application for a 'construction and operation license' to the safety authorities. The benefits of using the notion of the safety case have been that: i) safety has been incorporated in an integrated manner within all assessment basis, design and safety assessment activities; ii) the process of development of the license application has gained in clarity and traceability; iii) the documentation of the license application contains multiple lines of argumentation for safety rather than argumentation based only on quantitative radiological impact calculations. To offer a comprehensive view on the safety argumentation and its development, it has been found useful to develop the argumentation not only along a safety statements structure but also along the safety report structure. (authors)

  15. MRS [monitored retrievable storage] systems study Task G report: The role and functions of surface storage of radioactive material in the federal waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, T.W.; Short, S.M.; Woodruff, M.G.; Altenhofen, M.K.; MacKay, C.A.

    1989-04-01

    This is one of nine studies undertaken by contractors to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), to provide a technical basis for re-evaluating the role of a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. The study investigates the functions that could be performed by surface storage of radioactive material within the federal radioactive waste management system, including enabling acceptance of spent fuel from utility owners, scheduling of waste-preparation processes within the system, enhancement of system operating reliability, and conditioning the thermal (decay heat) characteristics of spent fuel emplaced in a repository. The analysis focuses particularly on the effects of storage capacity and DOE acceptance schedule on power reactors. Figures of merit developed include the storage capacity [in metric tons of uranium (MTU)] required to be added beyond currently estimated maximum spent fuel storage capacities and its associated cost, and the number of years that spent fuel pools would remain open after last discharge (in pool-years) and the cost of this period of operation. 27 refs., 36 figs., 18 tabs

  16. Automated detection of submerged navigational obstructions in freshwater impoundments with hull mounted sidescan sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Phillip A.

    The prevalence of low-cost side scanning sonar systems mounted on small recreational vessels has created improved opportunities to identify and map submerged navigational hazards in freshwater impoundments. However, these economical sensors also present unique challenges for automated techniques. This research explores related literature in automated sonar imagery processing and mapping technology, proposes and implements a framework derived from these sources, and evaluates the approach with video collected from a recreational grade sonar system. Image analysis techniques including optical character recognition and an unsupervised computer automated detection (CAD) algorithm are employed to extract the transducer GPS coordinates and slant range distance of objects protruding from the lake bottom. The retrieved information is formatted for inclusion into a spatial mapping model. Specific attributes of the sonar sensors are modeled such that probability profiles may be projected onto a three dimensional gridded map. These profiles are computed from multiple points of view as sonar traces crisscross or come near each other. As lake levels fluctuate over time so do the elevation points of view. With each sonar record, the probability of a hazard existing at certain elevations at the respective grid points is updated with Bayesian mechanics. As reinforcing data is collected, the confidence of the map improves. Given a lake's current elevation and a vessel draft, a final generated map can identify areas of the lake that have a high probability of containing hazards that threaten navigation. The approach is implemented in C/C++ utilizing OpenCV, Tesseract OCR, and QGIS open source software and evaluated in a designated test area at Lake Lavon, Collin County, Texas.

  17. Impoundment effects in the population of Auchenipterus osteomystax (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae: a Neotropical reservoir case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Barili

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available New impoundments provide opportunities to check whether species that present enough feeding flexibility in natural conditions may take advantage of this situation and, without reproductive restriction, can occupy the most conspicuous habitat in a large reservoir (open areas and present higher success in the colonization of the new environment. We examined variations in the abundance and feeding of A. osteomystax in two environments, one natural (Sinha Mariana floodplain lake and one dammed (Manso Reservoir, during two periods: the first year after the filling phase and three years later. Our goal was to evaluate the occupation of the new hábitat (Manso Reservoir, by this species, as well as to test the hypothesis that in the reservoir, unlike the natural environment, there are remarkable changes in diet between the periods. Fish were sampled monthly in the floodplain lake and in the reservoir during two annual periods using gillnets. To evaluate the differences in abundance of A. osteomystax we employed the Kruskal -Wallis test, and the diet analysis was carried out using frequency of occurrence and volumetric methods. Temporal differences in the diet were tested by Kruskal-Wallis test using the scores from a detrended correspondence analysis. A. osteomystax was significantly more abundant in the floodplain lake, where the captures were higher than in the reservoir in almost all months analyzed, and significant variations in abundance between the two periods were not recorded in either the reservoir or the floodplain lake. The diet variation between the two periods, which had a time lag of three years between them, was much less pronounced in the natural environment, where the resource availability is essentially regulated by seasonality. Thus, our hypothesis was accepted; that is, the interannual variations in the diet of A. osteomystax are more relevant in an artificial environment than in a natural one. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2: 699-708. Epub

  18. Sharptooth catfish shows its metal: a case study of metal contamination at two impoundments in the Olifants River, Limpopo river system, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Antoinette; Marr, Sean M; Addo-Bediako, Abraham; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2015-02-01

    Clarias gariepinus is increasing in importance as a global aquaculture species with a 100 fold increase in production over the past decade but this species still remains one of the most important wild harvested freshwater food fish throughout rural Africa. However, this species has been shown to accumulate metals from contaminated inland waters. In this paper, the metal concentrations in muscle tissue of C. gariepinus from two main-stem impoundments in the Olifants River, Limpopo Basin, were measured and a desktop risk assessment based on the US-EPA methodology completed to evaluate whether long-term consumption of C. gariepinus from these impoundments may pose a health risk to rural communities. Our results show that metals are accumulating in the muscle tissue of C. gariepinus and have appeared to have increased in the last two decades. Risk assessment generated Hazard quotients (HQ) greater than 1 indicate that long term consumption of fish from these impoundments may cause adverse health impacts. We found that lead (HQ=9), antimony (HQ=14), cobalt (HQ=2) and chromium (HQ=1) at one impoundment and lead (HQ=2) at the other impoundment were above acceptable levels for weekly consumption of 150 g C. gariepinus muscle tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Groundwater monitoring and modelling of the “Vector” site for near-surface radioactive waste disposal in the Chornobyl exclusion zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bugai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of purposeful groundwater monitoring and modelling studies are presented, which were carried out in order to better understand groundwater flow patterns from the “Vector” site for near-surface radioactive waste disposal and storage in the Chornobyl exclusion zone towards river network. Both data of observations at local-scale monitoring well network at “Vector” site carried out in 2015 - 2016 and modelling analyses using the regional groundwater flow model of Chornobyl exclusion zone suggest that the groundwater discharge contour for water originating from “Vector” site is Sakhan River, which is the tributary to Pripyat River. The respective groundwater travel time is estimated at 210 - 340 years. The travel times in subsurface for 90Sr, 137Cs, and transuranium radionuclides (Pu isotopes, 241Am are estimated respectively at thousands, tenths of thousands, hundreds of thousands – million of years. These results, as well as presented data of analyses of lithological properties of the geological deposits of the unsaturated zone at “Vector” site, provide evidence for good protection of surface water resources from radioactivity sources (e.g., radioactive wastes to be disposed in the near-sursface facilities at “Vector” site.

  20. Dynamics of dissolved organic matter in riverine sediments affected by weir impoundments: Production, benthic flux, and environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meilian; Kim, Sung-Han; Jung, Heon-Jae; Hyun, Jung-Ho; Choi, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Huh, In-Ae; Hur, Jin

    2017-09-15

    In order to understand the characteristics and dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the sediment of rivers affected by impoundments, we examined the vertical profiles and the benthic fluxes of DOM in four different core sediments located at upstream sites of weirs in major rivers of South Korea. In three out of four sites, exponential accumulation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with depth was observed with the signature of seasonal variability. Except for the site displaying a below-detection limit of Fe(II), the general accumulation trends of DOC with depth was concurrent with the increases of Fe(II) and NH 4 + and the decrease of PO 4 3- , signifying a close linkage of the DOM dynamics with anaerobic respiration via iron reduction, an important early diagenesis pathway. The estimated benthic fluxes from the cores revealed that the sediments likely serve as DOC, chromophoric DOM (CDOM), and fluorescent DOM (FDOM) sources to the overlying water. The benthic effluxes based on DOC were comparable to the ranges previously reported in lake and coastal areas, and those of CDOM and FDOM showed even higher levels. These findings imply that impoundment-affected river systems would change the DOM composition of the overlying water, ultimately influencing the subsequent water treatment processes such as disinfection byproducts production and membrane fouling. A simple mass balance model indicated that the impoundment-affected river sediments may operate as a net carbon sink in the environments due to a greater extent of sedimentation compared to the estimated benthic efflux and sediment biological respiration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A simulation of the transport and fate of radon-222 derived from thorium-230 low-level waste in the near-surface zone of the Radioactive Waste Management Site in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Donahue, M.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-12-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE, 1988) requires performance assessments on all new and existing low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites. An integral part of performance assessment is estimating the fluxes of radioactive gases such as radon-220 and radon-222. Data needs pointed out by mathematical models drive site characterization. They provide a logical means of performing the required flux estimations. Thorium-230 waste, consisting largely of thorium hydroxide and thorium oxides, has been approved for disposal in shallow trenches and pits at the LLW Radioactive Waste Management Site in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site. A sophisticated gas transport model, CASCADR8 (Lindstrom et al., 1992b), was used to simulate the transport and fate of radon-222 from its source of origin, nine feet below a closure cap of native soil, through the dry alluvial earth, to its point of release into the atmosphere. CASCADR8 is an M-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model. It has been tailored to the site-specific needs of the dry desert environment of southern Nevada. It is based on the mass balance principle for each radionuclide and uses gas-phase diffusion as well as barometric pressure-induced advection as its main modes of transport. CASCADR8 uses both reversible and irreversible sorption kinetic rules as well as the usual classical Bateman (1910) M-chain decay rules for its kinetic processes. Worst case radon-222 gas-phase concentrations, as well as surface fluxes, were estimated over 40 days. The maximum flux was then used in an exposure assessment model to estimate the total annual dose equivalent received by a person residing in a standard 2500-square-foot house with 10-foot walls. Results are described

  2. Water treatment technologies for a mixed waste remedial action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, C; Freeman, G [Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., St. Charles, MO (United States); Ballew, B [Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Dames and Moore, St. Charles, MO (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Water treatment is an important element of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), which is cleaning up a former uranium processing plant near St. Louis, Missouri. This project, under the management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), includes treatment and release of contaminated surface water and possibly groundwater at the plant site and a nearby quarry, which was once used for waste disposal. The contaminants include uranium, thorium, radium, nitroaromatics, nitrates, and metals. Three water treatment plants will be used to treat contaminated water prior to its release to the Missouri River. The first, construction of which is nearly complete, will treat contaminated surface water and interstitial water in and around the quarry. A stepwise process of sedimentation, clarification, filtration, adsorption, and ion exchange will be used to remove the contaminants. A similar sequence will be used for the first train of the water treatment plant at the plant site, although process details have been adjusted to address the different contaminant concentrations. The site water treatment plant will also have a second train consisting of a vapor compression/ distillation (VCD) system. Train 2 is necessary to treat waters primarily from four raffinate pits containing high concentrations of inorganics (e.g., nitrates, sulfates, and chlorides) in addition to radionuclides, nitroaromatics, and metals contamination that are common in most of the waters at the site. Construction is under way on the First train of this facility. After it is treated, all water will be impounded and batch tested for compliance with the project's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits prior to release to the Missouri River. The third water treatment plant is a mobile system that will be used to treat waters in some of the building sumps. (author)

  3. Water treatment technologies for a mixed waste remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, C.; Freeman, G.; Ballew, B.

    1992-01-01

    Water treatment is an important element of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), which is cleaning up a former uranium processing plant near St. Louis, Missouri. This project, under the management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), includes treatment and release of contaminated surface water and possibly groundwater at the plant site and a nearby quarry, which was once used for waste disposal. The contaminants include uranium, thorium, radium, nitroaromatics, nitrates, and metals. Three water treatment plants will be used to treat contaminated water prior to its release to the Missouri River. The first, construction of which is nearly complete, will treat contaminated surface water and interstitial water in and around the quarry. A stepwise process of sedimentation, clarification, filtration, adsorption, and ion exchange will be used to remove the contaminants. A similar sequence will be used for the first train of the water treatment plant at the plant site, although process details have been adjusted to address the different contaminant concentrations. The site water treatment plant will also have a second train consisting of a vapor compression/ distillation (VCD) system. Train 2 is necessary to treat waters primarily from four raffinate pits containing high concentrations of inorganics (e.g., nitrates, sulfates, and chlorides) in addition to radionuclides, nitroaromatics, and metals contamination that are common in most of the waters at the site. Construction is under way on the First train of this facility. After it is treated, all water will be impounded and batch tested for compliance with the project's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits prior to release to the Missouri River. The third water treatment plant is a mobile system that will be used to treat waters in some of the building sumps. (author)

  4. Effects of surface chromium depletion on localized corrosion of alloy 825 as a high-level nuclear waste container material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.S.; Sridhar, N.; Cragnolino, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    Effects of the chromium-depleted, mill-finished surface on the localized corrosion resistance of alloy 825 (UNS N08825) were investigated. Tests were conducted in solutions based on the ground water at Yucca mountain, Nevada, but with a higher concentration of chloride. Results indicated that breakdown (E p ) and repassivation (E rp ) potentials for mill-finished surfaces were more active than those for polished surfaces. Potentiodynamic polarization tests indicated pits could be initiated on the chromium-depleted surface at potentials of 220 mV SCE in a solution containing 1,000 ppm Cl - at 95 C. Potentiostatic tests identified a similar pit initiation potential for the mill-finished surface. However, under longterm potentiostatic tests, a higher potential of 300 mV SCE was needed to sustain stable pit growth beyond the chromium-depleted layer. An increase in surface roughness also was observed to decrease localized corrosion resistance of the material

  5. Sealing layer of fly ashes and sewage sludge and vegetation establishment in treatment of mine tailings impoundments; Flygaska och roetslam som taetskikt vid efterbehandling av sandmagasin med vegetationsetablering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria; Neuschuetz, Clara [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany; Isaksson, Karl-Erik [Boliden Mineral AB (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    Each year the Swedish mining industry produces 25 Mtonnes of mine tailings that are disposed of in extensive natural impoundments. As this sand, containing more or less sulphide-rich minerals, is penetrated by oxygen and water, it starts weathering resulting in formation of acidic and metal-rich drainage water. To prevent oxygen penetration the mine tailings can be covered with a sealing layer covered with a protective cover that facilitates establishment of vegetation. The aim of this study has been to examine the function of fly ash and sewage sludge in sealing layers at impoundments of pyrite rich mine tailings, and the ability of different plant species, which are suitable for establishment in these areas, to penetrate the sealing layer with their roots and what impact they have on the drainage water. Experiments have been performed in field and greenhouse environment, with sealing layers consisting of fly ash and sewage sludge mixtures, covered with protective covers of sewage sludge or till. Plant establishment has been studied in a survey of naturally established plants at sewage sludge disposal sites close to mining areas, and by sowing and planting of selected plants, for instance fast growing grass species and fibre hemp at the test plots in field and in greenhouse experiments. Large scale application of ashes, sewage sludge and an ash/sludge mixture have been performed in field at three test plots with the size of 0.3-1 ha. Leakage of nutrients and metals from sealing layers has been studied in field and greenhouse tests. In addition, the ability of plant roots to penetrate sealing layers made of different ash/sludge mixtures have been examined in greenhouse experiments. This investigation is a cooperation between Stockholm University and Boliden Mineral AB, and the field experiments have been performed at the mine tailings impoundments at Gillervattnet, Boliden. Other collaborating participants are Skellefteaa Kraft and Munksund, who have produced the

  6. The Effect of Compost and the Ripe Fruit Waste of Fig on some Physical Properties of Surface Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra dianat maharluei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In arid and semi-arid soils, low organic matter is one of the barriers to achieving optimal performance. The soils with more organic matter have a better structure and are more resistant to erosive factors such as water and wind. Soil organic matter has a particular importance and has significant impact on the stability of soil aggregates, the extension of plant root system, carbon and water cycles and soil resistance to erosion. This substance acts as a cementing agent and plays an important role in soil flocculation and formation of resistant aggregates.Also, the addition of organic matter to the soil increases soil porosity and decreases soil bulk density. Materials and Methods: In this research, the effect of the two types of organic matter (compost and the ripe fruit waste of fig on some soil physical properties was studied. A factorial experiment based on completely randomized design, including the four levels of compost and the ripe fruit waste of fig (0, 1, 2 and 4 by weight % and three soil types (loamy sand, loam and silty clay loam with three replications was carried out. The soil samples were collected from the three territories of Fars Province: loamy sand soil from Shiraz, loamy soil from Maharlu and Silty clay loam soil from Zarghan area. The soil samples were air dried and passed through a 2 mm sieve. The physical properties including the bulk density, particle density, porosity, moisture content and soil crust strength was measured. In this research, the soil texture by hydrometer method, Electrical conductivity of the soil saturated paste extract by electrical conductivity meter, saturated paste pH by pH meter, seedling emergence test, soil crust strength by a pocket penetrometer (HUMBOLDT MFG.CO. bulk density by cylindrical sample and particle density by pycnometer method were measured. The fig fruit treatments were prepared by thoroughly mixing the dried powder of ripe fig fruit passed through a 2 mm sieve (with

  7. Characterization of the near-surface radionuclide contamination associated with the bathtub effect at Solid Waste Storage Area 4, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melroy, L.A.; Huff, D.D.; Farrow, N.D.

    1986-06-01

    Solid Waste Storage Area 4 (SWSA-4) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was studied to determine the extent of near-surface radionuclide contamination associated with the bathtub effect in low-lying trenches. A surface survey of the low-elevation portion of the burial ground was conducted to identify areas where the bathtub effect had resulted in surface contamination. Using this initial survey as a guide, 15 soil cores, each approximately 3 m deep, were taken to determine the depth to which contamination had spread and to help identify an contamination plumes. Results showed that two areas of surface radionuclide contamination exist, one located between the western end of the SWSA-4 tributary and the edge of the burial ground, the other located just north of the tributary below the central paved runoff channel. In addition, some downward migration of the solutes has occurred. However, the penetration depth for 90 Sr seems to be generally less than 2.7 m

  8. Acid-base properties and surface complexation modeling of phosphate anion adsorption by wasted low grade iron ore with high phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoli; Bai, Chenguang; Xia, Wentang; An, Juan

    2014-08-15

    The adsorption phenomena and specific reaction processes of phosphate onto wasted low grade iron ore with high phosphorus (WLGIOWHP) were studied in this work. Zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses were used to elucidate the interaction mechanism between WLGIOWHP and aqueous solution. The results implied that the main adsorption mechanism was the replacement of surface hydroxyl groups by phosphate via the formation of inner-sphere complex. The adsorption process was characterized by chemical adsorption onto WLGIOWHP. The non-electrostatic model (NEM) was used to simulate the surface adsorption of phosphate onto WLGIOWHP. The total surface site density and protonation constants for NEM (N(T)=1.6×10(-4) mol/g, K(a1)=2.2×10(-4), K(a2)=6.82×10(-9)) were obtained by non-linear data fitting of acid-base titrations. In addition, the NEM was used to establish the surface adsorption complexation modeling of phosphate onto WLGIOWHP. The model successfully predicted the adsorption of phosphate onto WLGIOWHP from municipal wastewater. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A mathematical model for the performance assessment of engineering barriers of a typical near surface radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Raphaela N.; Rotunno Filho, Otto C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Hidrologia e Estudos do Meio Ambiente]. E-mail: otto@hidro.ufrj.br; Ruperti Junior, Nerbe J.; Lavalle Filho, Paulo F. Heilbron [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: nruperti@cnen.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    This work proposes a mathematical model for the performance assessment of a typical radioactive waste disposal facility based on the consideration of a multiple barrier concept. The Generalized Integral Transform Technique is employed to solve the Advection-Dispersion mass transfer equation under the assumption of saturated one-dimensional flow, to obtain solute concentrations at given times and locations within the medium. A test-case is chosen in order to illustrate the performance assessment of several configurations of a multi barrier system adopted for the containment of sand contaminated with Ra-226 within a trench. (author)

  10. A mathematical model for the performance assessment of engineering barriers of a typical near surface radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Raphaela N.; Rotunno Filho, Otto C.

    2005-01-01

    This work proposes a mathematical model for the performance assessment of a typical radioactive waste disposal facility based on the consideration of a multiple barrier concept. The Generalized Integral Transform Technique is employed to solve the Advection-Dispersion mass transfer equation under the assumption of saturated one-dimensional flow, to obtain solute concentrations at given times and locations within the medium. A test-case is chosen in order to illustrate the performance assessment of several configurations of a multi barrier system adopted for the containment of sand contaminated with Ra-226 within a trench. (author)

  11. Secondary phase formation and the microstructural evolution of surface layers during vapor phase alteration of the French SON 68 nuclear waste glass at 200 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, W.L.; Ewing, R.C.; Wang, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    The SON 68 inactive open-quotes R7T7close quotes composition is the French reference glass for the LWR nuclear waste glass. Vapor phase alteration was used to accelerate the reaction progress of glass corrosion and to develop the characteristic suite of secondary, alteration phases. Extensive solid-state characterization (AEM/SEM/HRTEM) was completed on six inactive R7T7 waste glasses which were altered in the presence of saturated water vapor (200 degrees C) for 91, 241, 908, 1000, 1013, and 1021 days. The AEM samples were examined in cross-section (lattice-fringe imaging, micro-diffraction, and quantitative thin-film EDS analysis). The glass monoliths were invariably covered with a thin altered rind. The layer became thicker with time: 0.5 μm for 22 days; 4 μm for 91 days; 6 μm for 241 days; 10 μm for 908 days; 26 μm for 1013 days; and 2 TeO 3 and (Ca,Sr)Mo 3 O 9 (OH) 2 , were found within the inner zones of surface layers, and they must have nucleated in situ, indicating that Ag, Te, Sr, and Mo can be retained within the surface layer. The majority of the surface layer volume is composed of two morphologically and chemically different structures: one consists of well-crystallized fibrous smectite aggregates occurring along with cavities, the A-domain; and the other consists of poorly-crystallized regions containing needle-like smectite (montmorillonite) crystallites, a silica-rich amorphous matrix, and possibly ZrO 2 particles, the B-domain

  12. Analytical electron microscopy study of surface layers formed on the French SON68 nuclear waste glass during vapor hydration at 200 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, W.L.; Wang, L.M.; Ewing, R.C.; Bates, J.K.; Ebert, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    Extensive solid-state characterization (AEM/SEM/HRTEM) was completed on six SON68 (inactive R7T7) waste glasses which were altered in the presence of saturated water vapor (200 C) for 22, 91, 241, 908, 1000, 1013, and 1021 days. The samples were examined by AEM in cross-section (lattice-fringe imaging, micro-diffraction, and quantitative thin-film EDS analysis). The glass monoliths were invariably covered by a thin altered rind, and the surface layer thickness increased with increasing time of reaction, ranging from 0.5 to 30 μm in thickness. Six distinctive zones, based on phase chemistry and microstructure, were distinguished within the well-developed surface layers. Numerous crystalline phases such as analcime, gyrolite, tobermorite, apatite, and weeksite were identified on the surfaces of the reacted glasses as precipitates. The majority of the surface layer volume was composed of two basic structures that are morphologically and chemically distinct: The A-domain consisted of well-crystallized fibrous smectite aggregates; and the B-domain consisted of poorly-crystallized regions containing smectite, possibly montmorillonite, crystallites and a ZrO 2 -rich amorphous silica matrix. The retention of the rare-earth elements, Mo, and Zr mostly occurred within the B-domain; while transition metal elements, such as Zn, Cr, Ni, Mn, and Fe, were retained in the A-domain. The element partitioning among A-domains and B-domains and recrystallization of the earlier-formed B-domains into the A-domain smectites were the basic processes which have controlled the chemical and structural evolution of the surface layer. The mechanism of surface layer formation during vapor hydration are discussed based on these cross-sectional AEM results. (orig.)

  13. Microcrustaceans (Branchiopoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Ponds and Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrienne E. DeBiase; Barbara E. Taylor

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  14. Hydrologic Change during the Colonial Era of the United States: Beavers and the Energy Cost of Impoundments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M. B.; Bain, D. J.; Arrigo, J. S.; Duncan, J. M.; Kumar, S.; Parolari, A.; Salant, N.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Aloysius, N. R.; Bray, E. N.; Ruffing, C. M.; Witherell, B. B.

    2009-12-01

    Europeans colonized North America in the early 17th century with intentions ranging between long-term inhabitation and quick extraction of resources for economic gain in Europe. Whatever the intentions, the colonists relied on the landscape for resources resulting in dramatic change to the forest and fur-bearing mammal population. We demonstrate that initial exploitation of North American forest and furs caused a substantial decrease in mean water residence time (τ) between 1600 and 1800 A.D. That loss, which regionally changed from 51 to 41 days, contrasts with conventional wisdom that humans tend to diminish variability in water resources by increasing storage capacity and thus increasing τ. The loss of τ resulted from over-hunted beaver for the hat market in Europe. Analysis suggests that colonial era demographics and economics did not allow human resource allocation to impoundment construction on a level matching the historic beaver effort. However, the τ appears to have regionally increased during the 19th century, suggesting that humans eventually began replacing the water storage lost with the beaver. The analysis highlights the energy cost of impounding water, which is likely to continue to be an important factor given the increasing need for stable water resources and finite energy resources.

  15. A Risk Assessment Approach to Manage Inundation of Elseya albagula Nests in Impounded Waters: A Win-Win Situation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, A. J.; Espinoza, T.; Hollier, C.; Limpus, D. J.; Limpus, C. J.

    2015-03-01

    A risk assessment process was used to trial the impact of potential new operating rules on the frequency of nest inundation for the White-throated snapping turtle, Elseya albagula, in the impounded waters of the Burnett River, Queensland, Australia. The proposed operating rules would increase the barrage storage level during the turtle nesting season (May-July) and then would be allowed to reduce to a lower level for incubation for the rest of the year. These proposed operating rules reduce rates of nest inundation by altering water levels in the Ben Anderson Barrage impoundment of the Burnett River. The rules operate throughout the turtle reproductive period and concomitantly improve stability of littoral habitat and fishway operation. Additionally, the proposed rules are expected to have positive socio-economic benefits within the region. While regulated water resources will inherently have a number of negative environmental implications, these potential new operating rules have the capacity to benefit the environment while managing resources in a more sustainable manner. The operating rules have now been enacted in subordinate legislation and require the operator to maintain water levels to minimize turtle nest inundation.

  16. Conversion of a tailing impoundment to a freshwater reservoir, the Eagle Park Reservoir project, Climax Mine, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romig, B.R.; Cupp, J.L.; Ford, R.C.

    1999-07-01

    The Climax Molybdenum Mine, located near Leadville, Colorado, is the site of a lengthy mining history spanning more than 80 years. In the 1960's, extraction of molybdenum from oxide ore located adjacent to the massive molybdenite sulfide deposit resulted in the construction of an earthen core dam to impound fine-grained oxide tailing in the Eagle River Valley. Through recognized value of water storage and reclamation opportunities, a tailing removal project was initiated in 1993 to convert the impoundment facilities to a post-mining beneficial land use of developed water resources. An evaluation of the effect residual materials and lake dynamics would have on in-stream water quality was performed. Eagle Park Reservoir stands as a model for future reclamation efforts that involve water delivery to highly sensitive receiving waters. This paper provides a case study on project development, the evolution of water quality assessment, and the regulatory framework that contributed to this project's success.

  17. PCDD/F contamination on surface soil in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator: is it possible a different trend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korucu, Mahmut Kemal

    2017-01-01

    This study is the first to investigate the contamination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) on surface soils in the vicinity of the first hazardous waste incinerator of Turkey. In the study, 24 soil samples were taken from a 1625-m-radius circle whose center is the stack of the incinerator. This process was repeated 1 year later. Since the acquired average PCDD/F concentrations of the two sampling campaigns (0.05 and 0.02 ng WHO-toxic equivalent (TEQ)/kg) were meaningfully low compared to the related literatures, a new sampling campaign was carried out to control this inconsistency, but this time in a foreign laboratory (0.56 ng WHO-TEQ/kg). In the same period, eight gas samples were taken from the stack under different operational conditions of the facility. According to the evaluations of the findings, the geographical-meteorological data of the study area and the specific operational conditions of the facility corroborate the concentrations of the first and the second soil samplings rather than the third one. The major underlying reason for the inconsistency of the soil concentrations may be the fact that the data analysis procedures used by the laboratories are different. The author suggests a hypothesis which argues that the soils in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator may have significantly lower concentration levels than in related literatures.

  18. Floristic composition and plant succession on near-surface radioactive-waste-disposal facilities in the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierney, G.D.; Foxx, T.S.

    1982-03-01

    Since 1946, low-level radioactive waste has been buried in shallow landfills within the confines of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Five of these sites were studied for plant composition and successional patterns by reconnaissance and vegetation mapping. The data show a slow rate of recovery for all sites, regardless of age, in both the pinon-juniper and ponderosa pine communities. The sites are not comparable in succession or composition because of location and previous land use. The two oldest sites have the highest species diversity and the only mature trees. All sites allowed to revegetate naturally tend to be colonized by the same species that originally surrounded the sites. Sites on historic fields are colonized by the old field flora, whereas those in areas disturbed only by grazing are revegetated by the local native flora

  19. Floristic composition and plant succession on near-surface radioactive-waste-disposal facilities in the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, G.D.; Foxx, T.S.

    1982-03-01

    Since 1946, low-level radioactive waste has been buried in shallow landfills within the confines of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Five of these sites were studied for plant composition and successional patterns by reconnaissance and vegetation mapping. The data show a slow rate of recovery for all sites, regardless of age, in both the pinon-juniper and ponderosa pine communities. The sites are not comparable in succession or composition because of location and previous land use. The two oldest sites have the highest species diversity and the only mature trees. All sites allowed to revegetate naturally tend to be colonized by the same species that originally surrounded the sites. Sites on historic fields are colonized by the old field flora, whereas those in areas disturbed only by grazing are revegetated by the local native flora.

  20. Concentration and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in surface soil near a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, A; Dettlaff, A; Kuklińska, K; Namieśnik, J; Wolska, L

    2015-10-15

    Due to a continuous demand of land for infrastructural and residential development there is a public concern about the condition of surface soil near municipal solid waste landfills. A total of 12 surface (0-20 cm) soil samples from a territory near a landfill were collected and the concentration of 16 PAHs and 7 PCB congeners were investigated in these samples. Limits of detection were in the range of 0.038-1.2 μg/kg for PAHs and 0.025-0.041 μg/kg for PCBs. The total concentration of ∑ PAHs ranged from 892 to 3514 μg/kg with a mean of 1974 μg/kg. The total concentration of ∑ PCBs ranged from 2.5 to 12 μg/kg with a mean of 4.5 μg/kg. Data analyses allowed to state that the PAHs in surface soils near a landfill were principally from pyrogenic sources. Due to air transport, PAHs forming at the landfill are transported outside the landfill. PCB origin is not connected with the landfill. Aroclor 1242 can be the source of PCBs in several samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Alkaline Plume in the Aptian Sand Aquifer in the Context of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Surface Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochepin, B.; Munier, I.; MADE, B.

    2017-12-01

    The storage vaults for low and intermediate-level short-lived radioactive waste in the East of France are settled on the Aptian sand layer. In the context of the periodic examination by the nuclear regulators, it has been recommended to assess more precisely the chemical conditions for a potential release of radionuclides in the underlying water table. In particular, this study aims at assessing the eventuality of spreading an alkaline plume in the Aptian sand pore water by the chemical degradation of the vault cementitious materials. The numerical approach developed for this purpose is supported by both experimental characterizations of tracers in the water table and results from preliminary numerical studies on the hydrology of the site and the hydraulic evolution of the storage. The results from these specific simulations were simplified in the reactive transport model to focus on the mechanistic description of the chemical processes taking place in the waste and vaults and on their consequences on the underlying water table. During the operating period of the disposal, the reactive transport modelling shows that the low water saturation in the vaults material and in the vadose zone prevents the aquifer from a significant increase of the water pH under the cement-based vaults. These results are in reasonable agreement with the pH regularly measured in the underlying water table. After storage closure, during the few hundred years of the monitoring period and furthermore beyond, the reactive transport modelling shows a noticeable release of hydroxyls and alkali ions under the disposal vaults and their spread downstream the storage site leading to pH values above 10. It is noteworthy that the pH is not buffered in the Aptian sands because of their low amount in clayey minerals. This effect is now considered for pH-sensitive radionuclide solutes in safety assessment calculations by weighting correspondingly their retention parameters.

  2. CONSIDERATIONS ON SOILS ISOLATIVE PROPERTIES FOR SITING OF A NEW NEAR-SURFACE RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY IN POLAND IN THE LIGHT OF THE LONG TERM SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skrzeczkowska

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a brief description of the occurrence of favorable isolative conditions for new surface radioactive waste repository in Poland. Selected soils may be used as a natural bottom layer or engineering barrier in multi-barrier system of RW repository. Currently, there is no regulation establishing standards for the bottom isolation, and the only quantifiable parameter with regard to water permeability is given for the repository objects, which in their case has to be lower than 10-9 m/s. For the purposes of this paper, treating on providing suitable bottom isolation for the new repository, this parameter has been transferred onto the consideration for soils suitability with a statement that it shall not be lower than the one given for the infrastructure. Submitted information should be taken into consideration by updating the information for the siting process according to IAEA Safety Standards.

  3. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechel Nevada

    2004-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (Tonopah Test Range). CAU 484 consists of sites located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 484 consists of the following six Corrective Action Sites: (1) CAS RG-52-007-TAML, Davis Gun Penetrator Test; (2) CAS TA-52-001-TANL, NEDS Detonation Area; (3) CAS TA-52-004-TAAL, Metal Particle Dispersion Test; (4) CAS TA-52-005-TAAL, Joint Test Assembly DU Sites; (5) CAS TA-52-006-TAPL, Depleted Uranium Site; and (6) CAS TA-54-001-TANL, Containment Tank and Steel Structure

  4. Materials and proportion's design of self-compacting mortar used for low diffusion layer in sub-surface radioactive waste disposal facility in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwase, Kazuhito; Sugihashi, Naoyuki; Tsuji, Yukikazu

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design procedure for the material selection and mix proportion of the self-compacting mortar used for low diffusion layer cementitious material in the sub-surface radioactive waste disposal facility in Japan. The low diffusion layer is required for reducing transportation by controlling diffusion of a radionuclide. Therefore the low diffusion, cracks control, and low leaching are the important matters in the mix design. The process to select mortar mix design of the low diffusion layer is explained in detail. Of 33 kinds mix proportions used in laboratory comparative testing, the combinations of low heat portland cement, fly ash, lime powder and expansive addition was provisionally set to the mix proportion of the self-compacting mortar used for low diffusion layer. (author)

  5. Microbiologically-Facilitated Effects on the Surface Composition of Alloy 22, A Candidate Nuclear Waste Packaging Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, J; Lian, T; Martin, S I

    2001-01-01

    The effects of microbiological activities on the surface composition of Alloy 22 was investigated. Prior studies suggesting microbially-generated selective dissolution of chromium from Alloy 22 were based solely on analyzing solubilized Alloy 22 elements. These and other investigations point to the insufficiencies of analyzing solubilized (or solubilized and reprecipitated) alloying elements to discern between homogeneous/stoichiometric dissolution and selective/non-stoichiometric dissolution of alloying elements. Therefore, an approach using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to interrogate the surface layers of treated Alloy 22 specimens was taken to resolve this issue. Sputtering into the surface of the samples, coupled with XPS analysis at given intervals, allowed a high resolution quantitative elemental evaluation of the alloy as a function of depth. Biotically-incubated Alloy 22 show a region that could be depleted of chromium. Surfacial XPS analysis of these same coupons did not detect the presence of re-precipitated Alloy 22 component elements, also supporting the possible occurrence of non-stoichiometric dissolution. Thus, these preliminary data do not exclude the possibility of selective dissolution. It also appears that this experimental approach shows promise to unequivocally resolve this issue. Further tests using smoother-surface, more highly polished coupons should allow for better resolution between surface layers to permit a decisive determination of the mode of Alloy 22 dissolution using sputtering XPS analysis

  6. Basic approaches to the limitation of doses and radiological risks from surface disposal of long-lived radioactive waste for future generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhtarev, I.; Kovgan, L.; Berkovskiy, V.

    2001-01-01

    National radiation standards of Ukraine (NRSU-97/D-2000) recently put into force, which consider the basic principles of radiological protection from the sources of potential exposure, introduce four groups of potential exposure sources depending on types and scope of the consequences of occurrence of different critical events. In the third group are those occurrence which are associated with the events that can take place in the future (including the distant future) at the exempted from regulation facilities as a result of natural abnormal processes and catastrophes as well as inadvertent human intrusions. Future generations living at the moment of the event occurrence can become the subject of exposure. These sources must be taken into account at the stage of radioactive waste repositories designing. Taking into account the peculiarity of sources of the third group of potential, that they are associated with those critical events, which can take place in the distant future (in hundreds and thousands of years) and as a consequence may result in the exposure of future generations of people NRSU-97/D2000 sets an additional principle for potential exposure from sources of third group which requires that the future generations are guaranteed to have at least the same level of radiation protection against actions undertaken nowadays as the present generation. This principle is implemented through setting a requirement that harm for human health of future generation must not exceed the harm corresponding to negligible risk which is 5 x 10 -7 year -1 . NRSU-97/D-2000 establishes two reference dose levels A and B (50 and 1 mSv year -1 ) depending on which the acceptability of surface (or near-surface) disposals of long-lived radioactive waste is determined. In presentation the requirements on the critical events occurrence probability, two groups of scenario, which can lead to the critical event, and five reference scenarios of exposure and their parameters are discussed

  7. Intensification of biodiesel production from waste goat tallow using infrared radiation: Process evaluation through response surface methodology and artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, R.; Sahu, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Enhanced and significantly accelerated biodiesel synthesis from waste goat tallow by infrared radiation. • In situ water removal by adsorbent profoundly promotes achieving high free fatty acids (FFAs) conversion. • Process optimization and parametric interaction-effects assessment by response surface method. • Artificial Neural Network Modeling for prediction of triglycerides and FFA conversion. • At optimal conditions, product biodiesel contains 98.5 wt.% FAME. - Abstract: For the first time, an efficient simultaneous trans/esterification process for biodiesel synthesis from waste goat tallow with considerable free fatty acids (FFAs) content has been explored employing an infrared radiation assisted reactor (IRAR). The impacts of methanol to tallow molar ratio, IRAR temperature and H 2 SO 4 concentration on goat tallow conversion were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM). Under optimal conditions, 96.7% FFA conversion was achieved within 2.5 h at 59.93 wt.% H 2 SO 4 , 69.97 °C IRAR temperature and 31.88:1 methanol to tallow molar ratio. The experimental results were also modeled using artificial neural network (ANN) and marginal improvement in modeling efficiency was observed in comparison with RSM. The infrared radiation strategy could significantly accelerate the conversion process as demonstrated through a substantial reduction in reaction time compared to conventionally heated reactor while providing appreciably high biodiesel yield. Moreover, the in situ water removal using silica-gel adsorbent could also facilitate achieving higher FFA conversion to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Owing to the occurrence of simultaneous transesterification of triglycerides present in goat tallow, overall 98.5 wt.% FAME content was determined at optimal conditions in the product biodiesel which conformed to ASTM and EN biodiesel specifications

  8. Suitability of natural soils for foundations for surface facilities at the prospective Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, D.M.; Sayre, R.L.; Wu, C.L.

    1986-11-01

    In this report, the natural soils at the Yucca Mountain site are evaluated for the purpose of assessing the suitability of the soils for the foundations of the surface facilities at the prospective repository. The areas being considered for locating the surface facilities are situated on an alluvial plain at the base of Yucca Mountain. Preliminary parameters for foundation design have been developed on the basis of limited field and laboratory study of soils at four test pit locations conducted during May and June 1984. Preliminary recommendations for construction are also included in this report. The gravel-sand alluvial deposits were found to be in a dense to very dense state, which is suitable for foundations of the surface facilities. The design parameters described in this report have been developed for conceptual design, but need to be verified before final design

  9. Evaluation of surface water treatment and discharge options for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyette, M.L.; MacDonell, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, is responsible for conducting response actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits and two small ponds, and (2) a 3.6-ha (9-acre) quarry located about 6.4 km (4 mi) southwest of the chemical plant area. Both of these areas became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through 1960s. The Weldon Spring site, located about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis, is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Nitroaromatic explosives were processed by the Army at the chemical plant area during the 1940s, and radioactive materials were processed by DOE's predecessor agency (the Atomic Energy Commission) during the 1950s and 1960s. Overall remediation of the Weldon Spring site is being addressed through the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, and it consists of several components. One component is the management of radioactively and chemically contaminated surface water impoundments at the chemical plant area -- i.e., the four raffinate pits, Frog Pond, and Ash Pond which was addressed under a separate action and documented in an engineering evaluation/cost analysis report. This report discusses the evaluation of surface water treatment at the Weldon Spring site

  10. Radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the French way to deal with nuclear wastes. 4 categories of radioactive wastes have been defined: 1) very low-level wastes (TFA), 2) low or medium-wastes with short or medium half-life (A), 3) low or medium-level wastes with long half-life (B), and 4) high-level wastes with long half-life (C). ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) manages 2 sites of definitive surface storage (La-Manche and Aube centers) for TFA-wastes. The Aube center allows the storage of A-wastes whose half-life is less than 30 years. This site will receive waste packages for 50 years and will require a regular monitoring for 300 years after its decommissioning. No definitive solutions have been taken for B and C wastes, they are temporarily stored at La Hague processing plant. Concerning these wastes the French parliament will have to take a decision by 2006. At this date and within the framework of the Bataille law (1991), scientific studies concerning the definitive or retrievable storage, the processing techniques (like transmutation) will have been achieved and solutions will be proposed. These studies are numerous, long and complex, they involve fresh knowledge in geology, chemistry, physics,.. and they have implied the setting of underground facilities in order to test and validate solutions in situ. This article presents also the transmutation technique. (A.C.)

  11. A long-term comparison of carbon sequestration rates in impounded and naturally tidal freshwater marshes along the lower Waccamaw River, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Judith Z.; Krauss, Ken W.; Sasser, M. Craig; Fuller, Christopher C.; Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Powell, Amber; Swanson, Kathleen M.; Orlando, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon storage was compared between impounded and naturally tidal freshwater marshes along the Lower Waccamaw River in South Carolina, USA. Soil cores were collected in (1) naturally tidal, (2) moist soil (impounded, seasonally drained since ~1970), and (3) deeply flooded “treatments” (impounded, flooded to ~90 cm since ~2002). Cores were analyzed for % organic carbon, % total carbon, bulk density, and 210Pb and 137Cs for dating purposes. Carbon sequestration rates ranged from 25 to 200 g C m−2 yr−1 (moist soil), 80–435 g C m−2 yr−1 (naturally tidal), and 100–250 g C m−2 yr−1 (deeply flooded). The moist soil and naturally tidal treatments were compared over a period of 40 years. The naturally tidal treatment had significantly higher carbon storage (mean = 219 g C m−2 yr−1 vs. mean = 91 g C m−2 yr−1) and four times the vertical accretion rate (mean = 0.84 cm yr−1 vs. mean = 0.21 cm yr−1) of the moist soil treatment. The results strongly suggest that the long drainage period in moist soil management limits carbon storage over time. Managers across the National Wildlife Refuge system have an opportunity to increase carbon storage by minimizing drainage in impoundments as much as practicable.

  12. Assessment of near-surface dissolution at and near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, G.O.

    1985-07-01

    The area at and near the WIPP site was examined for evidence of karst development on the geomorphic surface encompassing the site. Certain surficial depressions of initial concern were identified as blowouts in sand dune fields (shallow features unrelated to karstification). An ancient stream system active more than 500,000 yr ago contained more water than any system since. During that time (Gatuna, Middle Pleistocene), many karst features such as Clayton Basin and Nash Draw began to form in the region. Halite was probably dissolved from parts of the Rustler Formation at that time. Dissolution of halite and gypsum from intervals encountered in Borehole WIPP-33 west of the WIPP site occurred during later Pleistocene time (i.e., <450,000 yr ago). However, there is no evidence of active near-surface dissolution within a belt to the east of WIPP-33 in the vicinity of the WIPP shaft. 26 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  13. Surface radiological investigation of Trench 5 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, D.D.

    1991-08-01

    A surface radiological investigation of areas encompassing Trench 5 on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted from May 1990 through November 1990. This survey was led by the author, assisted by various members of the Measurement Applications and Development (MAD) group of the Health and Safety Research Division (HASRD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the presence, nature, and extent of surface radiological contamination at Trench 5, the Homogeneous Reactor Experiment fuel wells, and surrounding areas. Based on the data obtained in the field, interim corrective measures were recommended to limit human exposure to radioactivity and to minimize insult to the environment. It should be stressed that this project was not intended to be a complete site characterization but rather to be a preliminary investigation into the potential contamination problem that might exist as a result of past operations at Trench 5

  14. The behavior of silicon and boron in the surface of corroded nuclear waste glasses: an EFTEM study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, E. C.; Smith, K. L.; Blackford, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    Using electron energy-loss filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), we have observed the formation of silicon-rich zones on the corroded surface of a West Valley (WV6) glass. This layer is approximately 100-200 nm thick and is directly underneath a precipitated smectite clay layer. Under conventional (C)TEM illumination, this layer is invisible; indeed, more commonly used analytical techniques, such as x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), have failed to describe fully the localized changes in the boron and silicon contents across this region. Similar silicon-rich and boron-depleted zones were not found on corroded Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) borosilicate glasses, including SRL-EA and SRL-51, although they possessed similar-looking clay layers. This study demonstrates a new tool for examining the corroded surfaces of materials

  15. A comparative study of the pore structures and surfaces of hardened cement pastes of potential use in radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowan, S.M.; Donaldson, L.; White, S.

    1988-02-01

    Measurements of water vapour adsorption at 20 0 C and mercury intrusion have been used to compare the surfaces and pore structures of hardened cement pastes made from ordinary portland cement (OPC) and the additives blast furnace slag (BFS) and pulverised fuel ash (PFA). The results suggest that each additive, after taking part in the hydration reaction with OPC, produces a paste whose gel pore structure is similar to that derived from OPC alone. The BET adsorption surface area of the cement pastes, in the form of half inch diameter coupons was ca. 55 m 2 g -1 and was not influenced by the presence of the additives. However the pastes containing the additives have a larger and better interconnected meso and macropore structure than OPC which may account for larger diffusion coefficients reported elsewhere for caesium ions passing through concrete containing BFS in comparison with a concrete containing OPC alone. (author)

  16. Brief draft on surface and subsurface storage of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes. Spent fuels synthesis file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, C.; Jaecki, P.

    2002-01-01

    This document makes a synthesis of the results of two brief draft studies performed in 2002 about the surface and subsurface storage of spent fuels. These studies stress on the long duration aspect of the disposal: feasibility of a secular disposal facility, potential risks and safety level of such a facility, estimation of the initial investment and of operation and maintenance costs. The main points of the specifications and the input data are presented first, and then the subsurface and surface draft studies are described. Content: specifications (imposed design principles and options, dry corrosion, input data); subsurface storage (description and design options, thermal dimensioning and ventilation, geotechnical stability of the facility, subsurface water management, dry corrosion, infrastructure durability, safety, monitoring, security and physical protection, technical-economical aspects, case of Mox fuel, case of glass packages); surface storage (description and design options, thermal dimensioning and ventilation, mechanical dimensioning of the facility, dry corrosion, infrastructure durability, safety, monitoring, security and physical protection, technical-economical aspects, case of Mox fuel, case of glass packages); conclusions and perspectives. (J.S.)

  17. Sol-gel preparation of high surface area potassium tetratitanate for the immobilization of nuclear waste metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, K.T.; Shul, Y.G.; Moon, J.K.; Oh, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    Potassium tetratinates(K 2 Ti 4 O 9 ) were synthesized by using the sol-gel method to produce ion-exchangeable materials with high surface area. The effects of mole ratios of K/Ti and H 2 O/Ti were examined. K 2 Ti 4 O 9 was obtained at 740 deg. C by the sol-gel method, which uses a lower temperature than the melting method. After calcination at 800 deg. C, K 2 Ti 4 O exhibits a needle shape which is quite different from the shape of K 2 Ti 6 O 13 powder. The surface areas of K 2 Ti 4 O 9 was 15 m 2 /g by the sol-gel method after calcining at 800 C. The enhancement of BET area to 25 m 2 /g was obtained after supercritical drying using EtOH as solvent. By using the sodium alginate method, needle type potassium titanate 10μm in length, the longest aspect ratio of 1,3 x 10 3 could be obtained. There are variations in the Sr 2+ ion exchange rate and capacity according to the preparation method. Larger BET surface area provides fast ion exchange and larger capacity for Sr 2+ ion in the order; sol-gel process with supercritical drying > sol-gel process > melting process. (author). 17 refs, 21 figs, 1 tab

  18. Development of surface decontamination technology for radioactive waste using plasma. Dust behaviors in the treatment of oxide films using a low-pressure arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Kazuo; Furukawa, Shizue; Amakawa, Tadashi; Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Kanbe, Hiromu

    2002-01-01

    We are developing the surface treatment technique using low-pressure arc as a new decontamination technology for radioactive wastes from nuclear facilities. For the practical use, effective dust collection methods are necessary, because dust is generated from oxide films on the surface during the treatment. The method using gas stream and filters may be one of them, but the behavior of the dust has not been examined yet. We studied the basic behavior of the dust and the possibilities of dust control by gas stream as follows. 1. Most of the dust attached to the anode in the case of no gas blow. 2. Dust attachment to the anode was reduced to about half using small cross section type anode. It seems to be possible to reduce the dust attachment by proper choice of electrode shape. 3. The dust attachment was reduced to 10 to 40 percent by the gas blow to the side of arc. The dust control by gas stream might be possible. (author)

  19. Water-quality data for two surface coal mines reclaimed with alkaline waste or urban sewage sludge, Clarion County, Pennsylvania, May 1983 through November 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, D.L.; Cravotta, C.A.; Saad, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Water-quality and other hydrologic data for two surface coal mines in Clarion County, Pa., were collected during 1983-89 as part of studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources. Water samples were collected from streams, seeps, monitor wells, and lysimeters on a monthly basis to evaluate changes in water quality resulting from the addition of alkaline waste or urban sewage sludge to the reclaimed mine-spoil surface. The mines are about 3.5 miles apart and were mined for bituminous coal of the upper and lower Clarion seams of the Allegheny Group of Pennsylvanian age. The coal had high sulfur (greater than 2 weight percent) concentrations. Acidic mine drainage is present at both mines. At one mine, about 8 years after mining was completed, large quantities (greater than 400 tons per acre) of alkaline waste consisting of limestone and lime-kiln flue dust were applied on two 2.5-acre plots within the 65-acre mine area. Water-quality data for the alkaline-addition plots and surrounding area were collected for 1 year before and 3 years after application of the alkaline additives (May 1983-July 1987). Data collected for the alkaline-addition study include ground-water level, surface-water discharge rate, temperature, specific conductance, pH, and concentrations of alkalinity, acidity, sulfate, iron (total and ferrous), manganese, aluminum, calcium, and magnesium. At the other mine, about 3.5 years after mining was completed, urban sewage sludge was applied over 60 acres within the 150-acre mine area. Waterquality data for the sludge-addition study were collected for 3.5 years after the application of the sludge (June 1986-December 1989). Data collected for the sludge-addition study include the above constituents plus dissolved oxygen, redox potential (Eh), and concentrations of dissolved solids, phosphorus, nitrogen species, sulfide, chloride, silica, sodium, potassium, cyanide, arsenic, barium

  20. Storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittman, F.K.

    1974-01-01

    Four methods for managing radioactive waste in order to protect man from its potential hazards include: transmutation to convert radioisotopes in waste to stable isotopes; disposal in space; geological disposal; and surface storage in shielded, cooled, and monitored containers. A comparison of these methods shows geologic disposal in stable formations beneath landmasses appears to be the most feasible with today's technology. (U.S.)

  1. Uptake of uranium, thorium and radium isotopes by plants growing in dam impoundment Tasotkel and the Lower Shu region (Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveyeva, Ilona; Burkitbayev, Mukhambetkali [al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan). Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology; Jacimovic, Radojko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Planinsek, Petra; Smodis, Borut [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-04-01

    The activity concentrations of isotopes of uranium, thorium and radium-226 in dominant species of plants (Xantium strumarium, Phragmites communis, Artemisia nitrosa and Artemisia serotina) growing on the territories contaminated by uranium industry of Kazakhstan (close to dam impoundment Tasotkel and the Lower Shu region) are presented. The obtained data showed the significant variations of activity concentrations of isotopes of uranium, thorium and radium-226 in above ground parts. The concentrations of most of the investigated radionuclides in the root system are higher than in the aboveground parts; it can be explained by root barrier. It was found that the highest root barrier has Xantium strumarium, especially for uranium isotopes. The concentration ratios of radionuclides were calculated, and as the result it was found that the highest accumulation ability in the investigated region has Artemisia serotina.

  2. Uptake of uranium, thorium and radium isotopes by plants growing in dam impoundment Tasotkel and the Lower Shu region (Kazakhstan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveyeva, Ilona; Burkitbayev, Mukhambetkali

    2016-01-01

    The activity concentrations of isotopes of uranium, thorium and radium-226 in dominant species of plants (Xantium strumarium, Phragmites communis, Artemisia nitrosa and Artemisia serotina) growing on the territories contaminated by uranium industry of Kazakhstan (close to dam impoundment Tasotkel and the Lower Shu region) are presented. The obtained data showed the significant variations of activity concentrations of isotopes of uranium, thorium and radium-226 in above ground parts. The concentrations of most of the investigated radionuclides in the root system are higher than in the aboveground parts; it can be explained by root barrier. It was found that the highest root barrier has Xantium strumarium, especially for uranium isotopes. The concentration ratios of radionuclides were calculated, and as the result it was found that the highest accumulation ability in the investigated region has Artemisia serotina.

  3. Proceedings of the 15. annual British Columbia MEND ML/ARD workshop : the management of tailings and tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    This Mine Environment Neutral Drainage (MEND) workshop was held to promote the exchange of information and ideas on environmental protection and reclamation associated with mining. The workshop covered a broad spectrum of reclamation issues and the key environmental challenges facing the mining industry, such as acid mine drainage (AMD) control, and metal leaching and acid rock drainage (ML/ARD). The theme for the 2008 workshop was the management of tailings and tailings impoundments. Topics of discussion included hydrogeology and geochemistry; tailings disposal; mitigation; closure plans; and postclosure performance. The emphasis was on full-scale case studies, practical constraints and sustaining successful disposal strategies and remediation. The session on tailings management reviewed overarching policies and practices; methods of subaerial tailings disposal and case studies of tailings management; and detailed investigations of geochemical properties an