WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface impoundments project

  1. Surface mine impoundments as wildlife and fish habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble

    1989-01-01

    Unreclaimed surface mine impoundments provide poor fish and wildlife habitat. Recommendations given here for reclaiming "prelaw" impoundments and creating new impoundments could provide valuable fish and wildlife habitat if incorporated into existing laws and mine plans.

  2. Closure certification report: TA-35 TSL-125 surface impoundment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the actions that were taken to clean close the TA-35 TSL-125 surface impoundment Building 125 is used for developing electron guns and related laser assemblies/equipment for a Laser Technology Research Program at the Laboratory. There is no permanent outfall from the surface impoundment; however, the impoundment accidentally overtopped on December 3, 1986, spilling an unknown volume of insulating oil and water into Ten Site Canyon. Sandbags were installed around the surface impoundment on June 25, 1988, to provide additional freeboard in the impoundment and reduce the risk of overtopping during a precipitation event. On July 1, 1988, the impoundment again overtopped releasing an unknown volume of insulating oil and water. Actions taken include removal of waste from the surface impoundment and its associated structures, decontamination of the floor trough and piping inside Building 125, grouting of the piping connecting the floor drain/trough system to the impoundment, decontamination, removal, and disposal of the impoundment liner and sandbags lining the top of the impoundment, and removal and disposal of contaminated soil underlying the impoundment area. Procedures followed to verify that clean closure objectives have been met are also documented in this report. Initial verification was performed through an extensive soil sampling and analysis program

  3. Closure certification report: TA-35 TSL-125 surface impoundment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This closure report documents closure activities for the TA-35 TSL-125 surface impoundment and associated structures at Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory). Prior to formal approval of the closure plan, the decision was made to proceed with closure activities to prevent any further releases from the site following informal discussions with New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) personnel. The closure plan is a revision of the previously submitted draft dated July 1988. Clean closure of the TSL-125 site was accomplished through: Removal and proper disposal of all wastes contained within the surface impoundment system; Decontamination and/or removal and proper disposal of the surface impoundment, its associated structures, and contaminated soil underlying the impoundment area; Sampling and analysis of soil to determine the presence and concentrations of any hazardous constituents remaining in the soil at the TSL-125 site; and Demonstration through a risk assessment that any constituents remaining in the soil at the TSL-125 site pose no threat to human health and the environment. All remaining soil concentrations of hazardous constituents were below health-based action levels. Analytical results indicated that benzidine, n-nitrosodimethylamine, and n-nitrosodi-n-propylamine were not detected at or above their limits of quantitation and beryllium was not present at or above its laboratory detection limit. However, the limits of quantitation and detection for these constituents were greater than their calculated health-based action levels. To demonstrate that these constituents were not present, historical data was researched and it was determined that the constituents were not utilized at the Building 125 site. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  4. 40 CFR 63.134 - Process wastewater provisions-surface impoundments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wastewater provisions—surface impoundments. (a) For each surface impoundment that receives, manages, or...-supported structure or rigid cover) and a closed-vent system that routes the organic hazardous air... to float on the liquid surface during normal operations, and to form a continuous barrier over the...

  5. 40 CFR 63.943 - Standards-Surface impoundment vented to control device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... applicable, to the surface impoundment. (ii) To remove accumulated sludge or other residues from the bottom... the following requirements: (1) The cover and its closure devices shall be designed to form a...

  6. 40 CFR 63.942 - Standards-Surface impoundment floating membrane cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operations, and form a continuous barrier over the entire surface area of the liquid. (2) The cover shall be... closure device in the closed position, as applicable. (ii) To remove accumulated sludge or other residues from the bottom of surface impoundment. (2) Opening of a spring-loaded pressure-vacuum relief valve...

  7. Technical work plan for Surface Impoundments Operable Unit engineering support studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This document provides a comprehensive work plan which, when utilized as a data collection guide for field activities, will provide the necessary information required to complete a report on geotechnical properties of the sediments contained in the Surface Impoundments Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Detailed guidance is provided for the following activities: collection of samples from the impoundments; compressive strength testing of the raw sediments; compressive strength testing of the structurally modified (lime and cement additives) sediments; testing for sediment physical properties and settling rates; testing for sediment dewatering characteristics; testing for radiation activity during the field work; testing for polymer additions that may enhance settling. The work plan additionally provides guidance and examples for the preparation of documents necessary to establish readiness for safe and satisfactory performance of the field activities. An outline for the format requested for a report of these data is also provided

  8. Transport and dispersion of pollutants in surface impoundments: a finite element model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, G.T.

    1980-07-01

    A surface impoundment model in finite element (SIMFE) is presented to enable the simulation of flow circulations and pollutant transport and dispersion in natural or artificial lakes, reservoirs or ponds with any number of islands. This surface impoundment model consists of two sub-models: hydrodynamic and pollutant transport models. Both submodels are simulated by the finite element method. While the hydrodynamic model is solved by the standard Galerkin finite element scheme, the pollutant transport model can be solved by any of the twelve optional finite element schemes built in the program. Theoretical approximations and the numerical algorithm of SIMFE are described. Detail instruction of the application are given and listing of FORTRAN IV source program are provided. Two sample problems are given. One is for an idealized system with a known solution to show the accuracy and partial validation of the models. The other is applied to Prairie Island for a set of hypothetical input data, typifying a class of problems to which SIMFE may be applied

  9. Transport and dispersion of pollutants in surface impoundments: a finite element model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, G.T.

    1980-07-01

    A surface impoundment model in finite element (SIMFE) is presented to enable the simulation of flow circulations and pollutant transport and dispersion in natural or artificial lakes, reservoirs or ponds with any number of islands. This surface impoundment model consists of two sub-models: hydrodynamic and pollutant transport models. Both submodels are simulated by the finite element method. While the hydrodynamic model is solved by the standard Galerkin finite element scheme, the pollutant transport model can be solved by any of the twelve optional finite element schemes built in the program. Theoretical approximations and the numerical algorithm of SIMFE are described. Detail instruction of the application are given and listing of FORTRAN IV source program are provided. Two sample problems are given. One is for an idealized system with a known solution to show the accuracy and partial validation of the models. The other is applied to Prairie Island for a set of hypothetical input data, typifying a class of problems to which SIMFE may be applied.

  10. 40 CFR 63.7905 - What emissions limitations or work practice standards must I meet for surface impoundments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What emissions limitations or work practice standards must I meet for surface impoundments? 63.7905 Section 63.7905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  11. Post-remediation action radiological report for Surface Impoundments C (3539) and D (3540) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    During August and September 1998, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC performed a remedial action within Impoundments 3539 and 3540 (Impoundments C and D, respectively) in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision (ROD) for the Surface Impoundments Operable Unit. The remedial action included removal of sediments and 0.1 ft of subimpoundment soil. A post-remedial action radiological survey was conducted to provide data to support the Bethel Valley ROD. Data was obtained from (1) a walkover survey for residual gamma radiation on the base of the impoundments, (2) smear surveys for transferable contamination on remaining riprap, and (3) representative sampling of subimpoundment soils. Walkover surveys identified no locations outside the impoundments with gamma exposure levels greater than three times background levels. Smear surveys detected no removable contamination above release limits as specified in 10 CFR 835, Appendix D. Subimpoundment soil samples quantified low levels of residual contamination

  12. Post-remediation action radiological report for Surface Impoundments C (3539) and D (3540) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    During August and September 1998, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC performed a remedial action within Impoundments 3539 and 3540 (Impoundments C and D, respectively) in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision (ROD) for the Surface Impoundments Operable Unit. The remedial action included removal of sediments and 0.1 ft of subimpoundment soil. A post-remedial action radiological survey was conducted to provide data to support the Bethel Valley ROD. Data was obtained from (1) a walkover survey for residual gamma radiation on the base of the impoundments, (2) smear surveys for transferable contamination on remaining riprap, and (3) representative sampling of subimpoundment soils. Walkover surveys identified no locations outside the impoundments with gamma exposure levels greater than three times background levels. Smear surveys detected no removable contamination above release limits as specified in 10 CFR 835, Appendix D. Subimpoundment soil samples quantified low levels of residual contamination.

  13. Coal combustion waste management at landfills and surface impoundments 1994-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Ranek, N. L.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-08

    On May 22, 2000, as required by Congress in its 1980 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Regulatory Determination on Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels. On the basis of information contained in its 1999 Report to Congress: Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels, the EPA concluded that coal combustion wastes (CCWs), also known as coal combustion by-products (CCBs), did not warrant regulation under Subtitle C of RCRA, and it retained the existing hazardous waste exemption for these materials under RCRA Section 3001(b)(3)(C). However, the EPA also determined that national regulations under Subtitle D of RCRA were warranted for CCWs that are disposed of in landfills or surface impoundments. The EPA made this determination in part on the basis of its findings that 'present disposal practices are such that, in 1995, these wastes were being managed in 40 percent to 70 percent of landfills and surface impoundments without reasonable controls in place, particularly in the area of groundwater monitoring; and while there have been substantive improvements in state regulatory programs, we have also identified gaps in State oversight' (EPA 2000). The 1999 Report to Congress (RTC), however, may not have reflected the changes in CCW disposal practices that occurred since the cutoff date (1995) of its database and subsequent developments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the EPA discussed this issue and decided to conduct a joint DOE/EPA study to collect new information on the recent CCW management practices by the power industry. It was agreed that such information would provide a perspective on the chronological adoption of control measures in CCW units based on State regulations. A team of experts from the EPA, industry, and DOE (with support from Argonne National Laboratory) was established to develop a mutually acceptable approach for collecting and analyzing data

  14. Probabilistic risk assessment for the Sandia National Laboratories Technical Area V Liquid Waste Disposal System surface impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, L.A.; Eidson, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment was completed for a former radioactive waste disposal site. The site, two unlined surface impoundment, was designed as part of the Liquid Waste Disposal System (LWDS) to receive radioactive effluent from nuclear reactors in Technical Area-V (TA-V) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). First, a statistical comparison of site sampling results to natural background, using EPA methods, and a spatial distribution analysis were performed. Risk assessment was conducted with SNL/NM's Probabilistic Risk Evaluation and Characterization Investigation System model. The risk assessment indicated that contamination from several constituents might have been high enough to require remediation. However, further analysis based on expected site closure activities and recent EPA guidance indicated that No Further Action was acceptable

  15. Results of the measurement survey of elevation and environmental media in surface impoundments 3513 (B) and 3524 (A) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, M.E.; Rose, D.A.; Brown, K.S.; Coe, R.H.C. III; Lawrence, J.D.; Winton, W.

    1998-07-01

    A measurement survey of the elevation and environmental media in impoundments 3513 (B) and 3524 (A) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was conducted during April 1998. The investigation was performed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Life Sciences Division of ORNL at the request of Bechtel Jacobs Company. Measurement activities were conducted at selected locations in order to determine the depth and appearance of the sediment and describe the clay underlying the impoundments prior to remediation. The survey was a follow-up to a previous elevation survey. The survey included the following: collection of sediment/clay cores from selected locations in each impoundment; measurement and documentation of the elevation at the water surface, at the top of sediment, at the top of clay, and at the bottom of each core; visual inspection of each core by a soil scientist to confirm the presence of clay and not material such as fly ash and soda lime compacted over the last 50 years; measurement and documentation of the background beta-gamma radiation level at the time and location of collection of each core, the highest beta-gamma level along the sediment portion of each core, and the highest beta-gamma level along the clay portion of each core; measurement and documentation of the length of the clay and of the sediment portion of each core; photographic documentation of each core; and replacement of each core in the impoundment.

  16. Results of the radiological and chemical characterization of surface impoundments 3539 and 3540 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, M.E.; Rose, D.A.; Brown, K.S.; Winton, W.; Dean, R.A.; Coe, R.H. III

    1998-03-01

    A radiological and chemical characterization survey of impoundments 3539 and 3540 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was conducted during December 1997. Impoundments 3539 and 3540 are located in the Surface Impoundments Operable Unit (SIOU) of Waste Area Group 1. The investigation was performed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Life Sciences Division of ORNL at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration. Sampling was conducted in order to quantify the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents, and other contaminants of interest in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation for the SIOU> The survey included collection of sediment/clay samples, quality control blank water samples and equipment rinsate samples for chemical and radiological analysis. Results show the samples contain traces of various organic, inorganic, and radioactive materials. Of particular interest are PCB values which demonstrate the impoundments are not regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act.

  17. Results of the measurement survey of elevation and environmental media in surface impoundments 3513 (B) and 3524 (A) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, M.E.; Rose, D.A.; Brown, K.S.; Coe, R.H.C. III; Lawrence, J.D.; Winton, W.

    1998-07-01

    A measurement survey of the elevation and environmental media in impoundments 3513 (B) and 3524 (A) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was conducted during April 1998. The investigation was performed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Life Sciences Division of ORNL at the request of Bechtel Jacobs Company. Measurement activities were conducted at selected locations in order to determine the depth and appearance of the sediment and describe the clay underlying the impoundments prior to remediation. The survey was a follow-up to a previous elevation survey. The survey included the following: collection of sediment/clay cores from selected locations in each impoundment; measurement and documentation of the elevation at the water surface, at the top of sediment, at the top of clay, and at the bottom of each core; visual inspection of each core by a soil scientist to confirm the presence of clay and not material such as fly ash and soda lime compacted over the last 50 years; measurement and documentation of the background beta-gamma radiation level at the time and location of collection of each core, the highest beta-gamma level along the sediment portion of each core, and the highest beta-gamma level along the clay portion of each core; measurement and documentation of the length of the clay and of the sediment portion of each core; photographic documentation of each core; and replacement of each core in the impoundment

  18. Results of the radiological and chemical characterization of surface impoundments 3539 and 3540 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, M.E.; Rose, D.A.; Brown, K.S.; Winton, W.; Dean, R.A.; Coe, R.H. III

    1998-03-01

    A radiological and chemical characterization survey of impoundments 3539 and 3540 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was conducted during December 1997. Impoundments 3539 and 3540 are located in the Surface Impoundments Operable Unit (SIOU) of Waste Area Group 1. The investigation was performed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Life Sciences Division of ORNL at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration. Sampling was conducted in order to quantify the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents, and other contaminants of interest in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation for the SIOU> The survey included collection of sediment/clay samples, quality control blank water samples and equipment rinsate samples for chemical and radiological analysis. Results show the samples contain traces of various organic, inorganic, and radioactive materials. Of particular interest are PCB values which demonstrate the impoundments are not regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act

  19. Change characteristics of DSi and nutrition structure at the Yangtze River Estuary after Three Gorges Project impounding and their ecological effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The variation law of dissolved silica (DSi, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP and nutrition structure after the Three Gorges Project (TGP impounding as well as their ecological effect were analyzed according to monitoring survey of the Yangtze River Estuary in spring (May and summer (August from 2004-2009. The results showed that after impounding, DSi and DIN concentration decreased and increased, respectively. During the study period, DSi decreased by about 63%, while DIN almost tripled. DIP concentration fluctuated slightly. With respect to nutrition structure, N:P increased, whereas Si:P and Si:N declined. According to chemometry standard of nutrient limits, nutrition structure tended to be imbalanced and the limiting factor of phytoplankton growth (P was studied. Changes of nutrition structure have largely decreased diatom and caused different composition of dominant phytoplankton species. This may change ecosystem structure of the Yangtze River Estuary.

  20. River impoundment and sunfish growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew L. Rypel

    2011-01-01

    Impoundment of rivers by dams is widespread and one of the most devastating anthropogenic impacts to freshwater environments. Linking theoretical and applied research on river impoundment requires an improved capacity for predicting how varying degrees of impoundment affects a range of species. Here, growth of 14 North American sunfish species resilient to river...

  1. Distribution and migration of pesticide residues in mosquito control impoundments St. Lucie County, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, R. W.; Wang, T. C.; White, J. R.; David, J. R.; Hoffman, M. E.

    1993-09-01

    This project was designed to: (1) document the distribution and migration of organochlorine pesticide residues within marsh substrates of 18 St. Lucie County mosquito control impoundments located along the Indian River Lagoon estuary, and (2) evaluate the impact of water management techniques on residue mobility. Our results indicate that detectible concentrations of organochlorine compounds, applied between the late 1940s and early 1950s, are present in 16 of the 18 St. Lucie County mosquito control impoundments. These compounds are primarily restricted to the surficial, organic-rich wetland sediment, which, based upon geotechnical analysis, was exposed to the atmosphere at a time when the impoundments were subjected to pesticide treatment. Contaminated sediments are present below the surficial, organic-rich layer, suggesting that some vertical migration of pesticides has occurred. It is unlikely that leaching associated with the downward percolation of impounded water was responsible for this migration as pesticide residues were never detected within the in situ pore waters. An alternative explanation is that biological processes (e.g., rooting, burrowing) facilitated the downward flux of organochlorine compounds into sediment horizons not subjected to direct treatment. Eighty-eight surface water samples obtained from two impoundments subjected to contrasting water management techniques were analyzed for pesticide content. None of the surficial water samples collected in association with these impoundments contained detectible concentrations of organochlorine compounds. These samples were unfiltered and contained as much as 25 mg/1 of particulate organic matter. This suggests that the currently preferred management technique (RIM), which is designed to maintain water quality, limit mosquito production, and provide for ecological continuity, does not hydraulically mobilize pesticide residues into the Indian River Lagoon estuary.

  2. Rehabilitation of uranium tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawley, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    Under Australian environmental controls relating to the management of uranium tailings, it is no longer acceptable practice to search for a rehabilitation strategy at the end of production when the generation of tailings has ceased. The uranium projects currently in production and those being proposed are tightly regulated by the authorities. The waste management plans must consider site specific factors and must include selection of appropriate disposal sites and design for long term containment. The final encapsulation in engineered facilities must take into account the probable routes to the environment of the tailings. Rehabilitation shoud be undertaken by the mining and milling operators to standards approved by appropriate authorities. Appropriate administrative arrangements are required, by way of technical committees and financial bonds to ensure that agreed standards of rehabilitation may be achieved. Past and present experience with the rehabilitation of uranium tailings impoundments in Australia is discussed

  3. The Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Based Coal Ash Impoundments Safety Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, E. J.; Nieto, A.; Zhang, X. K.

    2017-01-01

    Coal ash impoundments are inevitable production of the coal-fired power plants. All coal ash impoundments in North Carolina USA that tested for groundwater contamination are leaking toxic heavy metals and other pollutants. Coal ash impoundments are toxic sources of dangerous pollutants that pose a danger to human and environmental health if the toxins spread to adjacent surface waters and drinking water wells. Coal ash impoundments failures accidents resulted in serious water contamination along with toxic heavy metals. To improve the design and stability of coal ash impoundments, the Development of a Coal Ash Impoundment Safety Monitoring System (CAISM) was proposed based on the implementation of a wireless sensor network (WSN) with the ability to monitor the stability of coal ash impoundments, water level, and saturation levels on-demand and remotely. The monitoring system based on a robust Ad-hoc network could be adapted to different safety conditions.

  4. Dewatering tailings impoundments : interior drains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlie, W.A.; Doehring, D.O.; Durnford, D.S.

    1984-01-01

    For the design of a new uranium tailings impoundment in the western United States, it was proposed that an interior drainage system be considered to economically and reliably minimize potential short- and long-term environmental impacts. The objectives were to decrease the effective hydraulic head on the clay liner, to dewater and stabilize the tailings, and to increase the amount of water recycled to the mill. In addition, desaturation of the impoundment would induce capillary pressure (negative porewater pressure), further reducing the potential movement of dissolved pollutants. This paper presents saturated and unsaturated seepage principles and reviews the concept, criteria and design of the various interior drainage systems considered

  5. Effect of weir impoundments on methane dynamics in a river

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bednařík, A.; Blaser, M.; Matoušů, Anna; Hekera, P.; Rulík, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 584, April (2017), s. 164-174 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00243S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : methane production * methane emission * methane ebullition * river impoundment * river sediment Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology OBOR OECD: Marine biology, freshwater biology, limnology Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  6. Projections of Veronese surface and morphisms from projective ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Projective plane; vector bundles; morphisms; Grassmannian; Veronese ... A general projection has this property. It is well known that the Veronese surface is the unique closed orbit for the natural action of the algebraic group P GL(3, .... Globally generated vector bundle on projective spaces with special Chern classes are.

  7. 50 CFR 28.42 - Impounding of domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impounding of domestic animals. 28.42... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.42 Impounding of domestic animals. (a) Any animal trespassing on the lands of any national wildlife refuge may be impounded and disposed of in...

  8. Design, permitting, and construction issues associated with closure of the Panna Maria uranium tailings impoundment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, C.L.; Raabe, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992, Panna Maria Uranium Operations (PMUO) initiated licensing and engineering activities for closure of the Panna Maria mill and 150-acre tailings impoundment located in southeast Texas. Closure of the tailings impoundment is permitted by license amendment through the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission (TNRCC), and based on closure criteria outlined in Texas regulations. The closure plan for the Panna Maria tailings impoundment was submitted for Texas regulatory agency review in April 1993, with details of the closure plan modified in 1994, 1995, and 1996. The closure plan included a multi-layered cover over the regraded tailings surface which was designed for long-term isolation of tailings, reduction of radon emanation to regulated levels, and reduction of infiltration to TNRCC-accepted levels. The cover and embankment slope surfaces and surrounding areas were designed to provide acceptable erosional stability as compared to runoff velocities from the Probable Maximum Precipitation event. Cover materials were selected from on-site materials and evaluated for suitability based on permeability, radon attenuation, and soil dispersivity characteristics. Off-site materials were used when necessary. The cover over the tailings has a maximum slope of 0.5 percent, and the regraded embankment slopes outside the perimeter of the impoundment have a maximum slope of 20 percent. All reclaimed slopes are covered with topsoil and revegetated. A riprap-lined channel is to be used to convey runoff from within the perimeter of the reclaimed impoundment to the north of the impoundment

  9. AMMA Land surface Model Intercomparison Project (ALMIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, A. A.; Derosnay, P.

    2007-05-01

    Extreme climatic variability has afflicted West Africa over the last half century, which has resulted in significant socio-economic consequences for the people of this region. There is therefore a need to improve seasonal to inter-annual prediction of the West-African monsoon (WAM), however, difficulties modeling the WAM arise from both the paucity of observations at sufficient space-time resolutions, and due to the complex interactions between the biosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere over this region. In particular, there is evidence that the land surface influences the variability of the WAM over a wide range of spatio-temporal scales. A critical aspect of this coupling is the feedback between the regional atmospheric circulation and the strong meridional surface flux gradients of mass and energy. One of the main goals of the African Monsoon Multi-disciplinary Analysis (AMMA) Project is to obtain a better understanding of the physical processes influencing the West-African Monsoon (WAM) on daily to inter-annual timescales. An improved comprehension of the relevant land surface processes is being addressed through the construction of a multi-scale atmospheric and land surface parameter forcing database using a variety of sources; numerical weather prediction forecast data, remote sensing products and local scale observations. The goal of this database is to drive land surface, vegetation and hydrological models over a range of spatial scales (local to regional) in order to gain better insights into the attendant processes. This goal is being met under the auspices of the AMMA Land surface Model Intercomparison Project (ALMIP). In the recently completed Phase 1 of this project, an ensemble of state-of-the-art land surface schemes have been run in "off-line" mode (i.e. decoupled from an atmospheric model) at a regional scale over western Africa for four annual cycles (2002-5). In this talk, intercomparison results will be presented. In addition, results from a

  10. Projective and superconformal structures on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Much attention has recently been given to the study of super Riemann surfaces. Detailed accounts of these objects and their infinitesimal deformation theory are referenced where they are fitted into the framework of complex supermanifolds, superconformal structures and graded sheaves. One difficulty, which seems even more of a barrier than in the case of classical deformations of Riemann surface structure, is the lack of a good global description of super-moduli spaces. In this note, we outline an approach which places the theory in the classical setting of projective structures on variable Riemann surfaces. We explain how to construct a distribution (family of vector subspaces) inside the holomorphic cotangent space to the moduli space M g of Riemann surfaces with genus g and furnished with a level-4 homology structure, such that the corresponding rank-(2g-2) complex vector bundle models the soul deformations of a family of super-Riemann surfaces. The keystone in this construction is the existence of holomorphic sections for the space of non-singular odd theta characteristics on C g the universal curve over M g . (author)

  11. Evaluation of surface water treatment and discharge options for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyette, M.L.; MacDonell, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, is responsible for conducting response actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits and two small ponds, and (2) a 3.6-ha (9-acre) quarry located about 6.4 km (4 mi) southwest of the chemical plant area. Both of these areas became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through 1960s. The Weldon Spring site, located about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis, is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Nitroaromatic explosives were processed by the Army at the chemical plant area during the 1940s, and radioactive materials were processed by DOE's predecessor agency (the Atomic Energy Commission) during the 1950s and 1960s. Overall remediation of the Weldon Spring site is being addressed through the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, and it consists of several components. One component is the management of radioactively and chemically contaminated surface water impoundments at the chemical plant area -- i.e., the four raffinate pits, Frog Pond, and Ash Pond which was addressed under a separate action and documented in an engineering evaluation/cost analysis report. This report discusses the evaluation of surface water treatment at the Weldon Spring site

  12. Methodologies for evaluating long-term stabilization designs of uranium mill tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.D.; Abt, S.R.; Volpe, R.L.; Van Zye, D.; Hinkle, N.E.; Staub, W.P.

    1986-06-01

    Uranium mill tailings impoundments require long-term (200 to 1000 years) stabilization. This report reviews currently available methodologies for evaluating factors that can have a significant influence on tailings stabilization and develops methodologies in technical areas where none presently exist. Mill operators can use these methodologies to assist with (1) the selection of sites for mill tailings impoundments, (2) the design of stable impoundments, and (3) the development of reclamation plans for existing impoundments. These methodologies would also be useful for regulatory agency evaluations of proposals in permit or license applications. Methodologies were reviewed or developed in the following technical areas: (1) prediction of the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) and an accompanying Probable Maximum Flood (PMF); (2) prediction of the stability of local and regional fluvial systems; (3) design of impoundment surfaces resistant to gully erosion; (4) evaluation of the potential for surface sheet erosion; (5) design of riprap for protecting embankments from channel flood flow and overland flow; (6) selection of riprap with appropriate durability for its intended use; and (7) evaluation of oversizing required for marginal quality riprap

  13. 36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11... ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National Forest System, which has been closed to dogs running at large, may be...

  14. Divergent surface and total soil moisture projections under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Alexis; Sheffield, Justin; Milly, Paul C.D.

    2017-01-01

    Land aridity has been projected to increase with global warming. Such projections are mostly based on off-line aridity and drought metrics applied to climate model outputs but also are supported by climate-model projections of decreased surface soil moisture. Here we comprehensively analyze soil moisture projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5, including surface, total, and layer-by-layer soil moisture. We identify a robust vertical gradient of projected mean soil moisture changes, with more negative changes near the surface. Some regions of the northern middle to high latitudes exhibit negative annual surface changes but positive total changes. We interpret this behavior in the context of seasonal changes in the surface water budget. This vertical pattern implies that the extensive drying predicted by off-line drought metrics, while consistent with the projected decline in surface soil moisture, will tend to overestimate (negatively) changes in total soil water availability.

  15. UAV Remote Sensing Surveillance of a Mine Tailings Impoundment in Sub-Arctic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anssi Rauhala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining typically involves extensive areas where environmental monitoring is spatially sporadic. New remote sensing techniques and platforms such as Structure from Motion (SfM and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs may offer one solution for more comprehensive and spatially continuous measurements. We conducted UAV campaigns in three consecutive summers (2015–2017 at a sub-Arctic mining site where production was temporarily suspended. The aim was to monitor a 0.5 km2 tailings impoundment and measure potential subsidence of tailings. SfM photogrammetry was used to produce yearly topographical models of the tailings surface, which allowed the amount of surface displacement between years to be tracked. Ground checkpoints surveyed in stable areas of the impoundment were utilized in assessing the vertical accuracy of the models. Observed surface displacements were linked to a combination of erosion, tailings settlement, and possible compaction of the peat layer underlying the tailings. The accuracy obtained indicated that UAV-assisted monitoring of tailings impoundments is sufficiently accurate for supporting impoundment management operations and for tracking surface displacements in the decimeter range.

  16. The Role of Small Impoundments on Flow Alteration Within River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, C. O.; Keys, T.; Scott, D.; Burgholzer, R.; Kleiner, J.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous water quality and quantity models have been established to illustrate the ecologic and hydrologic effects of large reservoirs. Smaller, unregulated ponds are often assumed to have a negligible impact on watershed flow regimes even though they overwhelmingly outnumber larger waterbodies. Individually, these small impoundments impart merely a fraction of the flow alteration larger reservoirs do; however, a network of ponds may act cumulatively to alter the flow regime. Many models have attempted to study smaller impoundments but rely on selectively available rating curves or bathymetry surveys. This study created a generalized process to model impoundments of varying size across a 58 square mile watershed exclusively using satellite imagery and publicly available information as inputs. With information drawn from public Army Corps of Engineers databases and LiDAR surveys, it was found that impoundment surface and drainage area served as useful explanatory variables, capable of predicting both pond bathymetry and outlet structure area across the 37 waterbodies modeled within the study area. Working within a flow routing model with inputs from the Chesapeake Bay HSPF model and verified with USGS gauge data, flow simulations were conducted with increasing number of impoundments to quantify how small ponds affect the overall flow regime. As the total impounded volume increased, simulations showed a notable reduction in both low and peak flows. Medium-sized floods increased as the network of ponds and reservoirs stabilized the catchment's streamflow. The results of this study illustrate the importance of including ponded waters into river corridor models to improve downstream management of both water quantity and quality.

  17. Surface Spectroscopy Center Of Excellence Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane

    2014-01-01

    We propose to develop a national center of excellence in Regolith Radiative Transfer (RRT), i.e., in modeling spectral reflectivity and emissivity of grainy or structured surfaces. The focus is the regime where the structural elements of grainy surfaces have grain sizes and separations of tens of microns, comparable to the wavelengths carrying diagnostic compositional information. This regime is of fundamental interest to remote sensing of planetary and terrestrial surfaces.

  18. Figuring and Polishing Precision Optical Surfaces Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The requirements for cost effective manufacturing and metrology of large optical surfaces is instrumental for the success of future NASA programs such as LISA,...

  19. V-Band Wireless Surface Networks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA GLENN RESEARCH CENTER in Topic O1.10 has identified the need to provide surface communications networks for human and robotic missions to explore the Moon and...

  20. Evaluation of Co and Cr mobility in soil profiles collected in a scrapyard of impounded vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Camila N.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Enzweiler, Jacinta

    2015-01-01

    The number of motor vehicles in urban environments has increased dramatically in the past years. As a result, so has the number of impounded and end-of-life vehicles. Car wastes can have a very high metal content, which can cause important environmental impacts to the soil where these vehicles are kept. Most Brazilian vehicle impound scrapyards are currently operating at their maximum capacity and soils may have become contaminated by past or current vehicle handling practices. Most of these areas do not present an impermeable surface. The level of soil contamination with heavy metals depends on the type of soil, climate and management practices. Metals, such as Co and Cr, that are present in many auto-parts, may be considered potentially toxic elements in these areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate Co and Cr levels and behavior in soil profiles located in a scrapyard of impounded vehicles of Ribeirao Pires-SP city. For this purpose, samples from distinct horizons of three soil profiles were collected. Element concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Soil parameters such as pH, organic matter content and clay, silt and sand percentage were also determined. The obtained data were statistically analyzed in order to establish correlations between elemental concentrations and the impounded vehicles scrapyard soil. Soil acidity showed to be the most remarkable property for Cr and Co mobility through soil profile. (author)

  1. Application of carbon isotopes to detect seepage out of coalbed natural gas produced water impoundments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Shikha, E-mail: shikha.sharma@mail.wvu.edu [Department of Geology and Geography, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Baggett, Joshua K. [Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Texas A and M University, College Station, 77843 2126 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Coalbed natural gas extraction results in large amount of produced water. > Risk of deterioration of ambient water quality. > Carbon isotope natural tracer for detecting seepage from produced water impoundments. - Abstract: Coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production from coal bed aquifers requires large volumes of produced water to be pumped from the subsurface. The produced water ranges from high quality that meets state and federal drinking water standards to low quality due to increased salinity and/or sodicity. The Powder River Basin of northeastern Wyoming is a major coalbed natural gas producing region, where water quality generally decreases moving from the southeastern portion of the basin towards the center. Most produced water in Wyoming is disposed into impoundments and other surface drainages, where it may infiltrate into shallow groundwater. Groundwater degradation caused by infiltration of CBNG produced water holding impoundments into arid, soluble salt-rich soils is an issue of immense importance because groundwater is a major source for stock water, irrigation, and drinking water for many small communities in these areas. This study examines the potential of using stable C isotope signatures of dissolved inorganic C ({delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC}) to track the fate of CBNG produced water after it is discharged into the impoundments. Other geochemical proxies like the major cations and major anions were used in conjunction with field water quality measurements to understand the geochemical differences between CBNG produced waters and ambient waters in the study area. Samples were collected from the CBNG discharge outfalls, produced water holding impoundments, and monitoring wells from different parts of the Powder River Basin and analyzed for {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC}. The CBNG produced waters from outfalls and impoundments have positive {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC} values that fall within the range of +12 per mille to +22 per mille, distinct from

  2. Infiltration from an impoundment for coal-bed natural gas, Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Evolution of water and sediment chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R.W.; Rice, C.A.; Bartos, T.T.; McKinley, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    Development of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, has increased substantially in recent years. Among environmental concerns associated with this development is the fate of groundwater removed with the gas. A preferred water-management option is storage in surface impoundments. As of January 2007, permits for more than 4000 impoundments had been issued within Wyoming. A study was conducted on changes in water and sediment chemistry as water from an impoundment infiltrated the subsurface. Sediment cores were collected prior to operation of the impoundment and after its closure and reclamation. Suction lysimeters were used to collect water samples from beneath the impoundment. Large amounts of chloride (12,300 kg) and nitrate (13,500 kg as N), most of which accumulated naturally in the sediments over thousands of years, were released into groundwater by infiltrating water. Nitrate was more readily flushed from the sediments than chloride. If sediments at other impoundment locations contain similar amounts of chloride and nitrate, impoundments already permitted could release over 48 x 106 kg of chloride and 52 x 106 kg of nitrate into groundwater in the basin. A solute plume with total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations at times exceeding 100,000 mg/L was created in the subsurface. TDS concentrations in the plume were substantially greater than those in the CBNG water (about 2300 mg/L) and in the ambient shallow groundwater (about 8000 mg/L). Sulfate, sodium, and magnesium are the dominant ions in the plume. The elevated concentrations are attributed to cation-exchange-enhanced gypsum dissolution. As gypsum dissolves, calcium goes into solution and is exchanged for sodium and magnesium on clays. Removal of calcium from solution allows further gypsum dissolution.

  3. 32 CFR 634.53 - Disposition of vehicles after impoundment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposition of vehicles after impoundment. 634.53 Section 634.53 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Impounding Privately Owned Vehicles...

  4. 32 CFR 634.51 - Procedures for impoundment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procedures for impoundment. 634.51 Section 634.51 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Impounding Privately Owned Vehicles § 634.51...

  5. Low-cost rural surface alternatives : demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The goals of this project were to implement several stabilization methods for preventing or mitigating freeze-thaw damage to : granular surfaced roads and identify the most effective and economical methods for the soil and climate conditions of Iowa....

  6. Geomorphological assessment of sites and impoundments for the long term containment of uranium mill tailings in the Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    East, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Current and future research into the geomorphological processes likely to affect the long term containment of uranium mill tailings in the Alligator Rivers Region is directed at three main areas: identification of geomorphic hazards at proposed impoundment sites; determination of erosion rates on impoundment slopes; and prediction of patterns of fluvial dispersal of released tailings. Each necessitates consideration of present and future geomorphic processes. Process rates during the next few thousand years might be predictable by extrapolation of contemporary and past (i.e. Holocene) climates, sea-levels and depositional environments, evidence for which is preserved in the sedimentary record. In current projects, the Late Quarternary stratigraphy of Magela Creek are examined to provide data for modelling of present and future sedimentological processes. Site stability evaluation entails recognition of present and future geomorphic hazards at impoundment sites, and includes fluvial and hillslope erosion, extreme flood events and mass movements. The life of a tailings impoundment is further determined by the intensity of erosional processes acting upon its slopes and their cover materials. A knowledge of present and future erosion rates will allow the optimisation of slope characteristics and materials in the impoundment design

  7. Sediment quality in freshwater impoundments at Savannah National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Freshwater impoundments at Savannah National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), South Carolina, provide an important habitat for wildlife species, but degraded sediment quality in the Savannah River downstream of the discharge from two impoundments have caused concern about potential contaminant problems within the impoundments. The quality of sediments from five impoundments (impoundments no. 1, 2, 6, 7, and 17) on the NWR was evaluated using physical and chemical characterization, contaminant concentrations (metals, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), and toxicity testing. Survival of Hyalella azteca (freshwater amphipod) exposed for 28 days to solid-phase sediments was not significantly different from controls, but growth was significantly decreased at several sites. Survival in 96-hour exposures to sediment pore water was significantly decreased at most sites. Factors contributing to the toxic responses were low pH (3.7 to 4.1), ammonia (20 mg/L), and increased concentrations of cations in the pore water. The excess of simultaneously extracted metals over the acid volatile sulfides in the sediments was also typical of sites displaying decreased sediment quality. Elemental concentrations in pore water were negatively correlated with pH, and the highest concentrations were observed in impoundment no. 7. The acidic nature of the sediment in this impoundment was exacerbated by recent draining, burning, and disking, which allowed oxidation of the previously anoxic wetland sediment. Sediment disturbance and mixing of vegetation into the sediments by disking may also have contributed to the formation of ammonia caused by microbial decomposition of the fragmented organic matter. Contaminants were not detected in sediments from the impoundments, but releases of acidic water with increased levels of sediment cations from the impoundments may have contributed to the degraded sediment conditions previously observed in the river

  8. Responsiveness summary for the engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of contaminated water impounded at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.L.; MacDonell, M.M.; Peterson, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Proposed Management of Contaminated Water Impounded at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant Area in July 1990. The engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) examines various alternatives for the proposed action to manage contaminated surface water impounded at the chemical plant area. The primary objective is to minimize potential migration of contaminants from surface impoundments to the local environment. The EE/CA addresses water currently impounded in four waste raffinate pits and two small ponds and water that will be impounded in the future as a result of upcoming response actions. Radioactive and chemical contaminants are migrating from the currently impounded water to underlying on-site groundwater via seepage and to off-site surface water via runoff. The treatment process and facilities that will be provided for management of currently impounded water can subsequently be used to manage other contaminated water in the future. Based on the evaluation of various alternatives in the EE/CA, DOE determined that the best approach for managing surface water impounded at the chemical plant area would be to remove contaminants from the water and release the treatment water to the Missouri River via a natural drainage channel. To establish requirements for releasing this treated water, DOE applied for a modification to its existing discharge permit from the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (DNR) under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program. The EE/CA provided a major source of technical input to the application for modifying the permit. This responsiveness summary has been prepared to address the major issues identified in oral and written comments on the proposed action. 1 tab

  9. Projections onto the Pareto surface in multicriteria radiation therapy optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokrantz, Rasmus; Miettinen, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate or reduce the error to Pareto optimality that arises in Pareto surface navigation when the Pareto surface is approximated by a small number of plans. Methods: The authors propose to project the navigated plan onto the Pareto surface as a postprocessing step to the navigation. The projection attempts to find a Pareto optimal plan that is at least as good as or better than the initial navigated plan with respect to all objective functions. An augmented form of projection is also suggested where dose–volume histogram constraints are used to prevent that the projection causes a violation of some clinical goal. The projections were evaluated with respect to planning for intensity modulated radiation therapy delivered by step-and-shoot and sliding window and spot-scanned intensity modulated proton therapy. Retrospective plans were generated for a prostate and a head and neck case. Results: The projections led to improved dose conformity and better sparing of organs at risk (OARs) for all three delivery techniques and both patient cases. The mean dose to OARs decreased by 3.1 Gy on average for the unconstrained form of the projection and by 2.0 Gy on average when dose–volume histogram constraints were used. No consistent improvements in target homogeneity were observed. Conclusions: There are situations when Pareto navigation leaves room for improvement in OAR sparing and dose conformity, for example, if the approximation of the Pareto surface is coarse or the problem formulation has too permissive constraints. A projection onto the Pareto surface can identify an inaccurate Pareto surface representation and, if necessary, improve the quality of the navigated plan

  10. Projections onto the Pareto surface in multicriteria radiation therapy optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokrantz, Rasmus; Miettinen, Kaisa

    2015-10-01

    To eliminate or reduce the error to Pareto optimality that arises in Pareto surface navigation when the Pareto surface is approximated by a small number of plans. The authors propose to project the navigated plan onto the Pareto surface as a postprocessing step to the navigation. The projection attempts to find a Pareto optimal plan that is at least as good as or better than the initial navigated plan with respect to all objective functions. An augmented form of projection is also suggested where dose-volume histogram constraints are used to prevent that the projection causes a violation of some clinical goal. The projections were evaluated with respect to planning for intensity modulated radiation therapy delivered by step-and-shoot and sliding window and spot-scanned intensity modulated proton therapy. Retrospective plans were generated for a prostate and a head and neck case. The projections led to improved dose conformity and better sparing of organs at risk (OARs) for all three delivery techniques and both patient cases. The mean dose to OARs decreased by 3.1 Gy on average for the unconstrained form of the projection and by 2.0 Gy on average when dose-volume histogram constraints were used. No consistent improvements in target homogeneity were observed. There are situations when Pareto navigation leaves room for improvement in OAR sparing and dose conformity, for example, if the approximation of the Pareto surface is coarse or the problem formulation has too permissive constraints. A projection onto the Pareto surface can identify an inaccurate Pareto surface representation and, if necessary, improve the quality of the navigated plan.

  11. Restoration of Tidal Flow to Impounded Salt Marsh Exerts Mixed Effect on Leaf Litter Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, B. A.; Schade, J. D.; Foreman, K.

    2015-12-01

    Salt marsh impoundments (e.g. roads, levees) disconnect marshes from ocean tides, which impairs ecosystem services and often promotes invasive species. Numerous restoration projects now focus on removing impoundments. Leaf litter decomposition is a central process in salt marsh carbon and nutrient cycles, and this study investigated the extent to which marsh restoration alters litter decomposition rates. We considered three environmental factors that can potentially change during restoration: salinity, tidal regime, and dominant plant species. A one-month field experiment (Cape Cod, MA) measured decay of litter bags in impounded, restored, and natural marshes under ambient conditions. A two-week lab experiment measured litter decay in controlled incubations under experimental treatments for salinity (1ppt and 30 ppt), tidal regime (inundated and 12 hr wet-dry cycles), and plant species (native Spartina alterniflora and invasive Phragmites australis). S. alterniflora decomposed faster in situ than P. australis (14±1.0% mass loss versus 0.74±0.69%). Corroborating this difference in decomposition, S. alterniflora supported greater microbial respiration during lab incubation, measured as CO2 flux from leaf litter and biological oxygen demand of water containing leached organic matter (OM). However, nutrient analysis of plant tissue and leached OM show P. australis released more nitrogen than S. alterniflora. Low salinity treatments in both lab and field experiments decayed more rapidly than high salinity treatments, suggesting that salinity inhibited microbial activity. Manipulation of inundation regime did not affect decomposition. These findings suggest the reintroduction of tidal flow to an impounded salt marsh can have mixed effects; recolonization by the native cordgrass could supply labile OM to sediment and slow carbon sequestration, while an increase in salinity might inhibit decomposition and accelerate sequestration.

  12. Nonabelian Jacobian of projective surfaces geometry and representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Reider, Igor

    2013-01-01

    The Jacobian of a smooth projective curve is undoubtedly one of the most remarkable and beautiful objects in algebraic geometry. This work is an attempt to develop an analogous theory for smooth projective surfaces - a theory of the nonabelian Jacobian of smooth projective surfaces. Just like its classical counterpart, our nonabelian Jacobian relates to vector bundles (of rank 2) on a surface as well as its Hilbert scheme of points. But it also comes equipped with the variation of Hodge-like structures, which produces a sheaf of reductive Lie algebras naturally attached to our Jacobian. This constitutes a nonabelian analogue of the (abelian) Lie algebra structure of the classical Jacobian. This feature naturally relates geometry of surfaces with the representation theory of reductive Lie algebras/groups. This work’s main focus is on providing an in-depth study of various aspects of this relation. It presents a substantial body of evidence that the sheaf of Lie algebras on the nonabelian Jacobian is an effic...

  13. UMTRA Surface Project management action process document: Final. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    Title 1 of the UMTRCA authorized the DOE to undertake remedial actions at these designed sites and associated vicinity properties (VP), which contain uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials (RRM) derived from the processing sites. Title 2 of the UMTRCA addresses uranium mill sites that were licensed at the time the UMTRCA was enacted. Cleanup of these Title 2 sites is the responsibility of the licensees. The cleanup of the Title 1 sites has been split into two separate projects: the Surface Project, which deals with the mill buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the sites and VPs; and the Ground Water Project, which is limited to the contaminated ground water at the sites. This management action process (MAP) document discusses the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project. Since its inception through March 1996, the Surface Project (hereinafter called the Project) has cleaned up 16 of the 24 designated processing sites and approximately 5,000 VPs, reducing the risk to human health and the environment posed by the uranium mill tailings. Two of the 24 sites, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, will not be remediated at the request of the state, reducing the total number of sites to 22. By the start of FY1998, the remaining 6 processing sites and associated VPs will be cleaned up. The remedial action activities to be funded in FY1998 by the FY1998 budget request are remediation of the remaining Grand Junction, Colorado, VPs; closure of the Cheney disposal cell in Grand Junction, Colorado; and preparation of the completion reports for 4 completed sites

  14. Moduli spaces of convex projective structures on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fock, V. V.; Goncharov, A. B.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce explicit parametrisations of the moduli space of convex projective structures on surfaces, and show that the latter moduli space is identified with the higher Teichmüller space for defined in [V.V. Fock, A.B. Goncharov, Moduli spaces of local systems and higher Teichmüller theory, ma.......AG/0311149]. We investigate the cluster structure of this moduli space, and define its quantum version....

  15. Atmospheres – Through Projections on a Living Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    of space, liveness and atmosphere. With the development of this model I wish to contribute to the on-going development of the use of video projections and motion graphics as important visual, spatial and narrative elements within the field of spatial experience design, e.g. in performance, exhibition...... design and events. The model is being designed with two purposes in mind. One is a tool for analyzing empirical examples or cases where video projections are used in spatial experience design. The second is to create a tool that can be useful in actual design processes. In this paper I describe a case...... where video projection on a living surface was part of an experimental dance performance. Based on this case I incorporate descriptions derived from the field of aesthetics, specifically atmospheres understood as a concept of new aesthetics as described by philosopher Gernot Böhme.2 Finally I look...

  16. French Modular Impoundment: Final Cost and Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drown, Peter [French Development Enterprises, LLC, North Billerica, MA (United States); French, Bill [French Development Enterprises, LLC, North Billerica, MA (United States)

    2017-05-17

    This report comprises the Final Cost and Performance Report for the Department of Energy Award # EE0007244, the French Modular Impoundment (aka the “French Dam”.) The French Dam is a system of applying precast modular construction to water control structures. The “French Dam” is a term used to cover the construction means/methods used to construct or rehabilitate dams, diversion structures, powerhouses, and other hydraulic structures which impound water and are covered under FDE’s existing IP (Patents # US8414223B2; US9103084B2.)

  17. A model for evaluating effects of climate, water availability, and water management on wetland impoundments--a case study on Bowdoin, Long Lake, and Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian A.; Gleason, Robert A.; Stamm, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Many wetland impoundments managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) National Wildlife Refuge System throughout the northern Great Plains rely on rivers as a primary water source. A large number of these impoundments currently are being stressed from changes in water supplies and quality, and these problems are forecast to worsen because of projected changes to climate and land use. For example, many managed wetlands in arid regions have become degraded owing to the long-term accumulation of salts and increased salinity associated with evapotranspiration. A primary goal of the USFWS is to provide aquatic habitats for a diversity of waterbirds; thus, wetland managers would benefit from a tool that facilitates evaluation of wetland habitat quality in response to current and anticipated impacts of altered hydrology and salt balances caused by factors such as climate change, water availability, and management actions. A spreadsheet model that simulates the overall water and salinity balance (WSB model) of managed wetland impoundments is presented. The WSB model depicts various habitat metrics, such as water depth, salinity, and surface areas (inundated, dry), which can be used to evaluate alternative management actions under various water-availability and climate scenarios. The WSB model uses widely available spreadsheet software, is relatively simple to use, relies on widely available inputs, and is readily adaptable to specific locations. The WSB model was validated using data from three National Wildlife Refuges with direct and indirect connections to water resources associated with rivers, and common data limitations are highlighted. The WSB model also was used to conduct simulations based on hypothetical climate and management scenarios to demonstrate the utility of the model for evaluating alternative management strategies and climate futures. The WSB model worked well across a range of National Wildlife Refuges and could be a valuable tool for USFWS

  18. 32 CFR 634.23 - Specified consent to impoundment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specified consent to impoundment. 634.23 Section 634.23 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Motor Vehicle Registration § 634.23...

  19. Propagation of a cadmium spill through an impounded river system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, G.T.; Joziasse, J.; Bakker, I.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of impoundments (sluices, weirs, etc.) and stream components (tributaries, river branches, associated canals) on the metal content in water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Dutch part of the River Meuse is assessed using the decrease in the cadmium content

  20. Surfaced-based investigations plan, Volume 4: Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This document represents a detailed summary of design plans for surface-based investigations to be conducted for site characterization of the Yucca Mountain site. These plans are current as of December 1988. The description of surface-based site characterization activities contained in this document is intended to give all interested parties an understanding of the current plans for site characterization of Yucca Mountain. The maps presented in Volume 4 are products of the Geographic Information System (GIS) being used by the Yucca Mountain Project. The ARC/INFO GIS software, developed by Environmental Systems Research Institute, was used to digitize and process these SBIP maps. The maps were prepared using existing US Geological Survey (USGS) maps as a planimetric base. Roads and other surface features were interpreted from a variety of sources and entered into the GIS. Sources include the USGS maps, 1976 USGS orthophotoquads and aerial photography, 1986 and 1987 aerial photography, surveyed coordinates of field sites, and a combination of various maps, figures, descriptions and approximate coordinates of proposed locations for future activities

  1. Interfacial stability of soil covers on lined surface impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.H.; Gates, T.E.

    1986-04-01

    The factors affecting the interfacial stability of soil covers on geomembranes were examined to determine the maximum stable slopes for soil cover/geomembrane systems. Several instances of instability of soil covers on geomembranes have occurred at tailings ponds, leaving exposed geomembranes with the potential for physical ddamage and possibly chemical and ultraviolet degradation. From an operator's viewpoint, it is desirable to maximize the slope of lined facilities in order to maximize the volume-to-area ratio; however, the likelihood for instability also increases with increasing slope. Frictional data obtained from direct shear tests are compared with stability data obtained using a nine-square-meter (m 2 ) engineering-scale test stand to verify that direct shear test data are valid in slope design calculations. Interfacial frictional data from direct shear tests using high-density polyethylene and a poorly graded sand cover agree within several degrees with the engineering-scale tests. Additional tests with other soils and geomembranes are planned. The instability of soil covers is not always an interfacial problem; soil erosion and limited drainage capacity are additional factors that must be considered in the design of covered slopes. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  2. 40 CFR 264.1085 - Standards: Surface impoundments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... materials of construction and designing the cover and closure devices shall include: Organic vapor... closure device in the closed position, as applicable. (B) To remove accumulated sludge or other residues... construction and designing the cover and closure devices shall include: Organic vapor permeability; the effects...

  3. 40 CFR 265.1086 - Standards: Surface impoundments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... materials of construction and designing the cover and closure devices shall include: Organic vapor... closure device in the closed position, as applicable. (B) To remove accumulated sludge or other residues... construction and designing the cover and closure devices shall include: Organic vapor permeability; the effects...

  4. Development of a dust deposition forecast model for a mine tailings impoundment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovern, Michael

    Wind erosion, transport and deposition of particulate matter can have significant impacts on the environment. It is observed that about 40% of the global land area and 30% of the earth's population lives in semiarid environments which are especially susceptible to wind erosion and airborne transport of contaminants. With the increased desertification caused by land use changes, anthropogenic activities and projected climate change impacts windblown dust will likely become more significant. An important anthropogenic source of windblown dust in this region is associated with mining operations including tailings impoundments. Tailings are especially susceptible to erosion due to their fine grain composition, lack of vegetative coverage and high height compared to the surrounding topography. This study is focused on emissions, dispersion and deposition of windblown dust from the Iron King mine tailings in Dewey-Humboldt, Arizona, a Superfund site. The tailings impoundment is heavily contaminated with lead and arsenic and is located directly adjacent to the town of Dewey-Humboldt. The study includes in situ field measurements, computational fluid dynamic modeling and the development of a windblown dust deposition forecasting model that predicts deposition patterns of dust originating from the tailings impoundment. Two instrumented eddy flux towers were setup on the tailings impoundment to monitor the aeolian and meteorological conditions. The in situ observations were used in conjunction with a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model to simulate the transport of windblown dust from the mine tailings to the surrounding region. The CFD model simulations include gaseous plume dispersion to simulate the transport of the fine aerosols, while individual particle transport was used to track the trajectories of larger particles and to monitor their deposition locations. The CFD simulations were used to estimate deposition of tailings dust and identify topographic mechanisms

  5. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of contaminated water impounded at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.M.; Maxey, M.L.; Peterson, J.M.; Joya, I.E.

    1990-07-01

    This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support the proposed removal action for managing contaminated surface waters impounded at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site, located near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The US Department of Energy is responsible for cleanup activities at the site under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). The major goals of SFMP are to eliminate potential hazards to human health and the environment that are associated with contamination at SFMP sites and to make surplus real property available for other uses, to the extent possible. The objectives of this EE/CA report are to identify the cleanup as a removal action, document the selection of a response that will mitigate the potential release of radioactive or chemical contaminants from the impounded waters into the nearby environment, and address environmental impacts associated with the proposed action. 41 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  6. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, Surface Project Management Plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) authorizes the US Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake remedial action at 24 designated inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties (VP) containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials. The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project is to minimize or eliminate radiation health hazards to the public and the environment at the 24 sites and related VPs. This document describes the management organization, system, and methods used to manage the design, construction, and other activities required to clean up the designated sites and associated VPs, in accordance with the UMTRCA

  7. Assessment of sediments in the riverine impoundments of national wildlife refuges in the Souris River Basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Gleason, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated sedimentation of reservoirs and riverine impoundments is a major concern throughout the United States. Sediments not only fill impoundments and reduce their effective life span, but they can reduce water quality by increasing turbidity and introducing harmful chemical constituents such as heavy metals, toxic elements, and nutrients. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service national wildlife refuges in the north-central part of the United States have documented high amounts of sediment accretion in some wetlands that could negatively affect important aquatic habitats for migratory birds and other wetland-dependent wildlife. Therefore, information pertaining to sediment accumulation in refuge impoundments potentially is important to guide conservation planning, including future management actions of individual impoundments. Lands comprising Des Lacs, Upper Souris, and J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuges, collectively known as the Souris River Basin refuges, encompass reaches of the Des Lacs and Souris Rivers of northwestern North Dakota. The riverine impoundments of the Souris River Basin refuges are vulnerable to sedimentation because of the construction of in-stream dams that interrupt and slow river flows and because of post-European settlement land-use changes that have increased the potential for soil erosion and transport to rivers. Information regarding sediments does not exist for these refuges, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service personnel have expressed interest in assessing refuge impoundments to support refuge management decisions. Sediment cores and surface sediment samples were collected from impoundments within Des Lacs, Upper Souris, and J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuges during 2004–05. Cores were used to estimate sediment accretion rates using radioisotope (cesium-137 [137Cs], lead-210 [210Pb]) dating techniques. Sediment cores and surface samples were analyzed for a suite of elements and agrichemicals, respectively. Examination of

  8. Stochastic Modelling of the Hydraulic Anisotropy of Ash Impoundment Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slávik, Ivan

    2017-12-01

    In the case reported here the impoundments of a 400 MW coal heated power plant with an annual production of about 1.5 million tons of fuel ash are of the cross-valley type, operated by the simple and cheap „upstream method”. The aim of the research was to determine overall and local values of the permeability in horizontal as well as in vertical direction and the anisotropy of the thin-layered sedimented ash. The coal ashes are hydraulically transported through pipelines in form of a slurry and periodically floated on the beach of the impoundment. The ashes are deposited in the form of a thin-layered sediment, with random alternation of layers with a coarser or finer granularity. The ash impoundment sediment is anthropogenic sediment with horizontally laminated texture. Therefore, the sediment is anisotropic from the viewpoint of water seepage. The knowledge of the permeability and the seepage anisotropy of the sediment is a basic requirement for the design of an appropriate dewatering system. The seepage anisotropy of the ash sediment has been checked by means of stochastic modelling, based on the correlation between the effective grain diameter and the coefficient of permeability of the ash: the effective grain diameter and the thickness of individual layers have been proposed to be random events.

  9. A risk assessment of water salinization during the initial impounding period of a proposed reservoir in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liqin; Jiang, Cuiling; Wang, Youheng; Peng, Yanmei; Zhang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    Water salinization of coastal reservoirs seriously threatens the safety of their water supply. To elucidate the mechanism of salinization and to quantitatively analyze the risk in the initial period of the impoundment of a proposed reservoir in Tianjin Binhai New Area, laboratory and field simulation experiments were implemented and integrated with the actual operation of Beitang Reservoir, which is located in the same region and has been operational for many years. The results suggested that water salinization of the proposed reservoir was mainly governed by soil saline release, evaporation and leakage. Saline release was the prevailing factor in the earlier stage of the impoundment, then the evaporation and leakage effects gradually became notable over time. By referring to the actual case of Beitang Reservoir, it was predicted that the chloride ion (Cl(-)) concentration of the water during the initial impounding period of the proposed reservoir would exceed the standard for quality of drinking water from surface water sources (250 mg L(-1)), and that the proposed reservoir had a high risk of water salinization.

  10. Investigation, assessment and remediation of the water pathway in the surroundings of the Culmitzsch A tailings impoundment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, G.; Paul, M.; Priester, J.; Schoepfer, C.

    1998-01-01

    Several large tailings impoundments in Saxony and Thuringia are the result of the extensive uranium mining and milling in Eastern Germany after World War II. The Culmitzsch tailings pond in Eastern Thuringia was constructed within a former uranium open pit mine and is located within the Culmitzsch trench fault. The tailings impoundment includes two ponds (Culmitzsch A and B) which are separated by an internal dam with an impervious core. The Culmitzsch A pond covers an area of 158 ha, the maximum tailings thickness is 70 m. Between this pond (elevation of up to 340 m above sea-level) and the Lerchenbach creek (265.. 280 m above sea-level) a steep gradient exists. So the valley of the Lerchenbach is the general discharge area for the seepage of the pond which is a result of dewatering by gravity and consolidation. The seepage water migrates through the southern dam of the impoundment and through permeable layers which are in contact with the tailings. About 400 groundwater wells were installed within three aquifers in order to clarify the flow direction and the degree of contamination of the groundwater as well as to investigate the geohydraulic properties of the rocks in the surroundings of the pond. Based on the results of this investigation programme a three-dimensional hydrogeological model was built up which reflects the general relationships between the pond and its geological setting as well as the water balance of the whole system. Presently a catchment system exists which gathers all surface waters with significant uranium and salt concentrations. Moreover dewatering wells on the beach zone of the pond and catchment wells in the downstream area of the impoundment have been installed. Before being released to the receiving streams seepage and freewater are treated in a two-step water treatment plant in order to decrease their uranium, radium and arsenic contents. (orig.) [de

  11. Project proposal for surface-mined land enhancement (SMILE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, A.M.

    1975-01-29

    Reclaiming strip-mined land is a program ideally suited to meet the requirements of the Job Opportunities Program. It will provide healthy and vigorous outdoor activity involving surveying, earth-moving, revegetation, tree planting, construction of roads, paths, lakes, and park facilities. It is work which states and communities are anxious to have started. It can be done with relatively small capital expenditure. Technical expertise is available in the various states concerned. FEA is the ideal agency to initiate such a project. It has regional offices throughout the country with close contacts with states and local communities. It is a temporary emergency agency with considerable experience in initiating and carrying out crash programs. It is not tied down to the procedures and bureaucratic problems which burden an old-line agency attempting to take on new work. Finally, FEA has a vital interest in energy and surface mining in particular. It played a major role in drafting the new legislation. The initial program development is described, including the technical aspects, economic aspects and administration, cost, budget, cooperation with state agencies, etc.

  12. Surface Projection of Interosseous Foramen of the Leg: Cadaver Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Arguello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study was conducted to identify the surface projection of the interosseous foramen and associated structures of the proximal leg using the average clinician’s thumb width as a quick measurement to assist in differential diagnosis and treatment. Methods. Twelve cadavers (5 males and 7 females, age range = 51–91 years, and mean age = 76.9 were dissected for analysis. Location and size of interosseous foramen, location of anterior tibial artery, location of deep fibular nerve, and corresponding arterial branches were measured and converted into thumb widths. Results. Mean thumb width measured among the cadavers was 17.94±3.9 mm. The interosseous foramen measured was approximately 1 thumb width vertically (18.47±3.0 mm and 1/2 thumb width horizontally (7.32±2.1 mm and was located approximately 1 thumb width distally to the tibial tuberosity (20.81±6.8 mm and 2 thumb widths (37.47±4.7 mm lateral to the tibial ridge. The anterior tibial artery and deep fibular nerve converged approximately 4 thumb widths (74.31±14.8 mm inferior to the tibial tuberosity and 2 thumb widths (33.46±4.9 mm lateral to the tibial ridge. Conclusion. Clinicians may identify anatomical structures of the proximal leg with palpation using the thumb width for measurement.

  13. Impounded Marshes on Subsided Islands: Simulated Vertical Accretion, Processes, and Effects, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, CA USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Deverel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial interest in stopping and reversing the effects of subsidence in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta (Delta where organic soils predominate. Also, the passage of California Assembly Bill 32 in 2006 created the potential to trade credits for carbon sequestered in wetlands on subsided Delta islands. The primary purpose of the work described here was to estimate future vertical accretion and understand processes that affect vertical accretion and carbon sequestration in impounded marshes on subsided Delta islands. Using a cohort-accounting model, we simulated vertical accretion from 4,700 calibrated years before present (BP at a wetland area located within Franks Tract State Recreation Area (lat 38.059, long −121.611, hereafter, “Franks Wetland”—a small, relatively undisturbed marsh island—and at the Twitchell Island subsidence-reversal demonstration project since 1997. We used physical and chemical data collected during the study as well as literature values for model inputs. Model results compared favorably with measured rates of vertical accretion, mass of carbon sequestered, bulk density and organic matter content. From 4,700 to model-estimated 350 years BP, the simulated rate of vertical accretion at Franks Wetland averaged about 0.12 cm yr-1, which is within the range of rates in tidal wetlands worldwide. Our model results indicate that large sediment inputs during the last 150 to 200 years resulted in a higher accretion rate of 0.3 cm yr -1. On Twitchell Island, greater organic inputs resulted in average vertical accretion rates as high as 9.2 cm yr -1. Future simulations indicate that the managed impounded marsh will accrete highly organic material at rates of about 3 cm yr -1. Model results coupled with GIS analysis indicate that large areas of the periphery of the Delta, if impounded and converted to freshwater marsh, could be restored to tidal elevations within 50 to 100 years. Most of the

  14. The net GHG (CO2, CH4 and N2O) footprint of a newly impounded subtropical hydroelectric reservoir: Nam Theun 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Chandrashekhar; Guérin, Frédéric; Delon, Claire; Pighini, Sylvie; Vongkhamsao, Axay; Descloux, Stéphane; Chanudet, Vincent; Tardif, Raphael; Godon, Arnaud; Guédant, Pierre; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Zouiten, Cyril; Oliva, Priscia; Audry, Stéphane; Serça, Dominique

    2013-04-01

    There is a rising concern over the contribution of hydroelectric reservoirs to global anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. We present here the first comprehensive assessment of GHGs footprint associated with the creation of the Nam Theun 2 (NT2) hydroelectric reservoir in subtropical region of the Lao People's Democratic Republic. This assessment is the results of a monthly monitoring that have been conducted over 4 year (2008-to date). The carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) sources and sinks were quantified before and after impoundment, which began in May 2008. Before impoundment, the landscape to be flooded was a sink of carbon dioxide (-73 ± 225 Gg CO2eq yr-1),roughly neutral in terms of methane (7 ± 11 Gg CO2eq yr-1), and a source of nitrous oxide (345 ± 158 Gg CO2eq yr-1). After impoundment, total CO2 and CH4 emissions increased and N2O emissions decreased. For the year 2010, CO2 (791 ± 54 Gg CO2eq yr-1) and CH4 (644 ± 124 Gg CO2eq yr-1) contributed equally to the total gross GHG emissions from NT2 (54 and 43% for CO2 and CH4, respectively) whereas N2O contributed only 3% (47 ± 29 Gg CO2eq yr-1). The GHG emissions remained constant in 2011. Our results indicate that most of the GHG (around 90%) were emitted from reservoir water surface and the drawdown area, and only 10% were emitted by degassing at the turbines and from diffusive emissions downstream of the turbines and the dam, a percentage lower than reported for other hydroelectric reservoirs. With a total emissions of 1482 ± 207 and 1298 ± 200 Gg CO2eq yr-1 for year 2010 and 2011, gross NT2 emissions are about an order of magnitude higher than pre-impoundment emissions (276 ± 393 Gg CO2eq yr-1). With a net GHG emissions of 1203 ± 601 (2010) and 1022 ± 594 (2011) Gg CO2eq yr-1, and an annual power generation of about 6 TWh, GHG emission factor equal to 0.20 (2010) and 0.17 (2011) Mg CO2eq MWh-1 for NT2 which is up to five times lower than the emission factor

  15. No-Tack Inlay on Milled Surface: Project Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-01

    This report documents observation of a construction project west of Nashville, Tennessee that did not use a tack coat during the placement of the hot mix asphalt (HMA). This observation took place on June 23, 1998. For this project, the existing pave...

  16. Characterization plan for the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stansfield, R.G.; Francis, C.W.

    1986-09-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are required to comply fully with all federal and state regulations. In response to this requirement, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has established the remedial action program, to provide comprehensive management of areas where past research, development, and waste management activities have been conducted and have resulted in residual contamination of facilities or the environment. One of the objectives of this program is to define the extent of contamination at these sites. The intent is to document the known environmental characteristics of the sites and identify the additional actions, such as sampling, analytical measurements, and modeling, necessary to confirm contamination and the possible migration of contaminants from the sites. One of these sites is the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment). The 3513 impoundment is an unlined waste settling basin constructed in 1944 for collection of ORNL wastewater before its discharge into White Oak Creek. Operation of the facility ceased in 1976 when a new process waste treatment plant came into operation. Considerable site-specific environmental information has been developed over the years relative to the type and quantities of radionuclides and hazardous substances contained in the pond water and sediment. The concentrations and patterns of distribution for many of the radionuclides in the aquatic biota as well as for the terrestrial plants growing on the berm of the impoundment have been determined by DOE ecological studies. Recently, some data were collected that evaluate the extent of contaminant movement to the groundwater. Results from these studies are summarized in this report. Also included in this report is an outline of additional tasks needed to obtain the necessary information to model the transport and dose pathways of hazardous substances from the site

  17. Characterization plan for the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stansfield, R.G.; Francis, C.W.

    1986-09-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are required to comply fully with all federal and state regulations. In response to this requirement, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has established the remedial action program, to provide comprehensive management of areas where past research, development, and waste management activities have been conducted and have resulted in residual contamination of facilities or the environment. One of the objectives of this program is to define the extent of contamination at these sites. The intent is to document the known environmental characteristics of the sites and identify the additional actions, such as sampling, analytical measurements, and modeling, necessary to confirm contamination and the possible migration of contaminants from the sites. One of these sites is the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment). The 3513 impoundment is an unlined waste settling basin constructed in 1944 for collection of ORNL wastewater before its discharge into White Oak Creek. Operation of the facility ceased in 1976 when a new process waste treatment plant came into operation. Considerable site-specific environmental information has been developed over the years relative to the type and quantities of radionuclides and hazardous substances contained in the pond water and sediment. The concentrations and patterns of distribution for many of the radionuclides in the aquatic biota as well as for the terrestrial plants growing on the berm of the impoundment have been determined by DOE ecological studies. Recently, some data were collected that evaluate the extent of contaminant movement to the groundwater. Results from these studies are summarized in this report. Also included in this report is an outline of additional tasks needed to obtain the necessary information to model the transport and dose pathways of hazardous substances from the site.

  18. Run-of-River Impoundments Can Remain Unfilled While Transporting Gravel Bedload: Numerical Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, A.; Pizzuto, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Previous work at run-of-river (ROR) dams in northern Delaware has shown that bedload supplied to ROR impoundments can be transported over the dam when impoundments remain unfilled. Transport is facilitated by high levels of sand in the impoundment that lowers the critical shear stresses for particle entrainment, and an inversely sloping sediment ramp connecting the impoundment bed (where the water depth is typically equal to the dam height) with the top of the dam (Pearson and Pizzuto, in press). We demonstrate with one-dimensional bed material transport modeling that bed material can move through impoundments and that equilibrium transport (i.e., a balance between supply to and export from the impoundment, with a constant bed elevation) is possible even when the bed elevation is below the top of the dam. Based on our field work and previous HEC-RAS modeling, we assess bed material transport capacity at the base of the sediment ramp (and ignore detailed processes carrying sediment up and ramp and over the dam). The hydraulics at the base of the ramp are computed using a weir equation, providing estimates of water depth, velocity, and friction, based on the discharge and sediment grain size distribution of the impoundment. Bedload transport rates are computed using the Wilcock-Crowe equation, and changes in the impoundment's bed elevation are determined by sediment continuity. Our results indicate that impoundments pass the gravel supplied from upstream with deep pools when gravel supply rate is low, gravel grain sizes are relatively small, sand supply is high, and discharge is high. Conversely, impoundments will tend to fill their pools when gravel supply rate is high, gravel grain sizes are relatively large, sand supply is low, and discharge is low. The rate of bedload supplied to an impoundment is the primary control on how fast equilibrium transport is reached, with discharge having almost no influence on the timing of equilibrium.

  19. Groundwater monitoring at three Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive waste impoundments: results after one year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C. W.; Stansfield, R. G.

    1986-10-01

    To determine if the migration of potential contaminants from three inactive waste impoundments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory poses a threat to groundwater quality, at least one upgradient groundwater monitoring well and threee downgradient monitoring wells were installed at each impoundment in early 1985. These three unlined impoundments, formerly used to collect and, in some instances, treat wastewater are: the 3513 impoundment; the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) impoundment; and the Homogeneous Reactor Experimnt No. 2 impoundment. Groundwater samples were collected quarterly for one year. Analyses were conducted for the groundwater protection parameters promulgated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The groundwater samples were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls, copper, nickel, zinc, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, and tritium. The contaminants found most often to affect groundwater quality at all three waste impoundments were radionuclides. For example, mean concentrations of gross beta and gross alpha activity exceeded drinking water limits at all three sites. The gross beta limit was exceeded at the 3513 and OHF impoundments by either /sup 90/Sr or tritium levels. At the 3513 impoundment, there was substantial evidence that the downgradient groundwater has been contaminated by chromium and lead and possibly by halogenated organic compounds. At the OHF impoundment, the mean level of tritium measured in the upgradient well (about 91,000 Bq/L as compared with 80,000 Bq/L in the downgradient wells) indicated that the groundwater quality has been affected by the radioactive wastes buried in the low-level radioactive waste burial ground solid waste storage area-5 upgradient of the impoundment. Testing for groundwater contamination, disclosed statistically significant contamination at all three sites.

  20. Groundwater monitoring at three Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive waste impoundments: results after one year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Stansfield, R.G.

    1986-10-01

    To determine if the migration of potential contaminants from three inactive waste impoundments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory poses a threat to groundwater quality, at least one upgradient groundwater monitoring well and threee downgradient monitoring wells were installed at each impoundment in early 1985. These three unlined impoundments, formerly used to collect and, in some instances, treat wastewater are: the 3513 impoundment; the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) impoundment; and the Homogeneous Reactor Experimnt No. 2 impoundment. Groundwater samples were collected quarterly for one year. Analyses were conducted for the groundwater protection parameters promulgated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The groundwater samples were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls, copper, nickel, zinc, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and tritium. The contaminants found most often to affect groundwater quality at all three waste impoundments were radionuclides. For example, mean concentrations of gross beta and gross alpha activity exceeded drinking water limits at all three sites. The gross beta limit was exceeded at the 3513 and OHF impoundments by either 90 Sr or tritium levels. At the 3513 impoundment, there was substantial evidence that the downgradient groundwater has been contaminated by chromium and lead and possibly by halogenated organic compounds. At the OHF impoundment, the mean level of tritium measured in the upgradient well (about 91,000 Bq/L as compared with 80,000 Bq/L in the downgradient wells) indicated that the groundwater quality has been affected by the radioactive wastes buried in the low-level radioactive waste burial ground solid waste storage area-5 upgradient of the impoundment. Testing for groundwater contamination, disclosed statistically significant contamination at all three sites

  1. Reestablishing the Dominance of Biogeochemical Pathways for Reducing Downstream Nutrient Losses from Aged Impounded Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S.; Shukla, A.

    2017-12-01

    Water and phosphorus (P) dynamics and loss pathways at two stormwater impoundments (SIs) were analyzed using measured fluxes between 2008 and 2011. These SIs are a decade old. Analyses of water and P budgets along with the discernment of various P pools and characterization of the intermediary processes revealed that soil adsorption and plant uptake are secondary to volume reduction apropos of P treatment. At one site, extreme wet conditions in a year combined with soil P saturation resulted in it being a P source rather than a sink. The impoundment (SI-1) discharged 12% more P than incoming due to soil P desorption, a consequence of dilution of incoming stormwater with large water input from an extreme tropical rain event. The second impoundment (SI-2) was a consistent sink of P; 55% and 95% of the incoming total P was retained in the two years, mainly as a result of 49% and 84% volume retention, respectively. Analysis of plant available aluminum, iron, and phosphorus showed the surface soil to be P saturated and at risk of releasing P to a limit of environmental concern. These results when seen in light of more frequent extreme precipitation events under the changed climate scenario call for alternatives to revive the role of biogeochemical processes in P treatment because volume reduction may not always be the viable option, especially for wet conditions. Aboveground biomass harvesting and removal was evaluated to transform the SIs from a frequent P source to sink and maintain the long-term sink functions of the SIs. Use of harvested biomass as a source of nutrients (N and P) and carbon to agricultural soil can result in beneficial use of biomass and offset the cost of harvesting. Other avenues such as altering the hydrology of the SIs by compartmentalizing the system and increasing the storage were also explored for short-term benefits. Results provided a combination of hydraulic and biochemical options for achieving long-term water and nutrient retentions in

  2. People cannot Locate the Projection of an Object on the Surface of a Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    People cannot veridically perceive reflections of objects as projections on the surface of mirrors. People tried to locate an object's projection on a flat mirror. The observer stood at the opposite end of a long mirror to the experimenter. They were told to remember the location of the projection of the experimenter's face. The experimenter then…

  3. 32 CFR 634.52 - Search incident to impoundment based on criminal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Search incident to impoundment based on criminal activity. 634.52 Section 634.52 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Impounding...

  4. Adaptive fringe-pattern projection for image saturation avoidance in 3D surface-shape measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Kofman, Jonathan

    2014-04-21

    In fringe-projection 3D surface-shape measurement, image saturation results in incorrect intensities in captured images of fringe patterns, leading to phase and measurement errors. An adaptive fringe-pattern projection (AFPP) method was developed to adapt the maximum input gray level in projected fringe patterns to the local reflectivity of an object surface being measured. The AFPP method demonstrated improved 3D measurement accuracy by avoiding image saturation in highly-reflective surface regions while maintaining high intensity modulation across the entire surface. The AFPP method can avoid image saturation and handle varying surface reflectivity, using only two prior rounds of fringe-pattern projection and image capture to generate the adapted fringe patterns.

  5. UMTRA project technical assistance contractor quality assurance implementation plan for surface and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan (QAIP) outlines the primary requirements for integrating quality functions for TAC technical activities applied to the surface and ground water phases of the UMTRA Project. The QAIP is subordinate to the latest issue of the UMTRA Project TAC Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). The QAIP addresses technical aspects of the TAC UMTRA Project surface and ground water programs. The QAIP is authorized and approved by the TAC Project Manager and QA manager. The QA program is designed to use monitoring, audit, and surveillance functions as management tools to ensure that all Project organization activities are carried out in a manner that will protect public health and safety, promote the success of the UMTRA Project and meet or exceed contract requirements

  6. A cohomological stability result for projective schemes over surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Brodmann, M

    2007-01-01

    Let π : X → X 0 be a projective morphism of schemes such that X 0 is noetherian and essentially of finite type over a field K. Let i ∈ ℕ0, let ℱ be a coherent sheaf of -modules and let ℒ be an ample invertible sheaf over X. We show that the set of associated points of the higher direct image sheaf ultimately becomes constant if n tends to −∞, provided X 0 has dimensione ≦ 2. If , this stability result need not hold any more. To prove this, we show that the set of associated primes of the n-th...

  7. Eutrophication levels of some South African impoundments. IV. Vaal Dam

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, DJ

    1976-04-01

    Full Text Available I?d/st. Loners I, 74, I ?34-I 42. TOERIEN, D. F., STEtN, D.J. and KOHLMEYER, 5.1. (1975a).The nitrogen yield coellieien t of the g ?ccii alga .Seleooastrsmn rapr,corn,tesm Printz. S. Afe. J. Sri., 7!, 217-218. TOERtEN, D.F.,HVMAN,KATHYL.5nd... inere;iae(l the \\G P In? between 7,1- and I 1,2 mg/r? lbr t?verv nile pet? t?t?ttt v/v) added_Nitrogen and phosphorus wert? the important algal growth?limiting ntltrients in the impoundment. Plant nntt-ients adsorbed onto clay particles could ht...

  8. A generic model of contaminant migration from uranium tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, T.A.; Brown, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical hydrogeochemical model based upon acid consumption-neutralization front movement. The development of contaminant plumes is discussed and distinct zones within these plumes are identified and characterized. The most important process influencing the rate and extent of contaminant migration at acid-leach uranium tailings impoundments is the neutralization of seepage water by soils along ground water flow paths. The chemical characteristics of the ground water is determined in order to identify and characterize zones within migrating plumes of tailings-derived water. It is concluded that the characterization of specific zones is useful in the interpretation of existing conditions, in the evaluation of future migration, and in the determination of appropriate models for the specific situation

  9. Projection of curves on B-spline surfaces using quadratic reparameterization

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yijun

    2010-09-01

    Curves on surfaces play an important role in computer aided geometric design. In this paper, we present a hyperbola approximation method based on the quadratic reparameterization of Bézier surfaces, which generates reasonable low degree curves lying completely on the surfaces by using iso-parameter curves of the reparameterized surfaces. The Hausdorff distance between the projected curve and the original curve is controlled under the user-specified distance tolerance. The projected curve is T-G 1 continuous, where T is the user-specified angle tolerance. Examples are given to show the performance of our algorithm. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 77 FR 10599 - Surface Transportation Project Delivery Pilot Program; Caltrans Audit Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... information gathering. Limited scope of Pilot Program project development activity. Caltrans has not operated... Program areas within the scope and the limitations of the audit, with the exceptions noted in the... Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Project Delivery Pilot Program; Caltrans Audit...

  11. Method of surface error visualization using laser 3D projection technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lili; Li, Lijuan; Lin, Xuezhu

    2017-10-01

    In the process of manufacturing large components, such as aerospace, automobile and shipping industry, some important mold or stamped metal plate requires precise forming on the surface, which usually needs to be verified, if necessary, the surface needs to be corrected and reprocessed. In order to make the correction of the machined surface more convenient, this paper proposes a method based on Laser 3D projection system, this method uses the contour form of terrain contour, directly showing the deviation between the actually measured data and the theoretical mathematical model (CAD) on the measured surface. First, measure the machined surface to get the point cloud data and the formation of triangular mesh; secondly, through coordinate transformation, unify the point cloud data to the theoretical model and calculate the three-dimensional deviation, according to the sign (positive or negative) and size of the deviation, use the color deviation band to denote the deviation of three-dimensional; then, use three-dimensional contour lines to draw and represent every coordinates deviation band, creating the projection files; finally, import the projection files into the laser projector, and make the contour line projected to the processed file with 1:1 in the form of a laser beam, compare the Full-color 3D deviation map with the projection graph, then, locate and make quantitative correction to meet the processing precision requirements. It can display the trend of the machined surface deviation clearly.

  12. "Intelligent Ensemble" Projections of Precipitation and Surface Radiation in Support of Agricultural Climate Change Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick C.; Baker, Noel C.

    2015-01-01

    Earth's climate is changing and will continue to change into the foreseeable future. Expected changes in the climatological distribution of precipitation, surface temperature, and surface solar radiation will significantly impact agriculture. Adaptation strategies are, therefore, required to reduce the agricultural impacts of climate change. Climate change projections of precipitation, surface temperature, and surface solar radiation distributions are necessary input for adaption planning studies. These projections are conventionally constructed from an ensemble of climate model simulations (e.g., the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5)) as an equal weighted average, one model one vote. Each climate model, however, represents the array of climate-relevant physical processes with varying degrees of fidelity influencing the projection of individual climate variables differently. Presented here is a new approach, termed the "Intelligent Ensemble, that constructs climate variable projections by weighting each model according to its ability to represent key physical processes, e.g., precipitation probability distribution. This approach provides added value over the equal weighted average method. Physical process metrics applied in the "Intelligent Ensemble" method are created using a combination of NASA and NOAA satellite and surface-based cloud, radiation, temperature, and precipitation data sets. The "Intelligent Ensemble" method is applied to the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 anthropogenic climate forcing simulations within the CMIP5 archive to develop a set of climate change scenarios for precipitation, temperature, and surface solar radiation in each USDA Farm Resource Region for use in climate change adaptation studies.

  13. UMTRA project technical assistance contractor quality assurance implementation plan for surface and ground water, Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan (QAIP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The QAIP outlines the primary requirements for integrating quality functions for TAC technical activities applied to the surface and ground water phases of the UMTRA Project. The QA program is designed to use monitoring, audit, and surveillance activities as management tools to ensure that UMTRA Project activities are carried out in amanner to protect public health and safety, promote the success of the UMTRA Project, and meet or exceed contract requirements

  14. Efficiency of baited hoop nets for sampling catfish in southeastern U.S. small impoundments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Benjamin C.; Weaver, Daniel M.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Many U.S. natural resource agencies stock catfish (Ictaluridae) into small impoundments to provide recreational fishing opportunities. However, effective standardized methods for sampling catfish in small impoundments have not been developed for wide application, particularly in the southeastern United States. We evaluated the efficiency of three bait treatments (i.e., soybean cake, sunflower cake, and no bait) of tandem hoop nets in two North Carolina small impoundments during the fall of 2008 and spring of 2009 in a factorial experimental design. The impoundments were stocked with catchable-size channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus at contrastingly low (5.5 fi sh/ha) and high (90.0 fi sh/ha) rates prior to our sampling. Nets baited with soybean cake consistently sampled more channel catfish than any other treatment. Channel catfish catch ranged as high as 3,251 fi sh per net series during the fall in nets baited with soybean cake in the intensively stocked impoundment and was up to 8.5 and 15.3 times higher during the fall than in the spring in each impoundment. Nets baited with soybean cake sampled significantly (12 and 24 times) more channel catfish than those with no bait in the two impoundments. These trends did not occur among other catfish species. Nonictalurid fish and turtle catch was higher during spring compared to that of fall, corresponding with low channel catfish catches. Our results indicate that tandem hoop nets baited with soybean cake during the fall is a more efficient method for sampling channel catfish compared to nets baited with sunflower cake or no bait in spring or fall. Our findings validate this technique for application in southeastern U.S. small impoundments to assess catfish abundance to guide management and evaluate the success of catfish stocking programs.

  15. Organoselenium Surface Modification of Stainless Steel Surfaces To Prevent Biofouling in Treatment of Space Wastestreams Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this work is to quantify the reduction of biofilm formation in a water distribution system resulting from an organoselenium surface coating on...

  16. Mercury concentrations of fish in Southern Indian Lake and Issett Lake, Manitoba 1975-88: The effect of lake impoundment and Churchill River diversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strange, N.E.; Bodaly, R.A.; Fudge, R.J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Southern Indian and Issett Lakes in northern Manitoba were flooded in 1976 as part of Manitoba Hydro's Churchill River diversion project. Fish were collected from 1975 to 1988 from five regional sites on the lakes to examine the effects of impoundment and river diversion on muscle mercury concentrations. Raw data for individual fish caught in 1987 and 1988 are presented, along with means and analyses calculated over the entire 1975-1988 study period. Mercury concentrations in whitefish, pike, and walleye increased significantly after impoundment. Whitefish mercury levels peaked in 1978 and have since declined to near pre-flooding levels. Northern pike and walleye mercury levels were much higher than for whitefish. Pike mercury concentrations showed no indication of declining after 12 years of impoundment, but walleye mercury levels at 2 of the 5 Southern Indian Lake sites declined from maximum recorded levels. Significant variability in fish mercury concentrations was noted both from year to year and among the sites. It is suggested that site-to-site variations are due to varying conditions in the reservoir which stimulate mercury methylation. Since there appears to be an ongoing long-term source of mercury and organic material from the eroding shorelines, pike and walleye mercury concentrations are expected to remain high for many years. 25 refs., 7 figs., 20 tabs

  17. Pournari Dam (W. Greece) Impoundment and Triggered Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlou, K.; Kouskouna, V.; Makropoulos, K.; Drakatos, G.; Petrou, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Pournari dam is located in the seismically active area of W. Greece, close to Arta. The height of the dam is 87m, with maximum water level height at 126m and maximum volume 865X106m3. The first impoundment commenced in January 1981, and was accompanied by a considerable number of low magnitude seismic events, as well as two major ones on March 10 and April 10, 1981, with magnitudes ML=5.6 and ML=4.7 and focal depths 13km and 10km, respectively, all located in the broader area of the dam. Potential triggering of the second event was studied through the calculation of Coulomb stress changes distribution, due to the occurrence of the first ML=5.6 event. Additionally, the detailed study of temporal correlation between water level increase and seismicity showed triggering seismicity due to both the initial filling and the disordered structure, controlled by the presence of evaporites, south and west of Pournari dam area. Further processing of the recorded seismicity for the period 1982-2010, in comparison with the variations of Pournari dam water level, presented an increase of shallow seismicity in the vicinity of the reservoir up to a 10 km distance -in contrast to the initial period, characterized by a number of deeper events- which was due to the background response change from undrained to drained status.

  18. Presentations from the 1992 Coal Mining Impoundment Informational Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    On May 20 and 21, 1992, the MSHA Coal Mining Impoundment Informational Meeting was held at the National Mine Health and Safety Academy in Beckley, West Virginia. Fifteen presentations were given on key issues involved in the design and construction of dams associated with coal mining. The attendees were told that to improve the consistency among the plan reviewers, engineers from the Denver and Pittsburgh Technical Support Centers meet twice annually to discuss specific technical issues. It was soon discovered that the topics being discussed needed to be shared with anyone involved with coal waste dam design, construction, or inspection. The only way to accomplish that goal was through the issuance of Procedure Instruction Letters. The Letters present a consensus of engineering philosophy that could change over time. They do not present policy or carry the force of law. Currently, thirteen position papers have been disseminated and more will follow as the need arises. The individual paper were not even entered into the database.

  19. Application of instrument transfer function to a fringe projection system for measuring rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Davies, Angela; Ziegert, John; Evans, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    When fringe projection profilometry is used for measuring rough/textured surfaces, the fidelity of the measurement is subject to the spatial frequency response. The instrument transfer function (ITF) is one appealing approach to characterize this property. The foundation of ITF analysis is based on the linear theory; only linear systems are appropriate for ITF analysis. A fringe projection system is intrinsically nonlinear, but it can be approximated as a linear system when certain conditions are met. Here we investigate the linear conditions of a custom fringe projection system designed for an additive manufacturing application. The applicability of ITF is discussed through mathematical analysis and simulations.

  20. Self-Cleaning Surfaces: A Third-Year Undergraduate Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Ronald S.; Wu, Alex H. F.; Zhang, Hua; Coffey, Jacob; Huddle, Thomas; Lafountaine, Justin S.; Lim, Zhi-Jun; White, Eugene A.; Tuong, Nam T.; Lamb, Robert N.

    2009-01-01

    Superhydrophobic (non water-wettable) surfaces can possess the ability to self-clean (the so-called "lotus effect"). The task of devising the apparatus and method for quantifying this self-cleaning effect was offered as a project in a third-year undergraduate laboratory course. Using commonly available equipment the students devised a…

  1. Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance: evaluating simulations and making projections with regional climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rae, J.G.L.; Aðalgeirsdóttir, G.; Edwards, T.L.; Fettweis, X.; Gregory, J.M.; Hewitt, H.T.; Lowe, J.A.; Lucas-Picher, P.; Mottram, R.H.; Payne, A.J.; Ridley, J.K.; Shannon, S.R.; van de Berg, W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831611; van de Wal, R.S.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/101899556; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643

    2012-01-01

    Four high-resolution regional climate models (RCMs) have been set up for the area of Greenland, with the aim of providing future projections of Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB), and its contribution to sea level rise, with greater accuracy than is possible from coarser-resolution

  2. Evaporation over a heterogeneous land surface - The EVA-GRIPS project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengelkamp, H.T.; Beyrich, F.; Heinemann, G.; Ament, F.; Bange, J.; Berger, F.; Bosenberg, J.; Foken, T.; Hennemuth, B.; Heret, C.; Huneke, S.; Johnsen, K.P.; Kerschgens, M.; Kohsiek, W.; Leps, J.P.; Liebethal, C.; Lohse, H.; Mauder, M.; Meijninger, W.M.L.; Raasch, S.; Simmer, C.

    2006-01-01

    The representation of subgrid-scale surface heterogeneities in numerical weather and climate models has been a challenging problem for more than a decade. The Evaporation at Grid and Pixel Scale (EVA-GRIPS) project adds to the numerous studies on vegetation-atmosphere interaction processes through a

  3. Using Helicopter Electromagnetic Surveys to Identify Potential Hazards at Mine Waste Impoundments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammack, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    In July 2003, helicopter electromagnetic surveys were conducted at 14 coal waste impoundments in southern West Virginia. The purpose of the surveys was to detect conditions that could lead to impoundment failure either by structural failure of the embankment or by the flooding of adjacent or underlying mine works. Specifically, the surveys attempted to: 1) identify saturated zones within the mine waste, 2) delineate filtrate flow paths through the embankment or into adjacent strata and receiving streams, and 3) identify flooded mine workings underlying or adjacent to the waste impoundment. Data from the helicopter surveys were processed to generate conductivity/depth images. Conductivity/depth images were then spatially linked to georeferenced air photos or topographic maps for interpretation. Conductivity/depth images were found to provide a snapshot of the hydrologic conditions that exist within the impoundment. This information can be used to predict potential areas of failure within the embankment because of its ability to image the phreatic zone. Also, the electromagnetic survey can identify areas of unconsolidated slurry in the decant basin and beneath the embankment. Although shallow, flooded mineworks beneath the impoundment were identified by this survey, it cannot be assumed that electromagnetic surveys can detect all underlying mines. A preliminary evaluation of the data implies that helicopter electromagnetic surveys can provide a better understanding of the phreatic zone than the piezometer arrays that are typically used.

  4. Tidal management sffects sub-adult fish assemblages in impounded South Carolina Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, Ben L.; Peterson, James T.; Jennings, Cecil A.

    2015-01-01

    In coastal South Carolina, most impounded marshes are managed for waterfowl; fewer are managed for fishes. Tidal control is central to each strategy but raises concerns that nursery function could be impaired. This research examined the assemblage composition of fishes during early-life stages. We sampled two impoundments of each management type monthly in 2008 and 2009. We used light traps to collect 61,527 sub-adult fish representing 21 species and 16 families and push nets to collect 12,670 sub-adult fish representing 13 species and 11 families. The effective number of species detected at larval stage in “fish” impoundments (summer mean = 2.52 ± 0.20, winter mean = 2.02 ± 0.66) was greater than in “waterfowl” impoundments (summer mean = 1.27 ± 0.14, winter mean = 1.06 ± 0.09); CI = 90 %. Species richness did not differ between management types, but hierarchical linear models predicted differences in assemblage composition. These findings underscore the importance of frequent water exchange for maintaining diverse assemblages of early-life-stage fishes in marsh impoundments.

  5. Descriptive and Computer Aided Drawing Perspective on an Unfolded Polyhedral Projection Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwierzynska, Jolanta

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the herby study is to develop a method of direct and practical mapping of perspective on an unfolded prism polyhedral projection surface. The considered perspective representation is a rectilinear central projection onto a surface composed of several flat elements. In the paper two descriptive methods of drawing perspective are presented: direct and indirect. The graphical mapping of the effects of the representation is realized directly on the unfolded flat projection surface. That is due to the projective and graphical connection between points displayed on the polyhedral background and their counterparts received on the unfolded flat surface. For a significant improvement of the construction of line, analytical algorithms are formulated. They draw a perspective image of a segment of line passing through two different points determined by their coordinates in a spatial coordinate system of axis x, y, z. Compared to other perspective construction methods that use information about points, for computer vision and the computer aided design, our algorithms utilize data about lines, which are applied very often in architectural forms. Possibility of drawing lines in the considered perspective enables drawing an edge perspective image of an architectural object. The application of the changeable base elements of perspective as a horizon height and a station point location enable drawing perspective image from different viewing positions. The analytical algorithms for drawing perspective images are formulated in Mathcad software, however, they can be implemented in the majority of computer graphical packages, which can make drawing perspective more efficient and easier. The representation presented in the paper and the way of its direct mapping on the flat unfolded projection surface can find application in presentation of architectural space in advertisement and art.

  6. High-resolution projections of surface water availability for Tasmania, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Bennett

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes to streamflows caused by climate change may have major impacts on the management of water for hydro-electricity generation and agriculture in Tasmania, Australia. We describe changes to Tasmanian surface water availability from 1961–1990 to 2070–2099 using high-resolution simulations. Six fine-scale (∼10 km2 simulations of daily rainfall and potential evapotranspiration are generated with the CSIRO Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM, a variable-resolution regional climate model (RCM. These variables are bias-corrected with quantile mapping and used as direct inputs to the hydrological models AWBM, IHACRES, Sacramento, SIMHYD and SMAR-G to project streamflows.

    The performance of the hydrological models is assessed against 86 streamflow gauges across Tasmania. The SIMHYD model is the least biased (median bias = −3% while IHACRES has the largest bias (median bias = −22%. We find the hydrological models that best simulate observed streamflows produce similar streamflow projections.

    There is much greater variation in projections between RCM simulations than between hydrological models. Marked decreases of up to 30% are projected for annual runoff in central Tasmania, while runoff is generally projected to increase in the east. Daily streamflow variability is projected to increase for most of Tasmania, consistent with increases in rainfall intensity. Inter-annual variability of streamflows is projected to increase across most of Tasmania.

    This is the first major Australian study to use high-resolution bias-corrected rainfall and potential evapotranspiration projections as direct inputs to hydrological models. Our study shows that these simulations are capable of producing realistic streamflows, allowing for increased confidence in assessing future changes to surface water variability.

  7. Future projections of the Greenland ice sheet energy balance driving the surface melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Franco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, simulations at 25 km resolution are performed over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, using the regional climate model MAR forced by four RCP scenarios from three CMIP5 global circulation models (GCMs, in order to investigate the projected changes of the surface energy balance (SEB components driving the surface melt. Analysis of 2000–2100 melt anomalies compared to melt results over 1980–1999 reveals an exponential relationship of the GrIS surface melt rate simulated by MAR to the near-surface air temperature (TAS anomalies, mainly due to the surface albedo positive feedback associated with the extension of bare ice areas in summer. On the GrIS margins, the future melt anomalies are preferentially driven by stronger sensible heat fluxes, induced by enhanced warm air advection over the ice sheet. Over the central dry snow zone, the surface albedo positive feedback induced by the increase in summer melt exceeds the negative feedback of heavier snowfall for TAS anomalies higher than 4 °C. In addition to the incoming longwave flux increase associated with the atmosphere warming, GCM-forced MAR simulations project an increase of the cloud cover decreasing the ratio of the incoming shortwave versus longwave radiation and dampening the albedo feedback. However, it should be noted that this trend in the cloud cover is contrary to that simulated by ERA-Interim–forced MAR for recent climate conditions, where the observed melt increase since the 1990s seems mainly to be a consequence of more anticyclonic atmospheric conditions. Finally, no significant change is projected in the length of the melt season, which highlights the importance of solar radiation absorbed by the ice sheet surface in the melt SEB.

  8. The IAEA research project on improvement of safety assessment methodologies for near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Vidal, C.; Graham, D.; Batandjieva, B.

    2002-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Research Coordinated Project on Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities (ISAM) was launched in November 1997 and it has been underway for three years. The ISAM project was developed to provide a critical evaluation of the approaches and tools used in long-term safety assessment of near surface repositories. It resulted in the development of a harmonised approach and illustrated its application by way of three test cases - vault, borehole and Radon (a particular range of repository designs developed within the former Soviet Union) type repositories. As a consequence, the ISAM project had over 70 active participants and attracted considerable interest involving around 700 experts from 72 Member States. The methodology developed, the test cases, the main lessons learnt and the conclusions have been documented and will be published in the form of an IAEA TECDOC. This paper presents the work of the IAEA on improvement of safety assessment methodologies for near surface waste disposal facilities and the application of these methodologies for different purposes in the individual stages of the repository development. The paper introduces the main objectives, activities and outcome of the ISAM project and summarizes the work performed by the six working groups within the ISAM programme, i.e. Scenario Generation and Justification, Modelling, Confidence Building, Vault, Radon Type Facility and Borehole test cases. (author)

  9. Factors affecting projected Arctic surface shortwave heating and albedo change in coupled climate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Marika M; Landrum, Laura

    2015-07-13

    We use a large ensemble of simulations from the Community Earth System Model to quantify simulated changes in the twentieth and twenty-first century Arctic surface shortwave heating associated with changing incoming solar radiation and changing ice conditions. For increases in shortwave absorption associated with albedo reductions, the relative influence of changing sea ice surface properties and changing sea ice areal coverage is assessed. Changes in the surface sea ice properties are associated with an earlier melt season onset, a longer snow-free season and enhanced surface ponding. Because many of these changes occur during peak solar insolation, they have a considerable influence on Arctic surface shortwave heating that is comparable to the influence of ice area loss in the early twenty-first century. As ice area loss continues through the twenty-first century, it overwhelms the influence of changes in the sea ice surface state, and is responsible for a majority of the net shortwave increases by the mid-twenty-first century. A comparison with the Arctic surface albedo and shortwave heating in CMIP5 models indicates a large spread in projected twenty-first century change. This is in part related to different ice loss rates among the models and different representations of the late twentieth century ice albedo and associated sea ice surface state. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. UMTRA Surface Project management action process document. Final report: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    A critical mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the planning, implementation, and completion of environmental restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from the late 1940s into the 1970s. Among these facilities are the 24 former uranium mill sites designed in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 (42 USC section 7901 et seq.) Title 1 of the UMTRCA authorized the DOE to undertake remedial actions at these designated sites and associated vicinity properties (VP), which contain uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials (RRM) derived from the processing sites. Title 2 of the UMTRCA addresses uranium mill sites that were licensed at the time the UMTRCA was enacted. Cleanup of these Title 2 sites is the responsibility of the licensees. The cleanup of the Title 1 sites has been split into two separate projects: the Surface Project, which deals with the mill buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the sites and VPs; and the Ground Water Project, which is limited to the contaminated ground water at the sites. This management action process (MAP) document discusses the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project only; a separate MAP document has been prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project

  11. Effect of ship locking on sediment oxygen uptake in impounded rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorke, A.; McGinnis, D. F.; Maeck, A.

    2012-01-01

    In the majority of large river systems, flow is regulated and/or otherwise affected by operational and management activities, such as ship locking. The effect of lock operation on sediment-water oxygen fluxes was studied within a 12.9 km long impoundment at the Saar River (Germany) using eddy......-correlation flux measurements. The continuous observations cover a time period of nearly 5 days and 39 individual locking events. Ship locking is associated with the generation of surges propagating back and forth through the impoundment which causes strong variations of near-bed current velocity and turbulence...

  12. Evaluation of the WAMME model surface fluxes using results from the AMMA land-surface model intercomparison project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, Aaron Anthony [GAME-CNRM, Meteo-France, Toulouse (France); Poccard-Leclercq, Isabelle [Universite de Nantes, LETG-Geolittomer, Nantes (France); Xue, Yongkang; Feng, Jinming [University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rosnay, Patricia de [European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, Reading (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    The West African monsoon (WAM) circulation and intensity have been shown to be influenced by the land surface in numerous numerical studies using regional scale and global scale atmospheric climate models (RCMs and GCMs, respectively) over the last several decades. The atmosphere-land surface interactions are modulated by the magnitude of the north-south gradient of the low level moist static energy, which is highly correlated with the steep latitudinal gradients of the vegetation characteristics and coverage, land use, and soil properties over this zone. The African Multidisciplinary Monsoon Analysis (AMMA) has organised comprehensive activities in data collection and modelling to further investigate the significance land-atmosphere feedbacks. Surface energy fluxes simulated by an ensemble of land surface models from AMMA Land-surface Model Intercomparison Project (ALMIP) have been used as a proxy for the best estimate of the ''real world'' values in order to evaluate GCM and RCM simulations under the auspices of the West African Monsoon Modelling Experiment (WAMME) project, since such large-scale observations do not exist. The ALMIP models have been forced in off-line mode using forcing based on a mixture of satellite, observational, and numerical weather prediction data. The ALMIP models were found to agree well over the region where land-atmosphere coupling is deemed to be most important (notably the Sahel), with a high signal to noise ratio (generally from 0.7 to 0.9) in the ensemble and a inter-model coefficient of variation between 5 and 15%. Most of the WAMME models simulated spatially averaged net radiation values over West Africa which were consistent with the ALMIP estimates, however, the partitioning of this energy between sensible and latent heat fluxes was significantly different: WAMME models tended to simulate larger (by nearly a factor of two) monthly latent heat fluxes than ALMIP. This results due to a positive precipitation

  13. Microbial communities in a porphyry copper tailings impoundment and their impact on the geochemical dynamics of the mine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaby, Nouhou; Dold, Bernhard; Pfeifer, Hans-Rudolf; Holliger, Christof; Johnson, D Barrie; Hallberg, Kevin B

    2007-02-01

    The distribution and diversity of acidophilic bacteria of a tailings impoundment at the La Andina copper mine, Chile, was examined. The tailings have low sulfide (1.7% pyrite equivalent) and carbonate (1.4% calcite equivalent) contents and are stratified into three distinct zones: a surface (0-70-80 cm) 'oxidation zone' characterized by low-pH (2.5-4), a 'neutralization zone' (70-80 to 300-400 cm) and an unaltered 'primary zone' below 400 cm. A combined cultivation-dependent and biomolecular approach (terminal restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism and 16S rRNA clone library analysis) was used to characterize the indigenous prokaryotic communities in the mine tailings. Total cell counts showed that the microbial biomass was greatest in the top 125 cm of the tailings. The largest numbers of bacteria (10(9) g(-1) dry weight of tailings) were found at the oxidation front (the junction between the oxidation and neutralization zones), where sulfide minerals and oxygen were both present. The dominant iron-/sulfur-oxidizing bacteria identified at the oxidation front included bacteria of the genus Leptospirillum (detected by molecular methods), and Gram-positive iron-oxidizing acidophiles related to Sulfobacillus (identified both by molecular and cultivation methods). Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was also detected, albeit in relatively small numbers. Heterotrophic acidophiles related to Acidobacterium capsulatum were found by molecular methods, while another Acidobacterium-like bacterium and an Acidiphilium sp. were isolated from oxidation zone samples. A conceptual model was developed, based on microbiological and geochemical data derived from the tailings, to account for the biogeochemical evolution of the Piuquenes tailings impoundment.

  14. Impact of Surface Waves on SWOT’s Projected Ocean Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Peral, Eva; Rodríguez, Ernesto; Esteban-Fernández, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission being considered by NASA has, as one of its main objectives, to measure ocean topography with centimeter scale accuracy over kilometer scale spatial resolution. This paper investigates the impact of ocean waves on SWOT’s projected performance. Several effects will be examined: volumetric decorrelation, aliasing of ocean waves, backscattering modulation, and the so-called surfboard sampling.

  15. Limnology and fisheries of three recently impounded reservoirs in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, K.H.G.M De

    1990-01-01

    The hydroelectric reservoirs of Kotmale, Victoria, and Randenigala were impounded in 1985, 1984, and 1986, respectively, by damming the Mahaweli River. The surface area, maximum depth, and mean depth of the three reservoirs are 6.3 km 2 , 78 m, 27.6 m; 23.7 km 2 , 102 m, 30.8 m; and 23.5 km 2 , 90 m, 36.6 m respectively, at their full supply levels of 703, 438, and 232 m above mean sea level. Important physicochemical factors and phytoplankton were studied by sampling of subsurface waters every two weeks in 12 randomly chosen stations in Randenigala and Victoria, and in 10 stations in Kotmale over 24 months. Mean water temperature, pH, conductivity, and the total alkalinity during the study period were 25.6 degree C, 6.6, 50.7 μsieverts, and 0.31 millimoles/l in Kotmale, 26.9 degree C, 7.1, 77.4 μsieverts, and 0.62 millimoles/l in Victoria, and 28.3 degree C, 7.4, 90.0 μsieverts, and 0.79 millimoles/l in Randenigala. The gill-net catches of Kotmale and Victoria are ca 38 and 70 kg/hectare/y, respectively. Randenigala has a fishery potential of ca 70 kg/hectare/y. Tilapia formed ca 68%, 59%, and 69% of the catches of Kotmale, Victoria, and Randenigala, respectively. The catch at Kotmale was mainly Java tilapia and Nile tilapia, whereas at the other two reservoirs it was mainly Java tilapia. Indigenous species constituted only ca 10% of the catch. 16 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Multi-mission mean sea surface and geoid models for ocean monitoring within the GOCINA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, O. B.; Knudsen, P.; Anne, V. L.

    2004-05-01

    A major goal of the EU project GOCINA (Geoid and Ocean Circulation In the North Atlantic) is to develop tools for ocean monitoring using satellite altimetry combined with satellite gravimetry. Furthermore, the project will determine an accurate geoid in the region between Greenland and the UK and, hereby, create a platform for validation of future GOCE Level 2 data and higher order scientific products. The central quantity bridging the geoid and the ocean circulation is the mean dynamic topography, which is the difference between the mean sea surface and the geoid. The mean dynamic topography provides the absolute reference surface for the ocean circulation. The improved determination of the mean circulation will advance the understanding of the role of the ocean mass and heat transport in climate change. To calculate the best possible synthetic mean dynamic topographies a new mean sea surface (KMS03) has been derived from nine years of altimetric data (1993-2001). The regional geoid has furthermore being updated using GRACE and gravimetric data from a recent airborne survey. New synthetic mean dynamic topography models have been computed from the best available geoid models (EGM96, GRACE, GOCINA) and the present mean sea surface models (i.e. CLS01, GSFC00, KMS03). These models will be compared with state of the art hydrodynamic mean dynamic topography models in the North Atlantic GOCINA area. An extended comparison in the Artic Ocean will also be presented to demonstrate the impact of improved geoid and mean sea surface modeling. Particularly using the GRACE derived geoid models, and the KMS03 mean sea surface.

  17. Analysis of spatial distribution and inventory of radioactivity within the uranium mill tailings impoundment

    OpenAIRE

    D. O. Bugai; G. V. Laptev; O. S. Skalskyy; T. V. Lavrova; R. Avila

    2015-01-01

    Results are presented of the characterization of radioactivity inventory of Zapadnoe uranium mill tailings impoundment situated at Pridneprovsky Chemical Plant (PChP; Dneprodzerzhinsk, Ukraine). Analyses of radioactivity data set based on analytical studies of core material from 15 characterization boreholes allowed significantly refining waste volume and radioactivity inventory estimates. Geostatistical analyses using variogram function have established that radioactivity distribution in Zap...

  18. Partitions, Compartments and Portals: Cave Development in internally impounded karst masses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne R. Armstrong L.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Dykes and other vertical bodies can act as aquicludes within bodies of karst rock. These partitions separate isolated bodies of solublerock called compartments. Speleogenetically each compartment will behave as a small impounded-karst until the partition becomesbreached. Breaches through partitions, portals, allow water, air and biota including humans to pass between sections of caves thatwere originally isolated.

  19. Effects of increased summer flooding on nitrogen dynamics in impounded mangroves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Jos T A; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J; Rains, Mark C; Whigham, Dennis F

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are important for coastal protection, carbon sequestration and habitat provision for plants and animals in the tropics and subtropics. Mangroves are threatened by habitat destruction and sea level rise, but management activities such as impounding for mosquito control can also have

  20. Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project. A project on research stage of investigating prediction from ground surface. Project report at fiscal year of 2000 to 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    This was a detailed plan after fiscal year 2000 on the first stage of the Research stage at investigating prediction from ground surface' in three researches carried out at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) according to the 'Basic plan on research of underground science at MIU', based on progress of investigation and research before fiscal year 1999. This project contains following three items as its general targets; establishment of general investigating techniques for geological environment, collection of informations on deep underground environment, and development on foundation of engineering technology at super-deep underground. And, targets at investigating prediction stage from ground surface contain acquisition of geological environment data through investigations from ground surface to predict changes of the environment accompanied with underground geological environment and construction of experimental tunnel, to determine evaluating method on prediction results, and to determine plannings of an investigating stage accompanied with excavation of the tunnel by carrying out detail design of the tunnel. Here were introduced about results and problems on the investigation of the first phase, the integration of investigating results, and the investigation and researches on geology/geological structure, hydrology and geochemistry of groundwater, mechanical properties of rocks, and the mass transfer. (G.K.)

  1. Radiation environmental impact assessment of radioactive substances of an airport transit storage construction projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baozeng; Xia Zitong; Zou Zhaozhuang

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive substances belong to dangerous goods transport aviation. Radioactive substances impoundments construction purpose is to ensure that the radioactive material during transport to transport and the public to achieve full or isolation, the effects of radiation on the human body, property and the environment caused by the control to an acceptable level. According to the relevant national standards and norms, for radiation protection evaluation of project construction of an airport radioactive impoundments, feasibility of the construction project radiation environment. (authors)

  2. Projections of rapidly rising surface temperatures over Africa under low mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelbrecht, Francois; Bopape, Mary-Jane; Naidoo, Mogesh; Garland, Rebecca; Adegoke, Jimmy; Thatcher, Marcus; McGregor, John; Katzfey, Jack; Werner, Micha; Ichoku, Charles; Gatebe, Charles

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of observed trends in African annual-average near-surface temperatures over the last five decades reveals drastic increases, particularly over parts of the subtropics and central tropical Africa. Over these regions, temperatures have been rising at more than twice the global rate of temperature increase. An ensemble of high-resolution downscalings, obtained using a single regional climate model forced with the sea-surface temperatures and sea-ice fields of an ensemble of global circulation model (GCM) simulations, is shown to realistically represent the relatively strong temperature increases observed in subtropical southern and northern Africa. The amplitudes of warming are generally underestimated, however. Further warming is projected to occur during the 21st century, with plausible increases of 4–6 °C over the subtropics and 3–5 °C over the tropics by the end of the century relative to present-day climate under the A2 (a low mitigation) scenario of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios. High impact climate events such as heat-wave days and high fire-danger days are consistently projected to increase drastically in their frequency of occurrence. General decreases in soil-moisture availability are projected, even for regions where increases in rainfall are plausible, due to enhanced levels of evaporation. The regional dowscalings presented here, and recent GCM projections obtained for Africa, indicate that African annual-averaged temperatures may plausibly rise at about 1.5 times the global rate of temperature increase in the subtropics, and at a somewhat lower rate in the tropics. These projected increases although drastic, may be conservative given the model underestimations of observed temperature trends. The relatively strong rate of warming over Africa, in combination with the associated increases in extreme temperature events, may be key factors to consider when interpreting the suitability of global mitigation targets in terms of

  3. Current status of the surface-based investigations in the MIU project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Katushi; Osawa, Hideaki

    2001-01-01

    Tono Geoscience Center (TGC) has been conducting a wide range of geoscientific research in order to build a firm scientific and technological basis for the research and development of geological disposal. One of the major components of the ongoing geoscientific research program is the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project in the Tono region, central Japan. The R and D work of the MIU project has the following main goals: Develop comprehensive investigation techniques for the geological environment. Develop a range of engineering techniques for deep underground application. A wide range of geoscientific research and development activities of the MIU project is planned in three phases a 20 years period; Phase one: surface-based investigation. Phase two: construction. Phase three: operations. The MIU site has been investigated by geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and rock mechanical surveys on the surface. Based on this information, modeling and simulation works have been conducted in the different investigation stages. Technological knowledge and experience have been accumulated, which allow application of the methodologies and techniques to characterize the deep geological environment in crystalline rock. This report presents the results of the investigations from fiscal 1996 to 1999 in phase one. (author)

  4. Surface water-quality assessment of the Kentucky River basin, Kentucky; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K.D.; Smoot, J.L.; Jackson, J.K.; Choquette, Anne F.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began the National Water Quality Assessment Program, which at present (1987) is in a pilot phase in which assessment concepts and approaches are being tested and modified to prepare for full implementation of the program in the future. Seven pilot projects (four surface water projects and three groundwater projects) have been started. The preliminary plans for the surface water quality assessment of the Kentucky River basin pilot project are described. The Kentucky River basin drains an area of approximately 7,000 sq mi in east central Kentucky and is underlain by rocks that range in composition from limestone to sandstone and shale. Because greater than 95% of the basin population relies on surface water, surface water quality is of great concern. Land use practices that affect the surface water quality in the basin include agriculture, forestry, oil and gas production, coal mining, and urbanization. Water quality concerns resulting from the various land uses include the effects of: oil and gas field brine discharges; agricultural chemicals; sedimentation caused by coal mining; and trace element impacts from industrial and urban environments. Assessment activity is designed to occur over a 9-year period of time. During the first 3-year period of the cycle, concentrated data acquisition and interpretation will occur. For the next 6 years, sample collection will occur at a much lower level of intensity to document the occurrence of any gross changes in water quality. This 9-year cycle will then be repeated. Historical data will be evaluated to provide, to the extent possible, a description of existing and past trends in water quality conditions and to develop conceptual models that relate the observed conditions to the sources and causes, both natural and human-controlled. New data will be collected to verify the water quality conditions documented by historic data, to track long-term trends in water quality, to intensify

  5. Feature extraction and classifcation in surface grading application using multivariate statistical projection models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats-Montalbán, José M.; López, Fernando; Valiente, José M.; Ferrer, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an innovative way to simultaneously perform feature extraction and classification for the quality control issue of surface grading by applying two well known multivariate statistical projection tools (SIMCA and PLS-DA). These tools have been applied to compress the color texture data describing the visual appearance of surfaces (soft color texture descriptors) and to directly perform classification using statistics and predictions computed from the extracted projection models. Experiments have been carried out using an extensive image database of ceramic tiles (VxC TSG). This image database is comprised of 14 different models, 42 surface classes and 960 pieces. A factorial experimental design has been carried out to evaluate all the combinations of several factors affecting the accuracy rate. Factors include tile model, color representation scheme (CIE Lab, CIE Luv and RGB) and compression/classification approach (SIMCA and PLS-DA). In addition, a logistic regression model is fitted from the experiments to compute accuracy estimates and study the factors effect. The results show that PLS-DA performs better than SIMCA, achieving a mean accuracy rate of 98.95%. These results outperform those obtained in a previous work where the soft color texture descriptors in combination with the CIE Lab color space and the k-NN classi.er achieved a 97.36% of accuracy.

  6. Underwater 3D Surface Measurement Using Fringe Projection Based Scanning Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Heinze, Matthias; Schmidt, Ingo; Kühmstedt, Peter; Notni, Gunther

    2015-12-23

    In this work we show the principle of optical 3D surface measurements based on the fringe projection technique for underwater applications. The challenges of underwater use of this technique are shown and discussed in comparison with the classical application. We describe an extended camera model which takes refraction effects into account as well as a proposal of an effective, low-effort calibration procedure for underwater optical stereo scanners. This calibration technique combines a classical air calibration based on the pinhole model with ray-based modeling and requires only a few underwater recordings of an object of known length and a planar surface. We demonstrate a new underwater 3D scanning device based on the fringe projection technique. It has a weight of about 10 kg and the maximal water depth for application of the scanner is 40 m. It covers an underwater measurement volume of 250 mm × 200 mm × 120 mm. The surface of the measurement objects is captured with a lateral resolution of 150 μm in a third of a second. Calibration evaluation results are presented and examples of first underwater measurements are given.

  7. Statistical multi-model climate projections of surface ocean waves in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jorge; Menendez, Melisa; Camus, Paula; Mendez, Fernando J.; Losada, Inigo J.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the impact of climate change on sea surface waves has received increasingly more attention by the climate community. Indeed, ocean waves reaching the coast play an important role in several processes concerning coastal communities, such as inundation and erosion. However, regional downscaling at the high spatial resolution necessary for coastal studies has received less attention. Here, we present a novel framework for regional wave climate projections and its application in the European region. Changes in the wave dynamics under different scenarios in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean are analyzed. The multi-model projection methodology is based on a statistical downscaling approach. The statistical relation between the predictor (atmospheric conditions) and the predictand (multivariate wave climate) is based on a weather type (WT) classification. This atmospheric classification is developed by applying the k-means clustering technique over historical offshore sea level pressure (SLP) fields. Each WT is linked to sea wave conditions from a wave hindcast. This link is developed by associating atmospheric conditions from reanalysis with multivariate local waves. This predictor-predictand relationship is applied to the daily SLP fields from global climate models (GCMs) in order to project future changes in regional wave conditions. The GCMs used in the multi-model projection are selected according to skill criteria. The application of this framework uses CMIP5-based wave climate projections in Europe. The low computational requirements of the statistical approach allow a large number of GCMs and climate change scenarios to be studied. Consistent with previous works on global wave climate projections, the estimated changes from the regional wave climate projections show a general decrease in wave heights and periods in the Atlantic Europe for the late twenty-first century. The regional projections, however, allow a more detailed

  8. An Orthogonal Projection Algorithm to Suppress Interference in High-Frequency Surface Wave Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zezong Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR has been widely applied in sea-state monitoring, and its performance is known to suffer from various unwanted interferences and clutters. Radio frequency interference (RFI from other radiating sources and ionospheric clutter dominate the various types of unwanted signals because the HF band is congested with many users and the ionosphere propagates interference from distant sources. In this paper, various orthogonal projection schemes are summarized, and three new schemes are proposed for interference cancellation. Simulations and field data recorded by experimental multi-frequency HFSWR from Wuhan University are used to evaluate the cancellation performances of these schemes with respect to both RFI and ionospheric clutter. The processing results may provide a guideline for identifying the appropriate orthogonal projection cancellation schemes in various HFSWR applications.

  9. Condensed listing of surface boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project through 31 December 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.R.; Aguilar, R.; Mercer, J.W.; Newman, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains a condensed listing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project surface boreholes drilled for the purpose of site selection and characterization through 31 December 1995. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the drilling activities, which were conducted primarily by Sandia National Laboratories. The listing provides physical attributes such as location (township, range, section, and state-plane coordinates), elevation, and total borehole depth, as well as the purpose for the borehole, drilling dates, and information about extracted cores. The report also presents the hole status (plugged, testing, monitoring, etc.) and includes salient findings and references. Maps with borehole locations and times-of-drilling charts are included

  10. 6430.1A Compliance Matrix for 241-SY-101 Surface Level Rise Remediation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ERHART, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) has recently exhibited a steady waste surface level growth. A path forward to mitigate the SY-101 surface level growth issue has been developed. The project has been directed to install the necessary equipment to transfer 380-570m 3 (100,000-150,000 gallons) of waste from SY-101 to SY-102 before the waste elevation reached the region of the tank where the transition from a double to a single shell tank occurs. The purpose of this document is to record the design attributes of the RAPID mitigation system which fulfill the requirements specified in DOE order 6430.1A as it relates to the 241-SY-101 RAPID Mitigation System

  11. MIT Project Apophis: Surface Evaulation & Tomography (SET) Mission Study for the April 2029 Earth Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binzel, R. P.; Earle, A. M.; Vanatta, M.; Miller, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    Nature is providing a once-per-thousand year opportunity to study the geophysical outcome induced on an unprecedentedly large (350 meter) asteroid making an extremely close passage by the Earth (inside the distance of geosynchronous satellites) on Friday April 13, 2029. The aircraft carrier-sized (estimated 20 million metric ton) asteroid is named Apophis. While many previous spacecraft missions have studied asteroids, none has ever had the opportunity to study "live" the outcome of planetary tidal forces on their shapes, spin states, surface geology, and internal structure. Beyond the science interest directly observing this planetary process, the Apophis encounter provides an invaluable opportunity to gain knowledge for any eventuality of a known asteroid found to be on a certain impact trajectory. MIT's Project Apophis [1] is our response to nature's generous opportunity by developing a detailed mission concept for sending a spacecraft to orbit Apophis with the objectives of surveying its surface and interior structure before, during, and after its 2029 near-Earth encounter. The Surface Evaluation & Tomography (SET) mission concept we present is designed toward accomplishing three key science objectives: (1) bulk physical characterization, (2) internal structure, and (3) long-term orbit tracking. For its first mission objective, SET will study Apophis' bulk properties, including: shape, size, mass, volume, bulk density, surface geology, and composition, rotation rate, and spin state. The second mission objective is to characterize Apophis' internal structure before and after the encounter to determine its strength and cohesion - including tidally induced changes. Finally, the third objective studies the process of thermal re-radiation and consequential Yarkovsky drift, whose results will improve orbit predictions for Apophis as well as other potentially hazardous asteroids. [1] https://eapsweb.mit.edu/mit-project-apophis

  12. Restoring tides to reduce methane emissions in impounded wetlands: A new and potent Blue Carbon climate change intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Kevin D.; Crooks, Stephen; Moseman-Valtierra, Serena; Tang, Jianwu

    2017-01-01

    Coastal wetlands are sites of rapid carbon (C) sequestration and contain large soil C stocks. Thus, there is increasing interest in those ecosystems as sites for anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission offset projects (sometimes referred to as “Blue Carbon”), through preservation of existing C stocks or creation of new wetlands to increase future sequestration. Here we show that in the globally-widespread occurrence of diked, impounded, drained and tidally-restricted salt marshes, substantial methane (CH4) and CO2 emission reductions can be achieved through restoration of disconnected saline tidal flows. Modeled climatic forcing indicates that tidal restoration to reduce emissions has a much greater impact per unit area than wetland creation or conservation to enhance sequestration. Given that GHG emissions in tidally-restricted, degraded wetlands are caused by human activity, they are anthropogenic emissions, and reducing them will have an effect on climate that is equivalent to reduced emission of an equal quantity of fossil fuel GHG. Thus, as a landuse-based climate change intervention, reducing CH4 emissions is an entirely distinct concept from biological C sequestration projects to enhance C storage in forest or wetland biomass or soil, and will not suffer from the non-permanence risk that stored C will be returned to the atmosphere.

  13. Restoring tides to reduce methane emissions in impounded wetlands: A new and potent Blue Carbon climate change intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Kevin D; Crooks, Stephen; Moseman-Valtierra, Serena; Tang, Jianwu

    2017-09-20

    Coastal wetlands are sites of rapid carbon (C) sequestration and contain large soil C stocks. Thus, there is increasing interest in those ecosystems as sites for anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission offset projects (sometimes referred to as "Blue Carbon"), through preservation of existing C stocks or creation of new wetlands to increase future sequestration. Here we show that in the globally-widespread occurrence of diked, impounded, drained and tidally-restricted salt marshes, substantial methane (CH 4 ) and CO 2 emission reductions can be achieved through restoration of disconnected saline tidal flows. Modeled climatic forcing indicates that tidal restoration to reduce emissions has a much greater impact per unit area than wetland creation or conservation to enhance sequestration. Given that GHG emissions in tidally-restricted, degraded wetlands are caused by human activity, they are anthropogenic emissions, and reducing them will have an effect on climate that is equivalent to reduced emission of an equal quantity of fossil fuel GHG. Thus, as a landuse-based climate change intervention, reducing CH 4 emissions is an entirely distinct concept from biological C sequestration projects to enhance C storage in forest or wetland biomass or soil, and will not suffer from the non-permanence risk that stored C will be returned to the atmosphere.

  14. Influence of vegetation and sewage sludge on sealing layer of fly ashes in post-treatment of mine tailings impoundments; Inverkan av vegetation och roetslam paa taetskikt av flygaska vid efterbehandling av sandmagasin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria; Neuschuetz, Clara (Inst. of Bothany, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)); Isaksson, Karl-Erik (Boliden Mineral AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    Mining industry produces 25 Mton mine tailings yearly that are deposited in impoundments in the nature. When this sand, containing sulphur rich minerals, reacts with oxygen and water it starts to weather and acidic metal rich water is formed. To prevent this, the sand can be covered with a sealing layer and a protective cover layer with vegetation. As sealing and cover materials fly ashes and sewage sludge can be used. The aim of this investigation was to find out: 1) how sealing layer of fly ashes with and without sewage sludge, and a cover with sewage sludge can be placed practically on mine tailings in a cold climate. 2) how such a cover should be constructed to minimize the risk of root penetration and leakage of nutrients and metals 3) which vegetation that is most suitable This was investigated in field- and greenhouse tests with a sealing layer of fly ash and/or sewage sludge with a cover layer of sewage sludge in which different plant species were established. The practical application was performed in 0.3-1 ha plots at a mine tailings impoundments at Boliden. The ability of plant roots to penetrate a sealing layer was investigated, as well as the effect of simulated root exudates on the penetration resistance in hardened ash. Leakage of nutrients and metals from cover layer of sewage sludge, in some cases with sealing layers beneath, was investigated in field and greenhouse lysimeters. Various plant species were compared on their ability to affect metal and nutrient leakage as well as root penetration and shattering of the hardened ashes. The project was a cooperation between Stockholm University and Boliden Mineral AB, and the field tests were performed at the impoundment Gillervattnet in Boliden and in Garpenberg. Cooperating were also Iggesund Paperboard, Skellefteaa Kraft, Stora Enso Fors, Umeaa Energi and Vattenfall, all producers of ashes that were used, as well as Stockholm Vatten AB, which produced the sewage sludge. The most important conclusions

  15. Impacts of the Three Gorges Project on Local Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z.; Liang, S.; Feng, L.

    2015-12-01

    Three Gorges Project (TGP) is the largest hydroelectric project in the world and has led to significant land cover changes in Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA). Since its construction the debates on its environmental and climatic impacts have never stopped, especially after the extreme drought and flood in Yangtze River Basin these years. TGP reached its final impounding water level in 2010. However, studies on systematically monitoring the long-term variations in surface and atmospheric parameters in TGRA are still lacking. In this study, three important surface parameters - surface albedo, land surface temperature (LST) and evapotranspiration (ET) and two climatic parameters - air temperature and precipitation were investigated from 2000 to 2013 by combining multiple remote sensing data and ground measurements. Results showed that along the reservoir albedo decreased significantly as a result of water impounding. Correspondingly, in the same region daytime LST decreased in spring and summer and nighttime LST increased in autumn and winter. In the western region of TGRA, albedo increased due to resettlement and LST also changed. The average ET increased by 20% in TGR but kept stable in the whole TGRA. In contrast to LST, air temperature showed less apparent spatial and temporal variability. Only in the region near the dam air temperature experienced a decrease at daytime and an increase at nighttime. Further analysis demonstrated precipitation revealed no apparent changes in TGRA and the precipitation anomaly in northwest of TGRA may not be connected with TGP. All of the findings provide a more substantial clues of local climate change caused by TGP.

  16. The Impact of Impoundment on Mercury Bioaccumulation in Fish Downstream from a Newly Constructed Reservoir, Wujiang River, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sixin; Zhou, Lianfeng; Chang, Jianbo; Yang, Zhi; Hu, Juxiang; Hongjun, Wang

    2017-11-01

    Mercury concentrations in fish were investigated downstream from a newly impounded subtropical reservoir in August 2008. After 6-7 months of reservoir impoundment, mean mercury concentration in fish from downstream is significantly increased by 1.9 times. Not only carnivorous fish but also benthic fish had significantly higher total mercury concentrations than others. No significant correlation was found between total mercury concentrations and body length or weight of 13 fish species. Compared with the pre-impoundment, total mercury in fish from downstream is significantly increased by reservoir impoundment, but the increased rate is lower than those in subarctic and temperate areas. Fish samples surpassed the Chinese hygienic standard for tolerances of mercury in foods increased by 4.3%. More attention should be given to fish mercury levels from downstream sites to prevent possible adverse effects on the health of local people.

  17. Aquatic impacts of an environmental disaster in a relatively pristine watershed: the breach of the Mount Polley Mine tailings impoundment, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Philip; Petticrew, Ellen; Albers, Sam

    2015-04-01

    On 4th August 2014, the tailings impoundment of the Mount Polley copper and gold mine in British Columbia failed. Material from the impoundment (surface area = 2.7 km2) flowed into nearby Polley Lake and Hazeltine Creek, before discharging into Quesnel Lake, a large (ca. 100 km long, >500 m deep), relatively pristine lake. Estimates suggest that approximately 25 Mm3 of tailings (water and solids), in addition to eroded soils and surficial materials from Hazeltine Creek, were delivered to Quesnel Lake, raising the lake by 7.7 cm. Much of this material was deposited at the bottom of Quesnel Lake but a large plume of fine-grained sediment (d50 of ca. 1 µm) moved both up-lake towards important salmon spawning areas and down-lake into Quesnel River, which in turn flows into the Fraser River. This movement of the sediment plume is controlled by the physical limnology of the lake, especially seiche events. Samples of lake water and sediment samples taken from the impacted area show elevated levels of metals and other elements, which may have important implications for the ecosystem in this watershed (>11,000 km2). This presentation describes the failure and presents preliminary findings of the aquatic impacts of this environmental disaster.

  18. Rock riprap design methods and their applicability to long-term protection of uranium mill tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.H.

    1982-08-01

    This report reviews the more accepted or recommended riprap design methods currently used to design rock riprap protection against soil erosion by flowing water. The basic theories used to develop the various methods are presented. The Riprap Design with Safety Factors Method is identified as the logical choice for uranium mill tailings impoundments. This method is compared to the other methods and its applicability to the protection requirements of tailings impoundments is discussed. Other design problems are identified and investigative studies recommended

  19. Geomorphological assessment of sites and impoundments for the long term containment of uranium mill tailings in the Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    East, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a program of current and future research into those geomorphological processes likely to affect the long term containment of uranium mill tailings in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory. Research is directed at three main areas: identification of geomorphic hazards at proposed impoundment sites; determination of erosion rates on impoundment slopes; and prediction of patterns of fluvial dispersal of released tailings. Each necessitates consideration of present and future geomorphic processes

  20. Effects of river impoundment on ecosystem services of large tropical rivers: embodied energy and market value of artisanal fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeinghaus, David J; Agostinho, Angelo A; Gomes, Luiz C; Pelicice, Fernando M; Okada, Edson K; Latini, João D; Kashiwaqui, Elaine A L; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2009-10-01

    Applying the ecosystem services concept to conservation initiatives or in managing ecosystem services requires understanding how environmental impacts affect the ecology of key species or functional groups providing the services. We examined effects of river impoundments, one of the leading threats to freshwater biodiversity, on an important ecosystem service provided by large tropical rivers (i.e., artisanal fisheries). The societal and economic importance of this ecosystem service in developing countries may provide leverage to advance conservation agendas where future impoundments are being considered. We assessed impoundment effects on the energetic costs of fisheries production (embodied energy) and commercial market value of the artisanal fishery of the Paraná River, Brazil, before and after formation of Itaipu Reservoir. High-value migratory species that dominated the fishery before the impoundment was built constituted a minor component of the contemporary fishery that is based heavily on reservoir-adapted introduced species. Cascading effects of river impoundment resulted in a mismatch between embodied energy and market value: energetic costs of fisheries production increased, whereas market value decreased. This was partially attributable to changes in species functional composition but also strongly linked to species identities that affected market value as a result of consumer preferences even when species were functionally similar. Similar trends are expected in other large tropical rivers following impoundment. In addition to identifying consequences of a common anthropogenic impact on an important ecosystem service, our assessment provides insight into the sustainability of fisheries production in tropical rivers and priorities for regional biodiversity conservation.

  1. A Test of the Serial Discontinuity Concept Using Pre- and Post-Impoundment Data: do Ecosystems Recover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, H.; Jackson, L.; Culp, J.

    2005-05-01

    Many rivers are influenced by human-made impoundments that alter natural habitat. Changes in habitat hold potential consequences for biotic community structure and ecosystem function. The serial discontinuity concept (SDC), however, predicts that riverine process and function will recover downstream from an impoundment via tributary inputs. Unfortunately, rivers rarely exist in the context assumed by the SDC. Often, watersheds include multiple impoundments and other flow-altering structures. We present preliminary data and future research goals to investigate the changes in riverine habitat and benthic community structure before and after impoundment over 400 km of the Oldman River, southern Alberta, Canada. Habitat characteristics and benthic invertebrate abundance and community structure prior to dam construction were tested against post-impoundment data. Results indicate that 15 years after impoundment, flow and sediment regimes have not recovered. There is a significant decline in discharge during high flow periods below the dam and a pattern of decreased sediment transport and increased retention below the dam. Initial results have serious implications to benthic invertebrates, many of which require cobble substrates for colonization. The preliminary results on habitat alteration below the Oldman Dam do not support the predictions of the SDC.

  2. The geo-environmental design of a coal refuse impoundment in Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripp, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The coal refuse impoundment discussed was one of the first permitted under new regulatory standards within the State of Illinois. The new standards go beyond the geotechnial stability of the structure and must address the groundwater quality of the area and the impact of the impoundment on the groundwater system. The geotechnial design of the coal refuse impoundment dam and associated structures had its own particular challenges such as: 1) the construction of the structure over mined workings; 2) the close proximity of seismically active fault zones; and 3) the embankment configuration being controlled by the material balance of the mine refuse. The implementation of the groundwater protection plan included: 1) incorporating the groundwater quality standards and sampling protocols of several state agencies while the standards were being drafted; 2) sampling of the potential sources of groundwater impact; 3) establishing background levels; and 4) establishing the groundwater class. An initial groundwater transport model was developed and used as the basis for recommending a groundwater monitoring design in place of constructing a soil or synthetic liner. 15 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Dose assessment of remedial action for uranium tailing impoundment of a nuclear factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xutong; Ma Ruwei; Guo Zede

    2000-01-01

    A large uranium tailing impoundment in China will be closure and remedial action have been planned. The remedial action will include shaping and covering the dam and beach in order to prevent the impoundment from damage and restrict spread of tailing sands and emission of radon. The author presents the analysis and estimation of the exposure to workers for remedial action and to public after the remedial action. To estimate the exposure to workers, the pathway of inhalation of radon, tailing sands in suspension and external γ exposure were taken into consideration. The exposure scenario is considered as probably maximum exposure to the workers who work on the tailing pile without any protection measures, the dose is 6.0 mSv/a. Two situation for the exposure to public after remedial action were considered: normal and abnormal condition. For the normal condition, inhalation of radon emitted from impoundment is only the pathway to public for the exposure, and individual dose for critical group of public is 0.053 mSv/a, collective dose for population within 80 km is 1.0 man·Sv/a. For the abnormal conditions, four scenarios were considered, i.e. dwelling on tailing pile, farming on tailing pile, living in a house built by contaminated materials and some temporal activities on the pile. The scenarios of dwellings is living in a house on the pile and drinking contaminated water. The maximum individual dose is 27 mSv/a

  4. Data Qualification Report: Precipitation and Surface Geology Data for Use on the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Wilson

    2000-01-01

    The unqualified data addressed in this qualification report have been cited in an Analysis Model Report (AMR) to support the Site Recommendation in determining the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository for high-level radioactive waste. The unqualified data include precipitation volumes and surface geology maps The precipitation data consist of daily precipitation volumes measured at Yucca Mountain. The surface geology data include identification of the types and surface expressions of geologic units and associated structural features such as faults. These data were directly used in AMR U0010, Simulation of Net Infiltration for Modern and Potential Future Climates, ANL-NBS-HS-000032 (Hevesi et al. 2000), to estimate net infiltration into Yucca Mountain. This report evaluates the unqualified data within the context of supporting studies of this type for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The purpose of this report is to identify data that can be cited as qualified for use in technical products to support the YMP Site Recommendation and that may also be used to support the License Application. The qualified data may either be retained in the original Data Tracking Number (DTN) or placed in new DTNs generated as a result of the evaluation. The appropriateness and limitations (if any) of the data with respect to intended use are addressed in this report. In accordance with Attachment 1 of procedure AP-3.15Q, Rev. 02, Managing Technical Product Inputs, it has been determined that the unqualified precipitation and surface geology data are not used in the direct calculation of Principal Factors for postclosure safety or disruptive events. References to tables, figures, and sections from Hevesi et al. (2000) are based on Rev. 00 of that document

  5. Pre- and post-impoundment nitrogen in the lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Dale W.; Wilkison, Donald H.; Niesen, Shelley L.

    2013-01-01

    Large water-sample sets collected from 1899 through 1902, 1907, and in the early 1950s allow comparisons of pre-impoundment and post-impoundment (1969 through 2008) nitrogen concentrations in the lower Missouri River. Although urban wastes were not large enough to detectably increase annual loads of total nitrogen at the beginning of the 20th century, carcass waste, stock-yard manure, and untreated human wastes measurably increased ammonia and organic-nitrogen concentrations during low flows. Average total-nitrogen concentrations in both periods were about 2.5 mg/l, but much of the particulate-organic nitrogen, which was the dominant form of nitrogen around 1900, has been replaced by nitrate. This change in speciation was caused by the nearly 80% decrease in suspended-sediment concentrations that occurred after impoundment, modern agriculture, drainage of riparian wetlands, and sewage treatment. Nevertheless, bioavailable nitrogen has not been low enough to limit primary production in the Missouri River since the beginning of the 20th century. Nitrate concentrations have increased more rapidly from 2000 through 2008 (5 to 12% per year), thus increasing bioavailable nitrogen delivered to the Mississippi River and affecting Gulf Coast hypoxia. The increase in nitrate concentrations with distance downstream is much greater during the post-impoundment period. If strategies to decrease total-nitrogen loads focus on particulate N, substantial decreases will be difficult because particulate nitrogen is now only 23% of total nitrogen in the Missouri River. A strategy aimed at decreasing particulates also could further exacerbate land loss along the Gulf of Mexico, which has been sediment starved since Missouri River impoundment. In contrast, strategies or benchmarks aimed at decreasing nitrate loads could substantially decrease nitrogen loadings because nitrates now constitute over half of the Missouri's nitrogen input to the Mississippi. Ongoing restoration and creation

  6. Assessing surface water availability considering human water use and projected climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Batool; AghaKouchak, Amir; Mousavi-Baygi, Mohammd; Moftakhari, Hamed; Anjileli, Hassan

    2017-04-01

    Climate variability along with anthropogenic activities alter the hydrological cycle and local water availability. The overarching goal of this presentation is to demonstrate the compounding interactions between human water use/withdrawals and climate change and variability. We focus on Karkheh River basin and Urmia basin, in western Iran, that have high level of human activity and water use, and suffer from low water productivity. The future of these basins and their growth relies on sustainable water resources and hence, requires a holistic, basin-wide management to cope with water scarcity challenges. In this study, we investigate changes in the hydrology of the basin including human-induced alterations of the system, during the past three decades. Then, we investigate the individual and combined effects of climate variability and human water withdrawals on surface water storage in the 21st century. We use bias-corrected historical simulations and future projections from ensemble mean of eleven General Circulation Models (GCMs) under two climate change scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The results show that, hydrology of the studied basins are significantly dominated by human activities over the baseline period (1976 - 2005). Results show that the increased anthropogenic water demand resulting from substantial socio-economic growth in the past three decades have put significant stress on water resources. We evaluate a number of future water demand scenarios and their interactions with future climate projections. Our results show that by the end of the 21st century, the compounding effects of increased irrigation water demand and precipitation variability may lead to severe local water scarcity in these basins. Our study highlights the necessity for understanding and considering the compounding effects of human water use and future climate projections. Such studies would be useful for improving water management and developing adaption plans in water scarce regions.

  7. Surface and subsurface cleanup protocol for radionuclides, Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA project processing site. Final [report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Surface and subsurface soil cleanup protocols for the Gunnison, Colorado, processing sits are summarized as follows: In accordance with EPA-promulgated land cleanup standards (40 CFR 192), in situ Ra-226 is to be cleaned up based on bulk concentrations not exceeding 5 and 15 pCi/g in 15-cm surface and subsurface depth increments, averaged over 100-m{sup 2} grid blocks, where the parent Ra-226 concentrations are greater than, or in secular equilibrium with, the Th-230 parent. A bulk interpretation of these EPA standards has been accepted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and while the concentration of the finer-sized soil fraction less than a No. 4 mesh sieve contains the higher concentration of radioactivity, the bulk approach in effect integrates the total sample radioactivity over the entire sample mass. In locations where Th-230 has differentially migrated in subsoil relative to Ra-226, a Th-230 cleanup protocol has been developed in accordance with Supplemental Standard provisions of 40 CFR 192 for NRC/Colorado Department of Health (CDH) approval for timely implementation. Detailed elements of the protocol are contained in Appendix A, Generic Protocol from Thorium-230 Cleanup/Verification at UMTRA Project Processing Sites. The cleanup of other radionuclides or nonradiological hazards that pose a significant threat to the public and the environment will be determined and implemented in accordance with pathway analysis to assess impacts and the implications of ALARA specified in 40 CFR 192 relative to supplemental standards.

  8. Surface and subsurface cleanup protocol for radionuclides, Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA project processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Surface and subsurface soil cleanup protocols for the Gunnison, Colorado, processing sits are summarized as follows: In accordance with EPA-promulgated land cleanup standards (40 CFR 192), in situ Ra-226 is to be cleaned up based on bulk concentrations not exceeding 5 and 15 pCi/g in 15-cm surface and subsurface depth increments, averaged over 100-m 2 grid blocks, where the parent Ra-226 concentrations are greater than, or in secular equilibrium with, the Th-230 parent. A bulk interpretation of these EPA standards has been accepted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and while the concentration of the finer-sized soil fraction less than a No. 4 mesh sieve contains the higher concentration of radioactivity, the bulk approach in effect integrates the total sample radioactivity over the entire sample mass. In locations where Th-230 has differentially migrated in subsoil relative to Ra-226, a Th-230 cleanup protocol has been developed in accordance with Supplemental Standard provisions of 40 CFR 192 for NRC/Colorado Department of Health (CDH) approval for timely implementation. Detailed elements of the protocol are contained in Appendix A, Generic Protocol from Thorium-230 Cleanup/Verification at UMTRA Project Processing Sites. The cleanup of other radionuclides or nonradiological hazards that pose a significant threat to the public and the environment will be determined and implemented in accordance with pathway analysis to assess impacts and the implications of ALARA specified in 40 CFR 192 relative to supplemental standards

  9. North American Ground Surface Temperature Histories: A Contribution to the PAGES2k North American Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareschal, J. C.; Jaume Santero, F.; Beltrami, H.

    2015-12-01

    Within the framework of the PAGES NorthAmerica2k project, three hundred and seventy three (373) North American temperature-depth profiles from boreholes deeper than 300 meters were analyzed for recent climate. To facilitate comparisons and examine the same time period, the profiles were truncated at 300 m. The ground surface temperature (GST) histories for the last 500 years were inverted from the subsurface temperature anomalies using singular value decomposition for a model of 10 temperature changes along time-intervals of increasing duration. The inversion retains four singular values and accounts for the data acquisition time difference. The reference surface temperature and geothermal gradient were estimated by linear regression to the deepest 100 meters with a 95% confidence interval. Additionally, a Monte-Carlo method was used to find the range of solutions within a maximum subsurface anomaly error determined by the root mean square between the model and the data. The GST history results for North America, given by the mean and 95% confidence interval, reveal in most cases, a warming up to 1°C - 2.5°C during the last 100-150 years.

  10. Sediment transport to and from small impoundments in northeast Kansas, March 2009 through September 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Guy M.; Lee, Casey J.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Water Office, investigated sediment transport to and from three small impoundments (average surface area of 0.1 to 0.8 square miles) in northeast Kansas during March 2009 through September 2011. Streamgages and continuous turbidity sensors were operated upstream and downstream from Atchison County, Banner Creek, and Centralia Lakes to study the effect of varied watershed characteristics and agricultural practices on sediment transport in small watersheds in northeast Kansas. Atchison County Lake is located in a predominantly agricultural basin of row crops, with wide riparian buffers along streams, a substantial amount of tile drainage, and numerous small impoundments (less than 0.05 square miles; hereafter referred to as “ponds”). Banner Creek Lake is a predominantly grassland basin with numerous small ponds located in the watershed, and wide riparian buffers along streams. Centralia Lake is a predominantly agricultural basin of row crops with few ponds, few riparian buffers along streams, and minimal tile drainage. Upstream from Atchison County, Banner Creek, and Centralia Lakes 24, 38, and 32 percent, respectively, of the total load was transported during less than 0.1 percent (approximately 0.9 days) of the time. Despite less streamflow in 2011, larger sediment loads during that year indicate that not all storm events transport the same amount of sediment; larger, extreme storms during the spring may transport much larger sediment loads in small Kansas watersheds. Annual sediment yields were 360, 400, and 970 tons per square mile per year at Atchison County, Banner, and Centralia Lake watersheds, respectively, which were less than estimated yields for this area of Kansas (between 2,000 and 5,000 tons per square mile per year). Although Centralia and Atchison County Lakes had similar percentages of agricultural land use, mean annual sediment yields upstream from Centralia Lake were about 2.7 times

  11. Interim reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation Project Near Surface Test Facility 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the development of the reclamation project for the Hanford Site Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF), its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation project is to return disturbed sites as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native species. Gable Mountain is dominated by two plant communities: a big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) -- Sandberg's bluegrass (Poa sandbergii) community and a stiff sagebrush (Artemisia rigida) -- Sandberg's bluegrass community. Disassembly of the site installations began on March 15, 1988, and the site was returned to original contours by December 12, 1988. Two separate revegetation methods were employed at the NSTF to meet differing site constraints. Vegetative cover and density in the revegetation plots were assessed in April 1989 and again in June 1989 and 1990. It is extremely unlikely that the sand pit, borrow pit, box cuts, generator pad area, or ventilation fan area will reach the reclamation objectives set for these areas within the next 50 years without further intervention. These areas currently support few living plants. Vegetation on revegetated native soils appears to be growing as expected. Vegetation growth on the main waterline is well below the objective. To date, no shrubs have grown on the area, growth of native grasses is well below the objective, and much of the area has been covered with the pit run material, which may not support adequate growth. Without further treatments, the areas without the pit run material will likely revert to a nearly pure cheatgrass condition. 44 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance: evaluating simulations and making projections with regional climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. L. Rae

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Four high-resolution regional climate models (RCMs have been set up for the area of Greenland, with the aim of providing future projections of Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB, and its contribution to sea level rise, with greater accuracy than is possible from coarser-resolution general circulation models (GCMs. This is the first time an intercomparison has been carried out of RCM results for Greenland climate and SMB. Output from RCM simulations for the recent past with the four RCMs is evaluated against available observations. The evaluation highlights the importance of using a detailed snow physics scheme, especially regarding the representations of albedo and meltwater refreezing. Simulations with three of the RCMs for the 21st century using SRES scenario A1B from two GCMs produce trends of between −5.5 and −1.1 Gt yr−2 in SMB (equivalent to +0.015 and +0.003 mm sea level equivalent yr−2, with trends of smaller magnitude for scenario E1, in which emissions are mitigated. Results from one of the RCMs whose present-day simulation is most realistic indicate that an annual mean near-surface air temperature increase over Greenland of ~ 2°C would be required for the mass loss to increase such that it exceeds accumulation, thereby causing the SMB to become negative, which has been suggested as a threshold beyond which the ice sheet would eventually be eliminated.

  13. Evaluating the Hydrologic Sensitivities of Three Land Surface Models to Bound Uncertainties in Runoff Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, T.; Nijssen, B.; Stickel, L.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrologic modeling is often used to assess the potential impacts of climate change on water availability and quality. A common approach in these studies is to calibrate the selected model(s) to reproduce historic stream flows prior to the application of future climate projections. This approach relies on the implicit assumptions that the sensitivities of these models to meteorological fluctuations will remain relatively constant under climate change and that these sensitivities are similar among models if all models are calibrated to the same historic record. However, even if the models are able to capture the historic variability in hydrological variables, differences in model structure and parameter estimation contribute to the uncertainties in projected runoff, which confounds the incorporation of these results into water resource management decision-making. A better understanding of the variability in hydrologic sensitivities between different models can aid in bounding this uncertainty. In this research, we characterized the hydrologic sensitivities of three watershed-scale land surface models through a case study of the Bull Run watershed in Northern Oregon. The Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM), Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), and Variable Infiltration Capacity model (VIC) were implemented and calibrated individually to historic streamflow using a common set of long-term, gridded forcings. In addition to analyzing model performances for a historic period, we quantified the temperature sensitivity (defined as change in runoff in response to change in temperature) and precipitation elasticity (defined as change in runoff in response to change in precipitation) of these three models via perturbation of the historic climate record using synthetic experiments. By comparing how these three models respond to changes in climate forcings, this research aims to test the assumption of constant and similar hydrologic sensitivities. Our

  14. Microseismic Monitoring and 3D Finite Element Analysis of the Right Bank Slope, Dagangshan Hydropower Station, during Reservoir Impounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingzong; Tang, Chun'an; Li, Lianchong; Lv, Pengfei; Liu, Hongyuan

    2017-07-01

    The right bank slope of Dagangshan hydropower station in China has complex geological conditions and is subjected to high in situ stress. Notably, microseismic activities in the right bank slope occurred during reservoir impounding. This paper describes the microseismic monitoring technology, and three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis is used to explore the microseismic activities and damage mechanisms in the right bank slope during reservoir impounding. Based on data obtained from microseismic monitoring, a progressive microseismic damage model is proposed and implemented for 3D finite element analysis. The safety factor for the right bank slope after reservoir impoundment obtained from the 3D finite element analysis, which included the effects of progressive microseismic damage, was 1.10, indicating that the slope is stable. The microseismic monitoring system is able to capture the slope disturbance during reservoir impounding in real time and is a powerful tool for qualitatively assessing changes in slope stability over time. The proposed progressive microseismic damage model adequately simulates the changes in the slope during the impoundment process and provides a valuable tool for evaluating slope stability.

  15. Cumulative impoundment evaporation in water resource management within the mid-Atlantic: A case study in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D.; Burgholzer, R.; Kleiner, J.; Brogan, C. O.; Julson, C.; Withers, E.

    2017-12-01

    Across the eastern United States, successful management of water resources to satisfy the competing demands for human consumption, industry, agriculture, and ecosystems requires both water quality and water quantity considerations. Over the last 2 decades, low streamflows during dry summers have increased scrutiny on water supply withdrawals. Within Virginia, a statewide hydrologic model provides quantitative assessments on impacts from proposed water withdrawals to downstream river flow. Currently, evaporative losses are only accounted for from the large reservoirs. In this study, we sought to provide a baseline estimate for the cumulative evaporation from impoundments across all of the major river basins in Virginia. Virginia provides an ideal case study for the competing water demands in the mid-Atlantic region given the unique tracking of water withdrawals throughout the river corridor. In the over 73,000 Virginia impoundments, the cumulative annual impoundment evaporation was 706 MGD, or 49% of the permitted water withdrawal. The largest reservoirs (>100 acres) represented over 400 MGD, and 136 MGD for the smaller impoundments (planning will require not only understanding evaporation within large reservoirs, but also the thousands of small impoundments across the landscape.

  16. 40 CFR 270.17 - Specific part B information requirements for surface impoundments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the leak detection system; (4) The construction quality assurance (CQA) plan if required under § 264... he will provide such a certification upon completion of construction in accordance with the plans and... under § 270.14(b)(7); (f) A description of how hazardous waste residues and contaminated materials will...

  17. 75 FR 64974 - Notice of Data Availability on Coal Combustion Residual Surface Impoundments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... contained in the company responses has been inserted into a database. All the fields and entries in this database have been extracted and posted in the docket as PDF and Microsoft Excel spreadsheets which enable...

  18. Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins are present in drinking water impoundments and groundwater wells in desert environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziefthimiou, Aspassia D; Metcalf, James S; Glover, W Broc; Banack, Sandra A; Dargham, Soha R; Richer, Renee A

    2016-05-01

    Desert environments and drylands experience a drastic scarcity of water resources. To alleviate dependence on freshwater for drinking water needs, countries have invested in infrastructure development of desalination plants. Collectively, the countries of the Arabian Gulf produce 45% of the world's desalinated water, which is stored in dams, mega-reservoirs and secondary house water tanks to secure drinking water beyond daily needs. Improper storage practices of drinking water in impoundments concomitant with increased temperatures and light penetration may promote the growth of cyanobacteria and accumulation of cyanotoxins. To shed light on this previously unexplored research area in desert environments, we examined drinking and irrigation water of urban and rural environments to determine whether cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins are present, and what are the storage and transportation practices as well as the environmental parameters that best predict their presence. Cyanobacteria were present in 80% of the urban and 33% of the rural water impoundments. Neurotoxins BMAA, DAB and anatoxin-a(S) were not detected in any of the water samples, although they have been found to accumulate in the desert soils, which suggests a bioaccumulation potential if they are leached into the aquifer. A toxic BMAA isomer, AEG, was found in 91.7% of rural but none of the urban water samples and correlated with water-truck transportation, light exposure and chloride ions. The hepatotoxic cyanotoxin microcystin-LR was present in the majority of all sampled impoundments, surpassing the WHO provisional guideline of 1 μg/l in 30% of the urban water tanks. Finally, we discuss possible management strategies to improve storage and transportation practices in order to minimize exposure to cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins, and actions to promote sustainable use of limited water resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationships among catch, angler catisfaction, and fish assemblage characteristics of an urban small impoundment fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivasauskas, Tomas J.; Xiong, Wilson N.; Engman, Augustin C.; Fischer, Jesse R.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Rundle, Kirk R.

    2017-01-01

    Urban fisheries provide unique angling opportunities for people from traditionally underrepresented demographics. Lake Raleigh is a 38-ha impoundment located on the North Carolina State University campus in Raleigh. Like many urban fisheries, little is known about angler use and satisfaction or how angling catch rate is related to fish availability in Lake Raleigh. We characterized the recreational fishery and fish assemblage with concurrent creel and boat electrofishing surveys over the course of one year. In total, 245 anglers were interviewed on 68 survey days. On average, anglers spent 1.7 h fishing per trip and caught 0.385 fish h –1. A large proportion of anglers (43.9%) targeted multiple species, whereas 36.5% targeted largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), 10.0% targeted panfish (i.e., sunfishes [Lepomis spp.] and crappies [Pomoxis spp.]), and 9.6% targeted catfish (Ameiurus spp. and Ictalurus spp.). Most anglers (69.4%) were satisfied with their experience, and overall satisfaction was unrelated to catch rate. Pulsed-DC boat electrofishing was conducted on 25 dates, and 617 fish were sampled. Angler catch rate was unrelated to electrofishing catch rate, implying that anglers' catch rate was independent of fish density or availability. Our results demonstrate that even minimally managed urban fisheries can provide high angler satisfaction, with limited dedication of management resources. Relationships Among Catch, Angler Satisfaction, and Fish Assemblage Characteristics of an Urban Small Impoundment Fishery (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/316636550_Relationships_Among_Catch_Angler_Satisfaction_and_Fish_Assemblage_Characteristics_of_an_Urban_Small_Impoundment_Fishery [accessed Aug 11, 2017].

  20. Project and construction of a spectrometer for alpha particles using surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terini, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The project, construction, tests and some applications of a system for alpha and beta spectrometry, using surface barrier detector are described. The device includes a solid state detector ORTEC-Series F coupled to a system for amplifying the charges produced by passage of an ionizing particle through the detector. The amplifying system is composed by a charge sensitive pre-amplifier, which employs an operational amplifier CA 3140, and a low noise linear amplifier, which is based on the operational amplifiers CA 3140 and LM 301. The pre-amplifier stage input impedance is on the order of TΩ and produces output pulses which heights are proportional to total charge produced by passage of particle through the detector sensitive volume. The main advantage to use charge sensitive system lies in obtention of independent pulse heights of the distributed capacity of connecting cable between the detector and the pre-amplifier. The total system amplification ca reach a maximum of 50.000 in the linear region. Pulses are analysed in a multichannel system ORTEC, model 6240. The amplifier system is easily constructed and low cost using components available in the national market, and it can be employed with ionization chambers, proportional counters, scitillation counters and semiconductor detectors. The results of spectrometer application for alpha spectrometry of AM 241 source were compared to systems made with imported stages. (Author) [pt

  1. TanDEM-X the Earth surface observation project from space level - basis and mission status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Wiśniowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available TanDEM-X is DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt the Earth surface observation project using high-resolution SAR interferometry. It opens a new era in space borne radar remote sensing. The system is based on two satellites: TerraSAR-X (TSX and TanDEM-X (TDX flying on the very close, strictly controlled orbits. This paper gives an overview of the radar technology and overview of the TanDEM-X mission concept which is based on several innovative technologies. The primary objective of the mission is to deliver a global digital elevation model (DEM with an unprecedented accuracy, which is equal to or surpass the HRTI-3 specifications (12 m posting, relative height accuracy ±2 m for slope < 20% and ±4 m for slope > 20% [8]. Beyond that, TanDEM-X provides a highly reconfigurable platform for the demonstration of new radar imaging techniques and applications.[b]Keywords[/b]: remote sensing, Bistatic SAR, digital elevation model (DEM, Helix formation, SAR interferomery, HRTI-3, synchronization

  2. Off-site radiation exposure review project: computer-aided surface interpolation and graphical display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, T.A. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    This report presents the implementation of an iterative procedure that solves the following bivariate interpolation problem: Given N distinct points in the plane (x/sub i/, y/sub i/) and N real numbers Z/sub i/, construct a function F(x,y) that satisfies F(x/sub i/, y/sub i/) = Z/sub i/, for i = 1, ..., N. This problem can be interpreted as fitting a surface through N points in three dimensional space. The application of primary concern to the Offsite Radiation Exposure Review Project is the characterization of the radionuclide activity resulting from nuclear tests. Samples of activity were measured at various locations. The location of the sample point is represented by (x/sub i/, y/sub i/), and the magnitude of the reading is represented by Z/sub i/. The method presented in this report is constructed to be efficient on large data sets, stable on the large variations of the Z/sub i/ magnitudes, and capable of smoothly filling in areas that are void of data. This globally defined icode was initiateminednitial shock but to two later eriological invaders are Staphylococcus albus, Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus e to the same general semiclassical treatment

  3. Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of a neutral, low-sulfide/high-carbonate tailings impoundment, Markušovce, eastern Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Edgar; Petrák, Marián; Tóth, Roman; Lalinská-Voleková, Bronislava; Jurkovič, L'ubomír; Kučerová, Gabriela; Radková, Anežka; Sottník, Peter; Vozár, Jaroslav

    2013-11-01

    mineral assemblage and their occurrence follows the order: chalcopyrite > pyrite > tetrahedrite>arsenopyrite. The mineralogical composition of the tailings corresponds well to the primary mineralization mined. The neutralization capacity of the tailings is high, as confirmed by the values of neutralization potential to acid generation potential ratio, ranging from 6.7 to 63.9, and neutral to slightly alkaline pH of the tailings (paste pH 7.16-8.12) and the waters (pH 7.00-8.52). This is explained by abundant occurrence of carbonate minerals in the tailings, which readily neutralize the acidity generated by sulfide oxidation. The total solid-phase concentrations of metal(loid)s decrease as Cu>Sb>Hg>As and reflect the proportions of sulfides present in the tailings. Sulfide oxidation generally extends to a depth of 2 m. μ-XRD and EMPA were used to study secondary products developed on the surface of sulfide minerals and within the tailings. The main secondary minerals identified are goethite and X-ray amorphous Fe oxyhydroxides and their occurrence decreases with increasing tailings depth. Secondary Fe phases are found as mineral coatings or individual grains and retain relatively high amounts of metal(loid)s (up to 57.6 wt% Cu, 1.60 wt% Hg, 23.8 wt% As, and 2.37 wt% Sb). Based on batch leaching tests and lysimeter results, the mobility of potentially toxic elements in the tailings is low. The limited mobility of metals and metalloids is due to their retention by Fe oxyhydroxides and low solubilities of metal(loid)-bearing sulfides. The observations are consistent with PHREEQC calculations, which predict the precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxides as the main solubility-controlling mineral phases for As, Cu, Hg, and Sb. Waters discharging from tailings impoundment are characterized by a neutral to slightly alkaline pH (7.52-7.96) and low concentrations of dissolved metal(loid)s (<5-7.0 μg/L Cu, <0.1-0.3 μg/L Hg, 5.0-16 μg/L As, and 5.0-43 μg/L Sb). Primary factors

  4. Impoundment of the Zipingpu reservoir and triggering of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei; Masterlark, Timothy; Shen, Zheng-Kang; Ronchin, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Impoundment of the Zipingpu reservoir (ZR), China, began in September 2005 and was followed 2.7 years later by the 2008 M w 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake (WE) rupturing the Longmen Shan Fault (LSF), with its epicenter ~12 km away from the ZR. Based on the poroelastic theory, we employ three-dimensional finite element models to simulate the evolution of stress and pore pressure due to reservoir impoundment, and its effect on the Coulomb failure stress on the LSF. The results indicate that the reservoir impoundment formed a pore pressure front that slowly propagated through the crust with fluid diffusion. The reservoir loading induced either moderate or no increase of the Coulomb failure stress at the hypocenter prior to the WE. The Coulomb failure stress, however, grew ~9.3-69.1 kPa in the depth range of 1-8 km on the LSF, which may have advanced tectonic loading of the fault system by ~60-450 years. Due to uncertainties of fault geometry and hypocenter location of the WE, it is inconclusive whether impoundment of the ZR directly triggered the WE. However, a small event at the hypocenter could have triggered large rupture elsewhere on fault, where the asperities were weakened by the ZR. The microseismicity around the ZR also showed an expanding pattern from the ZR since its impoundment, likely associated with diffusion of a positive pore pressure pulse. These results suggest a poroelastic triggering effect (even if indirectly) of the WE due to the impoundment of the ZR.

  5. An Object-Based Machine Learning Classification Procedure for Mapping Impoundments in Brazil's Amazon-Cerrado Agricultural Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvik, K.; Macedo, M.; Graesser, J.; Lathuilliere, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Large-scale agriculture and cattle ranching in Brazil has driving the creation of tens of thousands of small stream impoundments to provide water for crops and livestock. These impoundments are a source of methane emissions and have significant impacts on stream temperature, connectivity, and water use over a large region. Due to their large numbers and small size, they are difficult to map using conventional methods. Here, we present a two-stage object-based supervised classification methodology for identifying man-made impoundments in Brazil. First, in Google Earth Engine pixels are classified as water or non-water using satellite data and HydroSHEDS products as predictors. Second, using Python's scikit-learn and scikit-image modules the water objects are classified as man-made or natural based on a variety of shape and spectral properties. Both classifications are performed by a random forest classifier. Training data is acquired by visually identifying impoundments and natural water bodies using high resolution satellite imagery from Google Earth.This methodology was applied to the state of Mato Grosso using a cloud-free mosaic of Sentinel 1 (10m resolution) radar and Sentinel 2 (10-20m) multispectral data acquired during the 2016 dry season. Independent test accuracy was estimated at 95% for the first stage and 93% for the second. We identified 54,294 man-made impoundments in Mato Grosso in 2016. The methodology is generalizable to other high resolution satellite data and has been tested on Landsat 5 and 8 imagery. Applying the same approach to Landsat 8 images (30 m), we identified 35,707 impoundments in the 2015 dry season. The difference in number is likely because the coarser-scale imagery fails to detect small (< 900 m2) objects. On-going work will apply this approach to satellite time series for the entire Amazon-Cerrado frontier, allowing us to track changes in the number, size, and distribution of man-made impoundments. Automated impoundment mapping

  6. Usefulness of 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projection FDG PET images for the diagnosis of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jahae; Cho, Sang-Geon; Song, Minchul; Kang, Sae-Ryung; Kwon, Seong Young; Choi, Kang-Ho; Choi, Seong-Min; Kim, Byeong-Chae; Song, Ho-Chun

    2016-12-01

    To compare diagnostic performance and confidence of a standard visual reading and combined 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) results to discriminate between Alzheimer disease (AD)/mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD).[F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET brain images were obtained from 120 patients (64 AD/MCI, 38 DLB, and 18 FTD) who were clinically confirmed over 2 years follow-up. Three nuclear medicine physicians performed the diagnosis and rated diagnostic confidence twice; once by standard visual methods, and once by adding of 3D-SSP. Diagnostic performance and confidence were compared between the 2 methods.3D-SSP showed higher sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive, and negative predictive values to discriminate different types of dementia compared with the visual method alone, except for AD/MCI specificity and FTD sensitivity. Correction of misdiagnosis after adding 3D-SSP images was greatest for AD/MCI (56%), followed by DLB (13%) and FTD (11%). Diagnostic confidence also increased in DLB (visual: 3.2; 3D-SSP: 4.1; P visual: 3.1; 3D-SSP: 3.8; P = 0.002) and FTD (visual: 3.5; 3D-SSP: 4.2; P = 0.022). Overall, 154/360 (43%) cases had a corrected misdiagnosis or improved diagnostic confidence for the correct diagnosis.The addition of 3D-SSP images to visual analysis helped to discriminate different types of dementia in FDG PET scans, by correcting misdiagnoses and enhancing diagnostic confidence in the correct diagnosis. Improvement of diagnostic accuracy and confidence by 3D-SSP images might help to determine the cause of dementia and appropriate treatment.

  7. Horse impoundments under Control of Horses legislation in the Munster region of Ireland: factors affecting euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane, M; O'Sullivan, E; Collins, D M; Byrne, A W; More, S J

    2015-01-24

    Recently, considerable international attention has been paid to the problem of unwanted horses. In Ireland, stray horses, particularly in urban areas, are a further problem. The Control of Horses Act 1996 was enacted in response to an ongoing problem of uncontrolled horses in public places. As yet, no research work has been conducted focusing on stray horses in Ireland. This paper describes horses impounded under the Act in the Munster region of Ireland during 2005-2012 and the factors influencing decisions regarding their disposal. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate factors influencing the probability that a horse was euthanised during impoundment. In total, 3625 seizure events were recorded, most towards the end of the study period. Predictors for euthanasia during 2010-2012 included seizure location, sex, age, colour, body condition score and year. This study highlights the problem of stray horses in Ireland, particularly in urban areas. There is a need for rigorous enforcement of newly enacted horse identification legislation, allowing a fully integrated traceability system. More is required to manage the long-established societal problems of stray horses in urban settings, with a uniform approach by all Local Authorities being long overdue. British Veterinary Association.

  8. Microcrustaceans (Branchipoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBiase, Adrienne E; Taylor, Barbara E

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  9. Use of special oedometer tests for the remediation of large uranium mill tailings impoundments at Wismut, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnekow, U.; Paul, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the use of recently developed special oedometer tests for designing the remediation of large uranium tailings ponds at WISMUT, Germany. Uranium ore mining and milling in eastern Germany by the former Soviet-German WISMUT company lasted from 1946 to 1990. Wastes from the hydrometallurgical uranium extraction processes were discharged into large tailings impoundments covering a total area of 5.5 km 2 and containing about 150 x 10 6 m 3 of uranium mill tailings. Tailings pond remediation is ongoing by in-place decommissioning with dewatering by technical means. Geotechnical properties and the most suitable so-called non-linear finite strain consolidation behaviour of fine uranium mill tailings are described. Decommissioning techniques comprise, among others, interim covering of under consolidated fine tailings, contouring of tailings surfaces and final covering. Contouring, in particular, has a huge potential for optimization in terms of cost reduction. For contouring total settlement portions, the spatial distribution of differential settlement portions and the time-dependent settlement rates, especially of the cohesive fine uranium mill tailings are of critical importance. A new special oedometer KD 314 S has been developed to generate all the input data needed to derive the fundamental geotechnical relationships of void ratio vs. effective stress and of permeability coefficient vs. void ratio for consolidation calculations. Since December 1999 the new special oedometer KD 314 S has been working successfully on fine uranium mill tailings from both acid and from soda alkaline milling. Results coincide with non-linear finite strain consolidation theory. The geotechnical functions derived were used as input parameters for consolidation modelling. An example of the consolidation modelling on Helmsdorf tailings pond is presented. (author)

  10. Adaptation response surfaces from an ensemble of wheat projections under climate change in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Ferrise, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    preliminary ARSs show some adaptation options allow recover up to ca. 2000 kg/ha. Compared to the historical yields recorded at Lleida province (2550 kg/ha in 1981-2010) our results indicate that adaptation is feasible and may help to reduce detrimental effects of CC. Our analysis evaluates if the explored adaptations fulfill the biophysical requirements to become a practical adaptive solution. This study exemplifies how adaptation options and their impacts can be analyzed, evaluated and communicated in a context of high regional uncertainty for current and future conditions and for short to long-term perspective. This work was funded by MACSUR project within FACCE-JPI. References Abeledo, L.G., R. Savin and G.A. Slafer (2008). European Journal of Agronomy 28:541-550. Cartelle, J., A. Pedró, R. Savin, G.A. Slafer (2006) European Journal of Agronomy 25:365-371. Pirttioja, N., T. Carter, S. Fronzek, M. Bindi, H. Hoffmann, T. Palosuo, M. Ruiz-Ramos, F. Tao, M. Acutis, S. Asseng, P. Baranowski, B. Basso, P. Bodin, S. Buis, D. Cammarano, P. Deligios, M.-F. Destain, B. Dumont, R. Ewert, R. Ferrise, L. François, T. Gaiser, P. Hlavinka, I. Jacquemin, K.C. Kersebaum, C. Kollas, J. Krzyszczak, I.J. Lorite, J. Minet, M.I. Minguez, M. Montesino, M. Moriondo, C. Müller, C. Nendel, I. Öztürk, A. Perego, A. Rodríguez, A.C. Ruane, F. Ruget, M. Sanna, M.A. Semenov, C. Slawinski, P. Stratonovitch, I. Supit, K. Waha, E. Wang, L. Wu, Z. Zhao, and R.P. Rötter, 2015: A crop model ensemble analysis of temperature and precipitation effects on wheat yield across a European transect using impact response surfaces. Clim. Res., 65, 87-105, doi:10.3354/cr01322. IRS2 TEAM: Alfredo Rodríguez(1), Ignacio J. Lorite(3), Fulu Tao(4), Nina Pirttioja(5), Stefan Fronzek(5), Taru Palosuo(4), Timothy R. Carter(5), Marco Bindi(2), Jukka G Höhn(4), Kurt Christian Kersebaum(6), Miroslav Trnka(7,8), Holger Hoffmann(9), Piotr Baranowski(10), Samuel Buis(11), Davide Cammarano(12), Yi Chen(13,4), Paola Deligios

  11. Fission Surface Power Systems (FSPS) Project Final Report for the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP): Fission Surface Power, Transition Face to Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palac, Donald T.

    2011-01-01

    The Fission Surface Power Systems Project became part of the ETDP on October 1, 2008. Its goal was to demonstrate fission power system technology readiness in an operationally relevant environment, while providing data on fission system characteristics pertinent to the use of a fission power system on planetary surfaces. During fiscal years 08 to 10, the FSPS project activities were dominated by hardware demonstrations of component technologies, to verify their readiness for inclusion in the fission surface power system. These Pathfinders demonstrated multi-kWe Stirling power conversion operating with heat delivered via liquid metal NaK, composite Ti/H2O heat pipe radiator panel operations at 400 K input water temperature, no-moving-part electromagnetic liquid metal pump operation with NaK at flight-like temperatures, and subscale performance of an electric resistance reactor simulator capable of reproducing characteristics of a nuclear reactor for the purpose of system-level testing, and a longer list of component technologies included in the attached report. Based on the successful conclusion of Pathfinder testing, work began in 2010 on design and development of the Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU), a full-scale 1/4 power system-level non-nuclear assembly of a reactor simulator, power conversion, heat rejection, instrumentation and controls, and power management and distribution. The TDU will be developed and fabricated during fiscal years 11 and 12, culminating in initial testing with water cooling replacing the heat rejection system in 2012, and complete testing of the full TDU by the end of 2014. Due to its importance for Mars exploration, potential applicability to missions preceding Mars missions, and readiness for an early system-level demonstration, the Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration program is currently planning to continue the project as the Fission Power Systems project, including emphasis on the TDU completion and testing.

  12. Safety Assessment Methodologies and Their Application in Development of Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities--ASAM Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batandjieva, B.; Metcalf, P.

    2003-01-01

    Safety of near surface disposal facilities is a primary focus and objective of stakeholders involved in radioactive waste management of low and intermediate level waste and safety assessment is an important tool contributing to the evaluation and demonstration of the overall safety of these facilities. It plays significant role in different stages of development of these facilities (site characterization, design, operation, closure) and especially for those facilities for which safety assessment has not been performed or safety has not been demonstrated yet and the future has not been decided. Safety assessments also create the basis for the safety arguments presented to nuclear regulators, public and other interested parties in respect of the safety of existing facilities, the measures to upgrade existing facilities and development of new facilities. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has initiated a number of research coordinated projects in the field of development and improvement of approaches to safety assessment and methodologies for safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities, such as NSARS (Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Safety Assessment Reliability Study) and ISAM (Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities) projects. These projects were very successful and showed that there is a need to promote the consistent application of the safety assessment methodologies and to explore approaches to regulatory review of safety assessments and safety cases in order to make safety related decisions. These objectives have been the basis of the IAEA follow up coordinated research project--ASAM (Application of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities), which will commence in November 2002 and continue for a period of three years

  13. The Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber 4Shooter directional dark matter detector: Calibration in a surface laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battat, James B.R.; Deaconu, Cosmin; Druitt, Gabriela; Eggleston, Richard; Fisher, Peter; Giampa, Pietro; Gregoric, Vincent; Henderson, Shawn; Jaegle, Igal; Lawhorn, Jay; Lopez, Jeremy P.; Monroe, Jocelyn; Recine, Kristen A.; Strandberg, Adam; Tomita, Hidefumi; Vahsen, Sven; Wellenstein, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    The 4Shooter is a prototype dark matter detector built by the Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber (DMTPC) collaboration. The aim of the collaboration is to observe dark matter with directional sensitivity by measuring the recoil directions of nuclei struck by dark matter particles. The 4Shooter is a single time projection chamber containing CF 4 gas, with both optical (CCD and photomultiplier tube) and charge readout. This paper describes the 4Shooter and presents results from the commissioning of the detector in a surface laboratory

  14. Interrelationships between fish tissue mercury concentrations and water quality for South Dakota natural lakes and impoundments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipps, Steven R.; Stetler, Larry; Stone, James J.; McCutcheon, Cindy M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether water quality parameters commonly associated with primary productivity may be used to predict the susceptibility of a specific water body to exceed proposed fish consumption advisory limitation of 0.3 mg kg−1. South Dakota currently has nine lakes and impoundments that exceed fish tissue mercury advisory limits of 1.0 mg kg−1 total mercury, far exceeding US Environmental Protection Agency and Food and Drug Administration 0.3 mg kg−1 consumption criteria. Previous studies suggest that increased aquatic productivity may mitigate the effects of biological production and subsequent uptake of methyl mercury through bio-dilution; however, it is uncertain whether these trends may exist within highly alkaline and highly productive aquatic conditions common to South Dakota lakes and impoundments. Water quality parameters and fish tissue mercury data for northern pike and walleye were collected and assessed using existing South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources and Game Fish and Parks data. The data was initially screened using both parametric linear regression and non-parametric Mann–Whitney rank sum comparisons and further assessed using binary logistic regression and stepwise logistic regression methodology. Three separate phosphorus measurements (total, total dissolved, and Trophic State Index) and pH were determined to significantly correlate with increased mercury concentrations for the northern pike-in-impoundments model. However, phosphorus surprisingly was not a strong predictor for the remaining scenarios modeled. For the northern pike-in-natural lakes models, alkalinity was the most significant water quality parameter predicting increased mercury concentrations. Mercury concentrations for the walleye-in-natural lakes models were further influenced by pH and alkalinity. The water quality and fish tissue mercury interrelationships determined within this study suggest aquatic

  15. Deburring and surface finishing: The past ten years and projections for the next ten years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1990-09-01

    The 1970s were a decade of significant growth in deburring and surface finishing. In the 1980s progress was made in robotic finishing, burr formation models, surface finish measurement, new processes, equipment and tooling. The centers of burr and surface related research changed. The decade of the 1990s will bring greater competition, environmental restrictions, more processes, more automation, and better characterization and simulation of processes.

  16. Changes in Surface Wind Speed over North America from CMIP5 Model Projections and Implications for Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujay Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The centennial trends in the surface wind speed over North America are deduced from global climate model simulations in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project—Phase 5 (CMIP5 archive. Using the 21st century simulations under the RCP 8.5 scenario of greenhouse gas emissions, 5–10 percent increases per century in the 10 m wind speed are found over Central and East-Central United States, the Californian Coast, and the South and East Coasts of the USA in winter. In summer, climate models projected decreases in the wind speed ranging from 5 to 10 percent per century over the same coastal regions. These projected changes in the surface wind speed are moderate and imply that the current estimate of wind power potential for North America based on present-day climatology will not be significantly changed by the greenhouse gas forcing in the coming decades.

  17. [Comparison of trophic status analysis of the Daning River within the Three Gorges Reservoir before and after experimental impoundment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Lei; Zheng, Bing-Hui; Liu, Lu-San; Wang, Li-Jing; Wu, Guang-Ying

    2012-10-01

    We evaluated 4-year data set to assess the trophic state and limiting factors of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) during the experimental impounding period (September 2005 to September 2007) and the normal operating period (September 2008 to September 2010). The results indicated that there had been appeared new characteristics in spatial and temporal distribution of trophic state indices after impoundment. The trophic state indices (TSI(TP)) showed increased trend after the TGR impoundment during the study area, but TSI(TN) and TSI(SD) had no significant changes after the TGR impoundment. The values of TSI(CHL) showed increased trend after the TGR impoundment in S1, and the values of TSI(CHL) did not show obvious changes in S2, S3 and S4 after the TGR impoundment. The values of TSI(TN), TSI(TP) and TSI(SD) show similar spatial variances with the highest value in S4, followed in a descending order by S3, S2 and S1. TSI(CHL) in the S2 and S3 were higher than that in S1 and S4. According to the characteristics of water level, the operational period of the TGR classified into following four stages: stage I (pre-November-April), stage II (May-July), stage III (July-September) and stage IV (September-November). The values of TSI(TN) and TSI(TP) in the Daning River and the TGR mainstream showed similar seasonal variances with the highest value in the stage II and III, followed in a descending order by stage I and IV. The values of TSI(CHL) varied substantially among the four stages, with the highest value in stage III, followed by stage II, IV and I. The trophic state indices differences were getting smaller between the four stages after the TGR impoundment. Using Carlson's two-dimensional approach, deviations of the TSI(S) indicated that factors other than phosphorous and nitrogen limited algal growth and that nonalgal particles affected light attenuation. These findings were further supported by the significant correlation among the values of TSI and hydrological

  18. AeroCom INSITU Project: Comparison of Aerosol Optical Properties from In-situ Surface Measurements and Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeisser, L.; Andrews, E.; Schulz, M.; Fiebig, M.; Zhang, K.; Randles, C. A.; Myhre, G.; Chin, M.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Krol, M. C.; Bian, H.; Skeie, R. B.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Kokkola, H.; Laakso, A.; Ghan, S.; Easter, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    AeroCom, an open international collaboration of scientists seeking to improve global aerosol models, recently initiated a project comparing model output to in-situ, surface-based measurements of aerosol optical properties. The model/measurement comparison project, called INSITU, aims to evaluate the performance of a suite of AeroCom aerosol models with site-specific observational data in order to inform iterative improvements to model aerosol modules. Surface in-situ data have the unique property of being traceable to physical standards, which is a big asset in accomplishing the overarching goal of bettering the accuracy of aerosol processes and predicative capability of global climate models. The INSITU project looks at how well models reproduce aerosol climatologies on a variety of time scales, aerosol characteristics and behaviors (e.g., aerosol persistence and the systematic relationships between aerosol optical properties), and aerosol trends. Though INSITU is a multi-year endeavor, preliminary phases of the analysis, using GOCART and other models participating in this AeroCom project, show substantial model biases in absorption and scattering coefficients compared to surface measurements, though the sign and magnitude of the bias varies with location and optical property. Spatial patterns in the biases highlight model weaknesses, e.g., the inability of models to properly simulate aerosol characteristics at sites with complex topography (see Figure 1). Additionally, differences in modeled and measured systematic variability of aerosol optical properties suggest that some models are not accurately capturing specific aerosol co-dependencies, for example, the tendency of in-situ surface single scattering albedo to decrease with decreasing aerosol extinction coefficient. This study elucidates specific problems with current aerosol models and suggests additional model runs and perturbations that could further evaluate the discrepancies between measured and modeled

  19. Changes in Soil Dissolved Organic Carbon Affect Reconstructed History and Projected Future Trends in Surface Water Acidification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hruška, Jakub; Krám, Pavel; Moldan, Filip; Oulehle, Filip; Evans, C. D.; Wright, R. F.; Cosby, B. J.; Kopáček, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 225, č. 7 (2014), s. 2015 ISSN 0049-6979 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : acidification * surface waters * soils * dissolved organic carbon * magic model * preindustrial water chemistry Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; DA - Hydrology ; Limnology (BC-A) Impact factor: 1.554, year: 2014

  20. Geomorphological and botanical change on the Outer Slave River Delta, NWT, before and after impoundment of the Peace River

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Michael C.; Hill, R. Brad; Stone, Micheal A.; Ormson, Ron

    1997-10-01

    This paper examines geomorphological and botanical changes on the outer low elevation portion of the Slave River Delta prior to and after impoundment of the Peace River at Hudson's Hope, British Columbia. The Slave River Delta deposits are approximately 8300 km2, about 5% (400 km2) is defined as the active delta which progrades into Great Slave Lake through an active system of distributaries. This active portion of the delta is the area studied.The Peace River provides approximately 65% of the annual flow of the Slave River. Alteration of the natural flow regime and suspended sediment load of the Slave River has resulted from the upstream impoundment. Calculations indicate that the annual suspended sediment load in the Slave River has decreased by 33%. Using aerial photographs of the Slave Delta taken in 1946 and 1966, prior to damming the Peace River, geomorphological change and the spatial changes in plant assemblages have been recorded using GIS software. Aerial photographs taken in 1977 and 1994 were used in similar fashion to document geomorphological and botanical change and rates of change after impoundment. The Outer Delta is most susceptible to hydrological and suspended sediment changes in the river system. As such it is shown that geomorphological development in these Outer Delta landforms has been notably reduced since impoundment and changes in plant assemblage distribution indicate a drier, less productive environment. Results of aerial photo analysis show that the rate of development of distinctive cleavage bar islands on the Outer Delta has been notably reduced since impoundment. Changes in plant assemblage areas on these islands indicates both an autogenic and allogenic change to a drier, less productive environment and actual loss, by erosion, of some of the most productive Equisetum assemblages.

  1. Generating Three-Dimensional Surface Models of Solid Objects from Multiple Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    oretain afe lgmnafsrae norma vetr in top mnode II 08 and B’ respectively, to planes perpendicular to N and N’ respectively. G is then rotated around N...from multiple images of the surface illuminated by iso - parametric lines; JSUD~ - converts 3D surface descriptions into hier- archical

  2. Density-matrix simulation of small surface codes under current and projected experimental noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, T. E.; Tarasinski, B.; DiCarlo, L.

    2017-09-01

    We present a density-matrix simulation of the quantum memory and computing performance of the distance-3 logical qubit Surface-17, following a recently proposed quantum circuit and using experimental error parameters for transmon qubits in a planar circuit QED architecture. We use this simulation to optimize components of the QEC scheme (e.g., trading off stabilizer measurement infidelity for reduced cycle time) and to investigate the benefits of feedback harnessing the fundamental asymmetry of relaxation-dominated error in the constituent transmons. A lower-order approximate calculation extends these predictions to the distance-5 Surface-49. These results clearly indicate error rates below the fault-tolerance threshold of the surface code, and the potential for Surface-17 to perform beyond the break-even point of quantum memory. However, Surface-49 is required to surpass the break-even point of computation at state-of-the-art qubit relaxation times and readout speeds.

  3. Analysis of spatial distribution and inventory of radioactivity within the uranium mill tailings impoundment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Bugai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented of the characterization of radioactivity inventory of Zapadnoe uranium mill tailings impoundment situated at Pridneprovsky Chemical Plant (PChP; Dneprodzerzhinsk, Ukraine. Analyses of radioactivity data set based on analytical studies of core material from 15 characterization boreholes allowed significantly refining waste volume and radioactivity inventory estimates. Geostatistical analyses using variogram function have established that radioactivity distribution in Zapadnoe tailings is characterized by regular spatial correlation patterns. Ordinary kriging method was applied to assess distribution of radioactivity in 3D. Results of statistical analyses suggest significant redistribution of uranium in the dissolved form in the residues (presumably due to water infiltration process. The developed structural model for radioactivity distribution is used for further risk assessment analyses. Derived radioactivity correlation scales can be used for optimization of sample collection when characterizing the PChP Site and similar contaminated sites elsewhere.

  4. Chlorophyll Detection and Mapping of Shallow Water Impoundments Using Image Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artigas, F.; Pechmann, I.; Marti, A.; Yao, N.; Pechmann, I.

    2008-01-01

    There exists a common perception that chlorophyll a concentrations in tidal coastal waters are unsuitable to be captured by remote sensing techniques because of high water turbidity. In this study, we use band index measurements to separate active chlorophyll pigments from other constituents in the water. Published single- and multiband spectral indices are used to establish a relationship between algal chlorophyll concentration and reflectance data. We find an index which is suitable to map chlorophyll gradients in the impoundments, ditches, and associated waterways of the Hackensack Meadow lands (NJ, USA). The resulting images clearly depict the spatial distribution of plant pigments and their relationship with the biological conditions of the waters in the estuary. Since these biological conditions are often determined by land usage, the methods in this paper provide a simple tool to address water quality management issues in fragmented urban estuaries.

  5. Long-term changes in fish assemblage following the impoundments of the Three Gorges Reservoir in Hejiang, a protected reach of the upper Yangtze River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The construction of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR has seriously affected the fish assemblage in the impounded reaches. However, fish assemblage changes in the riverine zone remain poorly documented. In order to explore how upstream fish assemblage has responded to the successive impoundments of the TGR, fish investigations were conducted biannually in Hejiang, a protected reach of the upper Yangtze River, during the period from 1997 to 2011. Multivariate analysis revealed significant temporal differences in fish assemblage following the impoundments of the TGR. Prior to the impoundments, the fish assemblage appeared to be very diversified and very even. Immediately after the first and the second impoundment, the lotic species, such as Coreius guichenoti, Rhinogobio ventralis, Rhinogobio cylindricus and Coreius heterodon, became evidently dominant, due to their upstream migrations from the reservoir. However, two years after the third impoundment, the lotic species decreased dramatically, while lentic Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Pelteobagrus vachelli became the new dominant species. Based on this and other studies, we can see the habitats of the riverine fish in the upper Yangtze River have been shrunk seriously because of the impoundments of the TGR. The cascade hydropower development in the lower Jinsha River will pose an accumulative effect on the aquatic environment in the mainstream of the upper Yangtze River. Free-flowing tributaries, such as the Chishui River, will play more important roles in fish conservation.

  6. Fishers' knowledge identifies environmental changes and fish abundance trends in impounded tropical rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallwass, Gustavo; Lopes, Priscila F; Juras, Anastácio A; Silvano, Renato A M

    2013-03-01

    The long-term impacts of large hydroelectric dams on small-scale fisheries in tropical rivers are poorly known. A promising way to investigate such impacts is to compare and integrate the local ecological knowledge (LEK) of resource users with biological data for the same region. We analyzed the accuracy of fishers' LEK to investigate fisheries dynamics and environmental changes in the Lower Tocantins River (Brazilian Amazon) downstream from a large dam. We estimated fishers' LEK through interviews with 300 fishers in nine villages and collected data on 601 fish landings in five of these villages, 22 years after the dam's establishment (2006-2008). We compared these two databases with each other and with data on fish landings from before the dam's establishment (1981) gathered from the literature. The data obtained based on the fishers' LEK (interviews) and from fisheries agreed regarding the primary fish species caught, the most commonly used type of fishing gear (gill nets) and even the most often used gill net mesh sizes but disagreed regarding seasonal fish abundance. According to the interviewed fishers, the primary environmental changes that occurred after the impoundment were an overall decrease in fish abundance, an increase in the abundance of some fish species and, possibly, the local extinction of a commercial fish species (Semaprochilodus brama). These changes were corroborated by comparing fish landings sampled before and 22 years after the impoundment, which indicated changes in the composition of fish landings and a decrease in the total annual fish production. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that large dams may adversely affect small-scale fisheries downstream and establish a feasible approach for applying fishers' LEK to fisheries management, especially in regions with a low research capacity.

  7. Hydrogeological characterization on surface-based investigation phase in the Mizunami underground research laboratory project, in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Onoe, Hironori; Takeuchi, Shinji; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Ohyama, Takuya

    2007-01-01

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project is being carried out by Japan Atomic Energy Agency in the Cretaceous Toki granite in the Tono area, central Japan. The MIU project is a purpose-built generic underground research laboratory project that is planned for a broad scientific study of the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development for geological disposal of nuclear wastes. One of the main goals of the MIU project is to establish comprehensive techniques for investigation, analysis, and assessment of the deep geological environment. The MIU project has three overlapping phases: Surface-based Investigation (Phase I), Construction (Phase II) and Operation (Phase III). Hydrogeological investigations using a stepwise process in Phase I have been carried out in order to obtain information on important properties such as, location of water conducting features, hydraulic conductivity and so on. Hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow simulations in Phase I have been carried out in order to synthesize these investigation results, to evaluate the uncertainty of the hydrogeological model and to identify the main issues for further investigations. Using the stepwise hydrogeological characterization approach and combining the investigation with modeling and simulation, understanding of the hydrogeological environment has been progressively improved. (authors)

  8. High Efficiency, High Temperature Foam Core Heat Exchanger for Fission Surface Power Systems, Phase II Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fission-based power systems with power levels of 30 to ≥100 kWe will be needed for planetary surface bases. Development of high temperature, high efficiency...

  9. Reliable Autonomous Surface Mobility (RASM) in Support of Human Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ProtoInnovations, LLC and Carnegie Mellon University have formed a partnership to commercially develop rover-autonomy technologies into Reliable Autonomous Surface...

  10. Surface infrastructure : cost, financing and schedules for large-dollar transportation projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    In fiscal year 1998, the federal government will distribute nearly $26 billion to states and localities for the construction and repair of the nation's surface transportation systems. To meet the nations' transportation needs, states and localities a...

  11. Low-Stress Silicon Cladding for Surface Finishing Large UVOIR Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I research, ZeCoat Corporation demonstrated a low-stress silicon cladding process for surface finishing large UVOIR mirrors. A polishable cladding is...

  12. Low-cost rural surface alternatives : demonstration project : [tech transfer summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Identify the most effective and economical methods for preventing or : mitigating freeze-thaw damage to granular surfaced roads in seasonally : cold regions : Construct demonstration test sections using several stabilization : methods recomme...

  13. High Surface Area Iridium Anodes and Melt Containers for Molten Oxide Electrolysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Direct electrochemical reduction of molten regolith is the most attractive method of oxygen production on the lunar surface, because no additional chemical reagents...

  14. The TOPOMOD-ITN project: unravel the origin of Earth's topography from modelling deep-surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccenna, C.; Funiciello, F.

    2012-04-01

    EC-Marie Curie Initial Training Networks (ITN) projects aim to improve the career perspectives of young generations of researchers. Institutions from both academic and industry sectors form a collaborative network to recruit research fellows and provide them with opportunities to undertake research in the context of a joint research training program. In this frame, TOPOMOD - one of the training activities of EPOS, the new-born European Research Infrastructure for Geosciences - is a funded ITN project designed to investigate and model how surface processes interact with crustal tectonics and mantle convection to originate and develop topography of the continents over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The multi-disciplinary approach combines geophysics, geochemistry, tectonics and structural geology with advanced geodynamic numerical/analog modelling. TOPOMOD involves 8 European research teams internationally recognized for their excellence in complementary fields of Earth Sciences (Roma TRE, Utrecht, GFZ, ETH, Cambridge, Durham, Rennes, Barcelona), to which are associated 5 research institutions (CNR-Italy, Univ. Parma, Univ. Lausanne, Univ. Montpellier, Univ. Mainz) , 3 high-technology enterprises (Malvern Instruments, TNO, G.O. Logical Consulting) and 1 large multinational oil and gas company (ENI). This unique network places emphasis in experience-based training increasing the impact and international visibility of European research in modeling. Long-term collaboration and synergy are established among the overmentioned research teams through 15 cross-disciplinary research projects that combine case studies in well-chosen target areas from the Mediterranean, the Middle and Far East, west Africa, and South America, with new developments in structural geology, geomorphology, seismology, geochemistry, InSAR, laboratory and numerical modelling of geological processes from the deep mantle to the surface. These multidisciplinary projects altogether aim to

  15. Projections of annual rainfall and surface temperature from CMIP5 models over the BIMSTEC countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattnayak, K. C.; Kar, S. C.; Dalal, Mamta; Pattnayak, R. K.

    2017-05-01

    Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) comprising Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Thailand brings together 21% of the world population. Thus the impact of climate change in this region is a major concern for all. To study the climate change, fifth phase of Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) models have been used to project the climate for the 21st century under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 over the BIMSTEC countries for the period 1901 to 2100 (initial 105 years are historical period and the later 95 years are projected period). Climate change in the projected period has been examined with respect to the historical period. In order to validate the models, the mean annual rainfall has been compared with observations from multiple sources and temperature has been compared with the data from Climatic Research Unit (CRU) during the historical period. Comparison reveals that ensemble mean of the models is able to represent the observed spatial distribution of rainfall and temperature over the BIMSTEC countries. Therefore, data from these models may be used to study the future changes in the 21st century. Four out of six models show that the rainfall over India, Thailand and Myanmar has decreasing trend and Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal and Sri Lanka show an increasing trend in both the RCP scenarios. In case of temperature, all the models show an increasing trend over all the BIMSTEC countries in both the scenarios, however, the rate of increase is relatively less over Sri Lanka than the other countries. The rate of increase/decrease in rainfall and temperature are relatively more in RCP8.5 than RCP4.5 over all these countries. Inter-model comparison show that there are uncertainties within the CMIP5 model projections. More similar studies are required to be done for better understanding the model uncertainties in climate projections over this region.

  16. 76 FR 75539 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Central Everglades Planning Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Picayune Strand Restoration, the Indian River Lagoon South and Site 1 Impoundment projects. Project... Water Preserve Areas, the Caloosahatchee River (C-43) West Basin Storage Reservoir, and the C-111... CERP is to redirect water that is currently discharged to the east and west coast estuaries from Lake...

  17. Sensitivity of a model projection of near-surface permafrost degradation to soil column depth and representation of soil organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Lawrence; Andrew G. Slater; Vladimir E. Romanovsky; Dmitry J. Nicolsky

    2008-01-01

    The sensitivity of a global land-surface model projection of near-surface permafrost degradation is assessed with respect to explicit accounting of the thermal and hydrologic properties of soil organic matter and to a deepening of the soil column from 3.5 to 50 or more m. Together these modifications result in substantial improvements in the simulation of near-surface...

  18. Terrain Correction on the moving equal area cylindrical map projection of the surface of a reference ellipsoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, A.; Safari, A.; Grafarend, E.

    2003-04-01

    An operational algorithm for computing the ellipsoidal terrain correction based on application of closed form solution of the Newton integral in terms of Cartesian coordinates in the cylindrical equal area map projected surface of a reference ellipsoid has been developed. As the first step the mapping of the points on the surface of a reference ellipsoid onto the cylindrical equal area map projection of a cylinder tangent to a point on the surface of reference ellipsoid closely studied and the map projection formulas are computed. Ellipsoidal mass elements with various sizes on the surface of the reference ellipsoid is considered and the gravitational potential and the vector of gravitational intensity of these mass elements has been computed via the solution of Newton integral in terms of ellipsoidal coordinates. The geographical cross section areas of the selected ellipsoidal mass elements are transferred into cylindrical equal area map projection and based on the transformed area elements Cartesian mass elements with the same height as that of the ellipsoidal mass elements are constructed. Using the close form solution of the Newton integral in terms of Cartesian coordinates the potential of the Cartesian mass elements are computed and compared with the same results based on the application of the ellipsoidal Newton integral over the ellipsoidal mass elements. The results of the numerical computations show that difference between computed gravitational potential of the ellipsoidal mass elements and Cartesian mass element in the cylindrical equal area map projection is of the order of 1.6 × 10-8m^2/s^2 for a mass element with the cross section size of 10 km × 10 km and the height of 1000 m. For a 1 km × 1 km mass element with the same height, this difference is less than 1.5 × 10-4 m^2}/s^2. The results of the numerical computations indicate that a new method for computing the terrain correction based on the closed form solution of the Newton integral in

  19. Climate Change Impacts on Projections of Excess Mortality at 2030 using Spatially-Varying Ozone-Temperature Risk Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ander; Reich, Brian J.; Nolte, Christopher G.; Spero, Tanya L.; Hubbell, Bryan; Rappold, Ana G.

    2017-01-01

    We project the change in ozone-related mortality burden attributable to changes in climate between a historical (1995–2005) and near-future (2025–2035) time period while incorporating a nonlinear and synergistic effect of ozone and temperature on mortality. We simulate air quality from climate projections varying only biogenic emissions and holding anthropogenic emissions constant, thus attributing changes in ozone only to changes in climate and independent of changes in air pollutant emissions. We estimate nonlinear, spatially-varying, ozone-temperature risk surfaces for 94 US urban areas using observed data. Using the risk surfaces and climate projections we estimate daily mortality attributable to ozone exceeding 40 ppb (moderate level) and 75 ppb (US ozone NAAQS) for each time period. The average increases in city-specific median April-October ozone and temperature between time periods are 1.02 ppb and 1.94°F; however, the results varied by region. Increases in ozone due to climate change result in an increase in ozone-mortality burden. Mortality attributed to ozone exceeding 40 ppb increases by 7.7% (1.6%, 14.2%). Mortality attributed to ozone exceeding 75 ppb increases by 14.2% (1.6%, 28.9%). The absolute increase in excess ozone mortality is larger for changes in moderate ozone levels, reflecting the larger number of days with moderate ozone levels. PMID:27005744

  20. Vegetation composition and 226Ra uptake by native plant species at a uranium mill tailings impoundment in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Nan; Ding, Dexin; Li, Guangyue; Zheng, Jifang; Li, Le; Zhao, Weichao; Wang, Yongdong

    2014-01-01

    A field investigation was conducted for the vegetation composition and 226 Ra uptake by native plant species at a uranium mill tailings impoundment in South China. 80 species belonging to 67 genera in 32 families were recorded in the sampling sites. The Poaceae and Asteraceae were the dominant families colonizing the impoundment. The number of the plant species and vegetation community composition in the sampling sites seemed most closely related to the activities of 226 Ra and the pH value of the uranium tailings. The plant species in the sampling sites with relatively low activities of 226 Ra and relatively high pH value formed a relatively stable vegetation community. The plant species in the sampling sites with medium activities of 226 Ra and medium pH value formed the transitional vegetation community. The plant species in the sampling sites with relatively high activities of 226 Ra and relatively low pH value formed a simple unstable vegetation community that was similar to that on the unused grassland. The activities of 226 Ra and transfer factors (TFs) varied greatly with the plant species. The high activities of 226 Ra and TFs were found in the leaves of Pteris multifida (150.6 Bq/g of AW; 9.131), Pteridium aquilinum (122.2 Bq/g of AW; 7.409), and Dryopteris scottii (105.7 Bq/g of AW; 6.408). They satisfied the criteria for a hyperaccumulator for 226 Ra. They may be the candidates for phytoremediation of 226 Ra in the uranium mill tailings impoundment areas and the contaminated soils around. - Highlights: • Vegetation composition of native plant species at an impoundment was analyzed. • 226 Ra uptake by native plant species at the impoundment was investigated. • Poaceae and Asteraceae were the dominated families colonizing this impoundment. • The plant species and composition were related to activities of 226 Ra and pH. • Three plant species were found to be hyperaccumulators for 226 Ra

  1. Real-time three-dimensional surface measurement by color encoded light projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S. Y.; Li, Y. F.; Guan, Q.; Xiao, G.

    2006-01-01

    Existing noncontact methods for surface measurement suffer from the disadvantages of poor reliability, low scanning speed, or high cost. The authors present a method for real-time three-dimensional data acquisition by a color-coded vision sensor composed of common components. The authors use a digital projector controlled by computer to generate desired color light patterns. The unique indexing of the light codes is a key problem and is solved in this study so that surface perception can be performed with only local pattern analysis of the neighbor color codes in a single image. Experimental examples and performance analysis are provided

  2. Results from the search-lidar demonstrator project for detection of small Sea-Surface targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, J.C. van den; Putten, F.J.M. van; Cohen, L.H.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Franssen, G.C.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal surveillance and naval operations in the littoral both have to deal with the threat of small sea-surface targets. These targets have a low radar cross-section and a low velocity that makes them hard to detect by radar. Typical threats include jet skis, FIAC's, and speedboats. Previous lidar

  3. Surface Energy and Mass Balance Model for Greenland Ice Sheet and Future Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojian

    The Greenland Ice Sheet contains nearly 3 million cubic kilometers of glacial ice. If the entire ice sheet completely melted, sea level would raise by nearly 7 meters. There is thus considerable interest in monitoring the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Each year, the ice sheet gains ice from snowfall and loses ice through iceberg calving and surface melting. In this thesis, we develop, validate and apply a physics based numerical model to estimate current and future surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The numerical model consists of a coupled surface energy balance and englacial model that is simple enough that it can be used for long time scale model runs, but unlike previous empirical parameterizations, has a physical basis. The surface energy balance model predicts ice sheet surface temperature and melt production. The englacial model predicts the evolution of temperature and meltwater within the ice sheet. These two models can be combined with estimates of precipitation (snowfall) to estimate the mass balance over the Greenland Ice Sheet. We first compare model performance with in-situ observations to demonstrate that the model works well. We next evaluate how predictions are degraded when we statistically downscale global climate data. We find that a simple, nearest neighbor interpolation scheme with a lapse rate correction is able to adequately reproduce melt patterns on the Greenland Ice Sheet. These results are comparable to those obtained using empirical Positive Degree Day (PDD) methods. Having validated the model, we next drove the ice sheet model using the suite of atmospheric model runs available through the CMIP5 atmospheric model inter-comparison, which in turn built upon the RCP 8.5 (business as usual) scenarios. From this exercise we predict how much surface melt production will increase in the coming century. This results in 4-10 cm sea level equivalent, depending on the CMIP5 models. Finally, we try to bound melt water

  4. ESA STSE Project “Sea Surface Temperature Diurnal Variability: Regional Extend – Implications in Atmospheric Modelling”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna

    the daily SST variability, resulting in biases of the total heat budget estimates and therefore, demised model accuracies. The ESA STSE funded project SSTDV:R.EX.-IM.A.M. aimed at characterising the regional extend of diurnal SST signals and their impact in atmospheric modelling. This study will briefly...... present the final project findings regarding the analysis of hourly SEVIRI SSTs from SEVIRI over the Atlantic Ocean and the European Seas, revealing the regional extend of diurnal warming. As satellite SSTs are representative of the upper centimetre of the water column, they do not provide information...... Model (GOTM) was used to resolve the vertical temperature structure of the upper water column and provide the link between surface temperatures and the ones observed at some depth. The model proved able to reproduce signals observed from satellite and in situ instruments, thus can be a candidate model...

  5. Surface layer determination for the Si spheres of the Avogadro project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, I.; Azuma, Y.; Bettin, H.; Cibik, L.; Fuchs, P.; Fujii, K.; Krumrey, M.; Kuetgens, U.; Kuramoto, N.; Mizushima, S.

    2011-04-01

    For the accurate determination of the Avogadro constant, two 28Si spheres were produced, whose macroscopic density, in addition to other values, must be determined. To make a contribution to the new definition of the kilogram, a relative standard uncertainty of less than 2 × 10-8 has to be achieved. Each silicon surface is covered by a surface layer (SL). Consequently, correction parameters for the SL are determined to be applied to the mass and volume determination of the enriched spheres. With the use of a large set of surface analysing techniques, the structure of the SL is investigated. An unexpected metallic contamination existing on the sphere surface enlarges the uncertainty contribution of the correction parameters above the originally targeted value of 1 × 10-8. In the framework of this investigation this new obstacle is resolved in two ways. A new combination of analytical methods is applied to measure the SL mass mSL and the thickness dSL, including this new contamination, with an uncertainty of u(mSL) = 14.5 µg and 14.4 µg, respectively, and u(dSL) = 0.33 nm and 0.32 nm for the 28Si spheres AVO28-S5 and AVO28-S8, respectively. In the second part of the work, the chemical composition of these metallic contaminations is found to be Cu, Ni and Zn silicide compounds. For the removal of this contamination, a special procedure is developed, tested and applied to the spheres to produce the originally expected surface structure on the spheres. After the application of this new procedure the use of x-ray reflectometry directly at the spheres will be possible. It is expected to reduce the uncertainty contribution due to the SL down to 1 × 10-8.

  6. Final report on the surface-based investigation phase (phase 1) at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki

    2011-03-01

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project is a comprehensive research project investigating the deep underground environment within crystalline rock being conducted by Japan Atomic Energy Agency at Mizunami City in Gifu Prefecture, central Japan and its role is defined in 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy' by Japan Atomic Energy Commission. The MIU Project has three overlapping phases: Surface-based Investigation phase (Phase I), Construction phase (Phase II), and Operation phase (Phase III), with a total duration of 20 years. The overall project goals of the MIU Project from Phase I through to Phase III are: 1) to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment, and 2) to develop a range of engineering for deep underground application. During Phase I, the overall project goals were supported by Phase I goals. For the overall project goals 1), the Phase I goals were set to construct models of the geological environment from all surface-based investigation results that describe the geological environment prior to excavation and predict excavation response. For the overall project goals 2), the Phase I goals were set to formulate detailed design concepts and a construction plan for the underground facilities. This report summarizes the Phase I investigation which was completed in March 2005. The authors believe this report will make an important milestone, since this report clarifies how the Phase I goals are achieved and evaluate the future issues thereby direct the research which will be conducted during Phase II. With regard to the overall project goals 1), 'To establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment,' a step-wise investigation was conducted by iterating investigation, interpretation, and assessment, thereby understanding of geologic environment was progressively and effectively improved with progress of investigation. An optimal

  7. Characterizing near-surface CO2 conditions before injection - Perspectives from a CCS project in the Illinois Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, R.A.; Krapac, I.G.; Lewicki, J.L.; Curtis-Robinson, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium is conducting a large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) project in Decatur, Illinois, USA to demonstrate the ability of a deep saline formation to store one million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) from an ethanol facility. Beginning in early 2011, CO2 will be injected at a rate of 1,000 tonnes/day for three years into the Mount Simon Sandstone at a depth of approximately 2,100 meters. An extensive Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) program has been undertaken for the Illinois Basin Decatur Project (IBDP) and is focused on the 0.65 km2 project site. Goals include establishing baseline conditions to evaluate potential impacts from CO2 injection, demonstrating that project activities are protective of human health and the environment, and providing an accurate accounting of stored CO2. MVA efforts are being conducted pre-, during, and post- CO2 injection. Soil and net CO2 flux monitoring has been conducted for more than one year to characterize near-surface CO2 conditions. More than 2,200 soil CO2 flux measurements have been manually collected from a network of 118 soil rings since June 2009. Three ring types have been evaluated to determine which type may be the most effective in detecting potential CO 2 leakage. Bare soil, shallow-depth rings were driven 8 cm into the ground and were prepared to minimize surface vegetation in and near the rings. Bare soil, deep-depth rings were prepared similarly, but were driven 46 cm. Natural-vegetation, shallow-depth rings were driven 8 cm and are most representative of typical vegetation conditions. Bare-soil, shallow-depth rings had the smallest observed mean flux (1.78 ??mol m-2 s-1) versus natural-vegetation, shallow-depth rings (3.38 ??mol m-2 s-1). Current data suggest bare ring types would be more sensitive to small CO2 leak signatures than natural ring types because of higher signal to noise ratios. An eddy covariance (EC) system has been in use since June

  8. High-resolution climate and land surface interactions modeling over Belgium: current state and decennial scale projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemin, Ingrid; Henrot, Alexandra-Jane; Beckers, Veronique; Berckmans, Julie; Debusscher, Bos; Dury, Marie; Minet, Julien; Hamdi, Rafiq; Dendoncker, Nicolas; Tychon, Bernard; Hambuckers, Alain; François, Louis

    2016-04-01

    The interactions between land surface and climate are complex. Climate changes can affect ecosystem structure and functions, by altering photosynthesis and productivity or inducing thermal and hydric stresses on plant species. These changes then impact socio-economic systems, through e.g., lower farming or forestry incomes. Ultimately, it can lead to permanent changes in land use structure, especially when associated with other non-climatic factors, such as urbanization pressure. These interactions and changes have feedbacks on the climate systems, in terms of changing: (1) surface properties (albedo, roughness, evapotranspiration, etc.) and (2) greenhouse gas emissions (mainly CO2, CH4, N2O). In the framework of the MASC project (« Modelling and Assessing Surface Change impacts on Belgian and Western European climate »), we aim at improving regional climate model projections at the decennial scale over Belgium and Western Europe by combining high-resolution models of climate, land surface dynamics and socio-economic processes. The land surface dynamics (LSD) module is composed of a dynamic vegetation model (CARAIB) calculating the productivity and growth of natural and managed vegetation, and an agent-based model (CRAFTY), determining the shifts in land use and land cover. This up-scaled LSD module is made consistent with the surface scheme of the regional climate model (RCM: ALARO) to allow simulations of the RCM with a fully dynamic land surface for the recent past and the period 2000-2030. In this contribution, we analyze the results of the first simulations performed with the CARAIB dynamic vegetation model over Belgium at a resolution of 1km. This analysis is performed at the species level, using a set of 17 species for natural vegetation (trees and grasses) and 10 crops, especially designed to represent the Belgian vegetation. The CARAIB model is forced with surface atmospheric variables derived from the monthly global CRU climatology or ALARO outputs

  9. Modelled surface ozone over southern africa during the cross border air pollution impact assessment project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zunckel, M

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available over southern Africa during the Cross Border Air Pollution Impact Assessment Project M. Zunckel a,*, A. Koosailee a,f, G. Yarwood b, G. Maure c, K. Venjonoka d, A.M. van Tienhoven a, L. Otter e a CSIR Environmentek, P.O. Box 17001, Congella 4013, Durban... the biogenic and anthropogenic emissions data. References Annegarn, H.J., Turner, C.R., Helas, G., Tosen, G.R., Rorich, R.P., 1996. Gaseous pollutants. In: Held, G., Gore, B.J., Surridge, A.D., Tosen, G.R., Turner, C.R., Walmsley, R.D. (Eds.), Air Pollution...

  10. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the USA - Use of mill tailings impoundments as a new policy option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the United States is facing severe and immediate capacity limitations. Seemingly intractable regulatory and jurisdictional conflicts make establishment of new LLW disposal sites effectively impossible. Uranium mill tailings impoundments constructed at conventional uranium open-cast and underground mines could offer approximately 40 to 80+ million tons of disposal capacity for low activity radioactive waste. Such impoundments would provide an enhanced, high level of environmental and health and safety protection for the direct disposal of depleted uranium, special nuclear material, technologically-enhanced, naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM) and mixed waste. Many waste streams, such as TENORM and decommissioning rubble, will be high-volume, low activity materials and ideally suited for disposal in such structures. Materials in a given decay chain with a total activity from all radionuclides present of ∼820 Bq/g (2.22 x 10 -08 Ci/g) with no single radionuclide present in an activity greater than ∼104 Bq/g (2,800 pCi/g) should be acceptable for disposal. Materials of this type could be accepted without any site-specific dose modelling, so long as the total activity of the tailings impoundment not exceed its design capacity (generally 82 x 10 07 Bq/metric tonne) (0.020 Ci/short ton) and the cover design requirements to limit radon releases are satisfied. This paper provides background on US LLW disposal regulations, examines LLW disposal options under active consideration by the US Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Energy, develops generic waste acceptance criteria and identifies policy needs for federal and state governments to facilitate use of uranium mill tailings impoundments for LLW disposal. (author)

  11. Hypersalinity reduces the risk of cyanide toxicosis to insectivorous bats interacting with wastewater impoundments at gold mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Donato, David B; Lumsden, Linda F; Coulson, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife and livestock that ingest bioavailable cyanide compounds in gold mining tailings dams are known to experience cyanide toxicosis. Elevated levels of salinity in open impoundments have been shown to prevent wildlife cyanide toxicosis by reducing drinking and foraging. This finding appears to be consistent for diurnal wildlife interacting with open impoundments, however the risks to nocturnal wildlife of cyanide exposure are unknown. We investigated the activity of insectivorous bats in the airspace above both fresh (potable to wildlife) and saline water bodies at two gold mines in the goldfields of Western Australian. During this study, cyanide-bearing solutions stored in open impoundments at both mine sites were hypersaline (range=57,000-295,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS)), well above known physiological tolerance of any terrestrial vertebrate. Bats used the airspace above each water body monitored, but were more active at fresh than saline water bodies. In addition, considerably more terminal echolocation buzz calls were recorded in the airspace above fresh than saline water bodies at both mine sites. However, it was not possible to determine whether these buzz calls corresponded to foraging or drinking bouts. No drinking bouts were observed in 33 h of thermal video footage recorded at one hypersaline tailings dam, suggesting that this water is not used for drinking. There is no information on salinity tolerances of bats, but it could be assumed that bats would not tolerate salinity in drinking water at concentrations greater than those documented as toxic for saline-adapted terrestrial wildlife. Therefore, when managing wastewater impoundments at gold mines to avoid wildlife mortalities, adopting a precautionary principle, bats are unlikely to drink solutions at salinity levels ≥50,000 mg/L TDS. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Evaluation of behaviors of earth and rockfill dams during construction and initial impounding using instrumentation data and numerical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rashidi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the behavior of Gavoshan dam was evaluated during construction and the first impounding. A two-dimensional (2D numerical analysis was conducted based on a finite difference method on the largest cross-section of the dam using the results of instrument measurements and back analysis. These evaluations will be completed in the case that back analysis is carried out in order to control the degree of the accuracy and the level of confidence of the measured behavior since each of the measurements could be controlled by comparing it to the result obtained from the numerical model. Following that, by comparing the results of the numerical analysis with the measured values, it is indicated that there is a proper consistency between these two values. Moreover, it was observed that the dam performance was suitable regarding the induced pore water pressure, the pore water pressure ratio ru, settlement, induced stresses, arching degree, and hydraulic fracturing probability during the construction and initial impounding periods. The results demonstrated that the maximum settlement of the core was 238 cm at the end of construction. In the following 6 years after construction (initial impounding and exploitation period, the accumulative settlement of the dam was 270 cm. It is clear that 88% of the total settlement of the dam took place during dam construction. The reason is that the clay core was smashed in the wet side, i.e. the optimum moisture content. Whereas the average curving ratio was 0.64 during dam construction; at the end of the initial impounding, the maximum amount of curving ratio in the upstream was 0.81, and the minimum (critical amount in the downstream was 0.52. It was also concluded that this dam is safe in comparison with the behaviors of other similar dams in the world.

  13. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 14. Methods for projecting future changes in surface water acid-base chemistry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, K.W.; Marmorek, D.; Ryan, P.F.; Heltcher, K.; Robinson, D.

    1990-09-01

    The objectives of the report are to: critically evaluate methods for projecting future effects of acidic deposition on surface water acid-base chemistry; review and evaluate techniques and procedures for analyzing projection uncertainty; review procedures for estimating regional lake and stream population attributes; review the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Direct/Delayed Response Project (DDRP) methodology for projecting the effects of acidic deposition on future changes in surface water acid-base chemistry; and present the models, uncertainty estimators, population estimators, and proposed approach selected to project the effects of acidic deposition on future changes in surface water acid-base chemistry in the NAPAP 1990 Integrated Assessment and discuss the selection rationale

  14. An Investigation of Open Loop Flight Control Equations of Motion Used to Predict Flight Control Surface Deflections at Non-Steady State Trim Conditions (Project HAVE TRIM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Gary

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results of Project HAVE TRIM, An Investigation of Open Loop Flight Control Equations of Motion Used To Predict Flight Control Surface Deflections at Non-Steady State Trim Conditions...

  15. Temporal variation and spatial distribution of PAH in water of Three Gorges Reservoir during the complete impoundment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxian; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Bi, Yonghong; Zhu, Kongxian; Pfister, Gerd; Hu, Wei; Temoka, Cedrique; Westrich, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2013-10-01

    Bioavailable concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in water of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) using semipermeable membrane devices during the period of completely impounding water. ∑PAH concentrations in water of TGR in the period of completely impounding water were 15-381 ng L(-1). ∑PAH concentrations increased from town or counties to big industrialized cities in TGR, indicating urbanization effects on PAH pollution in the water. Tributaries in TGR have a certain contribution of PAH pollution to the mainstream of Yangtze River and their pollution could not be neglected. An obvious decrease of PAH concentration was observed after 175-m water impounding in 2011 in TGR. Several factors may account for this decrease, including execution of comprehensive treatment and management measures in TGR, less rainfall in 2011, and sedimentation effect caused by the dam. Passive sampling method has been successfully applied in the investigation of trace PAH in water of TGR and proved to be a useful and efficient tool for the management and sustainable development of the big reservoir. The results of the study provide valuable information about PAH pollution in the whole reservoir including some tributaries, and the pollution status is dynamically related with human activities. Therefore, PAH could be used as a marker compound or indicator in the network monitoring system to surveil and trace the pollution status in TGR.

  16. [Effects of Three Gorges Reservoir impoundment on the wetland ecosystem service value of Dongting Lake, South-central China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Bao; Dai, Yong; Yin, Ri-Xin; Yang, Yan; Li, Yu-dan; Wang, Ke-ying

    2013-03-01

    Based on the field investigation and measurement, and by using the monetary method, this paper estimated the wetland ecosystem service value of Dongting Lake before and after the impoundment of Three Gorges Reservoir (in 1996 and 2010, respectively). After the impoundment, the total ecosystem service value increased from 156.69x10(8) yuan in 1996 to 177.11x10(8) yuan in 2010. The main services value in 1996 was in the order of flood storage and regulation > water storage and supply > air regulation > scientific research and education, while that in 2010 was leisure tourism > shipping transportation > air regulation > water storage and supply. In the total service value of the wetland ecosystem, the direct value associated with water decreased from 110. 85x10(8) in 1996 to 27.47x10(8) in 2010, with a decrement of 75.2%. Though the proportion of the direct value in the production and supply of material products had somewhat increase, the indirect value in ecological environment regulation and maintenance and in culture and society still maintained at about 80% of the total value. In addition to climate factors, the impoundment of Three Gorges Reservoir and the reduction of water and sediment from Yangtze River to the Lake were the crucial reasons leading to the changes of the wetland ecosystem service value of Dongting Lake.

  17. Evaluation of factors related to increased zooplankton biomass and altered species composition following impoundment of a Newfoundland reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.E.; Knoechel, R.; Copeman, D.

    1998-01-01

    An 11-year study of the zooplankton community in Cat Arm Hydroelectric Reservoir in Newfoundland was conducted to assess long-term zooplankton community dynamics in a subarctic system. Zooplankton biomass and species compositions were monitored from 1983 to 1993. The monitoring program documented the trophic evolution of the Cat Arm system as it changed from a shallow lake with short water retention time to a deep reservoir with a much lower flushing rate. Zooplankton biomass increased approximately 19-fold in the oligotrophic hydroelectric reservoir following impoundment in 1984, relative to biomass in the preexisting lake. During the first three years of impoundment, there were no increases in either phytoplankton biomass or primary productivity. Natality of the dominant cladoceran (Daphnia catawba) did not increase. Summer water retention time increased from pre-impoundment levels of 4 days in 1983 to 338 days in 1993. The study showed that zooplankton biomass was greatly correlated with water retention time, and showed no major correlation with phytoplankton biomass, primary productivity, nutrient concentrations, pH, colour, or epilimnetic temperature. It was concluded that changes in the zooplankton community in the hydroelectric reservoir were a result of decreases in losses due to washout. 41 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  18. Conceptual design plan near-surface test facility: Phase II, Project B-300b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heneveld, W.H.; Mack, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Activities are reported in programs devoted to demonstration and development of techniques for the safe placement and retrieval of the spent fuel canisters in a near-surface flow of the Columbia River Basalt. Other programs are reported designed to determine whether there are any unacceptable effects resulting from the interaction of the nuclear waste and basalt and to provide information to be used for near-term validation of the current numerical design models of the repository. Work is also reported on development of a data base for the design, construction, and licensing of a permanent large-scale basalt repository

  19. The IAC Stripe 82 Legacy Project: a wide-area survey for faint surface brightness astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliri, Jürgen; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2016-02-01

    We present new deep co-adds of data taken within Stripe 82 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), especially stacked to reach the faintest surface brightness limits of this data set. Stripe 82 covers 275 ° ^2 within -50° ≤ RA ≤ +60° and -1.25° ≤ Dec. ≤ +1.25°. We discuss the steps of our reduction which puts special emphasis on preserving the characteristics of the background (sky + diffuse light) in the input images using a non-aggressive sky subtraction strategy. Our reduction reaches a limit of ˜28.5 mag arcsec-2 (3σ, 10 × 10 arcsec2) in the r band. The effective surface brightness limit (50 per cent completeness for exponential light distribution) lies at ˜ 25.5 mag arcsec-2. For point sources, we reach 50 per cent completeness limits (3σ level) of (24.2, 25.2, 24.7, 24.3, 23.0) mag in (u, g, r, I, z). This is between 1.7 and 2.0 mag deeper than the single-epoch SDSS releases. The co-adds show point spread functions (PSFs) with median full width at half-maximum values ranging from 1 arcsec in I and z to 1.3 arcsec in the u band. The imaging data are made publicly available at http://www.iac.es/proyecto/stripe82. The release includes deep co-adds and representations of the PSF for each field. Additionally, we provide object catalogues with stars and galaxies confidently separated until g ˜ 23 mag. The IAC Stripe 82 co-adds offer a rather unique possibility to study the low surface brightness Universe, exemplified by the discovery of stellar streams around NGC 0426 and NGC 0936. We also discuss further science cases like stellar haloes and disc truncations, low surface brightness galaxies, the intracluster light in galaxy clusters and the diffuse emission of Galactic dust known as Galactic Cirrus.

  20. Safety assessment methodologies and their application in development of near surface waste disposal facilities - the ASAM project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, P.

    2003-01-01

    The scope of ASAM project covers near surface disposal facilities for all types of low and intermediate level wastes with emphasis of the post-closure safety assessment.The objectives are to explore practical application to a range of disposal facilities for a number of purposes e.g. development of design concepts, safety re-assessment, upgrading safety and to develop practical approaches to assist regulators, operators and other experts in review of safety assessment. The task of the Co-ordination Group are: reassessment of existing facilities - use of safety assessment in decision making on selection of options (volunteer site Hungary); disused sealed sources - evaluation of disposability of disused sealed sources in near surface facilities (volunteer site Saratov, Russia); mining and minerals processing waste - evaluation of long-term safety (volunteer site pmc S. Africa). An agreement on the scope and objectives of the project are reached and the further consideration, such as human intrusion/institutional control/security; waste from oil/gas industry; very low level waste; categorization of sealed sources coordinated with other IAEA activities are outlined

  1. 21st century projections of surface mass balance changes for major drainage systems of the Greenland ice sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedesco, M; Fettweis, X

    2012-01-01

    Outputs from the regional climate model Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale at a spatial resolution of 25 km are used to study 21st century projected surface mass balance (SMB) over six major drainage basins of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). The regional model is forced with the outputs of three different Earth System Models (CanESM2, NorESM1 and MIROC5) obtained when considering two greenhouse gas future scenarios with levels of CO 2 equivalent of, respectively, 850 and >1370 ppm by 2100. Results indicate that the increase in runoff due to warming will exceed the increased precipitation deriving from the increase in evaporation for all basins, with the amount of net loss of mass at the surface varying spatially. Basins along the southwest and north coast are projected to have the highest sensitivity of SMB to increasing temperatures. For these basins, the global temperature anomaly corresponding to a decrease of the SMB below the 1980–99 average (when the ice sheet was near the equilibrium) ranges between +0.60 and +2.16 °C. For the basins along the northwest and northeast, these values range between +1.50 and +3.40 °C. Our results are conservative as they do not account for ice dynamics and changes in the ice sheet topography. (letter)

  2. The GRETA project: the contribution of near-surface geothermal energy for the energetic self-sufficiency of Alpine regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Casasso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Alpine regions are deeply involved in the challenge set by climate change, which is a threat for their environment and for important economic activities such as tourism. The heating and cooling of buildings account for a major share of the total primary energy consumption in Europe, and hence the energy policies should focus on this sector to achieve the greenhouse gas reduction targets set by international agreements. Geothermal heat pump is one of the least carbon-intensive technologies for the heating and cooling of buildings. It exploits the heat stored within the ground, a local renewable energy source which is widely available across the Alpine territory. Nevertheless, it has been little considered by European policies and cooperation projects. GRETA (near-surface Geothermal REsources in the Territory of the Alpine space is a cooperation project funded by the EU INTERREG-Alpine Space program, aiming at demonstrating the potential of shallow geothermal energy and to foster its integration into energy planning instruments. It started in December 2015 and will last three years, involving 12 partners from Italy, France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, and Slovenia. In this paper, the project is presented, along with the results of the first year of work.

  3. Understanding surface-water availability in the Central Valley as a means to projecting future groundwater storage with climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J. P.; Cayan, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    surface water data are compiled. We can then develop groundwater pumping and storage predictions in real time, and make them available to water managers. In addition, we are working toward future projections by coupling the regional CVHM to downscaled GCM output to assess future scenarios of water availability in this critical region.

  4. Climate change impacts on projections of excess mortality at 2030 using spatially varying ozone-temperature risk surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ander; Reich, Brian J; Nolte, Christopher G; Spero, Tanya L; Hubbell, Bryan; Rappold, Ana G

    2017-01-01

    We project the change in ozone-related mortality burden attributable to changes in climate between a historical (1995-2005) and near-future (2025-2035) time period while incorporating a non-linear and synergistic effect of ozone and temperature on mortality. We simulate air quality from climate projections varying only biogenic emissions and holding anthropogenic emissions constant, thus attributing changes in ozone only to changes in climate and independent of changes in air pollutant emissions. We estimate non-linear, spatially varying, ozone-temperature risk surfaces for 94 US urban areas using observed data. Using the risk surfaces and climate projections we estimate daily mortality attributable to ozone exceeding 40 p.p.b. (moderate level) and 75 p.p.b. (US ozone NAAQS) for each time period. The average increases in city-specific median April-October ozone and temperature between time periods are 1.02 p.p.b. and 1.94 °F; however, the results varied by region. Increases in ozone because of climate change result in an increase in ozone mortality burden. Mortality attributed to ozone exceeding 40 p.p.b. increases by 7.7% (1.6-14.2%). Mortality attributed to ozone exceeding 75 p.p.b. increases by 14.2% (1.6 28.9%). The absolute increase in excess ozone mortality is larger for changes in moderate ozone levels, reflecting the larger number of days with moderate ozone levels.

  5. Methane oxidation and molecular characterization of methanotrophs from a former mercury mine impoundment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baesman, Shaun; Miller, Laurence G.; Wei, Jeremy H.; Cho, Yirang; Matys, Emily D.; Summons, Roger E.; Welander, Paula V.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    The Herman Pit, once a mercury mine, is an impoundment located in an active geothermal area. Its acidic waters are permeated by hundreds of gas seeps. One seep was sampled and found to be composed of mostly CO2 with some CH4 present. The δ13CH4 value suggested a complex origin for the methane: i.e., a thermogenic component plus a biological methanogenic portion. The relatively 12C-enriched CO2 suggested a reworking of the ebullitive methane by methanotrophic bacteria. Therefore, we tested bottom sediments for their ability to consume methane by conducting aerobic incubations of slurried materials. Methane was removed from the headspace of live slurries, and subsequent additions of methane resulted in faster removal rates. This activity could be transferred to an artificial, acidic medium, indicating the presence of acidophilic or acid-tolerant methanotrophs, the latter reinforced by the observation of maximum activity at pH = 4.5 with incubated slurries. A successful extraction of sterol and hopanoid lipids characteristic of methanotrophs was achieved, and their abundances greatly increased with increased sediment methane consumption. DNA extracted from methane-oxidizing enrichment cultures was amplified and sequenced for pmoA genes that aligned with methanotrophic members of the Gammaproteobacteria. An enrichment culture was established that grew in an acidic (pH 4.5) medium via methane oxidation.

  6. Effect of fishing effort on catch rate and catchability of largemouth bass in small impoundments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, M. G.; Schramm, Harold; Neal, J. W.; Gerard, P.D.

    2018-01-01

    Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède) catch rates decline with sustained fishing effort, even without harvest. It is unclear why declines in catch rate occur, and little research has been directed at how to improve catch rate. Learning has been proposed as a reason for declining catch rate, but has never been tested on largemouth bass. If catch rate declines because fish learn to avoid lures, periods of no fishing could be a management tool for increasing catch rate. In this study, six small impoundments with established fish populations were fished for two May to October fishing seasons to evaluate the effect of fishing effort on catch rate. Closed seasons were implemented to test whether a 2‐month period of no fishing improved catch rates and to determine whether conditioning from factors other than being captured reduced catch rate. Mixed‐model analysis indicated catch rate and catchability declined throughout the fishing season. Catch rate and catchability increased after a 2‐month closure but soon declined to the lowest levels of the fishing season. These changes in catch rate and catchability support the conclusion of learned angler avoidance, but sustained catchability of fish not previously caught does not support that associative or social learning affected catchability.

  7. Survivability of ancient man-made earthen mounds: implications for uranium mill tailings impoundments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, C.G.; Mishima, J.; King, S.E.; Walters, W.H.

    1983-06-01

    As part of a study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating long-term stabilization techniques for uranium mill impoundments. Part of this investigation involves the design of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of the underlying soil cover, which in turn prevents exposure of the tailings to the environment. However, the need for the armoring blanket, as well as the blanket's effectiveness, depends on the stability of the underlying soil cap (radon suppression cover) and on the tailings themselves. Compelling evidence in archaeological records suggests that large man-made earthen structures can remain sound and intact for time periods comparable to those required for the stabilization of the tailings piles if properly constructed. We present archaeological evidence on the existence and survivability of man-made earthen and rock structures through specific examples of such structures from around the world. We also review factors contributing to their survival or destruction and address the influence of climate, building materials, and construction techniques on survivability.

  8. Survivability of ancient man-made earthen mounds: implications for uranium mill tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, C.G.; Mishima, J.; King, S.E.; Walters, W.H.

    1983-06-01

    As part of a study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating long-term stabilization techniques for uranium mill impoundments. Part of this investigation involves the design of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of the underlying soil cover, which in turn prevents exposure of the tailings to the environment. However, the need for the armoring blanket, as well as the blanket's effectiveness, depends on the stability of the underlying soil cap (radon suppression cover) and on the tailings themselves. Compelling evidence in archaeological records suggests that large man-made earthen structures can remain sound and intact for time periods comparable to those required for the stabilization of the tailings piles if properly constructed. We present archaeological evidence on the existence and survivability of man-made earthen and rock structures through specific examples of such structures from around the world. We also review factors contributing to their survival or destruction and address the influence of climate, building materials, and construction techniques on survivability

  9. The Effect of Zebra Mussels on Algal Community Structure in an Impounded River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumble, A. F.; Luttenton, M.

    2005-05-01

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, invaded the Great Lakes Region in the mid 1980's, and subsequently colonized inland lakes and coastal river systems through secondary invasions. The Muskegon River below Croton Dam was colonized by zebra mussels in 2000 following their introduction into Croton impoundment in the late 1990's. No zebra mussels were found below Croton Dam in 1999 but had increased to 25,000 m-2 by 2001. We examined the affect of zebra mussels on epilithic periphyton communities by comparing plots that were and were not colonized by zebra mussels. Chlorophyll a increased in both treatments over time but was significantly higher in control plots than in zebra mussel plots. The concentration of chlorophyll a in the control plots increased from 14 µgcm-2 to 26 µgcm-2 and the concentration in the zebra mussel plots started at 12 µgcm-2, peaked at 19 µgcm-2, and then decreased to 15 µgcm-2 over a 6 week period. In a related experiment using artificial streams, chlorophyll a increased with increasing zebra mussel density, but differences were not significant. The different trends observed between the two experiments may be explained in part by arthropod invertebrates associated with zebra mussel populations.

  10. Safety cases for the co-ordinated research project on improvement of safety assessment methodologies for near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities (ISAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Torres-Vidal, C.; Kelly, E.; Guskov, A.; Blerk, J. van

    2002-01-01

    A Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) has recently been completed on the Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities (ISAM). A major aspect of the project was the use of safety cases for the practical application of safety assessment. An overview of the ISAM safety cases is given in this paper. (author)

  11. Plains hydrology and reclamation project: Spoil ground-water chemistry and its impacts on surface water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudell, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    Description of the chemical makeup of spoil groundwater at Diplomat and Vesta mines in the Battle River mining area, 200 km southeast of Edmonton within the Lower Horseshoe Canyon coal zone; and at Highvale and Whitewood Mines in the Lake Wabamun mining area, 100 km west of Edmonton within the Ardley coal zone. This report compares the chemical characteristics of the spoil groundwater for each mine to those of the principal premining aquifer that is disrupted by surface mining. The characterization of spoil groundwater chemistry is based on the sampling and analyses of groundwater from piezometers installed in reclaimed areas. Forty-three samples were collected from 23 piezometers at Vesta Mine, and 54 samples were collected from 32 piezometers at Diplomat Mine. At Highvale Mine, 29 samples were collected from 13 piezometers installed in the reclaimed area at Pit 01. Eleven samples were also collected from piezometers installed in spoil at Whitewood Mine to augment a study of that site.

  12. The INCOMPASS project field and modelling campaign: Interaction of Convective Organization and Monsoon Precipitation, Atmosphere, Surface and Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Bhat, Ganapati; Evans, Jonathan; Madan, Ranju; Marsham, John; Martin, Gill; Mitra, Ashis; Mrudula, Gm; Parker, Douglas; Pattnaik, Sandeep; Rajagopal, En; Taylor, Christopher; Tripathi, Sachchida

    2017-04-01

    The INCOMPASS project uses data from a field and aircraft measurement campaign during the 2016 monsoon onset to better understand and predict monsoon rainfall. The monsoon supplies the majority of water in South Asia, however modelling and forecasting the monsoon from days to the season ahead is limited by large model errors that develop quickly. Likely problems lie in physical parametrizations such as convection, the boundary layer and land surface. At the same time, lack of detailed observations prevents more thorough understanding of monsoon circulation and its interaction with the land surface; a process governed by boundary layer and convective cloud dynamics. From May to July 2016, INCOMPASS used a modified BAe-146 jet aircraft operated by the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM), for the first project of this scale in India. The India and UK team flew around 100 hours of science sorties from bases in northern and southern India. Flights from Lucknow in the northern plains took measurements to the west and southeast to allow sampling of the complete contrast from dry desert air to the humid environment over the north Bay of Bengal. These routes were repeated in the pre-monsoon and monsoon phases, measuring contrasting surface and boundary layer structures. In addition, flights from the southern base in Bengaluru measured contrasts from the Arabian Sea, across the intense rains of the Western Ghats mountains, over the rain shadow in southeast India and over the southern Bay of Bengal. Flight planning was performed with the aid of forecasts from a new UK Met Office 4km limited area model. INCOMPASS also installed a network of surface flux towers, as well as operating a cloud-base ceilometer and performing intensive radiosonde launches from a supersite in Kanpur. Here we will outline preliminary results from the field campaign including new observations of the surface, boundary layer structure and atmospheric profiles from aircraft data. We

  13. System and technique for retrieving depth information about a surface by projecting a composite image of modulated light patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassebrook, Laurence G. (Inventor); Lau, Daniel L. (Inventor); Guan, Chun (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A technique, associated system and program code, for retrieving depth information about at least one surface of an object, such as an anatomical feature. Core features include: projecting a composite image comprising a plurality of modulated structured light patterns, at the anatomical feature; capturing an image reflected from the surface; and recovering pattern information from the reflected image, for each of the modulated structured light patterns. Pattern information is preferably recovered for each modulated structured light pattern used to create the composite, by performing a demodulation of the reflected image. Reconstruction of the surface can be accomplished by using depth information from the recovered patterns to produce a depth map/mapping thereof. Each signal waveform used for the modulation of a respective structured light pattern, is distinct from each of the other signal waveforms used for the modulation of other structured light patterns of a composite image; these signal waveforms may be selected from suitable types in any combination of distinct signal waveforms, provided the waveforms used are uncorrelated with respect to each other. The depth map/mapping to be utilized in a host of applications, for example: displaying a 3-D view of the object; virtual reality user-interaction interface with a computerized device; face--or other animal feature or inanimate object--recognition and comparison techniques for security or identification purposes; and 3-D video teleconferencing/telecollaboration.

  14. Surface air relative humidities spuriously exceeding 100% in CMIP5 model output and their impact on future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruosteenoja, Kimmo; Jylhä, Kirsti; Räisänen, Jouni; Mäkelä, Antti

    2017-09-01

    In 17 out of the 29 Phase 5 of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate models examined in this work, near-surface air relative humidity (RH) frequently exceeded 100% with respect to ice in polar areas in winter. The degree of supersaturation varied considerably across the models, and the same evidently applies to the causes of the phenomenon. Consultations with the modeling groups revealed three categories of explanations for supersaturation occurrence: specification of RH with respect to ice rather than liquid water; inconsistencies in the determination of specific humidity and air temperature for the near-surface level; and the nonlinearity of saturated specific humidity as a function of temperature. Modeled global warming tended to reduce the artificial supersaturations, inducing a spurious negative trend in the future RH change. For example, over East Antarctica under Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5, the multimodel mean RH would decrease by about 10% by the end of the ongoing century. Truncation of overly high RHs to a maximum value of 100% cut the RH response close to zero. In Siberia and northern North America, truncation even reversed the sign of the response. The institutes responsible for the CMIP6 model experiments should be aware of the supersaturation issue, and the algorithms used to produce near-surface RH should be developed to eliminate the problem before publishing the RH output data.

  15. Future Changes in Surface Runoff over Korea Projected by a Regional Climate Model under A1B Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Woo Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses future change of surface runoff due to climate change over Korea using a regional climate model (RCM, namely, the Global/Regional Integrated Model System (GRIMs, Regional Model Program (RMP. The RMP is forced by future climate scenario, namely, A1B of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4. The RMP satisfactorily reproduces the observed seasonal mean and variation of surface runoff for the current climate simulation. The distribution of monsoonal precipitation-related runoff is adequately captured by the RMP. In the future (2040–2070 simulation, it is shown that the increasing trend of temperature has significant impacts on the intra-annual runoff variation. The variability of runoff is increased in summer; moreover, the strengthened possibility of extreme occurrence is detected in the future climate. This study indicates that future climate projection, including surface runoff and its variability over Korea, can be adequately addressed on the RMP testbed. Furthermore, this study reflects that global warming affects local hydrological cycle by changing major water budget components. This study adduces that the importance of runoff should not be overlooked in regional climate studies, and more elaborate presentation of fresh-water cycle is needed to close hydrological circulation in RCMs.

  16. The Riemann surface of static limit dispersion relation and projective spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, M.; Meshcheryakov, V.A.; Meshcheryakov, D.V.; Tran Quang Tuyet

    2004-01-01

    The rigorous Bogolyubov's proof of the dispersion relations (DR) for pion-nucleon scattering is a good foundation for the static models. DR contain a small parameter (ratio of the pion-nucleon masses). The static models arise when this parameter goes to zero. The S-matrix in the static models has a block structure. Each block of the S-matrix has a finite order NxN and is a matrix of meromorphic functions of the light particle energy ω in the complex plane with cuts (-∞, -1], [+1,+∞). In the elastic case, it reduces to N functions S i (ω) connected by the NxN crossing-symmetry matrix A. The unitarity and the crossing symmetry are the base for the system of nonlinear boundary value problems. It defines the analytical continuation of S i (ω) from the physical sheet to the unphysical ones and can be treated as a system of nonlinear difference equations. The problem is solvable for any 2x2 crossing-symmetry matrix A that permits one to calculate the Regge trajectories for the SU(2) static model. It is shown that global analyses of this system can be carried out effectively in projective spaces P N-1 and P N . The connection between the spaces P N-1 and P N is discussed. Some particular solutions of the system are found

  17. Solid-State Thermionic Nuclear Power for Megawatt Propulsion, Planetary Surface and Commercial Power Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Thermionic (TI) power conversion is a promising technology first investigated for power conversion in the 1960's, and of renewed interest due to modern advances in nanotechnology, MEMS, materials and manufacturing. Benefits include high conversion efficiency (20%), static operation with no moving parts and potential for high reliability, greatly reduced plant complexity, and the potential for reduced development costs. Thermionic emission, credited to Edison in 1880, forms the basis of vacuum tubes and much of 20th century electronics. Heat can be converted into electricity when electrons emitted from a hot surface are collected across a small gap. For example, two "small" (6 kWe) Thermionic Space Reactors were flown by the USSR in 1987-88 for ocean radar reconnaissance. Higher powered Nuclear-Thermionic power systems driving Electric Propulsion (Q-thruster, VASIMR, etc.) may offer the breakthrough necessary for human Mars missions of Power generation on Earth could benefit from simpler, moe economical nuclear plants, and "topping" of more fuel and emission efficient fossil-fuel plants.

  18. Three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection of brain perfusion SPECT improves diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Norinari; Machida, Kikuo

    2003-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is diagnosed by either inspection of the brain perfusion SPECT, or three-dimensional stereotactic surface display (3D-SSP). The purpose was to compare diagnostic performances of these methods. Sixteen nuclear medicine physicians independently interpreted 99m Tc-ECD SPECT in one session and SPECT with 3D-SSP in another session without clinical information for 50 studies of AD patients and 40 studies of healthy volunteers. Probabilities of AD were reported according to a subjective scale from 0% (normal) to 100% (definite AD). Receiver operating characteristics curves were generated to calculate areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (Az's) for the inspection as well as for an automated diagnosis based on a mean Z value in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri in a 3D-SSP template. Mean Az for visual interpretation of SPECT alone (0.679±0.058) was significantly smaller than that for visual interpretation of both SPECT and 3D-SSP (0.778±0.060). Az for the automated diagnosis (0.883±0.037) was significantly greater than that for both modes of visual interpretation. 3D-SSP enhanced performance of the nuclear medicine physicians inspecting SPECT. Performance of the automated diagnosis exceeded that of the physicians inspecting SPECT with and without 3D-SSP. (author)

  19. Dynamics of epiretinal membrane removal off the retinal surface: a computer simulation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogramaci, Mahmut; Williamson, Tom H

    2013-09-01

    To use a computer simulation to discern the safest angle at which to peel epiretinal membranes. We used ANSYS V.14.1 software to analyse the dynamics involved in membrane removal off the retinal surface. The geometrical values were taken from optical coherence tomography of 30 eyes with epiretinal membranes. A range of Young's modulus values of 0.03, 0.01 and 0.09 MPa were assigned to the epiretinal membrane and to the retina separately. The ratio of maximum shear stress (MSS) recorded at the attachment pegs over that recorded at the membrane (P/E ratio) was determined at nine displacement angles (DA). Mean MSS values recorded at the attachment pegs, epiretinal membrane and retina were significantly different at 0.8668, 0.6091 and 0.0017 Pa consecutively (p<0.05). There was a significant negative linear correlation between DA and MSS recorded at the epiretinal membrane when the Young's modulus for the epiretinal membrane was higher than or equal to that for the attachment pegs and the retina. Nevertheless, there was a significant positive linear correlation between DA and P/E ratio when the Young's modulus for the epiretinal membrane was equal to or lower than that for the attachment pegs and the retina. Attachment pegs appear to be the most likely part to fail (tear) during removal procedures. Changing the direction at which the edge of the membrane is pulled can relocate the MSS within in the tissue complex. Safer and effective removal could be achieved by pulling epiretinal membranes onto themselves at 165° DA.

  20. Near-surface wind pattern in regional climate projections over the broader Adriatic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belušić, Andreina; Telišman Prtenjak, Maja; Güttler, Ivan; Ban, Nikolina; Leutwyler, David; Schär, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    The Adriatic region is characterized by the complex coastline, strong topographic gradients and specific wind regimes. This represents excellent test area for the latest generation of the regional climate models (RCMs) applied over the European domain. The most famous wind along the Adriatic coast is bora, which due to its strength, has a strong impact on all types of human activities in the Adriatic region. The typical bora wind is a severe gusty downslope flow perpendicular to the mountains. Besides bora, in the Adriatic region, typical winds are sirocco (mostly during the wintertime) and sea/land breezes (dominantly in the warm part of the year) as a part of the regional Mediterranean wind system. Thus, it is substantial to determine future changes in the wind filed characteristics (e.g., changes in strength and frequencies). The first step was the evaluation of a suite of ten EURO- and MED-CORDEX models (at 50 km and 12.5 km resolution), and two additional high resolution models from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich (ETHZ, at 12.5 km and 2.2. km resolution) in the present climate. These results provided a basis for the next step where wind field features, in an ensemble of RCMs forced by global climate models (GCMs) in historical and future runs are examined. Our aim is to determine the influence of the particular combination of RCMs and GCMs, horizontal resolution and emission scenario on the future changes in the near-surface wind field. The analysis reveals strong sensitivity of the simulated wind flow and its statistics to both season and location analyzed, to the horizontal resolution of the RCM and on the choice of the particular GCM that provides boundary conditions.

  1. IAEA KEN 7005 project: Evaluation of Surface and Groundwater Interaction of the Kilimanjaro Aquifer applying Isotope Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opiyo, A.N.E.

    2017-01-01

    Mombasa City is the second largest city in Kenya, has inadequate water supply and experiences a chronic water shortage. Mombasa City and the other areas to its north are supplied with water from the Mzima springs and other systems. Mzima Springs is location in relation to Chyulu Hills and Mt. Kilimanjaro. This study therefore attempts to examine the relationship between Mzima Springs on one hand and Kilimanjaro Aquifer and Chyulu Hills aquifer/springs on the other. The overall objective of this project is to conduct water resources assessment to quantify water in the project area and establish the relationship between surface and groundwater resources in the Mt. Kilimanjaro, Lakes Jipe/Challa, Mzima and Chyulu Hills ecosystem. The Kilimanjaro aquifer includes the volcanic pyroclastic and volcanic alluvium deposits found at the base of Mount Kilimanjaro and extending across the Kenyan-Tanzanian border. Occurrence of groundwater in the surrounding basement plains is limited to faults, fractures and small parts of weathered zones and also to the bottom layers of wide alluvial valleys which are recharged by natural flood spreading. One of the achievement include establishment and equipping of the National Isotope Hydrology Laboratory

  2. A microbial arsenic cycle in sediments of an acidic mine impoundment: Herman Pit, Clear Lake, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Jodi S.; McCann, Shelley; Bennett, S.; Miller, Laurence G.; Stolz, J. R.; Stoneburner, B.; Saltikov, C.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of prokaryotes in the redox reactions of arsenic occurring between its +5 [arsenate; As(V)] and +3 [arsenite; As(III)] oxidation states has been well established. Most research to date has focused upon circum-neutral pH environments (e.g., freshwater or estuarine sediments) or arsenic-rich “extreme” environments like hot springs and soda lakes. In contrast, relatively little work has been conducted in acidic environments. With this in mind we conducted experiments with sediments taken from the Herman Pit, an acid mine drainage impoundment of a former mercury (cinnabar) mine. Due to the large adsorptive capacity of the abundant Fe(III)-rich minerals, we were unable to initially detect in solution either As(V) or As(III) added to the aqueous phase of live sediment slurries or autoclaved controls, although the former consumed added electron donors (i.e., lactate, acetate, hydrogen), while the latter did not. This prompted us to conduct further experiments with diluted slurries using the live materials from the first incubation as inoculum. In these experiments we observed reduction of As(V) to As(III) under anoxic conditions and reduction rates were enhanced by addition of electron donors. We also observed oxidation of As(III) to As(V) in oxic slurries as well as in anoxic slurries amended with nitrate. We noted an acid-tolerant trend for sediment slurries in the cases of As(III) oxidation (aerobic and anaerobic) as well as for anaerobic As(V) reduction. These observations indicate the presence of a viable microbial arsenic redox cycle in the sediments of this extreme environment, a result reinforced by the successful amplification of arsenic functional genes (aioA, and arrA) from these materials.

  3. Destratification of an impounding reservoir using compressed air??case of Mudi reservoir, Blantyre, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipofya, V. H.; Matapa, E. J.

    This paper reviews the operational and cost effectiveness of a compressed air destratification system that was installed in the Mudi reservoir for destratifying the reservoir. Mudi reservoir is a raw water source for the Blantyre Water Board. It has a capacity of 1,400,000 cubic metres. The reservoir is 15.3 m deep at top water level. In the absence of any artificial circulation of air, the reservoir stratifies into two layers. There is a warm epilimnion in the top 3 m of the reservoir, with temperatures ranging from 23 to 26 °C. There is prolific algal growth in this layer. The bottom layer has much lower temperatures, and is oxygen deficient. Under such anaerobic conditions, ammonia, sulphides, iron and manganese are released from the sediments of the reservoir. As a result of nutrient inflow from the catchments, coupled with tropical ambient temperatures, the reservoir is most times infested with blue-green algae. This results into water treatment problems in respect of taste and odour and iron and manganese soluble salts. To abate such problems, air is artificially circulated in the reservoir, near the intake tower, through a perforated pipe that is connected to an electrically driven compressor. This causes artificial circulation of water in the hypolimnion region of the reservoir. As a result of this circulation, a hostile environment that inhibits the propagation of algae is created. Dissolved oxygen and temperature profiles are practically uniform from top to bottom of reservoir. Concentrations of iron and manganese soluble salts are much reduced at any of the draw-off points available for the water treatment process. The paper concludes by highlighting the significant cost savings in water treatment that are accrued from the use of compressed air destratification in impounding water storage reservoirs for the control of algae and other chemical pollutants.

  4. A statistical adjustment approach for climate projections of snow conditions in mountain regions using energy balance land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfaillie, Deborah; Déqué, Michel; Morin, Samuel; Lafaysse, Matthieu

    2017-04-01

    Projections of future climate change have been increasingly called for lately, as the reality of climate change has been gradually accepted and societies and governments have started to plan upcoming mitigation and adaptation policies. In mountain regions such as the Alps or the Pyrenees, where winter tourism and hydropower production are large contributors to the regional revenue, particular attention is brought to current and future snow availability. The question of the vulnerability of mountain ecosystems as well as the occurrence of climate-related hazards such as avalanches and debris-flows is also under consideration. In order to generate projections of snow conditions, however, downscaling global climate models (GCMs) by using regional climate models (RCMs) is not sufficient to capture the fine-scale processes and thresholds at play. In particular, the altitudinal resolution matters, since the phase of precipitation is mainly controlled by the temperature which is altitude-dependent. Simulations from GCMs and RCMs moreover suffer from biases compared to local observations, due to their rather coarse spatial and altitudinal resolution, and often provide outputs at too coarse time resolution to drive impact models. RCM simulations must therefore be adjusted using empirical-statistical downscaling and error correction methods, before they can be used to drive specific models such as energy balance land surface models. In this study, time series of hourly temperature, precipitation, wind speed, humidity, and short- and longwave radiation were generated over the Pyrenees and the French Alps for the period 1950-2100, by using a new approach (named ADAMONT for ADjustment of RCM outputs to MOuNTain regions) based on quantile mapping applied to daily data, followed by time disaggregation accounting for weather patterns selection. We first introduce a thorough evaluation of the method using using model runs from the ALADIN RCM driven by a global reanalysis over the

  5. Evaluation of geologic and geophysical techniques for surface-to-subsurface projections of geologic characteristics in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    Granitic and gneissic rock complexes are being considered for their potential to contain and permanently isolate high-level nuclear waste in a deep geologic repository. The use of surface geologic and geophysical techniques has several advantages over drilling and testing methods for geologic site characterization in that the techniques are typically less costly, provide data over a wider area, and do not jeopardize the physical integrity of a potential repository. For this reason, an extensive literature review was conducted to identify appropriate surface geologic and geophysical techniques that can be used to characterize geologic conditions in crystalline rock at proposed repository depths of 460 to 1,220 m. Characterization parameters such as rock quality; fracture orientation, spacing; and aperture; depths to anomalies; degree of saturation; rock body dimensions; and petrology are considered to be of primary importance. Techniques reviewed include remote sensing, geologic mapping, petrographic analysis, structural analysis, gravity and magnetic methods, electrical methods, and seismic methods. Each technique was reviewed with regard to its theoretical basis and field application; geologic parameters that can be evaluated; advantages and limitations, and, where available, case history applications in crystalline rock. Available information indicates that individual techniques provide reliable information on characteristics at the surface, but have limited success in projections to depths greater that approximately 100 m. A combination of integrated techniques combines with data from a limited number of boreholes would significantly improve the reliability and confidence of early characterization studies to provide qualitative rock body characteristics for region-to-area and area-to-site selection evaluations. 458 refs., 32 figs., 14 tabs

  6. Analysis of Wading Bird use of Impounded Wetland Habitat on the Kennedy Space Center/Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, 1987-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolen, Eric D.; Breininger, David R.; Smith, Rebecca B.; Quincy, Charlie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes results of the first eleven years of monthly aerial surveys of wading bird use of foraging habitats within impoundments on the Kennedy Space Center/Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. Some impoundments were used much more heavily by wading birds than were others. Analysis suggests that an increase in interspersion of open water and vegetated habitats is preferred foraging habitat. Many wading bird species increased their use of vegetated habitat in Fall and Winter when impoundments were flooded. The mean number of wading birds per survey was greatest during the Pre-nesting and Nesting seasons, declined during Post-nesting season, and was lowest during Winter when water levels within impoundments were high. During these times, shallow habitat along the IRL shoreline provided alternative habitats for wading birds. Various measures of monthly precipitation and impoundment water level were well correlated with the numbers of wading birds observed. Numbers of nesting attempts was steady during the study period, with the exception of an unusually high number of attempts in 1990. White Ibis accounted for over half of all wading bird nests counted. The mean number of nests per colony decreased during the study period, and the number of individual colonies increased.

  7. Sharptooth catfish shows its metal: a case study of metal contamination at two impoundments in the Olifants River, Limpopo river system, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Antoinette; Marr, Sean M; Addo-Bediako, Abraham; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2015-02-01

    Clarias gariepinus is increasing in importance as a global aquaculture species with a 100 fold increase in production over the past decade but this species still remains one of the most important wild harvested freshwater food fish throughout rural Africa. However, this species has been shown to accumulate metals from contaminated inland waters. In this paper, the metal concentrations in muscle tissue of C. gariepinus from two main-stem impoundments in the Olifants River, Limpopo Basin, were measured and a desktop risk assessment based on the US-EPA methodology completed to evaluate whether long-term consumption of C. gariepinus from these impoundments may pose a health risk to rural communities. Our results show that metals are accumulating in the muscle tissue of C. gariepinus and have appeared to have increased in the last two decades. Risk assessment generated Hazard quotients (HQ) greater than 1 indicate that long term consumption of fish from these impoundments may cause adverse health impacts. We found that lead (HQ=9), antimony (HQ=14), cobalt (HQ=2) and chromium (HQ=1) at one impoundment and lead (HQ=2) at the other impoundment were above acceptable levels for weekly consumption of 150 g C. gariepinus muscle tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influences of local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics on fish assemblages within impoundments of low-head dams in the tributaries of the Qingyi River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian; Li, Yu-Ru; Chu, Ling; Zhu, Ren; Wang, Li-Zhu; Yan, Yun-Zhi

    2016-03-18

    Low-head dam impoundments modify local habitat and alter fish assemblages; however, to our knowledge, the pattern of how fish assemblages in the impoundments relate to local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics is still unclear. We used data collected in 62 impoundments created by low-head dams in headwater streams of the Qingyi River, China, to examine relationships between fish assemblages and local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics. We also assessed the relative importance of the three groups of factors in determining fish species richness and composition. Linear regression models showed that fish species richness was related to substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, and dam number upstream. Redundancy analysis showed that fish species compositions were influenced by substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, dam height, dam numbers upstream and downstream. Overall, dam characteristics were more important in affecting fish species richness but less important in determining fish species composition than local habitat (i.e., substrate heterogeneity) and tributary position. Our results suggest that low-head dam may affect fish species richness in impoundments by modifying local habitat and constraining fish movement, and the relative abundances of those fish species may depend more on species habitat presences and stream size than on impoundment size and number.

  9. Seismic hazard assessment of the Three Gorges Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Yunsheng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Seismic monitoring data for the past 50 years in the Three Gorges Reservoir area show that the reservoir head area is a typical weak seismic region with low seismicity before impoundment and that the epicenters were concentrated in the east and west sides of the Zigui Basin, most of which were natural tectonic earthquakes. After impoundment, the seismic activity shifted to the segment between Badong and Zigui along the Yangtze River, mainly within 5 km of the reservoir bank. The seismogenesis was categorized into four types; Karst collapse earthquakes, earthquakes caused by Karst gas explosion, mining tunnel collapse earthquakes, and rock (terrane slip earthquakes, all of which are related to the lithology, structure, and tectonics of near-surface geological bodies of the area. Compared with the seismicity before impoundment, the seismic frequency increase was remarkable, with most of the magnitudes below Ms2. 0. Therefore, the intensity of the earthquakes remained at a low level. On November 22, 2008, a magnitude 4. 1 earthquake, the largest earthquake recorded since impoundment, occurred in Quyuan Town, Zigui County. The intensity and PGA of reservoir-induced earthquakes are higher than those of tectonic earthquakes with equal magnitude, but the peak intensity of reservoir-induced earthquakes is not likely to go beyond that of the estimated range from earlier studies.

  10. Evaluating the effect of vehicle impoundment policy on illegal construction and demolition waste dumping: Israel as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, Nissim; Hareli, Shlomo; Portnov, Boris A

    2014-08-01

    Construction and demolition (C&D) waste dumped alongside roads and in open areas is a major source of soil and underground water pollution. Since 2006, Israeli ministry for environmental protection enacted a policy of vehicle impoundment (VI) according to which track drivers caught while dumping C&D waste illegally have their vehicles impounded. The present study attempted to determine whether the VI policy was effective in increasing the waste hauling to authorized landfill sites, thus limiting the number of illegal unloads of C&D waste at unauthorized landfill sites and in open areas. During the study, changes in the ratio between the monthly amount of C&D waste brought to authorized landfills sites and the estimated total amount of C&D waste generated in different administrative districts of Israel were examined, before and after the enactment of the 2006 VI policy. Short questionnaires were also distributed among local track drivers in order to determine the degree of awareness about the policy in question and estimate its deterrence effects. According to the study's results, in the district of Haifa, in which the VI policy was stringently enacted, the ratio between C&D waste, dumped in authorized landfill sites, and the total amount of generated C&D waste, increased, on the average, from 20% in January 2004 to 35% in October 2009, with the effect attributed to the number of vehicle impoundments being highly statistically significant (t=2.324; p0.1). The analysis of the questionnaires, distributed among the local truck drivers further indicated that the changes observed in the district of Haifa are not coincident and appeared to be linked to the VI policy's enactment. In particular, 62% of the truck drivers, participated in the survey, were aware of the policy and 47% of them personally knew a driver whose vehicle was impounded. Furthermore, the drivers estimated the relative risk of being caught for unloading C&D waste in unauthorized sites, on the average, as

  11. SURF: a subroutine code to draw the axonometric projection of a surface generated by a scalar function over a discretized plane domain using finite element computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, Giovanni; Giuliani, Silvano.

    1980-01-01

    The FORTRAN IV subroutine SURF has been designed to help visualising the results of Finite Element computations. It drawns the axonometric projection of a surface generated in 3-dimensional space by a scalar function over a discretized plane domain. The most important characteristic of the routine is to remove the hidden lines and in this way it enables a clear vision of the details of the generated surface

  12. Hydrologic Change during the Colonial Era of the United States: Beavers and the Energy Cost of Impoundments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M. B.; Bain, D. J.; Arrigo, J. S.; Duncan, J. M.; Kumar, S.; Parolari, A.; Salant, N.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Aloysius, N. R.; Bray, E. N.; Ruffing, C. M.; Witherell, B. B.

    2009-12-01

    Europeans colonized North America in the early 17th century with intentions ranging between long-term inhabitation and quick extraction of resources for economic gain in Europe. Whatever the intentions, the colonists relied on the landscape for resources resulting in dramatic change to the forest and fur-bearing mammal population. We demonstrate that initial exploitation of North American forest and furs caused a substantial decrease in mean water residence time (τ) between 1600 and 1800 A.D. That loss, which regionally changed from 51 to 41 days, contrasts with conventional wisdom that humans tend to diminish variability in water resources by increasing storage capacity and thus increasing τ. The loss of τ resulted from over-hunted beaver for the hat market in Europe. Analysis suggests that colonial era demographics and economics did not allow human resource allocation to impoundment construction on a level matching the historic beaver effort. However, the τ appears to have regionally increased during the 19th century, suggesting that humans eventually began replacing the water storage lost with the beaver. The analysis highlights the energy cost of impounding water, which is likely to continue to be an important factor given the increasing need for stable water resources and finite energy resources.

  13. Microcrustaceans (Branchiopoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Ponds and Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrienne E. DeBiase; Barbara E. Taylor

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  14. The Spatial Relationship and Surface Projection of Canine Sciatic Nerve and Sacrotuberous Ligament: A Perineal Hernia Repair Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri-Chhetri, Nabin; Khatri-Chhetri, Rupak; Chung, Cheng-Shu; Chern, Rey-Shyong; Chien, Chi-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Sciatic nerve entrapment can occur as post-operative complication of perineal hernia repair when sacrotuberous ligament is incorporated during hernia deficit closure. This results in sciatic sensory loss and paralysis of the hind leg. This study investigated the spatial relationship of sciatic nerve and sacrotuberous ligament and their surface topographic projection of 68 cadavers (29 Beagles and 39 Taiwanese mongrels) with various heights (25-56 cm). By gross dissection, the sacrotuberous ligament and sciatic nerve were exposed and their distance in between was measured along four parts (A, B, C, D) of sacrotuberous ligament. The present study revealed that the C was the section of sacrotuberous ligament where the sciatic nerve and the sacrotuberous ligament are closest to each other. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between C and height of the dogs. From the present study, we found that the C in smaller dogs has the shortest distance between the sciatic nerve and the sacrotuberous ligament, and thus the most vulnerable to sciatic nerve entrapment, and needs to be avoided or approached cautiously during perineal hernia repair.

  15. The Spatial Relationship and Surface Projection of Canine Sciatic Nerve and Sacrotuberous Ligament: A Perineal Hernia Repair Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabin Khatri-Chhetri

    Full Text Available Sciatic nerve entrapment can occur as post-operative complication of perineal hernia repair when sacrotuberous ligament is incorporated during hernia deficit closure. This results in sciatic sensory loss and paralysis of the hind leg. This study investigated the spatial relationship of sciatic nerve and sacrotuberous ligament and their surface topographic projection of 68 cadavers (29 Beagles and 39 Taiwanese mongrels with various heights (25-56 cm. By gross dissection, the sacrotuberous ligament and sciatic nerve were exposed and their distance in between was measured along four parts (A, B, C, D of sacrotuberous ligament. The present study revealed that the C was the section of sacrotuberous ligament where the sciatic nerve and the sacrotuberous ligament are closest to each other. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between C and height of the dogs. From the present study, we found that the C in smaller dogs has the shortest distance between the sciatic nerve and the sacrotuberous ligament, and thus the most vulnerable to sciatic nerve entrapment, and needs to be avoided or approached cautiously during perineal hernia repair.

  16. LS3MIP (v1.0) Contribution to CMIP6: The Land Surface, Snow and Soil Moisture Model Intercomparison Project Aims, Setup and Expected Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Hurk, Bart; Kim, Hyungjun; Krinner, Gerhard; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Derksen, Chris; Oki, Taikan; Douville, Herve; Colin, Jeanne; Ducharne, Agnes; Cheruy, Frederique; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Land Surface, Snow and Soil Moisture Model Intercomparison Project (LS3MIP) is designed to provide a comprehensive assessment of land surface, snow, and soil moisture feedbacks on climate variability and climate change, and to diagnose systematic biases in the land modules of current Earth System Models (ESMs). The solid and liquid water stored at the land surface has a large influence on the regional climate, its variability and predictability, including effects on the energy, water and carbon cycles. Notably, snow and soil moisture affect surface radiation and flux partitioning properties, moisture storage and land surface memory. They both strongly affect atmospheric conditions, in particular surface air temperature and precipitation, but also large-scale circulation patterns. However, models show divergent responses and representations of these feedbacks as well as systematic biases in the underlying processes. LS3MIP will provide the means to quantify the associated uncertainties and better constrain climate change projections, which is of particular interest for highly vulnerable regions (densely populated areas, agricultural regions, the Arctic, semi-arid and other sensitive terrestrial ecosystems).The experiments are subdivided in two components, the first addressing systematic land biases in offline mode (LMIP, building upon the 3rd phase of Global Soil Wetness Project; GSWP3) and the second addressing land feedbacks attributed to soil moisture and snow in an integrated framework (LFMIP, building upon the GLACE-CMIP blueprint).

  17. Surface-water-quality assessment of the upper Illinois River basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mades, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    In 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a National Water-Quality Assessment program to (1) provide nationally consistent descriptions of the current status of water quality for a large, diverse, and geographically distributed part of the Nation's surface- and ground-water resources; (2) define, where possible, trends in water quality; and (3) identify and describe the relations of both status and trends in water quality to natural factors and the history of land use and land- and waste-management activities. The program is presently in a pilot phase that will test and modify, as necessary, concepts and approaches in preparation for possible full implementation of the program in the future. The upper Illinois River basin is one of four basins selected to test the concepts and approaches of the surface-water-quality element of the national program. The basin drains 10,949 square miles of Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin. Three principal tributaries are the Kankakee and Des Plaines Rivers that join to form the Illinois River and the Fox River. Land use is predominantly agricultural; about 75 percent of the basin is cultivated primarily for production of corn and soybeans. About 13 percent of the basin is urban area, most of which is located in the Chicago metropolitan area. The population of the basin is about 7 million. About 6 million people live in the Des Plaines River basin. Many water-quality issues in the upper Illinois River basin are related to sediment, nutrients, potentially toxic inorganic and organic constituents, and to water-management practices. Occurrence of sediment and the chemical constituents in the rivers and lakes within the basin has the potential to adversely affect the water's suitability for aquatic life, recreation, or, through the consumption of fish, human health. The upper Illinois River basin project consists of five major activities. The first activity--analysis of existing information and preparation of a report that describes

  18. What is the importance of climate model bias when projecting the impacts of climate change on land surface processes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, M. L.; Rajagopalan, K.; Chung, S. H.; Jiang, X.; Harrison, J. H.; Nergui, T.; Guenther, Alex B.; Miller, C.; Reyes, J.; Tague, C. L.; Choate, J. S.; Salathe, E.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Adam, J. C.

    2014-05-16

    Regional climate change impact (CCI) studies have widely involved downscaling and bias-correcting (BC) Global Climate Model (GCM)-projected climate for driving land surface models. However, BC may cause uncertainties in projecting hydrologic and biogeochemical responses to future climate due to the impaired spatiotemporal covariance of climate variables and a breakdown of physical conservation principles. Here we quantify the impact of BC on simulated climate-driven changes in water variables(evapotranspiration, ET; runoff; snow water equivalent, SWE; and water demand for irrigation), crop yield, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC), nitric oxide (NO) emissions, and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export over the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Region. We also quantify the impacts on net primary production (NPP) over a small watershed in the region (HJ Andrews). Simulation results from the coupled ECHAM5/MPI-OM model with A1B emission scenario were firstly dynamically downscaled to 12 km resolutions with WRF model. Then a quantile mapping based statistical downscaling model was used to downscale them into 1/16th degree resolution daily climate data over historical and future periods. Two series climate data were generated according to the option of bias-correction (i.e. with bias-correction (BC) and without bias-correction, NBC). Impact models were then applied to estimate hydrologic and biogeochemical responses to both BC and NBC meteorological datasets. These im20 pact models include a macro-scale hydrologic model (VIC), a coupled cropping system model (VIC-CropSyst), an ecohydrologic model (RHESSys), a biogenic emissions model (MEGAN), and a nutrient export model (Global-NEWS). Results demonstrate that the BC and NBC climate data provide consistent estimates of the climate-driven changes in water fluxes (ET, runoff, and water demand), VOCs (isoprene and monoterpenes) and NO emissions, mean crop yield, and river DIN export over the PNW domain. However

  19. Space-based Lidar Measurements of Greenhouse Gases and Their Projected Impact on Quantification of Surface Sources and Sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Baker, D. F.; Chatterjee, A.; Crowell, S.

    2016-12-01

    The measurement of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG), principally CO2 and CH4, from space using active (lidar) sensing techniques has several potentially significant advantages in comparison to missions using passive instrument approaches. A great deal of progress has been made in development of the active methods since the US National Academy of Sciences (NAS) 2007 Decadal Survey recommended the ASCENDS mission (Active Sensing of Carbon Emissions, Nights, Days, and Seasons) for NASA's next generation CO2 observing system. Active GHG missions remain in consideration by the current NAS Decadal Survey for Earth Science 2017. In this presentation, we update the measurement characteristics expected for active GHG sensing, test how these measurements will enhance our ability to quantify GHG surface fluxes, and examine the potential role of active sensing to address carbon cycle issues as required for confident projection of carbon-climate interactions. Over the past decade, laser CO2 instrument concepts, retrieval approaches, and measurement techniques have matured significantly, driven by technology advances and by analysis of data from airborne simulators. Performance simulations updated to match the latest developments show substantially lower random errors, better spatial resolution, and more information content for global XCO2 data than just a few years ago. Observing System Simulation Experiments using global flux inversion models show corresponding improvements in resolving surface fluxes and reducing flux uncertainties for the expected lidar data. Simulations including prospective systematic (bias) errors, which are expected to be lesser for the lidar system compared to passive measurements, provide guidance for instrument design requirements. We will comment on the impact of errors in knowledge of the atmospheric state including the need for coincident measurements of O2 column in order to normalize the column abundances to dry air mole fraction. We will also

  20. On the frequency distributions per unit area of the projected and etchable lengths of surface-intersecting fission tracks: influences of track revelation, observation and measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Jonckheere, R

    1999-01-01

    In addition to the statistical bounds discussed, thermal history analysis based on the projected and etchable length distributions of surface intersecting fission tracks is limited by systematic factors related to track revelation, observation and measurement. The effects of track revelation, in particular, distort these distributions in the length intervals of interest. An observation threshold poses a problem if it is described by a critical angle theta sub c , but not if it is described by other criteria proposed in the literature. Measurement imprecisions, predictably, blur the thermal history information contained in these distributions. Measurements of semi-confined tracks, added as a result of surface etching, are a more promising alternative to confined track length measurements for accessing the thermal history record in the fission track length distribution. On the other hand, measurements of the projected lengths of surface intersecting tracks offer the theoretical possibility of determining the tr...

  1. The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (Tentative name) Project. A program on survey and research performed from earth surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (Tentative name) Project under planning at Horonobe-machi by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) is a research facility on deep underground shown in the Long-term program on research, development and application of nuclear energy (June, 1994)' (LPNE), where some researches on the deep underground targeted at sedimentary rocks are carried out. The plan on The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory performed at Horonobe-machi' is an about 20 years plan ranging from beginning to finishing of its survey and research, which is carried out by three steps such as 'Survey and research performed from earth surface', 'Survey and research performed under excavation of road', and Survey and research performed by using the road'. The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory is one of research facilities on deep underground shown its importance in LPNE, and carries out some researches on the deep underground at a target of the sedimentary rocks. And also The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory confirms some technical reliability and support on stratum disposal shown in the 'Technical reliability on stratum disposal of the high level radioactive wastes. The Second Progress Report of R and D on geological disposal' summarized on November, 1999 by JNC through actual tests and researches at the deep stratum. The obtained results are intended to reflect to disposal business of The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory and safety regulation and so on performed by the government, together with results of stratum science research, at the Tono Geoscience Center, of geological disposal R and D at the Tokai Works, or of international collaborations. For R and D at the The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory after 2000, following subjects are shown: 1) Survey technique on long-term stability of geological environment, 2) Survey technique on geological environment, 3) Engineering technique on engineered barrier and

  2. A long-term comparison of carbon sequestration rates in impounded and naturally tidal freshwater marshes along the lower Waccamaw River, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Judith Z.; Krauss, Ken W.; Sasser, M. Craig; Fuller, Christopher C.; Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Powell, Amber; Swanson, Kathleen M.; Orlando, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon storage was compared between impounded and naturally tidal freshwater marshes along the Lower Waccamaw River in South Carolina, USA. Soil cores were collected in (1) naturally tidal, (2) moist soil (impounded, seasonally drained since ~1970), and (3) deeply flooded “treatments” (impounded, flooded to ~90 cm since ~2002). Cores were analyzed for % organic carbon, % total carbon, bulk density, and 210Pb and 137Cs for dating purposes. Carbon sequestration rates ranged from 25 to 200 g C m−2 yr−1 (moist soil), 80–435 g C m−2 yr−1 (naturally tidal), and 100–250 g C m−2 yr−1 (deeply flooded). The moist soil and naturally tidal treatments were compared over a period of 40 years. The naturally tidal treatment had significantly higher carbon storage (mean = 219 g C m−2 yr−1 vs. mean = 91 g C m−2 yr−1) and four times the vertical accretion rate (mean = 0.84 cm yr−1 vs. mean = 0.21 cm yr−1) of the moist soil treatment. The results strongly suggest that the long drainage period in moist soil management limits carbon storage over time. Managers across the National Wildlife Refuge system have an opportunity to increase carbon storage by minimizing drainage in impoundments as much as practicable.

  3. Water-quality study of Tulpehocken Creek, Berks County, Pennsylvania, prior to impoundment of Blue Marsh Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, James L.

    1977-01-01

    Blue Marsh Lake is planned as a multipurpose impoundment to be constructed on Tulpehocken Creek near Bernville, Berks County, Pennsylvania. Prior to construction, samples of water, bed material, and soil were collected throughout the impoundment site to determine concentrations of nutrients, insecticides, trace metals, suspended sediment, and bacteria. Analyses of water suggest the Tulpehocken Creek basin to be a highly fertile environment. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations near the proposed dam site had median values of 4.5 and 0.13 mg/L, respectively. Suspended sediment discharges average between 100 and 200 tons (90.7 to 181.4 metric tons) per day during normal flows but may exceed 10,000 tons (9,070 metric tons) per day during storm runoff. Highest yields were measured during winter and early spring. Concentrations range from 3 mg/L to more than 500 mg/L. Bed material samples contain trace quantities of aldrin, DDT, DDD, DDE, dieldrin, and chlordane. Polychlorinated biphyenyls (PCB's) ranged from 10 to 100 μg/kg. Soils at the impoundment site are of average fertility. However, the silt loam texture is ideal for attachment and growth of aquatic plants. Bacteria populations indicative of recent fecal contamination are prevalent in the major inflows to the proposed lake. Fecal Coliform exceeded the standards recommended by the Federal Water Pollution Administration Committee on Water Quality Criteria for public water supply in 29 percent of the monthly samples, and exceeded the recommended public bathing waters standard in 83 percent of the samples collected from June to September. Arsenic from an industrial waste was found in the water, suspended sediment, and bed material of Tulpehocken Creek in concentrations of 0 to 30 μg/l, 2 to 879 μg/l, and 1 to 79 μg/g, respectively. It represents a potential environmental hazard; however, the measured concentrations are less than that known to be harmful to man, fish, or wildlife, according to published water

  4. Environmental Audit of the Grand Junction Projects Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    The Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) is located in Mesa County, Colorado, immediately south and west of the Grand Junction city limits. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established the Colorado Raw Materials Office at the present-day Grand Junction Projects Office in 1947, to aid in the development of a viable domestic uranium industry. Activities at the site included sampling uranium concentrate; pilot-plant milling research, including testing and processing of uranium ores; and operation of a uranium mill pilot plant from 1954 to 1958. The last shipment of uranium concentrate was sent from GJPO in January, 1975. Since that time the site has been utilized to support various DOE programs, such as the former National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), and the Technical Measurements Center (TMC). All known contamination at GJPO is believed to be the result of the past uranium milling, analyses, and storage activities. Hazards associated with the wastes impounded at GJPO include surface and ground-water contamination and potential radon and gamma-radiation exposure. This report documents the results of the Baseline Environmental Audit conducted at Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) located in Grand Junction, Colorado. The Grand Junction Baseline Environmental Audit was conducted from May 28 to June 12, 1991, by the Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). This Audit evaluated environmental programs and activities at GJPO, as well as GJPO activities at the State-Owned Temporary Repository. 4 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Environmental Audit of the Grand Junction Projects Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    The Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) is located in Mesa County, Colorado, immediately south and west of the Grand Junction city limits. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established the Colorado Raw Materials Office at the present-day Grand Junction Projects Office in 1947, to aid in the development of a viable domestic uranium industry. Activities at the site included sampling uranium concentrate; pilot-plant milling research, including testing and processing of uranium ores; and operation of a uranium mill pilot plant from 1954 to 1958. The last shipment of uranium concentrate was sent from GJPO in January, 1975. Since that time the site has been utilized to support various DOE programs, such as the former National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), and the Technical Measurements Center (TMC). All known contamination at GJPO is believed to be the result of the past uranium milling, analyses, and storage activities. Hazards associated with the wastes impounded at GJPO include surface and ground-water contamination and potential radon and gamma-radiation exposure. This report documents the results of the Baseline Environmental Audit conducted at Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) located in Grand Junction, Colorado. The Grand Junction Baseline Environmental Audit was conducted from May 28 to June 12, 1991, by the Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). This Audit evaluated environmental programs and activities at GJPO, as well as GJPO activities at the State-Owned Temporary Repository. 4 figs., 12 tabs

  6. Overview of a large-scale bioremediation soil treatment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stechmann, R.

    1991-01-01

    How long does it take to remediate 290,000 yd 3 of impacted soil containing an average total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration of 3,000 ppm? Approximately 15 months from start to end of treatment using bioremediation. Mittelhauser was retained by the seller of the property (a major oil company) as technical manager to supervise remediation of a 45-ac parcel in the Los Angeles basin. Mittelhauser completed site characterization, negotiated clean-up levels with the regulatory agencies, and prepared the remedial action plan (RAP) with which the treatment approach was approved and permitted. The RAP outlined the excavation, treatment, and recompaction procedures for the impacted soil resulting from leakage of bunker fuel oil from a large surface impoundment. The impacted soil was treated on site in unline Land Treatment Units (LTUs) in 18-in.-thick lifts. Due to space restraints, multiple lifts site. The native microbial population was cultivated using soil stabilization mixing equipment with the application of water and agricultural grade fertilizers. Costs on this multimillion dollar project are broken down as follows: general contractor cost (47%), bioremediation subcontractor cost (35%), site characterization (10%), technical management (7%), analytical services (3%), RAP preparation and permitting (1%), and civil engineering subcontractor cost (1%). Start-up of field work could have been severely impacted by the existence of Red Fox habitation. The foxes were successfully relocated prior to start of field work

  7. Uptake of uranium, thorium and radium isotopes by plants growing in dam impoundment Tasotkel and the Lower Shu region (Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveyeva, Ilona; Burkitbayev, Mukhambetkali [al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan). Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology; Jacimovic, Radojko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Planinsek, Petra; Smodis, Borut [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-04-01

    The activity concentrations of isotopes of uranium, thorium and radium-226 in dominant species of plants (Xantium strumarium, Phragmites communis, Artemisia nitrosa and Artemisia serotina) growing on the territories contaminated by uranium industry of Kazakhstan (close to dam impoundment Tasotkel and the Lower Shu region) are presented. The obtained data showed the significant variations of activity concentrations of isotopes of uranium, thorium and radium-226 in above ground parts. The concentrations of most of the investigated radionuclides in the root system are higher than in the aboveground parts; it can be explained by root barrier. It was found that the highest root barrier has Xantium strumarium, especially for uranium isotopes. The concentration ratios of radionuclides were calculated, and as the result it was found that the highest accumulation ability in the investigated region has Artemisia serotina.

  8. Proceedings of the 15. annual British Columbia MEND ML/ARD workshop : the management of tailings and tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    This Mine Environment Neutral Drainage (MEND) workshop was held to promote the exchange of information and ideas on environmental protection and reclamation associated with mining. The workshop covered a broad spectrum of reclamation issues and the key environmental challenges facing the mining industry, such as acid mine drainage (AMD) control, and metal leaching and acid rock drainage (ML/ARD). The theme for the 2008 workshop was the management of tailings and tailings impoundments. Topics of discussion included hydrogeology and geochemistry; tailings disposal; mitigation; closure plans; and postclosure performance. The emphasis was on full-scale case studies, practical constraints and sustaining successful disposal strategies and remediation. The session on tailings management reviewed overarching policies and practices; methods of subaerial tailings disposal and case studies of tailings management; and detailed investigations of geochemical properties and processes. The conference featured 22 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Summary and evaluation of existing geological and geophysical data near prospective surface facilities in Midway Valley, Yucca Mountain Project, Nye County, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Bullard, T.F.; Perman, R.C.; Angell, M.M.; DiSilvestro, L.A. [Geomatrix Consultants, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Midway Valley, located at the eastern base of the Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada, is the preferred location of the surface facilities for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. One goal in siting these surface facilities is to avoid faults that could produce relative displacements in excess of 5 cm in the foundations of the waste-handling buildings. This study reviews existing geologic and geophysical data that can be used to assess the potential for surface fault rupture within Midway Valley. Dominant tectonic features in Midway Valley are north-trending, westward-dipping normal faults along the margins of the valley: the Bow Ridge fault to the west and the Paintbrush Canyon fault to the east. Published estimates of average Quaternary slip rates for these faults are very low but the age of most recent displacement and the amount of displacement per event are largely unknown. Surface mapping and interpretive cross sections, based on limited drillhole and geophysical data, suggest that additional normal faults, including the postulated Midway Valley fault, may exist beneath the Quaternary/Tertiary fill within the valley. Existing data, however, are inadequate to determine the location, recency, and geometry of this faulting. To confidently assess the potential for significant Quaternary faulting in Midway Valley, additional data are needed that define the stratigraphy and structure of the strata beneath the valley, characterize the Quaternary soils and surfaces, and establish the age of faulting. The use of new and improved geophysical techniques, combined with a drilling program, offers the greatest potential for resolving subsurface structure in the valley. Mapping of surficial geologic units and logging of soil pits and trenches within these units must be completed, using accepted state-of-the-art practices supported by multiple quantitative numerical and relative age-dating techniques.

  10. The method ADAMONT v1.0 for statistical adjustment of climate projections applicable to energy balance land surface models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Verfaillie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the method ADAMONT v1.0 to adjust and disaggregate daily climate projections from a regional climate model (RCM using an observational dataset at hourly time resolution. The method uses a refined quantile mapping approach for statistical adjustment and an analogous method for sub-daily disaggregation. The method ultimately produces adjusted hourly time series of temperature, precipitation, wind speed, humidity, and short- and longwave radiation, which can in turn be used to force any energy balance land surface model. While the method is generic and can be employed for any appropriate observation time series, here we focus on the description and evaluation of the method in the French mountainous regions. The observational dataset used here is the SAFRAN meteorological reanalysis, which covers the entire French Alps split into 23 massifs, within which meteorological conditions are provided for several 300 m elevation bands. In order to evaluate the skills of the method itself, it is applied to the ALADIN-Climate v5 RCM using the ERA-Interim reanalysis as boundary conditions, for the time period from 1980 to 2010. Results of the ADAMONT method are compared to the SAFRAN reanalysis itself. Various evaluation criteria are used for temperature and precipitation but also snow depth, which is computed by the SURFEX/ISBA-Crocus model using the meteorological driving data from either the adjusted RCM data or the SAFRAN reanalysis itself. The evaluation addresses in particular the time transferability of the method (using various learning/application time periods, the impact of the RCM grid point selection procedure for each massif/altitude band configuration, and the intervariable consistency of the adjusted meteorological data generated by the method. Results show that the performance of the method is satisfactory, with similar or even better evaluation metrics than alternative methods. However, results for air temperature are generally

  11. The method ADAMONT v1.0 for statistical adjustment of climate projections applicable to energy balance land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfaillie, Deborah; Déqué, Michel; Morin, Samuel; Lafaysse, Matthieu

    2017-11-01

    We introduce the method ADAMONT v1.0 to adjust and disaggregate daily climate projections from a regional climate model (RCM) using an observational dataset at hourly time resolution. The method uses a refined quantile mapping approach for statistical adjustment and an analogous method for sub-daily disaggregation. The method ultimately produces adjusted hourly time series of temperature, precipitation, wind speed, humidity, and short- and longwave radiation, which can in turn be used to force any energy balance land surface model. While the method is generic and can be employed for any appropriate observation time series, here we focus on the description and evaluation of the method in the French mountainous regions. The observational dataset used here is the SAFRAN meteorological reanalysis, which covers the entire French Alps split into 23 massifs, within which meteorological conditions are provided for several 300 m elevation bands. In order to evaluate the skills of the method itself, it is applied to the ALADIN-Climate v5 RCM using the ERA-Interim reanalysis as boundary conditions, for the time period from 1980 to 2010. Results of the ADAMONT method are compared to the SAFRAN reanalysis itself. Various evaluation criteria are used for temperature and precipitation but also snow depth, which is computed by the SURFEX/ISBA-Crocus model using the meteorological driving data from either the adjusted RCM data or the SAFRAN reanalysis itself. The evaluation addresses in particular the time transferability of the method (using various learning/application time periods), the impact of the RCM grid point selection procedure for each massif/altitude band configuration, and the intervariable consistency of the adjusted meteorological data generated by the method. Results show that the performance of the method is satisfactory, with similar or even better evaluation metrics than alternative methods. However, results for air temperature are generally better than for

  12. Surface modification of materials by ion implantations for industrial and medical applications. Final report of a co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of the Co-ordinated Research Project on Modification of Materials by Ion Treatment for Industrial Applications were to develop economically acceptable surface modification techniques leading to thick treated layers, to predict ion beam mixing and impurity atom migration during and after implantation, and to evaluate the tribological post-implantation properties and performance of treated components. This TECDOC summarises the current status and prospects in surface modification by ion implantation methodology and technology, providing new information in basic and applied research

  13. Bear Creek Project. Final environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The Bear Creek Project consists of certain mining and milling operations involving uranium ore deposits located in Converse County, Wyoming. Mining of uranium from nine known ore bodies will take place over a period of ten years (estimated); a mill with a nominal capacity of 1000 tons per day of ore will be constructed and operated as long as ore is available. The waste material (tailings) from the mill, also produced at a rate of about 1000 tons per day, will be stored onsite in an impoundment. Environmental impacts and adverse effects are summarized

  14. Downscaled projections of Sea Surface Temperatures and Degree Heating Weeks in the wider Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Projections of the onset of annual coral bleaching conditions in the Caribbean under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 are produced using an ensemble of...

  15. Optical Interferometry with Flexible Coherent Fiber Bundle for Measuring Deposits or Contamination on Surfaces and Inside Tubes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project involves a demonstration for a new environmentally safe and accurate cleaning method for removing contaminants (oil films, fungi,) in enclosed areas...

  16. Final report for the project "Improving the understanding of surface-atmosphere radiative interactions by mapping surface reflectance over the ARM CART site" (award DE-FG02-02ER63351)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander P. Trishchenko; Yi Luo; Konstantin V. Khlopenkov, William M. Park; Zhanqing Li; Maureen Cribb

    2008-11-28

    Surface spectral reflectance (albedo) is a fundamental variable affecting the transfer of solar radiation and the Earth’s climate. It determines the proportion of solar energy absorbed by the surface and reflected back to the atmosphere. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) identified surface albedo among key factors influencing climate radiative forcing. Accurate knowledge of surface reflective properties is important for advancing weather forecasting and climate change impact studies. It is also important for determining radiative impact and acceptable levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which makes this work strongly linked to major scientific objectives of the Climate Change Research Division (CCRD) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Most significant accomplishments of eth project are listed below. I) Surface albedo/BRDF datasets from 1995 to the end of 2004 have been produced. They were made available to the ARM community and other interested users through the CCRS public ftp site ftp://ftp.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca/ad/CCRS_ARM/ and ARM IOP data archive under “PI data Trishchenko”. II) Surface albedo properties over the ARM SGP area have been described for 10-year period. Comparison with ECMWF data product showed some deficiencies in the ECMWF surface scheme, such as missing some seasonal variability and no dependence on sky-conditions which biases surface energy budget and has some influence of the diurnal cycle of upward radiation and atmospheric absorption. III) Four surface albedo Intensive Observation Period (IOP) Field Campaigns have been conducted for every season (August, 2002, May 2003, February 2004 and October 2004). Data have been prepared, documented and transferred to ARM IOP archive. Nine peer-reviewed journal papers and 26 conference papers have been published.

  17. Performance of engineered barrier materials in near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste. Results of a co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    The primary objectives of the CRP were to: promote the sharing of experiences of the Member States in their application of engineered barrier materials for near surface disposal facilities; help enhance their use of engineered barriers by improving techniques and methods for selecting, planning and testing performance of various types of barrier materials for near surface disposal facilities. The objective of this publication is to provide and overview of technical issues related to the engineered barrier systems and a summary of the major findings of each individual research project that was carried out within the framework of the CRP. This publication deals with a general overview of engineered barriers in near surface disposal facilities, key technical information obtained within the CRP and overall conclusions and recommendations for future research and development activities. Appendices presenting individual research accomplishments are also provided. Each of the 13 appendices was indexed separately

  18. Water pollution abatement programme. The Czech Republic. Project 4.2. Assessing critical loads of acidity to surface waters in The Czech Republic. Critical loads of acidity to surface waters, Northern Moravia and Silesia, The Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lien, L.; Raclavsky, K.; Henriksen, A.; Raclavska, H.; Matysek, D.

    1994-12-31

    The governments of Norway and Czech and Slovak Federal Republic have signed a bilateral environmental protection agreement. This report describes Project 4.2 of the agreement: Assessing critical loads of acidity to surface waters in The Czech Republic. Critical load of acidity to surface waters and exceedance of critical load were estimated by using standard methods modified for the sampling area. Water samples were mainly taken from small forest streams, which were the only available surface waters with negligible pollution from local sources. High critical loads were calculated, averaging 20 times higher than the corresponding value for southern Norway. The deposition of acidifying components in the region was high, but did not exceed the critical load and so there is a reserve for additional acid deposition. Scattered water analyses from several other parts of The Czech Republic indicate both low critical loads and exceedance of critical load in various regions (e.g. Bohemia). 21 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Silicon Carbide Semiconductor Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge (SSDBD) Device for Turbulent Skin Friction Drag Reduction and Flow Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research effort explores the use of a nanosecond pulse driven offset semiconducting surface dielectric barrier discharge (SSDBD) device for the control...

  20. 33 CFR 220.1 - Low level discharge facilities for drawdown of impoundments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Information should be included on the pool elevation and corresponding storage volume at end of the period. (2... impracticable to provide the drawdown capability to meet the criteria for certain projects because of their size... upon presentation of information in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section. (d) Design criteria...

  1. Effects of a drawdown on plant communities in a freshwater impoundment at Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Allain, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Disturbance is an important natural process in the creation and maintenance of wetlands. Water depth manipulation and prescribed fire are two types of disturbance commonly used by humans to influence vegetation succession and composition in wetlands with the intention of improving wildlife habitat value. A 6,475-hectare (ha) impoundment was constructed in 1943 on Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge in southwest Louisiana to create freshwater wetlands as wintering waterfowl habitat. Ten years after construction of the impoundment, called Lacassine pool, was completed, refuge staff began expressing concerns about increasing emergent vegetation cover, organic matter accumulation, and decreasing area of open water within the pool. Because the presence of permanent standing water impedes actions that can address these concerns, a small impoundment within the pool where it was possible to manipulate water depth was created. The 283-ha subimpoundment called Unit D was constructed in 1989. Water was pumped from Unit D in 1990, and the unit was permanently reflooded about 3 years later. Four prescribed fires were applied during the drawdown. A study was initiated in 1990 to investigate the effect of the experimental drawdown on vegetation and soils in Unit D. Four plant community types were described, and cores were collected to measure the depth of the soil organic layer. A second study of Unit D was conducted in 1997, 4 years after the unit was reflooded, by using the same plots and similar sampling methods. This report presents an analysis and synthesis of the data from the two studies and provides an evaluation of the impact of the management techniques applied. We found that plant community characteristics often differed among the four communities and varied with time. Species richness increased in two of the communities, and total aboveground biomass increased in all four during the drawdown. These changes, however, did not persist when Unit D was reflooded; by 1997

  2. Synchronous response of sedimentary organic carbon accumulation on the inner shelf of the East China Sea to the water impoundment of Three Gorges and Gezhouba Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia; Zhu, Qing; Hong, Yuehui; Yuan, Lirong; Liu, Jinzhong; Xu, Xiaoming; Wang, Jianghai

    2018-01-01

    Coastal seas, located between continents and the open ocean, are an important active carbon pool. The sedimentary total organic carbon (TOC) in these areas is a mixture of terrestrial and marine sources, and can be a powerful proxy for tracing natural processes and human activities. In this study, one fine-grained sediment core (DH5-1) from the inner shelf of the East China Sea was systematically analyzed for TOC and black carbon (BC) contents and TOC stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C). By combining these data with 210Pb dating, an improved carbon correction model and a two end-member mixing model, we reconstructed century-scale high-resolution sequences of corrected TOC, terrestrial TOC and marine TOC contents and identified two carbon depletion events in the DH5-1 record. The two events, shown as two minima in the TOC profiles, correspond temporally to 1985-1987 AD and 2003-2006 AD, which exactly matches the water impoundment of the Gezhouba Dam and Three Gorges Dam, respectively. In addition, the variations in TOC contents and δ13C values before, during or after the minima demonstrate a relationship between the depletion events and water impoundment of the dams on the Changjiang River. The TOC reductions may represent synchronous responses of sedimentary TOC and resultant ecological effects on the inner shelf of the East China Sea to the water impoundment of the dams. These new TOC records reflect the interaction between natural and anthropogenic processes and, accordingly, provide a deep insight and important references for assessing marine ecological effects resulting from water impoundment of largescale dams.

  3. 30 CFR 784.16 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND... with assistance from experts in related fields such as landscape architecture; (ii) Contain a... related fields such as geology, land surveying, and landscape architecture; (B) Include any geotechnical...

  4. 30 CFR 780.25 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND..., with assistance from experts in related fields such as landscape architecture; (ii) Contain a... related fields such as geology, land surveying, and landscape architecture; (B) Include any geotechnical...

  5. Overland erosion of uranium-mill-tailings impoundments: physical processes and computational methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, M.H.

    1983-03-01

    The surface runoff and erosional processes of watersheds caused by rainfall-runoff are reviewed. Soil properties, topography, and rainstorm distribution are discussed with respect to their effects on soil erosion. The effects of climate and vegetation are briefly presented. Regression models and physical process simulation models are reviewed

  6. Spacecraft charging investigation for the CTS project. [electric insulator surface tests by electron bombardment for Communications Technology Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.; Lovell, R. R.; Gore, V.

    1975-01-01

    Results to date are presented for a program of analytical and experimental investigations to assess the impact of discharge pulses from spacecraft surfaces in the joint Canadian-American Communications Technology Satellite (CTS). All insulator surfaces tested experienced visible discharges when subjected to an electron beam with energy greater than 10 keV. Discharge rate was found to be a function of current flux. The deployable solar array sample experienced discharges under bombardment from the cell or kapton side. There was no measurable cell performance degradation due to the discharges.

  7. Resource use by the facultative lepidophage Roeboides affinis (Günther, 1868: a comparison of size classes, seasons and environment types related to impoundment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam P. Albrecht

    Full Text Available We report the consumption of scales and other food resources by the facultative lepidophage Roeboides affinis in the upper Tocantins River where it was impounded by the Serra da Mesa Hydroelectric Dam. We compared the diet among size classes, between dry and wet seasons, and between sites with distinct water flow characteristics (lotic vs. lentic related to the distance from the dam and phase of reservoir development. As transparency and fish abundance increased after impoundment, we expected a higher consumption of scales in lentic sites. Likewise, habitat contraction, higher transparency and decrease in terrestrial resources availability, would promote a higher consumption of scales. Scales were consumed by 92% of individuals and represented 26% of the total volume of resources ingested by R. affinis. Diet composition varied significantly among size classes, with larger individuals consuming more scales and larger items, especially odonatans and ephemeropterans. Scale consumption was not significantly different between dry and wet seasons. Roeboides affinis incorporated some food items into the diet as a response to the impoundment, like other species. Scale consumption was higher in lotic sites, refuting our initial hypothesis, what suggests that the lepidophagous habit is related the rheophilic nature of R. affinis.

  8. Geochemical characterisation of seepage and drainage water quality from two sulphide mine tailings impoundments: Acid mine drainage versus neutral mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, P.M.; Raisanen, M.L.; Johnson, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Seepage water and drainage water geochemistry (pH, EC, O2, redox, alkalinity, dissolved cations and trace metals, major anions, total element concentrations) were studied at two active sulphide mine tailings impoundments in Finland (the Hitura Ni mine and Luikonlahti Cu mine/talc processing plant). The data were used to assess the factors influencing tailings seepage quality and to identify constraints for water treatment. Changes in seepage water quality after equilibration with atmospheric conditions were evaluated based on geochemical modelling. At Luikonlahti, annual and seasonal changes were also studied. Seepage quality was largely influenced by the tailings mineralogy, and the serpentine-rich, low sulphide Hitura tailings produced neutral mine drainage with high Ni. In contrast, drainage from the high sulphide, multi-metal tailings of Luikonlahti represented typical acid mine drainage with elevated contents of Zn, Ni, Cu, and Co. Other factors affecting the seepage quality included weathering of the tailings along the seepage flow path, process water input, local hydrological settings, and structural changes in the tailings impoundment. Geochemical modelling showed that pH increased and some heavy metals were adsorbed to Fe precipitates after net alkaline waters equilibrated with the atmosphere. In the net acidic waters, pH decreased and no adsorption occurred. A combination of aerobic and anaerobic treatments is proposed for Hitura seepages to decrease the sulphate and metal loading. For Luikonlahti, prolonged monitoring of the seepage quality is suggested instead of treatment, since the water quality is still adjusting to recent modifications to the tailings impoundment.

  9. Downstream effects of the Pelton-Round Butte hydroelectric project on bedload, transport, channel morphology, and channel-bed texture, lower Deschutes River, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi Fassnacht; Ellen M. McClure; Gordon E. Grant; Peter C. Klingeman

    2003-01-01

    Field, laboratory, and historical data provide the basis for interpreting the effects of the Pelton-Round Butte dam complex on the surface water hydrology and geomorphology of the lower Deschutes River, Oregon, USA. The river's response to upstream impoundment and flow regulation is evaluated in terms of changes in predicted bedload transport rates, channel...

  10. Twenty-first century wave climate projections for Ireland and surface winds in the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Sarah; Gleeson, Emily; Tiron, Roxana; McGrath, Ray; Dias, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Ireland has a highly energetic wave and wind climate, and is therefore uniquely placed in terms of its ocean renewable energy resource. The socio-economic importance of the marine resource to Ireland makes it critical to quantify how the wave and wind climate may change in the future due to global climate change. Projected changes in winds, ocean waves and the frequency and severity of extreme weather events should be carefully assessed for long-term marine and coastal planning. We derived an ensemble of future wave climate projections for Ireland using the EC-Earth global climate model and the WAVEWATCH III® wave model, by comparing the future 30-year period 2070-2099 to the period 1980-2009 for the RCP4.5 and the RCP8.5 forcing scenarios. This dataset is currently the highest resolution wave projection dataset available for Ireland. The EC-Earth ensemble predicts decreases in mean (up to 2 % for RCP4.5 and up to 3.5 % for RCP8.5) 10 m wind speeds over the North Atlantic Ocean (5-75° N, 0-80° W) by the end of the century, which will consequently affect swell generation for the Irish wave climate. The WAVEWATCH III® model predicts an overall decrease in annual and seasonal mean significant wave heights around Ireland, with the largest decreases in summer (up to 15 %) and winter (up to 10 %) for RCP8.5. Projected decreases in mean significant wave heights for spring and autumn were found to be small for both forcing scenarios (less than 5 %), with no significant decrease found for RCP4.5 off the west coast in those seasons.

  11. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-4, Angle Measurement Instruments, Optical Projections and Surface Texture Gages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleck, Ben; Espy, John

    This fourth in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology describes the universal bevel protractor and the sine bar, the engineering microscope and optical projector, and several types of surface texture gages. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3)…

  12. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  13. DC resistivity and IP methods in acid mine drainage problems: results from the Copper Cliff mine tailings impoundments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuval, Douglas; Oldenburg, W.

    1996-04-01

    Oxidation of sulfide minerals in the mine tailings impoundments at Copper Cliff, Ontario generates acidic conditions and elevated concentrations of dissolved metals and sulfates in the pore water. The pore water migrates away from the tailings to pose a potential environmental hazard if is should reach nearby water systems. There is a need to characterize this potential environmental problem and to assess the future hazards. A combined DC resistivity and induced polarization (IP) survey was carried out along one of the major flowpaths in the tailings and the data were inverted to produce detailed electrical conductivity and chargeability structures of the cross-section below the survey line. The conductivity distributions are directly translated, through theoretical and empirical relations, to a map of the concentration of the total dissolved solids (TDS) along the cross-section and thereby provide insight about the in-situ pore water quality. The sulfide minerals are the source of the IP response and, thus, when combined with borehole data, the chargeability model can be used to estimate the amount and distribution of the sulfides.

  14. Joint Retrieval Of Surface Reflectance And Aerosol Properties: Application To MSG/SEVIRI in the framework of the aerosol_cci project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luffarelli, Marta; Govaerts, Yves; Goossens, Cedric

    2017-04-01

    A new versatile algorithm for the joint retrieval of surface reflectance and aerosol properties has been developed and tested at Rayference. This algorithm, named Combined Inversion of Surface and Aerosols (CISAR), includes a fast physically-based Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) accounting for the surface reflectance anisotropy and its coupling with aerosol scattering. This RTM explicitly solves the radiative transfer equation during the inversion process, without relying on pre-calculated integrals stored in LUT, allowing for a continuous variation of the state variables in the solution space. The inversion is based on a Optimal Estimation (OE) approach, which seeks for the best balance between the information coming from the observation and the a priori information. The a priori information is any additional knowledge on the observed system and it can concern the magnitude of the state variable or constraints on temporal and spectral variability. Both observations and priori information are provided with the corresponding uncertainty. For each processed spectral band, CISAR delivers the surface Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF) and aerosol optical thickness, discriminating the effects of small and large particles. It also provides the associated uncertainty covariance matrix for every processed pixels. In the framework of the ESA aerosol_cci project, CISAR is applied on TOA BRF acquired by SEVIRI onboard Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) in the VIS0.6, VIS0.8 and NIR1.6 spectral bands. SEVIRI observations are accumulated during several days to document the surface anisotropy and minimize the impact of clouds. While surface radiative properties are supposed constant during this accumulation period, aerosol properties are derived on an hourly basis. The information content of each MSG/SEVIRI band will be provided based on the analysis of the posterior uncertainty covariance matrix. The analysis will demonstrate in particular the capability of CISAR to decouple

  15. Reconnaissance of the chemical quality of surface waters of the Neches River basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Leon S.; Leifeste, Donald K.

    1967-01-01

    with less than 30 ppm hardness. The chloride concentrations are less than 20 ppm in surface water in the southern half of the basin and usually range from 20 to 100 ppm in the northern half of the basin. Concentrations greater than 100 ppm are found only where pollution is occurring. The Neches River basin has an abundance of surface water, but uneven distribution of runoff makes storage projects necessary to provide dependable water supplies. The principal existing reservoirs, with the exception of Striker Creek Reservoir, contain water of excellent quality. Chemical-quality data for the Striker Creek drainage area indicate that its streams are affected by .the disposal of brines associated with oil production. Sam Rayburn Reservoir began impounding water in 1965. The water impounded should prove of acceptable quality for most uses, but municipal and industrial wastes released into the Angelina River near Lufkin may have a degrading effect on the quality of the water, especially during extended periods of low flows. Water available for storage at the many potential reservoir sites will be of good quality; but, if the proposed salt-water barrier is to impound acceptable water, the disposal of oilfield brine into Pine Island Bayou should be discontinued.

  16. Project test plan for runoff and erosion on fine-soil barrier surfaces and rock-covered side slopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Hoover, K.A.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1990-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company are working together to develop protective barriers to isolate near-surface radioactive waste. The purpose of the barriers is to protect defense wastes at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site from infiltration of precipitation, biointrusion, and surficial erosion for up to 10,000 years without the need for long-term monitoring, maintenance, or institutional control. The barriers will be constructed of layered earth and rock material designed to direct surface and groundwater pathways away from the buried waste. To address soil erosion as it applies to barrier design and long-term stability, a task designed to study this problem has been included in the Protective Barriers Program at PNL. The barrier soil-erosion task will investigate the ability of the soil cover and side slopes to resist the erosional and destabilizing processes from externally applied water. The study will include identification and field testing of the dominant processes contributing to erosion and barrier failure. The effects of rock mulches, vegetation cover on the top fine-grained soil surface, as well as the stability of rock armoring on the side slopes, will be evaluated. Some of the testing will include the effects of animal intrusion on barrier erosion, and these will be coordinated with other animal intrusion studies. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Off-line ionization tests using the surface and the plasma ion sources of the SPES project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzolaro, M.; Vasquez, J.; Montano, J.; Andrighetto, A.; Scarpa, D.; Manente, M.; Curreli, D.; Meneghetti, G.; Pavarin, D.

    2012-01-01

    The development of new target ion source systems for the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility is currently in progress at Legnaro National Laboratories. In this context, the study of ion sources and their performance in terms of ionization efficiency and transversal emittance is a crucial point in order to maximize the available yields, particularly for short-lived isotopes. In this work, preliminary off-line ionization efficiency and emittance measurements for the SPES surface and plasma ion sources are presented. The plasma source emittance measurements are supported by dedicated numerical calculations.

  18. Intensive archaeological survey of the F/H Surface Enhancement Project Area, Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassaman, K.E.; Gillam, J.C.

    1993-08-01

    Twelve archaeological sites and four artifact occurrences were located by intensive survey of two tracts of land for the F and H Surface Enhancement Project on the Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Fieldwork in the 480-acre project area included surface reconnaissance of 3.6 linear kilometers of transects, 140 shovel tests along 4.2 linear kilometers of transects, an additional 162 shovel tests at sites and occurrences, and the excavation of six l {times} 2 m test units. All but one of the sites contained artifacts of the prehistoric era; the twelfth site consists of the remains of a twentieth-century home place. The historic site and six of the prehistoric sites consist of limited and/or disturbed contexts of archaeological deposits that have little research potential and are therefore considered ineligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). The remaining five sites have sufficient content and integrity to yield information important to ongoing investigations into upland site use. These sites (38AK146, 38AK535, 38AK539, 38AK541, and 38AK543) are thus deemed eligible for nomination to the NRHP and the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) recommends that they be preserved through avoidance or data recovery.

  19. Monitoring peak power and cooling energy savings of shade trees and white surfaces in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) service area: Project design and preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, H.; Bretz, S.; Hanford, J.; Rosenfeld, A.; Sailor, D.; Taha, H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bos, W. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Urban areas in warm climates create summer heat islands of daily average intensity of 3--5{degrees}C, adding to discomfort and increasing air-conditioning loads. Two important factors contributing to urban heat islands are reductions in albedo (lower overall city reflectance) and loss of vegetation (less evapotranspiration). Reducing summer heat islands by planting vegetation (shade trees) and increasing surface albedos, saves cooling energy, allows down-sizing of air conditioners, lowers air-conditioning peak demand, and reduces the emission of CO{sub 2} and other pollutants from electric power plants. The focus of this multi-year project, jointly sponsored by SMUD and the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE), was to measure the direct cooling effects of trees and white surfaces (mainly roofs) in a few buildings in Sacramento. The first-year project was to design the experiment and obtain base case data. We also obtained limited post retrofit data for some sites. This report provides an overview of the project activities during the first year at six sites. The measurement period for some of the sites was limited to September and October, which are transitional cooling months in Sacramento and hence the interpretation of results only apply to this period. In one house, recoating the dark roof with a high-albedo coating rendered air conditioning unnecessary for the month of September (possible savings of up to 10 kWh per day and 2 kW of non-coincidental peak power). Savings of 50% relative to an identical base case bungalow were achieved when a school bungalow`s roof and southeast wall were coated with a high-albedo coating during the same period. Our measured data for the vegetation sites do not indicate conclusive results because shade trees were small and the cooling period was almost over. We need to collect more data over a longer cooling season in order to demonstrate savings conclusively.

  20. Shortwave radiative forcing, rapid adjustment, and feedback to the surface by sulfate geoengineering: analysis of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project G4 scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashimura, Hiroki; Abe, Manabu; Watanabe, Shingo; Sekiya, Takashi; Ji, Duoying; Moore, John C.; Cole, Jason N. S.; Kravitz, Ben

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluates the forcing, rapid adjustment, and feedback of net shortwave radiation at the surface in the G4 experiment of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project by analysing outputs from six participating models. G4 involves injection of 5 Tg yr-1 of SO2, a sulfate aerosol precursor, into the lower stratosphere from year 2020 to 2069 against a background scenario of RCP4.5. A single-layer atmospheric model for shortwave radiative transfer is used to estimate the direct forcing of solar radiation management (SRM), and rapid adjustment and feedbacks from changes in the water vapour amount, cloud amount, and surface albedo (compared with RCP4.5). The analysis shows that the globally and temporally averaged SRM forcing ranges from -3.6 to -1.6 W m-2, depending on the model. The sum of the rapid adjustments and feedback effects due to changes in the water vapour and cloud amounts increase the downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface by approximately 0.4 to 1.5 W m-2 and hence weaken the effect of SRM by around 50 %. The surface albedo changes decrease the net shortwave radiation at the surface; it is locally strong (˜ -4 W m-2) in snow and sea ice melting regions, but minor for the global average. The analyses show that the results of the G4 experiment, which simulates sulfate geoengineering, include large inter-model variability both in the direct SRM forcing and the shortwave rapid adjustment from change in the cloud amount, and imply a high uncertainty in modelled processes of sulfate aerosols and clouds.

  1. History Matching and Parameter Estimation of Surface Deformation Data for a CO2 Sequestration Field Project Using Ensemble-Based Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Reza; Srinivasan, Sanjay; Wheeler, Mary

    2015-04-01

    The application of ensemble-based algorithms for history matching reservoir models has been steadily increasing over the past decade. However, the majority of implementations in the reservoir engineering have dealt only with production history matching. During geologic sequestration, the injection of large quantities of CO2 into the subsurface may alter the stress/strain field which in turn can lead to surface uplift or subsidence. Therefore, it is essential to couple multiphase flow and geomechanical response in order to predict and quantify the uncertainty of CO2 plume movement for long-term, large-scale CO2 sequestration projects. In this work, we simulate and estimate the properties of a reservoir that is being used to store CO2 as part of the In Salah Capture and Storage project in Algeria. The CO2 is separated from produced natural gas and is re-injected into downdip aquifer portion of the field from three long horizontal wells. The field observation data includes ground surface deformations (uplift) measured using satellite-based radar (InSAR), injection well locations and CO2 injection rate histories provided by the operators. We implement variations of ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble smoother algorithms for assimilating both injection rate data as well as geomechanical observations (surface uplift) into reservoir model. The preliminary estimation results of horizontal permeability and material properties such as Young Modulus and Poisson Ratio are consistent with available measurements and previous studies in this field. Moreover, the existence of high-permeability channels (fractures) within the reservoir; especially in the regions around the injection wells are confirmed. This estimation results can be used to accurately and efficiently predict and quantify the uncertainty in the movement of CO2 plume.

  2. History matching and parameter estimation of surface deformation data for a CO2 sequestration field project using ensemble-based algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, J.; Tavakoli, R.; Min, B.; Srinivasan, S.; Wheeler, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Optimal management of subsurface processes requires the characterization of the uncertainty in reservoir description and reservoir performance prediction. The application of ensemble-based algorithms for history matching reservoir models has been steadily increasing over the past decade. However, the majority of implementations in the reservoir engineering have dealt only with production history matching. During geologic sequestration, the injection of large quantities of CO2 into the subsurface may alter the stress/strain field which in turn can lead to surface uplift or subsidence. Therefore, it is essential to couple multiphase flow and geomechanical response in order to predict and quantify the uncertainty of CO2 plume movement for long-term, large-scale CO2 sequestration projects. In this work, we simulate and estimate the properties of a reservoir that is being used to store CO2 as part of the In Salah Capture and Storage project in Algeria. The CO2 is separated from produced natural gas and is re-injected into downdip aquifer portion of the field from three long horizontal wells. The field observation data includes ground surface deformations (uplift) measured using satellite-based radar (InSAR), injection well locations and CO2 injection rate histories provided by the operators. We implement ensemble-based algorithms for assimilating both injection rate data as well as geomechanical observations (surface uplift) into reservoir model. The preliminary estimation results of horizontal permeability and material properties such as Young Modulus and Poisson Ratio are consistent with available measurements and previous studies in this field. Moreover, the existence of high-permeability channels/fractures within the reservoir; especially in the regions around the injection wells are confirmed. This estimation results can be used to accurately and efficiently predict and monitor the movement of CO2 plume.

  3. Influence of the Three Gorges Project on the Water Resource Components of Poyang Lake Watershed: Observations from TRMM and GRACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Cai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Three Gorges Project (TGP has received many criticisms about its potential effects on the changes in the downstream ecosystems. Poyang Lake is the largest body of water downstream of the TGP, and it is not immune to these changes. TRMM and GRACE data were introduced in this study to estimate river-lake water exchange, from which the hydrological responses of Poyang Lake could be identified. A significant decreasing trend of the runoff coefficient has been observed since 2003, resulting in 6.02 km3 more water discharge from the lake into the Yangtze River than under normal conditions. No significant interannual changes occurred in the water level or local precipitation, and GRACE observations revealed that groundwater discharge appeared to be the most likely compensation for the water loss. A novel approach, namely, the groundwater abnormality index (GAI, was developed to depict the water exchange using GRACE and surface water observations. Lower than normal GAIs were found between 2003 and 2005, reaching a minimum of −29.26 in October 2003, corresponding to ten times of the mean GAI during 2006–2012, clearly indicating a significant water exchange in Poyang Lake Basin from groundwater to surface water after the TGP impoundment.

  4. Final report on LDRD project: Semiconductor surface-emitting microcavity laser spectroscopy for analysis of biological cells and microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourley, P.L.; McDonald, A.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanostructure and Semiconductor Physics Dept.; Gourley, M.F. [Washington Hospital Center, DC (United States); Bellum, J. [Coherent Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This article discusses a new intracavity laser technique that uses living or fixed cells as an integral part of the laser. The cells are placed on a GaAs based semiconductor wafer comprising one half of a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser. After placement, the cells are covered with a dielectric mirror to close the laser cavity. When photo-pumped with an external laser, this hybrid laser emits coherent light images and spectra that depend sensitively on the cell size, shape, and dielectric properties. The light spectra can be used to identify different cell types and distinguish normal and abnormal cells. The laser can be used to study single cells in real time as a cell-biology lab-on-a-chip, or to study large populations of cells by scanning the pump laser at high speed. The laser is well-suited to be integrated with other micro-optical or micro-fluidic components to lead to micro-optical-mechanical systems for analysis of fluids, particulates, and biological cells.

  5. 3–10 keV Xe+ ion beam machining of ultra low thermal expansion glasses for EUVL projection optics: Evaluation of surface roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, K.; Kamijo, K.; Morijiri, K.; Pahlovy, S.A.; Aikawa, N.; Miyamoto, I.

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain surface figure error of 0.15 nm rms and surface roughness (R rms ) of 0.12 nm rms for aspherical substrates in EUVL tools, ion beam figuring may be adopted to final surface figure error correction of aspherical substrates. During figure error correction, machined surface of the substrate becomes rougher than the pre-finished one. Therefore, we investigated the machined depth and ion energy dependences of R rms (measured by an AFM) of substrates machined by 3–10 keV Xe + ion beam, and compared them with the results obtained for Ar + ion beam. Result shows that the R rms s of CLEARCERAM®-Z, Zerodur® and ULE® substrates machined to the depth of 50 nm by 3–10 keV Xe + ion beam at the normal ion incidence angle become approximately 0.25, 0.28 and 0.15 nm rms, respectively. Those values are larger than the pre-finished substrates (0.07–0.09 nm rms), but smaller than that (0.60 nm rms for CLEARCERAM®-Z, 0.61 nm rms for Zerodur® and 0.18 nm rms for ULE®) of the substrates machined by Ar + ion beam. Moreover, the R rms s merely increase with increasing ion energy. The R rms s of the ULE® substrate machined by 3–10 keV Xe + ion beam rapidly increase with increasing machined depth, then saturate at machined depth of 10–50 nm. The saturated values of the R rms s are 0.12 and 0.15 nm rms for 3 and 10 keV Xe + ion beam respectively. We suggest that the 3 keV Xe + ion beam machining can be applicable for final shape correction of ULE® substrates for EUVL projection optics in association with considering further ultra smoothing process such as Si deposition or low energy ion beam smoothing.

  6. Comparison of Two Surface Contamination Sampling Techniques Conducted for the Characterization of Two Pajarito Site Manhattan Project National Historic Park Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Tammy Ann [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-29

    Technical Area-18 (TA-18), also known as Pajarito Site, is located on Los Alamos National Laboratory property and has historic buildings that will be included in the Manhattan Project National Historic Park. Characterization studies of metal contamination were needed in two of the four buildings that are on the historic registry in this area, a “battleship” bunker building (TA-18-0002) and the Pond cabin (TA-18-0029). However, these two buildings have been exposed to the elements, are decades old, and have porous and rough surfaces (wood and concrete). Due to these conditions, it was questioned whether standard wipe sampling would be adequate to detect surface dust metal contamination in these buildings. Thus, micro-vacuum and surface wet wipe sampling techniques were performed side-by-side at both buildings and results were compared statistically. A two-tail paired t-test revealed that the micro-vacuum and wet wipe techniques were statistically different for both buildings. Further mathematical analysis revealed that the wet wipe technique picked up more metals from the surface than the microvacuum technique. Wet wipes revealed concentrations of beryllium and lead above internal housekeeping limits; however, using an yttrium normalization method with linear regression analysis between beryllium and yttrium revealed a correlation indicating that the beryllium levels were likely due to background and not operational contamination. PPE and administrative controls were implemented for National Park Service (NPS) and Department of Energy (DOE) tours as a result of this study. Overall, this study indicates that the micro-vacuum technique may not be an efficient technique to sample for metal dust contamination.

  7. Optical Property Retention Methods for the T-170M Space Telescope Mirrors Surface in the Project «Spektr-UF» at the Preflight Preparation Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F L. Chubarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Astrophysical observations in the ultraviolet band have many advantages. At present, the «Spektr-UF» project is under implementation to create a large space observatory for operation in the ultraviolet spectrum.Requirements for the ultraviolet telescope optics quality are extremely high. Therefore, both to manufacture such a large space telescope as the T-170M and to transport it to the launch complex are rather difficult challenges in terms of technology.When manufacturing optical elements of the telescope T-170M, a combination of Al+MgF2 coatings has been preferred. At the same time, atmospheric oxygen penetrates through the pores in the magnesium fluoride, thereby forming a Al2O3 oxide layer on the sputtered aluminum, which significantly degrades the UV reflectivity of the mirror surface. It is also necessary to fulfill the requirements for surface cleanliness of optical system elements of the telescope during the finished product transportation and its storage and to provide for the autonomous operation of the system that maintains atmosphere control.To solve the set tasks:1    a dust-proof-and-moisture-proof sheath (DPAMPS was designed to prevent the optical system mirror surfaces of the telescope from coming in contact with atmosphere;2    to provide a controlled atmosphere inside the DPAMPS the need is justified to blow gaseous nitrogen of special purity (grade 1 in accordance with GOST 9293-74 with a dew point temperature of -50°С, at most, inside the telescope; calculations have proved that charging with the super-atmospheric pressure of 10 kPa provides the optimal conditions for maintaining the optical properties of the space telescope mirrors surface, and also minimizes the loads on the easily damaging elements of the telescope;3    to ensure the required cleanliness of the optical system elements surfaces of the telescope inside the DPAMPS, a class of purity Class 7 ISO, at worst, is established in accordance with GOST

  8. Ecotoxicity testing and environmental risk assessment of iron nanomaterials for sub-surface remediation – Recommendations from the FP7 project NanoRem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Rune; Coutris, Claire; Nguyen, Nhung

    2017-01-01

    Nanoremediation with iron (Fe) nanomaterials opens new doors for treating contaminated soil and groundwater, but is also accompanied by new potential risks as large quantities of engineered nanomaterials are introduced into the environment. In this study, we have assessed the ecotoxicity of four...... engineered Fe nanomaterials, specifically, Nano-Goethite, Trap-Ox Fe-zeolites, Carbo-Iron® and FerMEG12, developed within the European FP7 project NanoRem for sub-surface remediation towards a test battery consisting of eight ecotoxicity tests on bacteria (V. fisheri, E. coli), algae (P. subcapitata...... milled nZVI (FerMEG12), showed no toxicity in the test battery when tested in concentrations up to 100 mg/L, which is the cutoff for hazard labeling in chemicals regulation in Europe. However it should be noted that Fe nanomaterials proved challenging to test adequately due to their turbidity...

  9. Apparent limitations in the ability of CMIP5 climate models to simulate recent multi-decadal change in surface temperature: implications for global temperature projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Scott; Delage, François; Wang, Guomin; Smith, Ian; Kociuba, Greg

    2017-07-01

    Observed surface temperature trends over the period 1998-2012/2014 have attracted a great deal of interest because of an apparent slowdown in the rate of global warming, and contrasts between climate model simulations and observations of such trends. Many studies have addressed the statistical significance of these relatively short-trends, whether they indicate a possible bias in the model values and the implications for global warming generally. Here we re-examine these issues, but as they relate to changes over much longer-term changes. We find that on multi- decadal time scales there is little evidence for any change in the observed global warming rate, but some evidence for a recent temporary slowdown in the warming rate in the Pacific. This multi-decadal slowdown can be partly explained by a cool phase of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation and a short-term excess of La Niña events. We also analyse historical and projected changes in 38 CMIP climate models. All of the model simulations examined simulate multi-decadal warming in the Pacific over the past half-century that exceeds observed values. This difference cannot be fully explained by observed internal multi-decadal climate variability, even if allowance is made for an apparent tendency for models to underestimate internal multi-decadal variability in the Pacific. Models which simulate the greatest global warming over the past half-century also project warming that is among the highest of all models by the end of the twenty-first century, under both low and high greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Given that the same models are poorest in representing observed multi-decadal temperature change, confidence in the highest projections is reduced.

  10. Bear Creek Project. Draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Bear Creek Project consists of mining and milling operations involving uranium ore deposits located in Converse County, Wyoming. Mining of uranium from six known ore bodies will take place over ten years; a 1000 tons ore/day will be constructed and operated as long as ore is available. The tailings will be stored onsite in an impoundment. The project would convert 2700 acres from grazing use to mining/milling activities for about ten years. Mining would disturb a total of 1600 acres but, because of reclamation, the max acreage disturbed at any one time would be about 1000 acres, the average being about 650 acres. Dose rates were computed for an individual in a ranch house at the nearest ranch. Conditions for the protection of the environment are proposed. Possible environmental impacts evaluated cover air, land, water, soil, vegetation, wildlife, and community. A benefit-cost analysis is made

  11. Project of integrity assessment of flawed components with structural discontinuity (IAF). Data book for estimation stress intensity factor. Surface crack on ICM housing for penetration in reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The project of Integrity Assessment of Flawed Components with Structural Discontinuity (IAF) was entrusted to Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) from Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) and started from FY 2001. And then, it was taken over to Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) which was established in October 2003 and carried out until FY 2007. In the IAF project, weld joints between nickel based alloys and low alloy steels around penetrations in reactor vessel, safe-end of nozzles and shroud supports were selected from among components and pipe arrangements in nuclear power plants, where high residual stresses were generated due to welding and complex structure. Residual stresses around of the weld joints were estimated by finite element analysis method (FEM) with a general modeling method, then the reasonability and the conservativeness was evaluated. In addition, for postulated surface crack of stress corrosion cracking (SCC), a simple calculation method of stress intensity factor (K) required to estimate the crack growth was proposed and the effectiveness was confirmed. JNES compiled results of the IAF project into Data Books of Residual Stress Analysis of Weld Joint, and Data Book of Simplified Stress Intensity Factor Calculation for Penetration of Reactor as typical Structure Discontinuity, respectively. Data Books of Residual Stress Analysis in Weld Joint. 1. Butt Weld Joint of Small Diameter Cylinder (4B Sch40) (JNES-RE-2012-0005), 2. Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint in Safe End (One-Side Groove Joint (JNES-RE-2012-0006), 3. Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint in Safe End (Large Diameter Both-Side Groove Joint) (JNES-RE-2012-0007), 4. Weld Joint around Penetrations in Reactor Vessel (Insert Joint) (JNES-RE-2012-0008), 5. Weld Joint in Shroud Support (H8, H9, H10 and H11 Welds) (JNES-RE-2012-0009), 6. Analysis Model of Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint Applied Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) (JNES-RE-2012-0010). Data Book of

  12. Temperature changes in Three Gorges Reservoir Area and linkage with Three Gorges Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhen; Liang, Shunlin; Feng, Lian; He, Tao; Song, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Lei

    2017-05-01

    The Three Gorges Project (TGP) is one of the largest hydroelectric projects throughout the world. It has brought many benefits to the society but also led to endless debates about its environmental and climatic impacts. Monitoring the spatiotemporal variations of temperature in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) is important for understanding the climatic impacts of the TGP. In this study, we used remote sensing-based land surface temperature (LST) and ground-measured air temperature data to investigate temperature changes in the TGRA. Results showed that during the daytime in summer, LST exhibited significant cooling (1-5°C) in the downstream region of the reservoir, whereas LST during the nighttime in winter exhibited significant warming (1-5°C) across the entire reservoir. However, these cooling and warming effects were both locally constrained within 5 km buffer along the reservoir. The changes in air temperature were consistent with those in LST, with 0.67°C cooling in summer and 0.33°C warming in winter. The temperature changes along the reservoir not only resulted from the land-water conversion induced by the dam impounding but were also related to the increase of vegetation cover caused by the ecological restoration projects. Significant warming trends were also found in the upstream of TGRA, especially during the daytime in summer, with up to 5°C for LST and 0.52°C for air temperature. The warming was caused mainly by urban expansion, which was driven in part by the population resettlement of TGP. Based on satellite observations, we investigated the comprehensive climatic impacts of TGP caused by multiple factors.

  13. Future projections of the surface heat and water budgets of the Mediterranean Sea in an ensemble of coupled atmosphere-ocean regional climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, C.; Somot, S.; Deque, M.; Sevault, F. [CNRM-GAME, Meteo-France, CNRS, Toulouse (France); Calmanti, S.; Carillo, A.; Dell' Aquilla, A.; Sannino, G. [ENEA, Rome (Italy); Elizalde, A.; Jacob, D. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Gualdi, S.; Oddo, P.; Scoccimarro, E. [INGV, Bologna (Italy); L' Heveder, B.; Li, L. [Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris (France)

    2012-10-15

    Within the CIRCE project ''Climate change and Impact Research: the Mediterranean Environment'', an ensemble of high resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean regional climate models (AORCMs) are used to simulate the Mediterranean climate for the period 1950-2050. For the first time, realistic net surface air-sea fluxes are obtained. The sea surface temperature (SST) variability is consistent with the atmospheric forcing above it and oceanic constraints. The surface fluxes respond to external forcing under a warming climate and show an equivalent trend in all models. This study focuses on the present day and on the evolution of the heat and water budget over the Mediterranean Sea under the SRES-A1B scenario. On the contrary to previous studies, the net total heat budget is negative over the present period in all AORCMs and satisfies the heat closure budget controlled by a net positive heat gain at the strait of Gibraltar in the present climate. Under climate change scenario, some models predict a warming of the Mediterranean Sea from the ocean surface (positive net heat flux) in addition to the positive flux at the strait of Gibraltar for the 2021-2050 period. The shortwave and latent flux are increasing and the longwave and sensible fluxes are decreasing compared to the 1961-1990 period due to a reduction of the cloud cover and an increase in greenhouse gases (GHGs) and SSTs over the 2021-2050 period. The AORCMs provide a good estimates of the water budget with a drying of the region during the twenty-first century. For the ensemble mean, he decrease in precipitation and runoff is about 10 and 15% respectively and the increase in evaporation is much weaker, about 2% compared to the 1961-1990 period which confirm results obtained in recent studies. Despite a clear consistency in the trends and results between the models, this study also underlines important differences in the model set-ups, methodology and choices of some physical parameters inducing

  14. Projected sea surface temperatures over the 21st century: Changes in the mean, variability and extremes for large marine ecosystem regions of Northern Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Global climate models were used to assess changes in the mean, variability and extreme sea surface temperatures (SSTs in northern oceans with a focus on large marine ecosystems (LMEs adjacent to North America, Europe, and the Arctic Ocean. Results were obtained from 26 models in the Community Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 archive and 30 simulations from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Large Ensemble Community Project (CESM-LENS. All of the simulations used the observed greenhouse gas concentrations for 1976–2005 and the RCP8.5 “business as usual” scenario for greenhouse gases through the remainder of the 21st century. In general, differences between models are substantially larger than among the simulations in the CESM-LENS, indicating that the SST changes are more strongly affected by model formulation than internal climate variability. The annual SST trends over 1976–2099 in the 18 LMEs examined here are all positive ranging from 0.05 to 0.5°C decade–1. SST changes by the end of the 21st century are primarily due to a positive shift in the mean with only modest changes in the variability in most LMEs, resulting in a substantial increase in warm extremes and decrease in cold extremes. The shift in the mean is so large that in many regions SSTs during 2070–2099 will 'always' be warmer than the 'warmest' year during 1976–2005. The SST trends are generally stronger in summer than in winter, as greenhouse gas heating is integrated over a much shallower climatological mixed layer depth in summer than in winter, which amplifies the seasonal cycle of SST over the 21st century. In the Arctic, the mean SST and its variability increases substantially during summer, when it is ice free, but not during winter when a thin layer of ice reforms and SSTs remain near the freezing point.

  15. Andromede project: Surface analysis and modification with probes from hydrogen to nano-particles in the MeV energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Michael J.; Cottereau, Evelyne [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d’Orsay, UMR8608, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay (France); Rasser, Bernard; Verzeroli, Elodie [Orsay Physics, ZAC Saint Charles, 95 Av des Monts Auréliens, 13710 Fuveau (France); Agnus, Benoit; Gaubert, Gabriel; Donzel, Xavier [Pantechnik SA, 13 rue de la Résistance, 14400 Bayeux (France); Delobbe, Anne [Orsay Physics, ZAC Saint Charles, 95 Av des Monts Auréliens, 13710 Fuveau (France); Della-Negra, Serge, E-mail: dellaneg@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d’Orsay, UMR8608, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay (France)

    2015-12-15

    The Andromede project is the center of a multi-disciplinary team which will build a new instrument for surface modification and analysis using the impact of probes from hydrogen to nano-particles (Au{sub 400}{sup +4}) in the MeV range. For this new instrument a series of atomic, polyatomic, molecular and nano-particle ion beams will be delivered using two ion sources in tandem, a liquid metal ion source and an electron cyclotron resonance source. The delivered ion beams will be accelerated to high energy with a 4 MeV van de Graaff type accelerator. By using a suite of probes in the MeV energy range, ion beam analysis techniques, MeV atomic and cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry can all be performed in one location. A key feature of the instrument is its ability to produce an intense beam for injection into the accelerator. The commissioning of the two sources shows that intense beams from atomic ions to nano-particles can be delivered for subsequent acceleration. The calculations and measurements for the two sources are presented.

  16. Geologic evaluation of six nonwelded tuff sites in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada for a surface-based test facility for the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxton, D.E.; Chipera, S.J.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Rautman, C.A.

    1993-10-01

    Outcrops of nonwelded tuff at six locations in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, were examined to determine their suitability for hosting a surface-based test facility for the Yucca Mountain Project. Investigators will use this facility to test equipment and procedures for the Exploratory Studies Facility and to conduct site characterization field experiments. The outcrops investigated contain rocks that include or are similar to the tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills, an important geologic and hydrologic barrier between the potential repository and the water table. The tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills at the site of the potential repository consist of both vitric and zeolitic tuffs, thus three of the outcrops examined are vitric tuffs and three are zeolitic tuffs. New data were collected to determine the lithology, chemistry, mineralogy, and modal petrography of the outcrops. Some preliminary data on hydrologic properties are also presented. Evaluation of suitability of the six sites is based on a comparison of their geologic characteristics to those found in the tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills within the exploration block

  17. Project 2010 Project Management

    CERN Document Server

    Happy, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The ideal on-the-job reference guide for project managers who use Microsoft Project 2010. This must-have guide to using Microsoft Project 2010 is written from a real project manager's perspective and is packed with information you can use on the job. The book explores using Project 2010 during phases of project management, reveals best practices, and walks you through project flow from planning through tracking to closure. This valuable book follows the processes defined in the PMBOK Guide, Fourth Edition , and also provides exam prep for Microsoft's MCTS: Project 2010 certification.: Explains

  18. Bear Creek Project (Converse County, Wyoming). Draft environmental statement. Docket No. 40-8452

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Bear Creek Project consists of certain mining and milling operations involving uranium ore deposits located in Converse County, Wyoming. Mining of uranium from six known ore bodies will take place over a period of ten years (estimated); a mill with a nominal capacity of 1000 tons per day of ore will be constructed and operated as long as ore is available. The waste material (tailings) from the mill, also produced at a rate of about 1000 tons per day, will be stored onsite in an impoundment. The project would convert about 2700 acres from grazing use to mining and milling activities for a period of about ten years. Mining activities would disturb (and remove vegetation from) a total of about 1600 acres but, because of ongoing reclamation efforts, max acreage disturbed at any one time would be about 1000 acres, with the average about 650 acres. An estimated 185 acres of highwalls and water remaining after reclamation would be lost to agricultural production. The milling activities would disturb about 430 acres; 330 of these would be reclaimed after operations cease, but the 100-acre tailings area must be considered unavailable for further productive use. Water will be removed from aquifers at about 1000 gpm (range 600 to 2000 gpm) by mine dewatering and mill operations. Long-term effects on groundwater are expected to be minor. Surface water will not be affected by normal operations. There will be no discharge of liquid or solid effluents from the mill. Discharges to air will be small and the effects negligible. The total dose rate to the bone is 1.1 mrem/y, and the whole-body-dose rate is computed to be 0.04 mrem/y

  19. Pilot projects for the remediation of Sillamaee uranium tailings in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasik, T.; Siinmaa, A.

    2001-01-01

    First Estonian uranium, produced in a pilot plant at Narva, was presented to Soviet military administration in 1945 and just a year later - 1946 - installation of an uranium production plant was started at Sillamaee, Estonia. Estonian local ore - alum shale - containing only 0,026% of uranium was used for uranium production for nearly five years, after the plant was launched in 1948. The uranium mine, having been activated from 1947 to 1952, was left in status of 'active conservation' for 17 years, until finally closed in 1969. Potential threats of this hidden legacy have never been revealed. After close-down of local uranium mine, more than 4 million tons of ore, imported mostly from Central and East European countries: Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Eastern Germany were processed at Sillamaee. These activities have left a large tailings impoundment with the total volume of ca. 8 million cubic meters in the immediate vicinity of the Baltic Sea. Today the plant is privatized, converted to civil purposes and provides together its power generating facilities ca. 1200 jobs in the socially sensitive area of North-East Estonia, while environmental hazards of the history, however, remain: - Continuous seepage of tailing waters into the sea contributes and would contribute over long term to the pollution of the Baltic Sea; - stability of the tailings dam seaside under present conditions can not be guaranteed thus risking a sudden release of partly liquid tailings due to potential dam failure; - uncovered surface of the tailings presents a health hazard due to dusting and radon release and hinders the revitalization of the area. The conceptual design of the Estonia's largest environmental remediation project, done by Wismut, is now complete and first implementation steps are underway. The project for mine area restoration is in initiation phase; it shall reveal the current and potential environmental hazards of the facility and create the concept for necessary rehabilitation

  20. Watchdog Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Rhett [Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc., Pullman, WA (United States); Campbell, Jack [CenterPoint Energy Houston Electric, TX (United States); Hadley, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The Watchdog Project completed 100% of the project Statement of Project Objective (SOPO). The Watchdog project was a very aggressive project looking to accomplish commercialization of technology that had never been commercialized, as a result it took six years to complete not the original three that were planned. No additional federal funds were requested from the original proposal and SEL contributed the additional cost share required to complete the project. The result of the Watchdog Project is the world’s first industrial rated Software Defined Network (SDN) switch commercially available. This technology achieved the SOPOO and DOE Roadmap goals to have strong network access control, improve reliability and network performance, and give the asset owner the ability to minimize attack surface before and during an attack. The Watchdog project is an alliance between CenterPoint Energy Houston Electric, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL), and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. (SEL). SEL is the world’s leader in microprocessor-based electronic equipment for protecting electric power systems. PNNL performs basic and applied research to deliver energy, environmental, and national security for our nation. CenterPoint Energy is the third largest publicly traded natural gas delivery company in the U.S and third largest combined electricity and natural gas delivery company. The Watchdog Project efforts were combined with the SDN Project efforts to produce the entire SDN system solution for the critical infrastructure. The Watchdog project addresses Topic Area of Interest 5: Secure Communications, for the DEFOA- 0000359 by protecting the control system local area network itself and the communications coming from and going to the electronic devices on the local network. Local area networks usually are not routed and have little or no filtering capabilities. Combine this with the fact control system protocols are designed with inherent trust the control

  1. West African monsoon decadal variability and surface-related forcings: second West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation Project Experiment (WAMME II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Yongkang; de Sales, Fernando; Lau, Willliam; Boone, Aaron; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Mechoso, C. R.; Wang , Guiling; Kucharski, Fred; Schiro, Kathleen; Hosaka, Masahiro; Li, Suosuo; Druyan, Leonard M.; Sanda, Ibrah S.; Thiaw, Wassila; Zeng, Ning; Comer, Ruth E.; Lim, Young-Kwon; Mahanama, Sarith; Song, Guoqiong; Gu, Yu; Hagos, Samson M.; Chin, Mian; Schubert, Siefried; Dirmeyer, Paul; Leung, Lai-Yung; Kalnay, Eugenia; Kitoh, Akio; Lu, Cheng-Hsuan; Mahowald, N. M.; Zhang, Zhengqiu J.

    2016-06-13

    The Sahel climate system had experienced one of the strongest interdecadal climate variabilities and the longest drought on the planet in the twentieth century. Most modeling studies on the decadal variability of the Sahel climate so far have focused on the role of anomalies in either sea surface temperature (SST), land surface processes, or aerosols concentration. The Second West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation Project Experiment (WAMME II) is designed to improve understanding of the possible roles and feedback of SST, land use land cover change (LULCC), and aerosols forcings in the Sahel climate system at seasonal to decadal scales. The WAMME II strategy is to apply observationally based anomaly forcing, i.e., “idealized but realistic” forcing, in simulations by general circulation models’ (GCMs) and regional climate models’ (RCMs) to test the relative impacts of such forcings in producing/amplifying the Sahelian seasonal and decadal climate variability, including the 20th century drought. To test individual ocean’s SST effect, a special approach in the experimental design is taken to avoid undermine its effect. This is the first multi-model experiment specifically designed to simultaneously evaluate relative contributions of multiple-external forcings to the Sahel drought. This paper presents the major results and preliminary findings of the WAMME II SST experiment, including each ocean’s contribution to the global SST effect, as well as comparison of the SST effect with the LULCC effect. The common empirical orthogonal functions and other analyses are applied to assess and comprehend the discrepancies among the models. In general, the WAMME II models have reached a consensus on SST’s major contribution to the great Sahel drought and show that with the maximum possible SST forcing, it can produce up to 60% of the absolute amount of precipitation difference between the 1980s and the 1950s. This paper has 3 also delineated the role of SSTs in

  2. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Singh, V P

    2010-06-01

    Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an overall prevalence of 82.5% (helminth parasites 93.1% and protozoan parasites 6.9%). The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8%), Trichuris vulpis (7.9%), Spirocerca lupi (5.4%), Toxocara canis (7.9%), Toxascaris leonina (0.4%) Giardia intestinalis (5.6%) and Isospora sp. (1.3%). Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7%) than those harbouring 2 (15%) or multiple (2.1%) species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7% of the samples.

  3. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA, Durban and Coast, South Africa : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA, Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an overall prevalence of 82.5% (helminth parasites 93.1% and protozoan parasites 6.9 %. The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8 %, Trichuris vulpis (7.9 %, Spirocerca lupi (5.4 %, Toxocara canis (7.9 %, Toxascaris leonina (0.4 % Giardia intestinalis (5.6 % and Isospora sp. (1.3 %. Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7 % than those harbouring 2 (15 % or multiple (2.1 % species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7 % of the samples.

  4. West African Monsoon Decadal Variability and Surface-Related Forcings: Second West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation Project Experiment (WAMME II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yongkang; De Sales, Fernando; Lau, William K-M; Boone, Aaron; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Mechoso, Carlos R.; Wang, Guiling; Kucharski, Fred; Schiro, Kathleen; Hosaka, Masahiro; hide

    2016-01-01

    The second West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation Project Experiment (WAMME II) is designed to improve understanding of the possible roles and feedbacks of sea surface temperature (SST), land use land cover change (LULCC), and aerosols forcings in the Sahel climate system at seasonal to decadal scales. The WAMME II strategy is to apply prescribed observationally based anomaly forcing, i.e., idealized but realistic forcing, in simulations by climate models to test the relative impacts of such forcings in producingamplifying the Sahelian seasonal and decadal climate variability, including the great 20th century drought. This is the first multi-model experiment specifically designed to simultaneously evaluate relative contributions of multiple external forcings to the Sahel decadal precipitation anomalies between the 1980s and the 1950s that is used to characterize the Sahel 1980s drought in this study. The WAMME II models have consistently demonstrated that SST is the major contributor to the 20th century Sahel drought. Under the influence of the maximum possible SST forcing, WAMME II model ensemble mean can produce up to 60 of the precipitation difference between the 1980s and the 1950s. The present paper also delineated the role of SSTs in triggering and maintaining the Sahel drought. The impact of SSTs in individual oceans is also examined and consensus and discrepancies are reported. Among the different ocean basins, the WAMME II models show the consensus that the Indian Ocean SST has the largest impact on the precipitation temporal evolution associated with the ITCZ movement before the WAM onset while the Pacific Ocean SST greatly contributes to the summer WAM drought. This paper also compares the SST effect with the LULCC effect. Results show that with prescribed land forcing the WAMME II model ensemble mean produces about 40 of the precipitation difference between the 1980s and the 1950s, which is less than the SST contribution but still of first order

  5. Changes in the fish community of the Kpong Headpond, lower Volta River, Ghana after 25 years of impoundment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Quarcoopome

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kpong Headpond was the second created on the Volta River after Akosombo Dam, primarily as a source of hydroelectric power generation and potable water supply, and additionally, it has supported some fish production in Ghana since impoundment. The changes in fish community of the Kpong Headpond were studied to provide baseline information for strategies formulation to support the socio-economic development of the reservoir. The study identified changes in the fish community of the reservoir by comparing occurrence, composition, relative abundance and relative importance estimates of fish species, families and trophic groups, from available previous studies in the reservoir. From the collated information all fishes identified in the reservoir were categorised based on occurrence and importance as disappeared, appeared, permanent, declined or important, to show current status. The results indicated that the fish community has experienced a shift in the composition and relative abundance of important species, families and trophic groups in terms of number and weight, while remaining ecologically balanced. Representatives of the families Osteoglossidae, Centropomidae and Characidae have declined while representatives of the families Claroteidae, Cyprinidae and Cichlidae have increased. The aufwuch-detritus and herbivores declined while semi-pelagic omnivores increased resulting in a shift in dominance to benthic and semi pelagic omnivores. The appearance of five species and the disappearance of 25 others indicated a dynamic restructuring of the fish community in the reservoir, as expected. Enforcement of fishing regulations including the use of appropriate gear and fishing methods, fishery access control, promotion of culture-based fisheries and improvement in fisher education are recommended topics for sustainable fisheries in the reservoir. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1685-1696. Epub 2011 December 01.La laguna Kpong se convirtió en la segunda

  6. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruland, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-02-01

    This report describes the progress of 12 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1988. During this quarter, field activities at the 300 Area process trenches, the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill, the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, the 1324-N/NA Surface Impoundment and Percolation Ponds, the 1301-N and 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facilities, and the 216-A-36B Crib consisted of ground-water sampling and analyses, and water-level monitoring. The 200 Area Low-Level Burial Grounds section includes well development data, sediment analysis, and water-level measurements. Ground-water sampling was begun at this site, and results will be included in next quarter's report. Twelve new wells were installed during the quarter, two at the 216-A-29 Ditch, size at the 216-A-10 Crib, and four at the 216-B-3 Pond. Preliminary characterization data for these new wells are included in this report. Driller's logs and other drilling and site characterization data will be provided in the next quarterly report. At the 2101-M Pond, construction was completed on four wells, and initial ground-water samples were taken. The drilling logs, geophysical logging data, and as-built diagrams are included in this report in Volume 2. 19 refs., 24 figs., 39 tabs

  7. Simulated effects of existing and proposed surface-water impoundments and gas-well pads on streamflow and suspended sediment in the Cypress Creek watershed, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Rheannon M.

    2014-01-01

    Cypress Creek is located in central Arkansas and is the main tributary to Brewer Lake, which serves as the primary water supply for Conway, Arkansas, and the surrounding areas. A model of the Cypress Creek watershed was developed and calibrated in cooperation with Southwestern Energy Company using detailed precipitation, streamflow, and discrete suspended-sediment data collected from 2009 through 2012. These data were used with a Hydrologic Simulation Program—FORTRAN model to address different potential gas-extraction activities within the watershed.

  8. Geodynamic Evolution of Subduction to Collision to Escape in Central Anatolia From Surface to Mantle - Results From the CD-CAT Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Despite significant progress toward understanding the kinematics of modern tectonic escape in Anatolia, considerable uncertainty remains regarding the dynamics of the transition from collision to escape. Because of the relatively small size of the Anatolia microplate, regional-scale studies spanning the plate margins and interior are well-suited to investigate the driving forces and space-time evolution of this unique tectonic transition in collisional orogens. CD-CAT (Continental Dynamics-Central Anatolia Tectonics) is a five-year (2011-2016) project funded by the National Science Foundation (USA) designed to explore the surface-to-mantle dynamics of Anatolia during the Cenozoic subduction-collision-escape transition in central Anatolia. Our approach integrates results from a diversity of methods including: structural, stratigraphic, and geomorphic analyses; magnetostratigraphy; low-temperature thermochronometry; Ar/Ar geochronology; geochemistry; passive seismic experiments (71 stations over two years); magnetotellurics; and numerical modeling. The principal results from this project include: recognition of a margin-wide magmatic lull from 40-20 Ma, followed by a southwestward migration of the initiation of magmatism toward and within the Central Anatolia Volcanic Province (CAVP); an early Miocene switch from contraction/transpression to extension/transtension in the Kırşehir and Niǧde Massifs, while contraction changed to late Miocene strike-slip deformation east of the Central Anatolian fault zone (CAFZ); rain shadow development due to uplift of the central Taurides 11-5 Ma; thin to absent lithospheric mantle beneath central Anatolia; the lack of an Arabia slab shallower than 800 km depth; and a change in the Cyprus slab from horizontal beneath the central Taurides and apparently fragmented beneath the CAVP, to very steeply dipping beneath the eastern Isparta Angle. The CAFZ lies along part of the Inner Tauride Suture (ITS) and represents a fundamental

  9. Mantle to Surface Dynamics Across Subduction-Collision Transitions in Space and Time: Results from the CD-CAT Project in Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, D. L.; Abgarmi, B.; Beck, S. L.; Brocard, G. Y.; Cosca, M. A.; Darin, M. H.; Delph, J. R.; Hui, H.; Kahraman, M.; Kaymakci, N.; Kuscu, G.; Meijers, M. J.; Mulch, A.; Özacar, A.; Portner, D. E.; Reid, M. R.; Rey, P. F.; Rojay, B.; Schlieffarth, W. K.; Sandvol, E. A.; Schoenbohm, L. M.; Tank, B.; Teoman, U.; Teyssier, C. P.; Thomson, S. N.; Turkelli, N.; Umhoefer, P. J.; Uslular, G.; Willenbring, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    From west to east, the southern plate boundary of Anatolia varies from subduction to continental collision; plate dynamics are influenced by the interaction of back-arc extension in the west (Aegean) and convergence in the east (Arabia-Eurasia). Prior to 40 Ma, the entire margin was a subduction zone. The NSF project "Continental Dynamics-Central Anatolian Tectonics (CD-CAT)" has contributed to understanding how the mantle, crust, and surface evolve in subduction-to-collision transitions in time and space. Differences are seen in changes in deformation style as collision proceeded; e.g. from distributed across a broad zone to highly localized on a series of oblique-slip faults, and from transpression to transtension (W of the Central Anatolian fault zone, CAFZ) or strike-slip (E of the CAFZ); age, composition, and sources of magmatism, including a magmatic lull from 40-20 Ma, followed by expansion of magmatism SE-ward in central Anatolia; properties and architecture of the lithosphere and sub-lithospheric mantle (e.g. significant and locally abrupt crustal thickness variations, including thick crust under the Tauride Mts; thin to absent lithospheric mantle; and a torn and disaggregating slab that varies from shallow to steep below central Anatolia); and a topographic gradient from a high eastern plateau (> 2 km) to a central plateau (1-1.5 km) bounded to the N and S by mountain ranges that rose > 2 km from the sea between 11-5 Ma, producing a rain shadow in the Anatolian interior. Thermochronologic and structural studies of exhumed mid-crust and associated basins and fault zones as well as geophysical data for Anatolia today show the extent to which inherited features (suture zones, faults) have affected the tectonic evolution of Anatolia, particularly in the vicinity of the CAFZ/East Anatolian Fault, and mantle properties. Results also show that the Miocene was a dynamic time in the thermal and mechanical evolution of the region, as early Miocene rollback

  10. Anti-Microbial and Self-Cleaning Properties of Photocatalytic Surface Treatments and their Potential Use for Space-Based Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In practice, cleaning and disinfection of surfaces involves a considerable amount of effort, high consumption of energy and chemical detergents, and consequently...

  11. The use of pelagic habitat by cyprinids in a deep riverine impoundment: Římov Reservoir, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašek, Mojmír; Jarolím, O.; Čech, Martin; Kubečka, Jan; Peterka, Jiří; Prchalová, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2008), s. 324-336 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600170502; GA ČR(CZ) GP206/06/P418 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : planktivorous fish * seasonality * pelagic habitat Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008

  12. Projective mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian; Brockhoff, Per B.; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus

    2012-01-01

    the applied framework, semantic restrictions, the choice of type of assessors and the validation of product separations. The applied framework concerns the response surface as presented to the assessor in different shapes, e.g. rectangular, square or round. Semantic restrictions are a part of the assessor...... instructions and influence heavily the product placements and the descriptive vocabulary (Dehlholm et.al., 2012b). The type of assessors performing the method influences results with an extra aspect in Projective Mapping compared to more analytical tests, as the given spontaneous perceptions are much dependent...

  13. Open algebraic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Miyanishi, Masayoshi

    2000-01-01

    Open algebraic surfaces are a synonym for algebraic surfaces that are not necessarily complete. An open algebraic surface is understood as a Zariski open set of a projective algebraic surface. There is a long history of research on projective algebraic surfaces, and there exists a beautiful Enriques-Kodaira classification of such surfaces. The research accumulated by Ramanujan, Abhyankar, Moh, and Nagata and others has established a classification theory of open algebraic surfaces comparable to the Enriques-Kodaira theory. This research provides powerful methods to study the geometry and topology of open algebraic surfaces. The theory of open algebraic surfaces is applicable not only to algebraic geometry, but also to other fields, such as commutative algebra, invariant theory, and singularities. This book contains a comprehensive account of the theory of open algebraic surfaces, as well as several applications, in particular to the study of affine surfaces. Prerequisite to understanding the text is a basic b...

  14. Back-projection stacking of P- and S-waves to determine location and focal mechanism of microseismic events recorded by a surface array

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, J.; Fischer, Tomáš; Vilhelm, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 6 (2016), s. 1428-1440 ISSN 0016-8025 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : microseismic monitoring * back-projection stacking * hypocenter location * focal mechanism inversion Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.846, year: 2016

  15. Effect of uncertainty in surface mass balance–elevation feedback on projections of the future sea level contribution of the Greenland ice sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Edwards

    2014-01-01

    Régional: Fettweis, 2007 climate projections are for 2000–2199, forced by the ECHAM5 and HadCM3 global climate models (GCMs under the SRES A1B emissions scenario. The additional sea level contribution due to the SMB–elevation feedback averaged over five ISM projections for ECHAM5 and three for HadCM3 is 4.3% (best estimate; 95% credibility interval 1.8–6.9% at 2100, and 9.6% (best estimate; 95% credibility interval 3.6–16.0% at 2200. In all results the elevation feedback is significantly positive, amplifying the GrIS sea level contribution relative to the MAR projections in which the ice sheet topography is fixed: the lower bounds of our 95% credibility intervals (CIs for sea level contributions are larger than the "no feedback" case for all ISMs and GCMs. Our method is novel in sea level projections because we propagate three types of modelling uncertainty – GCM and ISM structural uncertainties, and elevation feedback parameterisation uncertainty – along the causal chain, from SRES scenario to sea level, within a coherent experimental design and statistical framework. The relative contributions to uncertainty depend on the timescale of interest. At 2100, the GCM uncertainty is largest, but by 2200 both the ISM and parameterisation uncertainties are larger. We also perform a perturbed parameter ensemble with one ISM to estimate the shape of the projected sea level probability distribution; our results indicate that the probability density is slightly skewed towards higher sea level contributions.

  16. Half Moon Cove Tidal Project. Feasibility report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The proposed Half Moon Cove Tidal Power Project would be located in a small cove in the northern part of Cobscook Bay in the vicinity of Eastport, Maine. The project would be the first tidal electric power generating plant in the United States of America. The basin impounded by the barrier when full will approximate 1.2 square miles. The average tidal range at Eastport is 18.2 feet. The maximum spring tidal range will be 26.2 feet and the neap tidal range 12.8 feet. The project will be of the single pool-type single effect in which generation takes place on the ebb tide only. Utilizing an average mean tidal range of 18.2 feet the mode of operation enables generation for approximately ten and one-half (10-1/2) hours per day or slightly in excess of five (5) hours per tide. The installed capacity will be 12 MW utilizing 2 to 6 MW units. An axial flow, or Bulb type of turbine was selected for this study.

  17. Map projections cartographic information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Grafarend, Erik W; Syffus, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a timely review of map projections including sphere, ellipsoid, rotational surfaces, and geodetic datum transformations. Coverage includes computer vision, and remote sensing space projective mappings in photogrammetry.

  18. Map projections cartographic information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Grafarend, Erik W

    2006-01-01

    In the context of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) the book offers a timely review of map projections (sphere, ellipsoid, rotational surfaces) and geodetic datum transformations. For the needs of photogrammetry, computer vision, and remote sensing space projective mappings are reviewed.

  19. Safety assessment methodologies for near surface disposal facilities. Results of a co-ordinated research project (ISAM). Volume 1: Review and enhancement of safety assessment approaches and tools. Volume 2: Test cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    For several decades, countries have made use of near surface facilities for the disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. In line with the internationally agreed principles of radioactive waste management, the safety of these facilities needs to be ensured during all stages of their lifetimes, including the post-closure period. By the mid 1990s, formal methodologies for evaluating the long term safety of such facilities had been developed, but intercomparison of these methodologies had revealed a number of discrepancies between them. Consequently, in 1997, the International Atomic Energy Agency launched a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities (ISAM). The particular objectives of the CRP were to provide a critical evaluation of the approaches and tools used in post-closure safety assessment for proposed and existing near-surface radioactive waste disposal facilities, enhance the approaches and tools used and build confidence in the approaches and tools used. The CRP ran until 2000 and resulted in the development of a harmonized assessment methodology (the ISAM project methodology), which was applied to a number of test cases. Over seventy participants from twenty-two Member States played an active role in the project and it attracted interest from around seven hundred persons involved with safety assessment in seventy-two Member States. The results of the CRP have contributed to the Action Plan on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management which was approved by the Board of Governors and endorsed by the General Conference in September 2001. Specifically, they contribute to Action 5, which requests the IAEA Secretariat to 'develop a structured and systematic programme to ensure adequate application of the Agency's waste safety standards', by elaborating on the Safety Requirements on 'Near Surface Disposal of Radioactive Waste' (Safety Standards Series No. WS-R-1) and

  20. RADON-type disposal facility safety case for the co-ordinated research project on improvement of safety assessment methodologies for near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities (ISAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guskov, A.; Batanjieva, B.; Kozak, M.W.; Torres-Vidal, C.

    2002-01-01

    The ISAM safety assessment methodology was applied to RADON-type facilities. The assessments conducted through the ISAM project were among the first conducted for these kinds of facilities. These assessments are anticipated to lead to significantly improved levels of safety in countries with such facilities. Experience gained though this RADON-type Safety Case was already used in Russia while developing national regulatory documents. (author)

  1. Ocean surface waves and winds over the north Indian Ocean from satellite altimeter - preliminary results of SAC-NIO joint project

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Rajkumar, R.; Gairola, R.M.; Gohil, B.S.; Vethamony, P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    With the aim of retrieving, validating and mapping ocean surface winds and waves in the north Indian Ocean, GEOSAT altimeter data for the period November 1986 to October 1987 and available sea truth data for the above period were processed in SAC...

  2. Probing connections between deep earth and surface processes in a land-locked ocean basin transformed into a giant saline basin : The Mediterranean GOLD project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabineau, M.; Cloetingh, S.; Kuroda, J.; Aslanian, D.; Droxler, A.; Gorini, C.; Garcia-Castellanos, D.; Moscariello, A.; Burov, E.; Sierro, F.; Lirer, F.; Roure, F.; Pezard, P. A.; Matenco, L.; Hello, Y.; Mart, Y.; Camerlenghi, A.; Tripati, A.

    During the last decade, the interaction of deep processes in the lithosphere and mantle with surface processes (erosion, climate, sea-level, subsidence, glacio-isostatic readjustment) has been the subject of heated discussion. The use of a multidisciplinary approach linking geology, geophysics,

  3. Quality of surface water and ground water in the proposed artificial-recharge project area, Rillito Creek basin, Tucson, Arizona, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayon, Saeid

    1995-01-01

    Controlled artificial recharge of surface runoff is being considered as a water-management technique to address the problem of ground-water overdraft. The planned use of recharge facilities in urban areas has caused concern about the quality of urban runoff to be recharged and the potential for ground-water contamination. The proposed recharge facility in Rillito Creek will utilize runoff entering a 1-mile reach of the Rillito Creek between Craycroft Road and Swan Road for infiltration and recharge purposes within the channel and excavated overbank areas. Physical and chemical data were collected from two surface-water and two ground-water sites in the study area in 1994. Analyses of surface-water samples were done to determine the occurrence and concentration of potential contaminants and to determine changes in quality since samples were collected during 1987-93. Analyses of ground-water samples were done to determine the variability of ground-water quality at the monitoring wells throughout the year and to determine changes in quality since samples were collected in 1989 and 1993. Surface-water samples were collected from Tanque Verde Creek at Sabino Canyon Road (streamflow-gaging station Tanque Verde Creek at Tucson, 09484500) and from Alamo Wash at Fort Lowell Road in September and May 1994, respectively. Ground-water samples were collected from monitoring wells (D- 13-14)26cbb2 and (D-13-14)26dcb2 in January, May, July, and October 1994. In surface water, calcium was the dominant cation, and bicarbonate was the dominant anion. In ground water, calcium and sodium were the dominant cations and bicarbonate was the dominant anion. Surface water in the area is soft, and ground water is moderately hard to hard. In surface water and ground water, nitrogen was found predominantly as nitrate. Concentrations of manganese in ground-water samples ranged from 60 to 230 micrograms per liter and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant

  4. Summary and evaluation of existing geological and geophysical data near prospective surface facilities in Midway Valley, Yucca Mountain Project, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.D.; Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Bullard, T.F.; Perman, R.C.; Angell, M.M.; DiSilvestro, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    Midway Valley, located at the eastern base of the Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada, is the preferred location of the surface facilities for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. One goal in siting these surface facilities is to avoid faults that could produce relative displacements in excess of 5 cm in the foundations of the waste-handling buildings. This study reviews existing geologic and geophysical data that can be used to assess the potential for surface fault rupture within Midway Valley. Dominant tectonic features in Midway Valley are north-trending, westward-dipping normal faults along the margins of the valley: the Bow Ridge fault to the west and the Paintbrush Canyon fault to the east. Published estimates of average Quaternary slip rates for these faults are very low but the age of most recent displacement and the amount of displacement per event are largely unknown. Surface mapping and interpretive cross sections, based on limited drillhole and geophysical data, suggest that additional normal faults, including the postulated Midway Valley fault, may exist beneath the Quaternary/Tertiary fill within the valley. Existing data, however, are inadequate to determine the location, recency, and geometry of this faulting. To confidently assess the potential for significant Quaternary faulting in Midway Valley, additional data are needed that define the stratigraphy and structure of the strata beneath the valley, characterize the Quaternary soils and surfaces, and establish the age of faulting. The use of new and improved geophysical techniques, combined with a drilling program, offers the greatest potential for resolving subsurface structure in the valley. Mapping of surficial geologic units and logging of soil pits and trenches within these units must be completed, using accepted state-of-the-art practices supported by multiple quantitative numerical and relative age-dating techniques

  5. An examination of the spatial variability of the United States surface water balance using the Budyko relationship for current and projected climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficklin, D. L.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    The spatial variability in the balance between surface runoff (Q) and evapotranspiration (ET) is critical for understanding water availability. The Budyko framework suggests that this balance is solely a function of aridity. Observed deviations from this framework for individual watersheds, however, can vary significantly, resulting in uncertainty in using the Budyko framework in ungauged catchments and under future climate and land use scenarios. Here, we model the spatial variability in the partitioning of precipitation into Q and ET using a set of climatic, physiographic, and vegetation metrics for 211 near-natural watersheds across the contiguous United States (CONUS) within Budyko's framework through the free parameter ω. Using a generalized additive model, we found that precipitation seasonality, the ratio of soil water holding capacity to precipitation, topographic slope, and the fraction of precipitation falling as snow explained 81.2% of the variability in ω. This ω model applied to the Budyko framework explained 97% of the spatial variability in long-term Q for an independent set of near-natural watersheds. The developed ω model was also used to estimate the entire CONUS surface water balance for both contemporary and mid-21st century conditions. The contemporary CONUS surface water balance compared favorably to more sophisticated land-surface modeling efforts. For mid-21st century conditions, the model simulated an increase in the fraction of precipitation used by ET across the CONUS with declines in Q for much of the eastern CONUS and mountainous watersheds across the western US. The Budyko framework using the modeled ω lends itself to an alternative approach for assessing the potential response of catchment water balance to climate change to complement other approaches.

  6. Water pollution abatement programme. The Czech Republic. Project 4.2. Assessing critical loads of acidity to surface waters in the Czech Republic. Critical loads of acidity to surface waters, north-eastern Bohemia and northern Moravia, The Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lien, L.; Raclavsky, K.; Raclavska, H.; Matysek, D.; Hovind, H.

    1996-01-01

    This report discusses estimates of critical loads of acidity to surface waters and their exceedances, for north-eastern Bohemia and Moravia in The Czech Republic. The survey covers 13 400 km{sup 2}, or 17% of the area of the country. Varying critical loads were observed within the examined region. 19% of the examined area showed exceedance of critical load and another 11% was close to exceedance. The survey should continue in Bohemia. 24 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Assessment of soil and groundwater contamination by potentially toxic and trace elements in an impounded vehicle scrapyard: Case study: Ribeirão Pires, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Camila Neves

    2018-01-01

    Impounded vehicle scrapyard (IVS) overcrowding is currently a subject of concern in Brazilian scenario. The aim of this study was to assess the total levels of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and trace elements (TE) in soil and groundwater in an IVS located in the city of Ribeirão Pires. In order to achieve this objective, topsoil, three soil cores and groundwater of three monitoring wells were analyzed. It was verified that the area is mainly affected by three factors: (1) a landfill layer with construction waste; (2) an oily residue from past industrial activities in the area; (3) vehicles parked on topsoil. For the evaluation of the results, statistical techniques, such as multivariate analysis, calculation of pollution, ecological and human health risk index were used. Mass fractions of all PTEs, except Co, Cu, Mo and Zn, were higher than reference values. Hot spots were observed for most elements suggesting vehicular source. The Geoaccumulation Index showed minimal to moderate pollution in soil for most elements, except for As and Ba, which showed higher accumulation than other elements. The enrichment factor pointed to a significant enrichment of As and Pb. Arsenic content in soil may pose a moderate to high potential ecological risk. The results of PTEs and as statistical approaches indicated that As, Ce, Co, Cu, Mn, Nb, Ni, Pb and Zn are mainly from anthropogenic sources. The content of most PTEs in topsoil does not pose a potential human health risk, except Cr content. Groundwater levels for most PTEs were below the drinking water recommendation limits, except Mn and Fe content. (author)

  8. Temporal changes in spatial patterns of submersed macrophytes in two impounded reaches of the Upper Mississippi River, USA, 1998-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jager, Nathan R.; Yin, Yao

    2011-01-01

    We examined temporal changes in spatial patterns of submersed aquatic macrophytes during a recent three-fold increase in macrophyte abundance and in response to the cumulative effects of management actions (island construction and water level management) and changes in regional environmental conditions (turbidity) in two navigation pools of the Upper Mississippi River, Pool 8 (managed) and Pool 13 (unmanaged). We used cross-correlograms to quantify changes in the degree and range of spatial correlation between submersed macrophytes and depth across the impounded portions of the two pools from 1998-2009. Along with increases in abundance, we observed gradual expansion of submersed macrophytes into deeper water in both pools. However, we detected no temporal change in spatial patterns in Pool 13, where the range of spatial correlation was ~ 1500-2500 m in length in the downriver direction and ~ 500-1000 m in length in the crossriver direction. We initially detected similar ranges of spatial correlation in Pool 8, but over time the range of correlation in the cross river direction increased from ~ 500 m in 1998 to ~ 2000 m by 2009. Thus, the expansion of submersed macrophytes into deeper water areas in Pool 8 appears to have occurred in the cross-river direction and led to increases in patch size and a more symmetrical patch configuration. Hence, very similar temporal changes in submersed macrophyte abundance corresponded with different diffusion dynamics and spatial patterns in the two pools. We hypothesize that management actions altered spatial patterns of depth, water flow and/or wind fetch and led to the differences in spatial patterns reported here.

  9. Regulatory review and confidence building in post-closure safety assessments and safety cases for near surface disposal facilities, IAEA ASAM coordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belfadhel, M.B.; Bennett, D.G.; Gonzales, A.; Metcalf, P.; Nys, V.; Simeonov, G.; Zeleznik, N.

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA successfully concluded a Coordinated Research Program (CRP) called ISAM, which focused on the development of an Improved Safety Assessment Methodology for near-surface radioactive waste disposal facilities (1997-2002). In November 2002, and as an extension of ISAM, the IAEA launched a new CRP called ASAM, designed to test the Application of the Safety Assessment Methodology by considering a range of near surface disposal facilities. The ASAM work programme is being implemented by three application working groups and two cross-cutting working groups. The application working groups are testing the applicability of the ISAM methodology by assessing an existing disposal facility in Hungary, a copper mine in South Africa, and a hypothetical facility containing heterogenous wastes, such as disused sealed sources. The first cross-cutting working group is addressing a number of technical issues that are common to all near-surface disposal facilities, while the second group, the Regulatory Review Working Group (RRWG) is developing guidance on how to gain confidence in safety assessments and safety cases, and on how to conduct regulatory reviews of safety assessments. This paper provides a brief overview of the work being conducted by the Regulatory Review Working Group. (author)

  10. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  11. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  12. Sealing layer of fly ashes and sewage sludge and vegetation establishment in treatment of mine tailings impoundments; Flygaska och roetslam som taetskikt vid efterbehandling av sandmagasin med vegetationsetablering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria; Neuschuetz, Clara [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany; Isaksson, Karl-Erik [Boliden Mineral AB (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    Each year the Swedish mining industry produces 25 Mtonnes of mine tailings that are disposed of in extensive natural impoundments. As this sand, containing more or less sulphide-rich minerals, is penetrated by oxygen and water, it starts weathering resulting in formation of acidic and metal-rich drainage water. To prevent oxygen penetration the mine tailings can be covered with a sealing layer covered with a protective cover that facilitates establishment of vegetation. The aim of this study has been to examine the function of fly ash and sewage sludge in sealing layers at impoundments of pyrite rich mine tailings, and the ability of different plant species, which are suitable for establishment in these areas, to penetrate the sealing layer with their roots and what impact they have on the drainage water. Experiments have been performed in field and greenhouse environment, with sealing layers consisting of fly ash and sewage sludge mixtures, covered with protective covers of sewage sludge or till. Plant establishment has been studied in a survey of naturally established plants at sewage sludge disposal sites close to mining areas, and by sowing and planting of selected plants, for instance fast growing grass species and fibre hemp at the test plots in field and in greenhouse experiments. Large scale application of ashes, sewage sludge and an ash/sludge mixture have been performed in field at three test plots with the size of 0.3-1 ha. Leakage of nutrients and metals from sealing layers has been studied in field and greenhouse tests. In addition, the ability of plant roots to penetrate sealing layers made of different ash/sludge mixtures have been examined in greenhouse experiments. This investigation is a cooperation between Stockholm University and Boliden Mineral AB, and the field experiments have been performed at the mine tailings impoundments at Gillervattnet, Boliden. Other collaborating participants are Skellefteaa Kraft and Munksund, who have produced the

  13. Design and Development of a Mechanical Carrier for Mobile Robot (with rough surface/terrain movement features)- Extension of KINPOE Robot Project for Application at K-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, H. W.

    2012-01-01

    During plant (KANUPP) operation, it is difficult or nearly impossible to access and monitor (high) radiation areas where some abnormal condition has to be detected or mitigated. Presence of a surveillance mobile robot will be very useful for such a scenario. This project work is an effort towards the development of a mobile robot that can be used for remote surveillance. A four DOF (degree of freedom) articulated robotic arm, and mobile base is developed. Manipulator is designed using Autodesk inventor, and then fabricated in PIEAS Fabrication Shop. All joints of the manipulator are revolute joints. Maxon DC motors have been used to empower the joints with the help of gears. Spur gear and planetary gear head have been used to increase the torque at joints and to reduce the speed. The report provides complete detail about mechanical design, moreover some casting procedures are also discussed at the end to cast main parts of robot, problems that were faced during the project and their solutions are also discussed in the report. (author)

  14. Medico-ecological study and health impact assessment of hydro-electric projects in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karen Lai

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this studies were to determine i) if there was any potential health risks in terms of spread of vector-borne and other communicable diseases resulting from the changes in the environment due to creation of large bodies of water as consequence of the construction of dams, ii) diseases of public health importance in populations affected by such projects. Nine pre-impoundment studies had been carried out and potential impact of the change in environment on discases and health of the affected populations in each areas was evaluated. Risk of infections to the dam construction workers also assessed. Recommendations on mitigation measures were made for each situation so that adequate provisions could be made to improve the health conditions of these populations especially those who would be resettled as a result of impoundment . Prevention and control measures on transmission of infection, including vector control were proposed. The potential medico-ecological hazards encountered by immigrants and visitors to the area on completion of the hydro project were also envisaged

  15. Disposal project for LLW and VLLW generated from research facilities in Japan: A feasibility study for the near surface disposal of VLLW that includes uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Akihiro; Hasegawa, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Nakatani, T.

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion and future work: • JAEA plans trench disposal of U-bearing waste with less than 100 Bq/g. • Two safety measures of trench disposal of U-bearing waste have been discussed taking into account increasing radioactivity over a long period of time. 1. First is to carry out dose assessment of site use scenario by using a conservatively stylized condition. 2. Second is to control the average concentration of U in the trench facilities based on the concept of the existing exposure situation. • We are continuously developing the method for safety measures of near surface disposal of VLLW including U-bearing waste.

  16. FLORAM project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulauf, W.E. [Sao Paolos Environmental Secretariat, Sao Paolo (Brazil); Goelho, A.S.R. [Riocell, S.A. (Brazil); Saber, A. [IEA-Instituto de Estudos Avancados (Brazil)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The project FLORAM was formulated at the `Institute for Advanced Studies` of the University of Sao Paulo. It aims at decreasing the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and thus curbing the green-house effect by way of a huge effort of forestation and reforestation. The resulting forests when the trees mature, will be responsible for the absorption of about 6 billion tons of excess carbon. It represents 5 % of the total amount of CO{sub 2} which is in excess in the earth`s atmosphere and represents 5 % of the available continental surfaces which can be forested as well. Therefore, if similar projects are implemented throughout the world, in theory all the exceeding CO{sub 2}, responsible for the `greenhouse effect`, (27 % or 115 billion tons of carbon) would be absorbed. Regarding this fact, there would be a 400 million hectar increase of growing forests. FLORAM in Brazil aims to plant 20.000.000 ha in 2 years at a cost of 20 billion dollars. If it reaches its goals that will mean that Brazil will have reforested an area almost half as big as France. (author)

  17. Joint research project AkoF. Optimization of the process chain ''ablation of contaminated surfaces'' under the aspect of ablation rate maximization. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschel, Sebastian; Gentes, Sascha; Bussmann, Andrea; Boersch, Fabian; Feil, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    In order to minimize contaminated secondary waste, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities involves the efficient decontamination of concrete walls and floors. For example, the German NPP Wuergassen and NPP Obrigheim require ceiling, wall, pillar, and floor decontamination of up to 140.000 m 2 and estimated several 10.000 m 2 , respectively. In a first step, the surfaces are manually selected, subdivided, and measured for their decontamination. These results are manually recorded and analysed. The appropriate decontamination method will be selected based on these values from a number of available techniques. The state of the art still involves conventional approaches, e.g. chiselling, pinning, or grinding techniques. These procedures are considerably staff-intensive and time-consuming. The surfaces will be re-measured after decontamination. Possibly, remaining surface contamination will subsequently be removed in order to comply with the German regulation paragraph 29 StriSchV, i.e. the material can be released. In the past years, the use of floor planers has proven a successful alternative decontamination device for large surface areas, improving the efficiency of the process chain. The device contains a tool drum with rotating carbide blades hitting the concrete surface and thereby removing it. Conventional applications of floor planers include the processing of screed and low-strength concrete. However, concrete structures in NPP mainly consist of conventional concrete with a compressive strength of f c ≥ 25 MPa. This increased strength decreases the carbide blade lifetime T L and limits the removal depth to 3-4 mm. As a result, this requires additional working steps and tool changes and increases material cost and staff deployment. The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) has developed a milling unit in a joint project with Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG (EnBW), funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (funding code 0288770). This

  18. Glacial evolution in King George and Livingston Islands (Antarctica) since the Last Glacial Maximum based on cosmogenic nuclide dating and glacier surface reconstruction - CRONOANTAR project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Fernández, Jesús; Oliva, Marc; Fernández Menéndez, Susana del Carmen; García Hernández, Cristina; Menéndez Duarte, Rosa Ana; Pellitero Ondicol, Ramón; Pérez Alberti, Augusto; Schimmelpfennig, Irene

    2017-04-01

    CRONOANTAR brings together researchers from Spain, Portugal, France and United Kingdom with the objective of spatially and temporally reconstruct the deglaciation process at the two largest islands in the South Shetlands Archipelago (Maritime Antarctica), since the Global Last Glacial Maximum. Glacier retreat in polar areas has major implications at a local, regional and even planetary scale. Global average sea level rise is the most obvious and socio-economically relevant, but there are others such as the arrival of new fauna to deglaciated areas, plant colonisation or permafrost formation and degradation. This project will study the ice-free areas in Byers and Hurd peninsulas (Livingston Island) and Fildes and Potter peninsulas (King George Island). Ice-cap glacier retreat chronology will be revealed by the use of cosmogenic isotopes (mainly 36Cl) on glacially originated sedimentary and erosive records. Cosmogenic dating will be complemented by other dating methods (C14 and OSL), which will permit the validation of these methods in regions with cold-based glaciers. Given the geomorphological evidences and the obtained ages, a deglaciation calendar will be proposed and we will use a GIS methodology to reconstruct the glacier extent and the ice thickness. The results emerging from this project will allow to assess whether the high glacier retreat rates observed during the last decades were registered in the past, or if they are conversely the consequence (and evidence) of the Global Change in Antarctica. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness (Reference: CTM2016-77878-P).

  19. The Massachusetts Water Isotope Mapping Project: An Integrated Precipitation, Surface Water, and Ground Water IsoScape for Improved Understanding of Hydrologic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutt, D. F.; Cole, A.

    2016-12-01

    The development of CRDS has revolutionized our ability to collect large spatially and temporally distributed datasets of water isotopes allowing un-paralleled insight into the hydrologic functioning of catchments through the lens of isotopic tracing of the water molecule. We present the results of an ongoing study of high spatial and temporal dataset across the state of Massachusetts, Northeast United States. Our current database consists of 1500 precipitation measurements across 15 stations, 2500 surface water measurements across 150 sites, and 2000 groundwater from 200 wells screened in overburden and bedrock wells. Isotopic composition of the region varies significantly as a function of topography and season. Because of the coastal orientation of the region, there is a large variability in the mean 18O-H2O composition of precipitation due to locally dominant precipitation sources. Deuterium excess of precipitation in the range of 10 - 14 ‰ are typical. Five years of surface water samples across the region show a strong seasonal trend ranging from -10 to -3 ‰ δ18O-H2O. Surface waters depict seasonal evaporative enrichment in the heavy isotopes and demonstrate a similar magnitude of deuterium excess compared to the precipitation. During the winters of 2014 and 2015 typical seasonal trends are interrupted by distinctly depleted stream waters of the order of -12 to -11 ‰ δ18O-H2O. These excursions are consistent with a source of water vapor to the region from more northerly (colder) regions. Mean stream water δ18O- H2O isotopic compositions show a strong relationship to upgradient drainage area. Groundwater compositions range from -12 to -5 ‰ δ18O-H2O across all the sites. A correlation between groundwater well elevation and δ18O-H2O is observed with higher elevation sites depleted in heavy isotopes with variations of 2-3 ‰ δ18O-H2O at any given elevation. Groundwater isotopic composition is distinct between overburden aquifer types (till, glacial

  20. An Evidence-based Approach to Developing a Management Strategy for Medical Contingencies on the Lunar Surface: The NASA/Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) 2006 Lunar Medical Contingency Simulation at Devon Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, R. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lee, P.; Comtois, J. M.; Chappell, S.; Rafiq, A.; Braham, S.; Hodgson, E.; Sullivan, P.; Wilkinson, N.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The lunar architecture for future sortie and outpost missions will require humans to serve on the lunar surface considerably longer than the Apollo moon missions. Although the Apollo crewmembers sustained few injuries during their brief lunar surface activity, injuries did occur and are a concern for the longer lunar stays. Interestingly, lunar medical contingency plans were not developed during Apollo. In order to develop an evidence-base for handling a medical contingency on the lunar surface, a simulation using the moon-Mars analog environment at Devon Island, Nunavut, high Canadian Arctic was conducted. Objectives of this study included developing an effective management strategy for dealing with an incapacitated crewmember on the lunar surface, establishing audio/visual and biomedical data connectivity to multiple centers, testing rescue/extraction hardware and procedures, and evaluating in suit increased oxygen consumption. Methods: A review of the Apollo lunar surface activities and personal communications with Apollo lunar crewmembers provided the knowledge base of plausible scenarios that could potentially injure an astronaut during a lunar extravehicular activity (EVA). Objectives were established to demonstrate stabilization and transfer of an injured crewmember and communication with ground controllers at multiple mission control centers. Results: The project objectives were successfully achieved during the simulation. Among these objectives were extraction from a sloped terrain by a two-member crew in a 1 g analog environment, establishing real-time communication to multiple centers, providing biomedical data to flight controllers and crewmembers, and establishing a medical diagnosis and treatment plan from a remote site. Discussion: The simulation provided evidence for the types of equipment and methods for performing extraction of an injured crewmember from a sloped terrain. Additionally, the necessary communications infrastructure to connect

  1. Surface-water-quality assessment of the lower Kansas River basin, Kansas and Nebraska; project data November 1986 through April 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, J.D.; McChesney, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Surface-water-quality data were collected from the lower Kansas River Basin in Kansas and Nebraska. The data are presented in 17 tables consisting of physical properties, concentrations of dissolved solids and major ions, dissolved and total nutrients, dissolved and total major metals and trace elements, radioactivity, organic carbon, pesticides and other synthetic-organic compounds, bacteria and chlorophyll-a, in water; particle-size distributions and concentrations of major metals and trace elements in suspended and streambed sediment; and concentrations of synthetic-organic compounds in streambed sediment. The data are grouped within each table by sampling sites, arranged in downstream order. Ninety-one sites were sampled in the study area. These sampling sites are classified in three, non-exclusive categories (fixed, synoptic, and miscellaneous sites) on the basis of sampling frequency and location. Sampling sites are presented on a plate and in 3 tables, cross-referenced by downstream order, alphabetical order, U.S. Geological Survey identification number, sampling-site classification category, and types of analyses performed at each site. The methods used to collect, analyze, and verify the accuracy of the data also are presented. (USGS)

  2. Sweet Lake Geopressured-geothermal Project, Magma Gulf-Technadril/DOE Amoco Fee. Volume II. Surface installations reservoir testing. Annual report, February 28, 1981-February 10, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, K.S. (ed.)

    1984-01-01

    The Magma Gulf-Technadril/Department of Energy Amoco Fee No. 1 (production) and salt water disposal wells were drilled in the period from August, 1980 to February 1981. Surface facilities were designed and constructed during March-June 1981. Flow testing began in June 1981 and continued until February, 1982. The Miogypsinoides interval contains seven discrete sands in the test well. These sands have been numbered 1 to 7, beginning at the top of the sequence. Data from wireline logs and core samples suggested that the first zone to be perforated should be Sand 5. Because of its high porosity and permeability, Sand 5 was thought to contain almost 50% of the total hydraulic capacity of the well. Flow testing of Sand 5 was performed in three stages, each of which is fully described in this report. Phase I was designed as an initial clean-up flow and a reservoir confirmation test. Phase II consisted of the reservoir limit determination test and lasted 17 days. Boundaries were confirmed which suggest that the Sweet Lake reservoir is fairly narrow, with boundaries on three sides, but is open in one direction with no closure for at least 4-1/4 miles. These boundaries approximate the shape of the graben in which the test well was drilled, but may or may not be directly related to the major faults forming the graben. Phase III testing was planned to be a long-term test at commercial design rates. Although Sand 5 alone would not support such rates, long-term production was demonstrated. Additional research not supported by DOE funding was also performed during the period covered by this report. This research, consisting of mud logging, micropaleontology, organic geochemistry, core analysis, and rock mechanics, is summarized in this report.

  3. EUROTRAC projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slanina, J.; Arends, B.G.; Wyers, G.P.

    1992-07-01

    The projects discussed are BIATEX (BIosphere-ATmosphere EXchange of pollutants), ACE (Acidity in Clouds Experiment) and GCE (Ground-based Cloud Experiment). ECN also coordinates BIATEX and contributes to the coordination of EUROTRAC. Research in BIATEX is aimed at the development of equipment, by which atmosphere-surface interactions of air pollution can be quantified. A ion chromatograph, connected to a rotating denuder, is developed to be applicated in the field for on-line analysis of denuder extracts and other samples. To investigate dry deposition of ammonia a continuous-flow denuder has been developed. A thermodenuder system to measure the concentrations of HNO 3 and NH 4 NO 3 in the ambient air is optimized to determine depositions and is part of the ECN monitoring station in Zegveld, Netherlands. An aerosol separation technique, based on a cyclone separator, has also been developed. All this equipment has been used in field experiments above wheat and heather. An automated monitoring station for long-term investigations of NH 3 , HNO 3 and SO 2 dry deposition on grassland and the impact of the deposition on the presence and composition of water films has been set up and fully tested. Research in GCE concerns the uptake and conversion of air pollution in clouds (cloud chemistry). Measuring equipment from several collaborative institutes has been specified and calibrated in a cloud chamber at ECN. The ECN contribution is the determination of the gas phase composition and the micro-physical characterization of the clouds. Measurement campaigns were carried out in the Po area (Italy) in fog, and in Kleiner Feldberg near Frankfurt, Germany, in orographic clouds. Estimations are given of the deposition of fog water and cloud water on forests in the Netherlands and the low mountain range in Germany. The project ACE was not started because of financial reasons and will be reconsidered. 26 figs., 1 tab., 3 apps., 34 refs

  4. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Project Management Theory Meets Practice contains the proceedings from the 1st Danish Project Management Research Conference (DAPMARC 2015), held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on May 21st, 2015.......Project Management Theory Meets Practice contains the proceedings from the 1st Danish Project Management Research Conference (DAPMARC 2015), held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on May 21st, 2015....

  5. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan; Chai, Kah-Hin; Le, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the true coverage of PM theory through a bibliometric analysis of the International Journal of Project Management from 1996-2012. We identify six persistent research themes: project time management, project risk management, programme management, large-scale project management......, project success/failure and practitioner development. These differ from those presented in review and editorial articles in the literature. In addition, topics missing from the PM BOK: knowledge management project-based organization and project portfolio management have become more popular topics...

  6. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, A.

    1998-01-01

    Project financing was defined ('where a lender to a specific project has recourse only to the cash flow and assets of that project for repayment and security respectively') and its attributes were described. Project financing was said to be particularly well suited to power, pipeline, mining, telecommunications, petro-chemicals, road construction, and oil and gas projects, i.e. large infrastructure projects that are difficult to fund on-balance sheet, where the risk profile of a project does not fit the corporation's risk appetite, or where higher leverage is required. Sources of project financing were identified. The need to analyze and mitigate risks, and being aware that lenders always take a conservative view and gravitate towards the lowest common denominator, were considered the key to success in obtaining project financing funds. TransAlta Corporation's project financing experiences were used to illustrate the potential of this source of financing

  7. Sweetwater Uranium Project. Draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of a Source Material License to Minerals Exploration Company for the construction and operation of the proposed Sweetwater Uranium Mill with a nominal capacity of 3000 tons (2.7 x 10 6 kg) per day of uranium ore in Wyoming. The applicant proposes also to construct a heap-leaching and resin ion-exchange facility to extract uranium from low-grade ores and mine water. Impacts to the area due to the operation of the Sweetwater Uranium Mine/Mill Project will result in: Alternations of up to 2200 acres by the mill, mine pit area, and roads, and about 3450 acres of Battle Spring Flat to be inundated by mine dewatering operations; increase in the existing background radiation levels; socioeconomic effects on Rawlins and other nearby areas; and tailings from the mill will be produced at a rate of about 3000 tons (2.7 x 10 6 kg) per day and will be stored onsite in a lined impoundment. Conditions for the issuance of the license are given

  8. The Yangtze-Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subklew, Günter; Ulrich, Julia; Fürst, Leander; Höltkemeier, Agnes

    2010-05-01

    As an important element in Chinese politics for the development of the Western parts of the country, a large hydraulic engineering project - the Three Gorges Dam - has been set up in order to dam the Yangtze River for a length of over 600 km with an average width of about 1,100 m. It is expected that this results in ecological, technical and social problems of a magnitude hardly dealt with before. With this gigantic project, the national executive is pursuing the aims of - preventing flooding - safeguarding the water supply - encouraging navigation and - generating electric energy. In future, fluctuations of the water level of up to 30 metres will be deliberately applied in the dammed-up section of the river while retaining the flow character of the seasonal variation. The pollution of the Yangtze with a wide range of problem substances is frequently underestimated since in many cases attention is only paid to the low measured concentrations. However, the large volumes of water lead to appreciable loads and thus the danger of an accumulation of pollutants even reaching the human food chain. It should also not be forgotten that the Yangtze represents the major, and in some cases indeed the only, source of drinking and domestic water for the population. A consideration of the water level in the impoundment that will in future arise from management of the reservoir reveals the dramatic change in contrast to the natural inundation regime. In the past, the flood events on the banks of the Yangtze and its tributaries occurred in the summer months. The plants in the riparian zone (water fluctuation zone = WFZ) were previously inundated during the warmer time of year (28 ° July/August) and the terrestrial phase of the WFZ was characterized by cool temperatures (3-5 °C January) that permitted little plant activity. In future, the highest water levels will occur in winter above the dam on the Yangtze and also on the tributaries flowing into it. The plants in the WFZ will

  9. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.U.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the basic concepts and components of the project financing of large industrial facilities. Diagrams of a simple partnership structure and a simple leveraged lease structure are included. Finally, a Hypothetical Project is described with basic issues identified for discussion purposes. The topics of the paper include non-recourse financing, principal advantages and objectives, disadvantages, project financing participants and agreements, feasibility studies, organization of the project company, principal agreements in a project financing, insurance, and an examination of a hypothetical project

  10. Virtual projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Commisso, Trine Hald

    2012-01-01

    that the best practice knowledge has not permeated sufficiently to the practice. Furthermore, the appropriate application of information and communication technology (ICT) remains a big challenge, and finally project managers are not sufficiently trained in organizing and conducting virtual projects....... The overall implications for research and practice are to acknowledge virtual project management as very different to traditional project management and to address this difference.......Virtual projects are common with global competition, market development, and not least the financial crisis forcing organizations to reduce their costs drastically. Organizations therefore have to place high importance on ways to carry out virtual projects and consider appropriate practices...

  11. Development, Testing, and Application of a Coupled Hydrodynamic Surface-Water/Groundwater Model (FTLOADDS) with Heat and Salinity Transport in the Ten Thousand Islands/Picayune Strand Restoration Project Area, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Eric D.; Decker, Jeremy D.

    2009-01-01

    A numerical model application was developed for the coastal area inland of the Ten Thousand Islands (TTI) in southwestern Florida using the Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density-Dependent System (FTLOADDS) model. This model couples a two-dimensional dynamic surface-water model with a three-dimensional groundwater model, and has been applied to several locations in southern Florida. The model application solves equations for salt transport in groundwater and surface water, and also simulates surface-water temperature using a newly enhanced heat transport algorithm. One of the purposes of the TTI application is to simulate hydrologic factors that relate to habitat suitability for the West Indian Manatee. Both salinity and temperature have been shown to be important factors for manatee survival. The inland area of the TTI domain is the location of the Picayune Strand Restoration Project, which is designed to restore predevelopment hydrology through the filling and plugging of canals, construction of spreader channels, and the construction of levees and pump stations. The effects of these changes are simulated to determine their effects on manatee habitat. The TTI application utilizes a large amount of input data for both surface-water and groundwater flow simulations. These data include topography, frictional resistance, atmospheric data including rainfall and air temperature, aquifer properties, and boundary conditions for tidal levels, inflows, groundwater heads, and salinities. Calibration was achieved by adjusting the parameters having the largest uncertainty: surface-water inflows, the surface-water transport dispersion coefficient, and evapotranspiration. A sensitivity analysis did not indicate that further parameter changes would yield an overall improvement in simulation results. The agreement between field data from GPS-tracked manatees and TTI application results demonstrates that the model can predict the salinity and temperature

  12. Projections of Veronese surface and morphisms from projective ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Laboratoire de Mathématiques de Lens EA 2462, Faculté des Sciences Jean Perrin. Rue Jean Souvraz, SP18 F-62307 LENS Cedex, France. 2Mathématiques - bât. M2, Université Lille 1, F-59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. 3Institute of Mathematical Sciences C.I.T. Campus, Taramani, Chennai 600 113, India.

  13. Projections of Veronese surface and morphisms from projective ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laboratoire de Mathematiques de Lens EA 2462, Faculte des Sciences Jean Perrin Rue Jean Souvraz, SP18 F-62307 LENS Cedex, France; Mathematiques - bat. M2, Universite Lille 1, F-59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France; Institute of Mathematical Sciences, CIT Campus, Taramani, Chennai 600 113, India ...

  14. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... into account. This may require investments in new project management technologies. Originality/value – This paper adds to the literatures on project temporalities and stakeholder theory by connecting them to the question of non-human stakeholders and to project management technologies.......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...

  15. Project ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Jonasson, Haukur Ingi

    2013-01-01

    How relevant is ethics to project management? The book - which aims to demystify the field of ethics for project managers and managers in general - takes both a critical and a practical look at project management in terms of success criteria, and ethical opportunities and risks. The goal is to help the reader to use ethical theory to further identify opportunities and risks within their projects and thereby to advance more directly along the path of mature and sustainable managerial practice.

  16. Projective Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In painting, this point is sometimes referred to as a 'vanishing point'. We will get back to this device called 'central projection' in mathematics a little later. .... The intersection of a curve of degree m and a curve of degree n has ... projective plane, we get a dual theorem on the second projective plane, which for this reason.

  17. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally...

  18. The Snowmastodon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kirk R.; Miller, Ian M.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of terrestrial biotic and environmental dynamics of the last interglacial period, Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 5, provide insight into the effects of long-term climate change on Pleistocene ecosystems. In North America, however, there are relatively few fossil sites that definitively date to MIS 5. Even fewer contain multiple ecosystem components (vertebrates, invertebrates, plants) that have been studied in detail, and none are located at high elevation. Thus, our view of North American ecosystems during MIS 5 is, at best, an incomplete composite view, and alpine ecosystems are entirely undocumented. The Ziegler Reservoir fossil site allows us to begin filling these gaps. Discovered on October 14, 2010 by a construction crew while enlarging a small reservoir near Snowmass Village, Colorado (USA), the site is situated high in the Rocky Mountains at an elevation of ~ 2705 m. Initial excavations exposed a series of stacked fossil ecosystems, including abundant faunal and floral components. Subsequent work revealed an exceptionally diverse biota composed of nearly 6000 large bones of late Pleistocene megafauna, including mastodons, mammoths, ground sloths, horses, camels, deer, bison, black bear, coyotes, and big horn sheep. This collection is complemented by more than 200 bones from at least 40 species of small animals including otters, muskrats, minks, rabbits, beavers, frogs, lizards, snakes, fish, and birds, and more than 20,000 salamander bones. Geomorphic evidence and multiple dating techniques show that the small, ridge-top basin containing the site was formed by a lateral lobe of a valley glacier that filled, and ultimately overtopped, the Snowmass Creek drainage during the Bull Lake glaciation (MIS 6). When the glacier receded, a lake that occupied the basin began to fill slowly with what is hypothesized to be eolian sediment and occasional input from slope failures of the impounding moraine. As sedimentation continued, the lake transformed first

  19. Cartographic science: a compendium of map projections, with derivations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fenna, Donald

    2007-01-01

    "From basic projecting to advanced transformations, Cartographic Science: A Compendium of Map Projections, with Derivations comprehensively explores the depiction of a curved world on a flat surface...

  20. Smooth polyhedral surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Günther, Felix

    2017-03-15

    Polyhedral surfaces are fundamental objects in architectural geometry and industrial design. Whereas closeness of a given mesh to a smooth reference surface and its suitability for numerical simulations were already studied extensively, the aim of our work is to find and to discuss suitable assessments of smoothness of polyhedral surfaces that only take the geometry of the polyhedral surface itself into account. Motivated by analogies to classical differential geometry, we propose a theory of smoothness of polyhedral surfaces including suitable notions of normal vectors, tangent planes, asymptotic directions, and parabolic curves that are invariant under projective transformations. It is remarkable that seemingly mild conditions significantly limit the shapes of faces of a smooth polyhedral surface. Besides being of theoretical interest, we believe that smoothness of polyhedral surfaces is of interest in the architectural context, where vertices and edges of polyhedral surfaces are highly visible.

  1. Depletion of barium and radium-226 in Black Sea surface waters over the past thirty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenison Falkner, K.K.; Edmond, J.M.; O'Neill, D.J.; Todd, J.F.; Moore, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    The nearly landlocked waters of the Black Sea support a valuable fishery, but are also particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbance. Here we use dissolved barium and radium-226 as tracers, to investigate the biogeochemical health of the sea. Both elements are brought to surface waters by vertical mixing of deeper, enriched waters, and by rivers; these inputs should ordinarily be balanced by outflow of surface waters at the Bosphorus, and by biologically mediated removal of 226 Ra-bearing barite. We show, however, that surface-water inventories have been substantially depleted over the past few decades: recent (1988-89) barium concentrations were 1.6 times lower than in 1958 and 1967. These observations suggest that steady-state cycling of these elements has been perturbed by increased primary productivity, presumably fuelled by nutrients from industry and agricultural runoff, and to a lesser extent by decreased fluvial sediment loads owing to extensive impoundment of rivers in the region. (author)

  2. Plenoptic Imager for Automated Surface Navigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Autonomous and semi-autonomous robotic systems require information about their surroundings in order to navigate properly. A video camera machine vision system can...

  3. A Comet Surface Sample Return System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase I investigation will focus on the development of spacecraft systems required to obtain a sample from the nucleus of a comet, hermetically seal the...

  4. Surface Optimization Techniques for Deployable Reflectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Existing communications systems for spacecraft provide a choice between either large aperture (>3m) or high frequency (>X-band), but not both. These systems...

  5. Projecting Images on a Sphere

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A system for projecting images on an object with a reflective surface. A plurality of image projectors are spaced around the object and synchronized such that each...

  6. Final Project Report for Award ER65581

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoy, Paul C. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2017-07-13

    The attached final project report describes contributions of Montana State University (MSU) to the project "Bridging land-surface fluxes and aerosol concentrations to triggering convective rainfall" (PI: Fuentes).

  7. Quality Assurance Project Plan Development Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    This tool contains information designed to assist in developing a Quality Assurance (QA) Project Plan that meets EPA requirements for projects that involve surface or groundwater monitoring and/or the collection and analysis of water samples.

  8. Comprehensive surface geophysical investigation of karst caves ahead of the tunnel face: A case study in the Xiaoheyan section of the water supply project from Songhua River, Jilin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Liu; Zhengyu, Liu; Shucai, Li; Lichao, Nie; Maoxin, Su; Huaifeng, Sun; Kerui, Fan; Xinxin, Zhang; Yonghao, Pang

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes the application of a comprehensive surface geophysical investigation of underground karst systems ahead of the tunnel face in the Xiaoheyan section in the main line of the water supply project from Songhua River, located in Jilin, China. To make an accurate investigation, Surface Electrical Resistivity Tomography (S-ERT), Transient Electromagnetic Method (TEM), Geological Drilling (Geo-D) and Three-dimensional Cross-hole Electrical Resistivity Tomography (3D cross-hole ERT) were applied to gain a comprehensive interpretation. To begin with, S-ERT and TEM are adopted to detect and delineate the underground karst zone. Based on the detection results, surface and in-tunnel Geo-D are placed in major areas with more specific and accurate information gained. After that, survey lines of 3D cross-hole ERT are used to conduct detailed exploration towards underground karst system. In the comprehensive investigation, it is the major question to make the best of prior information so as to promote the quality of detection. The paper has put forward strategies to make the full use of effective information in data processing and the main ideas of those strategies include: (1) Take the resistivity distribution of the subsurface stratum gained by S-ERT inversion as the initial model of TEM inversion; (2) Arrange borehole positions with the results of S-ERT and TEM. After that, gain more accurate information about resistivity of subsurface stratum using those boreholes located; (3) Through the comprehensive analysis of the information about S-ERT, TEM and Geo-D, set the initial model of 3D cross-hole resistivity inversion and meanwhile, gain the variation range of stratum resistivity. At last, a 3D cross-hole resistivity inversion based on the incorporated initial model and inequality constraint is conducted. Constrained inversion and joint interpretation are realized by the effective use of prior information in comprehensive investigation, helping to suppress

  9. DNA ELECTROPHORESIS AT SURFACES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAFAILOVICH, MIRIAM; SOKOLOV, JONATHAN; GERSAPPE, DILIP

    2003-09-01

    During this year we performed two major projects: I. We developed a detailed theoretical model which complements our experiments on surface DNA electrophoresis. We found that it was possible to enhance the separation of DNA chains by imposing a chemical nanoscale pattern on the surface. This approach utilized the surface interaction effect of the DNA chains with the substrate and is a refinement to our previous method in which DNA chains were separated on homogeneous flat surfaces. By introducing the nano-patterns on the surface, the conformational changes of DNA chains of different lengths can be amplified, which results in the different friction strengths with the substrate surface. Our results also show that, when compared to the DNA electrophoresis performed on homogeneous flat surfaces, nanopatterned surfaces offer a larger window in choosing different surface interactions to achieve separation. II. In collaboration with a large international manufacturer of skin care products we also embarked on a project involving photo toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, which are a key ingredient in sunscreen and cosmetic lotions. The results clearly implicated the nanoparticles in catalyzing damage to chromosomal DNA. We then used this knowledge to develop a polymer/anti-oxidant coating which prevented the photocatalytic reaction on DNA while still retaining the UV absorptive properties of the nanoparticles. The standard gel electrophoresis was not sufficient in determining the extent of the DNA damage. The conclusions of this study were based predominantly on analysis obtained with the surface electrophoresis method.

  10. Computer aided surface representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1989-02-09

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  11. Underground coal mine subsidence impacts on surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stump, D.E. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that subsidence from underground coal mining alters surface water discharge and availability. The magnitude and areal extent of these impacts are dependent on many factors, including the amount of subsidence, topography, geology, climate, surface water - ground water interactions, and fractures in the overburden. There alterations may have positive and/or negative impacts. One of the most significant surface water impacts occurred in July 1957 near West Pittston, Pennsylvania. Subsidence in the Knox Mine under the Coxton Yards of the Lehigh Valley Railroad allowed part of the discharge in the Susquehanna River to flow into the mine and create a crater 200 feet in diameter and 300 feet deep. Fourteen railroad gondola cars fell into the hole which was eventually filled with rock, sand, and gravel. Other surface water impacts from subsidence may include the loss of water to the ground water system, the gaining of water from the ground water system, the creation of flooded subsidence troughs, the increasing of impoundment storage capacity, the relocation of water sources (springs), and the alteration of surface drainage patterns

  12. OMEGA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, E.H.

    1989-01-01

    The OMEGA - Observation of Multiple particle production, Exotic Interactions and Gamma-ray Air Shower-project is presented. The project try to associate photosensitive detectors from experiences of hadronic interactions with electronic detectors used by experiences that investigate extensive atmospheric showers. (M.C.K.)

  13. PROJECT REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medakubu

    We here present a very preliminary report on a field project entitled 'Vanishing. Voices from Ghana's Middle Belt', an Endangered Languages Documentation Project funded by the Endangered Languages Documentation Program based at the School of. Oriental and African Studies, University of London. It is being carried ...

  14. Project Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estevez Fernandez, M.A.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies situations in which a project consisting of several activities is not executed as planned.It is divided into three parts.The first part analyzes the case where the activities may be delayed; this possibly induces a delay on the project as a whole with additional costs.Associated

  15. LEX Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Larsen, Torben J.; Walbjørn, Jacob

    This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept.......This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept....

  16. 11 August 2008 - Member of the House of Councillors M. Naito (The National Diet of Japan, The Democratic Party of Japan) visiting the ATLAS experiment control room with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and ATLAS Muon Project Leader G. Mikenberg. Family photograph with CERN Japanese scientists in front of the ATLAS surface building.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    11 August 2008 - Member of the House of Councillors M. Naito (The National Diet of Japan, The Democratic Party of Japan) visiting the ATLAS experiment control room with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and ATLAS Muon Project Leader G. Mikenberg. Family photograph with CERN Japanese scientists in front of the ATLAS surface building.

  17. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Key Lake is located in the Athabasca sand stone basin, 640 kilometers north of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The three sources of ore at Key Lake contain 70 100 tonnes of uranium. Features of the Key Lake Project were described under the key headings: work force, mining, mill process, tailings storage, permanent camp, environmental features, worker health and safety, and economic benefits. Appendices covering the historical background, construction projects, comparisons of western world mines, mining statistics, Northern Saskatchewan surface lease, and Key Lake development and regulatory agencies were included

  18. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podzorov, Vitaly [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2012-10-28

    The scope of this project is to investigate fundamental aspects of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) grown at the surface of organic semiconductors and other electronic materials, recently discovered in our group (Fig. 1) [1]. Understanding the growth mechanism and structure of these SAMs, as well as investigating the effect of SAM-induced high surface conductivity, are the main thrusts of the project. An additional thrust of the project is to find new ways of surface doping or surface gating of novel semiconductors, in which electronic traps at the interface would be passivated. Molecular self assembly is an exciting research area of modern materials science, playing an important role in a variety of emerging applications, such as organic and molecular electronics, bioengineering, sensors and actuators. The current effort in this field has been focused on two experimental platforms: SAMs on metals (e.g., Au) and SAMs on inorganic oxides (e.g., SiO2). We have recently discovered the third platform, molecular self-assembly at the surface of carbon-based electronic materials (organic semiconductors, graphene and CNTs), which opens new opportunities for fundamental research and applications (Fig. 1) [1, 2, 3]. One of the most intriguing aspects of the new discovery is that formation of an FTS self-assembled monolayer on these materials induces a high-density mobile charges, with n up to 1014 cm-2, resulting in a large surface conductivity, σ ≈ 10-5 S·square-1 [1]. The effect is due to an interfacial electron transfer from the semiconductor to the SAM, resulting in a 0.54 V potential drop across the 1.3 nm-thick SAM, as recently revealed by Kelvin probe microscopy in rubrene [4].

  19. Freedom Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Suarez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Freedom Project trains prisoners in nonviolent communication and meditation. Two complementary studies of its effects are reported in this article. The first study is correlational; we found decreased recidivism rates among prisoners trained by Freedom Project compared with recidivism rates in Washington state. The second study compared trained prisoners with a matched-pair control group and found improvement in self-reported anger, self-compassion, and certain forms of mindfulness among the trained group. Ratings of role-plays simulating difficult interactions show increased social skills among the group trained by Freedom Project than in the matched controls.

  20. Projective geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Faulkner, Thomas Ewan

    1952-01-01

    This text explores the methods of the projective geometry of the plane. Some knowledge of the elements of metrical and analytical geometry is assumed; a rigorous first chapter serves to prepare readers. Following an introduction to the methods of the symbolic notation, the text advances to a consideration of the theory of one-to-one correspondence. It derives the projective properties of the conic and discusses the representation of these properties by the general equation of the second degree. A study of the relationship between Euclidean and projective geometry concludes the presentation. Nu

  1. Environmental impact assessments of the Three Gorges Project in China: Issues and interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Yang, Guishan

    2013-09-01

    The paper takes China's authoritative Environmental Impact Statement for the Yangzi (Yangtze) Three Gorges Project (TGP) in 1992 as a benchmark against which to evaluate emerging major environmental outcomes since the initial impoundment of the Three Gorges reservoir in 2003. The paper particularly examines five crucial environmental aspects and associated causal factors. The five domains include human resettlement and the carrying capacity of local environments (especially land), water quality, reservoir sedimentation and downstream riverbed erosion, soil erosion, and seismic activity and geological hazards. Lessons from the environmental impact assessments of the TGP are: (1) hydro project planning needs to take place at a broader scale, and a strategic environmental assessment at a broader scale is necessary in advance of individual environmental impact assessments; (2) national policy and planning adjustments need to react quickly to the impact changes of large projects; (3) long-term environmental monitoring systems and joint operations with other large projects in the upstream areas of a river basin should be established, and the cross-impacts of climate change on projects and possible impacts of projects on regional or local climate considered.

  2. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2009-01-01

    In this video Associate Professor Constance Kampf talks about the importance project management. Not only as a tool in implementation, but also as a way of thinking, and as something that needs to be considered from idea conception......In this video Associate Professor Constance Kampf talks about the importance project management. Not only as a tool in implementation, but also as a way of thinking, and as something that needs to be considered from idea conception...

  3. Project mobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.; Limbrick, A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper identifies and reviews the issues to be addressed and the procedures to be followed during the mobilisation of projects using LFG as an energy source. Knowledge of the procedures involved in project mobilisation, their sequence and probable timescales, is essential for efficient project management. It is assumed that the majority of projects will be situated on existing, licensed landfill sites and, in addition to complying with the relevant conditions of the waste management licence and original planning consent, any proposed developments on the site will require a separate planning consent. Experience in the UK indicates that obtaining planning permission rarely constitutes a barrier to the development of schemes for the utilisation of LFG. Even so, an appreciation of the applicable environmental and planning legislation is essential as this will enable the developer to recognise the main concerns of the relevant planning authority at an early stage of the project, resulting in the preparation of an informed and well-structured application for planning permission. For a LFG utilisation scheme on an existing landfill site, the need to carry out an environmental assessment (EA) as part of the application for planning permission will, in vitually all cases, be discretionary. Even if not deemed necessary by the planning authority, an EA is a useful tool at the planning application stage, to identify and address potential problems and to support discussions with bodies such as the Environment Agency, from whom consents or authorisations may be required. Carrying out an EA can thus provide for more cost-effective project development and enhanced environmental protection. Typically, the principal contractual arrangements, such as the purchase of gas or the sale of electricity, will have been established before the project mobilisation phase. However, there are many other contractural arrangements that must be established, and consents and permits that may be

  4. Emergency Fish Restoration Project; Final Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCaire, Richard

    2003-03-01

    Lake Roosevelt is a 151-mile impoundment created by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam during the early 1940's. The construction of the dam permanently and forever blocked the once abundant anadromous fish runs to the upper Columbia Basin. Since the construction of Grand Coulee Dam in 1943 and Chief Joseph Dam in 1956 this area is known as the blocked area. The blocked area is totally dependant upon resident fish species to provide a subsistence, recreational and sport fishery. The sport fishery of lake Roosevelt is varied but consists mostly of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), Walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) Small mouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Currently, Bonneville Power Administration funds and administers two trout/kokanee hatcheries on Lake Roosevelt. The Spokane Tribe of Indians operates one hatchery, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife the other. In addition to planting fish directly into Lake Roosevelt, these two hatcheries also supply fish to a net pen operation that also plants the lake. The net pen project is administered by Bonneville Power funded personnel but is dependant upon volunteer labor for daily feeding and monitoring operations. This project has demonstrated great success and is endorsed by the Colville Confederated Tribes, the Spokane Tribe of Indians, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, local sportsmen associations, and the Lake Roosevelt Forum. The Lake Roosevelt/Grand Coulee Dam area is widely known and its diverse fishery is targeted by large numbers of anglers annually to catch rainbow trout, kokanee salmon, small mouth bass and walleye. These anglers contribute a great deal to the local economy by fuel, grocery, license, tackle and motel purchases. Because such a large portion of the local economy is dependant upon the Lake Roosevelt fishery and tourism, any unusual operation of the Lake Roosevelt system may have a

  5. Project studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geraldi, Joana; Söderlund, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Project organising is a growing field of scholarly inquiry and management practice. In recent years, two important developments have influenced this field: (1) the study and practice of projects have extended their level of analysis from mainly focussing on individual projects to focussing on micro...... of 'organising' filled the field of organisation studies with new ideas and intellectual challenges. To take advantage of such developments, organisational scholars had to consider different forms of organising as part of 'organisation studies', and continuously adapt their frames of reference and forms...... by emancipatory interest and the pragmatic desire for changes in the status quo through the reorganisation of inherent contradictions, giving voice to minorities while addressing major economic and social problems. We termed them type 1, type 2 and type 3, respectively.The juxtaposition of levels of analysis...

  6. Projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, George L.; Yang, Kei H.

    1998-08-01

    Projection display in today's market is dominated by cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Further progress in this mature CRT projector technology will be slow and evolutionary. Liquid crystal based projection displays have gained rapid acceptance in the business market. New technologies are being developed on several fronts: (1) active matrix built from polysilicon or single crystal silicon; (2) electro- optic materials using ferroelectric liquid crystal, polymer dispersed liquid crystals or other liquid crystal modes, (3) micromechanical-based transducers such as digital micromirror devices, and grating light valves, (4) high resolution displays to SXGA and beyond, and (5) high brightness. This article reviews the projection displays from a transducer technology perspective along with a discussion of markets and trends.

  7. K3 projective models in scrolls

    CERN Document Server

    Johnsen, Trygve

    2004-01-01

    The exposition studies projective models of K3 surfaces whose hyperplane sections are non-Clifford general curves. These models are contained in rational normal scrolls. The exposition supplements standard descriptions of models of general K3 surfaces in projective spaces of low dimension, and leads to a classification of K3 surfaces in projective spaces of dimension at most 10. The authors bring further the ideas in Saint-Donat's classical article from 1974, lifting results from canonical curves to K3 surfaces and incorporating much of the Brill-Noether theory of curves and theory of syzygies developed in the mean time.

  8. Echo project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gfader, Verina; Carson, Rebecca; Kraus, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Echo project (ed. by Verina Gfader and Ruth Höflich) is an online publication and community board that developed from a visit to the Los Angeles Art Book fair in January 2014. It was on the occasion of a prior book project, titled Prospectus, that the editorial team had been invited by the LAABF...... team to both present the printed matter in the format of running a book stall, and stage a discursive event at the Classroom. Echo reverberates some of the encounters and debates there, with new commissioned chapters propelling a ongoing correspondence across urban environs: An essay on the General...

  9. Adsorption of Hazardous Compounds to Mineral Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carron, Keith

    1997-01-01

    The project entitled 'Adsorption of Hazardous Compounds to Mineral Surfaces' involved five faculty members from the University of Wyoming's Departments of Chemistry, Geology, Soil Science, and Mathematics...

  10. Project Narrative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Mary C. [St. Bonaventure University, St Bonaventure, NY(United States)

    2012-07-12

    The Project Narrative describes how the funds from the DOE grant were used to purchase equipment for the biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics departments. The Narrative also describes how the equipment is being used. There is also a list of the positive outcomes as a result of having the equipment that was purchased with the DOE grant.

  11. Projection Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Falko Jens; Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin

    1999-01-01

    When trying to solve a DAE problem of high index with more traditional methods, it often causes instability in some of the variables, and finally leads to breakdown of convergence and integration of the solution. This is nicely shown in [ESF98, p. 152 ff.].This chapter will introduce projection...

  12. Hydrology Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Research carried out in the 'Hydrology Project' of the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura', Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, are described. Such research comprises: Amazon hydrology and Northeast hydrology. Techniques for the measurement of isotope ratios are used. (M.A.) [pt

  13. Project Lifescape

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Project Lifescape – An Invitation. Madhav Gadgil. Classroom Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp 80-90. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/08/0080-0090. Author Affiliations.

  14. Project Avatar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Jonas Alastair

    'Project Avatar' tager udgangspunkt i den efterretningsdisciplin, der kaldes Open Source Intelligence og indebærer al den information, som ligger frit tilgængeligt i åbne kilder. Med udbredelsen af sociale medier åbners der op for helt nye typer af informationskilder. Spørgsmålet er; hvor nyttig er...

  15. FLOAT Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.; Aarup, Bendt

    The objective of the FLOAT project is to study the reliability of high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete, also known as Compact Reinforced Composite (CRC), for the floats of wave energy converters. In order to reach a commercial breakthrough, wave energy converters need to achieve a lower price...

  16. Project Baltia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Uus arhitektuuriajakiri "Project Baltia" tutvustab Baltimaade, Soome ja Peterburi regiooni arhitektuuri, linnaehitust ja disaini. Ilmub neli korda aastas inglise- ja venekeelsena. Väljaandja: kirjastus Balticum Peterburis koostöös Amsterdami ja Moskva kirjastusega A-Fond. Peatoimetaja Vladimir Frolov

  17. Project COLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  18. Project Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, Rufus F.

    This report reviews the remedial education program--Project Success--at the Urban Education Center, City Colleges of Chicago (Illinois). The major features of the program are outlined and its operation and evaluation are discussed. Student performance and characteristics are then tabularly compared, based on their groupings as…

  19. Radiochemistry Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Researches carried out in the 'Radiochemistry Project' of the Agricultural Nuclear Energy Center, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, are described. Such researches comprise: dosimetry and radiological protection; development of techniques and methods of chemical analysis and radiochemistry. (M.A.) [pt

  20. THE PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Latyshev

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "Urals Industrial - Urals Polar" is the unique project and thus it will provide the economic security not only of the local territory but of the whole Russia in terms of several courses. This article is devoted to the main courses of these ones and their influence on the economy of the country.

  1. Project Reconstruct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helisek, Harriet; Pratt, Donald

    1994-01-01

    Presents a project in which students monitor their use of trash, input and analyze information via a database and computerized graphs, and "reconstruct" extinct or endangered animals from recyclable materials. The activity was done with second-grade students over a period of three to four weeks. (PR)

  2. SDN Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Rhett [Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Inc, Pullman, WA (United States)

    2016-12-23

    The SDN Project completed on time and on budget and successfully accomplished 100% of the scope of work outlined in the original Statement of Project Objective (SOPO). The SDN Project formed an alliance between Ameren Corporation, University of Illinois Urbana- Champaign (UIUC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL), and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. (SEL). The objective of the SDN Project is to address Topic Area of Interest 2: Sustain critical energy delivery functions while responding to a cyber-intrusion under Funding Opportunity Announcement DE-FOA-0000797. The goal of the project is to design and commercially release technology that provides a method to sustain critical energy delivery functions during a cyber intrusion and to do this control system operators need the ability to quickly identify and isolate the affected network areas, and re-route critical information and control flows around. The objective of the SDN Project is to develop a Flow Controller that monitors, configures, and maintains the safe, reliable network traffic flows of all the local area networks (LANs) on a control system in the Energy sector. The SDN team identified the core attributes of a control system and produced an SDN flow controller that has the same core attributes enabling networks to be designed, configured and deployed that maximize the whitelisted, deny-bydefault and purpose built networks. This project researched, developed and commercially released technology that: Enables all field networks be to configured and monitored as if they are a single asset to be protected; Enables greatly improved and even precalculated response actions to reliability and cyber events; Supports pre-configured localized response actions tailored to provide resilience against failures and centralized response to cyber-attacks that improve network reliability and availability; Architecturally enables the right subject matter experts, who are usually the information

  3. Energy Storage Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program funded the Energy Storage Project to develop battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of the Constellation Program for human exploration. Technology needs were determined by architecture studies and risk assessments conducted by the Constellation Program, focused on a mission for a long-duration lunar outpost. Critical energy storage needs were identified as batteries for EVA suits, surface mobility systems, and a lander ascent stage; fuel cells for the lander and mobility systems; and a regenerative fuel cell for surface power. To address these needs, the Energy Storage Project developed advanced lithium-ion battery technology, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiated-mixed-metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety. The project also developed "non-flow-through" proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant--fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale nonflow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. This report summarizes the project s goals, objectives, technical accomplishments, and risk assessments. A bibliography spanning the life of the project is also included.

  4. Projective geometry and projective metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Busemann, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    The basic results and methods of projective and non-Euclidean geometry are indispensable for the geometer, and this book--different in content, methods, and point of view from traditional texts--attempts to emphasize that fact. Results of special theorems are discussed in detail only when they are needed to develop a feeling for the subject or when they illustrate a general method. On the other hand, an unusual amount of space is devoted to the discussion of the fundamental concepts of distance, motion, area, and perpendicularity.Topics include the projective plane, polarities and conic sectio

  5. Basalt Waste Isolation Project Reclamation Support Project:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1992-06-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) Reclamation Support Project began in the spring of 1988 by categorizing sites distributed during operations of the BWIP into those requiring revegetation and those to be abandoned or transferred to other programs. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory's role in this project was to develop plans for reestablishing native vegetation on the first category of sites, to monitor the implementation of these plans, to evaluate the effectiveness of these efforts, and to identify remediation methods where necessary. The Reclamation Support Project focused on three major areas: geologic hydrologic boreholes, the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF), and the Near-Surface Test Facility (NSTF). A number of BWIP reclamation sites seeded between 1989 and 1990 were found to be far below reclamation objectives. These sites were remediated in 1991 using various seedbed treatments designed to rectify problems with water-holding capacity, herbicide activity, surficial crust formation, and nutrient imbalances. Remediation was conducted during November and early December 1991. Sites were examined on a monthly basis thereafter to evaluate plant growth responses to these treatments. At all remediation sites early plant growth responses to these treatments. At all remediation sites, early plant growth far exceeded any previously obtained using other methods and seedbed treatments. Seeded plants did best where amendments consisted of soil-plus-compost or fertilizer-only. Vegetation growth on Gable Mountain was less than that found on other areas nearby, but this difference is attributed primarily to the site's altitude and north-facing orientation.

  6. Rum Jungle rehabilitation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraatz, M.; Appelegate, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the late 1960's and 1970's it was recognised that pollutants emanating from the abandoned Rum jungle uranium mine in the Northern Territory of Australia were responsible for severe environmental degradation of the Finniss River system. Products of acid mine drainage and low level radioactive material released from the tailings dam resulted in the virtual absence of flora and fauna species for ten kilometres downstream of the mine. In 1982 a joint Federal and Northern Territory government project was established to rehabilitate the abandoned Rum Jungle site. This project successfully achieved a major reduction in surface water pollution, public health hazard, (including radiation levels), pollution levels in the Open Cut water bodies and aesthetic improvement, including revegetation. Monitoring of the site is continuing up to the present date to determine the ongoing success of the project. This includes evaluation of the surface water quality, chemical activity and water balance within the overburden heaps, groundwater hydrology and an assessment of revegetation success, erosion control structures and cover stability. This document presents the results of monitoring activities conducted between 1986 and 1988 and outlines management and maintenance programs during that time. 36 refs., 40 figs., 47 tabs., 11 ills

  7. Hydropower Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-02

    The Water Power Program helps industry harness this renewable, emissions-free resource to generate environmentally sustainable and cost-effective electricity. Through support for public, private, and nonprofit efforts, the Water Power Program promotes the development, demonstration, and deployment of advanced hydropower devices and pumped storage hydropower applications. These technologies help capture energy stored by diversionary structures, increase the efficiency of hydroelectric generation, and use excess grid energy to replenish storage reserves for use during periods of peak electricity demand. In addition, the Water Power Program works to assess the potential extractable energy from domestic water resources to assist industry and government in planning for our nation’s energy future. From FY 2008 to FY 2014, DOE’s Water Power Program announced awards totaling approximately $62.5 million to 33 projects focused on hydropower. Table 1 provides a brief description of these projects.

  8. Project Prometheus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Project Prometheus will enable a new paradigm in the scientific exploration of the Solar System. The proposed JIMO mission will start a new generation of missions characterized by more maneuverability, flexibility, power and lifetime. Project Prometheus organization is established at NASA Headquarters: 1.Organization established to carry out development of JIMO, nuclear power (radioisotope), and nuclear propulsion research. 2.Completed broad technology and national capacity assessments to inform decision making on planning and technology development. 3.Awarded five NRA s for nuclear propulsion research. 4.Radioisotope power systems in development, and Plutonium-238 being purchased from Russia. 5.Formulated science driven near-term and long-term plan for the safe utilization of nuclear propulsion based missions. 6.Completed preliminary studies (Pre-Phase A) of JIMO and other missions. 7.Initiated JIMO Phase A studies by Contractors and NASA.

  9. PARTNER Project

    CERN Document Server

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L

    2011-01-01

    Hadrontherapy uses particle beams to treat tumours located near critical organs and tumours that respond poorly to conventional radiation therapy. It has become evident that there is an emerging need for reinforcing research in hadrontherapy and it is essential to train professionals in this rapidly developing field. PARTNER is a 4-year Marie Curie Training project funded by the European Commission with 5.6 million Euros aimed at the creation of the next generation of experts. Ten academic institutes and research centres and two leading companies are participating in PARTNER, that is coordinated by CERN, forming a unique multidisciplinary and multinational European network. The project offers research and training opportunities to 25 young biologists, engineers, physicians and physicists and is allowing them to actively develop modern techniques for treating cancer in close collaboration with leading European Institutions. For this purpose PARTNER relies on cutting edge research and technology development, ef...

  10. Project Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, S.

    1988-01-01

    The project started in March 1987. The objective is to perform radon monitoring in 2000 dwellings occupied by people employed by State Power Board and to continue to contribute to the development of radon filters. The project participates in developing methods for radon measurement and decontamination and in adapting the methods to large scale application. About 400 so called radon trace measurements (coarse measurement) and about 10 action measurements (decontamination measurement) have been made so far. Experience shows that methods are fully applicable and that the decontamination measures recommended give perfectly satisfactory results. It is also established that most of the houses with high radon levels have poor ventilation Many of them suffer from moisture and mould problems. The work planned for 1988 and 1989 will in addition to measurements be directed towards improvement of the measuring methods. An activity catalogue will be prepared in cooperation with ventilation enterprises. (O.S.)

  11. Spent Nuclear Fuel project, project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuquay, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has been established to safely store spent nuclear fuel at the Hanford Site. This Project Management Plan sets forth the management basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The plan applies to all fabrication and construction projects, operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities, and necessary engineering and management functions within the scope of the project

  12. Project Phaseolus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Research carried out through the Phaseolus Project of the 'Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura' (CENA) Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, is described. It comprises the following subject s: plant breeding; nitrogen fixation; tissue cultures; proteins; photosynthetic efficiency; soil-plant interactions; electron microscopy of the golden mosaic virus; pest control; production of 15 N-enriched ammonium sulfate, and determination of elements in the beans plant. (M.A.) [pt

  13. ARTIST Project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferguson, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Biennial Conference Presented by: Keith Ferguson Date: 9 October 2012 Mobile IPTV Broadcasting Platform Consortium: CSIR, UCT, ECA Funded by TIA 2008-2011 ARTIST Project Min time - sacrifice quality Max quality - sacrifice time Application Context... delay tolerance network dependency file download and play file streaming live broadcast peer to peer Online Video Shop e.g. Netflix Video-On-Demand e.g. YouTube Videoconferencing e.g. Skype ARTIST ? Adaptive Real-Time Internet Streaming...

  14. CARA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergallo, Juan E.; Brasnarof, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    The CARA (Advanced Fuels for Argentine Reactors) Project successfully completed its first stage, phase one, last year. The performance of this fuel has been partially examined, using CNEA and CONUAR facilities and personnel. With the results obtained in this stage, determined by the corresponding tests and verification of the fuel behavior, the performance of the second stage started immediately afterwards. Works performed and results obtained during the development of the second stage are generally described in this paper. (author)

  15. Minimal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Sauvigny, Friedrich; Jakob, Ruben; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    Minimal Surfaces is the first volume of a three volume treatise on minimal surfaces (Grundlehren Nr. 339-341). Each volume can be read and studied independently of the others. The central theme is boundary value problems for minimal surfaces. The treatise is a substantially revised and extended version of the monograph Minimal Surfaces I, II (Grundlehren Nr. 295 & 296). The first volume begins with an exposition of basic ideas of the theory of surfaces in three-dimensional Euclidean space, followed by an introduction of minimal surfaces as stationary points of area, or equivalently

  16. Projects submitted to international science and technology center by Institute of Combustion Problems. Production of powder magnet materials on the basis of natural oxide minerals for purification of the water surface from oil and petrol pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mofa, N.; Ksandopoulo, G.

    1996-01-01

    Goal: To obtain a cheap magnet sorbent with high sorbing activity to move off oil and petrol pollution from the surface of water and to purify pools and sewage waters. Task: By mechanical and chemical treatment of natural oxide compounds with a member of selected components there is synthesized a fine-dispersed powder material with micro composition structure of the particles (dielectric nucleus, conductive and magnet surface layers). Formation of surface layers is determined by the regime of mechanical and chemical treatment and alloying additives of the mixture, Properties of the treated powder depend finally on the structure and properties of synthesized surface layers organically connected between themselves and a nuclear carrier of a particle. Due to the characteristics of magnet permeability obtained oxide material is not worse than metallic powders of iron and its alloys. Besides, it has a high corrosion stability and stability of magnet properties in the humid environment and at heating up to 600 C. High sorbing activity provides absolute purification of water surface from oils at small residence times with polluted surface. Peculiarities of state of the particles surface of synthesized material provide structural stability of sorbed mass which enables moving it off from the water surface by mechanic or magnet techniques. By the method being used and feedstock synthesized magnet powder is very cheap and can be used after regeneration directly or as a construction material

  17. SUPERSITE PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Ferrari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The project is focused on a detailed study of some chemical, physical and toxicological parameters and on health, epidemiological and environmental assessment by interpretative models, in the atmosphere of Emilia-Romagna (Italy. The project rises from the necessity to improve  knowledge about environmental and health aspects of fine and ultrafine particles, in primary and secondary components, in the atmosphere. The project, structured in 7 workpackages, is organized in two measurement programmes: the routine one that has a mainly daily time resolution, and the intensive one with high time resolution and a higher chemical speciation than the routine one. The sampling sites are five: three in urban areas (Bologna, Parma and Rimini, one in a rural area (San Pietro Capofiume and one in a remote area (Monte Cimone. Parallel to outdoor studies, a workpackage  is planned for indoor studies and chemical composition analysis with the  outdoor/indoor ratio for characterizing indoor human exposure to outdoor pollution.

  18. Surface resonance on the NiFe(001) alloy surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondráček, Martin; Máca, František; Kudrnovský, Josef; Redinger, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2006), s. 69-74 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Surface Physics /10./. Praha, 11.07.2005-15.07.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/0583 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : NiFe alloy * surface electronic structure * surface geometry * density functional calculation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  19. Coloss project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The COLOSS project was a shared-cost action, co-ordinated by IRSN within the Euratom Research Framework Programme 1998-2002. Started in February 2000, the project lasted three years. The work-programme performed by 19 partners was shaped around complementary activities aimed at improving severe accident codes. Unresolved risk-relevant issues regarding H2 production, melt generation and the source term were studied, through a large number of experiments such as a) dissolution of fresh and high burn-up UO 2 and MOX by molten Zircaloy, b) simultaneous dissolution of UO 2 and ZrO 2 by molten Zircaloy, c) oxidation of U-O-Zr mixtures by steam, d) degradation-oxidation of B 4 C control rods. Significant results have been produced from separate-effects, semi-global and large-scale tests on COLOSS topics. Break-through were achieved on some issues. Nevertheless, more data are needed for consolidation of the modelling on burn-up effects on UO 2 and MOX dissolution and on oxidation of U-O-Zr and B 4 C-metal mixtures. There was experimental evidence that the oxidation of these mixtures can contribute significantly to the large H2 production observed during the reflooding of degraded cores under severe accident conditions. Based on the experimental results obtained on the COLOSS topics, corresponding models were developed and were successfully implemented in several severe accident codes. Upgraded codes were then used for plant calculations to evaluate the consequences of new models on key severe accident sequences occurring in different plants designs involving B 4 C control rods (EPR, BWR, VVER- 1000) as well as in the TMI-2 accident. The large series of plant calculations involved sensitivity studies and code benchmarks. Main severe accident codes in use in the EU for safety studies were used such as ICARE/CATHARE, SCDAP/RELAP5, ASTEC, MELCOR and MAAP4. This activity enabled: a) the assessment of codes to calculate core degradation, b) the identification of main

  20. Surface Radiation Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) data sets contain global 3-hourly, daily and monthly averages of surface longwave and shortwave radiative properties, cloud amount, and meteorological properties computed using models. The main input data for these models include cloud information, top-of-atmosphere radiances and profiles of atmospheric water vapor and temperature. Some of the input data include Earth Radiation Budget Energy (ERBE) top-of-atmosphere clear-sky albedo and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) radiances and cloud amount. SRB parameters derived for the renewable energy community are also available from the Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data set. Other SRB data are available from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). [Mission Objectives] The objective of the SRB Project is to produce and archive a global data set of shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) surface and top of the atmosphere parameters. The data generated in the SRB project may be used in conjunction with other data sets to facilitate the development of renewable energy resources and increase understanding of radiative properties within the meteorological community. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=2005-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  1. Rumble surfaces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    National Institute for Transport and Road

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumble surfaces are intermittent short lengths of coarse-textured road surfacings on which vehicle tyres produce a rumbling sound. used in conjunction with appropriate roadsigns and markings, they can reduce accidents on rural roads by alerting...

  2. Surface thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Moliner, F.

    1975-01-01

    Basic thermodynamics of a system consisting of two bulk phases with an interface. Solid surfaces: general. Discussion of experimental data on surface tension and related concepts. Adsorption thermodynamics in the Gibbsian scheme. Adsorption on inert solid adsorbents. Systems with electrical charges: chemistry and thermodynamics of imperfect crystals. Thermodynamics of charged surfaces. Simple models of charge transfer chemisorption. Adsorption heat and related concepts. Surface phase transitions

  3. The MARNA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Mahou, E.; Fernandez Amigot, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The MARNA Project is developed within the framework of an agreement established between the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) and ENUSA. It consists of two phases, of which the first one has already been concluded successfully in December 1995. The final objective of the first phase of the project was the elaboration of the Natural Gamma Radiation Map of Spain on a scale of 1:1,000,000. For the preparation of this map radiometric data were generated during the thirty years the old National Uranium Exploration and Investigation Plan (PNEIU), mainly through airborne, car-borne and by foot surveys and those generated within the MARNA Project. Previously, four pilot maps on the scale of 1:50,000 had been prepared for four radiometric zones of special interest. The total surface of these four zones add up to about 2500 km 2 and 10,000 radiometric data which were used in the elaboration of the maps. Further were prepared on the scale of 1:200,000: the radiometric Atlas of the Autonomous Communities of Extremadura and Castilla-Leon which covers an area of 130,000 km 2 . The radiometric data extracted plus the generated applicable to such a surface add up to 120,000. This large data base has permitted to verify important quality controls in the technologies of data extraction and the elaboration of maps on various scales. The goal of the second phase, initiated in January 1996, is to complete the National Radiometric Atlas on the scale of 1:200,000 of a similar quality as the one obtained in Extremadura and Castilla-Leon and also to improve the Map 1:1,000,000. In this paper, the characteristics and more relevant results of the MARNA Project at the end of its first phase are presented. (author)

  4. Demonstration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.F.S.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion of some of the projects in Canada planned to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of processes using waste heat. Most of the studies are in the planning stage; few field demonstrations are yet in operation in any of the three arbitrary categories of waste heat - high-grade heat (100-200 deg C), medium-grade heat (30-100 deg C), and low-grade heat (below 30 deg C). The survey indicates that, while there is long-term potential in several of the approaches, the time has arrived to start finding some hard facts. (author)

  5. Project Exodus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Project Exodus is an in-depth study to identify and address the basic problems of a manned mission to Mars. The most important problems concern propulsion, life support, structure, trajectory, and finance. Exodus will employ a passenger ship, cargo ship, and landing craft for the journey to Mars. These three major components of the mission design are discussed separately. Within each component the design characteristics of structures, trajectory, and propulsion are addressed. The design characteristics of life support are mentioned only in those sections requiring it.

  6. PORTNUS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyal, Rebecca E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-14

    The objective of the Portunus Project is to create large, automated offshore ports that will the pace and scale of international trade. Additionally, these ports would increase the number of U.S. domestic trade vessels needed, as the imported goods would need to be transported from these offshore platforms to land-based ports such as Boston, Los Angeles, and Newark. Currently, domestic trade in the United States can only be conducted by vessels that abide by the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 – also referred to as the Jones Act. The Jones Act stipulates that vessels involved in domestic trade must be U.S. owned, U.S. built, and manned by a crew made up of U.S. citizens. The Portunus Project would increase the number of Jones Act vessels needed, which raises an interesting economic concern. Are Jones Act ships more expensive to operate than foreign vessels? Would it be more economically efficient to modify the Jones Act and allow vessels manned by foreign crews to engage in U.S. domestic trade? While opposition to altering the Jones Act is strong, it is important to consider the possibility that ship-owners who employ foreign crews will lobby for the chance to enter a growing domestic trade market. Their success would mean potential job loss for thousands of Americans currently employed in maritime trade.

  7. SISCAL project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, Richard P.; Fell, Frank

    2003-05-01

    The first "ocean colour" sensor, Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), was launched in 1978. Oceanographers learnt a lot from CZCS but it remained a purely scientific sensor. In recent years, a new generation of satellite-borne earth observation (EO) instruments has been brought into space. These instruments combine high spectral and spatial resolution with revisiting rates of the order of one per day. More instruments with further increased spatial, spectral and temporal resolution will be available within the next years. In the meantime, evaluation procedures taking advantage of the capabilities of the new instruments were derived, allowing the retrieval of ecologically important parameters with higher accuracy than before. Space agencies are now able to collect and to process satellite data in real time and to disseminate them via the Internet. It is therefore meanwhile possible to envisage using EO operationally. In principle, a significant demand for EO data products on terrestrial or marine ecosystems exists both with public authorities (environmental protection, emergency management, natural resources management, national parks, regional planning, etc) and private companies (tourist industry, insurance companies, water suppliers, etc). However, for a number of reasons, many data products that can be derived from the new instruments and methods have not yet left the scientific community towards public or private end users. It is the intention of the proposed SISCAL (Satellite-based Information System on Coastal Areas and Lakes) project to contribute to the closure of the existing gap between space agencies and research institutions on one side and end users on the other side. To do so, we intend to create a data processor that automatically derives and subsequently delivers over the Internet, in Near-Real-Time (NRT), a number of data products tailored to individual end user needs. The data products will be generated using a Geographical Information System (GIS

  8. Surface Acoustic Wave Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard

    application is modulation of optical waves in waveguides. This presentation elaborates on how a SAW is generated by interdigital transducers using a 2D model of a piezoelectric, inhomogeneous material implemented in the high-level programming language Comsol Multiphysics. The SAW is send through a model......The work of this project is concerned with the simulation of surface acoustic waves (SAW) and topology optimization of SAW devices. SAWs are elastic vibrations that propagate along a material surface and are extensively used in electromechanical filters and resonators in telecommunication. A new...

  9. Independent Study Project, Topic: Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notre Dame High School, Easton, PA.

    Using this guide and the four popular books noted in it, a student, working independently, will learn about some of the classical ideas and problems of topology: the Meobius strip and Klein bottle, the four color problem, genus of a surface, networks, Euler's formula, and the Jordan Curve Theorem. The unit culminates in a project of the students'…

  10. The StaggerGrid project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collet, Remo; Magic, Zazralt; Asplund, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution, we present the STAGGERGRID, a collaborative project for the construction of a comprehensive grid of time-dependent, three-dimensional (3-D), hydrodynamic model atmospheres of solar- and late-type stars with different effective temperatures, surface gravities, and chemical...

  11. Managing Environmental Flows for Impounded Rivers in Semi-Arid Regions- A Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) Approach for the Assessment of River Habitat for Salmonid Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, H.; Sivakumaran, K.; Villamizar, S. R.; Flanagan, J.; Guo, Q.; Harmon, T. C.

    2013-12-01

    Balancing ecosystem health in water-scarce, agriculturally dominated river basins remains a challenge. In dry water years, maintaining conditions for restored and sustained indigenous fish populations (a frequently used indicator for ecosystem health) is particularly challenging. Competing human demands include urban and agricultural water supplies, hydropower, and flood control. In many semi-arid regions, increasing drought intensity and frequency under future climate scenarios will combine with population increases to water scarcity. The goal of this work is to better understand how reservoir releases affect fish habitat and overall river aquatic ecosystem quality. Models integrating a diverse array of physical and biological processes and system state are used to forecast the river ecosystem response to changing drivers. We propose a distributed parameter-based Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) approach for assessing fish habitat quality. Our river ecosystem HSI maps are based on a combination of the following: (1) In situ data describing stream flow and water quality conditions; (2) Spatial observations, including surveyed cross-sections, aerial imagery and digital elevation maps (DEM) of the river and its riparian corridor; and (3) Simulated spatially distributed water depths, flow velocities, and temperatures estimated from 1D and 2D river flow and temperature models (HEC-RAS and CE-QUAL-W2, respectively). With respect to (2), image processing schemes are used to classify and map key habitat features, namely riparian edge and shallow underwater vegetation. HSI maps can be modified temporally to address specific life cycle requirements of indicator fish species. Results are presented for several reaches associated with the San Joaquin River Restoration Project, focusing on several components of the Chinook salmon life cycle. HSI maps and interpretations are presented in the context of a range of prescribed reservoir release hydrographs linked to California water

  12. ENVISION Project

    CERN Multimedia

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L

    2011-01-01

    Hadrontherapy is a highly advanced technique of cancer radiotherapy that uses beams of charged particles (ions) to destroy tumour cells. While conventional X-rays traverse the human body depositing radiation as they pass through, ions deliver most of their energy at one point. Hadrontherapy is most advantageous once the position of the tumour is accurately known, so that healthy tissues can be protected. Accurate positioning is a crucial challenge for targeting moving organs, as in lung cancer, and for adapting the irradiation as the tumour shrinks with treatment. Therefore, quality assurance becomes one of the most relevant issues for an effective outcome of the cancer treatment. In order to improve the quality assurance tools for hadrontherapy, the European Commission is funding ENVISION, a 4-year project that aims at developing solutions for: real-• time non invasive monitoring • quantitative imaging • precise determination of delivered dose • fast feedback for optimal treatment planning • real-t...

  13. Project: Ultracentrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olea C, O.

    1990-07-01

    The trans elastic ultracentrifuge of magnetic suspension, is an instrument that arose of an interdisciplinary group directed by the Dr. James Clark Keith where it was projected, designed and built a centrifuge that didn't exist, to be applied in forced diffusion of uranium, like one of the many application fields. The written present, has as purpose to give to know the fundamental physical principles of this technology, its fundamental characteristics of design, the application of this in the separation process of isotopes, as well as the previous studies and essential control parameters in the experimental processes, the same thing that, the most outstanding results and the detection systems used in the confirmation and finally, the carried out potential applications of the principles of the ultracentrifugation technology. (Author)

  14. Artificial Gravity Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamman, Michelle R.; Paloski, William H.

    2005-01-01

    Protecting the health, safety, and performance of exploration-class mission crews against the physiological deconditioning resulting from long-term weightlessness during transit and long-term hypogravity during surface operations will require effective, multi-system countermeasures. Artificial gravity (AG), which would replace terrestrial gravity with inertial forces generated by rotating the transit vehicle or by a human centrifuge device within the transit vehicle or surface habitat, has long been considered a potential solution. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient, multi-system countermeasure and its potential for improving the environment and simplifying operational activities (e.g., WCS, galley, etc.), much still needs to be learned regarding the human response to rotating environments before AG can be successfully implemented. This paper will describe our approach for developing and implementing a rigorous AG Research Project to address the key biomedical research questions that must be answered before developing effective AG countermeasure implementation strategies for exploration-class missions. The AG Research Project will be performed at JSC, ARC, extramural academic and government research venues, and international partner facilities maintained by DLR and IMBP. The Project includes three major ground-based human research subprojects that will lead to flight testing of intermittent short-radius AG in ISS crewmembers after 201 0, continuous long-radius AG in CEV crews transiting to and from the Moon, and intermittent short-radius AG plus exercise in lunar habitats. These human ground-based subprojects include: 1) a directed, managed international short-radius project to investigate the multi-system effectiveness of intermittent AG in human subjects deconditioned by bed rest, 2) a directed, managed long-radius project to investigate the capacity of humans to live and work for extended periods in rotating environments, and 3) a focused

  15. Project Success in IT Project Management

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The rate of failed and challenged Information Technology (IT) projects is too high according to the CHAOS Studies by the Standish Group and the literature on project management (Standish Group, 2008). The CHAOS Studies define project success as meeting the triple constraints of scope, time, and cost. The criteria for project success need to be agreed by all parties before the start of the project and constantly reviewed as the project progresses. Assessing critical success factors is another ...

  16. Final environmental statement related to the Plateau Resources Limited Shootering Canyon Uranium Project (Garfield County, Utah)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of a Source Material License to Plateau Resources, Ltd., for the construction and operation of the proposed Shootering Canyon Uranium Project with a product (U 3 O 8 ) production limited to 2.2 x 10 5 kg (4.9 x 10 5 lb) per year. Impacts to the area from the operation of the Shootering Canyon Uranium Project will include the following: alterations of up to 140 ha (350 acres) that will be occupied by the mill, mill facilities, borrow areas, tailings areas, and roads; an increase in the existing background radiation levels of the mill area as a result of continuous but small releases of uranium, radium, radon, and other, radioactive materials during construction and operation; socioeconomic effects on the local area, particularly the proposed community of Ticaboo, where the majority of workers will be housed during project construction and operation; and production of solid waste material (tailings) from the mill at a rate of about 680 MT (750 tons) per day and deposition as a slurry in an onsite impoundment area; construction and operation of the Shootering Canyon mill will provide employment and induced economic benefits for the region but may also result in some socioeconomic stress. On the basis of the analysis and evaluation set forth in this Environmental Statement, it is proposed that any license issued for the Shootering Canyon mill should be subject to certain conditions for the protection of the environment. A list is included. Nine appendices are also included

  17. Analysis of scholar transport safety based upon accidentology and benchmarking database. Delivrable D1.1. SAFEWAY2SCHOOL report: seventh framework programme Sustainable surface transport (SST)-2008-RTD-1 Collaborative project 233967

    OpenAIRE

    PAUZIE, A; JANKOWSKA, D; EGGER, S; MUNKSTEDT, S; SPENCE, A; ANUND, A; MONTARINI, R; FERRARINI, C

    2010-01-01

    This report is based upon knowledge available, on one hand on road safety issues and context (A1.1, Del 1.4 : accident analysis database) and, on the other hand, on technologies on the market or under development developed in current research projects, including related measures and guidelines (A1.3, Benchmarking database). For each of these topics, a small paragraph overviews the current context and safety issues, functional concept and maturity of available technology, identified European p...

  18. Project LASER

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    NASA formally launched Project LASER (Learning About Science, Engineering and Research) in March 1990, a program designed to help teachers improve science and mathematics education and to provide 'hands on' experiences. It featured the first LASER Mobile Teacher Resource Center (MTRC), is designed to reach educators all over the nation. NASA hopes to operate several MTRCs with funds provided by private industry. The mobile unit is a 22-ton tractor-trailer stocked with NASA educational publications and outfitted with six work stations. Each work station, which can accommodate two teachers at a time, has a computer providing access to NASA Spacelink. Each also has video recorders and photocopy/photographic equipment for the teacher's use. MTRC is only one of the five major elements within LASER. The others are: a Space Technology Course, to promote integration of space science studies with traditional courses; the Volunteer Databank, in which NASA employees are encouraged to volunteer as tutors, instructors, etc; Mobile Discovery Laboratories that will carry simple laboratory equipment and computers to provide hands-on activities for students and demonstrations of classroom activities for teachers; and the Public Library Science Program which will present library based science and math programs.

  19. Superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Evelyn N; McCarthy, Matthew; Enright, Ryan; Culver, James N; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Ghodssi, Reza

    2015-03-24

    Surfaces having a hierarchical structure--having features of both microscale and nanoscale dimensions--can exhibit superhydrophobic properties and advantageous condensation and heat transfer properties. The hierarchical surfaces can be fabricated using biological nanostructures, such as viruses as a self-assembled nanoscale template.

  20. Spherical Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David

    2016-01-01

    We study surfaces of constant positive Gauss curvature in Euclidean 3-space via the harmonicity of the Gauss map. Using the loop group representation, we solve the regular and the singular geometric Cauchy problems for these surfaces, and use these solutions to compute several new examples. We give...

  1. Tritium-surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkaldy, J.S.

    1983-06-01

    The report deals broadly with tritium-surface interactions as they relate to a fusion power reactor enterprise, viz., the vacuum chamber, first wall, peripherals, pumping, fuel recycling, isotope separation, repair and maintenance, decontamination and safety. The main emphasis is on plasma-surface interactions and the selection of materials for fusion chamber duty. A comprehensive review of the international (particularly U.S.) research and development is presented based upon a literature review (about 1 000 reports and papers) and upon visits to key laboratories, Sandia, Albuquerque, Sandia, Livermore and EGβG Idaho. An inventory of Canadian expertise and facilities for RβD on tritium-surface interactions is also presented. A number of proposals are made for the direction of an optimal Canadian RβD program, emphasizing the importance of building on strength in both the technological and fundamental areas. A compendium of specific projects and project areas is presented dealing primarily with plasma-wall interactions and permeation, anti-permeation materials and surfaces and health, safety and environmental considerations. Potential areas of industrial spinoff are identified

  2. NOAA's NPOESS Data Exploitation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, G.; Silva, J.; Yoe, J.; Schott, T.; McHugh, M.; Roth, G.; Macharrie, P.

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's NPOESS Data Exploitation (NDE) Project is building a near-real time processing and distribution system for data from the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) and its forerunner, NASA's NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP). The NDE Project has diverse user requirements for atmospheric, oceanographic, and land surface data products with strict operational timeliness. The NDE Project worked with stakeholders to promote and adopt widely used scientific data formats consistent with interoperability objectives for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The NDE system was designed to meet these user requirements in a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) with product algorithms and product tailoring tools presented as internal service components. This approach provides scalability and high availability for mission critical operations, while maintaining flexibility for future products and satellite data processing and distribution requirements.

  3. Responsive acoustic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Brady; Tamke, Martin; Nielsen, Stig Anton

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic performance is defined by the parameter of reverberation time; however, this does not capture the acoustic experience in some types of open plan spaces. As many working and learning activities now take place in open plan spaces, it is important to be able to understand and design...... for the acoustic conditions of these spaces. This paper describes an experimental research project that studied the design processes necessary to design for sound. A responsive acoustic surface was designed, fabricated and tested. This acoustic surface was designed to create specific sonic effects. The design...... was simulated using custom integrated acoustic software and also using Odeon acoustic analysis software. The research demonstrates a method for designing space- and sound-defining surfaces, defines the concept of acoustic subspace, and suggests some new parameters for defining acoustic subspaces....

  4. Ace Project as a Project Management Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Melinda; Guynes, Carl S.; Simard, Karine

    2010-01-01

    The primary challenge of project management is to achieve the project goals and objectives while adhering to project constraints--usually scope, quality, time and budget. The secondary challenge is to optimize the allocation and integration of resources necessary to meet pre-defined objectives. Project management software provides an active…

  5. Project Success in Agile Development Software Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlik, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Project success has multiple definitions in the scholarly literature. Research has shown that some scholars and practitioners define project success as the completion of a project within schedule and within budget. Others consider a successful project as one in which the customer is satisfied with the product. This quantitative study was conducted…

  6. Organizations, projects and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Cleeff; Pieter van Nispen tot Pannerden

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: to explore and demonstrate the effects of organizational culture on projects, in particular project culture and project management style. Methodology/approach: descriptive and explorative; through students’ groups. Findings: the cultural relationship between organizations, their projects

  7. Evaluation of Project Achievements in VOMARE -project

    OpenAIRE

    Kokkarinen, Eeva

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to study the achievements of VOMARE –project from the Finnish Lifeboat Institutions perspective. The organisation is a roof organisation for voluntary maritime rescue operation in Finland. The Finnish Lifeboat Institution is a lead partner in VOMARE –project which is EU funded project and the aim of the project is to start voluntary rescue operations in Estonia. The theoretical part of the work is divided into two main categories; project management and planni...

  8. Surface boxplots

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-22

    In this paper, we introduce a surface boxplot as a tool for visualization and exploratory analysis of samples of images. First, we use the notion of volume depth to order the images viewed as surfaces. In particular, we define the median image. We use an exact and fast algorithm for the ranking of the images. This allows us to detect potential outlying images that often contain interesting features not present in most of the images. Second, we build a graphical tool to visualize the surface boxplot and its various characteristics. A graph and histogram of the volume depth values allow us to identify images of interest. The code is available in the supporting information of this paper. We apply our surface boxplot to a sample of brain images and to a sample of climate model outputs.

  9. Convex surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Busemann, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    This exploration of convex surfaces focuses on extrinsic geometry and applications of the Brunn-Minkowski theory. It also examines intrinsic geometry and the realization of intrinsic metrics. 1958 edition.

  10. Surface decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S. da; Teixeira, M.V.

    1986-06-01

    The general methods of surface decontamination used in laboratory and others nuclear installations areas, as well as the procedures for handling radioactive materials and surfaces of work are presented. Some methods for decontamination of body external parts are mentioned. The medical supervision and assistance are required for internal or external contamination involving or not lesion in persons. From this medical radiation protection decontamination procedures are determined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  11. Surface phonons

    CERN Document Server

    Wette, Frederik

    1991-01-01

    In recent years substantial progress has been made in the detection of surface phonons owing to considerable improvements in inelastic rare gas scattering tech­ niques and electron energy loss spectroscopy. With these methods it has become possible to measure surface vibrations in a wide energy range for all wave vectors in the two-dimensional Brillouin zone and thus to deduce the complete surface phonon dispersion curves. Inelastic atomic beam scattering and electron energy loss spectroscopy have started to play a role in the study of surface phonons similar to the one played by inelastic neutron scattering in the investigation of bulk phonons in the last thirty years. Detailed comparison between experimen­ tal results and theoretical studies of inelastic surface scattering and of surface phonons has now become feasible. It is therefore possible to test and to improve the details of interaction models which have been worked out theoretically in the last few decades. At this point we felt that a concise, co...

  12. Seismic response of concrete gravity dam reinforced with FRP sheets on dam surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at exploring the effects of anti-seismic reinforcement with the fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP material bonded to the dam surface in dam engineering. Time-history analysis was performed to simulate the seismic failure process of a gravity dam that was assumed to be reinforced at the locations of slope discontinuity at the downstream surface, part of the upstream face, and the dam heel. A damage model considering the influence of concrete heterogeneity was used to model the nonlinearity of concrete. A bond-slip model was applied to the interface between FRP and concrete, and the reinforcement mechanism was analyzed through the bond stress and the stress in FRP. The results of the crack pattern, displacement, and acceleration of the reinforced dam were compared with those of the original one. It is shown that FRP, as a reinforcement material, postpones the occurrence of cracks and slows the crack propagation, and that cracks emanating from the upstream surface and downstream surface are not connected, meaning that the reinforced dam can retain water-impounding function when subjected to the earthquake. Anti-seismic reinforcement with FRP is therefore beneficial to improving the seismic resistant capability of concrete dams.

  13. Mars Surface Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John

    2002-01-01

    Planetary exploration by astronauts will require extended periods of habitation on a planet's surface, under the influence of environmental factors that are different from those of Earth and the spacecraft that delivered the crew to the planet. Human exploration of Mars, a possible near-term planetary objective, can be considered a challenging scenario. Mission scenarios currently under consideration call for surface habitation periods of from 1 to 18 months on even the earliest expeditions. Methods: Environmental issues associated with Mars exploration have been investigated by NASA and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) as part of the Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap Project (see http ://criticalpath.jsc.nasa.gov). Results: Arrival on Mars will immediately expose the crew to gravity only 38% of that at Earth's surface in possibly the first prolonged exposure to gravity other than the 1G of Earth's surface and the zero G of weightless space flight, with yet unknown effects on crew physiology. The radiation at Mars' surface is not well documented, although the planet's bulk and even its thin atmosphere may moderate the influx of galactic cosmic radiation and energetic protons from solar flares. Secondary radiation from activated components of the soil must also be considered. Ultrafine and larger respirable and nonrespirable particles in Martian dust introduced into the habitat after surface excursions may induce pulmonary inflammation exacerbated by the additive reactive and oxidizing nature of the dust. Stringent decontamination cannot eliminate mechanical and corrosive effects of the dust on pressure suits and exposed machinery. The biohazard potential of putative indigenous Martian microorganisms may be assessed by comparison with analog environments on Earth. Even in their absence, human microorganisms, if not properly controlled, can be a threat to the crew's health. Conclusions: Mars' surface offers a substantial challenge to the

  14. Managing projects using a project management approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko D. Andrejić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern management theory treats all complex tasks and duties like projects and make these projects possible to be managed by a particular organizational-management concept in order to achieve a goal effectively. A large number of jobs and tasks performed in the system of defense or for defense purposes have the characteristics of projects. Project management is both a skill and a science of monitoring human, material, financial, energy and other resources to achieve required objectives within the given limits: deadlines, time, budget, possibility of realization and the satisfaction of the interests of all project participants. Project management is a traditional area of applied (or functional management focused on managing complex and uncertain situations with defined goals. Introduction In conditions of rapid change and high uncertainty, only adaptive organizations survive, i. e. those that are able not only to react quickly to changes but also to proactively take advantage of changes. Development of project management The biggest influence on the development of the area had complex jobs within the engineering profession. In parallel with the traditional approach new approaches began to develop, while the traditional one still remained in use. Contrary to the traditional engineering approach, a dynamic model first developed in order to respond to demands for greater control of costs. Project management Project management is a skill and knowledge of human and material resources to achieve set objectives within prescribed limits: deadlines, time, budget, possibility of realization, and the satisfaction of all participants in the project. In order to realize a project effectively, it is necessary to manage it rationally. Planning and project management A project plan is a document that allows all team members insight on where to go, when to start and when to arrive, what is necessary to be done in order to achieve the project objectives and what

  15. Cyprus Crustal Study Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, James M.

    The Cyprus Crustal Study Project is a joint venture of the International Crustal Research Drilling Group (ICRDG) and the Government of Cyprus through its Geological Survey Department. The aim of the project is to carry out a detailed reexamination of the Troodos, Cyprus, ophiolite, using high speed diamond drilling combined with extensive surface geological and geophysical studies. The ICRDG group, comprising about 100 geoscientists from eight countries, includes many participants familiar with ophiolites and with in situ ocean crust through work from Glomar Challenger, thus allowing the ophiolite to be viewed from a new perspective.Studies are being concentrated on a section through the north flank of the ophiolite between the villages of Agrokipia and Palekhori. Research drilling and associated mapping in this segment are aimed at providing a continuous sample through the upper 4 km of the ophiolite and at sampling the stockworks beneath the sulfide deposits located within the extrusive section. The Troodos massive sulfide deposits are considered to be close analogs of the deposited being formed by active hydrothermal circulation on the crest of the East Pacific Rise.

  16. Ice Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Mary Jane

    2017-05-01

    Ice is a fundamental solid with important environmental, biological, geological, and extraterrestrial impact. The stable form of ice at atmospheric pressure is hexagonal ice, Ih. Despite its prevalence, Ih remains an enigmatic solid, in part due to challenges in preparing samples for fundamental studies. Surfaces of ice present even greater challenges. Recently developed methods for preparation of large single-crystal samples make it possible to reproducibly prepare any chosen face to address numerous fundamental questions. This review describes preparation methods along with results that firmly establish the connection between the macroscopic structure (observed in snowflakes, microcrystallites, or etch pits) and the molecular-level configuration (detected with X-ray or electron scattering techniques). Selected results of probing interactions at the ice surface, including growth from the melt, surface vibrations, and characterization of the quasi-liquid layer, are discussed.

  17. Moist-Soil Impoundments for Wetland Wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Digitaria spp. Aster Aster spp. Cultivated rice Oryza sativa Barnyard grass Echinochloa crusgalli var. mitis Curltop ladysthumb Polygonum...Long-term pump costs will vary according to fuel prices, repair and maintenance, and spe- cific situations; however, long-term cost assessment

  18. Academy of Program/Project & Engineering Leadership: Shared Voyage: Learning and Unlearning from Remarkable Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Shared Voyage is about four remarkable projects:the Advanced Composition Explorer (NASA), the Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (U.S. Air Force), the Pathfinder...

  19. Storytelling in Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas; Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2006-01-01

    project managers should not only be concerned with project plans, but also with project stories. In this paper we explore some basic principles for transforming project plans into appealing stories. We discuss what may happen to stories once they are released into public space. And we illustrate how......Plans and stories are two different ways of communicating about projects. Project plans are formalized descriptions, primarily supporting coordination. Project stories are accounts whose primary function is emotional appeal. Project stories influence the projects’ chances of success. Therefore...... the possibilities of telling favorable stories may have repercussions on the project planning....

  20. Capital projects coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubović Jovan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the difficulties of managing modem capital projects and endeavors to reduce the complexities to simpler and more understandable terms. It examines the project environment, defines project management and discusses points of difference from traditional management. In the second part of the paper are presented fundamentals for project success for different types of projects.

  1. The Ethiopian Flora Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demissew, Sebsebe; Brochmann, Christian; Kelbessa, Ensermu

    2011-01-01

    The account reviews and analyses the scietific projects derived from activities in connection with the Ethiopian Flora Project, including the [Ethiopian] Monocot Project, the Afro-alpine "Sky-island" project, the Vegetation and Ecological Conditions of Plantations Project, the Fire Ecology Projec...

  2. The Ethiopian Flora Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demissew, Sebsebe; Brochmann, Christian; Kelbessa, Ensermu

    2011-01-01

    , the Aromatic Plants Project, RAPSUD, the Medicinal Plants Project, the Ethnobotany Project, as well as the project of producing an atlas of the potential natural vegetation of Ethiopia. The projects have resulted in many publications and a significant number of graduate students at MSc- and PHd-levels. After...

  3. Managing Projects for Change: Contextualised Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Belinda; Adlington, Rachael; Stewart, Cherry; Vale, Deborah; Sims, Rod; Shanahan, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper will detail three projects which focussed on enhancing online learning at a large Australian distance education University within a School of Business, School of Health and School of Education. Each project had special funding and took quite distinctive project management approaches, which reflect the desire to embed innovation and…

  4. From project management to project leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, F.; Avital, M.

    2010-01-01

    It is virtually a truism that good leadership practices can help project managers with attaining the desired project outcome. However, a better understanding of which leadership practices enable project managers to be more effective warrants further investigation. Subsequently, in this study, we

  5. An IS Project Management Course Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Ronald L.

    2010-01-01

    Information Systems curricula should provide project management (PM) theory, current practice, and hands-on experience. The schedule usually does not allow time in Analysis and Design courses for development oriented project management instruction other than a short introduction. Similarly, networking courses usually don't put project management…

  6. PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND THE PROJECT MANAGER: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anyanwu, C. I.. Department of Project Management Technology. School of Management Technology. Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526, Owerri. Abstract. This study was undertaken to establish how project management and the project manager can be used as a panacea for preventing building and.

  7. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H. (comps.)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The TSP consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed technical members representing the states of Oregon and Washington, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on human (dose estimates): Source Terms; Environmental Transport; Environmental Monitoring Data; Demographics, Agriculture, Food Habits and; Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  8. Modelling land surface - atmosphere interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Højmark

    related to inaccurate land surface modelling, e.g. enhanced warm bias in warm dry summer months. Coupling the regional climate model to a hydrological model shows the potential of improving the surface flux simulations in dry periods and the 2 m air temperature in general. In the dry periods......The study is investigates modelling of land surface – atmosphere interactions in context of fully coupled climatehydrological model. With a special focus of under what condition a fully coupled model system is needed. Regional climate model inter-comparison projects as ENSEMBLES have shown bias...

  9. Surfacing Moves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    such as schedules, machines, and aging bodies. To this end, the article also experiments with ‘surfacing’ as an ethnographic heuristic for figuring these different ‘spatial-timings’. The article concludes that surfacing matters not only in senior home care but also in the field-desks of ethnographic analysis....

  10. Attack surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko

    2010-01-01

    The new paradigm of cloud computing poses severe security risks to its adopters. In order to cope with these risks, appropriate taxonomies and classification criteria for attacks on cloud computing are required. In this work-in-progress paper we present one such taxonomy based on the notion...... of attack surfaces of the cloud computing scenario participants....

  11. Integrated mined-area reclamation and land use planning. Volume 3A. A case study of surface mining and reclamation planning: South Boulder Creek Park Project, Sand and Gravel Operations, Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, L R; Perry, A O; LaFevers, J R

    1977-02-01

    This case study details reclamation planning for the Flatiron Companies' South Boulder Creek Park Project in Boulder, Colorado. The site contains a deposit of high-quality sand and gravel considered to be one of the best and largest known deposits of aggregate materials in the Front Range area. The aggregate deposit is located in a highly visible site just off the Denver-Boulder Turnpike at the entrance to the city from Denver, and adjacent to a residential portion of the city. In order to make maximum use of pre-mining planning, as a tool for resolving a conflict over the company's proposed operation, an extensive cooperative planning effort was initiated. This included the preparation of an environmental impact assessment, numerous public hearings, operating and reclamation plan review by city authorities, annexation of the site to the city, and the granting of a scenic easement on the property to the city for the development of a regional recreation park. A suite of contractual agreements was worked out among Flatiron Companies, the City of Boulder, the Colorado Open Lands Foundation, and the Federal Bureau of Outdoor Recreation. The purpose of this case study is to allow the planner to gain insight into the procedures, possibilities, and constraints involved in premining planning in a cooperative situation.

  12. Silicon quantum dots: surface matters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dohnalová, K.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Kůsová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 17 (2014), 1-28 ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP204/12/P235 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon quantum dots * quantum dot * surface chemistry * quantum confinement Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.346, year: 2014

  13. Modelling land surface - atmosphere interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Højmark

    The study is investigates modelling of land surface – atmosphere interactions in context of fully coupled climatehydrological model. With a special focus of under what condition a fully coupled model system is needed. Regional climate model inter-comparison projects as ENSEMBLES have shown bias...

  14. Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS) has been designed to meet multi-agency hydrologic database needs for Kansas. The SWIMS project was supported...

  15. Monthly Near-Surface Air Temperature Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global surface temperatures in 2010 tied 2005 as the warmest on record. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) was established in 1982 as part...

  16. Tecnology Development for Robotic Surface Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Richard; Balaram, J. Bob

    1994-01-01

    For the past three years at JPL, NASA has been sponsoring the Remote Surface Inspection Project to develop the technology needed for doing periodic and on-demand inspection of space borne platforms, in particular Space Station Freedom.

  17. I-15 North Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    Goals of this project were as follows: (1) Conduct a comprehensive evaluation study on Nevada's I-15 North Design Build Project; (2) Analyze project implementation with respect to construction zone rules by which the contractor had to abide; (3) Anal...

  18. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael

    2010-07-26

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, socalled panels, that can be manufactured with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication often dominates the panel cost, there is strong incentive to use the same mold for multiple panels. We cast the major practical requirements for architectural surface paneling, including mold reuse, into a global optimization framework that interleaves discrete and continuous optimization steps to minimize production cost while meeting user-specified quality constraints. The search space for optimization is mainly generated through controlled deviation from the design surface and tolerances on positional and normal continuity between neighboring panels. A novel 6-dimensional metric space allows us to quickly compute approximate inter-panel distances, which dramatically improves the performance of the optimization and enables the handling of complex arrangements with thousands of panels. The practical relevance of our system is demonstrated by paneling solutions for real, cutting-edge architectural freeform design projects. © 2010 ACM.

  19. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael

    2010-07-25

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, so-called panels, that can be manufactured with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication often dominates the panel cost, there is strong incentive to use the same mold for multiple panels. We cast the major practical requirements for architectural surface paneling, including mold reuse, into a global optimization framework that interleaves discrete and continuous optimization steps to minimize production cost while meeting user-specified quality constraints. The search space for optimization is mainly generated through controlled deviation from the design surface and tolerances on positional and normal continuity between neighboring panels. A novel 6-dimensional metric space allows us to quickly compute approximate inter-panel distances, which dramatically improves the performance of the optimization and enables the handling of complex arrangements with thousands of panels. The practical relevance of our system is demonstrated by paneling solutions for real, cutting-edge architectural freeform design projects.

  20. MANAGING MULTICULTURAL PROJECT TEAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Cezar SCARLAT; Carmen-Laura ZARZU; Adriana PRODAN

    2014-01-01

    The article is based on literature review and authors’ own recent experience in managing multicultural project teams, in international environment. This comparative study considers two groups of projects: technical assistance (TA) projects versus information technology (IT) projects. The aim is to explore the size and structure of the project teams – according to the team formation and its lifecycle, and to identify some distinctive attributes of the project teams – both similarities and diff...