WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface imaging system

  1. Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Large Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichman, P.B.; Lavely, E.M.; Ritzwoller, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    The general theory of surface NMR imaging of large electromagnetically active systems is considered, motivated by geophysical applications. A general imaging equation is derived for the NMR voltage response, valid for arbitrary transmitter and receiver loop geometry and arbitrary conductivity structure of the sample. When the conductivity grows to the point where the electromagnetic skin depth becomes comparable to the sample size, significant diffusive retardation effects occur that strongly affect the signal. Accounting for these now allows more accurate imaging than previously possible. It is shown that the time constant T 1 may in principle be inferred directly from the diffusive tail of the signal. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  2. Robustness of an artificially tailored fisheye imaging system with a curvilinear image surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil Ju; Nam, Won Il; Song, Young Min

    2017-11-01

    Curved image sensors inspired by animal and insect eyes have provided a new development direction in next-generation digital cameras. It is known that natural fish eyes afford an extremely wide field of view (FOV) imaging due to the geometrical properties of the spherical lens and hemispherical retina. However, its inherent drawbacks, such as the low off-axis illumination and the fabrication difficulty of a 'dome-like' hemispherical imager, limit the development of bio-inspired wide FOV cameras. Here, a new type of fisheye imaging system is introduced that has simple lens configurations with a curvilinear image surface, while maintaining high off-axis illumination and a wide FOV. Moreover, through comparisons with commercial conventional fisheye designs, it is determined that the volume and required number of optical elements of the proposed design is practical while capturing the fundamental optical performances. Detailed design guidelines for tailoring the proposed optic system are also discussed.

  3. Imaging Freeform Optical Systems Designed with NURBS Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    reflective, anastigmat 1 Introduction The imaging freeform optical systems described here are designed using non-uniform rational basis-spline (NURBS...code, but to succeed in designing NURBS freeform optical systems an optimization code is required. The motivation for developing the optical design

  4. Technical validation of the Di3D stereophotogrammetry surface imaging system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winder, R.J.; Darvann, Tron Andre; McKnight, W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the technical performance of a three-dimensional surface imaging system for geometric accuracy and maximum field of view. The system was designed for stereophotogrammetry capture of digital images from three-dimensional surfaces of the head, face, and neck...

  5. The Application of Three-Dimensional Surface Imaging System in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqi; Yang, Xin; Li, Dong

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging system has gained popularity worldwide in clinical application. Unlike computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, it has the ability to capture 3D images with both shape and texture information. This feature has made it quite useful for plastic surgeons. This review article is mainly focusing on demonstrating the current status and analyzing the future of the application of 3D surface imaging systems in plastic and reconstructive surgery.Currently, 3D surface imaging system is mainly used in plastic and reconstructive surgery to help improve the reliability of surgical planning and assessing surgical outcome objectively. There have already been reports of its using on plastic and reconstructive surgery from head to toe. Studies on facial aging process, online applications development, and so on, have also been done through the use of 3D surface imaging system.Because different types of 3D surface imaging devices have their own advantages and disadvantages, a basic knowledge of their features is required and careful thought should be taken to choose the one that best fits a surgeon's demand.In the future, by integrating with other imaging tools and the 3D printing technology, 3D surface imaging system will play an important role in individualized surgical planning, implants production, meticulous surgical simulation, operative techniques training, and patient education.

  6. A trial fabrication of activity standard surface sources and positional standard surface sources for an imaging plate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yasushi; Hino, Yoshio; Yamada, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Mikio

    2003-01-01

    An imaging plate system can detect low level activity, but quantitative analysis is difficult because there are no adequate standard surface sources. A new fabrication method was developed for standard surface sources by printing on a sheet of paper using an ink-jet printer with inks in which a radioactive material was mixed. The fabricated standard surface sources had high uniformity, high positional resolution arbitrary shapes and a broad intensity range. The standard sources were used for measurement of surface activity as an application. (H. Yokoo)

  7. A portable UV-fluorescence multispectral imaging system for the analysis of painted surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comelli, Daniela; Valentini, Gianluca; Nevin, Austin; Farina, Andrea; Toniolo, Lucia; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2008-08-01

    A portable fluorescence multispectral imaging system was developed and has been used for the analysis of artistic surfaces. The imaging apparatus exploits two UV lamps for fluorescence excitation and a liquid crystal tunable filter coupled to a low-noise charge coupled device as the image detector. The main features of the system are critically presented, outlining the assets, drawbacks, and practical considerations of portability. A multivariate statistical treatment of spectral data is further considered. Finally, the in situ analysis with the new apparatus of recently restored Renaissance wall paintings is presented.

  8. Simulation of Specular Surface Imaging Based on Computer Graphics: Application on a Vision Inspection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seulin Ralph

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at detecting surface defects on reflecting industrial parts. A machine vision system, performing the detection of geometric aspect surface defects, is completely described. The revealing of defects is realized by a particular lighting device. It has been carefully designed to ensure the imaging of defects. The lighting system simplifies a lot the image processing for defect segmentation and so a real-time inspection of reflective products is possible. To bring help in the conception of imaging conditions, a complete simulation is proposed. The simulation, based on computer graphics, enables the rendering of realistic images. Simulation provides here a very efficient way to perform tests compared to the numerous attempts of manual experiments.

  9. Portable hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system for detection of biofilms on stainless steel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Won; Lee, Kangjin; Millner, Patricia; Sharma, Manan; Chao, Kuanglin; Kim, Moon S.

    2008-04-01

    A rapid nondestructive technology is needed to detect bacterial contamination on the surfaces of food processing equipment to reduce public health risks. A portable hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system was used to evaluate potential detection of microbial biofilm on stainless steel typically used in the manufacture of food processing equipment. Stainless steel coupons were immersed in bacterium cultures, such as E. coli, Pseudomonas pertucinogena, Erwinia chrysanthemi, and Listeria innocula. Following a 1-week exposure, biofilm formations were assessed using fluorescence imaging. In addition, the effects on biofilm formation from both tryptic soy broth (TSB) and M9 medium with casamino acids (M9C) were examined. TSB grown cells enhance biofilm production compared with M9C-grown cells. Hyperspectral fluorescence images of the biofilm samples, in response to ultraviolet-A (320 to 400 nm) excitation, were acquired from approximately 416 to 700 nm. Visual evaluation of individual images at emission peak wavelengths in the blue revealed the most contrast between biofilms and stainless steel coupons. Two-band ratios compared with the single-band images increased the contrast between the biofilm forming area and stainless steel coupon surfaces. The 444/588 nm ratio images exhibited the greatest contrast between the biofilm formations and stainless coupon surfaces.

  10. The CEOS-Land Surface Imaging Constellation Portal for GEOSS: A resource for land surface imaging system information and data access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Thomas; Gallo, Kevin P.; Bailey, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites is an international group that coordinates civil space-borne observations of the Earth, and provides the space component of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). The CEOS Virtual Constellations concept was implemented in an effort to engage and coordinate disparate Earth observing programs of CEOS member agencies and ultimately facilitate their contribution in supplying the space-based observations required to satisfy the requirements of the GEOSS. The CEOS initially established Study Teams for four prototype constellations that included precipitation, land surface imaging, ocean surface topography, and atmospheric composition. The basic mission of the Land Surface Imaging (LSI) Constellation [1] is to promote the efficient, effective, and comprehensive collection, distribution, and application of space-acquired image data of the global land surface, especially to meet societal needs of the global population, such as those addressed by the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs) of agriculture, biodiversity, climate, disasters, ecosystems, energy, health, water, and weather. The LSI Constellation Portal is the result of an effort to address important goals within the LSI Constellation mission and provide resources to assist in planning for future space missions that might further contribute to meeting those goals.

  11. Performance of a novel SQUID-based superconducting imaging-surface magnetoencephalography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, R. H.; Volegov, P.; Maharajh, K.; Espy, M. A.; Matlashov, A. N.; Flynn, E. R.

    2002-03-01

    Performance for a recently completed whole-head magnetoencephalography system using a superconducting imaging surface (SIS) surrounding an array of 150 SQUID magnetometers is reported. The helmet-like SIS is hemispherical in shape with a brim. Conceptually, the SIS images nearby sources onto the SQUIDs while shielding sensors from distant “noise” sources. A finite element method (FEM) description using the as-built geometry was developed to describe the SIS effect on source fields by imposing B⊥( surface)=0 . Sensors consist of 8×8 mm 2 SQUID magnetometers with 0.84 nT/ Φ0 sensitivity and positions and orientations was found. Good agreement was found between modeled and measured shielding of the SQUIDs from sources external to the array showing significant frequency-independent shielding. Phantom localization precision was better than 0.5 mm at all locations with a mean of better than 0.3 mm.

  12. A common-path phase-shift interferometry surface plasmon imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y.-T.; Chen, Shean-Jen; Yeh, T.-L.

    2005-03-01

    A biosensing imaging system is proposed based on the integration of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and common-path phase-shift interferometry (PSI) techniques to measure the two-dimensional spatial phase variation caused by biomolecular interactions upon a sensing chip. The SPR phase imaging system can offer high resolution and high-throughout screening capabilities to analyze microarray biomolecular interaction without the need for additional labeling. With the long-term stability advantage of the common-path PSI technique even with external disturbances such as mechanical vibration, buffer flow noise, and laser unstable issue, the system can match the demand of real-time kinetic study for biomolecular interaction analysis (BIA). The SPR-PSI imaging system has achieved a detection limit of 2×10-7 refraction index change, a long-term phase stability of 2.5x10-4π rms over four hours, and a spatial phase resolution of 10-3 π with a lateral resolution of 100μm.

  13. Comparison of surface contour and volumetric three-dimensional imaging of the musculoskeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilford, W.B.; Ullrich, C.G.; Moore, T.

    1988-01-01

    Both surface contour and volumetric three-dimensional image processing from CT data can provide accurate demonstration of skeletal anatomy. While realistic, surface contour images may obscure fine detail such as nondisplaced fractures, and thin bone may disappear. Volumetric processing can provide high detail, but the transparency effect is unnatural and may yield a confusing image. Comparison of both three-dimensional modes is presented to demonstrate those findings best shown with each and to illustrate helpful techniques to improve volumetric display, such as disarticulation of unnecessary anatomy, short-angle repeating rotation (dithering), and image combination into overlay displays

  14. A Novel Active Imaging Model to Design Visual Systems: A Case of Inspection System for Specular Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Azorin-Lopez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of visual information is a very well known input from different kinds of sensors. However, most of the perception problems are individually modeled and tackled. It is necessary to provide a general imaging model that allows us to parametrize different input systems as well as their problems and possible solutions. In this paper, we present an active vision model considering the imaging system as a whole (including camera, lighting system, object to be perceived in order to propose solutions to automated visual systems that present problems that we perceive. As a concrete case study, we instantiate the model in a real application and still challenging problem: automated visual inspection. It is one of the most used quality control systems to detect defects on manufactured objects. However, it presents problems for specular products. We model these perception problems taking into account environmental conditions and camera parameters that allow a system to properly perceive the specific object characteristics to determine defects on surfaces. The validation of the model has been carried out using simulations providing an efficient way to perform a large set of tests (different environment conditions and camera parameters as a previous step of experimentation in real manufacturing environments, which more complex in terms of instrumentation and more expensive. Results prove the success of the model application adjusting scale, viewpoint and lighting conditions to detect structural and color defects on specular surfaces.

  15. First light of Cassis: the stereo surface imaging system onboard the exomars TGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambicorti, L.; Piazza, D.; Pommerol, A.; Roloff, V.; Gerber, M.; Ziethe, R.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Weigel, T.; Johnson, M.; Vernani, D.; Pelo, E.; Da Deppo, V.; Cremonese, G.; Ficai Veltroni, I.; Thomas, N.

    2017-09-01

    The Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) camera was launched on 14 March 2016 onboard the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and it is currently in cruise to Mars. The CaSSIS high resolution optical system is based on a TMA telescope (Three Mirrors Anastigmatic configuration) with a 4th powered folding mirror compacting the CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) structure. The camera EPD (Entrance Pupil Diameter) is 135 mm and the focal length is 880 mm, giving an F# 6.5 system; the wavelength range covered by the instrument is 400-1100 nm. The optical system is designed to have distortion of less than 2%, and a worst case Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of 0.3 at the detector Nyquist spatial frequency (i.e. 50 lp/mm). The Focal Plane Assembly (FPA), including the detector, is a spare from the Simbio-Sys instrument of the Italian Space Agency (ASI). Simbio-Sys will fly on ESA's BepiColombo mission to Mercury in 2018. The detector, developed by Raytheon Vision Systems, is a 2k×2k hybrid Si-PIN array with 10 μm-pixel pitch. The detector allows snap shot operation at a read-out rate of 5 Mpx/s with 14-bit resolution. CaSSIS will operate in a push-frame mode with a Filter Strip Assembly (FSA), placed directly above the detector sensitive area, selecting 4 colour bands. The scale at a slant angle of 4.6 m/px from the nominal orbit is foreseen to produce frames of 9.4 km × 6.3 km on the Martian surface, and covering a Field of View (FoV) of 1.33° cross track × 0.88° along track. The University of Bern was in charge of the full instrument integration as well as the characterisation of the focal plane of CaSSIS. The paper will present an overview of CaSSIS and the optical performance of the telescope and the FPA. The preliminary results of the on-ground calibration campaign and the first light obtained during the commissioning and pointing campaign (April 2016) will be described in detail. The instrument is acquiring images with an average Point Spread

  16. Setup errors and effectiveness of Optical Laser 3D Surface imaging system (Sentinel) in postoperative radiotherapy of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaobo; Liu, Mengjiao; Ding, Yun; Li, Qilin; Cheng, Changhai; Zong, Xian; Yin, Wenming; Chen, Jie; Gu, Wendong

    2018-05-08

    Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) plus postoperative radiotherapy has become the standard treatment for early-stage breast cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the setup accuracy of optical surface imaging by the Sentinel system with cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) imaging currently used in our clinic for patients received BCS. Two optical surface scans were acquired before and immediately after couch movement correction. The correlation between the setup errors as determined by the initial optical surface scan and CBCT was analyzed. The deviation of the second optical surface scan from the reference planning CT was considered an estimate for the residual errors for the new method for patient setup correction. The consequences in terms for necessary planning target volume (PTV) margins for treatment sessions without setup correction applied. We analyzed 145 scans in 27 patients treated for early stage breast cancer. The setup errors of skin marker based patient alignment by optical surface scan and CBCT were correlated, and the residual setup errors as determined by the optical surface scan after couch movement correction were reduced. Optical surface imaging provides a convenient method for improving the setup accuracy for breast cancer patient without unnecessary imaging dose.

  17. The Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) for the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.; Cremonese, G.; Ziethe, R.; Gerber, M.; Brändli, M.; Bruno, G.; Erismann, M.; Gambicorti, L.; Gerber, T.; Ghose, K.; Gruber, M.; Gubler, P.; Mischler, H.; Jost, J.; Piazza, D.; Pommerol, A.; Rieder, M.; Roloff, V.; Servonet, A.; Trottmann, W.; Uthaicharoenpong, T.; Zimmermann, C.; Vernani, D.; Johnson, M.; Pelò, E.; Weigel, T.; Viertl, J.; De Roux, N.; Lochmatter, P.; Sutter, G.; Casciello, A.; Hausner, T.; Ficai Veltroni, I.; Da Deppo, V.; Orleanski, P.; Nowosielski, W.; Zawistowski, T.; Szalai, S.; Sodor, B.; Tulyakov, S.; Troznai, G.; Banaskiewicz, M.; Bridges, J.C.; Byrne, S.; Debei, S.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Hauber, E.; Hansen, C.J.; Ivanov, A.; Keszthelyil, L.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Kuzmin, R.; Mangold, N.; Marinangeli, L.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Massironi, M.; McEwen, A.S.; Okubo, Chris H.; Tornabene, L.L.; Wajer, P.; Wray, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    The Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) is the main imaging system onboard the European Space Agency’s ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) which was launched on 14 March 2016. CaSSIS is intended to acquire moderately high resolution (4.6 m/pixel) targeted images of Mars at a rate of 10–20 images per day from a roughly circular orbit 400 km above the surface. Each image can be acquired in up to four colours and stereo capability is foreseen by the use of a novel rotation mechanism. A typical product from one image acquisition will be a 9.5 km×∼45 km">9.5 km×∼45 km9.5 km×∼45 km swath in full colour and stereo in one over-flight of the target thereby reducing atmospheric influences inherent in stereo and colour products from previous high resolution imagers. This paper describes the instrument including several novel technical solutions required to achieve the scientific requirements.

  18. A Mobile System for Measuring Water Surface Velocities Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Large-Scale Particle Image Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. L.

    2015-12-01

    Measurement technologies for velocity of river flow are divided into intrusive and nonintrusive methods. Intrusive method requires infield operations. The measuring process of intrusive methods are time consuming, and likely to cause damages of operator and instrument. Nonintrusive methods require fewer operators and can reduce instrument damages from directly attaching to the flow. Nonintrusive measurements may use radar or image velocimetry to measure the velocities at the surface of water flow. The image velocimetry, such as large scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) accesses not only the point velocity but the flow velocities in an area simultaneously. Flow properties of an area hold the promise of providing spatially information of flow fields. This study attempts to construct a mobile system UAV-LSPIV by using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with LSPIV to measure flows in fields. The mobile system consists of a six-rotor UAV helicopter, a Sony nex5T camera, a gimbal, an image transfer device, a ground station and a remote control device. The activate gimbal helps maintain the camera lens orthogonal to the water surface and reduce the extent of images being distorted. The image transfer device can monitor the captured image instantly. The operator controls the UAV by remote control device through ground station and can achieve the flying data such as flying height and GPS coordinate of UAV. The mobile system was then applied to field experiments. The deviation of velocities measured by UAV-LSPIV of field experiments and handhold Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) is under 8%. The results of the field experiments suggests that the application of UAV-LSPIV can be effectively applied to surface flow studies.

  19. An imaging system for quantitive surface temperature mapping using two-color thermographic phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Gregory M.

    1988-01-01

    A technique for obtaining detailed quantitative temperature distributions on test models in hypersonic wind tunnels is presented. This technique is based on the ratio of blue to green (450, 520 nm) emission from an UV (365 nm) excited phosphor coating. Separately filtered images are recorded from a three-tube color camera, utilizing off-the-shelf front-end video optics to discriminate wavelengths. Two demonstration studies in a 31-inch Mach 10 tunnel are discussed. One study presents the windward surface temperature-time history for a transatmospheric vehicle, and the other illustrates nosetip heating on a spherically blunted slender cone.

  20. System and technique for retrieving depth information about a surface by projecting a composite image of modulated light patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassebrook, Laurence G. (Inventor); Lau, Daniel L. (Inventor); Guan, Chun (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A technique, associated system and program code, for retrieving depth information about at least one surface of an object, such as an anatomical feature. Core features include: projecting a composite image comprising a plurality of modulated structured light patterns, at the anatomical feature; capturing an image reflected from the surface; and recovering pattern information from the reflected image, for each of the modulated structured light patterns. Pattern information is preferably recovered for each modulated structured light pattern used to create the composite, by performing a demodulation of the reflected image. Reconstruction of the surface can be accomplished by using depth information from the recovered patterns to produce a depth map/mapping thereof. Each signal waveform used for the modulation of a respective structured light pattern, is distinct from each of the other signal waveforms used for the modulation of other structured light patterns of a composite image; these signal waveforms may be selected from suitable types in any combination of distinct signal waveforms, provided the waveforms used are uncorrelated with respect to each other. The depth map/mapping to be utilized in a host of applications, for example: displaying a 3-D view of the object; virtual reality user-interaction interface with a computerized device; face--or other animal feature or inanimate object--recognition and comparison techniques for security or identification purposes; and 3-D video teleconferencing/telecollaboration.

  1. Imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froggatt, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The invention provides a two dimensional imaging system in which a pattern of radiation falling on the system is detected to give electrical signals for each of a plurality of strips across the pattern. The detection is repeated for different orientations of the strips and the whole processed by compensated back projection. For a shadow x-ray system a plurality of strip x-ray detectors are rotated on a turntable. For lower frequencies the pattern may be rotated with a Dove prism and the strips condensed to suit smaller detectors with a cylindrical lens. (author)

  2. Imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushbrooke, J.G.; Ansorge, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    A moving object such as a container on a conveyor belt is imaged by an optical system onto a charge coupled device array in which the lines of the array are arranged perpendicular to the direction of motion of the object. The speed of movement of the object is sensed to generate electrical signals which are processed to provide shift signals enabling the shifting of data row to row in the array in synchronism with the movement of the container. The electrical charge associated with a given point on the array is transferred from one line to the other until it appears at the last line of the array, from which it is read out in known manner in conjunction with all other electrical charges associated with the row of charge coupled devices in the last line of the array. Due to the integrating effect achieved, the aperture of the imaging system can be much smaller than otherwise would be required, and/or the level of light illumination can be reduced. The imaging system can be applied to X-ray inspection devices, aerial surveillance or scanning of moving documents in copying processes. (author)

  3. Accuracy of a commercial optical 3D surface imaging system for realignment of patients for radiotherapy of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeffel, Philipp J; Harms, Wolfgang; Sroka-Perez, Gabriele; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Karger, Christian P

    2007-01-01

    Accurate and reproducible patient setup is a prerequisite to fractionated radiotherapy. To evaluate the applicability and technical performance of a commercial 3D surface imaging system for repositioning of breast cancer patients, measurements were performed in a rigid anthropomorphic phantom as well as in healthy volunteers. The camera system records a respiration-gated surface model of the imaged object, which may be registered to a previously recorded reference model. A transformation is provided, which may be applied to the treatment couch to correct the setup of the patient. The system showed a high stability and detected pre-defined shifts of phantoms and healthy volunteers with an accuracy of 0.40 ± 0.26 mm and 1.02 ± 0.51 mm, respectively (spatial deviation between pre-defined shift and suggested correction). The accuracy of the suggested rotational correction around the vertical axis was always better than 0.3 0 in phantom measurements and 0.8 0 in volunteers, respectively. Comparison of the suggested setup correction with that detected by a second and independently operated marker-based optical system provided consistent results. The results demonstrate that the camera system provides highly accurate setup corrections in a phantom and healthy volunteers. The most efficient use of the system for improving the setup accuracy in breast cancer patients has to be investigated in routine patient treatments

  4. An In-Situ Root-Imaging System in the Context of Surface Detection of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, M. E.; Prince, J. B.; Bradley, A. R.; Zhou, X.; Lakkaraju, V. R.; Male, E. J.; Pickles, W.; Thordsen, J. J.; Dobeck, L.; Cunningham, A.; Spangler, L.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon sequestration is a valuable method of spatially confining CO2 belowground. The Zero Emissions Research Technology, (ZERT), site is an experimental facility in a former agricultural field on the Montana State University campus in Bozeman, Montana, where CO2 was experimentally released at a rate of 200kg/day in 2009 into a 100 meter underground injection well running parallel to the ground surface. This injection well, or pipe, has deliberate leaks at intervals, and CO2 travels from these leaks upward to the surface of the ground. The ZERT site is a model system designed with the purpose of testing methods of surface detection of CO2. One important aspect of surface detection is the determination of the effects of CO2 on the above and belowground portions of plants growing above sequestration fields. At ZERT, these plants consist of a pre-existing mixture of herbaceous species present at the agricultural field. Species growing at the ZERT site include several grasses, Dactylis glomerata (Orchard Grass), Poa pratensis (Kentucky Bluegrass), and Bromus japonicus (Japanese Brome); the nitrogen-fixing legumes Medicago sativa, (Alfalfa), and Lotus corniculatus, (Birdsfoot trefoil); and an abundance of Taraxacum officinale, (Dandelion). Although the aboveground parts of the plants at high CO2 are stressed, as indicated by changes in hyperspectral plant signatures, leaf fluorescence and leaf chlorophyll content, we are interested in determining whether the roots are also stressed. To do so, we are combining measurements of soil conductivity and soil moisture with root imaging. We are using an in-situ root-imaging system manufactured by CID, Inc. (Camas, WA), along with image analysis software (Image-J) to analyze morphometric parameters in the images and to determine what effects, if any, the presence of leaking and subsequently upwelling CO2 has on the phenology of root growth, growth and turnover of individual fine and coarse roots, branching patterns, and root

  5. System and method for generating 3D images of non-linear properties of rock formation using surface seismic or surface to borehole seismic or both

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Cung Khac; Nihei, Kurt Toshimi; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert A.; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S.

    2016-06-07

    A system and method of characterizing properties of a medium from a non-linear interaction are include generating, by first and second acoustic sources disposed on a surface of the medium on a first line, first and second acoustic waves. The first and second acoustic sources are controllable such that trajectories of the first and second acoustic waves intersect in a mixing zone within the medium. The method further includes receiving, by a receiver positioned in a plane containing the first and second acoustic sources, a third acoustic wave generated by a non-linear mixing process from the first and second acoustic waves in the mixing zone; and creating a first two-dimensional image of non-linear properties or a first ratio of compressional velocity and shear velocity, or both, of the medium in a first plane generally perpendicular to the surface and containing the first line, based on the received third acoustic wave.

  6. Fluorescence Imaging Reveals Surface Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirato, Richard; Polichar, Raulf

    1992-01-01

    In technique to detect surface contamination, object inspected illuminated by ultraviolet light to make contaminants fluoresce; low-light-level video camera views fluorescence. Image-processing techniques quantify distribution of contaminants. If fluorescence of material expected to contaminate surface is not intense, tagged with low concentration of dye.

  7. SU-F-J-20: Commissioning and Acceptance Testing of the C-Rad CatalystHD Surface Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, D; Rasmussen, K; Kirby, N; Papanikolaou, N; Gutierrez, A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: With the increasing use of surface-based, nonionizing image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) systems, a comprehensive set of clinical acceptance and commissioning procedures are needed to ensure correct functionality and proper clinical integration. Although TG-147 provides a specific set of parameters, measurement methodologies have yet to be described. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview of the commissioning and acceptance analysis performed for the C-Rad CatalystHD imaging system. Methods and Materials: Methodology for the commissioning and acceptance of the C-Rad CatalystHD imaging system was developed using commercially available clinical equipment. Following TG-147 guidelines, the following tests were performed: integration of peripheral equipment, system drift, static spatial reproducibility and localization accuracy, static end-to-end analysis, static rotational accuracy, dynamic spatial accuracy, dynamic temporal accuracy, dynamic radiation delivery and a comprehensive end-to-end analysis. Results: The field of view (FOV) of the CatalystHD was 105×109×83 cm3 in the lateral, longitudinal and vertical directions. For thermal equilibrium and system drift, a thermal drift of 1.0mm was noted. A 45 min warmup time is recommended if the system has been shut off an extended period of time (>24 hours) before the QA procedure to eliminate any thermal drift. Spatial reproducibility was found to be 0.05±0.03 mm using a rigid phantom. For the static localization accuracy, system agreement with couch shifts was within 0.1±0.1 mm and positioning agreement with kV-CBCT was 0.16±0.10 mm. For static rotational accuracy, system agreement with a high precision rotational stage (0.01 deg precision) was within 0.10±0.07 deg. Dynamic spatial and temporal localization accuracy was found to be within 0.2±0.1 mm. Conclusion: A comprehensive commissioning and acceptance study was performed using commercially available phantoms and in

  8. Determination of the fractal dimension surface of the fracture from SEM images with assistance of the computer image quantitative analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawszczak, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for quantitative image analysis for determination of the fractal dimension from SEM surface images of the fracture 0H14N5CuNb steel. Investigated quenched and tempered samples of the steel after impact tests (in room and -85 o C temperatures). This method can be useful for analysing local fractal dimension of any surface parts (not oriented) of the fracture with different topography of this surface. (author)

  9. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  10. Medical Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The MD Image System, a true-color image processing system that serves as a diagnostic aid and tool for storage and distribution of images, was developed by Medical Image Management Systems, Huntsville, AL, as a "spinoff from a spinoff." The original spinoff, Geostar 8800, developed by Crystal Image Technologies, Huntsville, incorporates advanced UNIX versions of ELAS (developed by NASA's Earth Resources Laboratory for analysis of Landsat images) for general purpose image processing. The MD Image System is an application of this technology to a medical system that aids in the diagnosis of cancer, and can accept, store and analyze images from other sources such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

  11. Super-Resolution Imaging of Protein Secretion Systems and the Cell Surface of Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachith D. Gunasinghe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacteria have a highly evolved cell wall with two membranes composed of complex arrays of integral and peripheral proteins, as well as phospholipids and glycolipids. In order to sense changes in, respond to, and exploit their environmental niches, bacteria rely on structures assembled into or onto the outer membrane. Protein secretion across the cell wall is a key process in virulence and other fundamental aspects of bacterial cell biology. The final stage of protein secretion in Gram-negative bacteria, translocation across the outer membrane, is energetically challenging so sophisticated nanomachines have evolved to meet this challenge. Advances in fluorescence microscopy now allow for the direct visualization of the protein secretion process, detailing the dynamics of (i outer membrane biogenesis and the assembly of protein secretion systems into the outer membrane, (ii the spatial distribution of these and other membrane proteins on the bacterial cell surface, and (iii translocation of effector proteins, toxins and enzymes by these protein secretion systems. Here we review the frontier research imaging the process of secretion, particularly new studies that are applying various modes of super-resolution microscopy.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF EVALUATION OF A QUANTITATIVE VIDEO-FLUORESCENCE IMAGING SYSTEM AND FLUORESCENT TRACER FOR MEASURING TRANSFER OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES FROM SURFACES TO HANDS WITH REPEATED CONTACTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A video imaging system and the associated quantification methods have been developed for measurement of the transfers of a fluorescent tracer from surfaces to hands. The highly fluorescent compound riboflavin (Vitamin B2), which is also water soluble and non-toxic, was chosen as...

  13. Medical imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-06-25

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and diagnostic or functional images. The system may be portable, and may include adapters for connecting various light sources and cameras in open surgical environments or laparascopic or endoscopic environments. A user interface provides control over the functionality of the integrated imaging system. In one embodiment, the system provides a tool for surgical pathology.

  14. Real time detection of antibody-antigen interaction using a laser scanning confocal imaging-surface plasmon resonance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong-Yan; Yang Li-Quan; Ning Ting-Yin; Liu Wei-Min; Sun Jia-Yu; Wang Peng-Fei; Meng Lan; Nie Jia-Cai

    2012-01-01

    A laser scanning confocal imaging-surface plasmon resonance (LSCI-SPR) instrument integrated with a wavelength-dependent surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor and a laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) is built to detect the bonding process of human IgG and fluorescent-labeled affinity purified antibodies in real time. The shifts of resonant wavelength at different reaction time stages are obtained by SPR, corresponding well with the changes of the fluorescence intensity collected by using LSCM. The instrument shows the merits of the combination and complementation of the SPR and LSCM, with such advantages as quantificational analysis, high spatial resolution and real time monitor, which are of great importance for practical applications in biosensor and life science. (general)

  15. Development of an Operational System for the Retrieval of Aerosol and Land Surface Properties from the Terra Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crean, Kathleen A.

    2003-01-01

    An operational system to retrieve atmospheric aerosol and land surface properties using data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument, currently flying onboard NASA's Terra spacecraft, has been deployed. The system is in full operation, with new data products generated daily and distributed to science users worldwide. This paper describes the evolution of the system, from initial requirements definition and prototyping through design, implementation, testing, operational deployment, checkout and maintenance activities. The current status of the system and future plans for enhancement are described. Major challenges encountered during implementation are detailed.

  16. [Ocular surface system integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, T N; Pateyuk, L S

    2015-01-01

    The interplay of different structures belonging to either the anterior segment of the eye or its accessory visual apparatus, which all share common embryological, anatomical, functional, and physiological features, is discussed. Explanation of such terms, as ocular surface, lacrimal functional unit, and ocular surface system, is provided.

  17. Contrast image formation based on thermodynamic approach and surface laser oxidation process for optoelectronic read-out system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbak, Aleksandr; Yulmetova, Olga

    2018-05-01

    A pulsed fiber laser with the wavelength 1.06 μm was used to treat titanium nitride film deposited on beryllium substrates in the air with intensities below an ablation threshold to provide oxide formation. Laser oxidation results were predicted by the chemical thermodynamic method and confirmed by experimental techniques (X-ray diffraction). The developed technology of contrast image formation is intended to be used for optoelectronic read-out system.

  18. MR imaging of brain surface structures: Surface anatomy scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katada, K.; Koga, S.; Asahina, M.; Kanno, T.; Asahina, K.

    1987-01-01

    Preoperative evaluation of brain surface anatomy, including cortical sulci and veins, relative to cerebral and cerebellar lesions is an important subject for surgeons. Until now, no imaging modality existed that allowed direct visualization of brain surface anatomy. A new MR imaging technique (surface anatomy scanning) was developed to visualize brain surface structures. The technique uses a spin-echo pulse sequence with long repetition and echo times, thick sections and a surface coil. Cortical sulci, fissures, veins, and intracranial lesions were clearly identified with this technique. Initial clinical results indicate that surface anatomy scanning is useful for lesion localization and for detailed evaluation of cortical and subcortical lesions

  19. Surface Habitat Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2009-01-01

    The Surface Habitat Systems (SHS) Focused Investment Group (FIG) is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) effort to provide a focused direction and funding to the various projects that are working on human surface habitat designs and technologies for the planetary exploration missions. The overall SHS-FIG effort focuses on directing and guiding those projects that: 1) develop and demonstrate new surface habitat system concepts, innovations, and technologies to support human exploration missions, 2) improve environmental systems that interact with human habitats, 3) handle and emplace human surface habitats, and 4) focus on supporting humans living and working in habitats on planetary surfaces. The activity areas of the SHS FIG described herein are focused on the surface habitat project near-term objectives as described in this document. The SHS-FIG effort focuses on mitigating surface habitat risks (as identified by the Lunar Surface Systems Project Office (LSSPO) Surface Habitat Element Team; and concentrates on developing surface habitat technologies as identified in the FY08 gap analysis. The surface habitat gap assessment will be updated annually as the surface architecture and surface habitat definition continues to mature. These technologies are mapped to the SHS-FIG Strategic Development Roadmap. The Roadmap will bring to light the areas where additional innovative efforts are needed to support the development of habitat concepts and designs and the development of new technologies to support of the LSSPO Habitation Element development plan. Three specific areas of development that address Lunar Architecture Team (LAT)-2 and Constellation Architecture Team (CxAT) Lunar habitat design issues or risks will be focused on by the SHS-FIG. The SHS-FIG will establish four areas of development that will help the projects prepare in their planning for surface habitat systems development. Those development areas are

  20. An inflatable surface coil for rectal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.F.; Hajek, P.C.; Baker, L.L.; Gylys-Morin, V.; Mattrey, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Surface coils have become ubiquitous in MR imaging of the body because of substantial gains in signal-to-noise ratio. Unfortunately, there are some anatomic regions, such as the prostate, for which surface coils have insufficient depth sensitivity. The authors have developed an inflatable, distributed capacitance, passively decoupled surface coil which is collapsed for insertion and reinflated for imaging. Images of the prostate are dramatically improved due to proximity of the coil. Lesions in cadaver specimens were observed which were not seen with body coil imaging. Clinical trials are expected to begin in September

  1. Egypt satellite images for land surface characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    images used for mapping the vegetation cover types and other land cover types in Egypt. The mapping ranges from 1 km resolution to 30 m resolution. The aim is to provide satellite image mapping with land surface characteristics relevant for roughness mapping.......Satellite images provide information on the land surface properties. From optical remote sensing images in the blue, green, red and near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum it is possible to identify a large number of surface features. The report briefly describes different satellite...

  2. Fermi surface contours obtained from scanning tunneling microscope images around surface point defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khotkevych-Sanina, N V; Kolesnichenko, Yu A; Van Ruitenbeek, J M

    2013-01-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the standing wave patterns in scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images, which occur around surface point defects. We consider arbitrary dispersion relations for the surface states and calculate the conductance for a system containing a small-size tunnel contact and a surface impurity. We find rigorous theoretical relations between the interference patterns in the real-space STM images, their Fourier transforms and the Fermi contours of two-dimensional electrons. We propose a new method for reconstructing Fermi contours of surface electron states, directly from the real-space STM images around isolated surface defects. (paper)

  3. Multipurpose Hyperspectral Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chengye; Smith, David; Lanoue, Mark A.; Poole, Gavin H.; Heitschmidt, Jerry; Martinez, Luis; Windham, William A.; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Park, Bosoon

    2005-01-01

    A hyperspectral imaging system of high spectral and spatial resolution that incorporates several innovative features has been developed to incorporate a focal plane scanner (U.S. Patent 6,166,373). This feature enables the system to be used for both airborne/spaceborne and laboratory hyperspectral imaging with or without relative movement of the imaging system, and it can be used to scan a target of any size as long as the target can be imaged at the focal plane; for example, automated inspection of food items and identification of single-celled organisms. The spectral resolution of this system is greater than that of prior terrestrial multispectral imaging systems. Moreover, unlike prior high-spectral resolution airborne and spaceborne hyperspectral imaging systems, this system does not rely on relative movement of the target and the imaging system to sweep an imaging line across a scene. This compact system (see figure) consists of a front objective mounted at a translation stage with a motorized actuator, and a line-slit imaging spectrograph mounted within a rotary assembly with a rear adaptor to a charged-coupled-device (CCD) camera. Push-broom scanning is carried out by the motorized actuator which can be controlled either manually by an operator or automatically by a computer to drive the line-slit across an image at a focal plane of the front objective. To reduce the cost, the system has been designed to integrate as many as possible off-the-shelf components including the CCD camera and spectrograph. The system has achieved high spectral and spatial resolutions by using a high-quality CCD camera, spectrograph, and front objective lens. Fixtures for attachment of the system to a microscope (U.S. Patent 6,495,818 B1) make it possible to acquire multispectral images of single cells and other microscopic objects.

  4. Whole surface image reconstruction for machine vision inspection of fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, D. Y.; Lefcourt, A. M.; Kim, M. S.; Lo, Y. M.

    2007-09-01

    Automated imaging systems offer the potential to inspect the quality and safety of fruits and vegetables consumed by the public. Current automated inspection systems allow fruit such as apples to be sorted for quality issues including color and size by looking at a portion of the surface of each fruit. However, to inspect for defects and contamination, the whole surface of each fruit must be imaged. The goal of this project was to develop an effective and economical method for whole surface imaging of apples using mirrors and a single camera. Challenges include mapping the concave stem and calyx regions. To allow the entire surface of an apple to be imaged, apples were suspended or rolled above the mirrors using two parallel music wires. A camera above the apples captured 90 images per sec (640 by 480 pixels). Single or multiple flat or concave mirrors were mounted around the apple in various configurations to maximize surface imaging. Data suggest that the use of two flat mirrors provides inadequate coverage of a fruit but using two parabolic concave mirrors allows the entire surface to be mapped. Parabolic concave mirrors magnify images, which results in greater pixel resolution and reduced distortion. This result suggests that a single camera with two parabolic concave mirrors can be a cost-effective method for whole surface imaging.

  5. Medical imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangioni, John V [Wayland, MA

    2012-07-24

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remains in a subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may also employ dyes or other fluorescent substances associated with antibodies, antibody fragments, or ligands that accumulate within a region of diagnostic significance. In one embodiment, the system provides an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide that is used to capture images. In another embodiment, the system is configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. More broadly, the systems described herein may be used in imaging applications where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by an image formed from fluorescent emissions from a fluorescent substance that marks areas of functional interest.

  6. Quantitative luminescence imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, David N.; Kiel, Johnathan L.; Batishko, Charles R.; Stahl, Kurt A.

    1990-01-01

    The QLIS images and quantifies low-level chemiluminescent reactions in an electromagnetic field. It is capable of real time nonperturbing measurement and simultaneous recording of many biochemical and chemical reactions such as luminescent immunoassays or enzyme assays. The system comprises image transfer optics, a low-light level digitizing camera with image intensifying microchannel plates, an image process or, and a control computer. The image transfer optics may be a fiber image guide with a bend, or a microscope, to take the light outside of the RF field. Output of the camera is transformed into a localized rate of cumulative digitalized data or enhanced video display or hard-copy images. The system may be used as a luminescent microdosimetry device for radiofrequency or microwave radiation, as a thermal dosimeter, or in the dosimetry of ultra-sound (sonoluminescence) or ionizing radiation. It provides a near-real-time system capable of measuring the extremely low light levels from luminescent reactions in electromagnetic fields in the areas of chemiluminescence assays and thermal microdosimetry, and is capable of near-real-time imaging of the sample to allow spatial distribution analysis of the reaction. It can be used to instrument three distinctly different irradiation configurations, comprising (1) RF waveguide irradiation of a small Petri-dish-shaped sample cell, (2) RF irradiation of samples in a microscope for the microscopie imaging and measurement, and (3) RF irradiation of small to human body-sized samples in an anechoic chamber.

  7. 3D spectrum imaging of multi-wall carbon nanotube coupled π-surface modes utilising electron energy-loss spectra acquired using a STEM/Enfina system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seepujak, A.; Bangert, U.; Gutierrez-Sosa, A.; Harvey, A.J.; Blank, V.D.; Kulnitskiy, B.A.; Batov, D.V.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous studies have utilised electron energy-loss (EEL) spectra acquired in the plasmon (2-10 eV) regime in order to probe delocalised π-electronic states of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Interpretation of electron energy loss (EEL) spectra of MWCNTs in the 2-10 eV regime. Carbon (accepted for publication); Blank et al. J. Appl. Phys. 91 (2002) 1657). In the present contribution, EEL spectra were acquired from a 2D raster defined on a bottle-shaped MWCNT, using a Gatan UHV Enfina system attached to a dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The technique utilised to isolate and sequentially filter each of the volume and surface resonances is described in detail. Utilising a scale for the intensity of a filtered mode enables one to 'see' the distribution of each resonance in the raster. This enables striking 3D resonance-filtered spectrum images (SIs) of π-collective modes to be observed. Red-shift of the lower energy split π-surface resonance provides explicit evidence of π-surface mode coupling predicted for thin graphitic films (Lucas et al. Phys. Rev. B 49 (1994) 2888). Resonance-filtered SIs are also compared to non-filtered SIs with suppressed surface contributions, acquired utilising a displaced collector aperture. The present filtering technique is seen to isolate surface contributions more effectively, and without the significant loss of statistics, associated with the displaced collector aperture mode. Isolation of collective modes utilising 3D resonance-filtered spectrum imaging, demonstrates a valuable method for 'pinpointing' the location of discrete modes in irregularly shaped nanostructures

  8. Raster images vectorization system

    OpenAIRE

    Genytė, Jurgita

    2006-01-01

    The problem of raster images vectorization was analyzed and researched in this work. Existing vectorization systems are quite expensive, the results are inaccurate, and the manual vectorization of a large number of drafts is impossible. That‘s why our goal was to design and develop a new raster images vectorization system using our suggested automatic vectorization algorithm and the way to record results in a new universal vectorial file format. The work consists of these main parts: analysis...

  9. Atomic profile imaging of ceramic oxide surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.; Peng JuLin; Sellar, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Atomic surface profile imaging is an electron optical technique capable of revealing directly the surface crystallography of ceramic oxides. Use of an image-intensifier with a TV camera allows fluctuations in surface morphology and surface reactivity to be recorded and analyzed using digitized image data. This paper reviews aspects of the electron optical techniques, including interpretations based upon computer-simulation image-matching techniques. An extensive range of applications is then presented for ceramic oxides of commercial interest for advanced materials applications: including uranium oxide (UO 2 ); magnesium and nickel oxide (MgO,NiO); ceramic superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6.7 ); barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ); sapphire (α-A1 2 O 3 ); haematite (α-Fe-2O 3 ); monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic monocrystalline forms of zirconia (ZrO 2 ), lead zirconium titanate (PZT + 6 mol.% NiNbO 3 ) and ZBLAN fluoride glass. Atomic scale detail has been obtained of local structures such as steps associated with vicinal surfaces, facetting parallel to stable low energy crystallographic planes, monolayer formation on certain facets, relaxation and reconstructions, oriented overgrowth of lower oxides, chemical decomposition of complex oxides into component oxides, as well as amorphous coatings. This remarkable variety of observed surface stabilization mechanisms is discussed in terms of novel double-layer electrostatic depolarization mechanisms, as well as classical concepts of the physics and chemistry of surfaces (ionization and affinity energies and work function). 46 refs., 16 figs

  10. Remote Monitoring of Near-Surface Soil Moisture Dynamics In Unstable Slopes Using a Low-Power Autonomous Resistivity Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J. E.; Meldrum, P.; Gunn, D.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Uhlemann, S.; Swift, R. T.; Kuras, O.; Inauen, C.; Hutchinson, D.; Butler, S.

    2016-12-01

    ERT monitoring has been demonstrated in numerous studies as an effective means of imaging near surface processes for applications as diverse as permafrost studies and contaminated land assessment. A limiting factor in applying time-lapse ERT for long-term studies in remote locations has been the availability of cost-effective ERT measurement systems designed specifically for monitoring applications. Typically, monitoring is undertaken using repeated manual data collection, or by building conventional survey instruments into a monitoring setup. The latter often requires high power and is therefore difficult to operate remotely without access to mains electricity. We describe the development of a low-power resistivity imaging system designed specifically for remote monitoring, taking advantage of, e.g., solar power and data telemetry. Here, we present the results of two field deployments. The system has been installed on an active railway cutting to provide insights into the effect of vegetation on the moisture dynamics in unstable infrastructure slopes and to gather subsurface information for pro-active remediation measures. The system, comprising 255 electrodes, acquires 4596 reciprocal measurement pairs twice daily during standard operation. In case of severe weather events, the measurement schedule is reactively changed, to gather high temporal resolution data to image rainfall infiltration processes. The system has also been installed along a leaking and marginally stable canal embankment; a less favourable location for remote monitoring, with limited solar power and poor mobile reception. Nevertheless, the acquired data indicated the effectiveness of remedial actions on the canal. The ERT results showed that one leak was caused by the canal and fixed during remediation, while two other "leaks" were shown to be effects of groundwater dynamics. The availability of cost-effective, low-power ERT monitoring instrumentation, combined with an automated workflow of

  11. Scorpion image segmentation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E.; Aibinu, A. M.; Sadiq, B. A.; Bello Salau, H.; Salami, M. J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Death as a result of scorpion sting has been a major public health problem in developing countries. Despite the high rate of death as a result of scorpion sting, little report exists in literature of intelligent device and system for automatic detection of scorpion. This paper proposed a digital image processing approach based on the floresencing characteristics of Scorpion under Ultra-violet (UV) light for automatic detection and identification of scorpion. The acquired UV-based images undergo pre-processing to equalize uneven illumination and colour space channel separation. The extracted channels are then segmented into two non-overlapping classes. It has been observed that simple thresholding of the green channel of the acquired RGB UV-based image is sufficient for segmenting Scorpion from other background components in the acquired image. Two approaches to image segmentation have also been proposed in this work, namely, the simple average segmentation technique and K-means image segmentation. The proposed algorithm has been tested on over 40 UV scorpion images obtained from different part of the world and results obtained show an average accuracy of 97.7% in correctly classifying the pixel into two non-overlapping clusters. The proposed 1system will eliminate the problem associated with some of the existing manual approaches presently in use for scorpion detection.

  12. MR imaging of brain surface structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katada, Kazuhiro; Anno, Hirofumi; Takesita, Gen; Koga, Sukehiko; Kanno, Tetuo; Sakakibara, Tatuo; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Saito, Sigeki.

    1989-01-01

    An imaging technique that permits direct and non-invasive visualization of brain surface structures was proposed. This technique (Surface anatomy scanning, SAS) consists of long TE-long TR spin echo sequence, thick slice and surface coil. Initial clinical trials in 31 patients with various cerebral pathology showed excellent visualization of sulci, gyri and major cortical veins on the lateral surface of the brain together with cortical and subcortical lesions. Our preliminary results indicate that the SAS is an effective method for the diagnosis and localization of cortical and subcortical pathology, and the possible application of SAS to the surgical and the radiation therapy planning is sugessted. (author)

  13. Image simulation and assessment of the colour and spatial capabilities of the Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) on the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornabene, Livio L.; Seelos, Frank P.; Pommerol, Antoine; Thomas, Nicolas; Caudill, Christy M.; Becerra, Patricio; Bridges, John C.; Byrne, Shane; Cardinale, Marco; Chojnacki, Matthew; Conway, Susan J.; Cremonese, Gabriele; Dundas, Colin M.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Fernando, Jennifer; Hansen, Candice J.; Hansen, Kayle; Harrison, Tanya N.; Henson, Rachel; Marinangeli, Lucia; McEwen, Alfred S.; Pajola, Maurizio; Sutton, Sarah S.; Wray, James J.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to assess the spatial and visible/near-infrared (VNIR) colour/spectral capabilities of the 4-band Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) aboard the ExoMars 2016 Trace Grace Orbiter (TGO). The instrument response functions for the CaSSIS imager was used to resample spectral libraries, modelled spectra and to construct spectrally (i.e., in I/F space) and spatially consistent simulated CaSSIS image cubes of various key sites of interest and for ongoing scientific investigations on Mars. Coordinated datasets from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) are ideal, and specifically used for simulating CaSSIS. The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) provides colour information, while the Context Imager (CTX), and in a few cases the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), provides the complementary spatial information at the resampled CaSSIS unbinned/unsummed pixel resolution (4.6 m/pixel from a 400-km altitude). The methodology used herein employs a Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening algorithm to combine the ∼18–36 m/pixel CRISM-derived CaSSIS colours with I/F images primarily derived from oversampled CTX images. One hundred and eighty-one simulated CaSSIS 4-colour image cubes (at 18–36 m/pixel) were generated (including one of Phobos) based on CRISM data. From these, thirty-three “fully”-simulated image cubes of thirty unique locations on Mars (i.e., with 4 colour bands at 4.6 m/pixel) were made. All simulated image cubes were used to test both the colour capabilities of CaSSIS by producing standard colour RGB images, colour band ratio composites (CBRCs) and spectral parameters. Simulated CaSSIS CBRCs demonstrated that CaSSIS will be able to readily isolate signatures related to ferrous (Fe2+) iron- and ferric (Fe3+) iron-bearing deposits on the surface of Mars, ices and atmospheric phenomena. Despite the lower spatial resolution of CaSSIS when compared to HiRISE, the results of this work demonstrate that

  14. Image Simulation and Assessment of the Colour and Spatial Capabilities of the Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) on the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornabene, Livio L.; Seelos, Frank P.; Pommerol, Antoine; Thomas, Nicholas; Caudill, C. M.; Becerra, Patricio; Bridges, John C.; Byrne, Shane; Cardinale, Marco; Chojnacki, Matthew; Conway, Susan J.; Cremonese, Gabriele; Dundas, Colin M.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Fernando, Jennifer; Hansen, Candice J.; Hansen, Kayle; Harrison, Tanya N.; Henson, Rachel; Marinangeli, Lucia; McEwen, Alfred S.; Pajola, Maurizio; Sutton, Sarah S.; Wray, James J.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to assess the spatial and visible/near-infrared (VNIR) colour/spectral capabilities of the 4-band Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) aboard the ExoMars 2016 Trace Grace Orbiter (TGO). The instrument response functions for the CaSSIS imager was used to resample spectral libraries, modelled spectra and to construct spectrally ( i.e., in I/F space) and spatially consistent simulated CaSSIS image cubes of various key sites of interest and for ongoing scientific investigations on Mars. Coordinated datasets from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) are ideal, and specifically used for simulating CaSSIS. The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) provides colour information, while the Context Imager (CTX), and in a few cases the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), provides the complementary spatial information at the resampled CaSSIS unbinned/unsummed pixel resolution (4.6 m/pixel from a 400-km altitude). The methodology used herein employs a Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening algorithm to combine the ˜18-36 m/pixel CRISM-derived CaSSIS colours with I/F images primarily derived from oversampled CTX images. One hundred and eighty-one simulated CaSSIS 4-colour image cubes (at 18-36 m/pixel) were generated (including one of Phobos) based on CRISM data. From these, thirty-three "fully"-simulated image cubes of thirty unique locations on Mars ( i.e., with 4 colour bands at 4.6 m/pixel) were made. All simulated image cubes were used to test both the colour capabilities of CaSSIS by producing standard colour RGB images, colour band ratio composites (CBRCs) and spectral parameters. Simulated CaSSIS CBRCs demonstrated that CaSSIS will be able to readily isolate signatures related to ferrous (Fe2+) iron- and ferric (Fe3+) iron-bearing deposits on the surface of Mars, ices and atmospheric phenomena. Despite the lower spatial resolution of CaSSIS when compared to HiRISE, the results of this work demonstrate that Ca

  15. [Surface coils for magnetic-resonance images].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Alfredo Odón; Amador-Baheza, Ricardo; Rojas-Jasso, Rafael; Barrios-Alvarez, Fernando Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Since the introduction of magnetic resonance imaging in Mexico, the development of this important medical imaging technology has been almost non-existing in our country. The very first surface coil prototypes for clinical applications in magnetic resonance imaging has been developed at the Center of Research in Medical Imaging and Instrumentation of the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa (Metropolitan Autonomous University, Campus Iztapalapa). Two surface coil prototypes were built: a) a circular-shaped coil and b) a square-shaped coil for multiple regions of the body, such as heart, brain, knee, hands, and ankles. These coils were tested on the 1.5T imager of the ABC Hospital-Tacubaya, located in Mexico City. Brain images of healthy volunteers were obtained in different orientations: sagittal, coronal, and axial. Since images showed a good-enough clinical quality for diagnosis, it is fair to say that these coil prototypes can be used in the clinical environment, and with small modifications, they can be made compatible with almost any commercial scanner. This type of development can offer new alternatives for further collaboration between the research centers and the radiology community, in the search of new applications and developments of this imaging technique.

  16. Hyperspatial Thermal Imaging of Surface Hydrothermal Features at Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska using a small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselwimmer, C. E.; Wilson, R.; Upton, C.; Prakash, A.; Holdmann, G.; Walker, G.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal remote sensing provides a valuable tool for mapping and monitoring surface hydrothermal features associated with geothermal activity. The increasing availability of low-cost, small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) with integrated thermal imaging sensors offers a means to undertake very high spatial resolution (hyperspatial), quantitative thermal remote sensing of surface geothermal features in support of exploration and long-term monitoring efforts. Results from the deployment of a quadcopter sUAS equipped with a thermal camera over Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska for detailed mapping and heat flux estimation for hot springs, seeps, and thermal pools are presented. Hyperspatial thermal infrared imagery (4 cm pixels) was acquired over Pilgrim Hot Springs in July 2013 using a FLIR TAU 640 camera operating from an Aeryon Scout sUAS flying at an altitude of 40m. The registered and mosaicked thermal imagery is calibrated to surface temperature values using in-situ measurements of uniform blackbody tarps and the temperatures of geothermal and other surface pools acquired with a series of water temperature loggers. Interpretation of the pre-processed thermal imagery enables the delineation of hot springs, the extents of thermal pools, and the flow and mixing of individual geothermal outflow plumes with an unprecedented level of detail. Using the surface temperatures of thermal waters derived from the FLIR data and measured in-situ meteorological parameters the hot spring heat flux and outflow rate is calculated using a heat budget model for a subset of the thermal drainage. The heat flux/outflow rate estimates derived from the FLIR data are compared against in-situ measurements of the hot spring outflow rate recorded at the time of the thermal survey.

  17. Tablet surface characterisation by various imaging techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Rantanen, Jukka; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise tablet surfaces using different imaging and roughness analytical techniques including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The test materials compressed were potassium chloride (KCl......) and sodium chloride (NaCl). It was found that all methods used suggested that the KCl tablets were smoother than the NaCl tablets and higher compression pressure made the tablets smoother. Imaging methods like optical microscopy and SEM can give useful information about the roughness of the sample surface...

  18. A Toolbox for Imaging Stellar Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John

    2018-04-01

    In this talk I will review the available algorithms for synthesis imaging at visible and infrared wavelengths, including both gray and polychromatic methods. I will explain state-of-the-art approaches to constraining the ill-posed image reconstruction problem, and selecting an appropriate regularisation function and strength of regularisation. The reconstruction biases that can follow from non-optimal choices will be discussed, including their potential impact on the physical interpretation of the results. This discussion will be illustrated with example stellar surface imaging results from real VLTI and COAST datasets.

  19. Imaging the Surfaces of Stars from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth; Rau, Gioia

    2018-04-01

    Imaging of Stellar Surfacess has been dominated to-date by ground-based observations, but space-based facilities offer tremendous potential for extending the wavelength coverage and ultimately the resolution of such efforts. We review the imaging accomplished so far from space and then talk about exciting future prospects. The earliest attempts from space indirectly produced surface maps via the Doppler Imaging Technique, using UV spectra obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). Later, the first direct UV images were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), of Mira and Betelgeuse, using the Faint Object Camera (FOC). We will show this work and then investigate prospects for IR imaging with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The real potential of space-based Imaging of Stellar Surfacess, however, lies in the future, when large-baseline Fizeau interferometers, such as the UV-optical Stellar Imager (SI) Vision Mission, with a 30-element array and 500m max baseline, are flown. We describe SI and its science goals, which include 0.1 milli-arcsec spectral Imaging of Stellar Surfacess and the probing of internal structure and flows via asteroseismology.

  20. Ultrasensitive and selective gold film-based detection of mercury (II) in tap water using a laser scanning confocal imaging-surface plasmon resonance system in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Yang, Liquan; Zhou, Bingjiang; Liu, Weimin; Ge, Jiechao; Wu, Jiasheng; Wang, Ying; Wang, Pengfei

    2013-09-15

    An ultrasensitive and selective detection of mercury (II) was investigated using a laser scanning confocal imaging-surface plasmon resonance system (LSCI-SPR). The detection limit was as low as 0.01ng/ml for Hg(2+) ions in ultrapure and tap water based on a T-rich, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-modified gold film, which can be individually manipulated using specific T-Hg(2+)-T complex formation. The quenching intensity of the fluorescence images for rhodamine-labeled ssDNA fitted well with the changes in SPR. The changes varied with the Hg(2+) ion concentration, which is unaffected by the presence of other metal ions. The coefficients obtained for ultrapure and tap water were 0.99902 and 0.99512, respectively, for the linear part over a range of 0.01-100ng/ml. The results show that the double-effect sensor has potential for practical applications with ultra sensitivity and selectivity, especially in online or real-time monitoring of Hg(2+) ions pollution in tap water with the further improvement of portable LSCI-SPR instrument. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Calibrating AIS images using the surface as a reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. O.; Roberts, D. A.; Shipman, H. M.; Adams, J. B.; Willis, S. C.; Gillespie, A. R.

    1987-01-01

    A method of evaluating the initial assumptions and uncertainties of the physical connection between Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) image data and laboratory/field spectrometer data was tested. The Tuscon AIS-2 image connects to lab reference spectra by an alignment to the image spectral endmembers through a system gain and offset for each band. Images were calibrated to reflectance so as to transform the image into a measure that is independent of the solar radiant flux. This transformation also makes the image spectra directly comparable to data from lab and field spectrometers. A method was tested for calibrating AIS images using the surface as a reference. The surface heterogeneity is defined by lab/field spectral measurements. It was found that the Tuscon AIS-2 image is consistent with each of the initial hypotheses: (1) that the AIS-2 instrument calibration is nearly linear; (2) the spectral variance is caused by sub-pixel mixtures of spectrally distinct materials and shade, and (3) that sub-pixel mixtures can be treated as linear mixtures of pure endmembers. It was also found that the image can be characterized by relatively few endmembers using the AIS-2 spectra.

  2. Nuclear imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, H.H.; Horrigan, F.A.

    1975-01-01

    This invention relates to a nuclear imaging system for mapping the source of high energy nuclear particles from a living organ which has selectively absorbed a radioactive compound by spatially coding the energy from the source in a Fresnel pattern on a detector and decoding the detector output to prouce an image of the source. The coding is produced by a Fresnel zone plate interposed between the nuclear energy source and the detector whose position is adjustable with respect to the detector to focus the slices of the nuclear source on the detector. By adjusting the zone plate to a plurality of positions, data from a plurality of cross-sectional slices are produced from which a three-dimensional image of the nuclear source may be obtained. (Patent Office Record)

  3. Radiographic imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, L. Jr.; Barrett, H.H.

    1979-01-01

    This invention describes a system for imaging a subject, such as a human being, in which there has been injected a contrast agent which absorbs radiation of a predetermined frequency. The system utilizes a source of high energy radiation such as X or gamma radiation. The source is a composite of first and second radiating materials each of which is arranged in a predetermined pattern or code, each pattern having both luminous and dark regions. In one embodiment, the luminous regions of one pattern are in registration with the dark regions of the other pattern, these regions being spaced apart in an alternative embodiment. The characteristic frequencies of radiation emitted by the first and second materials are respectively lower and higher than the predetermined absorption frequency. A detector of radiation is positioned relative to the subject and the source such that radiation propagating through the subject is incident upon the detector. Since the absorption edge of the contrast agent lies between the two characteristic frequencies of radiation, radiation from the second material is preferentially absorbed by the contrast agent with the result that the contrast agent appears to be illuminated by a coded source while the remainder of the subject may be regarded as illuminated essentially by a uniform uncoded source. Imaging is accomplished by a decoding of a detected coded image. Substances within the subject having other absorption frequencies are not imaged since the radiations of both materials are essentially equally absorbed by the subject so that the source appears uncoded

  4. Image Reconstruction and Evaluation: Applications on Micro-Surfaces and Lenna Image Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mayyas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article develops algorithms for the characterization and the visualization of micro-scale features using a small number of sample points, with the goal of mitigating the measurement shortcomings, which are often destructive or time consuming. The popular measurement techniques that are used in imaging of micro-surfaces include the 3D stylus or interferometric profilometry and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, where both could represent the micro-surface characteristics in terms of 3D dimensional topology and greyscale image, respectively. Such images could be highly dense; therefore, traditional image processing techniques might be computationally expensive. We implement the algorithms in several case studies to rapidly examine the microscopic features of micro-surface of Microelectromechanical System (MEMS, and then we validate the results using a popular greyscale image; i.e., “Lenna” image. The contributions of this research include: First, development of local and global algorithm based on modified Thin Plate Spline (TPS model to reconstruct high resolution images of the micro-surface’s topography, and its derivatives using low resolution images. Second, development of a bending energy algorithm from our modified TPS model for filtering out image defects. Finally, development of a computationally efficient technique, referred to as Windowing, which combines TPS and Linear Sequential Estimation (LSE methods, to enhance the visualization of images. The Windowing technique allows rapid image reconstruction based on the reduction of inverse problem.

  5. Three dimensional imaging of surface geometry in SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slowko, W.

    1997-01-01

    A great advantage of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is its ability of the surface topography in the way as a human eye is accustomed to see lights and shadows on macroobjects. However, SEM's can hardly display vertical dimensions of the structures. One of possible solutions is reconstruction of the surface profiles by directional detection of secondary electrons and proper signal processing. However, the surface profile still gives two dimensional information and the method should be extended to obtain fully three dimensional imaging. The extension consists in a simultaneous reconstruction of the surface profiles in two perpendicular directions (x and y) and their superposition. The solution proposed is based on a quadrupole detector system and a computer or analogue system for signal processing. Quantitative data of the surface topography can be displayed in many manners in the system of two or three co-ordinates with use of pseudo-colour for the altitude coding. (author)

  6. A monthly quality assurance procedure for 3D surface imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, H Omar; Klein, Eric E; Gokhroo, Garima; Santanam, Lakshmi

    2010-12-21

    A procedure for periodic quality assurance of a video surface imaging system is introduced. AlignRT is a video camera-based patient localization system that captures and compares images of a patient's topography to a DICOM-formatted external contour, then calculates shifts required to accurately reposition the patient. This technical note describes the tools and methods implemented in our department to verify correct and accurate operation of the AlignRT hardware and software components. The procedure described is performed monthly and complements a daily calibration of the system.

  7. Heart Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Johnson Space Flight Center's device to test astronauts' heart function in microgravity has led to the MultiWire Gamma Camera, which images heart conditions six times faster than conventional devices. Dr. Jeffrey Lacy, who developed the technology as a NASA researcher, later formed Proportional Technologies, Inc. to develop a commercially viable process that would enable use of Tantalum-178 (Ta-178), a radio-pharmaceutical. His company supplies the generator for the radioactive Ta-178 to Xenos Medical Systems, which markets the camera. Ta-178 can only be optimally imaged with the camera. Because the body is subjected to it for only nine minutes, the radiation dose is significantly reduced and the technique can be used more frequently. Ta-178 also enables the camera to be used on pediatric patients who are rarely studied with conventional isotopes because of the high radiation dosage.

  8. Textural Analysis of Fatique Crack Surfaces: Image Pre-processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lauschmann

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available For the fatique crack history reconstitution, new methods of quantitative microfractography are beeing developed based on the image processing and textural analysis. SEM magnifications between micro- and macrofractography are used. Two image pre-processing operatins were suggested and proved to prepare the crack surface images for analytical treatment: 1. Normalization is used to transform the image to a stationary form. Compared to the generally used equalization, it conserves the shape of brightness distribution and saves the character of the texture. 2. Binarization is used to transform the grayscale image to a system of thick fibres. An objective criterion for the threshold brightness value was found as that resulting into the maximum number of objects. Both methods were succesfully applied together with the following textural analysis.

  9. Combined Spectral and Spatial Modeling of Corn Yield Based on Aerial Images and Crop Surface Models Acquired with an Unmanned Aircraft System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Geipel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Precision Farming (PF management strategies are commonly based on estimations of within-field yield potential, often derived from remotely-sensed products, e.g., Vegetation Index (VI maps. These well-established means, however, lack important information, like crop height. Combinations of VI-maps and detailed 3D Crop Surface Models (CSMs enable advanced methods for crop yield prediction. This work utilizes an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS to capture standard RGB imagery datasets for corn grain yield prediction at three early- to mid-season growth stages. The imagery is processed into simple VI-orthoimages for crop/non-crop classification and 3D CSMs for crop height determination at different spatial resolutions. Three linear regression models are tested on their prediction ability using site-specific (i unclassified mean heights, (ii crop-classified mean heights and (iii a combination of crop-classified mean heights with according crop coverages. The models show determination coefficients \\({R}^{2}\\ of up to 0.74, whereas model (iii performs best with imagery captured at the end of stem elongation and intermediate spatial resolution (0.04m\\(\\cdot\\px\\(^{-1}\\.Following these results, combined spectral and spatial modeling, based on aerial images and CSMs, proves to be a suitable method for mid-season corn yield prediction.

  10. Tomographic imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, T.; Horiba, I.; Kohno, H.; Nakaya, C.; Sekihara, K.; Shiono, H.; Tomura, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yanaka, S.

    1980-01-01

    A tomographic imaging system comprising: irradiating means for irradating a cross-section of an object under consideration with radiation rays from plural directions; detector means for detecting the radiation rays transmitted through the cross-section of said object to produce an output signal; first memory means for storing the output signal of said detector means; and an image jreconstructing section for performing a convolution integral operation on the contents of said first memory means by means of a first weighting function to reconstruct a three-dimensional image of the cross-section of said object, said image reconstructing section including (I) second memory means for storing a second weighting function, said second weighting function being provided with a predetermined positive and negative (N-1)th order when the output signal of said detector means produced by the irradiation of the cross-section of said object from one of said plural directions is sampled by N points, the value of the (N-1)th order of said second weighting function being an integration of said first weighting function from the (N-1)th order to positive infinity and the value of -(N-1)th order of said second weighting function being an integration of said first weighting function from the -(N-1)th order to negative infinity, (II) control means for successively reading out the contents of said first and second memory means, and (III) operational means for performing multiplying and summing operations on the read-out contents of said first and second memory means, said operational means producing the product of the values fo the (N-1)th and -(N-1)th orders of said second weighting function and a component of the output signal of said detector means relating to the radiation rays free from the absorption thereof by said object

  11. Matching Images to Models: Camera Calibration for 3-D Surface Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Robin D.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Cheeseman. Peter C.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In a previous paper we described a system which recursively recovers a super-resolved three dimensional surface model from a set of images of the surface. In that paper we assumed that the camera calibration for each image was known. In this paper we solve two problems. Firstly, if an estimate of the surface is already known, the problem is to calibrate a new image relative to the existing surface model. Secondly, if no surface estimate is available, the relative camera calibration between the images in the set must be estimated. This will allow an initial surface model to be estimated. Results of both types of estimation are given.

  12. Analysis of image plane's Illumination in Image-forming System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Lihua; Zeng Yan'an; Zhang Nanyangsheng; Wang Zhiguo; Yin Shiliang

    2011-01-01

    In the detection of optical radiation, the detecting accuracy is affected by optic power distribution of the detector's surface to a large extent. In addition, in the image-forming system, the quality of the image is greatly determined by the uniformity of the image's illumination distribution. However, in the practical optical system, affected by the factors such as field of view, false light and off axis and so on, the distribution of the image's illumination tends to be non uniform, so it is necessary to discuss the image plane's illumination in image-forming systems. In order to analyze the characteristics of the image-forming system at a full range, on the basis of photometry, the formulas to calculate the illumination of the imaging plane have been summarized by the numbers. Moreover, the relationship between the horizontal offset of the light source and the illumination of the image has been discussed in detail. After that, the influence of some key factors such as aperture angle, off-axis distance and horizontal offset on illumination of the image has been brought forward. Through numerical simulation, various theoretical curves of those key factors have been given. The results of the numerical simulation show that it is recommended to aggrandize the diameter of the exit pupil to increase the illumination of the image. The angle of view plays a negative role in the illumination distribution of the image, that is, the uniformity of the illumination distribution can be enhanced by compressing the angle of view. Lastly, it is proved that telecentric optical design is an effective way to advance the uniformity of the illumination distribution.

  13. Method for Surface Scanning in Medical Imaging and Related Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A method and apparatus for surface scanning in medical imaging is provided. The surface scanning apparatus comprises an image source, a first optical fiber bundle comprising first optical fibers having proximal ends and distal ends, and a first optical coupler for coupling an image from the image...

  14. Wear-less floating contact imaging of polymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, A; Rothuizen, H; Gotsmann, B; Duerig, U

    2010-01-01

    An atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique is described combining two operating modes that previously were mutually exclusive: gentle imaging of delicate surfaces requiring slow dynamic AFM techniques, and passive feedback contact mode AFM enabling ultra-fast imaging. A high-frequency force modulation is used to excite resonant modes in the MHz range of a highly compliant cantilever force sensor with a spring constant of 0.1 N m -1 . The high-order mode acts as a stiff system for modulating the tip-sample distance and a vibration amplitude of 1 nm is sufficient to overcome the adhesion interaction. The soft cantilever provides a force-controlled support for the vibrating tip, enabling high-speed intermittent contact force microscopy without feedback control of the cantilever bending. Using this technique, we were able to image delicate polymer surfaces and to completely suppress the formation of the ripple wear patterns that are commonly observed in contact AFM.

  15. Investigation of synthetic aperture methods in ultrasound surface imaging using elementary surface types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, W; Pierce, S G; Rowe, P

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic aperture imaging methods have been employed widely in recent research in non-destructive testing (NDT), but uptake has been more limited in medical ultrasound imaging. Typically offering superior focussing power over more traditional phased array methods, these techniques have been employed in NDT applications to locate and characterise small defects within large samples, but have rarely been used to image surfaces. A desire to ultimately employ ultrasonic surface imaging for bone surface geometry measurement prior to surgical intervention motivates this research, and results are presented for initial laboratory trials of a surface reconstruction technique based on global thresholding of ultrasonic 3D point cloud data. In this study, representative geometry artefacts were imaged in the laboratory using two synthetic aperture techniques; the Total Focusing Method (TFM) and the Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) employing full and narrow synthetic apertures, respectively. Three high precision metallic samples of known geometries (cuboid, sphere and cylinder) which featured a range of elementary surface primitives were imaged using a 5MHz, 128 element 1D phased array employing both SAFT and TFM approaches. The array was manipulated around the samples using a precision robotic positioning system, allowing for repeatable ultrasound derived 3D surface point clouds to be created. A global thresholding technique was then developed that allowed the extraction of the surface profiles, and these were compared with the known geometry samples to provide a quantitative measure of error of 3D surface reconstruction. The mean errors achieved with optimised SAFT imaging for the cuboidal, spherical and cylindrical samples were 1.3mm, 2.9mm and 2.0mm respectively, while those for TFM imaging were 3.7mm, 3.0mm and 3.1mm, respectively. These results were contrary to expectations given the higher information content associated with the TFM images. However, it was

  16. Acoustic imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard W.

    1979-01-01

    An acoustic imaging system for displaying an object viewed by a moving array of transducers as the array is pivoted about a fixed point within a given plane. A plurality of transducers are fixedly positioned and equally spaced within a laterally extending array and operatively directed to transmit and receive acoustic signals along substantially parallel transmission paths. The transducers are sequentially activated along the array to transmit and receive acoustic signals according to a preestablished sequence. Means are provided for generating output voltages for each reception of an acoustic signal, corresponding to the coordinate position of the object viewed as the array is pivoted. Receptions from each of the transducers are presented on the same display at coordinates corresponding to the actual position of the object viewed to form a plane view of the object scanned.

  17. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gerald W.; Brill, A. Bertrand; Bizais, Yves J. C.; Rowe, R. Wanda; Zubal, I. George

    1986-01-01

    A nuclear medicine imaging system having two large field of view scintillation cameras mounted on a rotatable gantry and being movable diametrically toward or away from each other is disclosed. In addition, each camera may be rotated about an axis perpendicular to the diameter of the gantry. The movement of the cameras allows the system to be used for a variety of studies, including positron annihilation, and conventional single photon emission, as well as static orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography. In orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography, each camera is fitted with a seven pinhole collimator to provide seven views from slightly different perspectives. By using two cameras at an angle to each other, improved sensitivity and depth resolution is achieved. The computer system and interface acquires and stores a broad range of information in list mode, including patient physiological data, energy data over the full range detected by the cameras, and the camera position. The list mode acquisition permits the study of attenuation as a result of Compton scatter, as well as studies involving the isolation and correlation of energy with a range of physiological conditions.

  18. Experimental image alignment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, A. L.; Kowel, S. T.; Kornreich, P. G.

    1980-01-01

    A microcomputer-based instrument for image alignment with respect to a reference image is described which uses the DEFT sensor (Direct Electronic Fourier Transform) for image sensing and preprocessing. The instrument alignment algorithm which uses the two-dimensional Fourier transform as input is also described. It generates signals used to steer the stage carrying the test image into the correct orientation. This algorithm has computational advantages over algorithms which use image intensity data as input and is suitable for a microcomputer-based instrument since the two-dimensional Fourier transform is provided by the DEFT sensor.

  19. The automated infrared thermal imaging system for the continuous long-term monitoring of the surface temperature of the Vesuvius crater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Sansivero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Infrared remote sensing monitoring is a significant tool aimed to integrated surveillance system of active volcanic areas. In this paper we describe the realization and the technological evolution of the permanent image thermal infrared (TIR surveillance system of the Vesuvius volcano. The TIR monitoring station was installed on the Vesuvius crater rim on July 2004 in order to acquire scenes of the SW inner slope of Vesuvius crater that is characterized by a significant thermal emission. At that time, it represented the first achievement all over the world of a permanent surveillance thermal imaging system on a volcano. It has been working in its prototypal configuration till May 2007. The experience gained over years about the engineering, management and maintenance of TIR remote acquisition systems in extreme environmental conditions, allows us to design and realize a new release of the TIR monitoring station with improved functionalities and more flexibility for the IR image acquisition, management and storage, which became operational in June 2011. In order to characterize the thermal background of the Vesuvius crater at present state of volcanic quiescence, the time series of TIR images gathered between July 2004 and May 2012 were analyzed using a statistical approach. Results show no significant changes in the thermal radiation during the observation periods, so they can be assumed as representative of a background level to which refer for the interpretation of possible future anomalies related to a renewal of the volcanic dynamics of the Vesuvius volcano.

  20. Novel spirometry based on optical surface imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guang, E-mail: lig2@mskcc.org; Huang, Hailiang; Li, Diana G.; Chen, Qing; Gaebler, Carl P.; Mechalakos, James [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Wei, Jie [Department of Computer Science, City College of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States); Sullivan, James [Pulmonary Laboratories, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Zatcky, Joan; Rimner, Andreas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using optical surface imaging (OSI) to measure the dynamic tidal volume (TV) of the human torso during free breathing. Methods: We performed experiments to measure volume or volume change in geometric and deformable phantoms as well as human subjects using OSI. To assess the accuracy of OSI in volume determination, we performed experiments using five geometric phantoms and two deformable body phantoms and compared the values with those derived from geometric calculations and computed tomography (CT) measurements, respectively. To apply this technique to human subjects, an institutional review board protocol was established and three healthy volunteers were studied. In the human experiment, a high-speed image capture mode of OSI was applied to acquire torso images at 4–5 frames per second, which was synchronized with conventional spirometric measurements at 5 Hz. An in-house MATLAB program was developed to interactively define the volume of interest (VOI), separate the thorax and abdomen, and automatically calculate the thoracic and abdominal volumes within the VOIs. The torso volume change (TV C = ΔV{sub torso} = ΔV{sub thorax} + ΔV{sub abdomen}) was automatically calculated using full-exhalation phase as the reference. The volumetric breathing pattern (BP{sub v} = ΔV{sub thorax}/ΔV{sub torso}) quantifying thoracic and abdominal volume variations was also calculated. Under quiet breathing, TVC should equal the tidal volume measured concurrently by a spirometer with a conversion factor (1.08) accounting for internal and external differences of temperature and moisture. Another MATLAB program was implemented to control the conventional spirometer that was used as the standard. Results: The volumes measured from the OSI imaging of geometric phantoms agreed with the calculated volumes with a discrepancy of 0.0% ± 1.6% (range −1.9% to 2.5%). In measurements from the deformable torso/thorax phantoms, the volume

  1. Novel spirometry based on optical surface imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guang; Huang, Hailiang; Li, Diana G.; Chen, Qing; Gaebler, Carl P.; Mechalakos, James; Wei, Jie; Sullivan, James; Zatcky, Joan; Rimner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using optical surface imaging (OSI) to measure the dynamic tidal volume (TV) of the human torso during free breathing. Methods: We performed experiments to measure volume or volume change in geometric and deformable phantoms as well as human subjects using OSI. To assess the accuracy of OSI in volume determination, we performed experiments using five geometric phantoms and two deformable body phantoms and compared the values with those derived from geometric calculations and computed tomography (CT) measurements, respectively. To apply this technique to human subjects, an institutional review board protocol was established and three healthy volunteers were studied. In the human experiment, a high-speed image capture mode of OSI was applied to acquire torso images at 4–5 frames per second, which was synchronized with conventional spirometric measurements at 5 Hz. An in-house MATLAB program was developed to interactively define the volume of interest (VOI), separate the thorax and abdomen, and automatically calculate the thoracic and abdominal volumes within the VOIs. The torso volume change (TV C = ΔV torso = ΔV thorax + ΔV abdomen ) was automatically calculated using full-exhalation phase as the reference. The volumetric breathing pattern (BP v = ΔV thorax /ΔV torso ) quantifying thoracic and abdominal volume variations was also calculated. Under quiet breathing, TVC should equal the tidal volume measured concurrently by a spirometer with a conversion factor (1.08) accounting for internal and external differences of temperature and moisture. Another MATLAB program was implemented to control the conventional spirometer that was used as the standard. Results: The volumes measured from the OSI imaging of geometric phantoms agreed with the calculated volumes with a discrepancy of 0.0% ± 1.6% (range −1.9% to 2.5%). In measurements from the deformable torso/thorax phantoms, the volume differences measured using OSI

  2. OSPACS: Ultrasound image management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessant Conrad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ultrasound scanning uses the medical imaging format, DICOM, for electronically storing the images and data associated with a particular scan. Large health care facilities typically use a picture archiving and communication system (PACS for storing and retrieving such images. However, these systems are usually not suitable for managing large collections of anonymized ultrasound images gathered during a clinical screening trial. Results We have developed a system enabling the accurate archiving and management of ultrasound images gathered during a clinical screening trial. It is based upon a Windows application utilizing an open-source DICOM image viewer and a relational database. The system automates the bulk import of DICOM files from removable media by cross-validating the patient information against an external database, anonymizing the data as well as the image, and then storing the contents of the file as a field in a database record. These image records may then be retrieved from the database and presented in a tree-view control so that the user can select particular images for display in a DICOM viewer or export them to external media. Conclusion This system provides error-free automation of ultrasound image archiving and management, suitable for use in a clinical trial. An open-source project has been established to promote continued development of the system.

  3. Central nervous system imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1973, computed tomography (CT) of the brain has had a revolutionary impact on neuroradiologic diagnosis. It has largely replaced radionuclide brain imaging as the initial, noninvasive neurologic screening examination. Although conventional radionuclide brain imaging still contributes useful and unique diagnostic information in a few clinical situations, it appears that new technology and applications must be found if nuclear imaging is to play a prominent future role in neurologic diagnosis as it did in the past. One of the main advantages of CT over radionuclide brain imaging at present is CT's ability to demonstrate the size, shape, and position of the cerebral ventricles and subarachnoid spaces. Another important strength of CT is the ability to differentiate ischemic cerebral infarction from intracerebral hemorrhage. The overall sensitivity of CT in detecting intracranial neoplasms is also greater than that of radionuclide brain imaging, and CT is very useful in demonstrating the effects of head trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging appears superior to CT in the evaluation of neurologic disorders. A renewed interest in radionuclide brain imaging has developed because of recent advances in emission computed tomographic imaging. When tracer kinetic models are used, cerebral blood flow (CBF), blood volume, metabolic rate, and glucose and amino acid transport can be measured. Other applications involve investigation of receptor bindings, evaluation of the blood-brain barrier, brain blood-volume measurement, and cisternography

  4. Shimadzu magnetic resonance imaging system, SMT-50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Shiro; Nishida, Takayuki; Fujio, Yasuo

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system, as a new modality of medical imaging, has already been put to practical applications on many clinical sites, through which a lot of clinical data has been accumulated. It can offer a powerful new probe of internal anatomy of the human body and its functions. Now that the MRI has established its effectiveness in diagnosis, a really practical MRI system which features high efficiency and economical design with high patient throughput is strongly called for. Introduced in this article is a superconductive magnet MRI system, SMT-50, operating at 5000 Gauss. It has realized an excellent diagnostic capability with such functions as multi-slice multi-echo imaging, high sensitive, surface coil technique and so on. High resolution image display (1024 x 1024 pixcel) unit and separate console system (viewing console and scanning console) will assist high patient throughput. The outline of the SMT-50 and its clinical data are reported here. (author)

  5. Plane development of lateral surfaces for inspection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francini, F.; Fontani, D.; Jafrancesco, D.; Mercatelli, L.; Sansoni, P.

    2006-08-01

    The problem of developing the lateral surfaces of a 3D object can arise in item inspection using automated imaging systems. In an industrial environment, these control systems typically work at high rate and they have to assure a reliable inspection of the single item. For compactness requirements it is not convenient to utilise three or four CCD cameras to control all the lateral surfaces of an object. Moreover it is impossible to mount optical components near the object if it is placed on a conveyor belt. The paper presents a system that integrates on a single CCD picture the images of both the frontal surface and the lateral surface of an object. It consists of a freeform lens mounted in front of a CCD camera with a commercial lens. The aim is to have a good magnification of the lateral surface, maintaining a low aberration level for exploiting the pictures in an image processing software. The freeform lens, made in plastics, redirects the light coming from the object to the camera lens. The final result is to obtain on the CCD: - the frontal and lateral surface images, with a selected magnification (even with two different values for the two images); - a gap between these two images, so an automatic method to analyse the images can be easily applied. A simple method to design the freeform lens is illustrated. The procedure also allows to obtain the imaging system modifying a current inspection system reducing the cost.

  6. Spatially modulated imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, H.H.

    1975-01-01

    Noncoherent radiation, such as x-rays, is spatially coded, directed through an object and spatially detected to form a spatially coded pattern, from which an image of the object may be reconstructed. The x-ray source may be formed by x-ray fluorescence and substration of the holographic images formed by two sources having energy levels predominantly above and below the maximum absorption range of an agent in the object may be used to enhance contrast in the reproduced image. (Patent Office Record)

  7. Imaging near-surface heterogeneities by natural migration of surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Zhaolun; AlTheyab, Abdullah; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that near-surface heterogeneities can be imaged by natural migration of backscattered surface waves in common shot gathers. No velocity model is required because the data are migrated onto surface points with the virtual Green

  8. New image-stabilizing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuejin

    1996-06-01

    In this paper, a new method for image stabilization with a three-axis image- stabilizing reflecting prism assembly is presented, and the principle of image stabilization in this prism assembly, formulae for image stabilization and working formulae with an approximation up to the third power are given in detail. In this image-stabilizing system, a single chip microcomputer is used to calculate value of compensating angles and thus to control the prism assembly. Two gyroscopes act as sensors from which information of angular perturbation is obtained, three stepping motors drive the prism assembly to compensate for the movement of image produced by angular perturbation. The image-stabilizing device so established is a multifold system which involves optics, mechanics, electronics and computer.

  9. Mechanics of bioinspired imaging systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwei Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging systems in nature have attracted a lot of research interest due to their superior optical and imaging characteristics. Recent advancements in materials science, mechanics, and stretchable electronics have led to successful development of bioinspired cameras that resemble the structures and functions of biological light-sensing organs. In this review, we discuss some recent progresses in mechanics of bioinspired imaging systems, including tunable hemispherical eyeball camera and artificial compound eye camera. The mechanics models and results reviewed in this article can provide efficient tools for design and optimization of such systems, as well as other related optoelectronic systems that combine rigid elements with soft substrates.

  10. Focused surface coil for MR imaging of the pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, S.E.; Sherry, C.S.; Youshimura, L.; Lokken, R.; Hyde, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    A specially designed surface coil for pituitary MR imaging results in improved image quality over that achieved with conventional pituitary Mr imaging. The coil consists of connected planar pair coils with a variable intercoil distance to accommodate differences in head size. The sensitive field is focused deep to the surface between the two planar pairs. This arrangement optimizes the signal-to-noise ratio and allows better gradient magnification of the pituitary region. Fifteen subjects with a variety of pituitary disorders were imaged

  11. Army medical imaging system: ARMIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siedband, M.P.; Kramp, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances of stimulable phosphor screens, data cards using optical storage means, and new personal computers with image processing capability have made possible the design of economical filmless medical imaging systems. The addition of communication links means that remote interpretation of images is also possible. The Army Medical Imaging System uses stimulable phosphor screens, digital readout, a small computer, an optical digital data card device, and a DIN/PACS link. Up to 200 images can be stored in the computer hard disk for rapid recall and reading by the radiologist. The computer permits image processing, annotation, insertion of text, and control of the system. Each device contains an image storage RAM and communicates with the computer via the small computer systems interface. Data compression is used to reduce the required storage capacity and transmission times of the 1-mB images. The credit card-size optical data cards replace film and can store 12 or more images. The data cards can be read on an independent viewer. The research is supported by the U.S. Army Biomedical Research and Development Laboratory

  12. Superresolution Near-field Imaging with Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Lei; Liu, Zhaolun; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    We present the theory for near-field superresolution imaging with surface waves and time reverse mirrors (TRMs). Theoretical formulas and numerical results show that applying the TRM operation to surface waves in an elastic half-space can achieve

  13. Imaging with PET system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B.K.; Noreen Norfaraheen Lee Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    PET deals with biochemistry and metabolic changes that occur at molecular level. Hence, PET differs fundamentally from other imaging modalities. CT imaging is based on tissue density, whereas MRI conveys anatomic information based on proton density and proton relaxation dynamics. CT and MRI are useful in clinical diagnosis only when disease process has caused significant anatomic alterations. However, in most disease conditions chemical changes precede anatomic changes, that can be detected by PET technology. Thus, PET can provide earliest and unique information about ongoing disease process long before anatomic or structural changes take place. There is no other modality available at present that can replace PET technology. Although PET produces cross-sectional images like that obtained in MRI or CT, they represent circulation, function and metabolism, and not anatomic structure. PET is extremely sensitive measuring quantitatively concentration of tracers in nano to pico-molar range. Thus, PET enables merger of biochemistry and biology in medicine giving birth to molecular medicine that focuses on identifying the molecular errors of disease leading to developing molecular corrections including gene therapy. Molecular imaging with PET has been playing a role in examining the biological nature of a disease condition and its characterization to guide selection and evaluation of treatment. (author)

  14. Imaging method of brain surface anatomy structures using conventional T2-weighted MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatanaka, Masahiko; Machida, Yoshio; Yoshida, Tadatoki; Katada, Kazuhiro.

    1992-01-01

    As a non-invasive technique for visualizing the brain surface structure by MRI, surface anatomy scanning (SAS) and the multislice SAS methods have been developed. Both techniques require additional MRI scanning to obtain images for the brain surface. In this paper, we report an alternative method to obtain the brain surface image using conventional T2-weighted multislice images without any additional scanning. The power calculation of the image pixel values, which is incorporated in the routine processing, has been applied in order to enhance the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contrast. We think that this method is one of practical approaches for imaging the surface anatomy of the brain. (author)

  15. Underwater laser imaging system (UWLIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLong, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Practical limitations with underwater imaging systems area reached when the noise in the back scattered radiation generated in the water between the imaging system and the target obscures the spatial contrast and resolution necessary for target discovery and identification. The advent of high power lasers operating in the blue-green portion of the visible spectrum (oceanic transmission window) has led to improved experimental illumination systems for underwater imaging. Range-gated and synchronously scanned devices take advantage of the unique temporal and spatial coherence properties of laser radiation, respectively, to overcome the deleterious effects of common volume back scatter.

  16. Image statistics and the perception of surface gloss and lightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juno; Anderson, Barton L

    2010-07-01

    Despite previous data demonstrating the critical importance of 3D surface geometry in the perception of gloss and lightness, I. Motoyoshi, S. Nishida, L. Sharan, and E. H. Adelson (2007) recently proposed that a simple image statistic--histogram or sub-band skew--is computed by the visual system to infer the gloss and albedo of surfaces. One key source of evidence used to support this claim was an experiment in which adaptation to skewed image statistics resulted in opponent aftereffects in observers' judgments of gloss and lightness. We report a series of adaptation experiments that were designed to assess the cause of these aftereffects. We replicated their original aftereffects in gloss but found no consistent aftereffect in lightness. We report that adaptation to zero-skew adaptors produced similar aftereffects as positively skewed adaptors, and that negatively skewed adaptors induced no reliable aftereffects. We further find that the adaptation effect observed with positively skewed adaptors is not robust to changes in mean luminance that diminish the intensity of the luminance extrema. Finally, we show that adaptation to positive skew reduces (rather than increases) the apparent lightness of light pigmentation on non-uniform albedo surfaces. These results challenge the view that the adaptation results reported by Motoyoshi et al. (2007) provide evidence that skew is explicitly computed by the visual system.

  17. Using IR Imaging of Water Surfaces for Estimating Piston Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gålfalk, M.; Bastviken, D.; Arneborg, L.

    2013-12-01

    The transport of gasses dissolved in surface waters across the water-atmosphere interface is controlled by the piston velocity (k). This coefficient has large implications for, e.g., greenhouse gas fluxes but is challenging to quantify in situ. At present, empirical k-wind speed relationships from a small number of studies and systems are often extrapolated without knowledge of model performance. It is therefore of interest to search for new methods for estimating k, and to compare the pros and cons of existing and new methods. Wind speeds in such models are often measured at a height of 10 meters. In smaller bodies of water such as lakes, wind speeds can vary dramatically across the surface through varying degrees of wind shadow from e.g. trees at the shoreline. More local measurements of the water surface, through wave heights or surface motion mapping, could give improved k-estimates over a surface, also taking into account wind fetch. At thermal infrared (IR) wavelengths water has very low reflectivity (depending on viewing angle) than can go below 1%, meaning that more than 99% is heat radiation giving a direct measurement of surface temperature variations. Using an IR camera at about 100 frames/s one could map surface temperature structures at a fraction of a mm depth even with waves present. In this presentation I will focus on IR imaging as a possible tool for estimating piston velocities. Results will be presented from IR field measurements, relating the motions of surface temperature structures to k calculated from other simultaneous measurements (flux chamber and ADV-Based Dissipation Rate), but also attempting to calculate k directly from the IR surface divergence. A relation between wave height and k will also be presented.

  18. Stereoscopic medical imaging collaboration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Fumio; Hirano, Takenori; Nakabayasi, Yuusuke; Minoura, Hirohito; Tsuruoka, Shinji

    2007-02-01

    The computerization of the clinical record and the realization of the multimedia have brought improvement of the medical service in medical facilities. It is very important for the patients to obtain comprehensible informed consent. Therefore, the doctor should plainly explain the purpose and the content of the diagnoses and treatments for the patient. We propose and design a Telemedicine Imaging Collaboration System which presents a three dimensional medical image as X-ray CT, MRI with stereoscopic image by using virtual common information space and operating the image from a remote location. This system is composed of two personal computers, two 15 inches stereoscopic parallax barrier type LCD display (LL-151D, Sharp), one 1Gbps router and 1000base LAN cables. The software is composed of a DICOM format data transfer program, an operation program of the images, the communication program between two personal computers and a real time rendering program. Two identical images of 512×768 pixcels are displayed on two stereoscopic LCD display, and both images show an expansion, reduction by mouse operation. This system can offer a comprehensible three-dimensional image of the diseased part. Therefore, the doctor and the patient can easily understand it, depending on their needs.

  19. Artificial intelligence and medical imaging. Expert systems and image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackenheim, A.; Zoellner, G.; Horviller, S.; Jacqmain, T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper gives an overview on the existing systems for automated image analysis and interpretation in medical imaging, especially in radiology. The example of ORFEVRE, the system for the analysis of CAT-scan images of the cervical triplet (c3-c5) by image analysis and subsequent expert-system is given and discussed in detail. Possible extensions are described [fr

  20. High resolution imaging of surface patterns of single bacterial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greif, Dominik; Wesner, Daniel; Regtmeier, Jan; Anselmetti, Dario

    2010-01-01

    We systematically studied the origin of surface patterns observed on single Sinorhizobium meliloti bacterial cells by comparing the complementary techniques atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Conditions ranged from living bacteria in liquid to fixed bacteria in high vacuum. Stepwise, we applied different sample modifications (fixation, drying, metal coating, etc.) and characterized the observed surface patterns. A detailed analysis revealed that the surface structure with wrinkled protrusions in SEM images were not generated de novo but most likely evolved from similar and naturally present structures on the surface of living bacteria. The influence of osmotic stress to the surface structure of living cells was evaluated and also the contribution of exopolysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by imaging two mutant strains of the bacterium under native conditions. AFM images of living bacteria in culture medium exhibited surface structures of the size of single proteins emphasizing the usefulness of AFM for high resolution cell imaging.

  1. A Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seong Woo

    1999-01-01

    The ability to see the internal organs of the human body in a noninvasive way is a powerful diagnostic tool of modern medicine. Among these imaging modalities such as X-ray, MRI, and ultrasound. MRI and ultrasound are presenting much less risk of undesirable damage of both patient and examiner. In fact, no deleterious effects have been reported as a result of clinical examination by using MRI and ultrasound diagnostic equipment. As a result, their market volume has been rapidly increased. MRI has a good resolution. but there are a few disadvantages such as high price. non-real-time imaging capability. and expensive diagnostic cost. On the other hand, the ultrasound imaging system has inherently poor resolution as compared with X-ray and MRI. In spite of its poor resolution, the ultrasound diagnostic equipment is lower in price and has an ability of real-time imaging as compared with the others. As a result, the ultrasound imaging system has become general and essential modality for imaging the internal organs of human body. In this review various researches and developments to enhance the resolution of the ultrasound images are explained and future trends of the ultrasound imaging technology are described

  2. Surface stress mediated image force and torque on an edge dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, R. M.; Divya, Iyer, Ganesh; Kumar, Arun; Subramaniam, Anandh

    2018-07-01

    The proximity of interfaces gives prominence to image forces experienced by dislocations. The presence of surface stress alters the traction-free boundary conditions existing on free-surfaces and hence is expected to alter the magnitude of the image force. In the current work, using a combined simulation of surface stress and an edge dislocation in a semi-infinite body, we evaluate the configurational effects on the system. We demonstrate that if the extra half-plane of the edge dislocation is parallel to the surface, the image force (glide) is not altered due to surface stress; however, the dislocation experiences a torque. The surface stress breaks the 'climb image force' symmetry, thus leading to non-equivalence between positive and negative climb. We discover an equilibrium position for the edge dislocation in the positive 'climb geometry', arising due to a competition between the interaction of the dislocation stress fields with the surface stress and the image dislocation. Torque in the climb configuration is not affected by surface stress (remains zero). Surface stress is computed using a recently developed two-scale model based on Shuttleworth's idea and image forces using a finite element model developed earlier. The effect of surface stress on the image force and torque experienced by the dislocation monopole is analysed using illustrative 3D models.

  3. Direct Imaging of Stellar Surfaces: Results from the Stellar Imager (SI) Vision Mission Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth; Schrijver, Carolus; Karovska, Margarita

    2006-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a UV-Optical, Space-Based Interferometer designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and stellar interiors (via asteroseismology) and of the Universe in general. SI is identified as a "Flagship and Landmark Discovery Mission'' in the 2005 Sun Solar System Connection (SSSC) Roadmap and as a candidate for a "Pathways to Life Observatory'' in the Exploration of the Universe Division (EUD) Roadmap (May, 2005). The ultra-sharp images of the Stellar Imager will revolutionize our view of many dynamic astrophysical processes: The 0.1 mas resolution of this deep-space telescope will transform point sources into extended sources, and snapshots into evolving views. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. SI's prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives in support of the Living With a Star program in the Exploration Era. SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. In this paper we will discuss the results of the SI Vision Mission Study, elaborating on the science goals of the SI Mission and a mission architecture that could meet those goals.

  4. Microprocessor based image processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, M.I.; Siddiqui, M.N.; Rangoonwala, A.

    1987-01-01

    Rapid developments in the production of integrated circuits and introduction of sophisticated 8,16 and now 32 bit microprocessor based computers, have set new trends in computer applications. Nowadays the users by investing much less money can make optimal use of smaller systems by getting them custom-tailored according to their requirements. During the past decade there have been great advancements in the field of computer Graphics and consequently, 'Image Processing' has emerged as a separate independent field. Image Processing is being used in a number of disciplines. In the Medical Sciences, it is used to construct pseudo color images from computer aided tomography (CAT) or positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. Art, advertising and publishing people use pseudo colours in pursuit of more effective graphics. Structural engineers use Image Processing to examine weld X-rays to search for imperfections. Photographers use Image Processing for various enhancements which are difficult to achieve in a conventional dark room. (author)

  5. Advanced Space Surface Systems Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Zachary Lynn; Mueller, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of advanced surface systems is becoming increasingly relevant in the modern age of space technology. Specifically, projects pursued by the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations (GMRO) Lab are unparalleled in the field of planetary resourcefulness. This internship opportunity involved projects that support properly utilizing natural resources from other celestial bodies. Beginning with the tele-robotic workstation, mechanical upgrades were necessary to consider for specific portions of the workstation consoles and successfully designed in concept. This would provide more means for innovation and creativity concerning advanced robotic operations. Project RASSOR is a regolith excavator robot whose primary objective is to mine, store, and dump regolith efficiently on other planetary surfaces. Mechanical adjustments were made to improve this robot's functionality, although there were some minor system changes left to perform before the opportunity ended. On the topic of excavator robots, the notes taken by the GMRO staff during the 2013 and 2014 Robotic Mining Competitions were effectively organized and analyzed for logistical purposes. Lessons learned from these annual competitions at Kennedy Space Center are greatly influential to the GMRO engineers and roboticists. Another project that GMRO staff support is Project Morpheus. Support for this project included successfully producing mathematical models of the eroded landing pad surface for the vertical testbed vehicle to predict a timeline for pad reparation. And finally, the last project this opportunity made contribution to was Project Neo, a project exterior to GMRO Lab projects, which focuses on rocket propulsion systems. Additions were successfully installed to the support structure of an original vertical testbed rocket engine, thus making progress towards futuristic test firings in which data will be analyzed by students affiliated with Rocket University. Each project will be explained in

  6. An XCT image database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, Masaru; Minato, Kotaro; Koide, Harutoshi; Hirakawa, Akina; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Itoh, Harumi; Torizuka, Kanji; Yamasaki, Tetsuo; Kuwahara, Michiyoshi.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, an expansion of X-ray CT (XCT) examination history database to XCT image database is discussed. The XCT examination history database has been constructed and used for daily examination and investigation in our hospital. This database consists of alpha-numeric information (locations, diagnosis and so on) of more than 15,000 cases, and for some of them, we add tree structured image data which has a flexibility for various types of image data. This database system is written by MUMPS database manipulation language. (author)

  7. High intensity radiation imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear imaging system is described for mapping a spatially distributed source of high energy nuclear particles from a living organ which has selectively absorbed a radioactive compound in which the nuclear energy is spatially coded by a zone plate positioned between the source and a spatial detector, and a half tone screen is positioned between the source and the zone plate to increase the definition of the image

  8. Stepped scanner radiographic imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidus, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    The imaging system includes a radiographic camera, a bed for supporting a subject in view of the camera, and a display system. The camera provides X and Y coordinate signals of each radiographic event. The position of the bed relative to the camera is altered sequentially by drive means, between each of a sequence of images provided by the camera. The sequentially occurring images are presented on the display system, each image being positioned on the display in correspondence with the location of the bed relative to the camera. The coordinates of each image point presented on the display is equal to the sum of the respective X and Y coordinate signals from the camera with X and Y coordinate signals provided by a timer which controls the drive means and defines the location of the bed relative to the camera. The camera is electronically decoupled from the display by a gate during movement of the bed relative to the camera from one location to the next location to prevent any smearing effect within the composite image presented on the display. (author)

  9. Free Surface Downgoing VSP Multiple Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maula, Fahdi; Dac, Nguyen

    2018-03-01

    The common usage of a vertical seismic profile is to capture the reflection wavefield (upgoing wavefield) so that it can be used for further well tie or other interpretations. Borehole Seismic (VSP) receivers capture the reflection from below the well trajectory, traditionally no seismic image information above trajectory. The non-traditional way of processing the VSP multiple can be used to expand the imaging above the well trajectory. This paper presents the case study of using VSP downgoing multiples for further non-traditional imaging applications. In general, VSP processing, upgoing and downgoing arrivals are separated during processing. The up-going wavefield is used for subsurface illumination, whereas the downgoing wavefield and multiples are normally excluded from the processing. In a situation where the downgoing wavefield passes the reflectors several times (multiple), the downgoing wavefield carries reflection information. Its benefit is that it can be used for seismic tie up to seabed, and possibility for shallow hazards identifications. One of the concepts of downgoing imaging is widely known as mirror-imaging technique. This paper presents a case study from deep water offshore Vietnam. The case study is presented to demonstrate the robustness of the technique, and the limitations encountered during its processing.

  10. Smooth embeddings with Stein surface images

    OpenAIRE

    Gompf, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    A simple characterization is given of open subsets of a complex surface that smoothly perturb to Stein open subsets. As applications, complex 2-space C^2 contains domains of holomorphy (Stein open subsets) that are exotic R^4's, and others homotopy equivalent to the 2-sphere but cut out by smooth, compact 3-manifolds. Pseudoconvex embeddings of Brieskorn spheres and other 3-manifolds into complex surfaces are constructed, as are pseudoconcave holomorphic fillings (with disagreeing contact and...

  11. Intellectual system for images restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardare, Igor

    2005-02-01

    Intelligence systems on basis of artificial neural networks and associative memory allow to solve effectively problems of recognition and restoration of images. However, within analytical technologies there are no dominating approaches of deciding of intellectual problems. Choice of the best technology depends on nature of problem, features of objects, volume of represented information about the object, number of classes of objects, etc. It is required to determine opportunities, preconditions and field of application of neural networks and associative memory for decision of problem of restoration of images and to use their supplementary benefits for further development of intelligence systems.

  12. The Groningen image processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.J.; Ekers, R.D.; Terlouw, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive, integrated software and hardware computer system for the reduction and analysis of astronomical images. A short historical introduction is presented before some examples of the astonomical data currently handled by the system are shown. A description is given of the present hardware and software structure. The system is illustrated by describing its appearance to the user, to the applications programmer, and to the system manager. Some quantitative information on the size and cost of the system is given, and its good and bad features are discussed

  13. Musashi dynamic image processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Yutaka; Mochiki, Koh-ichi; Taguchi, Akira

    1992-01-01

    In order to produce transmitted neutron dynamic images using neutron radiography, a real time system called Musashi dynamic image processing system (MDIPS) was developed to collect, process, display and record image data. The block diagram of the MDIPS is shown. The system consists of a highly sensitive, high resolution TV camera driven by a custom-made scanner, a TV camera deflection controller for optimal scanning, which adjusts to the luminous intensity and the moving speed of an object, a real-time corrector to perform the real time correction of dark current, shading distortion and field intensity fluctuation, a real time filter for increasing the image signal to noise ratio, a video recording unit and a pseudocolor monitor to realize recording in commercially available products and monitoring by means of the CRTs in standard TV scanning, respectively. The TV camera and the TV camera deflection controller utilized for producing still images can be applied to this case. The block diagram of the real-time corrector is shown. Its performance is explained. Linear filters and ranked order filters were developed. (K.I.)

  14. Scanning Terahertz Heterodyne Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Peter; Dengler, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging systems are now at an early stage of development. In a basic scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging system, (see Figure 1) two far-infrared lasers generate beams denoted the local-oscillator (LO) and signal that differ in frequency by an amount, denoted the intermediate frequency (IF), chosen to suit the application. The LO beam is sent directly to a mixer as one of two inputs. The signal beam is focused to a spot on or in the specimen. After transmission through or reflection from the specimen, the beams are focused to a spot on a terahertz mixer, which extracts the IF outputs. The specimen is mounted on a translation stage, by means of which the focal spot is scanned across the specimen to build up an image.

  15. 3D Backscatter Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Ross (Inventor); Turner, D. Clark (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for imaging an object using backscattered radiation are described. The imaging system comprises both a radiation source for irradiating an object that is rotationally movable about the object, and a detector for detecting backscattered radiation from the object that can be disposed on substantially the same side of the object as the source and which can be rotationally movable about the object. The detector can be separated into multiple detector segments with each segment having a single line of sight projection through the object and so detects radiation along that line of sight. Thus, each detector segment can isolate the desired component of the backscattered radiation. By moving independently of each other about the object, the source and detector can collect multiple images of the object at different angles of rotation and generate a three dimensional reconstruction of the object. Other embodiments are described.

  16. Image reconstruction of dynamic infrared single-pixel imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qi; Jiang, Yilin; Wang, Haiyan; Guo, Limin

    2018-03-01

    Single-pixel imaging technique has recently received much attention. Most of the current single-pixel imaging is aimed at relatively static targets or the imaging system is fixed, which is limited by the number of measurements received through the single detector. In this paper, we proposed a novel dynamic compressive imaging method to solve the imaging problem, where exists imaging system motion behavior, for the infrared (IR) rosette scanning system. The relationship between adjacent target images and scene is analyzed under different system movement scenarios. These relationships are used to build dynamic compressive imaging models. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can improve the reconstruction quality of IR image and enhance the contrast between the target and the background in the presence of system movement.

  17. Surface displacement imaging by interferometry with a light emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilhaire, Stefan; Grauby, Stephane; Jorez, Sebastien; Lopez, Luis David Patino; Rampnoux, Jean-Michel; Claeys, Wilfrid

    2002-01-01

    We present an imaging technique to measure static surface displacements of electronic components. A device is supplied by a transient current that creates a variation of temperature, thus a surface displacement. To measure the latter, a setup that is based on a Michelson interferometer is used. To avoid the phenomenon of speckle and the drawbacks inherent to it, we use a light emitting diode as the light source for the interferometer. The detector is a visible CCD camera that analyzes the optical signal containing the information of surface displacement of the device. Combining images, we extract the amplitude of the surface displacement. Out-of-plane surface-displacement images of a thermoelectric device are presented

  18. Imaging Systems in TLE Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Thomas Højgaard; Neubert, Torsten; Laursen, Steen

    2006-01-01

    documented using the right equipment in the right way. This chapter provides an introduction to the concepts of low light imagers, and how they can be successfully applied in TLE research. As examples, we describe the 2003 and 2004 Spritewatch systems, which integrate low-light cameras with a digital...

  19. Options for Affordable Fission Surface Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; Van Dyke, Melissa; Martin, Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-01-01

    Fission surface power systems could provide abundant power anywhere on the surface of the moon or Mars. Locations could include permanently shaded regions on the moon and high latitudes on Mars. To be fully utilized, however, fission surface power systems must be safe, have adequate performance, and be affordable. This paper discusses options for the design and development of such systems. (authors)

  20. Imaging systems for medical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestel, E.

    1990-01-01

    This book provides physicians and clinical physicists with detailed information on today's imaging modalities and assists them in selecting the optimal system for each clinical application. Physicists, engineers and computer specialists engaged in research and development and sales departments will also find this book to be of considerable use. It may also be employed at universities, training centers and in technical seminars. The physiological and physical fundamentals are explained in part 1. The technical solutions contained in part 2 illustrate the numerous possibilities available in X-ray diagnostics, computed tomography, nuclear medical diagnostics, magnetic resonance imaging, sonography and biomagnetic diagnostics. (orig.)

  1. Adsorbed radioactivity and radiographic imaging of surfaces of stainless steel and titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Haijo

    1997-11-01

    Type 304 stainless steel used for typical surface materials of spent fuel shipping casks and titanium were exposed in the spent fuel storage pool of a typical PWR power plant. Adsorption characteristics, effectiveness of decontamination by water cleaning and by electrocleaning, and swipe effectiveness on the metal surfaces were studied. A variety of environmental conditions had been manipulated to stimulate the potential 'weeping' phenomenon that often occurs with spent fuel shipping casks during transit. In a previous study, few heterogeneous effects of adsorbed contamination onto metal surfaces were observed. Radiographic images of cask surfaces were made in this study and showed clearly heterogeneous activity distributions. Acquired radiographic images were digitized and further analyzed with an image analysis computer package and compared to calibrated images by using standard sources. The measurements of activity distribution by using the radiographic image method were consistent with that using a HPGe detector. This radiographic image method was used to study the effects of electrocleaning for total and specified areas. The Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of a film-screen system in contact with a radioactive metal surface was studied with neutron activated gold foils and showed more broad resolution properties than general diagnostic x-ray film-screen systems. Microstructure between normal areas and hot spots showed significant differences, and one hot spot appearing as a dot on the film image consisted of several small hot spots (about 10 μm in diameter). These hot spots were observed as structural defects of the metal surfaces.

  2. Imaging beneath the skin of large tropical rivers: System morphodynamics of the Fly and Beni Rivers revealed by novel sub-surface sonar, deep coring, and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, R. E.; Grenfell, M.; Lauer, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical rivers dominate Earth's fluvial fluxes for water, carbon, and mineral sediment. They are characterized by large channels and floodplains, old system histories, prolonged periods of flooding, and a clay-dominated sediment flux. However, the underlying bed & floodplain strata are poorly understood. Available data commonly stem from skin-deep approaches such as GIS analysis of imagery, shallow sampling & topographic profiling during lower river stages. Given the large temporal & spatial scales, new approaches are needed to see below lag deposits on mobile sandy beds & deep into expansive floodbasins. Furthermore, such data are needed to test whether we can interpret large tropical river morphology using analogies to small temperate systems. Systems in a dynamic state of response to sea level rise or an increase/contrast in sediment load would provide especially valuable insight. Last August we conducted a field campaign along the Fly and Strickland Rivers in Papua New Guinea (discharge ~5,350 CMS) and this September we investigated the Beni River in Northern Bolivia (discharge ~3,500 CMS). Results were obtained using a novel measurement method: a high-power (>4kW) dual-frequency SyQwest sub-bottom profiler customized to best image 10-20m below the river/lake bed in shallow water. We were able to distinguish sandy deposits from harder clay and silt lenses and also collected bed grab samples to verify our sonar results. Deep borehole samples (5-15m), bank samples, and push cores confirmed observations from the sonar profiling. We simultaneously collected side-scan sonar imagery plus DGPS records of water/bed elevations that could be used to parameterize numerical models. We have now analyzed these results in some detail. Findings for the Fly River include: 1) The prevalence of hard clay beneath the bed of the Lower Fly River and many locations along the Strickland River, retarding migration; 2) Unusual bed morphology along the lower Middle Fly River, where the

  3. Imaging systems in nuclear medicine and image evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.; Charleston, D.; Metz, C.

    1980-01-01

    This project deals with imaging systems in nuclear medicine and image evaluation and is presented as four subprojects. The goal of the first subproject is to improve diagnositc image quality by development of a general computer code for optimizing collimator design. The second subproject deals with a secondary emission and fluorescence technique for thyroid scanning while the third subproject emphasizes the need for more sophisticated image processing systems such as coherent optical spatial filtering systems and digital image processing. The fourth subproject presents a new approach for processing image data by taking into account the energy of each detected gamma-ray photon

  4. Multispectral Panoramic Imaging System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — International Electronic Machines Corporation, a leader in the design of precision imaging systems, will develop an innovative multispectral, panoramic imaging...

  5. Visual tritium imaging of In-Vessel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, C. A.; Zweben, S. J.; Skinner, C. H.; Young, K. M.; Langish, S. W.; Nishi, M. F.; Shu, W. M.; Parker, J.; Isobe, K.

    2000-01-01

    A imaging detector has been developed for the purpose of providing a non-destructive, real time method of determining tritium concentrations on the surface of internal TFTR vacuum vessel components. The detector employs a green phosphor screen (P31, zinc sulfide: copper) with a wave length peak of 530 nm, a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera linked to a computer, and a detection chamber for inserting components recovered from the vacuum vessel. This detector is capable of determining tritium concentrations on the surfaces. The detector provides a method of imaging tritium deposition on the surfaces in a fairly rapid fashion

  6. Visual tritium imaging of in-vessel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, C.A.; Zweben, S.J.; Skinner, C.H.; Young, K.M.; Langish, S.W.; Nishi, M.F.; Shu, W.M.; Parker, J.; Isobe, K.

    2000-01-01

    An imaging detector has been developed for the purpose of providing a non-destructive, real time method of determining tritium concentrations on the surface of internal TFTR vacuum vessel components. The detector employs a green phosphor screen (P31, zinc sulfide: copper) with a wave length peak of 530 nm, a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera linked to a computer, and a detection chamber for inserting components recovered from the vacuum vessel. This detector is capable of determining tritium concentrations on the surfaces. The detector provides a method of imaging tritium deposition on the surfaces in a fairly rapid fashion

  7. Multiple interpretations of a pair of images of a surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuet-Higgins, H. C.

    1988-07-01

    It is known that, if two optical images of a visually textured surface, projected from finitely separated viewpoints, allow more than one three-dimensional interpretation, then the surface must be part of a quadric passing through the two viewpoints. It is here shown that this quadric is either a plane or a ruled surface of a type first considered by Maybank (1985) in a study of ambiguous optic flow fields. In the latter case, three is the maximum number of distinct interpretations that the two images can sustain.

  8. 3D surface reconstruction using optical flow for medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Nan; Yang, Yee-Hong; Pierson, R.

    1996-01-01

    The recovery of a 3D model from a sequence of 2D images is very useful in medical image analysis. Image sequences obtained from the relative motion between the object and the camera or the scanner contain more 3D information than a single image. Methods to visualize the computed tomograms can be divided into two approaches: the surface rendering approach and the volume rendering approach. A new surface rendering method using optical flow is proposed. Optical flow is the apparent motion in the image plane produced by the projection of the real 3D motion onto 2D image. In this paper, the object remains stationary while the scanner undergoes translational motion. The 3D motion of an object can be recovered from the optical flow field using additional constraints. By extracting the surface information from 3D motion, it is possible to get an accurate 3D model of the object. Both synthetic and real image sequences have been used to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method. The experimental results suggest that the proposed method is suitable for the reconstruction of 3D models from ultrasound medical images as well as other computed tomograms

  9. Multilayer X-ray imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, D. L.; Hoover, R. B.; Gabardi, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    An assessment of the imaging properties of multilayer X-ray imaging systems with spherical surfaces has been made. A ray trace analysis was performed to investigate the effects of using spherical substrates (rather than the conventional paraboloidal/hyperboloidal contours) for doubly reflecting Cassegrain telescopes. These investigations were carried out for mirrors designed to operate at selected soft X-ray/XUV wavelengths that are of significance for studies of the solar corona/transition region from the Stanford/MSFC Rocket X-Ray Telescope. The effects of changes in separation of the primary and secondary elements were also investigated. These theoretical results are presented as well as the results of ray trace studies to establish the resolution and vignetting effects as a function of field angle and system parameters.

  10. The monocular visual imaging technology model applied in the airport surface surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhe; Wang, Jian; Huang, Chao

    2013-08-01

    At present, the civil aviation airports use the surface surveillance radar monitoring and positioning systems to monitor the aircrafts, vehicles and the other moving objects. Surface surveillance radars can cover most of the airport scenes, but because of the terminals, covered bridges and other buildings geometry, surface surveillance radar systems inevitably have some small segment blind spots. This paper presents a monocular vision imaging technology model for airport surface surveillance, achieving the perception of scenes of moving objects such as aircrafts, vehicles and personnel location. This new model provides an important complement for airport surface surveillance, which is different from the traditional surface surveillance radar techniques. Such technique not only provides clear objects activities screen for the ATC, but also provides image recognition and positioning of moving targets in this area. Thereby it can improve the work efficiency of the airport operations and avoid the conflict between the aircrafts and vehicles. This paper first introduces the monocular visual imaging technology model applied in the airport surface surveillance and then the monocular vision measurement accuracy analysis of the model. The monocular visual imaging technology model is simple, low cost, and highly efficient. It is an advanced monitoring technique which can make up blind spot area of the surface surveillance radar monitoring and positioning systems.

  11. Imaging systems and materials characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murr, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a broad background for the historical development and modern applications of light optical metallography, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, field-ion microscopy and several forms of scanning probe microscopes. Numerous case examples illustrating especially synergistic applications of these imaging systems are provided to demonstrate materials characterization especially in the context of structure-property-performance issues which define materials science and engineering

  12. GEOREFERENCED IMAGE SYSTEM WITH DRONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Pérez-Sánchez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as general purpose develop and implementation of a system that allows the generation of flight routes for a drone, the acquisition of geographic location information (GPS during the flight and taking photographs of points of interest for creating georeferenced images, same that will be used to generate KML files (Keyhole Markup Language for the representation of geographical data in three dimensions to be displayed on the Google Earth tool.

  13. Direct UV/Optical Imaging of Stellar Surfaces: The Stellar Imager (SI) Vision Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Lyon, Richard G.; Schrijver, Carolus; Karovska, Margarita; Mozurkewich, David

    2007-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a UV/optical, space-based interferometer designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and, via asteroseismology, stellar interiors and of the Universe in general. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. SI's prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives, in support of the Living with a Star program in the Exploration Era. SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in thc Universe. SI is a "Flagship and Landmark Discovery Mission" in the 2005 Sun Solar System Connection (SSSC) Roadmap and a candidate for a "Pathways to Life Observatory" in the Exploration of the Universe Division (EUD) Roadmap. We discuss herein the science goals of the SI Mission, a mission architecture that could meet those goals, and the technologies needed to enable this mission. Additional information on SI can be found at: http://hires.gsfc.nasa.gov/si/.

  14. Imaging near-surface heterogeneities by natural migration of backscattered surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    AlTheyab, Abdullah

    2016-02-01

    We present a migration method that does not require a velocity model to migrate backscattered surface waves to their projected locations on the surface. This migration method, denoted as natural migration, uses recorded Green\\'s functions along the surface instead of simulated Green\\'s functions. The key assumptions are that the scattering bodies are within the depth interrogated by the surface waves, and the Green\\'s functions are recorded with dense receiver sampling along the free surface. This natural migration takes into account all orders of multiples, mode conversions and non-linear effects of surface waves in the data. The natural imaging formulae are derived for both active source and ambient-noise data, and computer simulations show that natural migration can effectively image near-surface heterogeneities with typical ambient-noise sources and geophone distributions.

  15. Fractal Image Coding Based on a Fitting Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Bi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A no-search fractal image coding method based on a fitting surface is proposed. In our research, an improved gray-level transform with a fitting surface is introduced. One advantage of this method is that the fitting surface is used for both the range and domain blocks and one set of parameters can be saved. Another advantage is that the fitting surface can approximate the range and domain blocks better than the previous fitting planes; this can result in smaller block matching errors and better decoded image quality. Since the no-search and quadtree techniques are adopted, smaller matching errors also imply less number of blocks matching which results in a faster encoding process. Moreover, by combining all the fitting surfaces, a fitting surface image (FSI is also proposed to speed up the fractal decoding. Experiments show that our proposed method can yield superior performance over the other three methods. Relative to range-averaged image, FSI can provide faster fractal decoding process. Finally, by combining the proposed fractal coding method with JPEG, a hybrid coding method is designed which can provide higher PSNR than JPEG while maintaining the same Bpp.

  16. Superior MR images with electronically tuned and decoupled surface coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingwersen, H.; Freisen, L.; Friedrich, A.; Kess, H.; Krause, N.; Meissner, R.; Popp, W.

    1987-01-01

    In order to gain free positioning of surface coils in linearly polarized transmitting coils, it is absolutely necessary to electronically decouple both coils. For circularly polarized transmitting coils, decoupling is necessary in any case. In addition to the decoupling circuit automatic electronic tuning of the surface coils is used to gain the bast ratio of signal to noise. This combination of electronically decoupling and tuning of the surface coils yields intrinsic patient safety concerning local power deposition as well as free positioning and easy handling at the same time. Block diagrams, circuit schemes, and MR images obtained with several different surface coils are shown

  17. Surface sedimentation at permeable pavement systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Jan; Dam, Torben; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2018-01-01

    Newly installed permeable pavement (PP) systems provide high surface infiltration capacity, but the accumulation of sediments causes a decrease in capacity over time, eventually leading to surface clogging. With the aim of investigating local sedimentation processes and the importance of restorat......Newly installed permeable pavement (PP) systems provide high surface infiltration capacity, but the accumulation of sediments causes a decrease in capacity over time, eventually leading to surface clogging. With the aim of investigating local sedimentation processes and the importance...

  18. Image and information management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Tina L. (Inventor); Raney, Michael C. (Inventor); Dougherty, Dennis M. (Inventor); Kent, Peter C. (Inventor); Brucker, Russell X. (Inventor); Lampert, Daryl A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system and methods through which pictorial views of an object's configuration, arranged in a hierarchical fashion, are navigated by a person to establish a visual context within the configuration. The visual context is automatically translated by the system into a set of search parameters driving retrieval of structured data and content (images, documents, multimedia, etc.) associated with the specific context. The system places ''hot spots'', or actionable regions, on various portions of the pictorials representing the object. When a user interacts with an actionable region, a more detailed pictorial from the hierarchy is presented representing that portion of the object, along with real-time feedback in the form of a popup pane containing information about that region, and counts-by-type reflecting the number of items that are available within the system associated with the specific context and search filters established at that point in time.

  19. Imaging performance of annular apertures. VI - Limitations by optical surface deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschunko, Hubert F. A.

    1987-01-01

    The performance of optical systems is limited by imperfect optical surfaces that degrade the images below the level set by wave theoretical limits. The central irradiance functions are derived for slit and circular apertures with five distributions of wavefront errors and for a range of maximal wavefront deviations. For practical frequency of occurrence distributions of wavefront deviations, the point spread and the image energy integral functions are determined. Practical performances of optical systems are derived and performance limits discussed.

  20. Time-dependent image potential at a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alducin, M.; Diez Muino, R.; Juaristi, J.I.

    2003-01-01

    Transient effects in the image potential induced by a point charge suddenly created in front of a metal surface are studied. The time evolution of the image potential is calculated using linear response theory. Two different time scales are defined: (i) the time required for the creation of the image potential and (ii) the time it takes to converge to its stationary value. Their dependence on the distance of the charge to the surface is discussed. The effect of the electron gas damping is also analyzed. For a typical metallic density, the order of magnitude of the creation time is 0.1 fs, whereas for a charge created close to the surface the convergence time is around 1-2 fs

  1. A System for Drawing Synthetic Images of Forested Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy P. McDonald

    1997-01-01

    A software package for drawing images of forested landscapes was developed. Programs included in the system convert topographic and stand polygon information output from a GIS into a form that can be read by a general-purpose ray-tracing renderer. Other programs generate definitions for surface features, mainly trees but ground surface textural properties as well. The...

  2. X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A novel, high-speed apparatus for use in X-ray computerised tomography is described in detail. It consists of a semi-circular array of X-ray sources, collimators and an ion chamber array for detection of the X-rays. The X-ray sources may be pulsed in salvos such that the corresponding detectors in the array are only illuminated by one source. The use of computer controlled salvos speeds up the image processing by at least a factor of two. The ion chamber array is designed to have a constant detection efficiency for varying angles of X-ray incidence. A detailed description of the detector construction and suggested gaseous fillings are given. It is claimed that the present tomographic system allows fast and accurate imaging of internal body organs and is insensitive to the blurring effects which motion of these organs tends to produce. (UK)

  3. Whole body imaging system mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carman, R.W.; Doherty, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    A radioisotope scanning apparatus for use in nuclear medicine is described in detail. The apparatus enables the quantification and spatial location of the radioactivity in a body section of a patient to be determined with high sensitivity. It consists of an array of highly focussed collimators arranged such that adjacent collimators move in the same circumferential but opposite radial directions. The explicit movements of the gantry are described in detail and may be controlled by a general purpose computer. The use of highly focussed collimators allows both a reasonable solid angle of acceptance and also high target to background images; additionally, dual radionuclide pharmaceutical studies can be performed simultaneously. It is claimed that the high sensitivity of the system permits the early diagnosis of pathological changes and the images obtained show accurately the location and shape of physiological abnormalities. (U.K.)

  4. Design of low noise imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Chen, Xiaolai

    2017-10-01

    In order to meet the needs of engineering applications for low noise imaging system under the mode of global shutter, a complete imaging system is designed based on the SCMOS (Scientific CMOS) image sensor CIS2521F. The paper introduces hardware circuit and software system design. Based on the analysis of key indexes and technologies about the imaging system, the paper makes chips selection and decides SCMOS + FPGA+ DDRII+ Camera Link as processing architecture. Then it introduces the entire system workflow and power supply and distribution unit design. As for the software system, which consists of the SCMOS control module, image acquisition module, data cache control module and transmission control module, the paper designs in Verilog language and drives it to work properly based on Xilinx FPGA. The imaging experimental results show that the imaging system exhibits a 2560*2160 pixel resolution, has a maximum frame frequency of 50 fps. The imaging quality of the system satisfies the requirement of the index.

  5. Image BOSS: a biomedical object storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Mahlon C.; Augustine, Kurt E.; Robb, Richard A.

    1997-05-01

    Researchers using biomedical images have data management needs which are oriented perpendicular to clinical PACS. The image BOSS system is designed to permit researchers to organize and select images based on research topic, image metadata, and a thumbnail of the image. Image information is captured from existing images in a Unix based filesystem, stored in an object oriented database, and presented to the user in a familiar laboratory notebook metaphor. In addition, the ImageBOSS is designed to provide an extensible infrastructure for future content-based queries directly on the images.

  6. Multi-channel medical imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-12-31

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remain in the subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may provide an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide used to capture images. The system may be configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. The systems described herein provide two or more diagnostic imaging channels for capture of multiple, concurrent diagnostic images and may be used where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by two or more images that are independently marked for functional interest.

  7. Superresolution Near-field Imaging with Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Lei

    2017-10-21

    We present the theory for near-field superresolution imaging with surface waves and time reverse mirrors (TRMs). Theoretical formulas and numerical results show that applying the TRM operation to surface waves in an elastic half-space can achieve superresolution imaging of subwavelength scatterers if they are located less than about 1/2 of the shear wavelength from the source line. We also show that the TRM operation for a single frequency is equivalent to natural migration, which uses the recorded data to approximate the Green’s functions for migration, and only costs O(N4) algebraic operations for poststack migration compared to O(N6) operations for natural prestack migration. Here, we assume the sources and receivers are on an N × N grid and there are N2 trial image points on the free surface. Our theoretical predictions of superresolution are validated with tests on synthetic data. The field-data tests suggest that hidden faults at the near surface can be detected with subwavelength imaging of surface waves by using the TRM operation if they are no deeper than about 1/2 the dominant shear wavelength.

  8. Determining Surface Infiltration Rate of Permeable Pavements with Digital Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Valeo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell phone images of pervious pavement surfaces were used to explore relationships between surface infiltration rates (SIR measured using the ASTM C1701 standard test and using a simple falling head test. A fiber-reinforced porous asphalt surface and a highly permeable material comprised of stone, rubber and a polymer binder (Porous Pave were tested. Images taken with a high-resolution cellphone camera were acquired as JPEG files and converted to gray scale images in Matlab® for analysis. The distribution of gray levels was compared to the surface infiltration rates obtained for both pavements with attention given to the mean of the distribution. Investigation into the relationships between mean SIR and parameters determined from the gray level distribution produced in the image analysis revealed that mean SIR measured in both pavements were proportional to the inverse of the mean of the distribution. The relationships produced a coefficient of determination over 85% using both the ASTM and the falling head test in the porous asphalt surface. SIR measurements determined with the ASTM method were highly correlated with the inverse mean of the distribution of gray levels in the Porous Pave material as well, producing coefficients of determination of over 90% and Kendall’s tau-b of roughly 70% for nonparametric data.

  9. Comparison of optical design methods of freeform surfaces for imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agócs, Tibor

    2015-09-01

    Optical systems based on freeform optical components offer many advantages over conventional systems in imaging applications, e.g. superior image quality, compact and lightweight designs. There are a few well established manufacturing method that can be used for the generation of freeform surfaces with low surface form error and low surface roughness, in the case of freeform mirrors e.g. diamond turning, nickel plating and post-polishing. Metrology is evolving rapidly, although developments are still needed in order to verify the manufactured surface with the necessary accuracy. Optical design methods of freeform surfaces are also lagging behind, many algorithms address non-imaging applications, but in the field of imaging (image-forming) only a few exists and works with various limitations. We compare the available techniques in freeform optical design for imaging and explore the advantages, disadvantages and boundary conditions of the different methods. We also intend to identify the most useful concepts and investigate how they can be embedded into commercially available optical design software.

  10. STM Imaging of Localized Surface Plasmons on Individual Gold Nanoislands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy A; Banerjee, Progna; Nguyen, Duc; Lyding, Joseph W; Gruebele, Martin; Jain, Prashant K

    2018-04-19

    An optically modulated scanning tunneling microscopy technique developed for measurement of single-molecule optical absorption is used here to image the light absorption by individual Au nanoislands and Au nanostructures. The technique is shown to spatially map, with nanometer resolution, localized surface plasmons (LSPs) excited within the nanoislands. Electrodynamic simulations demonstrate the correspondence of the measured images to plasmonic near-field intensity maps. The optical STM imaging technique captures the wavelength, polarization, and geometry dependence of the LSP resonances and their corresponding near-fields. Thus, we introduce a tool for real-space, nanometer-scale visualization of optical energy absorption, transport, and dissipation in complex plasmonic nanostructures.

  11. Ultrasonic phased array with surface acoustic wave for imaging cracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Ohara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To accurately measure crack lengths, we developed a real-time surface imaging method (SAW PA combining an ultrasonic phased array (PA with a surface acoustic wave (SAW. SAW PA using a Rayleigh wave with a high sensitivity to surface defects was implemented for contact testing using a wedge with the third critical angle that allows the Rayleigh wave to be generated. Here, to realize high sensitivity imaging, SAW PA was optimized in terms of the wedge and the imaging area. The improved SAW PA was experimentally demonstrated using a fatigue crack specimen made of an aluminum alloy. For further verification in more realistic specimens, SAW PA was applied to stainless-steel specimens with a fatigue crack and stress corrosion cracks (SCCs. The fatigue crack was visualized with a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and its length was measured with a high accuracy of better than 1 mm. The SCCs generated in the heat-affected zones (HAZs of a weld were successfully visualized with a satisfactory SNR, although responses at coarse grains appeared throughout the imaging area. The SCC lengths were accurately measured. The imaging results also precisely showed complicated distributions of SCCs, which were in excellent agreement with the optically observed distributions.

  12. Accounting for free-surface multiples in Marchenko imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, S.; Snieder, R; van der Neut, J.R.; Thorbecke, J.W.; Slob, E.C.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.

    2017-01-01

    Imagine placing a receiver at any location in the earth and recording the response at that location to sources on the surface. In such a world, we could place receivers around our reservoir to better image the reservoir and understand its properties. Realistically, this is not a feasible approach

  13. Surface Reconstruction and Image Enhancement via $L^1$-Minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Dobrev, Veselin

    2010-01-01

    A surface reconstruction technique based on minimization of the total variation of the gradient is introduced. Convergence of the method is established, and an interior-point algorithm solving the associated linear programming problem is introduced. The reconstruction algorithm is illustrated on various test cases including natural and urban terrain data, and enhancement oflow-resolution or aliased images. Copyright © by SIAM.

  14. A Novel Algorithm of Surface Eliminating in Undersurface Optoacoustic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhulina Yulia V

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the task of optoacoustic imaging of the objects located under the surface covering them. In this paper, we suggest the algorithm of the surface eliminating based on the fact that the intensity of the image as a function of the spatial point should change slowly inside the local objects, and will suffer a discontinuity of the spatial gradients on their boundaries. The algorithm forms the 2-dimensional curves along which the discontinuity of the signal derivatives is detected. Then, the algorithm divides the signal space into the areas along these curves. The signals inside the areas with the maximum level of the signal amplitudes and the maximal gradient absolute values on their edges are put equal to zero. The rest of the signals are used for the image restoration. This method permits to reconstruct the picture of the surface boundaries with a higher contrast than that of the surface detection technique based on the maximums of the received signals. This algorithm does not require any prior knowledge of the signals' statistics inside and outside the local objects. It may be used for reconstructing any images with the help of the signals representing the integral over the object's volume. Simulation and real data are also provided to validate the proposed method.

  15. High dynamic range coding imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Renfan; Huang, Yifan; Hou, Guangqi

    2014-10-01

    We present a high dynamic range (HDR) imaging system design scheme based on coded aperture technique. This scheme can help us obtain HDR images which have extended depth of field. We adopt Sparse coding algorithm to design coded patterns. Then we utilize the sensor unit to acquire coded images under different exposure settings. With the guide of the multiple exposure parameters, a series of low dynamic range (LDR) coded images are reconstructed. We use some existing algorithms to fuse and display a HDR image by those LDR images. We build an optical simulation model and get some simulation images to verify the novel system.

  16. Improved Interactive Medical-Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Twombly, Ian A.; Senger, Steven

    2003-01-01

    An improved computational-simulation system for interactive medical imaging has been invented. The system displays high-resolution, three-dimensional-appearing images of anatomical objects based on data acquired by such techniques as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI). The system enables users to manipulate the data to obtain a variety of views for example, to display cross sections in specified planes or to rotate images about specified axes. Relative to prior such systems, this system offers enhanced capabilities for synthesizing images of surgical cuts and for collaboration by users at multiple, remote computing sites.

  17. Distance of the image plane from metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, N.V.; Chen, C.T.; Weinert, M.

    1989-01-01

    The data base of surface-state energies on the metals Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, and Pt is assembled and, with the aid of a simple model, is used to estimate the distance of the image plane and its trends from surface to surface and metal to metal. The model combines a nearly-free-electron representation of the crystal with a Jones-Jennings-Jepsen ansatz for the saturated image barrier. The projected bulk-band gaps are taken from published determinations. Constraints are placed on the surface barrier parameters by appeal to the results of self-consistent first-principles slab calculations. The general experimental trend observed is for the image-plane distance z 0 to decrease in the sequence (111) to (001) to (110), in the same sense but not as rapidly as z J , the distance of the effective jellium edge. This trend is rationalized using a simple model of the tail of the surface charge density. Typical values for z 0 -z J fall in the range -0.2 to +0.5 a.u., with the larger values occurring for the 3d metals Cu and Ni

  18. Imaging systems in nuclear medicine and image evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.; Charleston, D.; Metz, C.; Tsui, B.

    1981-01-01

    A general computer code to simulate the imaging properties of existing and hypothetical imaging systems viewing realistic source distributions within non-uniform media. Such a code allows comparative evaluations of existing and hypothetical systems, and optimization of critical parameters of system design by maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio. To be most useful, such a code allows simulation of conventional scintillation scanners and cameras as well as single-photon and position tomographic systems

  19. Detection of cracks on concrete surfaces by hyperspectral image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bruno O.; Valença, Jonatas; Júlio, Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    All large infrastructures worldwide must have a suitable monitoring and maintenance plan, aiming to evaluate their behaviour and predict timely interventions. In the particular case of concrete infrastructures, the detection and characterization of crack patterns is a major indicator of their structural response. In this scope, methods based on image processing have been applied and presented. Usually, methods focus on image binarization followed by applications of mathematical morphology to identify cracks on concrete surface. In most cases, publications are focused on restricted areas of concrete surfaces and in a single crack. On-site, the methods and algorithms have to deal with several factors that interfere with the results, namely dirt and biological colonization. Thus, the automation of a procedure for on-site characterization of crack patterns is of great interest. This advance may result in an effective tool to support maintenance strategies and interventions planning. This paper presents a research based on the analysis and processing of hyper-spectral images for detection and classification of cracks on concrete structures. The objective of the study is to evaluate the applicability of several wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum for classification of cracks in concrete surfaces. An image survey considering highly discretized wavelengths between 425 nm and 950 nm was performed on concrete specimens, with bandwidths of 25 nm. The concrete specimens were produced with a crack pattern induced by applying a load with displacement control. The tests were conducted to simulate usual on-site drawbacks. In this context, the surface of the specimen was subjected to biological colonization (leaves and moss). To evaluate the results and enhance crack patterns a clustering method, namely k-means algorithm, is being applied. The research conducted allows to define the suitability of using clustering k-means algorithm combined with hyper-spectral images highly

  20. Highly integrated image sensors enable low-cost imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Paul K.; Lake, Don; Chalmers, David; Hurwitz, J. E. D.

    1997-09-01

    The highest barriers to wide scale implementation of vision systems have been cost. This is closely followed by the level of difficulty of putting a complete imaging system together. As anyone who has every been in the position of creating a vision system knows, the various bits and pieces supplied by the many vendors are not under any type of standardization control. In short, unless you are an expert in imaging, electrical interfacing, computers, digital signal processing, and high speed storage techniques, you will likely spend more money trying to do it yourself rather than to buy the exceedingly expensive systems available. Another alternative is making headway into the imaging market however. The growing investment in highly integrated CMOS based imagers is addressing both the cost and the system integration difficulties. This paper discusses the benefits gained from CMOS based imaging, and how these benefits are already being applied.

  1. Imaging near-surface heterogeneities by natural migration of surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Zhaolun

    2016-09-06

    We demonstrate that near-surface heterogeneities can be imaged by natural migration of backscattered surface waves in common shot gathers. No velocity model is required because the data are migrated onto surface points with the virtual Green\\'s functions computed from the shot gathers. Migrating shot gathers recorded by 2D and 3D land surveys validates the effectiveness of detecting nearsurface heterogeneities by natural migration. The implication is that more accurate hazard maps can be created by migrating surface waves in land surveys.

  2. Handheld microwave bomb-detecting imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorwara, Ashok; Molchanov, Pavlo

    2017-05-01

    Proposed novel imaging technique will provide all weather high-resolution imaging and recognition capability for RF/Microwave signals with good penetration through highly scattered media: fog, snow, dust, smoke, even foliage, camouflage, walls and ground. Image resolution in proposed imaging system is not limited by diffraction and will be determined by processor and sampling frequency. Proposed imaging system can simultaneously cover wide field of view, detect multiple targets and can be multi-frequency, multi-function. Directional antennas in imaging system can be close positioned and installed in cell phone size handheld device, on small aircraft or distributed around protected border or object. Non-scanning monopulse system allows dramatically decrease in transmitting power and at the same time provides increased imaging range by integrating 2-3 orders more signals than regular scanning imaging systems.

  3. A noncontact laser system for measuring soil surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.; White, I.; Thwaite, E.G.; Bendeli, A.

    1988-01-01

    Soil surface topography profoundly influences runoff hydrodynamics, soil erosion, and surface retention of water. Here we describe an optical noncontact system for measuring soil surface topography. Soil elevation is measured by projecting a laser beam onto the surface and detecting the position of the interception point. The optical axis of the detection system is oriented at a small angle to the incident beam. A low-power HeNe (Helium-Neon) laser is used as the laser source, a photodiode array is used as the laser image detector and an ordinary 35-mm single lens reflex camera provides the optical system to focus the laser image onto the diode array. A wide spectrum of measurement ranges (R) and resolutions are selectable, from 1 mm to 1 m. These are determined by the laser-camera distance and angle, the focal length of the lens, and the sensing length of the diode array and the number of elements (N) contained in the array. The resolution of the system is approximately R/2N. We show for the system used here that this resolution is approximately 0.2%. In the configuration selected, elevation changes of 0.16 mm could be detected over a surface elevation range of 87 mm. The sampling rate of the system is 1000 Hz, which permits soil surfaces to be measured at speeds of up to 1 m s −1 with measurements taken at 1-mm spacing. Measurements of individual raindrop impacts on the soil and of soil surfaces before and after rain show the versatility of the laser surface profiler, which has applications in studies of erosion processes, surface storage and soil trafficability

  4. MALDI-MS Imaging Analysis of Fungicide Residue Distributions on Wheat Leaf Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annangudi, Suresh P; Myung, Kyung; Avila Adame, Cruz; Gilbert, Jeffrey R

    2015-05-05

    Improved retention and distribution of agrochemicals on plant surfaces is an important attribute in the biological activity of pesticide. Although retention of agrochemicals on plants after spray application can be quantified using traditional analytical techniques including LC or GC, the spatial distribution of agrochemicals on the plants surfaces has received little attention. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging technology has been widely used to determine the distribution of proteins, peptides and metabolites in different tissue sections, but its application to environmental research has been limited. Herein, we probed the potential utility of MALDI imaging in characterizing the distribution of three commercial fungicides on wheat leaf surfaces. Using this MALDI imaging method, we were able to detect 500 ng of epoxiconazole, azoxystrobin, and pyraclostrobin applied in 1 μL drop on the leaf surfaces using MALDI-MS. Subsequent dilutions of pyraclostrobin revealed that the compound can be chemically imaged on the leaf surfaces at levels as low as 60 ng of total applied in the area of 1 μL droplet. After application of epoxiconazole, azoxystrobin, and pyraclostrobin at a field rate of 100 gai/ha in 200 L water using a track sprayer system, residues of these fungicides on the leaf surfaces were sufficiently visualized. These results suggest that MALDI imaging can be used to monitor spatial distribution of agrochemicals on leaf samples after pesticide application.

  5. Quantitative Evaluation of Surface Color of Tomato Fruits Cultivated in Remote Farm Using Digital Camera Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Atsushi; Suehara, Ken-Ichiro; Kameoka, Takaharu

    To measure the quantitative surface color information of agricultural products with the ambient information during cultivation, a color calibration method for digital camera images and a remote monitoring system of color imaging using the Web were developed. Single-lens reflex and web digital cameras were used for the image acquisitions. The tomato images through the post-ripening process were taken by the digital camera in both the standard image acquisition system and in the field conditions from the morning to evening. Several kinds of images were acquired with the standard RGB color chart set up just behind the tomato fruit on a black matte, and a color calibration was carried out. The influence of the sunlight could be experimentally eliminated, and the calibrated color information consistently agreed with the standard ones acquired in the system through the post-ripening process. Furthermore, the surface color change of the tomato on the tree in a greenhouse was remotely monitored during maturation using the digital cameras equipped with the Field Server. The acquired digital color images were sent from the Farm Station to the BIFE Laboratory of Mie University via VPN. The time behavior of the tomato surface color change during the maturing process could be measured using the color parameter calculated based on the obtained and calibrated color images along with the ambient atmospheric record. This study is a very important step in developing the surface color analysis for both the simple and rapid evaluation of the crop vigor in the field and to construct an ambient and networked remote monitoring system for food security, precision agriculture, and agricultural research.

  6. Digital image display system for emergency room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murry, R.C.; Lane, T.J.; Miax, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a digital image display system for the emergency room (ER) in a major trauma hospital. Its objective is to reduce radiographic image delivery time to a busy ER while simultaneously providing a multimodality capability. Image storage, retrieval, and display will also be facilitated with this system. The system's backbone is a token-ring network of RISC and personal computers. The display terminals are higher- function RISC computers with 1,024 2 color or gray-scale monitors. The PCs serve as administrative terminals. Nuclear medicine, CT, MR, and digitized film images are transferred to the image display system

  7. A fractal-based image encryption system

    KAUST Repository

    Abd-El-Hafiz, S. K.; Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa; Abdel Haleem, Sherif H.; Barakat, Mohamed L.

    2014-01-01

    single-fractal image and statistical analysis is performed. A general encryption system utilising multiple fractal images is, then, introduced to improve the performance and increase the encryption key up to hundreds of bits. This improvement is achieved

  8. Preliminary Study on Earthquake Surface Rupture Extraction from Uav Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X.; Wang, X.; Ding, X.; Wu, X.; Dou, A.; Wang, S.

    2018-04-01

    Because of the advantages of low-cost, lightweight and photography under the cloud, UAVs have been widely used in the field of seismic geomorphology research in recent years. Earthquake surface rupture is a typical seismic tectonic geomorphology that reflects the dynamic and kinematic characteristics of crustal movement. The quick identification of earthquake surface rupture is of great significance for understanding the mechanism of earthquake occurrence, disasters distribution and scale. Using integrated differential UAV platform, series images were acquired with accuracy POS around the former urban area (Qushan town) of Beichuan County as the area stricken seriously by the 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake. Based on the multi-view 3D reconstruction technique, the high resolution DSM and DOM are obtained from differential UAV images. Through the shade-relief map and aspect map derived from DSM, the earthquake surface rupture is extracted and analyzed. The results show that the surface rupture can still be identified by using the UAV images although the time of earthquake elapse is longer, whose middle segment is characterized by vertical movement caused by compression deformation from fault planes.

  9. Spectrally enhanced image resolution of tooth enamel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Berg, Joel H.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Short-wavelength 405 nm laser illumination of surface dental enamel using an ultrathin scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) produced enhanced detail of dental topography. The surfaces of human extracted teeth and artificial erosions were imaged with 405 nm, 444 nm, 532 nm, or 635 nm illumination lasers. The obtained images were then processed offline to compensate for any differences in the illumination beam diameters between the different lasers. Scattering and absorption coefficients for a Monte Carlo model of light propagation in dental enamel for 405 nm were scaled from published data at 532 nm and 633 nm. The value of the scattering coefficient used in the model was scaled from the coefficients at 532 nm and 633 nm by the inverse third power of wavelength. Simulations showed that the penetration depth of short-wavelength illumination is localized close to the enamel surface, while long-wavelength illumination travels much further and is backscattered from greater depths. Therefore, images obtained using short wavelength laser are not contaminated by the superposition of light reflected from enamel tissue at greater depths. Hence, the SFE with short-wavelength illumination may make it possible to visualize surface manifestations of phenomena such as demineralization, thus better aiding the clinician in the detection of early caries.

  10. Objective analysis of image quality of video image capture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowberg, Alan H.

    1990-07-01

    As Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) technology has matured, video image capture has become a common way of capturing digital images from many modalities. While digital interfaces, such as those which use the ACR/NEMA standard, will become more common in the future, and are preferred because of the accuracy of image transfer, video image capture will be the dominant method in the short term, and may continue to be used for some time because of the low cost and high speed often associated with such devices. Currently, virtually all installed systems use methods of digitizing the video signal that is produced for display on the scanner viewing console itself. A series of digital test images have been developed for display on either a GE CT9800 or a GE Signa MRI scanner. These images have been captured with each of five commercially available image capture systems, and the resultant images digitally transferred on floppy disk to a PC1286 computer containing Optimast' image analysis software. Here the images can be displayed in a comparative manner for visual evaluation, in addition to being analyzed statistically. Each of the images have been designed to support certain tests, including noise, accuracy, linearity, gray scale range, stability, slew rate, and pixel alignment. These image capture systems vary widely in these characteristics, in addition to the presence or absence of other artifacts, such as shading and moire pattern. Other accessories such as video distribution amplifiers and noise filters can also add or modify artifacts seen in the captured images, often giving unusual results. Each image is described, together with the tests which were performed using them. One image contains alternating black and white lines, each one pixel wide, after equilibration strips ten pixels wide. While some systems have a slew rate fast enough to track this correctly, others blur it to an average shade of gray, and do not resolve the lines, or give

  11. Characterization of lens based photoacoustic imaging system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalloor Joseph Francis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Some of the challenges in translating photoacoustic (PA imaging to clinical applications includes limited view of the target tissue, low signal to noise ratio and the high cost of developing real-time systems. Acoustic lens based PA imaging systems, also known as PA cameras are a potential alternative to conventional imaging systems in these scenarios. The 3D focusing action of lens enables real-time C-scan imaging with a 2D transducer array. In this paper, we model the underlying physics in a PA camera in the mathematical framework of an imaging system and derive a closed form expression for the point spread function (PSF. Experimental verification follows including the details on how to design and fabricate the lens inexpensively. The system PSF is evaluated over a 3D volume that can be imaged by this PA camera. Its utility is demonstrated by imaging phantom and an ex vivo human prostate tissue sample.

  12. Characterization of lens based photoacoustic imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Kalloor Joseph; Chinni, Bhargava; Channappayya, Sumohana S; Pachamuthu, Rajalakshmi; Dogra, Vikram S; Rao, Navalgund

    2017-12-01

    Some of the challenges in translating photoacoustic (PA) imaging to clinical applications includes limited view of the target tissue, low signal to noise ratio and the high cost of developing real-time systems. Acoustic lens based PA imaging systems, also known as PA cameras are a potential alternative to conventional imaging systems in these scenarios. The 3D focusing action of lens enables real-time C-scan imaging with a 2D transducer array. In this paper, we model the underlying physics in a PA camera in the mathematical framework of an imaging system and derive a closed form expression for the point spread function (PSF). Experimental verification follows including the details on how to design and fabricate the lens inexpensively. The system PSF is evaluated over a 3D volume that can be imaged by this PA camera. Its utility is demonstrated by imaging phantom and an ex vivo human prostate tissue sample.

  13. Planetary surface photometry and imaging: progress and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguen, Jay D

    2014-10-01

    Spacecraft have visited and returned many thousands of images and spectra of all of the planets, many of their moons, several asteroids, and a few comet nuclei during the golden age of planetary exploration. The signal in each pixel of each image or spectral channel is a measurement of the radiance of scattered sunlight into a specific direction. The information on the structure and composition of the surface that is contained in variation of the radiance with scattering geometry and wavelength, including polarization state, has only just begun to be exploited and is the topic of this review. The uppermost surfaces of these bodies are mainly composed of particles that are continuously generated by impacts of micrometeoroids and larger impactors. Models of light scattering by distributions of sizes and irregular shapes of particles and by closely packed particles within a surface are challenging. These are active topics of research where considerable progress has recently been made. We focus on the surfaces of bodies lacking atmospheres.These surfaces are diverse and their morphologies give evidence of their evolution by impacts and resurfacing by a variety of processes including down slope movement and electrostatic transport of particles, gravitational accumulation of debris, volatile outgassing and migration, and magnetospheric interactions. Sampling of scattering geometries and spatial resolution is constrained by spacecraft trajectories. However, the large number of archived images and spectra demand more quantitative interpretation. The scattering geometry dependence of the radiance is underutilized and promises constraints on the compositions and structure of the surface for materials that lack diagnostic wavelength dependence. The general problem is considered in terms of the lunar regolith for which samples have been returned to Earth.

  14. Localized surface plasmon enhanced cellular imaging using random metallic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Taehwang; Lee, Wonju; Kim, Donghyun

    2017-02-01

    We have studied fluorescence cellular imaging with randomly distributed localized near-field induced by silver nano-islands. For the fabrication of nano-islands, a 10-nm silver thin film evaporated on a BK7 glass substrate with an adhesion layer of 2-nm thick chromium. Micrometer sized silver square pattern was defined using e-beam lithography and then the film was annealed at 200°C. Raw images were restored using electric field distribution produced on the surface of random nano-islands. Nano-islands were modeled from SEM images. 488-nm p-polarized light source was set to be incident at 60°. Simulation results show that localized electric fields were created among nano-islands and that their average size was found to be 135 nm. The feasibility was tested using conventional total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy while the angle of incidence was adjusted to maximize field enhancement. Mouse microphage cells were cultured on nano-islands, and actin filaments were selectively stained with FITC-conjugated phalloidin. Acquired images were deconvolved based on linear imaging theory, in which molecular distribution was sampled by randomly distributed localized near-field and blurred by point spread function of far-field optics. The optimum fluorophore distribution was probabilistically estimated by repetitively matching a raw image. The deconvolved images are estimated to have a resolution in the range of 100-150 nm largely determined by the size of localized near-fields. We also discuss and compare the results with images acquired with periodic nano-aperture arrays in various optical configurations to excite localized plasmonic fields and to produce super-resolved molecular images.

  15. Fluoroscopic Imaging Systems. Chapter 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A. K. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Fluoroscopy refers to the use of an X ray beam and a suitable image receptor for viewing images of processes or instruments in the body in real time. Fluoroscopic imaging trades the high signal to noise ratio (SNR) of radiography for high temporal resolution, as factors that maintain patient dose at an acceptable level must be used.

  16. Evaluation of the AN/SAY-1 Thermal Imaging Sensor System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, John G; Middlebrook, Christopher T

    2002-01-01

    The AN/SAY-1 Thermal Imaging Sensor System "TISS" was developed to provide surface ships with a day/night imaging capability to detect low radar reflective, small cross-sectional area targets such as floating mines...

  17. Developing stereo image based robot control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suprijadi,; Pambudi, I. R.; Woran, M.; Naa, C. F; Srigutomo, W. [Department of Physics, FMIPA, InstitutTeknologi Bandung Jl. Ganesha No. 10. Bandung 40132, Indonesia supri@fi.itb.ac.id (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Application of image processing is developed in various field and purposes. In the last decade, image based system increase rapidly with the increasing of hardware and microprocessor performance. Many fields of science and technology were used this methods especially in medicine and instrumentation. New technique on stereovision to give a 3-dimension image or movie is very interesting, but not many applications in control system. Stereo image has pixel disparity information that is not existed in single image. In this research, we proposed a new method in wheel robot control system using stereovision. The result shows robot automatically moves based on stereovision captures.

  18. Development of a biosensor microarray towards food screening using imaging surface plasmon resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebe, S.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Giesbers, M.; Norde, W.

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examined the possibilities of implementing direct and competitive immunoassay formats for small and large molecule detection on a microarray, using IBIS imaging surface plasmon resonance (iSPR) system. First, IBIS iSPR optics performance was evaluated. Using a glycerol calibration

  19. Development of a biosensor microarray towards food screening, using imaging surface plasmon resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raz, Sabina Rebe; Bremer, Maria G. E. G.; Giesbers, Marcel; Norde, Willem

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examined the possibilities of implementing direct and competitive immunoassay formats for small and large molecule detection on a microarray, using IBIS imaging surface plasmon resonance (iSPR) system. First, IBIS iSPR optics performance was evaluated. Using a glycerol calibration

  20. Detection of microbial biofilms on food processing surfaces: Hyperspectral fluorescence imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used a portable hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system to evaluate biofilm formations on four types of food processing surface materials including stainless steel, polypropylene used for cutting boards, and household counter top materials such as formica and granite. The objective of this inve...

  1. SURFACES OF HARD-SPHERE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Stoyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In various situations surfaces appear that are formed by systems of hard spheres. Examples are porous layers as surfaces of sand heaps and biofilms or fracture surfaces of concrete. The present paper considers models where a statistically homogeneous system of hard spheres with random radii is intersected by a plane and the surface is formed by the spheres with centers close to this plane. Formulae are derived for various characteristics of such surfaces: for the porosity profile, i.e. the local porosity in dependence on the distance from the section plane and for the geometry of the sphere caps that look above the section plane.It turns out that these characteristics only depend on the first-order characteristics of the sphere system, its sphere density and the sphere radius distribution.Comparison with empirically studied biofilms shows that the model is realistic.

  2. Metal surface corrosion grade estimation from single image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yijun; Qi, Lin; Sun, Huyuan; Fan, Hao; Dong, Junyu

    2018-04-01

    Metal corrosion can cause many problems, how to quickly and effectively assess the grade of metal corrosion and timely remediation is a very important issue. Typically, this is done by trained surveyors at great cost. Assisting them in the inspection process by computer vision and artificial intelligence would decrease the inspection cost. In this paper, we propose a dataset of metal surface correction used for computer vision detection and present a comparison between standard computer vision techniques by using OpenCV and deep learning method for automatic metal surface corrosion grade estimation from single image on this dataset. The test has been performed by classifying images and calculating the accuracy for the two different approaches.

  3. Comparison of surface coil and knee coil for evaluation of the patellar cartilage by MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, M. van den; Maeseneer, M. de; Hoste, M.; Vanderdood, K.; Ridder, F. de; Osteaux, M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to compare the knee coil and the surface coil for the visualisation of the patellar cartilage. Materials and methods: In 28 patients (17 women, 11 men) with an average age of 40 years (range 14-76) with knee pain MR was performed. Transverse images were obtained using a fast spin echo proton density weighted sequence on a Philips Gyroscan Intera 1.5 T clinical system. Transverse images were obtained at the level of the patellar cartilage using both the surface and the knee coil. All images were evaluated by consensus of two radiologists. They evaluated a number of quality criteria on a 4-point scale. Criteria for artefacts were also graded on a 4-point scale. Results: For the visualisation of fluid there was no significant difference between the knee coil and the surface coil (P=0.021). For all other criteria regarding image quality and presence of imaging artefacts there was a significant difference between both coils (P<0.001) with the surface coil obtaining the better result. Conclusion: The use of the surface coil in the visualisation of the patellar cartilage can be recommended at knee MR

  4. Multi circular-cavity surface coil for magnetic resonance imaging of monkey's brain at 4 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, A. I.; Solis-Najera, S. E.; Vázquez, F.; Wang, R. L.; Tomasi, D.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2014-11-01

    Animal models in medical research has been used to study humans diseases for several decades. The use of different imaging techniques together with different animal models offers a great advantage due to the possibility to study some human pathologies without the necessity of chirurgical intervention. The employ of magnetic resonance imaging for the acquisition of anatomical and functional images is an excellent tool because its noninvasive nature. Dedicated coils to perform magnetic resonance imaging experiments are obligatory due to the improvement on the signal-to-noise ratio and reduced specific absorption ratio. A specifically designed surface coil for magnetic resonance imaging of monkey's brain is proposed based on the multi circular-slot coil. Numerical simulations of the magnetic and electric fields were also performed using the Finite Integration Method to solve Maxwell's equations for this particular coil design and, to study the behavior of various vector magnetic field configurations and specific absorption ratio. Monkey's brain images were then acquired with a research-dedicated magnetic resonance imaging system at 4T, to evaluate the anatomical images with conventional imaging sequences. This coil showed good quality images of a monkey's brain and full compatibility with standard pulse sequences implemented in research-dedicated imager.

  5. Image portion identification methods, image parsing methods, image parsing systems, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassahn, Gordon D.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2013-01-08

    Image portion identification methods, image parsing methods, image parsing systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an image portion identification method includes accessing data regarding an image depicting a plurality of biological substrates corresponding to at least one biological sample and indicating presence of at least one biological indicator within the biological sample and, using processing circuitry, automatically identifying a portion of the image depicting one of the biological substrates but not others of the biological substrates.

  6. Transfer function analysis of radiographic imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, C.E.; Doi, K.

    1979-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental aspects of the techniques of transfer function analysis used in radiographic imaging systems are reviewed. The mathematical principles of transfer function analysis are developed for linear, shift-invariant imaging systems, for the relation between object and image and for the image due to a sinusoidal plane wave object. The other basic mathematical principle discussed is 'Fourier analysis' and its application to an input function. Other aspects of transfer function analysis included are alternative expressions for the 'optical transfer function' of imaging systems and expressions are derived for both serial and parallel transfer image sub-systems. The applications of transfer function analysis to radiographic imaging systems are discussed in relation to the linearisation of the radiographic imaging system, the object, the geometrical unsharpness, the screen-film system unsharpness, other unsharpness effects and finally noise analysis. It is concluded that extensive theoretical, computer simulation and experimental studies have demonstrated that the techniques of transfer function analysis provide an accurate and reliable means for predicting and understanding the effects of various radiographic imaging system components in most practical diagnostic medical imaging situations. (U.K.)

  7. Multispectral system for medical fluorescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, P.S.; Montan, S.; Svanberg, S.

    1987-01-01

    The principles of a powerful multicolor imaging system for tissue fluorescence diagnostics are discussed. Four individually spectrally filtered images are formed on a matrix detector by means of a split-mirror arrangement. The four images are processed in a computer, pixel by pixel, by means of mathematical operations, leading to an optimized contrast image, which enhances a selected feature. The system is being developed primarily for medical fluorescence imaging, but has wide applications in fluorescence, reflectance, and transmission monitoring related to a wide range of industrial and environmental problems. The system operation is described for the case of linear imaging on a diode array detector. Laser-induced fluorescence is used for cancer tumor and arteriosclerotic plaque demarcation using the contrast enhancement capabilities of this imaging system. Further examples of applications include fluorescing minerals and flames

  8. Fourier and granulometry methods on 3D images of soil surfaces for evaluating soil aggregate size distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.; Green, O.; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research is to present and compare two methods for evaluating soil aggregate size distribution based on high resolution 3D images of the soil surface. The methods for analyzing the images are discrete Fourier transform and granulometry. The results of these methods correlate...... with a measured weight distribution of the soil aggregates. The results have shown that it is possible to distinguish between the cultivated and the uncultivated soil surface. A sensor system suitable for capturing in-situ high resolution 3D images of the soil surface is also described. This sensor system...

  9. Exploring surface photoreaction dynamics using pixel imaging mass spectrometry (PImMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershis, Matthew D.; Wilson, Daniel P.; White, Michael G.; John, Jaya John; Nomerotski, Andrei; Brouard, Mark; Lee, Jason W. L.; Vallance, Claire; Turchetta, Renato

    2013-08-01

    A new technique for studying surface photochemistry has been developed using an ion imaging time-of-flight mass spectrometer in conjunction with a fast camera capable of multimass imaging. This technique, called pixel imaging mass spectrometry (PImMS), has been applied to the study of butanone photooxidation on TiO2(110). In agreement with previous studies of this system, it was observed that the main photooxidation pathway for butanone involves ejection of an ethyl radical into vacuum which, as confirmed by our imaging experiment, undergoes fragmentation after ionization in the mass spectrometer. This proof-of-principle experiment illustrates the usefulness and applicability of PImMS technology to problems of interest within the surface science community.

  10. Wireless sensing on surface hydrocarbon production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, D; McStay, D; Mulholland, J; Costello, L

    2009-01-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks for monitoring and optimising the performance of surface hydrocarbon production systems is reported. Wireless sensor networks are shown to be able to produce comprehensively instrumented XTs and other equipment that generate the data required by Intelligent Oilfield systems. The information produced by such systems information can be used for real-time operational control, production optimization and troubleshooting.

  11. 3D images and expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Jun-ichi

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an expert system called 3D-IMPRESS for supporting applications of three dimensional (3D) image processing. This system can automatically construct a 3D image processing procedure based on a pictorial example of the goal given by a user. In the paper, to evaluate the performance of the system, it was applied to construction of procedures for extracting specific component figures from practical chest X-ray CT images. (author)

  12. Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS) has been designed to meet multi-agency hydrologic database needs for Kansas. The SWIMS project was supported...

  13. Decision support system for surface irrigation design

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, José M.; Pereira, L.S.

    2009-01-01

    The SADREG decision support system was developed to help decision makers in the process of design and selection of farm surface irrigation systems to respond to requirements of modernization of surface irrigation—furrow, basin, and border irrigation. It includes a database, simulation models, user-friendly interfaces, and multicriteria analysis models. SADREG is comprised of two components: design and selection. The first component applies database information, and through several si...

  14. Surface Operations Systems Improve Airport Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Ames Research Center, Mosaic ATM of Leesburg, Virginia created software to analyze surface operations at airports. Surface surveillance systems, which report locations every second for thousands of air and ground vehicles, generate massive amounts of data, making gathering and analyzing this information difficult. Mosaic?s Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation (SODAA) tool is an off-line support tool that can analyze how well the airport surface operation is working and can help redesign procedures to improve operations. SODAA helps researchers pinpoint trends and correlations in vast amounts of recorded airport operations data.

  15. [The Role of Imaging in Central Nervous System Infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Hajime; Tazoe, Jun; Yamada, Kei

    2015-07-01

    Many infections invade the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the main tool that is used to evaluate infectious lesions of the central nervous system. The useful sequences on MRI are dependent on the locations, such as intra-axial, extra-axial, and spinal cord. For intra-axial lesions, besides the fundamental sequences, including T1-weighted images, T2-weighted images, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, advanced sequences, such as diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and MR spectroscopy, can be applied. They are occasionally used as determinants for quick and correct diagnosis. For extra-axial lesions, understanding the differences among 2D-conventional T1-weighted images, 2D-fat-saturated T1-weighted images, 3D-Spin echo sequences, and 3D-Gradient echo sequence after the administration of gadolinium is required to avoid wrong interpretations. FLAIR plus gadolinium is a useful tool for revealing abnormal enhancement on the brain surface. For the spinal cord, the sequences are limited. Evaluating the distribution and time course of the spinal cord are essential for correct diagnoses. We summarize the role of imaging in central nervous system infections and show the pitfalls, key points, and latest information in them on clinical practices.

  16. Online hyperspectral imaging system for evaluating quality of agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Giyoung; Lim, Jongguk

    2017-06-01

    The consumption of fresh-cut agricultural produce in Korea has been growing. The browning of fresh-cut vegetables that occurs during storage and foreign substances such as worms and slugs are some of the main causes of consumers' concerns with respect to safety and hygiene. The purpose of this study is to develop an on-line system for evaluating quality of agricultural products using hyperspectral imaging technology. The online evaluation system with single visible-near infrared hyperspectral camera in the range of 400 nm to 1000 nm that can assess quality of both surfaces of agricultural products such as fresh-cut lettuce was designed. Algorithms to detect browning surface were developed for this system. The optimal wavebands for discriminating between browning and sound lettuce as well as between browning lettuce and the conveyor belt were investigated using the correlation analysis and the one-way analysis of variance method. The imaging algorithms to discriminate the browning lettuces were developed using the optimal wavebands. The ratio image (RI) algorithm of the 533 nm and 697 nm images (RI533/697) for abaxial surface lettuce and the ratio image algorithm (RI533/697) and subtraction image (SI) algorithm (SI538-697) for adaxial surface lettuce had the highest classification accuracies. The classification accuracy of browning and sound lettuce was 100.0% and above 96.0%, respectively, for the both surfaces. The overall results show that the online hyperspectral imaging system could potentially be used to assess quality of agricultural products.

  17. Flow imaging of the cardiovascular system using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Hitoshi; Sakakibara, Makoto; Sunami, Yuko

    1988-01-01

    Blood flow images by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 0.25 T unit were evaluated for nine normal volunteers and 108 subjects with a variety of cardiovascular abnormalities. Using the non-gated short-spin echo (SE) technique, blood flow in the cardiovascular systems was not imaged in the normal volunteers. Using end-systolic and end-diastolic SE techniques for the normal subjects, blood flow in the cardiac chambers was not clearly imaged. Blood flow in the ascending aorta and aortic arch often did not appear in the gated SE images of the normal subjects. However, blood flow in the descending aorta was often observed in the gated SE images. Blood flow imaging was demonstrated by both non-gated and gated SE techniques in regions where blood flow was relatively slow; for example, in the left atrium of mitral stenosis, in an aortic aneurysm, in a false lumen of an aortic dissection, and in the left ventricle having old myocardial infarction. Using the non-gated inversion recovery (IR) technique, no blood flow was imaged in the cardiovascular system except in the left atrium of one case with mitral stenosis. Using the non-gated short SE technique, there was good correlation between the thrombus formation and the presence of blood flow images in the left atria of 17 patients with mitral stenosis, and in the aneurysmal portions of the aorta or in the false lumens of aortic dissection of 18 patients. It was suggested that mural thrombi in such diseases were related to the relatively slow blood flow. Blood flow imaging easily distinguished stagnant blood flow from mural thrombi using non-gated short SE, end-systolic SE, and IR techniques. Thus, blood flow imaging using MRI should become an important means of evaluating the cardiovascular system. (author)

  18. Dynamic MR imaging of the musculoskeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.S.; Hylton, H.; Hentz, V.R.; Schattner, P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on dynamic MR imaging which is an MR technique that allows imaging of the musculoskeletal system in motion. Current methods for observing the articulation of muscles and joints are limited to acquisition of stationary images at different spatial orientations. These images are then replayed from computer memory to simulate motion. Unlike stationary acquisition, dynamic MR imaging allows the volume of interest to be subjected to motion and dynamic stress, which is important for detecting stress-induced pathology. To demonstrate the utility of dynamic MR imaging, a system for imaging a moving wrist has been developed. The system consists of apparatus capable of providing simultaneous radialulnar deviation and flexion-extension, and hardware for system control and acquisition gating. The apparatus is mounted on the patient bed and is transferable to a variety of standard clinical MR imaging systems. Images were obtained during motion, and the ability of dynamic MR imaging to accurately image the moving wrist with very little motion artifact was demonstrated

  19. Image processing of integrated video image obtained with a charged-particle imaging video monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Takao; Nakajima, Takehiro

    1988-01-01

    A new type of charged-particle imaging video monitor system was constructed for video imaging of the distributions of alpha-emitting and low-energy beta-emitting nuclides. The system can display not only the scintillation image due to radiation on the video monitor but also the integrated video image becoming gradually clearer on another video monitor. The distortion of the image is about 5% and the spatial resolution is about 2 line pairs (lp)mm -1 . The integrated image is transferred to a personal computer and image processing is performed qualitatively and quantitatively. (author)

  20. Chemical imaging and solid state analysis at compact surfaces using UV imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jian X.; Rehder, Sönke; van den Berg, Frans

    2014-01-01

    and excipients in a non-invasive way, as well as mapping the glibenclamide solid state form. An exploratory data analysis supported the critical evaluation of the mapping results and the selection of model parameters for the chemical mapping. The present study demonstrated that the multi-wavelength UV imaging......Fast non-destructive multi-wavelength UV imaging together with multivariate image analysis was utilized to visualize distribution of chemical components and their solid state form at compact surfaces. Amorphous and crystalline solid forms of the antidiabetic compound glibenclamide...

  1. Active illumination based 3D surface reconstruction and registration for image guided medialization laryngoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ge; Lee, Sang-Joon; Hahn, James K.; Bielamowicz, Steven; Mittal, Rajat; Walsh, Raymond

    2007-03-01

    The medialization laryngoplasty is a surgical procedure to improve the voice function of the patient with vocal fold paresis and paralysis. An image guided system for the medialization laryngoplasty will help the surgeons to accurately place the implant and thus reduce the failure rates of the surgery. One of the fundamental challenges in image guided system is to accurately register the preoperative radiological data to the intraoperative anatomical structure of the patient. In this paper, we present a combined surface and fiducial based registration method to register the preoperative 3D CT data to the intraoperative surface of larynx. To accurately model the exposed surface area, a structured light based stereo vision technique is used for the surface reconstruction. We combined the gray code pattern and multi-line shifting to generate the intraoperative surface of the larynx. To register the point clouds from the intraoperative stage to the preoperative 3D CT data, a shape priori based ICP method is proposed to quickly register the two surfaces. The proposed approach is capable of tracking the fiducial markers and reconstructing the surface of larynx with no damage to the anatomical structure. We used off-the-shelf digital cameras, LCD projector and rapid 3D prototyper to develop our experimental system. The final RMS error in the registration is less than 1mm.

  2. Ground-based thermal imaging of stream surface temperatures: Technique and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Scott A.; Petre, Sally J.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated a ground-based handheld thermal imaging system for measuring water temperatures using data from eight southwestern USA streams and rivers. We found handheld thermal imagers could provide considerably more spatial information on water temperature (for our unit one image = 19,600 individual temperature measurements) than traditional methods could supply without a prohibitive amount of effort. Furthermore, they could provide measurements of stream surface temperature almost instantaneously compared with most traditional handheld thermometers (e.g., >20 s/reading). Spatial temperature analysis is important for measurement of subtle temperature differences across waterways, and identification of warm and cold groundwater inputs. Handheld thermal imaging is less expensive and equipment intensive than airborne thermal imaging methods and is useful under riparian canopies. Disadvantages of handheld thermal imagers include their current higher expense than thermometers, their susceptibility to interference when used incorrectly, and their slightly lower accuracy than traditional temperature measurement methods. Thermal imagers can only measure surface temperature, but this usually corresponds to subsurface temperatures in well-mixed streams and rivers. Using thermal imaging in select applications, such as where spatial investigations of water temperature are needed, or in conjunction with stationary temperature data loggers or handheld electronic or liquid-in-glass thermometers to characterize stream temperatures by both time and space, could provide valuable information on stream temperature dynamics. These tools will become increasingly important to fisheries biologists as costs continue to decline.

  3. Imaging near-surface heterogeneities by natural migration of backscattered surface waves: Field data test

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Zhaolun; AlTheyab, Abdullah; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a methodology for detecting the presence of near-surface heterogeneities by naturally migrating backscattered surface waves in controlled-source data. The near-surface heterogeneities must be located within a depth of approximately one-third the dominant wavelength λ of the strong surface-wave arrivals. This natural migration method does not require knowledge of the near-surface phase-velocity distribution because it uses the recorded data to approximate the Green’s functions for migration. Prior to migration, the backscattered data are separated from the original records, and the band-passed filtered data are migrated to give an estimate of the migration image at a depth of approximately one-third λ. Each band-passed data set gives a migration image at a different depth. Results with synthetic data and field data recorded over known faults validate the effectiveness of this method. Migrating the surface waves in recorded 2D and 3D data sets accurately reveals the locations of known faults. The limitation of this method is that it requires a dense array of receivers with a geophone interval less than approximately one-half λ.

  4. Imaging near-surface heterogeneities by natural migration of backscattered surface waves: Field data test

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Zhaolun

    2017-03-06

    We have developed a methodology for detecting the presence of near-surface heterogeneities by naturally migrating backscattered surface waves in controlled-source data. The near-surface heterogeneities must be located within a depth of approximately one-third the dominant wavelength λ of the strong surface-wave arrivals. This natural migration method does not require knowledge of the near-surface phase-velocity distribution because it uses the recorded data to approximate the Green’s functions for migration. Prior to migration, the backscattered data are separated from the original records, and the band-passed filtered data are migrated to give an estimate of the migration image at a depth of approximately one-third λ. Each band-passed data set gives a migration image at a different depth. Results with synthetic data and field data recorded over known faults validate the effectiveness of this method. Migrating the surface waves in recorded 2D and 3D data sets accurately reveals the locations of known faults. The limitation of this method is that it requires a dense array of receivers with a geophone interval less than approximately one-half λ.

  5. Skin surface and sub-surface strain and deformation imaging using optical coherence tomography and digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X.; Maiti, R.; Liu, X.; Gerhardt, L. C.; Lee, Z. S.; Byers, R.; Franklin, S. E.; Lewis, R.; Matcher, S. J.; Carré, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    Bio-mechanical properties of the human skin deformed by external forces at difference skin/material interfaces attract much attention in medical research. For instance, such properties are important design factors when one designs a healthcare device, i.e., the device might be applied directly at skin/device interfaces. In this paper, we investigated the bio-mechanical properties, i.e., surface strain, morphological changes of the skin layers, etc., of the human finger-pad and forearm skin as a function of applied pressure by utilizing two non-invasive techniques, i.e., optical coherence tomography (OCT) and digital image correlation (DIC). Skin deformation results of the human finger-pad and forearm skin were obtained while pressed against a transparent optical glass plate under the action of 0.5-24 N force and stretching naturally from 90° flexion to 180° full extension respectively. The obtained OCT images showed the deformation results beneath the skin surface, however, DIC images gave overall information of strain at the surface.

  6. Normal appearance of the prostate and seminal tract: MR imaging using an endorectal surface coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myeong Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Moo Sang; Choi, Pil Sik; Hong, Sung Joon; Lee, Yeon Hee; Choi, Hak Yong

    1994-01-01

    To assess the ability of MR imaging with an endorectal surface coil for the depiction of normal anatomical structure of prostate and its adjacent organs. MR imaging using an endorectal surface coil was performed in 23 male patients(age ; 20-75) to evaluate various prostatic and vasovesicular disorders, i. e, 14 cases of ejaculatory problems, 3 cases of hypogonadism, and 4 cases of prostatic cancers and 2 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia. MR images were obtained with axial, sagittal and coronal fast spin echo long TR/TE images and axial spin echo short TR/TE images. Field of views was 10-12 cm and scan thickness was 3-5 mm. Depiction of normal anatomcial structures was excellent in all cases. On T2WI, zonal anatomy of the prostate and prostatic urethra, urethral crest, and ejaculatory duct were cleary visualized. On T1WI, periprostatic fat plane is more cleary visualized. On transverse images, periprostatic structures were well visualized on T1WI,and on T2WI, anterior fibromuscular stroma, transition zone and peripheral zone could be readily differentiated. Coronal images were more helpful in visualization of both central and peripheral zones. Vas deferens, ejaculatory duct and vermontanum were also more easily defined on these images. Sagittal images was helpful in the depiction of anterior fibromuscular stroma, central zone and peripheral zone with prostatic urethra and ejaculatory duct in a single plane. High resolution MR imaging with an endorectal surface coil can readily visualize the normal anatomy of the prostate and its related structures and may be useful in the evaluation of various diseases of prostate and vasvesicular system

  7. Normal appearance of the prostate and seminal tract: MR imaging using an endorectal surface coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myeong Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Moo Sang; Choi, Pil Sik; Hong, Sung Joon; Lee, Yeon Hee; Choi, Hak Yong [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-15

    To assess the ability of MR imaging with an endorectal surface coil for the depiction of normal anatomical structure of prostate and its adjacent organs. MR imaging using an endorectal surface coil was performed in 23 male patients(age ; 20-75) to evaluate various prostatic and vasovesicular disorders, i. e, 14 cases of ejaculatory problems, 3 cases of hypogonadism, and 4 cases of prostatic cancers and 2 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia. MR images were obtained with axial, sagittal and coronal fast spin echo long TR/TE images and axial spin echo short TR/TE images. Field of views was 10-12 cm and scan thickness was 3-5 mm. Depiction of normal anatomcial structures was excellent in all cases. On T2WI, zonal anatomy of the prostate and prostatic urethra, urethral crest, and ejaculatory duct were cleary visualized. On T1WI, periprostatic fat plane is more cleary visualized. On transverse images, periprostatic structures were well visualized on T1WI,and on T2WI, anterior fibromuscular stroma, transition zone and peripheral zone could be readily differentiated. Coronal images were more helpful in visualization of both central and peripheral zones. Vas deferens, ejaculatory duct and vermontanum were also more easily defined on these images. Sagittal images was helpful in the depiction of anterior fibromuscular stroma, central zone and peripheral zone with prostatic urethra and ejaculatory duct in a single plane. High resolution MR imaging with an endorectal surface coil can readily visualize the normal anatomy of the prostate and its related structures and may be useful in the evaluation of various diseases of prostate and vasvesicular system.

  8. Scanning tunnelling microscope imaging of nanoscale electron density gradients on the surface of GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, B; Jacobs, J; Missous, M

    2003-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the scanning tunnelling microscope tunnelling conditions needed to produce constant current images dominated either by surface topology or by electronic effects. A model experimental structure was produced by cleaving a GaAs multiδ-doped layer in UHV and so projecting a spatially varying electron gas density onto the (110) surface. This cross sectional electron density varies on a nanometre scale in the [100] growth direction. The electronic structure and tunnelling properties of this system were modelled, and the tunnelling conditions favouring sensitivity to the surface electron gas density determined

  9. A real time S-parameter imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, P.S.; Cheung, C.K.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.

    2005-01-01

    Obtaining a lateral S-parameter image scan from positrons implanted into semiconductor devices can be a helpful research tool both for localizing device structures and in diagnosing defect patterns that could help interpret function. S-parameter images can be obtained by electromagnetically rastering a variable energy positron beam of small spot size across the sample. Here we describe a general hardware and software architecture of relatively low cost that has recently been developed in our laboratory which allows the whole sub-surface S-parameter image of a sample or device to be obtained in real time. This system has the advantage over more conventional sequential scanning techniques of allowing the operator to terminate data collection once the quality of the image is deemed sufficient. As an example of the usefulness of this type of imaging architecture, S-parameter images of a representative sample are presented at two different position implantation energies. (author)

  10. Surface scanning through a cylindrical tank of coupling fluid for clinical microwave breast imaging exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallone, Matthew J.; Meaney, Paul M.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Microwave tomographic image quality can be improved significantly with prior knowledge of the breast surface geometry. The authors have developed a novel laser scanning system capable of accurately recovering surface renderings of breast-shaped phantoms immersed within a cylindrical tank of coupling fluid which resides completely external to the tank (and the aqueous environment) and overcomes the challenges associated with the optical distortions caused by refraction from the air, tank wall, and liquid bath interfaces. Methods: The scanner utilizes two laser line generators and a small CCD camera mounted concentrically on a rotating gantry about the microwave imaging tank. Various calibration methods were considered for optimizing the accuracy of the scanner in the presence of the optical distortions including traditional ray tracing and image registration approaches. In this paper, the authors describe the construction and operation of the laser scanner, compare the efficacy of several calibration methods—including analytical ray tracing and piecewise linear, polynomial, locally weighted mean, and thin-plate-spline (TPS) image registrations—and report outcomes from preliminary phantom experiments. Results: The results show that errors in calibrating camera angles and position prevented analytical ray tracing from achieving submillimeter accuracy in the surface renderings obtained from our scanner configuration. Conversely, calibration by image registration reliably attained mean surface errors of less than 0.5 mm depending on the geometric complexity of the object scanned. While each of the image registration approaches outperformed the ray tracing strategy, the authors found global polynomial methods produced the best compromise between average surface error and scanner robustness. Conclusions: The laser scanning system provides a fast and accurate method of three dimensional surface capture in the aqueous environment commonly found in microwave

  11. FPGA based image processing for optical surface inspection with real time constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, Ylber; Bodenstorfer, Ernst; Brodersen, Jörg; Mayer, Konrad J.

    2015-02-01

    Today, high-quality printing products like banknotes, stamps, or vouchers, are automatically checked by optical surface inspection systems. In a typical optical surface inspection system, several digital cameras acquire the printing products with fine resolution from different viewing angles and at multiple wavelengths of the visible and also near infrared spectrum of light. The cameras deliver data streams with a huge amount of image data that have to be processed by an image processing system in real time. Due to the printing industry's demand for higher throughput together with the necessity to check finer details of the print and its security features, the data rates to be processed tend to explode. In this contribution, a solution is proposed, where the image processing load is distributed between FPGAs and digital signal processors (DSPs) in such a way that the strengths of both technologies can be exploited. The focus lies upon the implementation of image processing algorithms in an FPGA and its advantages. In the presented application, FPGAbased image-preprocessing enables real-time implementation of an optical color surface inspection system with a spatial resolution of 100 μm and for object speeds over 10 m/s. For the implementation of image processing algorithms in the FPGA, pipeline parallelism with clock frequencies up to 150 MHz together with spatial parallelism based on multiple instantiations of modules for parallel processing of multiple data streams are exploited for the processing of image data of two cameras and three color channels. Due to their flexibility and their fast response times, it is shown that FPGAs are ideally suited for realizing a configurable all-digital PLL for the processing of camera line-trigger signals with frequencies about 100 kHz, using pure synchronous digital circuit design.

  12. Digital image information systems in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greinacher, C.F.C.; Luetke, B.; Seufert, G.

    1987-01-01

    About 25% of all patient examinations are performed digitally in a today's radiological department. A computerized system is described that supports generation, transport, interpretation and archiving of digital radiological images (Picture Archiving and Communication System PACS). The technical features concerning image communication via local area networks, image storage on magnetic and optical media and digital workstations for image display and manipulation are described. A structured system architecture is introduced. It allows flexible adaption to individual organizations and minimizes the requirements of the communication network. (orig.) [de

  13. A high-throughput surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on differential interferometric imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Daqian; Ding, Lili; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Enyao; Yu, Xinglong; Luo, Zhaofeng; Ou, Huichao

    2012-01-01

    A new high-throughput surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on differential interferometric imaging is reported. The two SPR interferograms of the sensing surface are imaged on two CCD cameras. The phase difference between the two interferograms is 180°. The refractive index related factor (RIRF) of the sensing surface is calculated from the two simultaneously acquired interferograms. The simulation results indicate that the RIRF exhibits a linear relationship with the refractive index of the sensing surface and is unaffected by the noise, drift and intensity distribution of the light source. The affinity and kinetic information can be extracted in real time from continuously acquired RIRF distributions. The results of refractometry experiments show that the dynamic detection range of SPR differential interferometric imaging system can be over 0.015 refractive index unit (RIU). High refractive index resolution is down to 0.45 RU (1 RU = 1 × 10 −6 RIU). Imaging and protein microarray experiments demonstrate the ability of high-throughput detection. The aptamer experiments demonstrate that the SPR sensor based on differential interferometric imaging has a great capability to be implemented for high-throughput aptamer kinetic evaluation. These results suggest that this biosensor has the potential to be utilized in proteomics and drug discovery after further improvement. (paper)

  14. Atomic Resolution Imaging and Quantification of Chemical Functionality of Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Udo D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science; Altman, Eric I. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    2014-12-10

    The work carried out from 2006-2014 under DoE support was targeted at developing new approaches to the atomic-scale characterization of surfaces that include species-selective imaging and an ability to quantify chemical surface interactions with site-specific accuracy. The newly established methods were subsequently applied to gain insight into the local chemical interactions that govern the catalytic properties of model catalysts of interest to DoE. The foundation of our work was the development of three-dimensional atomic force microscopy (3DAFM), a new measurement mode that allows the mapping of the complete surface force and energy fields with picometer resolution in space (x, y, and z) and piconewton/millielectron volts in force/energy. From this experimental platform, we further expanded by adding the simultaneous recording of tunneling current (3D-AFM/STM) using chemically well-defined tips. Through comparison with simulations, we were able to achieve precise quantification and assignment of local chemical interactions to exact positions within the lattice. During the course of the project, the novel techniques were applied to surface-oxidized copper, titanium dioxide, and silicon oxide. On these materials, defect-induced changes to the chemical surface reactivity and electronic charge density were characterized with site-specific accuracy.

  15. Imaging of Ground Ice with Surface-Based Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    terrains. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), in particular, has been effective for imaging ground ice. ERT measures the ability of materials to...13 2.2.1 Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT...Engineer Research and Development Center ERT Electrical Resistivity Tomography GPS Global Positioning System LiDAR Light Detection and Ranging SIPRE

  16. In-Situ Imaging and Quantification of Tritium Surface Contamination via Coherent Fiber Bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, Charles A.; Parker, John J.; Zweben, Stewart J.

    2001-01-01

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) has developed a method of imaging tritium on in-situ surfaces for the purpose of real-time data collection. This method expands upon a previous tritium imaging concept, also developed at PPPL. Enhancements include an objective lens coupled to the entry aperture of a coherent fiber optic (CFO) bundle, and a relay lens connecting the exit aperture of the fiber bundle to an intensifier tube and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The system has been specifically fabricated for use in determining tritium concentrations on first wall materials. One potential complication associated with the development of D-T [deuterium-tritium] fueled fusion reactors is the deposition of tritium (i.e., co-deposited layer) on the surface of the primary wall of the vacuum vessel. It would be advantageous to implement a process to accurately determine tritium distribution on these inner surfaces. This fiber optic imaging device provides a highly practical method for determining the location, concentration, and activity of surface tritium deposition. In addition, it can be employed for detection of tritium ''hot-spots'' and ''hide-out'' regions present on the surfaces being imaged

  17. Imaging of the peripheral vascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, S.A.; Pond, G.D.; Pinsky, S.; Moss, G.S.; Srikantaswamy, S.; Ryo, U.Y.

    1984-01-01

    This book is limited neither to the peripheral vascular system nor to diagnostic imaging techniques. Its 18 chapters cover nonimaging blood-flow techniques (Doppler ultrasound, plethysmography) as well as noninvasive and invasive imaging techniques (ultrasound, computed tomography, radionuclide digital-subtraction angiography, and contrast angiography). These are applied not only to the peripheral vascular system but also to the aorta and vena cava

  18. Image digitizer system for bubble chamber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggerty, H.

    1986-01-01

    An IBM PC-based image digitizer system has been assembled to monitor the laser flash used for holography at the 15 foot bubble chamber. The hardware and the operating software are outlined. For an operational test of the system, an array of LEDs was flashed with a 10 microsecond pulse and the image was grabbed by one of the operating programs and processed

  19. IDAPS (Image Data Automated Processing System) System Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-24

    This document describes the physical configuration and components used in the image processing system referred to as IDAPS (Image Data Automated ... Processing System). This system was developed by the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) for Eglin Air Force Base. The system is designed

  20. Advanced millimeter wave imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, J. M.; Gagliano, J. A.; Stratigos, J. A.; Webb, L. L.; Newton, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Unique techniques are being utilized to develop self-contained imaging radiometers operating at single and multiple frequencies near 35, 95 and 183 GHz. These techniques include medium to large antennas for high spatial resolution, lowloss open structures for RF confinemnt and calibration, wide bandwidths for good sensitivity plus total automation of the unit operation and data collection. Applications include: detection of severe storms, imaging of motor vehicles, and the remote sensing of changes in material properties.

  1. Multifractural analysis of AFM images of Nb thin film surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altajskij, M.V; Chernenko, L.P.; Balebanov, V.M.; Erokhin, N.S.; Moiseev, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    The multifractal analysis of the atomic Force Microscope (AFM) images of the Niobium (Nb) thin film surfaces has been performed. These Nb films are being used for the measurements of the London penetration depth of stationary magnetic field by polarized neutron reflectometry. The analysis shows the behavior of Renyi dimensions of images (in the range of available scales 6-2000 nm), like the known multifractal p-model, with typical Hausdorff dimension of prevalent color in the range of 1.6-1.9. This indicates the fractal nature of film landscape on those scales. The perspective of new mechanism of order parameter suppression on superconductor-vacuum boundary, manifested in anomalous magnetic field penetration in discussed

  2. Photometric imaging in particle size measurement and surface visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Niklas

    2011-09-30

    The aim of this paper is to give an insight into photometric particle sizing approaches, which differ from the typical particle size measurement of dispersed particles. These approaches can often be advantageous especially for samples that are moist or cohesive, when dispersion of particles is difficult or sometimes impossible. The main focus of this paper is in the use of photometric stereo imaging. The technique allows the reconstruction of three-dimensional images of objects using multiple light sources in illumination. The use of photometric techniques is demonstrated in at-line measurement of granules and on-line measurement during granulation and dry milling. Also, surface visualization and roughness measurements are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Automated imaging system for single molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David Charles; Runnheim, Rodney; Forrest, Daniel

    2012-09-18

    There is provided a high throughput automated single molecule image collection and processing system that requires minimal initial user input. The unique features embodied in the present disclosure allow automated collection and initial processing of optical images of single molecules and their assemblies. Correct focus may be automatically maintained while images are collected. Uneven illumination in fluorescence microscopy is accounted for, and an overall robust imaging operation is provided yielding individual images prepared for further processing in external systems. Embodiments described herein are useful in studies of any macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, peptides and proteins. The automated image collection and processing system and method of same may be implemented and deployed over a computer network, and may be ergonomically optimized to facilitate user interaction.

  4. Dynamic Raman imaging system with high spatial and temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Dai, Yinzhen; He, Hao; Lv, Ruiqi; Zong, Cheng; Ren, Bin

    2017-09-01

    There is an increasing need to study dynamic changing systems with significantly high spatial and temporal resolutions. In this work, we integrated point-scanning, line-scanning, and wide-field Raman imaging techniques into a single system. By using an Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD) with a high gain and high frame rate, we significantly reduced the time required for wide-field imaging, making it possible to monitor the electrochemical reactions in situ. The highest frame rate of EMCDD was ˜50 fps, and the Raman images for a specific Raman peak can be obtained by passing the signal from the sample through the Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter. The spatial resolutions of scanning imaging and wide-field imaging with a 100× objective (NA = 0.9) are 0.5 × 0.5 μm2 and 0.36 × 0.36 μm2, respectively. The system was used to study the surface plasmon resonance of Au nanorods, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal distribution for Au Nanoparticle aggregates, and dynamic Raman imaging of an electrochemical reacting system.

  5. Development of a THz spectroscopic imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usami, M; Iwamoto, T; Fukasawa, R; Tani, M; Watanabe, M; Sakai, K

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a real-time THz imaging system based on the two-dimensional (2D) electro-optic (EO) sampling technique. Employing the 2D EO-sampling technique, we can obtain THz images using a CCD camera at a video rate of up to 30 frames per second. A spatial resolution of 1.4 mm was achieved. This resolution was reasonably close to the theoretical limit determined by diffraction. We observed not only static objects but also moving ones. To acquire spectroscopic information, time-domain images were collected. By processing these images on a computer, we can obtain spectroscopic images. Spectroscopy for silicon wafers was demonstrated

  6. Clinical software for MR imaging system, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Koji; Kasai, Akira; Okamura, Shoichi

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging continues to elicit new application software through the recent technological advances of MR equipment. This paper describes several applications of our newly developed clinical software. The fast SE sequence (RISE) has proved to reduce routine examination time and to improve image quality, and ultra-fast FE sequence (SMASH) was found to extend the diagnostic capabilities in the field of cardiac study. Diffusion/perfusion imaging achieved in our MR system showed significant promise for providing novel information regarding tissue characterization. Furthermore, Image quality and practicalities of MR angiography have been improved by advanced imaging sequences and sophisticated post-processing software. (author)

  7. Reflective optical imaging system for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Newnam, B.E.

    1993-05-18

    A projection reflection optical system has two mirrors in a coaxial, four reflection configuration to reproduce the image of an object. The mirrors have spherical reflection surfaces to provide a very high resolution of object feature wavelengths less than 200 [mu]m, and preferably less than 100 [mu]m. An image resolution of features less than 0.05-0.1 [mu]m, is obtained over a large area field; i.e., 25.4 mm [times] 25.4 mm, with a distortion less than 0.1 of the resolution over the image field.

  8. Image quality of digital mammography images produced using wet and dry laser imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Khalifah, K.; Brindhaban, A.; AlArfaj, R.; Jassim, O.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: A study was carried out to compare the quality of digital mammographic images printed or processed by a wet laser imaging system and a dedicated mammographic dry laser imaging system. Material and methods: Digital images of a tissue equivalent breast phantom were obtained using a GE Senographe 2000D digital mammography system and different target/filter combinations of the X-ray tube. These images were printed on films using the Fuji FL-IM D wet laser imaging system and the Kodak DryView 8600 dry laser imaging system. The quality of images was assessed in terms of detectability of microcalcifications and simulated tumour masses by five radiologists. In addition, the contrast index and speed index of the two systems were measured using the step wedge in the phantom. The unpaired, unequal variance t-test was used to test any statistically significant differences. Results: There were no significant (p < 0.05) differences between the images printed using the two systems in terms of microcalcification and tumour mass detectability. The wet system resulted in slightly higher contrast index while the dry system showed significantly higher speed index. Conclusion: Both wet and dry laser imaging systems can produce mammography images of good quality on which 0.2 mm microcalcifications and 2 mm tumour masses can be detected. Dry systems are preferable due to the absence of wet chemical processing and solid or liquid chemical waste. The wet laser imaging systems, however, still represent a useful alternative to dry laser imaging systems for mammography studies

  9. Surface flaw evaluation by vectorized eddy current testing image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Hisashi; Takagi, Toshiyuki

    2006-01-01

    A method of eddy current testing (ECT) data mapping for surface breaking evaluation is studied. The multicoil ECT probe utilized in this paper consists of Transmit-Receive (TR) type sensors as array elements to obtain the information on crack directions. Switching two directional scans, U- and T- modes, gives two-dimensional vector mapping as ECT images. The ECT signals of the TR type sensor also give the information on crack directions from their variation displayed on the complex number plane. Extracting a complex number component of the signals makes it possible to visualize directions of numerically simulated proximate EDM slits. (author)

  10. Detection of microbial biofilms on food processing surfaces: hyperspectral fluorescence imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Won; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kaunglin; Lefcourt, Alan M.; Roberts, Michael S.; McNaughton, James L.

    2009-05-01

    We used a portable hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system to evaluate biofilm formations on four types of food processing surface materials including stainless steel, polypropylene used for cutting boards, and household counter top materials such as formica and granite. The objective of this investigation was to determine a minimal number of spectral bands suitable to differentiate microbial biofilm formation from the four background materials typically used during food processing. Ultimately, the resultant spectral information will be used in development of handheld portable imaging devices that can be used as visual aid tools for sanitation and safety inspection (microbial contamination) of the food processing surfaces. Pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella cells were grown in low strength M9 minimal medium on various surfaces at 22 +/- 2 °C for 2 days for biofilm formation. Biofilm autofluorescence under UV excitation (320 to 400 nm) obtained by hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system showed broad emissions in the blue-green regions of the spectrum with emission maxima at approximately 480 nm for both E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella biofilms. Fluorescence images at 480 nm revealed that for background materials with near-uniform fluorescence responses such as stainless steel and formica cutting board, regardless of the background intensity, biofilm formation can be distinguished. This suggested that a broad spectral band in the blue-green regions can be used for handheld imaging devices for sanitation inspection of stainless, cutting board, and formica surfaces. The non-uniform fluorescence responses of granite make distinctions between biofilm and background difficult. To further investigate potential detection of the biofilm formations on granite surfaces with multispectral approaches, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using the hyperspectral fluorescence image data. The resultant PCA score images revealed distinct contrast between

  11. Image potential resonances of the aluminum (100) surface; Bildpotentialresonanzen der Aluminium-(100)-Oberflaeche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Matthias

    2011-07-08

    Image-potential resonances on the (100) surface of pure Aluminum are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experiments are conducted both energy- and time-resolved using the method of two-photon photoemission spectroscopy. The main attention of the theoretical examination and extensive numerical calculations is devoted to the interaction between surface and bulk states. Image-potential resonances on Al(100) are a system in which a complete series of discrete Rydberg states strongly couples to a continuum of states. As a simple metal it also provides a good opportunity to test theoretical models of the structure of the potential at metal surfaces. This work represents the first high-resolution investigation of image-potential resonances with such strong resonance character. For the first time, it is demonstrated experimentally that isolated image-potential resonances exist on an Aluminum surface. On the (100) surface of Aluminum the second through fifth image-potential resonance are resolved and both, their energies and lifetimes are measured. The binding energies of the image-potential resonances form a Rydberg series of states {epsilon}{sub n}=-(0,85 eV)/((n+a){sup 2}). Within the accuracy of the measurement it is not necessary to introduce a quantum defect a (a=0.022{+-}0.035). Using angle-resolved two-photon photoemission spectroscopy the effective mass of electrons in the second image-potential resonance is measured to 1.01{+-}0.11 electron masses. The lifetimes of the resonances increase as {tau}{sub n} = (1.0{+-}0.2)fs.n{sup 3} starting from n=2. Calculations using the density matrix formalism show that the experimentally observed lifetimes can be explained well by electrons decaying into the bulk. The effect of resonance trapping leads to extended lifetimes in the process. Contrary to common theoretical models of image-potential states at metal surfaces the first image-potential resonance cannot be observed in two-photon photoemission on Al(100

  12. Computer screen photo-excited surface plasmon resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippini, Daniel; Winquist, Fredrik; Lundström, Ingemar

    2008-09-12

    Angle and spectra resolved surface plasmon resonance (SPR) images of gold and silver thin films with protein deposits is demonstrated using a regular computer screen as light source and a web camera as detector. The screen provides multiple-angle illumination, p-polarized light and controlled spectral radiances to excite surface plasmons in a Kretchmann configuration. A model of the SPR reflectances incorporating the particularities of the source and detector explain the observed signals and the generation of distinctive SPR landscapes is demonstrated. The sensitivity and resolution of the method, determined in air and solution, are 0.145 nm pixel(-1), 0.523 nm, 5.13x10(-3) RIU degree(-1) and 6.014x10(-4) RIU, respectively, encouraging results at this proof of concept stage and considering the ubiquity of the instrumentation.

  13. Development of Fluorescence Spectral Imaging for Location of Uranium Deposited on Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monts, D.L.; Wang, G.; Su, Y.; Jang, P.R.; Waggoner, Ch.A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980's, depleted uranium (DU) has been the primary material used by the US military in armor-piercing rounds. Domestic firing ranges that have been used for DU munitions training purposes are located around the country and have varying extents of contamination by other types of projectiles. A project is underway to develop a set of sensors to locate expended DU rounds and to process soil and debris to recover the material. In the environment, metallic DU readily oxidizes to form uranium compounds that contain the uranyl (UO 2 +2 ) moiety. For more than a hundred and fifty years, it has been known that when illuminated with ultraviolet (UV) light, uranyl compounds exhibit characteristic fluorescence in the visible region (450 - 650 nm). We report our efforts to develop a transportable, quantitative Fluorescence Spectral Imaging (FSI) system to locate and quantify uranyl compounds dispersed in soils and on other surfaces on domestic firing ranges; this system can also be utilized to monitor excavation of DU munitions and separation of uranyl compounds from soils. FSI images are acquired by illuminating a surface with a UV light and using a narrow band pass filter on a camera, recording an image of the resulting fluorescence. FSI images provide both spatial and spectral information. The FSI system is described and its performance characterized in the field and also by using field samples. The development and characterization of an improved transportable FSI system is presented. The applicability of this system for detection of uranium compounds deposited on surfaces for Decontaminating and Decommissioning (D and D) activities is discussed. We have successfully demonstrated in situ a first-generation, transportable Fluorescence Spectral Imaging (FSI) system for locating uranyl compounds dispersed in soils and on other surfaces of a domestic firing range. FSI images provide both spatial and spectral information. FSI images are acquired by illuminating a

  14. The Stellar Imager (SI) Project: Resolving Stellar Surfaces, Interiors, and Magnetic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, K.; Karovska, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a UV/Optical. Space-Based Interferometer designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsec (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and, via asteroseismology, stellar interiors and of the Universe in general. The ultra-sharp images of SI will revolutionize our view of many dynamic astrophysical processes by transforming point sources into extended sources, and snapshots into evolving views. The science of SI focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. Its prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives. SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. In this paper we discuss the science goals, technology needs, and baseline design of the SI mission.

  15. Quantifying Uncertainty in Near Surface Electromagnetic Imaging Using Bayesian Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatter, D. B.; Ray, A.; Key, K.

    2017-12-01

    Geoscientists commonly use electromagnetic methods to image the Earth's near surface. Field measurements of EM fields are made (often with the aid an artificial EM source) and then used to infer near surface electrical conductivity via a process known as inversion. In geophysics, the standard inversion tool kit is robust and can provide an estimate of the Earth's near surface conductivity that is both geologically reasonable and compatible with the measured field data. However, standard inverse methods struggle to provide a sense of the uncertainty in the estimate they provide. This is because the task of finding an Earth model that explains the data to within measurement error is non-unique - that is, there are many, many such models; but the standard methods provide only one "answer." An alternative method, known as Bayesian inversion, seeks to explore the full range of Earth model parameters that can adequately explain the measured data, rather than attempting to find a single, "ideal" model. Bayesian inverse methods can therefore provide a quantitative assessment of the uncertainty inherent in trying to infer near surface conductivity from noisy, measured field data. This study applies a Bayesian inverse method (called trans-dimensional Markov chain Monte Carlo) to transient airborne EM data previously collected over Taylor Valley - one of the McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica. Our results confirm the reasonableness of previous estimates (made using standard methods) of near surface conductivity beneath Taylor Valley. In addition, we demonstrate quantitatively the uncertainty associated with those estimates. We demonstrate that Bayesian inverse methods can provide quantitative uncertainty to estimates of near surface conductivity.

  16. Imaging of Stellar Surfaces with the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, A.; Schmitt, H. R.; van Belle, G. T.; Hutter, Clark; Mozurkewich, D.; Armstrong, J. T.; Baines, E. K.; Restaino, S. R.

    The Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI) has a unique layout which is particularly well-suited for high-resolution interferometric imaging. By combining the NPOI layout with a new data acquisition and fringe tracking system we are progressing toward a imaging capability which will exceed any other interferometer in operation. The project, funded by the National Science Foundation, combines several existing advances and infrastructure at NPOI with modest enhancements. For optimal imaging there are several requirements that should be fulfilled. The observatory should be capable of measuring visibilities on a wide range of baseline lengths and orientations, providing complete UV coverage in a short period of time. It should measure visibility amplitudes with good SNR on all baselines as critical imaging information is often contained in low-amplitude visibilities. It should measure the visibility phase on all baselines. The technologies which can achieve this are the NPOI Y-shaped array with (nearly) equal spacing between telescopes and an ability for rapid configuration. Placing 6-telescopes in a row makes it possible to measure visibilities into the 4th lobe of the visibility function. By arranging the available telescopes carefully we will be able to switch, every few days, between 3 different 6-station chains which provide symmetric coverage in the UV (Fourier) plane without moving any telescopes, only by moving beam relay mirrors. The 6-station chains are important to achieve the highest imaging resolution, and switching rapidly between station chains provides uniform coverage. Coherent integration techniques can be used to obtain good SNR on very small visibilities. Coherently integrated visibilities can be used for imaging with standard radio imaging packages such as AIPS. The commissioning of one additional station, the use of new data acquisition hardware and fringe tracking algorithms are the enhancements which make this project possible.

  17. High sensitivity optical molecular imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yu; Yuan, Gao; Huang, Chao; Jiang, Shixin; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Kun; Tian, Jie

    2018-02-01

    Optical Molecular Imaging (OMI) has the advantages of high sensitivity, low cost and ease of use. By labeling the regions of interest with fluorescent or bioluminescence probes, OMI can noninvasively obtain the distribution of the probes in vivo, which play the key role in cancer research, pharmacokinetics and other biological studies. In preclinical and clinical application, the image depth, resolution and sensitivity are the key factors for researchers to use OMI. In this paper, we report a high sensitivity optical molecular imaging system developed by our group, which can improve the imaging depth in phantom to nearly 5cm, high resolution at 2cm depth, and high image sensitivity. To validate the performance of the system, special designed phantom experiments and weak light detection experiment were implemented. The results shows that cooperated with high performance electron-multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera, precision design of light path system and high efficient image techniques, our OMI system can simultaneously collect the light-emitted signals generated by fluorescence molecular imaging, bioluminescence imaging, Cherenkov luminance and other optical imaging modality, and observe the internal distribution of light-emitting agents fast and accurately.

  18. Parallel image-acquisition in continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance imaging with a surface coil array: Proof-of-concept experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Ayano; Hirata, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    This article describes a feasibility study of parallel image-acquisition using a two-channel surface coil array in continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance (CW-EPR) imaging. Parallel EPR imaging was performed by multiplexing of EPR detection in the frequency domain. The parallel acquisition system consists of two surface coil resonators and radiofrequency (RF) bridges for EPR detection. To demonstrate the feasibility of this method of parallel image-acquisition with a surface coil array, three-dimensional EPR imaging was carried out using a tube phantom. Technical issues in the multiplexing method of EPR detection were also clarified. We found that degradation in the signal-to-noise ratio due to the interference of RF carriers is a key problem to be solved.

  19. Lossy image compression for digital medical imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Paul S.; Haynor, David R.; Kim, Yongmin; Nelson, Alan C.; Riskin, Eve A.

    1990-07-01

    Image compression at rates of 10:1 or greater could make PACS much more responsive and economically attractive. This paper describes a protocol for subjective and objective evaluation of the fidelity of compressed/decompressed images to the originals and presents the results ofits application to four representative and promising compression methods. The methods examined are predictive pruned tree-structured vector quantization, fractal compression, the discrete cosine transform with equal weighting of block bit allocation, and the discrete cosine transform with human visual system weighting of block bit allocation. Vector quantization is theoretically capable of producing the best compressed images, but has proven to be difficult to effectively implement. It has the advantage that it can reconstruct images quickly through a simple lookup table. Disadvantages are that codebook training is required, the method is computationally intensive, and achieving the optimum performance would require prohibitively long vector dimensions. Fractal compression is a relatively new compression technique, but has produced satisfactory results while being computationally simple. It is fast at both image compression and image reconstruction. Discrete cosine iransform techniques reproduce images well, but have traditionally been hampered by the need for intensive computing to compress and decompress images. A protocol was developed for side-by-side observer comparison of reconstructed images with originals. Three 1024 X 1024 CR (Computed Radiography) images and two 512 X 512 X-ray CT images were viewed at six bit rates (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 bpp for CR, and 1.0, 1.3, 1.6, 1.9, 2.2, 2.5 bpp for X-ray CT) by nine radiologists at the University of Washington Medical Center. The CR images were viewed on a Pixar II Megascan (2560 X 2048) monitor and the CT images on a Sony (1280 X 1024) monitor. The radiologists' subjective evaluations of image fidelity were compared to

  20. Ultrasensitive and selective detection of mercury (II) in serum based on the gold film sensor using a laser scanning confocal imaging-surface plasmon resonance system in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sha; Zhang, Hongyan; Liu, Weimin; Wang, Pengfei

    2015-10-01

    Hg2+ ions are one of the most toxic heavy metal ion pollutants, and are caustic and carcinogenic materials with high cellular toxicity. The Hg2+ ions can accumulate in the human body through the food chain and cause serious and permanent damage to the brain with both acute and chronic toxicity. According to the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines, Hg2+ ions must be at concentrations below 1 ng/ml (10 nM) in drinking water. If the Hg2+ ions are higher than 2.5 ng/ml in serum, that will bring mercury poisoning. The traditional testing for Hg2+ ions includes atomic absorption, atomic fluorescence, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. These methods are usually coupled with gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis. However, these instrument-based techniques are rather complicated, time-consuming, costly, and unsuitable for online and portable use. An ultrasensitive and selective detection of mercury (II) in serum was investigated using a laser scanning confocal imaging-surface plasmon resonance system (LSCI-SPR). The detection limit was as low as 0.01 ng/ml for Hg2+ ions in fetal calf serum and that is lower than that was required Hg2+ ions must be at concentrations below 1 ng/ml by the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. This sensor was designed on a T-rich, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-modified gold film, which can be individually manipulated using specific T-Hg2+-T complex formation. The quenching intensity of the fluorescence images for rhodamine-labeled ssDNA fitted well with the changes in SPR. The changes varied with the Hg2+ ion concentration, which is unaffected by the presence of other metal ions. A good liner relation was got with the coefficients of 0.9116 in 30% fetal calf serums with the linear part over a range of 0.01 ng/ml to10 ng/ml.

  1. A gamma cammera image processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weihua; Mei Jufang; Jiang Wenchuan; Guo Zhenxiang

    1987-01-01

    A microcomputer based gamma camera image processing system has been introduced. Comparing with other systems, the feature of this system is that an inexpensive microcomputer has been combined with specially developed hardware, such as, data acquisition controller, data processor and dynamic display controller, ect. Thus the process of picture processing has been speeded up and the function expense ratio of the system raised

  2. Advanced image display systems in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendler, T.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced image display systems for the fully digital diagnostic imaging departments of the future will be far more than simple replacements of the traditional film-viewing equipment. The new capabilities of very high resolution and highly dynamic displays offer a userfriendly and problem-oriented way of image interpretation. Advanced harware-, software- and human-machine interaction-concepts have been outlined. A scenario for a future way of handling and displaying images, reflecting a new image viewing paradigm in radiology is sketched which has been realized in an experimental image workstation model in the laboratory which, despite its technical complexity, offers a consistent strategy for fast and convenient interaction with image objects. The perspective of knowledge based techniques for workstation control software with object-oriented programming environments and user- and task-adaptive behavior leads to more advanced display properties and a new quality of userfriendliness. 2 refs.; 5 figs

  3. MONSOON Image Acquisition System | CTIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff CTIO History CTIO Directors Historic Highlights Site Description Contact Us Astronomers Observing Contact Acknowledgments TS4 History ISPI ISPI Exposure Time Calculator OSIRIS Spartan Optical Imagers single detector to very large focal planes made from arrays of detectors. The basic hierarchy of a

  4. Devices for Evaluating Imaging Systems. Chapter 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirkaya, O.; Al-Mazrou, R. [Department of Biomedical Physics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-12-15

    A quality management system (QMS) has three main components: (a) Quality assurance (QA); (b) Quality improvement; (c) Quality control (QC). The aim of a QMS is to ensure that the deliverables meet the requirements set forth by the users. The deliverables can be, in general, all the services provided in a nuclear medicine department, and the diagnostic imaging services in particular. In this section, the primary focus is the diagnostic imaging equipment and images produced by them.

  5. Imaging of dopaminergic system in movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder that is mainly caused by dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra. Several radiopharmaceutics have been developed to evaluated the integrity of dopaminergic neuronal system. In vivo PET and SPECT imaging of presynaptic dopamine imaging are already applied to Parkinson's disease and other parkinsonism, and can demonstrate the dopaminergic dysfunction. This review summarized the use of the presynaptic dopaminergic imaging in PD as biomarkers in evaluation of disease progression as well as in diagnosis of PD

  6. Scanned Image Projection System Employing Intermediate Image Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Christian Dean (Inventor); Hudman, Joshua M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    In imaging system, a spatial light modulator is configured to produce images by scanning a plurality light beams. A first optical element is configured to cause the plurality of light beams to converge along an optical path defined between the first optical element and the spatial light modulator. A second optical element is disposed between the spatial light modulator and a waveguide. The first optical element and the spatial light modulator are arranged such that an image plane is created between the spatial light modulator and the second optical element. The second optical element is configured to collect the diverging light from the image plane and collimate it. The second optical element then delivers the collimated light to a pupil at an input of the waveguide.

  7. BUILDING DETECTION USING AERIAL IMAGES AND DIGITAL SURFACE MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method for building detection in aerial images based on variational inference of logistic regression is proposed. It consists of three steps. In order to characterize the appearances of buildings in aerial images, an effective bag-of-Words (BoW method is applied for feature extraction in the first step. In the second step, a classifier of logistic regression is learned using these local features. The logistic regression can be trained using different methods. In this paper we adopt a fully Bayesian treatment for learning the classifier, which has a number of obvious advantages over other learning methods. Due to the presence of hyper prior in the probabilistic model of logistic regression, approximate inference methods have to be applied for prediction. In order to speed up the inference, a variational inference method based on mean field instead of stochastic approximation such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo is applied. After the prediction, a probabilistic map is obtained. In the third step, a fully connected conditional random field model is formulated and the probabilistic map is used as the data term in the model. A mean field inference is utilized in order to obtain a binary building mask. A benchmark data set consisting of aerial images and digital surfaced model (DSM released by ISPRS for 2D semantic labeling is used for performance evaluation. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Flat Surface Damage Detection System (FSDDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Lewis, Mark; Gibson, Tracy; Lane, John; Medelius, Pedro; Snyder, Sarah; Ciarlariello, Dan; Parks, Steve; Carrejo, Danny; Rojdev, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The Flat Surface Damage Detection system (FSDDS} is a sensory system that is capable of detecting impact damages to surfaces utilizing a novel sensor system. This system will provide the ability to monitor the integrity of an inflatable habitat during in situ system health monitoring. The system consists of three main custom designed subsystems: the multi-layer sensing panel, the embedded monitoring system, and the graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI LABVIEW software uses a custom developed damage detection algorithm to determine the damage location based on the sequence of broken sensing lines. It estimates the damage size, the maximum depth, and plots the damage location on a graph. Successfully demonstrated as a stand alone technology during 2011 D-RATS. Software modification also allowed for communication with HDU avionics crew display which was demonstrated remotely (KSC to JSC} during 2012 integration testing. Integrated FSDDS system and stand alone multi-panel systems were demonstrated remotely and at JSC, Mission Operations Test using Space Network Research Federation (SNRF} network in 2012. FY13, FSDDS multi-panel integration with JSC and SNRF network Technology can allow for integration with other complementary damage detection systems.

  9. Image processing system for flow pattern measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushijima, Satoru; Miyanaga, Yoichi; Takeda, Hirofumi

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the development and application of an image processing system for measurements of flow patterns occuring in natural circulation water flows. In this method, the motions of particles scattered in the flow are visualized by a laser light slit and they are recorded on normal video tapes. These image data are converted to digital data with an image processor and then transfered to a large computer. The center points and pathlines of the particle images are numerically analized, and velocity vectors are obtained with these results. In this image processing system, velocity vectors in a vertical plane are measured simultaneously, so that the two dimensional behaviors of various eddies, with low velocity and complicated flow patterns usually observed in natural circulation flows, can be determined almost quantitatively. The measured flow patterns, which were obtained from natural circulation flow experiments, agreed with photographs of the particle movements, and the validity of this measuring system was confirmed in this study. (author)

  10. MULTIPLE IMAGING TECHNIQUES DEMONSTRATE THE MANIPULATION OF SURFACES TO REDUCE BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface imaging techniques were combined to determine appropriate manipulation of technologically important surfaces for commercial applications. Stainless steel surfaces were engineered to reduce bacterial contamination, biofilm formation, and corrosion during product processing...

  11. Defect inspection in hot slab surface: multi-source CCD imaging based fuzzy-rough sets method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liming; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Xiaodong; Xiao, Hong; Huang, Chao

    2016-09-01

    To provide an accurate surface defects inspection method and make the automation of robust image region of interests(ROI) delineation strategy a reality in production line, a multi-source CCD imaging based fuzzy-rough sets method is proposed for hot slab surface quality assessment. The applicability of the presented method and the devised system are mainly tied to the surface quality inspection for strip, billet and slab surface etcetera. In this work we take into account the complementary advantages in two common machine vision (MV) systems(line array CCD traditional scanning imaging (LS-imaging) and area array CCD laser three-dimensional (3D) scanning imaging (AL-imaging)), and through establishing the model of fuzzy-rough sets in the detection system the seeds for relative fuzzy connectedness(RFC) delineation for ROI can placed adaptively, which introduces the upper and lower approximation sets for RIO definition, and by which the boundary region can be delineated by RFC region competitive classification mechanism. For the first time, a Multi-source CCD imaging based fuzzy-rough sets strategy is attempted for CC-slab surface defects inspection that allows an automatic way of AI algorithms and powerful ROI delineation strategies to be applied to the MV inspection field.

  12. Monitoring System for ALICE Surface Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Demirbasci, Oguz

    2016-01-01

    I have been at CERN for 12 weeks within the scope of Summer Student Programme working on a monitoring system project for surface areas of the ALICE experiment during this period of time. The development and implementation of a monitoring system for environmental parameters in the accessible areas where a cheap hardware setup can be deployed were aim of this project. This report explains how it was developed by using Arduino, Raspberry PI, WinCC OA and DIM protocol.

  13. Dry cooling systems with plastic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roma, Carlo; Leonelli, Vincenzo

    1975-01-01

    Research and experiments made on dry cooling systems with plastic surfaces are described. The demonstration program planned in Italy for a 100Gcal/h dry cooling system is exposed, and an installation intended for a large 1300Mwe nuclear power station is described with reference to the assembly (exploitation and maintenance included). The performance and economic data relating to this installation are also exposed [fr

  14. Fibre laser based broadband THz imaging systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichhorn, Finn

    imaging techniques. This thesis exhibits that fiber technology can improve the robustness and the flexibility of terahertz imaging systems both by the use of fiber-optic light sources and the employment of optical fibers as light distribution medium. The main focus is placed on multi-element terahertz...

  15. Image based rendering of iterated function systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van J.J.; Saupe, D.

    2004-01-01

    A fast method to generate fractal imagery is presented. Iterated function systems (IFS) are based on repeatedly copying transformed images. We show that this can be directly translated into standard graphics operations: Each image is generated by texture mapping and blending copies of the previous

  16. Automotive System for Remote Surface Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrov, Aleksandr; Hoare, Edward; Tran, Thuy-Yung; Clarke, Nigel; Gashinova, Marina; Cherniakov, Mikhail

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we shall discuss a novel approach to road surface recognition, based on the analysis of backscattered microwave and ultrasonic signals. The novelty of our method is sonar and polarimetric radar data fusion, extraction of features for separate swathes of illuminated surface (segmentation), and using of multi-stage artificial neural network for surface classification. The developed system consists of 24 GHz radar and 40 kHz ultrasonic sensor. The features are extracted from backscattered signals and then the procedures of principal component analysis and supervised classification are applied to feature data. The special attention is paid to multi-stage artificial neural network which allows an overall increase in classification accuracy. The proposed technique was tested for recognition of a large number of real surfaces in different weather conditions with the average accuracy of correct classification of 95%. The obtained results thereby demonstrate that the use of proposed system architecture and statistical methods allow for reliable discrimination of various road surfaces in real conditions.

  17. Sampling system for in vivo ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jorgen Arendt; Mathorne, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Newly developed algorithms for processing medical ultrasound images use the high frequency sampled transducer signal. This paper describes demands imposed on a sampling system suitable for acquiring such data and gives details about a prototype constructed. It acquires full clinical images...... at a sampling frequency of 20 MHz with a resolution of 12 bits. The prototype can be used for real time image processing. An example of a clinical in vivo image is shown and various aspects of the data acquisition process are discussed....

  18. Four-Mirror Freeform Reflective Imaging Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Central Objectives: The research involves a revelation of the solution space for revolutionary families of four-mirror freeform reflective imaging systems. A...

  19. Fusion of Images from Dissimilar Sensor Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chow, Khin

    2004-01-01

    Different sensors exploit different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum; therefore a multi-sensor image fusion system can take full advantage of the complementary capabilities of individual sensors in the suit...

  20. System for imaging plutonium through heavy shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Cannon, T.M.; Fenimore, E.E.; Moss, C.E.; Nixon, K.V.

    1984-04-01

    A single pinhole can be used to image strong self-luminescent gamma-ray sources such as plutonium on gamma scintillation (Anger) cameras. However, if the source is weak or heavily shielded, a poor signal to noise ratio can prevent acquisition of the image. An imaging system designed and built at Los Alamos National Laboratory uses a coded aperture to image heavily shielded sources. The paper summarizes the mathematical techniques, based on the Fast Delta Hadamard transform, used to decode raw images. Practical design considerations such as the phase of the uniformly redundant aperture and the encoded image sampling are discussed. The imaging system consists of a custom designed m-sequence coded aperture, a Picker International Corporation gamma scintillation camera, a LeCroy 3500 data acquisition system, and custom imaging software. The paper considers two sources - 1.5 mCi 57 Co unshielded at a distance of 27 m and 220 g of bulk plutonium (11.8% 240 Pu) with 0.3 cm lead, 2.5 cm steel, and 10 cm of dense plastic material at a distance of 77.5 cm. Results show that the location and geometry of a source hidden in a large sealed package can be determined without having to open the package. 6 references, 4 figures

  1. Document Examination: Applications of Image Processing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopainsky, B

    1989-12-01

    Dealing with images is a familiar business for an expert in questioned documents: microscopic, photographic, infrared, and other optical techniques generate images containing the information he or she is looking for. A recent method for extracting most of this information is digital image processing, ranging from the simple contrast and contour enhancement to the advanced restoration of blurred texts. When combined with a sophisticated physical imaging system, an image pricessing system has proven to be a powerful and fast tool for routine non-destructive scanning of suspect documents. This article reviews frequent applications, comprising techniques to increase legibility, two-dimensional spectroscopy (ink discrimination, alterations, erased entries, etc.), comparison techniques (stamps, typescript letters, photo substitution), and densitometry. Computerized comparison of handwriting is not included. Copyright © 1989 Central Police University.

  2. A fractal-based image encryption system

    KAUST Repository

    Abd-El-Hafiz, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    This study introduces a novel image encryption system based on diffusion and confusion processes in which the image information is hidden inside the complex details of fractal images. A simplified encryption technique is, first, presented using a single-fractal image and statistical analysis is performed. A general encryption system utilising multiple fractal images is, then, introduced to improve the performance and increase the encryption key up to hundreds of bits. This improvement is achieved through several parameters: feedback delay, multiplexing and independent horizontal or vertical shifts. The effect of each parameter is studied separately and, then, they are combined to illustrate their influence on the encryption quality. The encryption quality is evaluated using different analysis techniques such as correlation coefficients, differential attack measures, histogram distributions, key sensitivity analysis and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) statistical test suite. The obtained results show great potential compared to other techniques.

  3. Macro-carriers of plastic deformation of steel surface layers detected by digital image correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopanitsa, D. G., E-mail: kopanitsa@mail.ru; Ustinov, A. M., E-mail: artemustinov@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Potekaev, A. I., E-mail: potekaev@spti.tsu.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Klopotov, A. A., E-mail: klopotovaa@tsuab.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Kopanitsa, G. D., E-mail: georgy.kopanitsa@mail.com [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    This paper presents a study of characteristics of an evolution of deformation fields in surface layers of medium-carbon low-alloy specimens under compression. The experiments were performed on the “Universal Testing Machine 4500” using a digital stereoscopic image processing system Vic-3D. A transition between stages is reflected as deformation redistribution on the near-surface layers. Electronic microscopy shows that the structure of the steel is a mixture of pearlite and ferrite grains. A proportion of pearlite is 40% and ferrite is 60%.

  4. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-07-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed.

  5. Reliability demonstration of imaging surveillance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, T.F.; Henderson, J.T.; MacDiarmid, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    Security surveillance systems which employ closed circuit television are being deployed with increasing frequency for the protection of property and other valuable assets. A need exists to demonstrate the reliability of such systems before their installation to assure that the deployed systems will operate when needed with only the scheduled amount of maintenance and support costs. An approach to the reliability demonstration of imaging surveillance systems which employ closed circuit television is described. Failure definitions based on industry television standards and imaging alarm assessment criteria for surveillance systems are discussed. Test methods which allow 24 hour a day operation without the need for numerous test scenarios, test personnel and elaborate test facilities are presented. Existing reliability demonstration standards are shown to apply which obviate the need for elaborate statistical tests. The demonstration methods employed are shown to have applications in other types of imaging surveillance systems besides closed circuit television

  6. Effective Waterline Detection of Unmanned Surface Vehicles Based on Optical Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangjie Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Real-time and accurate detection of the sailing or water area will help realize unmanned surface vehicle (USV systems. Although there are some methods for using optical images in USV-oriented environmental modeling, both the robustness and precision of these published waterline detection methods are comparatively low for a real USV system moving in a complicated environment. This paper proposes an efficient waterline detection method based on structure extraction and texture analysis with respect to optical images and presents a practical application to a USV system for validation. First, the basic principles of local binary patterns (LBPs and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM were analyzed, and their advantages were integrated to calculate the texture information of river images. Then, structure extraction was introduced to preprocess the original river images so that the textures resulting from USV motion, wind, and illumination are removed. In the practical application, the waterlines of many images captured by the USV system moving along an inland river were detected with the proposed method, and the results were compared with those of edge detection and super pixel segmentation. The experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm is effective and robust. The average error of the proposed method was 1.84 pixels, and the mean square deviation was 4.57 pixels.

  7. Fluorescence spectral imaging as a tool for locating uranium deposited on surfaces - 16089

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monts, David L.; Wang, Guangjun; Su, Yi; Jang, Ping-Rey; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    In the environment, metallic uranium readily oxidizes to form uranium compounds that contain the uranyl (UO 2 +2 ) moiety. For more than a hundred and fifty years, it has been known that when illuminated with ultraviolet (UV) light, uranyl compounds exhibit characteristic fluorescence in the visible region (450-650 nm). We report our efforts to develop a transportable, quantitative Fluorescence Spectral Imaging (FSI) system as a tool for locating and quantifying uranyl compounds dispersed in soils and on other surfaces. A project is underway to develop a set of sensors to locate expended depleted uranium (DU) rounds and to process soil and debris to recover the material from domestic firing ranges. The FSI system can also be utilized to monitor excavation of DU munitions and separation of uranyl compounds from soils. FSI images are acquired by illuminating a surface with a UV light and using a narrow band pass filter on a camera, recording an image of the resulting fluorescence. The FSI image provides both spatial and spectral information. The FSI system is described and its performance characterized using field samples. (authors)

  8. Breast imaging and reporting data system (BIRADS): Magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardivon, Anne A.; Athanasiou, Alexandra; Thibault, Fabienne; El Khoury, Carl

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the technical aspects and interpretation criteria in breast MR imaging based on the first edition of breast imaging and reporting data system (BIRADS) published by the American College of Radiology (ACR) in 2003. In a second article, practical cases will be proposed for training the readers. The major aims of using this lexicon are: first to use a logical and standardized description of MR lesions, secondly to obtain a structured MR report with a clear final impression (BIRADS assessment categories), and thirdly to help comparison between different clinical studies based on similar breast MRI terminology

  9. Development of ballistics identification—from image comparison to topography measurement in surface metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, J; Chu, W; Vorburger, T V; Thompson, R; Renegar, T B; Zheng, A; Yen, J; Silver, R; Ols, M

    2012-01-01

    Fired bullets and ejected cartridge cases have unique ballistics signatures left by the firearm. By analyzing the ballistics signatures, forensic examiners can trace these bullets and cartridge cases to the firearm used in a crime scene. Current automated ballistics identification systems are primarily based on image comparisons using optical microscopy. The correlation accuracy depends on image quality which is largely affected by lighting conditions. Because ballistics signatures are geometrical micro-topographies by nature, direct measurement and correlation of the surface topography is being investigated for ballistics identification. A Two-dimensional and Three-dimensional Topography Measurement and Correlation System was developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology for certification of Standard Reference Material 2460/2461 bullets and cartridge cases. Based on this system, a prototype system for bullet signature measurement and correlation has been developed for bullet signature identifications, and has demonstrated superior correlation results. (paper)

  10. Image quality in digital radiographic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Solange Maria de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the image quality of four direct digital radiographic systems. Radiographs were made of the maxillary central incisor and mandibular left molar regions of a dry skull, and an aluminum step-wedge. The X-ray generator operated at 10 mA, 60 and 70 kVp, and images were acquired with 3, 5, 8, 12, 24 and 48 exposure pulses. Six well-trained observers classified the images by means of scores from 1 to 3. Collected data were submitted to nonparametric statistical analysis using Fisher's exact test. Statistical analysis showed significant differences (p<0.01 in image quality with the four systems. Based on the results, it was possible to conclude that: 1 all of the digital systems presented good performance in producing acceptable images for diagnosis, if the exposures of the step-wedge and the maxillary central incisor region were made at 5 pulses, as well as at 8 pulses for the mandibular left molar region, selecting 60 or 70kVp; 2 higher percentages of acceptable images were obtained with the administration of lower radiation doses in CCD-sensors (charge-coupled device; 3 the Storage Phosphor systems produced acceptable images at a large range of exposure settings, that included low, intermediate and high radiation doses.

  11. Image acquisition system for traffic monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Glen; Corke, Peter I.; Dunn, Paul; Jensen, Murray; Macintyre, Ian B.; Mills, Dennis C.; Nguyen, Hao; Simons, Ben

    1995-03-01

    An imaging system for monitoring traffic on multilane highways is discussed. The system, named Safe-T-Cam, is capable of operating 24 hours per day in all but extreme weather conditions and can capture still images of vehicles traveling up to 160 km/hr. Systems operating at different remote locations are networked to allow transmission of images and data to a control center. A remote site facility comprises a vehicle detection and classification module (VCDM), an image acquisition module (IAM) and a license plate recognition module (LPRM). The remote site is connected to the central site by an ISDN communications network. The remote site system is discussed in this paper. The VCDM consists of a video camera, a specialized exposure control unit to maintain consistent image characteristics, and a 'real-time' image processing system that processes 50 images per second. The VCDM can detect and classify vehicles (e.g. cars from trucks). The vehicle class is used to determine what data should be recorded. The VCDM uses a vehicle tracking technique to allow optimum triggering of the high resolution camera of the IAM. The IAM camera combines the features necessary to operate consistently in the harsh environment encountered when imaging a vehicle 'head-on' in both day and night conditions. The image clarity obtained is ideally suited for automatic location and recognition of the vehicle license plate. This paper discusses the camera geometry, sensor characteristics and the image processing methods which permit consistent vehicle segmentation from a cluttered background allowing object oriented pattern recognition to be used for vehicle classification. The image capture of high resolution images and the image characteristics required for the LPRMs automatic reading of vehicle license plates, is also discussed. The results of field tests presented demonstrate that the vision based Safe-T-Cam system, currently installed on open highways, is capable of producing automatic

  12. Indonesia sea surface temperature from TRMM Microwave Imaging (TMI) sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Y.; Setiawan, K. T.

    2018-05-01

    We analysis the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) data to monitor the sea surface temperature (SST) of Indonesia waters for a decade of 2005-2014. The TMI SST data shows the seasonal and interannual SST in Indonesian waters. In general, the SST average was highest in March-May period with SST average was 29.4°C, and the lowest was in June – August period with the SST average was 28.5°C. The monthly SST average fluctuation of Indonesian waters for 10 years tends to increase. The lowest SST average of Indonesia occurred in August 2006 with the SST average was 27.6° C, while the maximum occurred in May 2014 with the monthly SST average temperature was 29.9 ° C.

  13. Switchable host-guest systems on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Wei; Sun, Yu-Long; Song, Nan

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: For device miniaturization, nanotechnology follows either the "top-down" approach scaling down existing larger-scale devices or the "bottom-up' approach assembling the smallest possible building blocks to functional nanoscale entities. For synthetic nanodevices, self-assembly on surfaces is a superb method to achieve useful functions and enable their interactions with the surrounding world. Consequently, adaptability and responsiveness to external stimuli are other prerequisites for their successful operation. Mechanically interlocked molecules such as rotaxanes and catenanes, and their precursors, that is, molecular switches and supramolecular switches including pseudorotaxanes, are molecular machines or prototypes of machines capable of mechanical motion induced by chemical signals, biological inputs, light or redox processes as the external stimuli. Switching of these functional host-guest systems on surfaces becomes a fundamental requirement for artificial molecular machines to work, mimicking the molecular machines in nature, such as proteins and their assemblies operating at dynamic interfaces such as the surfaces of cell membranes. Current research endeavors in material science and technology are focused on developing either a new class of materials or materials with novel/multiple functionalities by shifting host-guest chemistry from solution phase to surfaces. In this Account, we present our most recent attempts of building monolayers of rotaxanes/pseudorotaxanes on surfaces, providing stimuli-induced macroscopic effects and further understanding on the switchable host-guest systems at interfaces. Biocompatible versions of molecular machines based on synthetic macrocycles, such as cucurbiturils, pillararenes, calixarenes, and cyclodextrins, have been employed to form self-assembled monolayers of gates on the surfaces of mesoporous silica nanoparticles to regulate the controlled release of cargo/drug molecules under a range of external stimuli

  14. Hologlyphics: volumetric image synthesis performance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Walter

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes a novel volumetric image synthesis system and artistic technique, which generate moving volumetric images in real-time, integrated with music. The system, called the Hologlyphic Funkalizer, is performance based, wherein the images and sound are controlled by a live performer, for the purposes of entertaining a live audience and creating a performance art form unique to volumetric and autostereoscopic images. While currently configured for a specific parallax barrier display, the Hologlyphic Funkalizer's architecture is completely adaptable to various volumetric and autostereoscopic display technologies. Sound is distributed through a multi-channel audio system; currently a quadraphonic speaker setup is implemented. The system controls volumetric image synthesis, production of music and spatial sound via acoustic analysis and human gestural control, using a dedicated control panel, motion sensors, and multiple musical keyboards. Music can be produced by external acoustic instruments, pre-recorded sounds or custom audio synthesis integrated with the volumetric image synthesis. Aspects of the sound can control the evolution of images and visa versa. Sounds can be associated and interact with images, for example voice synthesis can be combined with an animated volumetric mouth, where nuances of generated speech modulate the mouth's expressiveness. Different images can be sent to up to 4 separate displays. The system applies many novel volumetric special effects, and extends several film and video special effects into the volumetric realm. Extensive and various content has been developed and shown to live audiences by a live performer. Real world applications will be explored, with feedback on the human factors.

  15. System for removing contaminated surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Kozo.

    1987-04-01

    The object of the present invention is to offer a new type of useful decontamination system, with which the contaminated surface layers can be removed effectively by injection of such solid microparticles. Liquid carbon dioxide is passed from a liquid carbon dioxide tank via the carbon dioxide supply line into the system for injecting solid carbon dioxide particles. Part of the liquid carbon dioxide introduced into the system is converted to solid carbon dioxide particles by the temperature drop resulting from adiabatic expansion in the carbon dioxide expansion space of the injection system. The solid carbon dioxide particles reach the injection nozzle, which is connected through the expansion space. The carbon dioxide microparticles are further cooled and accelerated by nitrogen gas injected from the nitrogen gas nozzle at the tip of the nitrogen gas supply line, which is connected to a liquid nitrogen tank. The cooled and accelerated solid carbon dioxide microparticles are injected from the injection nozzle for the solid carbon dioxide and directed against the contaminated surface to be cleaned, and, as a result, the surface contamination is removed

  16. Visual computing scientific visualization and imaging systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This volume aims to stimulate discussions on research involving the use of data and digital images as an understanding approach for analysis and visualization of phenomena and experiments. The emphasis is put not only on graphically representing data as a way of increasing its visual analysis, but also on the imaging systems which contribute greatly to the comprehension of real cases. Scientific Visualization and Imaging Systems encompass multidisciplinary areas, with applications in many knowledge fields such as Engineering, Medicine, Material Science, Physics, Geology, Geographic Information Systems, among others. This book is a selection of 13 revised and extended research papers presented in the International Conference on Advanced Computational Engineering and Experimenting -ACE-X conferences 2010 (Paris), 2011 (Algarve), 2012 (Istanbul) and 2013 (Madrid). The examples were particularly chosen from materials research, medical applications, general concepts applied in simulations and image analysis and ot...

  17. Surface properties of functional polymer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Derek

    Polymer surface modification typically involves blending with other polymers or chemical modification of the parent polymer. Such strategies inevitably result in polymer systems that are spatially and chemically heterogeneous, and which exhibit the phenomenon of surface segregation. This work investigates the effects of chain architecture on the surface segregation behavior of such functionally modified polymers using a series of end- and center-fluorinated poly(D,L-lactide). Surface segregation of the fluorinated functional groups was observed in both chain architectures via AMPS and water contact angle. Higher surface segregation was noted for functional groups located at the chain end as opposed to those in the middle of the chain. A self-consistent mean-field lattice theory was used to model the composition depth profiles of functional groups and excellent agreement was found between the model predictions and the experimental AMPS data in both chain architectures. Polymer properties are also in general dependent on both time and temperature, and exhibit a range of relaxation times in response to environmental stimuli. This behavior arises from the characteristic frequencies of molecular motions of the polymer chain and the interrelationship between time and temperature has been widely established for polymer bulk properties. There is evidence that surface properties also respond in a manner that is time and temperature dependent and that this dependence may not be the same as that observed for bulk properties. AMPS and water contact angle experiments were used to investigate the surface reorganization behavior of functional groups using a series of anionically synthesized end-fluorinated and end-carboxylated poly(styrene). It was found that both types of functional end-groups reorganized upon a change in the polarity of the surface environment in order to minimize the surface free energy. ADXPS and contact angle results suggest that the reorganization depth was

  18. Under sodium ultrasonic imaging system for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patankar, V.H.; Lalwani, S.K.; Agashe, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Under Sodium UltraSonic Scanner (USUSS) has been developed to detect the growth and protrusion of fuel sub-assemblies of PFBR, submerged in liquid sodium by using the ultrasonic imaging technique during reactor shut-down when liquid sodium is at 180 ℃. The imaging is carried out prior to every Fuel handling operation. Electronics Division, BARC has designed and developed an 8-Channel Ultrasonic Imaging System (UIS) which consists of 4 downward viewing and 4 side viewing ultrasonic transducers alongwith pulser-receiver, signal processing electronics hardware and software. An automated mechanical scanner developed by IGCAR houses sodium immersible transducers to image the fuel sub assemblies. The system has been successfully tested with dummy protruding and grown FSAs, submerged under liquid sodium. Such ultrasonic imaging systems are not available to India from international market. The USUSS developed indigenously has all the features available in similar systems developed by other countries. After every imaging campaign, the mechanical scanner containing ultrasonic transducers is stored in the Argon filled storage-pit. Before every campaign of USUSS, it is necessary to check the healthiness of the sodium immersible and contaminated ultrasonic transducers, as the under-sodium scanner is decontaminated once in five years. For this purpose, a novel Non Contact Ultrasonic Inspection System (NCUIS) has been designed and developed by Electronics Division, BARC to check the functionality of the high-temperature and contaminated transducers of USUSS, using air-coupled ultrasonic technique. (author)

  19. Evaluation of transmitted images by teleradiology system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshikawa, Yoshikazu

    1993-01-01

    Teleradiology system is a combination of digital data networks and computer systems, which is the electric transmission of radiographs and/or radiologic images from local to center radiological system. The author evaluated reproducibility of transmitted images using Photophone (Image Data Corporation) as teleradiology system. Proven cases of abdominal free air (38 plain films, 15 CT), pneumothorax (24 plain films, 20 CT) and small bowel obstruction (30 plain films, 8 CT) were transmitted. Findings could be identified on non-magnified plain films in 75.6%, 83.3% and 96.7% respectively and on magnified CT in 100%, 100% and 100%. Transmitted images of 57 cases of abdominal trauma were read for positive findings and diagnosis by three radiologists. Average positive ratio was 47.3% on plain films and 70.9% on CT. Diagnosis was correct in 66.7% on CT. Specificity and sensitivity were 81.9% and 61.6% respectively on plain film and 88.6% and 93.9% on CT. The accuracy of transmitted images appears to be unsatisfactory on this study. It is suggested that the system is useful for consultation of already identified findings on the original images. (author)

  20. Evaluation of transmitted images by teleradiology system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshikawa, Yoshikazu (St. Marianna Univ., Kawasaki (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-12-01

    Teleradiology system is a combination of digital data networks and computer systems, which is the electric transmission of radiographs and/or radiologic images from local to center radiological system. The author evaluated reproducibility of transmitted images using Photophone (Image Data Corporation) as teleradiology system. Proven cases of abdominal free air (38 plain films, 15 CT), pneumothorax (24 plain films, 20 CT) and small bowel obstruction (30 plain films, 8 CT) were transmitted. Findings could be identified on non-magnified plain films in 75.6%, 83.3% and 96.7% respectively and on magnified CT in 100%, 100% and 100%. Transmitted images of 57 cases of abdominal trauma were read for positive findings and diagnosis by three radiologists. Average positive ratio was 47.3% on plain films and 70.9% on CT. Diagnosis was correct in 66.7% on CT. Specificity and sensitivity were 81.9% and 61.6% respectively on plain film and 88.6% and 93.9% on CT. The accuracy of transmitted images appears to be unsatisfactory on this study. It is suggested that the system is useful for consultation of already identified findings on the original images. (author).

  1. Segmentation of 3D ultrasound computer tomography reflection images using edge detection and surface fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, T.; Zapf, M.; Ruiter, N. V.

    2014-03-01

    An essential processing step for comparison of Ultrasound Computer Tomography images to other modalities, as well as for the use in further image processing, is to segment the breast from the background. In this work we present a (semi-) automated 3D segmentation method which is based on the detection of the breast boundary in coronal slice images and a subsequent surface fitting. The method was evaluated using a software phantom and in-vivo data. The fully automatically processed phantom results showed that a segmentation of approx. 10% of the slices of a dataset is sufficient to recover the overall breast shape. Application to 16 in-vivo datasets was performed successfully using semi-automated processing, i.e. using a graphical user interface for manual corrections of the automated breast boundary detection. The processing time for the segmentation of an in-vivo dataset could be significantly reduced by a factor of four compared to a fully manual segmentation. Comparison to manually segmented images identified a smoother surface for the semi-automated segmentation with an average of 11% of differing voxels and an average surface deviation of 2mm. Limitations of the edge detection may be overcome by future updates of the KIT USCT system, allowing a fully-automated usage of our segmentation approach.

  2. SURFACE INDUSTRIAL HVAC SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.M. Ansari

    2005-04-05

    The purpose of this system description document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the surface industrial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and its bases to allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This SDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This SDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. The SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description that provided in this SDD reflects the current results of the design process.

  3. Imaging system design and image interpolation based on CMOS image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-feng; Liang, Fei; Guo, Rui

    2009-11-01

    An image acquisition system is introduced, which consists of a color CMOS image sensor (OV9620), SRAM (CY62148), CPLD (EPM7128AE) and DSP (TMS320VC5509A). The CPLD implements the logic and timing control to the system. SRAM stores the image data, and DSP controls the image acquisition system through the SCCB (Omni Vision Serial Camera Control Bus). The timing sequence of the CMOS image sensor OV9620 is analyzed. The imaging part and the high speed image data memory unit are designed. The hardware and software design of the image acquisition and processing system is given. CMOS digital cameras use color filter arrays to sample different spectral components, such as red, green, and blue. At the location of each pixel only one color sample is taken, and the other colors must be interpolated from neighboring samples. We use the edge-oriented adaptive interpolation algorithm for the edge pixels and bilinear interpolation algorithm for the non-edge pixels to improve the visual quality of the interpolated images. This method can get high processing speed, decrease the computational complexity, and effectively preserve the image edges.

  4. Improvement of the image quality of a high-temperature vision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabijańska, Anna; Sankowski, Dominik

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the issues of controlling and improving the image quality of a high-temperature vision system are considered. The image quality improvement is needed to measure the surface properties of metals and alloys. Two levels of image quality control and improvement are defined in the system. The first level in hardware aims at adjusting the system configuration to obtain the highest contrast and weakest aura images. When optimal configuration is obtained, the second level in software is applied. In this stage, image enhancement algorithms are applied which have been developed with consideration of distortions arising from the vision system components and specificity of images acquired during the measurement process. The developed algorithms have been applied in the vision system to images. The influence on the accuracy of wetting angles and surface tension determination are considered

  5. 3D Surface Realignment Tracking for Medical Imaging: A Phantom Study with PET Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl

    2011-01-01

    We present a complete system for motion correction in high resolution brain positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. It is based on a compact structured light scanner mounted above the patient tunnel of the Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph PET brain scanner. The structured light system...... is equipped with a near infrared diode and uses phase-shift interferometry to compute 3D representations of the forehead of the patient. These 3D point clouds are progressively aligned to a reference surface and thereby giving the head pose changes. The estimated pose changes are used to reposition a sequence...... of recon- structed PET frames. To align the structured light system with the PET coordinate system a novel registration algorithm based on the PET trans- mission scan and an initial surface has been developed. The performance of the complete setup has been evaluated using a custom made phantom based...

  6. A New Sensor for Surface Process Quantification in the Geosciences - Image-Assisted Tacheometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicovac, Tanja; Reiterer, Alexander; Rieke-Zapp, Dirk

    2010-05-01

    The quantification of earth surface processes in the geosciences requires precise measurement tools. Typical applications for precise measurement systems involve deformation monitoring for geo-risk management, detection of erosion rates, etc. Often employed for such applications are laser scanners, photogrammetric sensors and image-assisted tacheometers. Image-assisted tacheometers offer the user (metrology expert) an image capturing system (CCD/CMOS camera) in addition to 3D point measurements. The images of the telescope's visual field are projected onto the camera's chip. The camera is capable of capturing panoramic image mosaics through camera rotation if the axes of the measurement system are driven by computer controlled motors. With appropriate calibration, these images are accurately geo-referenced and oriented since the horizontal and vertical angles of rotation are continuously measured and fed into the computer. The oriented images can then directly be used for direction measurements with no need for control points in object space or further photogrammetric orientation processes. In such a system, viewing angles must be addressed to chip pixels inside the optical field of view. Hence dedicated calibration methods have to be applied, an autofocus unit has to be added to the optical path, and special digital image processing procedures have to be used to detect the points of interest on the objects to be measured. We present such a new optical measurement system for measuring and describing 3D surfaces for geosciences. Besides the technique and methods some practical examples will be shown. The system was developed at the Vienna University of Technology (Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics) - two interdisciplinary research project, i-MeaS and SedyMONT, have been launched with the purpose of measuring and interpreting 3D surfaces and surface processes. For the in situ measurement of bed rock erosion the level of surveying accuracy required for recurring sub

  7. The National Ignition Facility Neutron Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, Mark D.; Batha, Steven H.; Bradley, Paul A.; Day, Robert D.; Clark, David D.; Fatherley, Valerie E.; Finch, Joshua P.; Gallegos, Robert A.; Garcia, Felix P.; Grim, Gary P.; Jaramillo, Steven A.; Montoya, Andrew J.; Morgan, George L.; Oertel, John A.; Ortiz, Thomas A.; Payton, Jeremy R.; Pazuchanics, Peter; Schmidt, Derek W.; Valdez, Adelaida C.; Wilde, Carl H.

    2008-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is scheduled to begin deuterium-tritium (DT) shots possibly in the next several years. One of the important diagnostics in understanding capsule behavior and to guide changes in Hohlraum illumination, capsule design, and geometry will be neutron imaging of both the primary 14 MeV neutrons and the lower-energy downscattered neutrons in the 6-13 MeV range. The neutron imaging system (NIS) described here, which we are currently building for use on NIF, uses a precisely aligned set of apertures near the target to form the neutron images on a segmented scintillator. The images are recorded on a gated, intensified charge coupled device. Although the aperture set may be as close as 20 cm to the target, the imaging camera system will be located at a distance of 28 m from the target. At 28 m the camera system is outside the NIF building. Because of the distance and shielding, the imager will be able to obtain images with little background noise. The imager will be capable of imaging downscattered neutrons from failed capsules with yields Y n >10 14 neutrons. The shielding will also permit the NIS to function at neutron yields >10 18 , which is in contrast to most other diagnostics that may not work at high neutron yields. The following describes the current NIF NIS design and compares the predicted performance with the NIF specifications that must be satisfied to generate images that can be interpreted to understand results of a particular shot. The current design, including the aperture, scintillator, camera system, and reconstruction methods, is briefly described. System modeling of the existing Omega NIS and comparison with the Omega data that guided the NIF design based on our Omega results is described. We will show NIS model calculations of the expected NIF images based on component evaluations at Omega. We will also compare the calculated NIF input images with those unfolded from the NIS images generated from our NIS numerical

  8. Design of optically stable image reflector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Yu

    2013-08-01

    The design of a partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, in which the exit ray direction and image pose are unchanged as the reflector system rotates about a specific directional vector, was presented in an earlier study by the current group [Appl. Phys. B100, 883-890 (2010)]. The present study further proposes an optically stable image (OSI) reflector system, in which not only is the optical stability property of the POS system retained, but the image position and total ray path length are also fixed. An analytical method is proposed for the design of OSI reflector systems comprising multiple reflectors. The validity of the proposed approach is demonstrated by means of two illustrative examples.

  9. Radionuclide Imaging Technologies for Biological Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Calvin R. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Reid, Chantal D. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Weisenberger, Andrew G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-05-14

    The main objective of this project is to develop technologies and experimental techniques for studying the dynamics of physiological responses of plants to changes in their interface with the local environment and to educate a new generation of scientists in an interdisciplinary environment of biology, physics and engineering. Also an important goal is to perform measurements to demonstrate the new data that can be produced and made available to the plant-biology community using the imaging technologies and experimental techniques developed in this project. The study of the plant-environment interface includes a wide range of topics in plant physiology, e.g., the root-soil interface, resource availability, impact of herbivores, influence of microbes on root surface, and responses to toxins in the air and soil. The initial scientific motivation for our work is to improve understanding of the mechanisms for physiological responses to abrupt changes in the local environment, in particular, the responses that result in short-term adjustments in resource (e.g., sugars, nutrients and water) allocations. Data of time-dependent responses of plants to environmental changes are essential in developing mechanistic models for substance intake and resource allocation. Our approach is to use radioisotope tracing techniques to study whole-plant and plant organ (e.g., leaves, stems, roots) dynamical responses to abrupt changes in environmental conditions such as concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, nutrient availability and lighting. To this aim we are collaborating with the Radiation Detector and Imaging Group at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory Facility (JLab) to develop gamma-ray and beta particle imaging systems optimized for plant studies. The radioisotope tracing measurements are conducted at the Phytotron facility at Duke University. The Phytotron is a controlled environment plant research facility with a variety of plant growth chambers. One chamber

  10. Imaging beneath the skin of large tropical rivers: Clay controls on system morphodynamics revealed by novel CHIRP sub-surface sonar and deep coring along the Fly and Strickland Rivers, Papua New Guinea (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, R. E.; Grenfell, M.; Lauer, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Tropical rivers dominate Earth’s fluvial fluxes for water, carbon, and mineral sediment. They are characterized by large channels and floodplains, old system histories (in comparison to many temperate rivers), frequent and prolonged periods of flooding, and a clay-dominated sediment flux transported above a sandy bed. However, limited insight is available regarding the underlying bed & floodplain strata -- material that underpins system mobility and morphodynamics. Available data commonly stems from “skin-deep” approaches such as GIS analysis of imagery, shallow sampling of a surface veneer, & topographic profiling during lower river stages. Given the large temporal & spatial scales of such systems, new approaches are needed to see below lag deposits on mobile sandy beds & deep into expansive floodbasins. Furthermore, such data are needed to test whether we can usefully interpret large tropical river morphology using direct analogies to observations from small temperate sytems. Systems responding to sea level rise, pending avulsions, or an increase/contrast in sediment load would provide especially valuable insight. We conducted a field campaign along the Fly and Strickland Rivers in Papua New Guinea (discharge ~ 5,400 CMS). Immediate results were obtained using a dual-frequency CHIRP sub-bottom profiler optimized for fluvial environments, with which we were able to image 10-20m below the river/lake bed. We were able to distinguish sandy deposits from harder clay and silt lenses and also collected bed grab samples to verify our sonar results. Deep borehole samples (5-15m), push cores, and cutbank profiles of material strength confirmed observations from the sonar profiling. We simultaneously collected side-scan sonar imagery plus DGPS water/bed elevations. Findings include: 1) The prevalence of hard clay beneath the bed at many locations along the Lower Fly and Strickland Rivers, retarding migration; 2) Unusual bed morphology along the lower Middle Fly River

  11. Surface mineral maps of Afghanistan derived from HyMap imaging spectrometer data, version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a new version of surface mineral maps derived from HyMap imaging spectrometer data collected over Afghanistan in the fall of 2007. This report also describes the processing steps applied to the imaging spectrometer data. The 218 individual flight lines composing the Afghanistan dataset, covering more than 438,000 square kilometers, were georeferenced to a mosaic of orthorectified Landsat images. The HyMap data were converted from radiance to reflectance using a radiative transfer program in combination with ground-calibration sites and a network of cross-cutting calibration flight lines. The U.S. Geological Survey Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA) was used to generate two thematic maps of surface minerals: a map of iron-bearing minerals and other materials, which have their primary absorption features at the shorter wavelengths of the reflected solar wavelength range, and a map of carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials, which have their primary absorption features at the longer wavelengths of the reflected solar wavelength range. In contrast to the original version, version 2 of these maps is provided at full resolution of 23-meter pixel size. The thematic maps, MICA summary images, and the material fit and depth images are distributed in digital files linked to this report, in a format readable by remote sensing software and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The digital files can be downloaded from http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/787/downloads/.

  12. Microscopic image processing system for measuring nonuniform film thickness profiles: Image scanning ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, A.H.; Plawsky, J.L.; Wayner, P.C. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The long-term objective of this research program is to determine the stability and heat transfer characteristics of evaporating thin films. The current objective is to develop and use a microscopic image-processing system (IPS) which has two parts: an image analyzing interferometer (IAI) and an image scanning ellipsometer (ISE). The primary purpose of this paper is to present the basic concept of ISE, which is a novel technique to measure the two dimensional thickness profile of a non-uniform, thin film, from several nm up to several μm, in a steady state as well as in a transient state. It is a full-field imaging technique which can study every point on the surface simultaneously with high spatial resolution and thickness sensitivity, i.e., it can measure and map the 2-D film thickness profile. The ISE was tested by measuring the thickness profile and the refractive index of a nonuniform solid film

  13. Defect Detection of Steel Surfaces with Global Adaptive Percentile Thresholding of Gradient Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Nirbhar; Mohanta, Dusmanta K.; Dutta, Pranab K.

    2017-12-01

    Steel strips are used extensively for white goods, auto bodies and other purposes where surface defects are not acceptable. On-line surface inspection systems can effectively detect and classify defects and help in taking corrective actions. For detection of defects use of gradients is very popular in highlighting and subsequently segmenting areas of interest in a surface inspection system. Most of the time, segmentation by a fixed value threshold leads to unsatisfactory results. As defects can be both very small and large in size, segmentation of a gradient image based on percentile thresholding can lead to inadequate or excessive segmentation of defective regions. A global adaptive percentile thresholding of gradient image has been formulated for blister defect and water-deposit (a pseudo defect) in steel strips. The developed method adaptively changes the percentile value used for thresholding depending on the number of pixels above some specific values of gray level of the gradient image. The method is able to segment defective regions selectively preserving the characteristics of defects irrespective of the size of the defects. The developed method performs better than Otsu method of thresholding and an adaptive thresholding method based on local properties.

  14. The use of consumer depth cameras for 3D surface imaging of people with obesity: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, J S; Clarkson, S; Flint, S W; Simpson, C; Broom, D R

    2018-05-21

    Three dimensional (3D) surface imaging is a viable alternative to traditional body morphology measures, but the feasibility of using this technique with people with obesity has not been fully established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the validity, repeatability and acceptability of a consumer depth camera 3D surface imaging system in imaging people with obesity. The concurrent validity of the depth camera based system was investigated by comparing measures of mid-trunk volume to a gold-standard. The repeatability and acceptability of the depth camera system was assessed in people with obesity at a clinic. There was evidence of a fixed systematic difference between the depth camera system and the gold standard but excellent correlation between volume estimates (r 2 =0.997), with little evidence of proportional bias. The depth camera system was highly repeatable - low typical error (0.192L), high intraclass correlation coefficient (>0.999) and low technical error of measurement (0.64%). Depth camera based 3D surface imaging was also acceptable to people with obesity. It is feasible (valid, repeatable and acceptable) to use a low cost, flexible 3D surface imaging system to monitor the body size and shape of people with obesity in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2018 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Surface imaging, portal imaging, and skin marker set-up vs. CBCT for radiotherapy of the thorax and pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallotta, Stefania; Bucciolini, Marta; Vanzi, Eleonora; Marrazzo, Livia; Simontacchi, Gabriele; Paiar, Fabiola; Ceroti, Marco; Livi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare surface imaging, portal imaging, and skin marker set-up in radiotherapy of thoracic and pelvic regions, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data as the gold standard. Twenty patients were included in this study. CBCT, surface acquisition (SA), and two orthogonal portal images (PI) were acquired during the first four treatment sessions. Patient set-up corrections, obtained by registering the planning CT with CBCT, were used as the gold standard. Registration results of the PI and SA were evaluated and compared with those obtained with CBCT. The advantage derived from using SA or PI verification systems over a skin marker set-up was also quantified. A statistically significant difference between PI and SA (in favour of PI) was observed in seven patients undergoing treatment of the pelvic region and in two patients undergoing treatment of the thoracic region. The use of SA or PI, compared with a skin marker set-up, improved patient positioning in 50% and 57 % of the thoracic fractions, respectively. For pelvic fractions, the use of PI was beneficial in 73 % of the cases, while the use of SA was beneficial in only 45 %. Patient positioning worsened with SA, particularly along longitudinal and vertical directions. PI yielded more accurate registration results than SA for both pelvic and thoracic fractions. Compared with the skin marker set-up, PI performances were superior to SA for pelvic fractions while comparable results were obtained for thoracic fractions. (orig.) [de

  16. Imaging of primary central nervous system lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Y.Z., E-mail: yenzhitang@doctors.net.uk [Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Booth, T.C.; Bhogal, P.; Malhotra, A.; Wilhelm, T. [Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) comprises 5% of all primary brain tumours. PCNSL demonstrates a variety of well-documented imaging findings, which can vary depending on immune status and histological type. Imaging features of PCNSL may overlap with other tumours and infection making definitive diagnosis challenging. In addition, several rare variants of PCNSL have been described, each with their own imaging characteristics. Advanced imaging techniques including 2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}FDG) and {sup 11}C positron-emission tomography (PET), {sup 201}Tl single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and MR perfusion, have been used to aid differentiation of PCNSL from other tumours. Ultimately, no imaging method can definitively diagnose PCNSL, and histology is required.

  17. Expert System for ASIC Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shri N.; Arshak, Khalil I.; McDonnell, Pearse; Boyce, Conor; Duggan, Andrew

    1989-07-01

    With the developments in the techniques of artificial intelligence over the last few years, development of advisory, scheduling and similar class of problems has become very convenient using tools such as PROLOG. In this paper an expert system has been described which helps lithographers and process engineers in several ways. The methodology used is to model each work station according to its input, output and control parameters, combine these work stations in a logical sequence based on past experience and work out process schedule for a job. In addition, all the requirements vis-a-vis a particular job parameters are converted into decision rules. One example is the exposure time, develop time for a wafer with different feature sizes would be different. This expert system has been written in Turbo Prolog. By building up a large number of rules, one can tune the program to any facility and use it for as diverse applications as advisory help, trouble shooting etc. Leitner (1) has described an advisory expert system that is being used at National Semiconductor. This system is quite different from the one being reported in the present paper. The approach is quite different for one. There is stress on job flow and process for another.

  18. Architecture Of High Speed Image Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Toshio; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Ohki, Tohru

    1988-01-01

    One of architectures for a high speed image processing system which corresponds to a new algorithm for a shape understanding is proposed. And the hardware system which is based on the archtecture was developed. Consideration points of the architecture are mainly that using processors should match with the processing sequence of the target image and that the developed system should be used practically in an industry. As the result, it was possible to perform each processing at a speed of 80 nano-seconds a pixel.

  19. Highly Protable Airborne Multispectral Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnemann, Robert; Mcnamee, Todd

    2001-01-01

    A portable instrumentation system is described that includes and airborne and a ground-based subsytem. It can acquire multispectral image data over swaths of terrain ranging in width from about 1.5 to 1 km. The system was developed especially for use in coastal environments and is well suited for performing remote sensing and general environmental monitoring. It includes a small,munpilotaed, remotely controlled airplance that carries a forward-looking camera for navigation, three downward-looking monochrome video cameras for imaging terrain in three spectral bands, a video transmitter, and a Global Positioning System (GPS) reciever.

  20. MIDAS - ESO's new image processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banse, K.; Crane, P.; Grosbol, P.; Middleburg, F.; Ounnas, C.; Ponz, D.; Waldthausen, H.

    1983-03-01

    The Munich Image Data Analysis System (MIDAS) is an image processing system whose heart is a pair of VAX 11/780 computers linked together via DECnet. One of these computers, VAX-A, is equipped with 3.5 Mbytes of memory, 1.2 Gbytes of disk storage, and two tape drives with 800/1600 bpi density. The other computer, VAX-B, has 4.0 Mbytes of memory, 688 Mbytes of disk storage, and one tape drive with 1600/6250 bpi density. MIDAS is a command-driven system geared toward the interactive user. The type and number of parameters in a command depends on the unique parameter invoked. MIDAS is a highly modular system that provides building blocks for the undertaking of more sophisticated applications. Presently, 175 commands are available. These include the modification of the color-lookup table interactively, to enhance various image features, and the interactive extraction of subimages.

  1. High speed imaging system for nuclear diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyer, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    A high speed imaging system based on state-of-the-art photosensor arrays has been designed for use in nuclear diagnostics. The system is comprised of a front-end rapid-scan solid-state camera, a high speed digitizer, and a PCM line driver in a downhole package and a memory buffer system in a uphole trailer. The downhole camera takes a ''snapshot'' of a nuclear device created flux stream, digitizes the image and transmits it to the uphole memory system before being destroyed. The memory system performs two functions: it retains the data for local display and processing by a microprocessor, and it buffers the data for retransmission at slower rates to the LLL computational facility (NADS). The impetus for such a system as well as its operation are discussed. Also discussed are new systems under development which incorporate higher data rates and more resolution

  2. High speed imaging system for nuclear diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyer, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    A high speed imaging system based on state-of-the-art photosensor arrays has been designed for use in nuclear diagnostics. The system is comprised of a front-end rapid-scan solid-state camera, a high speed digitizer, and a PCM line driver in a downhole package and a memory buffer system in an uphole trailer. The downhole camera takes a ''snapshot'' of a nuclear device created flux stream, digitizes the image and transmits it to the uphole memory system before being destroyed. The memory system performs two functions: it retains the data for local display and processing by a microprocessor, and it buffers the data for retransmission at slower rates to the LLL computational facility (NADS). The impetus for such a system as well as its operation is discussed. Also discussed are new systems under development which incorporate higher data rates and more resolution

  3. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Nanoparticles as Optical Labels for Imaging Cell Surface Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaughlin, Christina M.

    Assaying the expression of cell surface proteins has widespread application for characterizing cell type, developmental stage, and monitoring disease transformation. Immunophenotyping is conducted by treating cells with labelled targeting moieties that have high affinity for relevant surface protein(s). The sensitivity and specificity of immunophenotyping is defined by the choice of contrast agent and therefore, the number of resolvable signals that can be used to simultaneously label cells. Narrow band width surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles are proposed as optical labels for multiplexed immunophenotying. Two types of surface coatings were investigated to passivate the gold nanoparticles, incorporate SERS functionality, and to facilitate attachment of targeting antibodies. Thiolated poly(ethylene glycol) forms dative bonds with the gold surface and is compatible with multiple physisorbed Raman-active reporter molecules. Ternary lipid bilayers are used to encapsulate the gold nanoparticles particles, and incorporate three different classes of Raman reporters. TEM, UV-Visible absorbance spectroscopy, DLS, and electrophoretic light scattering were used characterize the particle coating. Colourimetric protein assay, and secondary antibody labelling were used to quantify the antibody conjugation. Three different in vitromodels were used to investigate the binding efficacy and specificity of SERS labels for their biomarker targets. Primary human CLL cells, LY10 B lymphoma, and A549 adenocarcinoma lines were targeted. Dark field imaging was used to visualize the colocalization of SERS labels with cells, and evidence of receptor clustering was obtained based on colour shifts of the particles' Rayleigh scattering. Widefield, and spatially-resolved Raman spectra were used to detect labels singly, and in combination from labelled cells. Fluorescence flow cytometry was used to test the particles' binding specificity, and SERS from labelled cells was also

  4. NMR imaging of the cardiovascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canby, R.C.; Evanochko, W.T.; Pohost, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging permits high-resolution tomographic and three-dimensional images of the human body to be obtained without exposure to ionizing radiation. Such imaging not only yields anatomic resolution comparable to X-ray examinations but also provides a potential means to discriminate between healthy tissue and diseased tissue. This potential is based on certain NMR properties known as relaxation times, which determine, in part, the signal intensity in an image. These properties are related to such factors as the sizes and concentrations of proteins and mobile lipids and the compartmentalization of the protons of water. Although NMR imaging (also called magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) is becoming widely available for clinical use, application to the cardiovascular system, though promising, remains primarily a research tool. Gated proton NMR imaging can generate cardiac images with excellent morphologic detail and contrast; however, its ultimate importance as a cardiovascular diagnostic modality will depend on the development of several unique applications. These applications are discussed in this paper

  5. Imaging of surfaces and defects of crystals. Progress report, May 1, 1978--April 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, J.M.

    1979-04-01

    The possibility of obtaining electron diffraction patterns from very small specimen regions combined with high resolution imaging by use of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) allows the detailed study of small nuclei of reaction products or of crystal defects. The capabilities of this method have been extended by the design and construction of a TV system for the viewing and recording of microdiffraction patterns from our STEM instrument so that clear patterns can be obtained from regions as small as 10A in diameter. This system has been applied to the study of initial stages of oxidation of chromium films, revealing the presence of very small oxide nuclei and identifying these crystals as having a previously unsuspected spinel structure. The further stages of growth of oxides on chromium are being investigated. Initial results have also been obtained on the surface structure of oxides such as MgO. The extension of previous work on the diffraction from, and imaging of crystal surfaces by the use of medium-to-low energy electrons (15 to 1 keV) has allowed a much more complete understanding of the contrast-producing mechanisms. Application to the study of pyrolytic graphite surfaces has given a clear picture of the mosaic structure and defect distribution and provided a basis for the more reliable and quantitative general use of these techniques in surface structure analysis

  6. Application of an Automated Discharge Imaging System and LSPIV during Typhoon Events in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Che Huang; Chih-Chieh Young; Wen-Cheng Liu

    2018-01-01

    An automated discharge imaging system (ADIS), which is a non-intrusive and safe approach, was developed for measuring river flows during flash flood events. ADIS consists of dual cameras to capture complete surface images in the near and far fields. Surface velocities are accurately measured using the Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV) technique. The stream discharges are then obtained from the depth-averaged velocity (based upon an empirical velocity-index relationship) and cross...

  7. Imaging of surfaces and defects of crystals. Progress report, August 1, 1983-July 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The current year has been one of major advances in our progress towards the development of techniques for the study of surfaces with high spatial resolution. The medium-energy (1-15keV) REMEDIE system (for Reflection Electron Microscopy and Electron Diffraction at Intermediate Energies) has been rebuilt to the stage of showing better than 100A in the transmission mode in good vacuum and has been applied to the study of some surface reconstructions on silicon. These instruments include a 300 keV TEM-STEM analytical electron microscopy from Philips, to be converted for operation under ultra-high vacuum conditions by GATAN Inc. In this a resolution of better than 2.3A and various microanalytical techniques will be applied to surface studies. Also an ultra-high vacuum dedicated STEM instrument is being obtained and this will be modified for the combined application of high resolution STEM imaging, microdiffraction and microanalysis and the surface research techniques of AES, SAM, LEED, UPS and so on. Further observations on the interactions of small metal particles with ceramics have revealed a situation which has profound implications for electron-optical studies and for some possible technical applications of ceramic systems. It has been shown that the surface of MgO is modified by the presence of small amounts of various metals in such a way that it becomes highly sensitive to electron irradiation, undergoing vigorous reconstructions of the surface morphology and in some cases, becoming amorphous

  8. Fission Surface Power System Initial Concept Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Under the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) and in partnership with the Department of Energy (DOE), NASA has embarked on a project to develop Fission Surface Power (FSP) technology. The primary goals of the project are to 1) develop FSP concepts that meet expected surface power requirements at reasonable cost with added benefits over other options, 2) establish a hardwarebased technical foundation for FSP design concepts and reduce overall development risk, 3) reduce the cost uncertainties for FSP and establish greater credibility for flight system cost estimates, and 4) generate the key products to allow NASA decision-makers to consider FSP as a preferred option for flight development. The FSP project was initiated in 2006 as the Prometheus Program and the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission were phased-out. As a first step, NASA Headquarters commissioned the Affordable Fission Surface Power System Study to evaluate the potential for an affordable FSP development approach. With a cost-effective FSP strategy identified, the FSP team evaluated design options and selected a Preliminary Reference Concept to guide technology development. Since then, the FSP Preliminary Reference Concept has served as a point-of-departure for several NASA mission architecture studies examining the use of nuclear power and has provided the foundation for a series of "Pathfinder" hardware tests. The long-term technology goal is a Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) integrated system test using full-scale components and a non-nuclear reactor simulator. The FSP team consists of Glenn Research Center (GRC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the DOE National Laboratories at Los Alamos (LANL), Idaho (INL), Oak Ridge (ORNL), and Sandia (SNL). The project is organized into two main elements: Concept Definition and Risk Reduction. Under Concept Definition, the team performs trade studies, develops analytical tools, and formulates system concepts. Under Risk

  9. Image change detection systems, methods, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James L.; Lassahn, Gordon D.; Lancaster, Gregory D.

    2010-01-05

    Aspects of the invention relate to image change detection systems, methods, and articles of manufacture. According to one aspect, a method of identifying differences between a plurality of images is described. The method includes loading a source image and a target image into memory of a computer, constructing source and target edge images from the source and target images to enable processing of multiband images, displaying the source and target images on a display device of the computer, aligning the source and target edge images, switching displaying of the source image and the target image on the display device, to enable identification of differences between the source image and the target image.

  10. Remote radiation imaging system using a compact gamma-ray imager mounted on a multicopter drone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yuki; Terasaka, Yuta; Kaburagi, Masaaki; Tanifuji, Yuta; Kawabata, Kuniaki; Miyamura, Hiroko; Torii, Tatsuo; Ozawa, Shingo; Izumi, Ryo; Suzuki, Toshikazu

    2018-01-01

    A remote radiation imaging system comprising a lightweight Compton camera and a multicopter drone was developed to remotely and quickly measure radioactive contamination inside the buildings of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS). The drone system is used for measuring detailed radiation distributions in narrow areas, which have been difficult to gauge with conventional aircraft monitoring using helicopters. A measurement of radiation distributions in outdoor environments in the coastal areas of Fukushima, Japan, was performed. The drone system with the Compton camera succeeded in remote observations of dense hotspots from the sky over a contaminated area near the FDNPS. The time required for image reconstruction is approximately 550 s in the case of a 9-m flight altitude for the hotspots with a surface dose rate of several tens of μSv/h. This drone system will be used inside the buildings of the FDNPS for remote measurement of radioactive contamination. (author)

  11. Proximal surface caries detection with direct-exposure and rare earth screen/film imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundeen, R.C.; McDavid, W.D.; Barnwell, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    This laboratory study compared five imaging systems for their diagnostic accuracy in detection of proximal surface dental caries. Ten viewers provided data on radiographic detectability of carious lesions. The diagnostic accuracy of each system was determined with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves by comparing viewer data with the true state of the teeth as determined microscopically. D-speed film marginally outperformed the other four systems, but the three screen/film systems matched the diagnostic accuracy of E-speed film. Radiation reductions between 62% and 92% were achieved with the screen/film systems when compared to the two conventional dental films. The feasibility of designing a screen/film bite-wing cassette was shown, but the poor diagnostic accuracy of the present bite-wing system indicated a need for a new technology in caries detection

  12. Active gated imaging in driver assistance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Yoav

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we shall present the active gated imaging system (AGIS) in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast-gated camera and pulsed illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest. A dedicated gated CMOS imager sensor and near infra-red (NIR) pulsed laser illuminator, is presented in this paper to provide active gated technology. In recent years, we have developed these key components and learned the system parameters, which are most beneficial to nighttime (in all weather conditions) driving in terms of field of view, illumination profile, resolution, and processing power. We shall present our approach of a camera-based advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) named BrightEye™, which makes use of the AGIS technology in the automotive field.

  13. Three-dimensional surface reconstruction imaging for evaluation of congenital heart disease from ECG-triggered MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannier, M.W.; Laschinger, J.; Knapp, R.H.; Gutierrez, F.R.; Gronnemeyer, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Three-dimensional surface reconstruction images of the heart and great vessels were produced from contiguous sequences of electrocardiographically triggered MR images in 25 patients with congenital heart disease and in three healthy subjects. The imaging data were semiautomatically processed to separate the epicardial and endocardial surfaces and to define the outline of the enclosed blood volumes on a section by section basis. Images were obtained at 5-mm intervals in patients aged 3 months to 30 years with anomalies of the great vessels, tetralogy of Fallot, septal defects, pulmonary atresia, and other congenital heart malformations. The results were used to facilitate the surgical treatment of these patients and were compared with echocardiographic and cineradiographic studies, and with surgical findings or pathologic specimens. These surface reconstruction images were useful for communicating the results of diagnostic examinations to cardiac surgeons, for sizing and location of intracardiac defects, for imaging the pulmonary venous drainage, and for assessing regional and global function

  14. System and method for investigating sub-surface features and 3D imaging of non-linear property, compressional velocity VP, shear velocity VS and velocity ratio VP/VS of a rock formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S.

    2015-06-02

    A system and a method for generating a three-dimensional image of a rock formation, compressional velocity VP, shear velocity VS and velocity ratio VP/VS of a rock formation are provided. A first acoustic signal includes a first plurality of pulses. A second acoustic signal from a second source includes a second plurality of pulses. A detected signal returning to the borehole includes a signal generated by a non-linear mixing process from the first and second acoustic signals in a non-linear mixing zone within an intersection volume. The received signal is processed to extract the signal over noise and/or signals resulting from linear interaction and the three dimensional image of is generated.

  15. Consultation system for image diagnosis: Report formation support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, M.; Sakuma, S.; Ishigaki, T.; Suzuki, K.; Oikawa, K.

    1987-01-01

    The authors developed a consultation system for image diagnosis, involving artificial intelligence ideas. In this system, the authors proposed a new report formation support system and implemented it in lymphangiography. This support system starts with the input of image interpretation. The input process is made mainly by selecting items. This system encodes the input findings into the semantic network, which is represented as a directed graph, and it reserves them into the knowledge database in the above structure. Finally, the output (report) is made in the near natural language, which corresponds to the input findings

  16. Fiber optic neutron imaging system: calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, R.M.; Gow, C.E.; Thayer, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Two neutron imaging experiments using fiber optics have been performed at the Nevada Test Site. In each experiment, an array of scintillator fluor tubes is exposed to neutrons. Light is coupled out through radiation resistant PCS fibers (8-m long) into high-bandwidth, graded index fibers. For image reconstruction to be accurate, common timing differences and transmission variations between fiber optic channels are needed. The calibration system featured a scanning pulsed dye laser, a specially designed fiber optic star coupler, a tektronix 7912AD transient digitizer, and a DEC PDP 11/34 computing system

  17. X-ray image subtracting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesbey, W.H.; Keyes, G.S.; Georges, J.-P.J.

    1982-01-01

    An X-ray image subtracting system for making low contrast structures in the images more conspicuous is described. An X-ray source projects successive high and low energy X-ray beam pulses through a body and the resultant X-ray images are converted to optical images. Two image pick-up devices such as TV cameras that have synchronously operated shutters receive the alternate images and convert them to corresponding analog video signals. In some embodiments, the analog signals are converted to a matrix of digital pixel signals that are variously processed and subtracted and converted to signals for driving a TV monitor display and analog storage devices. In other embodiments the signals are processed and subtracted in analog form for display. The high and low energy pulses can follow each other immediately so good registration between subtracted images is obtainable even though the anatomy is in motion. The energy levels of the X-ray pulses are chosen to maximize the difference in attenuation between the anatomical structure which is to be subtracted out and that which remains. (author)

  18. Improving Image Matching by Reducing Surface Reflections Using Polarising Filter Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conen, N.; Hastedt, H.; Kahmen, O.; Luhmann, T.

    2018-05-01

    In dense stereo matching applications surface reflections may lead to incorrect measurements and blunders in the resulting point cloud. To overcome the problem of disturbing reflexions polarising filters can be mounted on the camera lens and light source. Reflections in the images can be suppressed by crossing the polarising direction of the filters leading to homogeneous illuminated images and better matching results. However, the filter may influence the camera's orientation parameters as well as the measuring accuracy. To quantify these effects, a calibration and an accuracy analysis is conducted within a spatial test arrangement according to the German guideline VDI/VDE 2634.1 (2002) using a DSLR with and without polarising filter. In a second test, the interior orientation is analysed in more detail. The results do not show significant changes of the measuring accuracy in object space and only very small changes of the interior orientation (Δc ≤ 4 μm) with the polarising filter in use. Since in medical applications many tiny reflections are present and impede robust surface measurements, a prototypic trinocular endoscope is equipped with polarising technique. The interior and relative orientation is determined and analysed. The advantage of the polarising technique for medical image matching is shown in an experiment with a moistened pig kidney. The accuracy and completeness of the resulting point cloud can be improved clearly when using polarising filters. Furthermore, an accuracy analysis using a laser triangulation system is performed and the special reflection properties of metallic surfaces are presented.

  19. Advances in Small Animal Imaging Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loudos, George K.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid growth in genetics and molecular biology combined with the development of techniques for genetically engineering small animals has led to an increased interest in in vivo laboratory animal imaging during the past few years. For this purpose, new instrumentation, data acquisition strategies, and image processing and reconstruction techniques are being developed, researched and evaluated. The aim of this article is to give a short overview of the state of the art technologies for high resolution and high sensitivity molecular imaging techniques, primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The basic needs of small animal imaging will be described. The evolution in instrumentation in the past two decades, as well as the commercially available systems will be overviewed. Finally, the new trends in detector technology and preliminary results from challenging applications will be presented. For more details a number of references are provided

  20. Visualization of brain surface structures by weighted summation technique using multislice MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Yoshio; Hatanaka, Masahiko; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Tadatoki; Katada, Kazuhiro.

    1991-01-01

    Surface anatomy scanning (SAS) technique which visualizes brain surface structures has been developed since 1987. In this paper, we propose a modified method called 'multislice SAS', which also generates such surface structure images, and has several advantages compared with conventional SAS technique. The conventional SAS technique uses a very long echo time sequence (e.g. SE(3000, 250)) with a thick slice and a surface coil to enhance CSF on the brain surface. Our modified technique also uses a long echo time sequence. But, added multislice images, each appropriately weighted, are used in stead of a thick slice and a surface coil. Our basic studies have shown that this modified method has the following advantage: Several surface images with slightly different summation directions are obtained, and they are used for stereographic display and cine display. This is very useful for visualizing the spatial relationship of brain surface structures. By choosing appropriate weighting, we can obtain clinically legible surface images. This technique dose not require a surface coil. It means that flexibility of selecting imaging direction is high. We can make a lot of modifications, because the original multislice images of weighted summation are arbitrary. And we also clarify some limitation or disadvantage of this modified method. In conclusion, we think that this technique is one of the practical approaches for surface anatomy imaging. (author)

  1. Combined analysis of surface reflection imaging and vertical seismic profiling at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daley, T.M.; Majer, E.L.; Karageorgi, E.

    1994-08-01

    This report presents results from surface and borehole seismic profiling performed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) on Yucca Mountain. This work was performed as part of the site characterization effort for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository. Their objective was to provide seismic imaging from the near surface (200 to 300 ft. depth) to the repository horizon and below, if possible. Among the issues addressed by this seismic imaging work are location and depth of fracturing and faulting, geologic identification of reflecting horizons, and spatial continuity of reflecting horizons. The authors believe their results are generally positive, with tome specific successes. This was the first attempt at this scale using modem seismic imaging techniques to determine geologic features on Yucca Mountain. The principle purpose of this report is to present the interpretation of the seismic reflection section in a geologic context. Three surface reflection profiles were acquired and processed as part of this study. Because of environmental concerns, all three lines were on preexisting roads. Line 1 crossed the mapped surface trace of the Ghost Dance fault and it was intended to study the dip and depth extent of the fault system. Line 2 was acquired along Drill Hole wash and was intended to help the ESF north ramp design activities. Line 3 was acquired along Yucca Crest and was designed to image geologic horizons which were thought to be less faulted along the ridge. Unfortunately, line 3 proved to have poor data quality, in part because of winds, poor field conditions and limited time. Their processing and interpretation efforts were focused on lines 1 and 2 and their associated VSP studies

  2. Parallel asynchronous systems and image processing algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, D. D.; Perera, A. G. U.

    1989-01-01

    A new hardware approach to implementation of image processing algorithms is described. The approach is based on silicon devices which would permit an independent analog processing channel to be dedicated to evey pixel. A laminar architecture consisting of a stack of planar arrays of the device would form a two-dimensional array processor with a 2-D array of inputs located directly behind a focal plane detector array. A 2-D image data stream would propagate in neuronlike asynchronous pulse coded form through the laminar processor. Such systems would integrate image acquisition and image processing. Acquisition and processing would be performed concurrently as in natural vision systems. The research is aimed at implementation of algorithms, such as the intensity dependent summation algorithm and pyramid processing structures, which are motivated by the operation of natural vision systems. Implementation of natural vision algorithms would benefit from the use of neuronlike information coding and the laminar, 2-D parallel, vision system type architecture. Besides providing a neural network framework for implementation of natural vision algorithms, a 2-D parallel approach could eliminate the serial bottleneck of conventional processing systems. Conversion to serial format would occur only after raw intensity data has been substantially processed. An interesting challenge arises from the fact that the mathematical formulation of natural vision algorithms does not specify the means of implementation, so that hardware implementation poses intriguing questions involving vision science.

  3. Imaging by Electrochemical Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Deconvolution Resolving More Details of Surfaces Nanomorphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    observed in high-resolution images of metallic nanocrystallites may be effectively deconvoluted, as to resolve more details of the crystalline morphology (see figure). Images of surface-crystalline metals indicate that more than a single atomic layer is involved in mediating the tunneling current......Upon imaging, electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (ESTM), scanning electrochemical micro-scopy (SECM) and in situ STM resolve information on electronic structures and on surface topography. At very high resolution, imaging processing is required, as to obtain information that relates...... to crystallographic-surface structures. Within the wide range of new technologies, those images surface features, the electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope (ESTM) provides means of atomic resolution where the tip participates actively in the process of imaging. Two metallic surfaces influence ions trapped...

  4. Global structural optimizations of surface systems with a genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Feng-Chuan

    2005-01-01

    Global structural optimizations with a genetic algorithm were performed for atomic cluster and surface systems including aluminum atomic clusters, Si magic clusters on the Si(111) 7 x 7 surface, silicon high-index surfaces, and Ag-induced Si(111) reconstructions. First, the global structural optimizations of neutral aluminum clusters Al n (n up to 23) were performed using a genetic algorithm coupled with a tight-binding potential. Second, a genetic algorithm in combination with tight-binding and first-principles calculations were performed to study the structures of magic clusters on the Si(111) 7 x 7 surface. Extensive calculations show that the magic cluster observed in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments consist of eight Si atoms. Simulated STM images of the Si magic cluster exhibit a ring-like feature similar to STM experiments. Third, a genetic algorithm coupled with a highly optimized empirical potential were used to determine the lowest energy structure of high-index semiconductor surfaces. The lowest energy structures of Si(105) and Si(114) were determined successfully. The results of Si(105) and Si(114) are reported within the framework of highly optimized empirical potential and first-principles calculations. Finally, a genetic algorithm coupled with Si and Ag tight-binding potentials were used to search for Ag-induced Si(111) reconstructions at various Ag and Si coverages. The optimized structural models of √3 x √3, 3 x 1, and 5 x 2 phases were reported using first-principles calculations. A novel model is found to have lower surface energy than the proposed double-honeycomb chained (DHC) model both for Au/Si(111) 5 x 2 and Ag/Si(111) 5 x 2 systems

  5. A prototype tap test imaging system: Initial field test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J. J.; Barnard, D. J.; Hudelson, N. A.; Simpson, T. S.; Hsu, D. K.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes a simple, field-worthy tap test imaging system that gives quantitative information about the size, shape, and severity of defects and damages. The system consists of an accelerometer, electronic circuits for conditioning the signal and measuring the impact duration, a laptop PC and data acquisition and processing software. The images are generated manually by tapping on a grid printed on a plastic sheet laid over the part's surface. A mechanized scanner is currently under development. The prototype has produced images for a variety of aircraft composite and metal honeycomb structures containing flaws, damages, and repairs. Images of the local contact stiffness, deduced from the impact duration using a spring model, revealed quantitatively the stiffness reduction due to flaws and damages, as well as the stiffness enhancement due to substructures. The system has been field tested on commercial and military aircraft as well as rotor blades and engine decks on helicopters. Field test results will be shown and the operation of the system will be demonstrated.—This material is based upon work supported by the Federal Aviation Administration under Contract #DTFA03-98-D-00008, Delivery Order No. IA016 and performed at Iowa State University's Center for NDE as part of the Center for Aviation Systems Reliability program.

  6. Portable multispectral imaging system for oral cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yao-Fang; Ou-Yang, Mang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2013-09-01

    This study presents the portable multispectral imaging system that can acquire the image of specific spectrum in vivo for oral cancer diagnosis. According to the research literature, the autofluorescence of cells and tissue have been widely applied to diagnose oral cancer. The spectral distribution is difference for lesions of epithelial cells and normal cells after excited fluorescence. We have been developed the hyperspectral and multispectral techniques for oral cancer diagnosis in three generations. This research is the third generation. The excited and emission spectrum for the diagnosis are acquired from the research of first generation. The portable system for detection of oral cancer is modified for existing handheld microscope. The UV LED is used to illuminate the surface of oral cavity and excite the cells to produce fluorescent. The image passes through the central channel and filters out unwanted spectrum by the selection of filter, and focused by the focus lens on the image sensor. Therefore, we can achieve the specific wavelength image via fluorescence reaction. The specificity and sensitivity of the system are 85% and 90%, respectively.

  7. Hierarchical clustering of RGB surface water images based on MIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-11-25

    Nov 25, 2009 ... similar water-related images within a testing database of 126 RGB images. .... consequently treated by SVD-based PCA and the PCA outputs partitioned into .... green. Other colours, mostly brown and grey, dominate in.

  8. Surface defect detection in tiling Industries using digital image processing methods: analysis and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad H; Asemani, Davud

    2014-05-01

    Ceramic and tile industries should indispensably include a grading stage to quantify the quality of products. Actually, human control systems are often used for grading purposes. An automatic grading system is essential to enhance the quality control and marketing of the products. Since there generally exist six different types of defects originating from various stages of tile manufacturing lines with distinct textures and morphologies, many image processing techniques have been proposed for defect detection. In this paper, a survey has been made on the pattern recognition and image processing algorithms which have been used to detect surface defects. Each method appears to be limited for detecting some subgroup of defects. The detection techniques may be divided into three main groups: statistical pattern recognition, feature vector extraction and texture/image classification. The methods such as wavelet transform, filtering, morphology and contourlet transform are more effective for pre-processing tasks. Others including statistical methods, neural networks and model-based algorithms can be applied to extract the surface defects. Although, statistical methods are often appropriate for identification of large defects such as Spots, but techniques such as wavelet processing provide an acceptable response for detection of small defects such as Pinhole. A thorough survey is made in this paper on the existing algorithms in each subgroup. Also, the evaluation parameters are discussed including supervised and unsupervised parameters. Using various performance parameters, different defect detection algorithms are compared and evaluated. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High performance multi-spectral interrogation for surface plasmon resonance imaging sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereda, A; Moreau, J; Canva, M; Maillart, E

    2014-04-15

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing has proven to be a valuable tool in the field of surface interactions characterization, especially for biomedical applications where label-free techniques are of particular interest. In order to approach the theoretical resolution limit, most SPR-based systems have turned to either angular or spectral interrogation modes, which both offer very accurate real-time measurements, but at the expense of the 2-dimensional imaging capability, therefore decreasing the data throughput. In this article, we show numerically and experimentally how to combine the multi-spectral interrogation technique with 2D-imaging, while finding an optimum in terms of resolution, accuracy, acquisition speed and reduction in data dispersion with respect to the classical reflectivity interrogation mode. This multi-spectral interrogation methodology is based on a robust five parameter fitting of the spectral reflectivity curve which enables monitoring of the reflectivity spectral shift with a resolution of the order of ten picometers, and using only five wavelength measurements per point. In fine, such multi-spectral based plasmonic imaging system allows biomolecular interaction monitoring in a linear regime independently of variations of buffer optical index, which is illustrated on a DNA-DNA model case. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bone surface enhancement in ultrasound images using a new Doppler-based acquisition/processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Tang, Songyuan; Tasciotti, Ennio; Righetti, Raffaella

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) imaging has long been considered as a potential aid in orthopedic surgeries. US technologies are safe, portable and do not use radiations. This would make them a desirable tool for real-time assessment of fractures and to monitor fracture healing. However, image quality of US imaging methods in bone applications is limited by speckle, attenuation, shadow, multiple reflections and other imaging artifacts. While bone surfaces typically appear in US images as somewhat ‘brighter’ than soft tissue, they are often not easily distinguishable from the surrounding tissue. Therefore, US imaging methods aimed at segmenting bone surfaces need enhancement in image contrast prior to segmentation to improve the quality of the detected bone surface. In this paper, we present a novel acquisition/processing technique for bone surface enhancement in US images. Inspired by elastography and Doppler imaging methods, this technique takes advantage of the difference between the mechanical and acoustic properties of bones and those of soft tissues to make the bone surface more easily distinguishable in US images. The objective of this technique is to facilitate US-based bone segmentation methods and improve the accuracy of their outcomes. The newly proposed technique is tested both in in vitro and in vivo experiments. The results of these preliminary experiments suggest that the use of the proposed technique has the potential to significantly enhance the detectability of bone surfaces in noisy ultrasound images.

  11. Bone surface enhancement in ultrasound images using a new Doppler-based acquisition/processing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Tang, Songyuan; Tasciotti, Ennio; Righetti, Raffaella

    2018-01-17

    Ultrasound (US) imaging has long been considered as a potential aid in orthopedic surgeries. US technologies are safe, portable and do not use radiations. This would make them a desirable tool for real-time assessment of fractures and to monitor fracture healing. However, image quality of US imaging methods in bone applications is limited by speckle, attenuation, shadow, multiple reflections and other imaging artifacts. While bone surfaces typically appear in US images as somewhat 'brighter' than soft tissue, they are often not easily distinguishable from the surrounding tissue. Therefore, US imaging methods aimed at segmenting bone surfaces need enhancement in image contrast prior to segmentation to improve the quality of the detected bone surface. In this paper, we present a novel acquisition/processing technique for bone surface enhancement in US images. Inspired by elastography and Doppler imaging methods, this technique takes advantage of the difference between the mechanical and acoustic properties of bones and those of soft tissues to make the bone surface more easily distinguishable in US images. The objective of this technique is to facilitate US-based bone segmentation methods and improve the accuracy of their outcomes. The newly proposed technique is tested both in in vitro and in vivo experiments. The results of these preliminary experiments suggest that the use of the proposed technique has the potential to significantly enhance the detectability of bone surfaces in noisy ultrasound images.

  12. Digital detection system of surface defects for large aperture optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yong; Chen Niannian; Gao Lingling; Jia Yuan; Wang Junbo; Cheng Xiaofeng

    2009-01-01

    Based on the light defect images against the dark background in a scattering imaging system, a digital detection system of surface defects for large aperture optical elements has been presented. In the system, the image is segmented by a multi-area self-adaptive threshold segmentation method, then a pixel labeling method based on replacing arrays is adopted to extract defect features quickly, and at last the defects are classified through back-propagation neural networks. Experiment results show that the system can achieve real-time detection and classification. (authors)

  13. Semiautomatic digital imaging system for cytogenetic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaubey, R.C.; Chauhan, P.C.; Bannur, S.V.; Kulgod, S.V.; Chadda, V.K.; Nigam, R.K.

    1999-08-01

    The paper describes a digital image processing system, developed indigenously at BARC for size measurement of microscopic biological objects such as cell, nucleus and micronucleus in mouse bone marrow; cytochalasin-B blocked human lymphocytes in-vitro; numerical counting and karyotyping of metaphase chromosomes of human lymphocytes. Errors in karyotyping of chromosomes by the imaging system may creep in due to lack of well-defined position of centromere or extensive bending of chromosomes, which may result due to poor quality of preparation. Good metaphase preparations are mandatory for precise and accurate analysis by the system. Additional new morphological parameters about each chromosome have to be incorporated to improve the accuracy of karyotyping. Though the experienced cytogenetisist is the final judge; however, the system assists him/her to carryout analysis much faster as compared to manual scoring. Further, experimental studies are in progress to validate different software packages developed for various cytogenetic applications. (author)

  14. Characterization of initial events in bacterial surface colonization by two Pseudomonas species using image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R F; Characklis, W G; Jones, W L; Sears, J T

    1992-05-01

    The processes leading to bacterial colonization on solid-water interfaces are adsorption, desorption, growth, and erosion. These processes have been measured individually in situ in a flowing system in real time using image analysis. Four different substrata (copper, silicon, 316 stainless-steel and glass) and 2 different bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were used in the experiments. The flow was laminar (Re = 1.4) and the shear stress was kept constant during all experiments at 0.75 N m(-2). The surface roughness varied among the substrata from 0.002 microm (for silicon) to 0.015 microm (for copper). Surface free energies varied from 25.1 dynes cm(-1) for silicon to 31.2 dynes cm(-1) for copper. Cell curface hydrophobicity, reported as hydrocarbon partitioning values, ranged from 0.67 for Ps. fluorescens to 0.97 for Ps. aeruginosa.The adsorption rate coefficient varied by as much as a factor of 10 among the combinations of bacterial strain and substratum material, and was positively correlated with surface free energy, the surface roughness of the substratum, and the hydrophobicity of the cells. The probability of desorption decreased with increasing surface free energy and surface roughness of the substratum. Cell growth was inhibited on copper, but replication of cells overlying an initial cell layer was observed with increased exposure time to the cell-containing bulk water. A mathematical model describing cell accumulation on a substratum is presented.

  15. Imaging of the fetal central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction : Ultrasound and MR imaging of the fetal central nervous system (CNS) develop at an ever-increasing rate. Theoretically, the two modalities should be synergistic, but a literature review revealed the difficulties of determining the merit of either technique and revealed gaps in our

  16. A recommender system for medical imaging diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Eriksson; Valente, Frederico; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luís

    2015-01-01

    The large volume of data captured daily in healthcare institutions is opening new and great perspectives about the best ways to use it towards improving clinical practice. In this paper we present a context-based recommender system to support medical imaging diagnostic. The system relies on data mining and context-based retrieval techniques to automatically lookup for relevant information that may help physicians in the diagnostic decision.

  17. PET imaging of the autonomic nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THACKERAY, James T.; BENGEL, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system is the primary extrinsic control of heart rate and contractility, and is subject to adaptive and maladaptive changes in cardiovascular disease. Consequently, noninvasive assessment of neuronal activity and function is an attractive target for molecular imaging. A myriad of targeted radiotracers have been developed over the last 25 years for imaging various components of the sympathetic and parasympathetic signal cascades. While routine clinical use remains somewhat limited, a number of larger scale studies in recent years have supplied momentum to molecular imaging of autonomic signaling. Specifically, the findings of the ADMIRE HF trial directly led to United States Food and Drug Administration approval of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) assessment of sympathetic neuronal innervation, and comparable results have been reported using the analogous PET agent 11C-meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED). Due to the inherent capacity for dynamic quantification and higher spatial resolution, regional analysis may be better served by PET. In addition, preliminary clinical and extensive preclinical experience has provided a broad foundation of cardiovascular applications for PET imaging of the autonomic nervous system. Recent years have witnessed the growth of novel quantification techniques, expansion of multiple tracer studies, and improved understanding of the uptake of different radiotracers, such that the transitional biology of dysfunctional subcellular catecholamine handling can be distinguished from complete denervation. As a result, sympathetic neuronal molecular imaging is poised to play a role in individualized patient care, by stratifying cardiovascular risk, visualizing underlying biology, and guiding and monitoring therapy.

  18. Generating color terrain images in an emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belles, R.D.

    1985-08-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) provides real-time assessments of the consequences resulting from an atmospheric release of radioactive material. In support of this operation, a system has been created which integrates numerical models, data acquisition systems, data analysis techniques, and professional staff. Of particular importance is the rapid generation of graphical images of the terrain surface in the vicinity of the accident site. A terrain data base and an associated acquisition system have been developed that provide the required terrain data. This data is then used as input to a collection of graphics programs which create and display realistic color images of the terrain. The graphics system currently has the capability of generating color shaded relief images from both overhead and perspective viewpoints within minutes. These images serve to quickly familiarize ARAC assessors with the terrain near the release location, and thus permit them to make better informed decisions in modeling the behavior of the released material. 7 refs., 8 figs

  19. Photoacoustic imaging of hidden dental caries by using a fiber-based probing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Takuya; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2017-04-01

    Photoacoustic method to detect hidden dental caries is proposed. It was found that high frequency ultrasonic waves are generated from hidden carious part when radiating laser light to occlusal surface of model tooth. By making a map of intensity of these high frequency components, photoacoustic images of hidden caries were successfully obtained. A photoacoustic imaging system using a bundle of hollow optical fiber was fabricated for using clinical application, and clear photoacoustic image of hidden caries was also obtained by this system.

  20. Radiographic imaging system for high energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A radiographic imaging system for high energy radiation is described utilizing a detector of such radiation and a mask having regions relatively transparent to such radiation and interspersed among regions relatively opaque to such radiation. A relative motion is imparted between the mask and the detector, the detector providing a time varying signal in response to the incident radiation and in response to the relative motion. The time varying signal provides, with the aid of a decoder, an image of a source of such radiation

  1. Penn State astronomical image processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truax, R.J.; Nousek, J.A.; Feigelson, E.D.; Lonsdale, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The needs of modern astronomy for image processing set demanding standards in simultaneously requiring fast computation speed, high-quality graphic display, large data storage, and interactive response. An innovative image processing system was designed, integrated, and used; it is based on a supermicro architecture which is tailored specifically for astronomy, which provides a highly cost-effective alternative to the traditional minicomputer installation. The paper describes the design rationale, equipment selection, and software developed to allow other astronomers with similar needs to benefit from the present experience. 9 references

  2. Radiographic imaging system for high energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    A radiographic imaging system for high energy radiation utilizing a detector of such radiation and a mask having regions relatively transparent to such radiation interspersed among regions relatively opaque to such radiation is described. A relative motion is imparted between the mask and the detector, the detector providing a time varying signal in response to the incident radiation and in response to the relative motion. The time varying signal provides, with the aid of a decoder, an image of a source of such radiation

  3. Brain MR imaging of systemic lupus erythematodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Satoshi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Ueda, Fumiaki; Arai, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Kadoya, Masumi; Matsui, Osamu; Takashima, Tsutomu

    1996-01-01

    Brain MR imaging of 13 patients with systemic lupus erythematodus (SLE) were reviewed. Two major findings was obtained. One was deep white matter hyperintensity (DWMH) and periventricular hyperintensity (PVH), the other was cerebral infarction. In comparison with the same age group, relatively severe brain atrophy was also observed. It was thought that these findings were induced from the vasculitis caused by SLE. However, the influence of the steroid therapy could not be excluded. No definite correlation between MR findings and clinical symptoms were seen. In conclusion, when we interpret brain MR imaging of the patients with SLE, special attention should be paid to their age. (author)

  4. Autofocus system and autofocus method for focusing on a surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Mary Morabito

    2017-05-23

    An autofocus system includes an imaging device, a lens system and a focus control actuator that is configured to change a focus position of the imaging device in relation to a stage. The electronic control unit is configured to control the focus control actuator to a plurality of predetermined focus positions, and activate the imaging device to obtain an image at predetermined positions and then apply a spatial filter to the obtained images. This generates a filtered image for the obtained images. The control unit determines a focus score for the filtered images such that the focus score corresponds to a degree of focus in the obtained images. The control unit identifies a best focus position by comparing the focus score of the filtered images, and controls the focus control actuator to the best focus position corresponding to the highest focus score.

  5. A Gimbal-Stabilized Compact Hyperspectral Imaging System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Gimbal-stabilized Compact Hyperspectral Imaging System (GCHIS) fully integrates multi-sensor spectral imaging, stereovision, GPS and inertial measurement,...

  6. Web Based Distributed Coastal Image Analysis System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project develops Web based distributed image analysis system processing the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to provide decision...

  7. Surface Management System Departure Event Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Gilena A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a data analysis of the Surface Management System (SMS) performance of departure events, including push-back and runway departure events.The paper focuses on the detection performance, or the ability to detect departure events, as well as the prediction performance of SMS. The results detail a modest overall detection performance of push-back events and a significantly high overall detection performance of runway departure events. The overall detection performance of SMS for push-back events is approximately 55%.The overall detection performance of SMS for runway departure events nears 100%. This paper also presents the overall SMS prediction performance for runway departure events as well as the timeliness of the Aircraft Situation Display for Industry data source for SMS predictions.

  8. Adaptive fringe-pattern projection for image saturation avoidance in 3D surface-shape measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Kofman, Jonathan

    2014-04-21

    In fringe-projection 3D surface-shape measurement, image saturation results in incorrect intensities in captured images of fringe patterns, leading to phase and measurement errors. An adaptive fringe-pattern projection (AFPP) method was developed to adapt the maximum input gray level in projected fringe patterns to the local reflectivity of an object surface being measured. The AFPP method demonstrated improved 3D measurement accuracy by avoiding image saturation in highly-reflective surface regions while maintaining high intensity modulation across the entire surface. The AFPP method can avoid image saturation and handle varying surface reflectivity, using only two prior rounds of fringe-pattern projection and image capture to generate the adapted fringe patterns.

  9. Distinction of heterogeneity on Au nanostructured surface based on phase contrast imaging of atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Mi; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2010-01-01

    The discrimination of the heterogeneity of different materials on nanostructured surfaces has attracted a great deal of interest in biotechnology as well as nanotechnology. Phase imaging through tapping mode of atomic force microscopy (TMAFM) can be used to distinguish the heterogeneity on a nanostructured surface. Nanostructures were fabricated using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO). An 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) layer adsorbed onto the Au nanodots through self-assembly to improve the bio-compatibility. The Au nanostructures that were modified with 11-MUA and the concave surfaces were investigated using the TMAFM phase images to compare the heterogeneous and homogeneous nanostructured surfaces. Although the topography and phase images were taken simultaneously, the images were different. Therefore, the contrast in the TMAFM phase images revealed the different compositional materials on the heterogeneous nanostructure surface.

  10. High-speed Imaging of Global Surface Temperature Distributions on Hypersonic Ballistic-Range Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Michael C.; Reda, Daniel C.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA-Ames ballistic range provides a unique capability for aerothermodynamic testing of configurations in hypersonic, real-gas, free-flight environments. The facility can closely simulate conditions at any point along practically any trajectory of interest experienced by a spacecraft entering an atmosphere. Sub-scale models of blunt atmospheric entry vehicles are accelerated by a two-stage light-gas gun to speeds as high as 20 times the speed of sound to fly ballistic trajectories through an 24 m long vacuum-rated test section. The test-section pressure (effective altitude), the launch velocity of the model (flight Mach number), and the test-section working gas (planetary atmosphere) are independently variable. The model travels at hypersonic speeds through a quiescent test gas, creating a strong bow-shock wave and real-gas effects that closely match conditions achieved during actual atmospheric entry. The challenge with ballistic range experiments is to obtain quantitative surface measurements from a model traveling at hypersonic speeds. The models are relatively small (less than 3.8 cm in diameter), which limits the spatial resolution possible with surface mounted sensors. Furthermore, since the model is in flight, surface-mounted sensors require some form of on-board telemetry, which must survive the massive acceleration loads experienced during launch (up to 500,000 gravities). Finally, the model and any on-board instrumentation will be destroyed at the terminal wall of the range. For these reasons, optical measurement techniques are the most practical means of acquiring data. High-speed thermal imaging has been employed in the Ames ballistic range to measure global surface temperature distributions and to visualize the onset of transition to turbulent-flow on the forward regions of hypersonic blunt bodies. Both visible wavelength and infrared high-speed cameras are in use. The visible wavelength cameras are intensified CCD imagers capable of integration

  11. Scattered radiation in fan beam imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, P.C.; Yaffe, M.

    1982-01-01

    Scatter-to-primary energy fluence ratios (S/P) have been studied for fan x-ray beams as used in CT scanners and slit projection radiography systems. The dependence of S/P on phantom diameter, distance from phantom to image receptor, and kilovoltage is presented. An empirical equation is given that predicts S/P over a wide range of fan beam imaging configurations. For CT body scans on a 4th-generation machine, S/P is approximately 5%. Scattered radiation can produce a significant cupping artefact in CT images which is similar to that due to beam hardening. When multiple slices are used in scanned slit radiography, they can be arranged such that the increase in S/P is negligible. Calculations of scatter-to-primary ratios for first order scattering showed that for fan beams the contribution of coherent scatter is comparable to or greater than that of incoherent first scatter

  12. System Matrix Analysis for Computed Tomography Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Liubov; Vidal, Vicent; Verdú, Gumersindo

    2015-01-01

    In practical applications of computed tomography imaging (CT), it is often the case that the set of projection data is incomplete owing to the physical conditions of the data acquisition process. On the other hand, the high radiation dose imposed on patients is also undesired. These issues demand that high quality CT images can be reconstructed from limited projection data. For this reason, iterative methods of image reconstruction have become a topic of increased research interest. Several algorithms have been proposed for few-view CT. We consider that the accurate solution of the reconstruction problem also depends on the system matrix that simulates the scanning process. In this work, we analyze the application of the Siddon method to generate elements of the matrix and we present results based on real projection data. PMID:26575482

  13. MarsSI: Martian surface data processing information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantin-Nataf, C.; Lozac'h, L.; Thollot, P.; Loizeau, D.; Bultel, B.; Fernando, J.; Allemand, P.; Dubuffet, F.; Poulet, F.; Ody, A.; Clenet, H.; Leyrat, C.; Harrisson, S.

    2018-01-01

    MarsSI (Acronym for Mars System of Information, https://emars.univ-lyon1.fr/MarsSI/, is a web Geographic Information System application which helps managing and processing martian orbital data. The MarsSI facility is part of the web portal called PSUP (Planetary SUrface Portal) developed by the Observatories of Paris Sud (OSUPS) and Lyon (OSUL) to provide users with efficient and easy access to data products dedicated to the martian surface. The portal proposes 1) the management and processing of data thanks to MarsSI and 2) the visualization and merging of high level (imagery, spectral, and topographic) products and catalogs via a web-based user interface (MarsVisu). The portal PSUP as well as the facility MarsVisu is detailed in a companion paper (Poulet et al., 2018). The purpose of this paper is to describe the facility MarsSI. From this application, users are able to easily and rapidly select observations, process raw data via automatic pipelines, and get back final products which can be visualized under Geographic Information Systems. Moreover, MarsSI also contains an automatic stereo-restitution pipeline in order to produce Digital Terrain Models (DTM) on demand from HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) or CTX (Context Camera) pair-images. This application is funded by the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) (ERC project eMars, No. 280168) and has been developed in the scope of Mars, but the design is applicable to any other planetary body of the solar system.

  14. Surface Distresses Detection of Pavement Based on Digital Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang , Aiguo; Luo , Chagen; Zhou , Chao

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Pavement crack is the main form of early diseases of pavement. The use of digital photography to record pavement images and subsequent crack detection and classification has undergone continuous improvements over the past decade. Digital image processing has been applied to detect the pavement crack for its advantages of large amount of information and automatic detection. The applications of digital image processing in pavement crack detection, distresses classificati...

  15. Multispectral UV imaging for surface analysis of MUPS tablets with special focus on the pellet distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikova, Anna; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Rades, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In the present study the applicability of multispectral UV imaging in combination with multivariate image analysis for surface evaluation of MUPS tablets was investigated with respect to the differentiation of the API pellets from the excipients matrix, estimation of the drug content as well as p...... image analysis is a promising approach for the automatic quality control of MUPS tablets during the manufacturing process....

  16. Downscaling of Aircraft, Landsat, and MODIS-bases Land Surface Temperature Images with Support Vector Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    High spatial resolution Land Surface Temperature (LST) images are required to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) at a field scale for irrigation scheduling purposes. Satellite sensors such as Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) can offer images at s...

  17. Advances in Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging enable quantitative measurement of laterally heterogeneous coatings of nanoscale thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raegen, Adam; Reiter, Kyle; Clarke, Anthony; Lipkowski, Jacek; Dutcher, John

    2013-03-01

    The Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) phenomenon is routinely exploited to qualitatively probe changes to the optical properties of nanoscale coatings on thin metallic surfaces, for use in probes and sensors. Unfortunately, extracting truly quantitative information is usually limited to a select few cases - uniform absorption/desorption of small biomolecules and films, in which a continuous ``slab'' model is a good approximation. We present advancements in the SPR technique that expand the number of cases for which the technique can provide meaningful results. Use of a custom, angle-scanning SPR imaging system, together with a refined data analysis method, allow for quantitative kinetic measurements of laterally heterogeneous systems. We first demonstrate the directionally heterogeneous nature of the SPR phenomenon using a directionally ordered sample, then show how this allows for the calculation of the average coverage of a heterogeneous sample. Finally, the degradation of cellulose microfibrils and bundles of microfibrils due to the action of cellulolytic enzymes will be presented as an excellent example of the capabilities of the SPR imaging system.

  18. A PET imaging system dedicated to mammography

    CERN Document Server

    Varela, J

    2007-01-01

    The imaging system Clear-PEM for positron emission mammography, under development within the framework of the Crystal Clear Collaboration at CERN, is presented. The detector is based on pixelized LYSO crystals optically coupled to avalanche photodiodes (APD) and readout by a fast low-noise electronic system. A dedicated digital trigger and data acquisition system is used for on-line selection of coincidence events with high efficiency, large bandwidth and negligible dead-time. The detector module performance was characterized in detail.

  19. An investigation of cerebrograph imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lianxiang; Zhang Qingling; Wang Xinhui; Luo Qikun

    1994-01-01

    A cerebrograph imaging system was investigated for the diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases. This system can quantitatively analyse and map the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and also the electroencephalography (EEG). The mapping of cerebellum-brain stem area was also realized. This system is the first one to combine the technology of nuclear medicine with electrophysiology, and thereby provide a combined information about the rCBF and the function of brain with coloured rCBF mapping, topographical EEG mapping and quantitative data at the same time. It has important value for the early diagnosis of brain diseases, especially for the cerebral vascular accident

  20. Robust surface registration using salient anatomical features for image-guided liver surgery: Algorithm and validation

    OpenAIRE

    Clements, Logan W.; Chapman, William C.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Galloway, Robert L.; Miga, Michael I.

    2008-01-01

    A successful surface-based image-to-physical space registration in image-guided liver surgery (IGLS) is critical to provide reliable guidance information to surgeons and pertinent surface displacement data for use in deformation correction algorithms. The current protocol used to perform the image-to-physical space registration involves an initial pose estimation provided by a point based registration of anatomical landmarks identifiable in both the preoperative tomograms and the intraoperati...

  1. Intelligence, mapping, and geospatial exploitation system (IMAGES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moellman, Dennis E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper provides further detail to one facet of the battlespace visualization concept described in last year's paper Battlespace Situation Awareness for Force XXI. It focuses on the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) goal to 'provide customers seamless access to tailorable imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospatial information.' This paper describes Intelligence, Mapping, and Geospatial Exploitation System (IMAGES), an exploitation element capable of CONUS baseplant operations or field deployment to provide NIMA geospatial information collaboratively into a reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA) environment through the United States Imagery and Geospatial Information System (USIGS). In a baseplant CONUS setting IMAGES could be used to produce foundation data to support mission planning. In the field it could be directly associated with a tactical sensor receiver or ground station (e.g. UAV or UGV) to provide near real-time and mission specific RSTA to support mission execution. This paper provides IMAGES functional level design; describes the technologies, their interactions and interdependencies; and presents a notional operational scenario to illustrate the system flexibility. Using as a system backbone an intelligent software agent technology, called Open Agent ArchitectureTM (OAATM), IMAGES combines multimodal data entry, natural language understanding, and perceptual and evidential reasoning for system management. Configured to be DII COE compliant, it would utilize, to the extent possible, COTS applications software for data management, processing, fusion, exploitation, and reporting. It would also be modular, scaleable, and reconfigurable. This paper describes how the OAATM achieves data synchronization and enables the necessary level of information to be rapidly available to various command echelons for making informed decisions. The reasoning component will provide for the best information to be developed in the timeline

  2. The Stellar Imager (SI) - A Mission to Resolve Stellar Surfaces, Interiors, and Magnetic Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen; Carpenter, Kenneth G; Schrijver, Carolus J; Karovska, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a space-based, UV/Optical Interferometer (UVOI) designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and of the Universe in general. It will also probe via asteroseismology flows and structures in stellar interiors. SI will enable the development and testing of a predictive dynamo model for the Sun, by observing patterns of surface activity and imaging of the structure and differential rotation of stellar interiors in a population study of Sun-like stars to determine the dependence of dynamo action on mass, internal structure and flows, and time. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe and will revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. SI is a 'Landmark/Discovery Mission' in the 2005 Heliophysics Roadmap, an implementation of the UVOI in the 2006 Astrophysics Strategic Plan, and a NASA Vision Mission ('NASA Space Science Vision Missions' (2008), ed. M. Allen). We present here the science goals of the SI Mission, a mission architecture that could meet those goals, and the technology development needed to enable this mission. Additional information on SI can be found at: http://hires.gsfc.nasa.gov/si/.

  3. The Stellar Imager (SI) - A Mission to Resolve Stellar Surfaces, Interiors, and Magnetic Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University (Denmark); Carpenter, Kenneth G [Code 667 NASA-GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schrijver, Carolus J [LMATC 3251 Hanover St., Bldg. 252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Karovska, Margarita, E-mail: jcd@phys.au.d, E-mail: Kenneth.G.Carpenter@nasa.gov, E-mail: schryver@lmsal.com, E-mail: karovska@head.cfa.harvard.edu [60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a space-based, UV/Optical Interferometer (UVOI) designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and of the Universe in general. It will also probe via asteroseismology flows and structures in stellar interiors. SI will enable the development and testing of a predictive dynamo model for the Sun, by observing patterns of surface activity and imaging of the structure and differential rotation of stellar interiors in a population study of Sun-like stars to determine the dependence of dynamo action on mass, internal structure and flows, and time. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe and will revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. SI is a 'Landmark/Discovery Mission' in the 2005 Heliophysics Roadmap, an implementation of the UVOI in the 2006 Astrophysics Strategic Plan, and a NASA Vision Mission ('NASA Space Science Vision Missions' (2008), ed. M. Allen). We present here the science goals of the SI Mission, a mission architecture that could meet those goals, and the technology development needed to enable this mission. Additional information on SI can be found at: http://hires.gsfc.nasa.gov/si/.

  4. The Stellar Imager (SI) - A Mission to Resolve Stellar Surfaces, Interiors, and Magnetic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Karovska, Margarita; Si Team

    2011-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a space-based, UV/Optical Interferometer (UVOI) designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and of the Universe in general. It will also probe via asteroseismology flows and structures in stellar interiors. SI will enable the development and testing of a predictive dynamo model for the Sun, by observing patterns of surface activity and imaging of the structure and differential rotation of stellar interiors in a population study of Sun-like stars to determine the dependence of dynamo action on mass, internal structure and flows, and time. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe and will revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. SI is a "Landmark/Discovery Mission" in the 2005 Heliophysics Roadmap, an implementation of the UVOI in the 2006 Astrophysics Strategic Plan, and a NASA Vision Mission ("NASA Space Science Vision Missions" (2008), ed. M. Allen). We present here the science goals of the SI Mission, a mission architecture that could meet those goals, and the technology development needed to enable this mission. Additional information on SI can be found at: http://hires.gsfc.nasa.gov/si/.

  5. The Stellar Imager (SI) - A Mission to Resolve Stellar Surfaces, Interiors, and Magnetic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen; Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Karovska, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a space-based, UV/Optical Interferometer (UVOI) designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and of the Universe in general. It will also probe via asteroseismology flows and structures in stellar interiors. SI will enable the development and testing of a predictive dynamo model for the Sun, by observing patterns of surface activity and imaging of the structure and differential rotation of stellar interiors in a population study of Sun-like stars to determine the dependence of dynamo action on mass, internal structure and flows, and time. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe and will revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magnetohydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. SI is a "LandmarklDiscovery Mission" in the 2005 Heliophysics Roadmap, an implementation of the UVOI in the 2006 Astrophysics Strategic Plan, and a NASA Vision Mission ("NASA Space Science Vision Missions" (2008), ed. M. Allen). We present here the science goals of the SI Mission, a mission architecture that could meet those goals, and the technology development needed to enable this mission

  6. Brain dopaminergic systems : imaging with positron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, J C [University of Caen/INSERM U, Caen (France). CYCERON; Comar, D [E.E.C. Concerted Action on P.E.T. Investigations of Cellular Regeneration and Degeneration, Orsay (France) CEA, 91 - Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot; Farde, L [Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden); Martinot, J L; Mazoyer, B [CEA, 91 - Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot Paris-

    1991-01-01

    Imaging of the dopaminergic system in the human brain with the in vivo use of Positron Emission Tomography emerged in the late 1980s as a tool of major importance in clinical neurosciences and pharmacology. The last few years have witnessed rapid development of new radiotracers specific to receptors, reuptake sites and enzymes of the dopamine system; the application of these radiotracers has led to major break-troughs in the pathophysiology and therapy of movement disorders and schizophrenic-like psychoses. This book is the first to collect, in a single volume, state-of-the-art contributions to the various aspects of this research. Its contents address methodological issues related to the design, labelling, quantitative imaging and compartmental modeli-sation of radioligands of the post-synaptic, pre-synaptic and enzyme sites of the dopamine system and to their use in clinical research in the fields of Parkinson's disease as well as other movement disorders, psychoses and neuroleptic receptor occupancy. The chapters were written by leading European scientists in the field of PET, gathered together in Caen (France, November 1990) under the aegis of the EEC Concerted Action on PET Investigations of Cellular Regeneration and Degeneration. This book provides a current and comprehensive overview on PET studies of the brain dopamine system which should aid and interest neurologists , psychiatrists, pharmacologists and medical imaging scientists. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs.

  7. Imaging of systemic vasculitis in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, Magdy [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Cairo University, Department of Medical Imaging, Cairo (Egypt); Laxer, Ronald; Yeung, Rae [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Rheumatology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Manson, David; Doria, Andrea S. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-08-15

    The term ''systemic vasculitis'' encompasses a diverse set of diseases linked by the presence of blood-vessel inflammation that are often associated with critical complications. These diseases are uncommon in childhood and are frequently subjected to a delayed diagnosis. Although the diagnosis and treatment may be similar for adult and childhood systemic vasculitides, the prevalence and classification vary according to the age group under investigation. For example, Kawasaki disease affects children while it is rarely encountered in adults. In 2006, the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the Pediatric Rheumatology European Society (PReS) proposed a classification system for childhood vasculitis adopting the system devised in the Chapel Hill Consensus Conference in 1993, which categorizes vasculitides according to the predominant size of the involved blood vessels into small, medium and large vessel diseases. Currently, medical imaging has a pivotal role in the diagnosis of vasculitis given recent developments in the imaging of blood vessels. For example, early diagnosis of coronary artery aneurysms, a serious complication of Kawasaki disease, is now possible by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the heart and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT); positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) helps to assess active vascular inflammation in Takayasu arteritis. Our review offers a unique approach using the integration of the proposed classification criteria for common systemic childhood vasculitides with their most frequent imaging findings, along with differential diagnoses and an algorithm for diagnosis based on common findings. It should help radiologists and clinicians reach an early diagnosis, therefore facilitating the ultimate goal of proper management of affected children. (orig.)

  8. Imaging of systemic vasculitis in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, Magdy; Laxer, Ronald; Yeung, Rae; Manson, David; Doria, Andrea S.

    2015-01-01

    The term ''systemic vasculitis'' encompasses a diverse set of diseases linked by the presence of blood-vessel inflammation that are often associated with critical complications. These diseases are uncommon in childhood and are frequently subjected to a delayed diagnosis. Although the diagnosis and treatment may be similar for adult and childhood systemic vasculitides, the prevalence and classification vary according to the age group under investigation. For example, Kawasaki disease affects children while it is rarely encountered in adults. In 2006, the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the Pediatric Rheumatology European Society (PReS) proposed a classification system for childhood vasculitis adopting the system devised in the Chapel Hill Consensus Conference in 1993, which categorizes vasculitides according to the predominant size of the involved blood vessels into small, medium and large vessel diseases. Currently, medical imaging has a pivotal role in the diagnosis of vasculitis given recent developments in the imaging of blood vessels. For example, early diagnosis of coronary artery aneurysms, a serious complication of Kawasaki disease, is now possible by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the heart and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT); positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) helps to assess active vascular inflammation in Takayasu arteritis. Our review offers a unique approach using the integration of the proposed classification criteria for common systemic childhood vasculitides with their most frequent imaging findings, along with differential diagnoses and an algorithm for diagnosis based on common findings. It should help radiologists and clinicians reach an early diagnosis, therefore facilitating the ultimate goal of proper management of affected children. (orig.)

  9. Expandable image compression system: A modular approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, B.K.T.; Chan, K.K.; Ishimitsu, Y.; Lo, S.C.; Huang, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    The full-frame bit allocation algorithm for radiological image compression developed in the authors' laboratory can achieve compression ratios as high as 30:1. The software development and clinical evaluation of this algorithm has been completed. It involves two stages of operations: a two-dimensional discrete cosine transform and pixel quantization in the transform space with pixel depth kept accountable by a bit allocation table. Their design took an expandable modular approach based on the VME bus system which has a maximum data transfer rate of 48 Mbytes per second and a Motorola 68020 microprocessor as the master controller. The transform modules are based on advanced digital signal processor (DSP) chips microprogrammed to perform fast cosine transforms. Four DSP's built into a single-board transform module can process an 1K x 1K image in 1.7 seconds. Additional transform modules working in parallel can be added if even greater speeds are desired. The flexibility inherent in the microcode extends the capabilities of the system to incorporate images of variable sizes. Their design allows for a maximum image size of 2K x 2K

  10. Surface Explorations : 3D Moving Images as Cartographies of Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, N.

    2016-01-01

    Moving images of travel and exploration have a long history. In this essay I will examine how the trope of navigation in 3D moving images can work towards an intimate and haptic encounter with other times and other places – elsewhen and elsewhere. The particular navigational construction of space in

  11. SU-E-J-139: One Institution’s Experience with Surface Imaging in Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, L; Singh, H; Zheng, Y

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: X-ray system is commonly used for IGRT in proton therapy, however image acquisition not only increases treatment time but also adds imaging dose. We studied a 3D surface camera system (AlignRT) performance for proton therapy. Methods: System accuracy was evaluated with rigid phantom under two different camera location configurations. For initial clinical applications, post mastectomy chest wall and partial breast treatments were studied. X-ray alignment was used as our ground truth. Our studies included: 1) comparison of daily patient setup shifts between X-ray alignment and SI calculation; 2) interfractional breast surface position variation when aligning to bony landmark on X-ray; 3) absolute positioning using planning CT DICOM data; 4) shifts for multi-isocenter treatment plan; 5) couch isocentric rotation accuracy. Results: Camera locations affected the system performance. After camera relocation, the accuracy of the system for the rigid phantom was within 1 mm (fixed couch), and 1.5 mm (isocentric rotation). For intrafractional patient positioning, X-ray and AlignRT shifts were highly correlated (r=0.99), with the largest difference (mean ± SD) in the longitudinal direction (2.14 ± 1.02 mm). For interfractional breast surface variation and absolute positioning, there were still larger disagreements between the two modalities due to different focus on anatomical landmarks, and 95% of the data lie within 5mm with some outliers at 7 mm–9 mm. For multi-isocenter shifts, the difference was 1 ± 0.56 mm over an 11 cm shift in longitudinal direction. For couch rotation study, the differences was 1.36 ± 1.0 mm in vertical direction, 3.04 ± 2.11 mm in longitudinal direction, and 2.10 ± 1.66 mm in lateral direction, with all rotation differences < 1.5 degree. Conclusion: Surface imaging is promising for intrafractional treatment application in proton therapy to reduce X-ray frequency. However the interfractional discrepancy between the X-ray and SI

  12. SU-E-J-139: One Institution’s Experience with Surface Imaging in Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L; Singh, H; Zheng, Y [ProCure Proton Therapy Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: X-ray system is commonly used for IGRT in proton therapy, however image acquisition not only increases treatment time but also adds imaging dose. We studied a 3D surface camera system (AlignRT) performance for proton therapy. Methods: System accuracy was evaluated with rigid phantom under two different camera location configurations. For initial clinical applications, post mastectomy chest wall and partial breast treatments were studied. X-ray alignment was used as our ground truth. Our studies included: 1) comparison of daily patient setup shifts between X-ray alignment and SI calculation; 2) interfractional breast surface position variation when aligning to bony landmark on X-ray; 3) absolute positioning using planning CT DICOM data; 4) shifts for multi-isocenter treatment plan; 5) couch isocentric rotation accuracy. Results: Camera locations affected the system performance. After camera relocation, the accuracy of the system for the rigid phantom was within 1 mm (fixed couch), and 1.5 mm (isocentric rotation). For intrafractional patient positioning, X-ray and AlignRT shifts were highly correlated (r=0.99), with the largest difference (mean ± SD) in the longitudinal direction (2.14 ± 1.02 mm). For interfractional breast surface variation and absolute positioning, there were still larger disagreements between the two modalities due to different focus on anatomical landmarks, and 95% of the data lie within 5mm with some outliers at 7 mm–9 mm. For multi-isocenter shifts, the difference was 1 ± 0.56 mm over an 11 cm shift in longitudinal direction. For couch rotation study, the differences was 1.36 ± 1.0 mm in vertical direction, 3.04 ± 2.11 mm in longitudinal direction, and 2.10 ± 1.66 mm in lateral direction, with all rotation differences < 1.5 degree. Conclusion: Surface imaging is promising for intrafractional treatment application in proton therapy to reduce X-ray frequency. However the interfractional discrepancy between the X-ray and SI

  13. Surface analysis of lipids by mass spectrometry: more than just imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Shane R; Brown, Simon H; In Het Panhuis, Marc; Blanksby, Stephen J; Mitchell, Todd W

    2013-10-01

    Mass spectrometry is now an indispensable tool for lipid analysis and is arguably the driving force in the renaissance of lipid research. In its various forms, mass spectrometry is uniquely capable of resolving the extensive compositional and structural diversity of lipids in biological systems. Furthermore, it provides the ability to accurately quantify molecular-level changes in lipid populations associated with changes in metabolism and environment; bringing lipid science to the "omics" age. The recent explosion of mass spectrometry-based surface analysis techniques is fuelling further expansion of the lipidomics field. This is evidenced by the numerous papers published on the subject of mass spectrometric imaging of lipids in recent years. While imaging mass spectrometry provides new and exciting possibilities, it is but one of the many opportunities direct surface analysis offers the lipid researcher. In this review we describe the current state-of-the-art in the direct surface analysis of lipids with a focus on tissue sections, intact cells and thin-layer chromatography substrates. The suitability of these different approaches towards analysis of the major lipid classes along with their current and potential applications in the field of lipid analysis are evaluated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pendent_Drop: An ImageJ Plugin to Measure the Surface Tension from an Image of a Pendent Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Daerr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pendent drop method for surface tension measurement consists in analysing the shape of an axisymmetric drop hanging from a capillary tube. This software is an add-on for the public domain image processing software ImageJ which matches a theoretical profile to the contour of a pendent drop, either interactively or by automatically minimising the mismatch. It provides an estimate of the surface tension, drop volume and surface area from the best matching parameters. It can be used in a headless setup. It is hosted on http://fiji.sc/List_of_update_sites with the source code on https://github.com/adaerr/pendent-drop

  15. Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging of the Enzymatic Degradation of Cellulose Microfibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Kyle; Raegen, Adam; Clarke, Anthony; Lipkowski, Jacek; Dutcher, John

    2012-02-01

    As the largest component of biomass on Earth, cellulose represents a significant potential energy reservoir. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose into fermentable sugars, an integral step in the production of biofuel, is a challenging problem on an industrial scale. More efficient conversion processes may be developed by an increased understanding of the action of the cellulolytic enzymes involved in cellulose degradation. We have used our recently developed quantitative, angle-scanning surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) device to study the degradation of cellulose microfibrils upon exposure to cellulosic enzymes. In particular, we have studied the action of individual enzymes, and combinations of enzymes, from the Hypocrea Jecorina cellulase system on heterogeneous, industrially-relevant cellulose substrates. This has allowed us to define a characteristic time of action for the enzymes for different degrees of surface coverage of the cellulose microfibrils.

  16. In-situ Planetary Subsurface Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Weber, R. C.; Dimech, J. L.; Kedar, S.; Neal, C. R.; Siegler, M.

    2017-12-01

    Geophysical and seismic instruments are considered the most effective tools for studying the detailed global structures of planetary interiors. A planet's interior bears the geochemical markers of its evolutionary history, as well as its present state of activity, which has direct implications to habitability. On Earth, subsurface imaging often involves massive data collection from hundreds to thousands of geophysical sensors (seismic, acoustic, etc) followed by transfer by hard links or wirelessly to a central location for post processing and computing, which will not be possible in planetary environments due to imposed mission constraints on mass, power, and bandwidth. Emerging opportunities for geophysical exploration of the solar system from Venus to the icy Ocean Worlds of Jupiter and Saturn dictate that subsurface imaging of the deep interior will require substantial data reduction and processing in-situ. The Real-time In-situ Subsurface Imaging (RISI) technology is a mesh network that senses and processes geophysical signals. Instead of data collection then post processing, the mesh network performs the distributed data processing and computing in-situ, and generates an evolving 3D subsurface image in real-time that can be transmitted under bandwidth and resource constraints. Seismic imaging algorithms (including traveltime tomography, ambient noise imaging, and microseismic imaging) have been successfully developed and validated using both synthetic and real-world terrestrial seismic data sets. The prototype hardware system has been implemented and can be extended as a general field instrumentation platform tailored specifically for a wide variety of planetary uses, including crustal mapping, ice and ocean structure, and geothermal systems. The team is applying the RISI technology to real off-world seismic datasets. For example, the Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (LSPE) deployed during the Apollo 17 Moon mission consisted of four geophone instruments

  17. Development of terahertz systems for imaging applications

    OpenAIRE

    Maestrojuán Biurrun, Itziar

    2016-01-01

    El principal objetivo de esta tesis fue el estudio y desarrollo de tecnología, concretamente mezcladores armónicos, trabajando a frecuencias de milimétricas y sub-milimétricas con el fin de implementar sistemas para aplicaciones de imagen. The main goal of this thesis was the study and development of technology, specifically harmonic mixers, working at millimetre and submillimetre frequencies in other to implement systems for imaging applications. A couple of sub-harmonic...

  18. Laboratory testing & measurement on optical imaging systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, B

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available on Optical Imaging Systems Bertus Theron 27 April 2013 presented at SIECPC 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Overview of Workshop Part 1. Introduction & Context  Some history of Arabic Optics  Context: Global vs Local optical testing... of Arabic Optics 1 See [4]  Arabic records of study of geometrical optics  Traced to Hellenistic (Greek) optics  Translated to Arabic  9th century  Arabic contribution to geometric optics  Not just translation to Arabic  Innovative research...

  19. Measuring stone surface area from a radiographic image is accurate and reproducible with the help of an imaging program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Abraham; Ganpule, Arvind; Muthu, V; Sabnis, R B; Desai, Mahesh

    2009-01-01

    The surface area of the stone from a radiographic image is one of the more suitable parameters defining stone bulk. The widely accepted method of measuring stone surface area is to count the number of square millimeters enclosed within a tracing of the stone outline on graph paper. This method is time consuming and cumbersome with potential for human error, especially when multiple measurements are needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy, efficiency, and reproducibility of a commercially available imaging program, Adobe Photoshop 7.0 for the measurement of stone surface area. The instructions to calculate area using the software are simple and easy in a Windows-based format. The accuracy of the imaging software was estimated by measuring surface areas of shapes of known mathematical areas. The efficiency and reproducibility were then evaluated from radiographs of 20 persons with radiopaque upper-tract urinary stones. The surface areas of stone images were measured using both graph paper and imaging software. Measurements were repeated after 10 days to assess the reproducibility of the techniques. The time taken to measure the area by the two methods was also assessed separately. The accuracy of the imaging software was estimated to be 98.7%. The correlation coefficient between the two methods was R(2) = 0.97. The mean percentage variation using the imaging software was 0.68%, while it was 6.36% with the graph paper. The mean time taken to measure using the image analyzer and graph paper was 1.9 +/- 0.8 minutes and 4.5 +/- 1.08 minutes, respectively (P stone surface area from radiographs compared with manual measurements using graph paper.

  20. Surface regions of illusory images are detected with a slower processing speed than those of luminance-defined images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaylova, Milena; Manahilov, Velitchko

    2010-11-24

    Research has shown that the processing time for discriminating illusory contours is longer than for real contours. We know, however, little whether the visual processes, associated with detecting regions of illusory surfaces, are also slower as those responsible for detecting luminance-defined images. Using a speed-accuracy trade-off (SAT) procedure, we measured accuracy as a function of processing time for detecting illusory Kanizsa-type and luminance-defined squares embedded in 2D static luminance noise. The data revealed that the illusory images were detected at slower processing speed than the real images, while the points in time, when accuracy departed from chance, were not significantly different for both stimuli. The classification images for detecting illusory and real squares showed that observers employed similar detection strategies using surface regions of the real and illusory squares. The lack of significant differences between the x-intercepts of the SAT functions for illusory and luminance-modulated stimuli suggests that the detection of surface regions of both images could be based on activation of a single mechanism (the dorsal magnocellular visual pathway). The slower speed for detecting illusory images as compared to luminance-defined images could be attributed to slower processes of filling-in of regions of illusory images within the dorsal pathway.

  1. GammaCam trademark radiation imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    GammaCam trademark, a gamma-ray imaging system manufactured by AIL System, Inc., would benefit a site that needs to locate radiation sources. It is capable of producing a two-dimensional image of a radiation field superimposed on a black and white visual image. Because the system can be positioned outside the radiologically controlled area, the radiation exposure to personnel is significantly reduced and extensive shielding is not required. This report covers the following topics: technology description; performance; technology applicability and alternatives; cost; regulatory and policy issues; and lessons learned. The demonstration of GammaCam trademark in December 1996 was part of the Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) whose objective is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5). The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies

  2. Dual analyzer system for surface analysis dedicated for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy at liquid surfaces and interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedermaier, Inga; Kolbeck, Claudia; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Maier, Florian, E-mail: florian.maier@fau.de [Lehrstuhl für Physikalische Chemie II, FAU Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    The investigation of liquid surfaces and interfaces with the powerful toolbox of ultra-high vacuum (UHV)-based surface science techniques generally has to overcome the issue of liquid evaporation within the vacuum system. In the last decade, however, new classes of liquids with negligible vapor pressure at room temperature—in particular, ionic liquids (ILs)—have emerged for surface science studies. It has been demonstrated that particularly angle-resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS) allows for investigating phenomena that occur at gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces on the molecular level. The results are not only relevant for IL systems but also for liquids in general. In all of these previous ARXPS studies, the sample holder had to be tilted in order to change the polar detection angle of emitted photoelectrons, which restricted the liquid systems to very thin viscous IL films coating a flat solid support. We now report on the concept and realization of a new and unique laboratory “Dual Analyzer System for Surface Analysis (DASSA)” which enables fast ARXPS, UV photoelectron spectroscopy, imaging XPS, and low-energy ion scattering at the horizontal surface plane of macroscopically thick non-volatile liquid samples. It comprises a UHV chamber equipped with two electron analyzers mounted for simultaneous measurements in 0° and 80° emission relative to the surface normal. The performance of DASSA on a first macroscopic liquid system will be demonstrated.

  3. Dual analyzer system for surface analysis dedicated for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy at liquid surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermaier, Inga; Kolbeck, Claudia; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Maier, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of liquid surfaces and interfaces with the powerful toolbox of ultra-high vacuum (UHV)-based surface science techniques generally has to overcome the issue of liquid evaporation within the vacuum system. In the last decade, however, new classes of liquids with negligible vapor pressure at room temperature—in particular, ionic liquids (ILs)—have emerged for surface science studies. It has been demonstrated that particularly angle-resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS) allows for investigating phenomena that occur at gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces on the molecular level. The results are not only relevant for IL systems but also for liquids in general. In all of these previous ARXPS studies, the sample holder had to be tilted in order to change the polar detection angle of emitted photoelectrons, which restricted the liquid systems to very thin viscous IL films coating a flat solid support. We now report on the concept and realization of a new and unique laboratory “Dual Analyzer System for Surface Analysis (DASSA)” which enables fast ARXPS, UV photoelectron spectroscopy, imaging XPS, and low-energy ion scattering at the horizontal surface plane of macroscopically thick non-volatile liquid samples. It comprises a UHV chamber equipped with two electron analyzers mounted for simultaneous measurements in 0° and 80° emission relative to the surface normal. The performance of DASSA on a first macroscopic liquid system will be demonstrated.

  4. MO-FG-CAMPUS-TeP1-03: Pre-Treatment Surface Imaging Based Collision Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiant, D; Maurer, J; Liu, H; Hayes, T; Shang, Q; Sintay, B [Cone Health Cancer Center, Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Modern radiotherapy increasingly employs large immobilization devices, gantry attachments, and couch rotations for treatments. All of which raise the risk of collisions between the patient and the gantry / couch. Collision detection is often achieved by manually checking each couch position in the treatment room and sometimes results in extraneous imaging if collisions are detected after image based setup has begun. In the interest of improving efficiency and avoiding extra imaging, we explore the use of a surface imaging based collision detection model. Methods: Surfaces acquired from AlignRT (VisionRT, London, UK) were transferred in wavefront format to a custom Matlab (Mathworks, Natick, MA) software package (CCHECK). Computed tomography (CT) scans acquired at the same time were sent to CCHECK in DICOM format. In CCHECK, binary maps of the surfaces were created and overlaid on the CT images based on the fixed relationship of the AlignRT and CT coordinate systems. Isocenters were added through a graphical user interface (GUI). CCHECK then compares the inputted surfaces to a model of the linear accelerator (linac) to check for collisions at defined gantry and couch positions. Note, CCHECK may be used with or without a CT. Results: The nominal surface image field of view is 650 mm × 900 mm, with variance based on patient position and size. The accuracy of collision detections is primarily based on the linac model and the surface mapping process. The current linac model and mapping process yield detection accuracies on the order of 5 mm, assuming no change in patient posture between surface acquisition and treatment. Conclusions: CCHECK provides a non-ionizing method to check for collisions without the patient in the treatment room. Collision detection accuracy may be improved with more robust linac modeling. Additional gantry attachments (e.g. conical collimators) can be easily added to the model.

  5. A new robust markerless method for automatic image-to-patient registration in image-guided neurosurgery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinlong; Song, Zhijian; Wang, Manning

    2017-12-01

    Compared with the traditional point-based registration in the image-guided neurosurgery system, surface-based registration is preferable because it does not use fiducial markers before image scanning and does not require image acquisition dedicated for navigation purposes. However, most existing surface-based registration methods must include a manual step for coarse registration, which increases the registration time and elicits some inconvenience and uncertainty. A new automatic surface-based registration method is proposed, which applies 3D surface feature description and matching algorithm to obtain point correspondences for coarse registration and uses the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm in the last step to obtain an image-to-patient registration. Both phantom and clinical data were used to execute automatic registrations and target registration error (TRE) calculated to verify the practicality and robustness of the proposed method. In phantom experiments, the registration accuracy was stable across different downsampling resolutions (18-26 mm) and different support radii (2-6 mm). In clinical experiments, the mean TREs of two patients by registering full head surfaces were 1.30 mm and 1.85 mm. This study introduced a new robust automatic surface-based registration method based on 3D feature matching. The method achieved sufficient registration accuracy with different real-world surface regions in phantom and clinical experiments.

  6. Image distortion due to refraction by planar surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arizaga, R; Cap, N; Rabal, H; Trivi, M

    2010-01-01

    The term 'apparent depth' is commonly treated in textbooks as an issue easily understandable from the point of view of paraxial optical geometrical optics. Nevertheless, everyday life tells us that most of the time the observation of objects immersed in water is made under a great range of visual angles where the paraxial approximation is not valid. Here we developed a non-paraxial treatment to calculate the position and shape of the image of objects immersed in liquids of different refractive indices. The approach was focused on the parametric positions of the images of a single point at different viewing angles. Then we calculated how the image of an extended object is distorted. By using the Matlab software, it is possible to visualize the images for different geometrical conditions. We also include the analysis for refractive index with negative values as is the case of metamaterials.

  7. Image distortion due to refraction by planar surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arizaga, R; Cap, N; Rabal, H; Trivi, M [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CONICET La Plata-CIC) and OPTIMO Dto de Ciencias Basicas, Fac. de Ingenieria UNLP, PO Box 3, 1897 Gonnet, La Plata (Argentina)

    2010-01-15

    The term 'apparent depth' is commonly treated in textbooks as an issue easily understandable from the point of view of paraxial optical geometrical optics. Nevertheless, everyday life tells us that most of the time the observation of objects immersed in water is made under a great range of visual angles where the paraxial approximation is not valid. Here we developed a non-paraxial treatment to calculate the position and shape of the image of objects immersed in liquids of different refractive indices. The approach was focused on the parametric positions of the images of a single point at different viewing angles. Then we calculated how the image of an extended object is distorted. By using the Matlab software, it is possible to visualize the images for different geometrical conditions. We also include the analysis for refractive index with negative values as is the case of metamaterials.

  8. Brain MR imaging in systemic lupus erythematous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Ae; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Kyung Hwon; Kim, Sung Kwon; Lee, Jung Sang [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Sang Hoon [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-09-15

    To present MR imaging findings of intracranial lesions in systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE), a retrospective study was performed on MR images of 33 SLE patients with neurologic symptoms and signs. MR imaging was performed on either a 0.5 T (21 patients) or 2.0 T unit (12 patients), using T1-weighted, proton-density-weighted, and T2-weighted spin echo sequences in all patients. In seven patients, post-contrast T1-weighted images were also obtained after administration of gadopentetate dimeglumine. The main MR findings consisted of focal lesions suggesting ischemia/infarct (15 patients), diffuse brain atrophy (8), and findings associated with infection (4). The MR findings were normal in 11 patients (33%). The focal lesions suggesting ischemia/infarcts presumably secondary to vasculitis were distributed in the cortex or subcortical white matter (7 patients), deep periventricular white matter (3), or in both areas (5). Most of the focal lesions were multiple and small in size. The findings associated with infection were variable and included communicating hydrocephalus, meningeal enhancement, granuloma, etc. MR findings of SLE were non-specific and therefore clinical correlation is needed when evaluating SLE in MR.

  9. Expandable image compression system: A modular approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, B.K.T.; Lo, S.C.; Huang, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    The full-frame bit-allocation algorithm for radiological image compression can achieve an acceptable compression ratio as high as 30:1. It involves two stages of operation: a two-dimensional discrete cosine transform and pixel quantization in the transformed space with pixel depth kept accountable by a bit-allocation table. The cosine transform hardware design took an expandable modular approach based on the VME bus system with a maximum data transfer rate of 48 Mbytes/sec and a microprocessor (Motorola 68000 family). The modules are cascadable and microprogrammable to perform 1,024-point butterfly operations. A total of 18 stages would be required for transforming a 1,000 x 1,000 image. Multiplicative constants and addressing sequences are to be software loaded into the parameter buffers of each stage prior to streaming data through the processor stages. The compression rate for 1K x 1K images is expected to be faster than one image per sec

  10. Cine MR imaging of the cardiovascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Fumiaki; Yoshino, Yasushi; Mihara, Junji; Ichikawa, Seiichi; Kimura, Masahiko; Yano, Masao; Umeda, Masahiro; Oouchi, Toshihiro

    1990-01-01

    In recent years cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has developed as a high-speed imaging technique that provides a high intensity signal even at a short repetition time (20-30 msec) by using an excited pulse with a small flip angle according to the gradient echo method, enabling about 20 to 30 continuous images of the same section per one cardiac cycle to be taken. On cine display of these continuous images, information concerning blood flow shown by a high intensity signal in comparison with that of the myocardium and vascular wall is obtained with high temporal resolution along with anatomical information. The present study reports the clinical usefulness of cine MRI in today's situation, inculding the following: calculation of the left ventricular ejection fraction and pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio in congenital shunt disease by integration of the area of multisections through application of Simpson's method; diagnosis of the severity of valvular regurgitation, evaluation of stenosal diseases, and diagnosis of inflow from the fissured entry of dissecting aortic aneurysm by evaluating of an area of low intensity signal, probably based on the high velocity or turbulent blood flow: and evaluation of patency of the internal mammary artery bypass graft of the basis of the possible visualization of even thin blood vessels because of the high intensity signal of blood flow. In particular, the characteristics of this procedures are described by comparing it with other technologies in the field of diseases of valvular regurgitation. (author)

  11. Application of image recognition algorithms for statistical description of nano- and microstructured surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mărăscu, V.; Dinescu, G. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, Bucharest– Magurele (Romania); Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, 405 Atomistilor Street, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Chiţescu, I. [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Bucharest, 14 Academiei Street, Bucharest (Romania); Barna, V. [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, 405 Atomistilor Street, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Ioniţă, M. D.; Lazea-Stoyanova, A.; Mitu, B., E-mail: mitub@infim.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, Bucharest– Magurele (Romania)

    2016-03-25

    In this paper we propose a statistical approach for describing the self-assembling of sub-micronic polystyrene beads on silicon surfaces, as well as the evolution of surface topography due to plasma treatments. Algorithms for image recognition are used in conjunction with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging of surfaces. In a first step, greyscale images of the surface covered by the polystyrene beads are obtained. Further, an adaptive thresholding method was applied for obtaining binary images. The next step consisted in automatic identification of polystyrene beads dimensions, by using Hough transform algorithm, according to beads radius. In order to analyze the uniformity of the self–assembled polystyrene beads, the squared modulus of 2-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (2- D FFT) was applied. By combining these algorithms we obtain a powerful and fast statistical tool for analysis of micro and nanomaterials with aspect features regularly distributed on surface upon SEM examination.

  12. Application of image recognition algorithms for statistical description of nano- and microstructured surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mărăscu, V.; Dinescu, G.; Chiţescu, I.; Barna, V.; Ioniţă, M. D.; Lazea-Stoyanova, A.; Mitu, B.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a statistical approach for describing the self-assembling of sub-micronic polystyrene beads on silicon surfaces, as well as the evolution of surface topography due to plasma treatments. Algorithms for image recognition are used in conjunction with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging of surfaces. In a first step, greyscale images of the surface covered by the polystyrene beads are obtained. Further, an adaptive thresholding method was applied for obtaining binary images. The next step consisted in automatic identification of polystyrene beads dimensions, by using Hough transform algorithm, according to beads radius. In order to analyze the uniformity of the self–assembled polystyrene beads, the squared modulus of 2-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (2- D FFT) was applied. By combining these algorithms we obtain a powerful and fast statistical tool for analysis of micro and nanomaterials with aspect features regularly distributed on surface upon SEM examination.

  13. Systems for increasing the sensitivity of gamma-ray imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailescu, Lucian; Vetter, Kai M.; Chivers, Daniel H.

    2012-12-11

    Systems that increase the position resolution and granularity of double sided segmented semiconductor detectors are provided. These systems increase the imaging resolution capability of such detectors, either used as Compton cameras, or as position sensitive radiation detectors in imagers such as SPECT, PET, coded apertures, multi-pinhole imagers, or other spatial or temporal modulated imagers.

  14. Evaluation of Fine Aggregate Morphology by Image Method and Its Effect on Skid-Resistance of Micro-Surfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Xiao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Micro-surfacing is a widely used pavement preventive maintenance technology used all over the world, due to its advantages of fast construction, low maintenance cost, good waterproofness, and skid-resistance performance. This study evaluated the fine aggregate morphology and surface texture of micro-surfacing by AIMS (aggregate image measurement system, and explored the effect of aggregate morphology on skid-resistance of single-grade micro-surfacing. Sand patch test and British pendulum test were also used to detect skid-resistance for comparison with the image-based method. Wet abrasion test was used to measure skid-resistance durability for feasibility verification of single-grade micro-surfacing. The results show that the effect of Form2D on the skid-resistance of micro-surfacing is much stronger than that of angularity. Combining the feasibility analysis of durability and skid-resistance, 1.18–2.36 grade micro-surfacing meets the requirements of durability and skid-resistance at the same time. This study also determined that, compared with British pendulum test, the texture result obtained by sand patch test fits better with results of image method.

  15. Evaluation of Fine Aggregate Morphology by Image Method and Its Effect on Skid-Resistance of Micro-Surfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yue; Wang, Feng; Cui, Peide; Lei, Lei; Lin, Juntao; Yi, Mingwei

    2018-05-29

    Micro-surfacing is a widely used pavement preventive maintenance technology used all over the world, due to its advantages of fast construction, low maintenance cost, good waterproofness, and skid-resistance performance. This study evaluated the fine aggregate morphology and surface texture of micro-surfacing by AIMS (aggregate image measurement system), and explored the effect of aggregate morphology on skid-resistance of single-grade micro-surfacing. Sand patch test and British pendulum test were also used to detect skid-resistance for comparison with the image-based method. Wet abrasion test was used to measure skid-resistance durability for feasibility verification of single-grade micro-surfacing. The results show that the effect of Form2D on the skid-resistance of micro-surfacing is much stronger than that of angularity. Combining the feasibility analysis of durability and skid-resistance, 1.18⁻2.36 grade micro-surfacing meets the requirements of durability and skid-resistance at the same time. This study also determined that, compared with British pendulum test, the texture result obtained by sand patch test fits better with results of image method.

  16. RASSOR - Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Tracy R.; Mueller, Rob

    2015-01-01

    The Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) is a lightweight excavator for mining in reduced gravity. RASSOR addresses the need for a lightweight (robot that is able to overcome excavation reaction forces while operating in reduced gravity environments such as the moon or Mars. A nominal mission would send RASSOR to the moon to operate for five years delivering regolith feedstock to a separate chemical plant, which extracts oxygen from the regolith using H2 reduction methods. RASSOR would make 35 trips of 20 kg loads every 24 hours. With four RASSORs operating at one time, the mission would achieve 10 tonnes of oxygen per year (8 t for rocket propellant and 2 t for life support). Accessing craters in space environments may be extremely hard and harsh due to volatile resources - survival is challenging. New technologies and methods are required. RASSOR is a product of KSC Swamp Works which establishes rapid, innovative and cost effective exploration mission solutions by leveraging partnerships across NASA, industry and academia.

  17. Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Green, Jennifer L.; Chau, Savio N.; Curell, Philip C.; Dempsey, Cathy A.; Patterson, Linda P.; Robbins, William; Steele, Michael A.; DAnnunzio, Anthony; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap is a guide for developing the technologies needed to enable the supportable, sustainable, and affordable exploration of the Moon and other destinations beyond Earth. Supportability is defined in terms of space maintenance, repair, and related logistics. This report considers the supportability lessons learned from NASA and the Department of Defense. Lunar Outpost supportability needs are summarized, and a supportability technology strategy is established to make the transition from high logistics dependence to logistics independence. This strategy will enable flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. The supportability roadmap defines the general technology selection criteria. Technologies are organized into three categories: diagnostics, test, and verification; maintenance and repair; and scavenge and recycle. Furthermore, "embedded technologies" and "process technologies" are used to designate distinct technology types with different development cycles. The roadmap examines the current technology readiness level and lays out a four-phase incremental development schedule with selection decision gates. The supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop technologies with the widest possible capability and utility while minimizing the impact on crew time and training and remaining within the time and cost constraints of the program.

  18. IMPROVING IMAGE MATCHING BY REDUCING SURFACE REFLECTIONS USING POLARISING FILTER TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Conen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In dense stereo matching applications surface reflections may lead to incorrect measurements and blunders in the resulting point cloud. To overcome the problem of disturbing reflexions polarising filters can be mounted on the camera lens and light source. Reflections in the images can be suppressed by crossing the polarising direction of the filters leading to homogeneous illuminated images and better matching results. However, the filter may influence the camera’s orientation parameters as well as the measuring accuracy. To quantify these effects, a calibration and an accuracy analysis is conducted within a spatial test arrangement according to the German guideline VDI/VDE 2634.1 (2002 using a DSLR with and without polarising filter. In a second test, the interior orientation is analysed in more detail. The results do not show significant changes of the measuring accuracy in object space and only very small changes of the interior orientation (Δc ≤ 4 μm with the polarising filter in use. Since in medical applications many tiny reflections are present and impede robust surface measurements, a prototypic trinocular endoscope is equipped with polarising technique. The interior and relative orientation is determined and analysed. The advantage of the polarising technique for medical image matching is shown in an experiment with a moistened pig kidney. The accuracy and completeness of the resulting point cloud can be improved clearly when using polarising filters. Furthermore, an accuracy analysis using a laser triangulation system is performed and the special reflection properties of metallic surfaces are presented.

  19. Designing and manufacturing of solar imaging and tracking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Hosseini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – in this study, designing and manufacturing of solar imaging and tracking system in order to research and spectroscopy applications are investigated. The device has the ability to be used as a Telescope, spectroscope, spectrophotometer and spectrohelioscope. The results obtained from this device are used in the various field of research such as absorption spectra of the surface of the sun, transit of planets in front of the sun, Doppler effects, evaluation of the Fraunhofer lines, plot of intensity versus wavelength and studying of Solar Flares. In this research, design and manufacture of the device, along with some of the results, are reported.

  20. Molecular Imaging with Activatable Reporter Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Niu, Xiaoyuan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging is a newly emerged multiple disciplinary field that aims to visualize, characterize and quantitatively measure biological processes at cellular and molecular levels in humans and other living systems. A reporter gene is a piece of DNA encoding reporter protein, which presents as a readily measurable phenotype that can be distinguished easily from the background of endogenous protein. After being transferred into cells of organ systems (transgenes, the reporter gene can be utilized to visualize transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, protein-protein interactions, or trafficking of proteins or cells in living subjects. Herein, we review previous classification of reporter genes and regroup the reporter gene based imaging as basic, inducible and activatable, based on the regulation of reporter gene transcription and post-translational modification of reporter proteins. We then focus on activatable reporters, in which the signal can be activated at the posttranslational level for visualizing protein-protein interactions, protein phosphorylation or tertiary structure changes. The applications of several types of activatable reporters will also be summarized. We conclude that activatable reporter imaging can benefit both basic biomedical research and drug development.

  1. Geometric Description of Fibre Bundle Surface for Birkhoff System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Mei, Cao; Hua-Fei, Sun; Zhen-Ning, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A fibre bundle surface for the Birkhoff system is constructed. The metric and the Riemannian connection of the surface are defined and the representation of the Gaussian curvature of this surface is presented. Finally, three examples for the Birkhoff system are given to illustrate our results. (general)

  2. Special feature on imaging systems and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wuqiang; Giakos, George

    2013-07-01

    The IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST'2012) was held in Manchester, UK, on 16-17 July 2012. The participants came from 26 countries or regions: Austria, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Malaysia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia, UAE, UK and USA. The technical program of the conference consisted of a series of scientific and technical sessions, exploring physical principles, engineering and applications of new imaging systems and techniques, as reflected by the diversity of the submitted papers. Following a rigorous review process, a total of 123 papers were accepted, and they were organized into 30 oral presentation sessions and a poster session. In addition, six invited keynotes were arranged. The conference not only provided the participants with a unique opportunity to exchange ideas and disseminate research outcomes but also paved a way to establish global collaboration. Following the IST'2012, a total of 55 papers, which were technically extended substantially from their versions in the conference proceeding, were submitted as regular papers to this special feature of Measurement Science and Technology . Following a rigorous reviewing process, 25 papers have been finally accepted for publication in this special feature and they are organized into three categories: (1) industrial tomography, (2) imaging systems and techniques and (3) image processing. These papers not only present the latest developments in the field of imaging systems and techniques but also offer potential solutions to existing problems. We hope that this special feature provides a good reference for researchers who are active in the field and will serve as a catalyst to trigger further research. It has been our great pleasure to be the guest editors of this special feature. We would like to thank the authors for their contributions, without which it would

  3. Validation of phalanx bone three-dimensional surface segmentation from computed tomography images using laser scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVries, Nicole A.; Gassman, Esther E.; Kallemeyn, Nicole A. [The University of Iowa, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Center for Computer Aided Design, Iowa City, IA (United States); Shivanna, Kiran H. [The University of Iowa, Center for Computer Aided Design, Iowa City, IA (United States); Magnotta, Vincent A. [The University of Iowa, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Radiology, Center for Computer Aided Design, Iowa City, IA (United States); Grosland, Nicole M. [The University of Iowa, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Center for Computer Aided Design, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2008-01-15

    To examine the validity of manually defined bony regions of interest from computed tomography (CT) scans. Segmentation measurements were performed on the coronal reformatted CT images of the three phalanx bones of the index finger from five cadaveric specimens. Two smoothing algorithms (image-based and Laplacian surface-based) were evaluated to determine their ability to represent accurately the anatomic surface. The resulting surfaces were compared with laser surface scans of the corresponding cadaveric specimen. The average relative overlap between two tracers was 0.91 for all bones. The overall mean difference between the manual unsmoothed surface and the laser surface scan was 0.20 mm. Both image-based and Laplacian surface-based smoothing were compared; the overall mean difference for image-based smoothing was 0.21 mm and 0.20 mm for Laplacian smoothing. This study showed that manual segmentation of high-contrast, coronal, reformatted, CT datasets can accurately represent the true surface geometry of bones. Additionally, smoothing techniques did not significantly alter the surface representations. This validation technique should be extended to other bones, image segmentation and spatial filtering techniques. (orig.)

  4. Validation of phalanx bone three-dimensional surface segmentation from computed tomography images using laser scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVries, Nicole A.; Gassman, Esther E.; Kallemeyn, Nicole A.; Shivanna, Kiran H.; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Grosland, Nicole M.

    2008-01-01

    To examine the validity of manually defined bony regions of interest from computed tomography (CT) scans. Segmentation measurements were performed on the coronal reformatted CT images of the three phalanx bones of the index finger from five cadaveric specimens. Two smoothing algorithms (image-based and Laplacian surface-based) were evaluated to determine their ability to represent accurately the anatomic surface. The resulting surfaces were compared with laser surface scans of the corresponding cadaveric specimen. The average relative overlap between two tracers was 0.91 for all bones. The overall mean difference between the manual unsmoothed surface and the laser surface scan was 0.20 mm. Both image-based and Laplacian surface-based smoothing were compared; the overall mean difference for image-based smoothing was 0.21 mm and 0.20 mm for Laplacian smoothing. This study showed that manual segmentation of high-contrast, coronal, reformatted, CT datasets can accurately represent the true surface geometry of bones. Additionally, smoothing techniques did not significantly alter the surface representations. This validation technique should be extended to other bones, image segmentation and spatial filtering techniques. (orig.)

  5. Space-Ready Advanced Imaging System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II effort Toyon will increase the state-of-the-art for video/image systems. This will include digital image compression algorithms as well as system...

  6. Surface Reconstruction and Image Enhancement via $L^1$-Minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Dobrev, Veselin; Guermond, Jean-Luc; Popov, Bojan

    2010-01-01

    A surface reconstruction technique based on minimization of the total variation of the gradient is introduced. Convergence of the method is established, and an interior-point algorithm solving the associated linear programming problem is introduced

  7. Preparation of theoretical scanning tunneling microscope images of adsorbed molecules: a theoretical study of benzene on the Cu(110) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapter, J.G.; Rogers, B.L.; Ford, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Since its development in 1982, the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) has developed into a powerful tool for the study of surfaces and adsorbates. However, the utility of the technique can be further enhanced through the development of techniques for generating theoretical STM images. This is particularly true when studying molecules adsorbed on a substrate, as the results are often interpreted superficially due to an inadequate understanding of the orbital overlap probed in the experiment. A method of preparing theoretical scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images using comparatively inexpensive desktop computers and the commercially available CRYSTAL98 package is presented through a study of benzene adsorbed on the Cu(110) surface. Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock (HF) methods are used to model clean Cu(110) slabs of various thicknesses and to simulate the adsorption of benzene onto these slabs. Eight possible orientations of benzene on the Cu(110) surface are proposed, and the optimum orientation according to the calculations is presented. Theoretical STM images of the Cu(110) surface and benzene adsorbed on the Cu(110) surface are compared with experimental STM images of the system from a published study. Significant differences are observed and are examined in detail

  8. Imaging near-surface heterogeneities by natural migration of backscattered surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    AlTheyab, Abdullah; Lin, Fan-Chi; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-01-01

    We present a migration method that does not require a velocity model to migrate backscattered surface waves to their projected locations on the surface. This migration method, denoted as natural migration, uses recorded Green's functions along

  9. Ocean Surface Current Vectors from MODIS Terra/Aqua Sea Surface Temperature Image Pairs, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellites that record imagery of the same sea surface area, at times separated by a few hours, can be used to estimate ocean surface velocity fields based on the...

  10. Four-channel surface coil array for sequential CW-EPR image acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Ayano; Emoto, Miho; Fujii, Hirotada; Hirata, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    This article describes a four-channel surface coil array to increase the area of visualization for continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance (CW-EPR) imaging. A 776-MHz surface coil array was constructed with four independent surface coil resonators and three kinds of switches. Control circuits for switching the resonators were also built to sequentially perform EPR image acquisition for each resonator. The resonance frequencies of the resonators were shifted using PIN diode switches to decouple the inductively coupled coils. To investigate the area of visualization with the surface coil array, three-dimensional EPR imaging was performed using a glass cell phantom filled with a solution of nitroxyl radicals. The area of visualization obtained with the surface coil array was increased approximately 3.5-fold in comparison to that with a single surface coil resonator. Furthermore, to demonstrate the applicability of this surface coil array to animal imaging, three-dimensional EPR imaging was performed in a living mouse with an exogenously injected nitroxyl radical imaging agent.

  11. An integral design strategy combining optical system and image processing to obtain high resolution images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaoyang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Ying; Gong, Rui; Shao, Xiaopeng; Liang, Chao; Xu, Jun

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an integral design that combines optical system with image processing is introduced to obtain high resolution images, and the performance is evaluated and demonstrated. Traditional imaging methods often separate the two technical procedures of optical system design and imaging processing, resulting in the failures in efficient cooperation between the optical and digital elements. Therefore, an innovative approach is presented to combine the merit function during optical design together with the constraint conditions of image processing algorithms. Specifically, an optical imaging system with low resolution is designed to collect the image signals which are indispensable for imaging processing, while the ultimate goal is to obtain high resolution images from the final system. In order to optimize the global performance, the optimization function of ZEMAX software is utilized and the number of optimization cycles is controlled. Then Wiener filter algorithm is adopted to process the image simulation and mean squared error (MSE) is taken as evaluation criterion. The results show that, although the optical figures of merit for the optical imaging systems is not the best, it can provide image signals that are more suitable for image processing. In conclusion. The integral design of optical system and image processing can search out the overall optimal solution which is missed by the traditional design methods. Especially, when designing some complex optical system, this integral design strategy has obvious advantages to simplify structure and reduce cost, as well as to gain high resolution images simultaneously, which has a promising perspective of industrial application.

  12. Effects of surface-mapping corrections and synthetic-aperture focusing techniques on ultrasonic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barna, B.A.; Johnson, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Improvements in ultrasonic imaging that can be obtained using algorithms that map the surface of targets are evaluated. This information is incorporated in the application of synthetic-aperture focusing techniques which also have the potential to improve image resolution. Images obtained using directed-beam (flat) transducers and the focused transducers normally used for synthetic-aperture processing are quantitatively compared by using no processing, synthetic-aperture processing with no corrections for surface variations, and synthetic-aperture processing with surface mapping. The unprocessed images have relatively poor lateral resolutions because echoes from two adjacent reflectors show interference effects which prevent their identification even if the spacing is larger than the single-hole resolution. The synthetic-aperture-processed images show at least a twofold improvement in lateral resolution and greatly reduced interference effects in multiple-hole images compared to directed-beam images. Perhaps more importantly, in images of test blocks with substantial surface variations portions of the image are displaced from their actual positions by several wavelengths. To correct for this effect an algorithm has been developed for calculating the surface variations. The corrected images produced using this algorithm are accurate within the experimental error. In addition, the same algorithm, when applied to the directed-beam data, produced images that are not only accurately positioned, but that also have a resolution comparable to conventional synthetic-aperture-processed images obtained from focused-transducer data. This suggests that using synthetic-aperture processing on the type of data normally collected during directed-beam ultrasonic inspections would eliminate the need to rescan for synthetic-aperture enhancement

  13. Surface properties of semi-infinite Fermi systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campi, X.; Stringari, S.

    1979-10-01

    A functional relation between the kinetic energy density and the total density is used to analyse the surface properties of semi-infinite Fermi systems. One find an explicit expression for the surface thickness in which the role of the infinite matter compressibility, binding energy and non-locality effects is clearly shown. The method, which holds both for nuclear and electronic systems (liquid metals), yields a very simple relation between the surface thickness and the surface energy

  14. Hybrid surface platform for the simultaneous detection of proteins and DNA using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging sensor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homola, Jiří; Piliarik, Marek; Ladd, J.; Taylor, A.; Shaoyi, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 11 (2008), s. 4231-4236 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200670701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : Surface plasmon resonance imaging * DNA-directed immobilization * protein array Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 5.712, year: 2008

  15. New imaging systems in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    PCR-I, an analog coded single ring positron tomograph, demonstrates the concepts of analog coding and the utility of high resolution systems. PCR-I, with a resolution of 4.5mm, has been employed in a series of biological studies using small animals that have been highly successful and will lead to clinical application. The emphasis now is turning to even higher sensitivity instruments in order to provide adequate number of events to populate a volume image. For this purpose, we have designed and are constructing PCR-II, a cylindrical analog coded positron tomograph incorporating 12,800 small detectors coded to 1760 phototubes. The increased sensitivity is achieved by recording all events within a cylindrical source that produce annihilation radiation striking any point on the cylindrical detector. PCR-II is projected to have a sensitivity of 1.6 million counts per second for a 20 centimeter diameter sphere uniformly filled with activity at 1 μCi/cm 3 . This system, with a resolution of 3mm, will approach the limits of sensitivity and resolution for positron tomographs. It is our opinion that this system will revolutionize the concept of positron imaging

  16. A hybrid optical system for broadband imaging in guidance and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaofang; Jiang, Yuesong; Shen, Chunyan; Zhao, Yiming

    2006-11-01

    A binary optics method has been adopted to improve upon a conventional optical system in guidance and control, and a hybrid broadband imaging system that includes a binary surface is analyzed and evaluated by optical design software ZEMAX. The practical design shows that the introduction of binary optics can simplify the structure of the imaging system and reduce the size and weight of the broadband guidance and control system. Moreover, it can help to acquire images of radiation of different wavelengths from targets; hence it will result in improved overall performance of missiles in wars.

  17. Spatial characterization of nanotextured surfaces by visual color imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Murthy, Swathi; Madsen, Morten H.

    2016-01-01

    We present a method using an ordinary color camera to characterize nanostructures from the visual color of the structures. The method provides a macroscale overview image from which micrometer-sized regions can be analyzed independently, hereby revealing long-range spatial variations...

  18. Automation system for tritium contaminated surface monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Curuia, Marian; Raceanu, Mircea; Enache, Adrian; Stefanescu, Ioan; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2005-01-01

    The low energy of betas makes tritium difficult to detect. However, there are several methods used in tritium detection, such as liquid scintillation and ionization chambers. Tritium on or near a surface can be also detected using proportional counter and, recently, solid state devices. The paper presents our results in the design and achievement of a surface tritium monitor using a PIN photodiode as a solid state charged particle detector to count betas emitted from the surface. That method allows continuous, real-time and non-destructively measuring of tritium. (authors)

  19. A polymeric fastener can easily functionalize liposome surfaces with gadolinium for enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cartney E; Shkumatov, Artem; Withers, Sarah G; Yang, Binxia; Glockner, James F; Misra, Sanjay; Roy, Edward J; Wong, Chun-Ho; Zimmerman, Steven C; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2013-11-26

    Common methods of loading magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents into nanoparticles often suffer from challenges related to particle formation, complex chemical modification/purification steps, and reduced contrast efficiency. This study presents a simple, yet advanced process to address these issues by loading gadolinium, an MRI contrast agent, exclusively on a liposome surface using a polymeric fastener. The fastener, so named for its ability to physically link the two functional components together, consisted of chitosan substituted with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) to chelate gadolinium, as well as octadecyl chains to stabilize the modified chitosan on the liposome surface. The assembly strategy, mimicking the mechanisms by which viruses and proteins naturally anchor to a cell, provided greater T1 relaxivity than liposomes loaded with gadolinium in both the interior and outer leaflet. Gadolinium-coated liposomes were ultimately evaluated in vivo using murine ischemia models to highlight the diagnostic capability of the system. Taken together, this process decouples particle assembly and functionalization and, therefore, has considerable potential to enhance imaging quality while alleviating many of the difficulties associated with multifunctional particle fabrication.

  20. The image acquisition system design of floor grinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang-jiang; Liu, Wei; Liu, Hui-qin

    2018-01-01

    Based on linear CCD, high resolution image real-time acquisition system serves as designing a set of image acquisition system for floor grinder through the calculation of optical imaging system. The entire image acquisition system can collect images of ground before and after the work of the floor grinder, and the data is transmitted through the Bluetooth system to the computer and compared to realize real-time monitoring of its working condition. The system provides technical support for the design of unmanned ground grinders.

  1. Quantitative roughness characterization and 3D reconstruction of electrode surface using cyclic voltammetry and SEM image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhillon, Shweta; Kant, Rama, E-mail: rkant@chemistry.du.ac.in

    2013-10-01

    Area measurements from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and image from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize electrode statistical morphology, 3D surface reconstruction and its electroactivity. SEM images of single phased materials correspond to two-dimensional (2D) projections of 3D structures, leading to an incomplete characterization. Lack of third dimension information in SEM image is circumvented using equivalence between denoised SEM image and CV area measurements. This CV-SEM method can be used to estimate power spectral density (PSD), width, gradient, finite fractal nature of roughness and local morphology of the electrode. We show that the surface morphological statistical property like distribution function of gradient can be related to local electro-activity. Electrode surface gradient micrographs generated here can provide map of electro-activity sites. Finally, the densely and uniformly packed small gradient over the Pt-surface is the determining criterion for high intrinsic electrode activity.

  2. Ptychographic x-ray imaging of surfaces on crystal truncation rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chenhui; Barbour, Andi; Liu, Yaohua; You, Hoydoo, E-mail: hyou@anl.gov [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Harder, Ross; Xu, Ruqing [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Diaz, Ana; Menzel, Andreas [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI 5232 (Switzerland); Komanicky, Vladimir [Faculty of Sciences, Safarik University, Kosice 04154 (Slovakia); Huang, Xiaojing [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Pierce, Michael S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-03-09

    Ptychography is a high-resolution imaging technique, which does not require lenses for image magnification and which provides phase contrast with high sensitivity. Here, we propose to use x-ray ptychography for the imaging of surface structure in crystalline samples. We show that ptychography can be used to image atomic step structures using coherent diffraction patterns recorded along the crystal truncation rod of a crystal surface. In a proof-of-concept experiment on a Pt (111) sample, we present ptychographic reconstructions showing features consistent with surface steps. Due to the penetration power of x-rays, this method could find interesting applications for the study of surface structures under buried interfaces or in harsh environments.

  3. Robust Imaging Methodology for Challenging Environments: Wave Equation Dispersion Inversion of Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Schuster, Gerard T.; Zeng, Zhaofa

    2017-01-01

    A robust imaging technology is reviewed that provide subsurface information in challenging environments: wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD) of surface waves for the shear velocity model. We demonstrate the benefits and liabilities of the method

  4. Microbial biofilm detection on food contact surfaces by macro-scale fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral fluorescence imaging methods were utilized to evaluate the potential of multispectral fluorescence methods for detection of pathogenic biofilm formations on four types of food contact surface materials: stainless steel, high density polyethylene (HDPE) commonly used for cutting boards,...

  5. Ptychographic x-ray imaging of surfaces on crystal truncation rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Chenhui; Barbour, Andi; Liu, Yaohua; You, Hoydoo; Harder, Ross; Xu, Ruqing; Diaz, Ana; Menzel, Andreas; Komanicky, Vladimir; Huang, Xiaojing; Pierce, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Ptychography is a high-resolution imaging technique, which does not require lenses for image magnification and which provides phase contrast with high sensitivity. Here, we propose to use x-ray ptychography for the imaging of surface structure in crystalline samples. We show that ptychography can be used to image atomic step structures using coherent diffraction patterns recorded along the crystal truncation rod of a crystal surface. In a proof-of-concept experiment on a Pt (111) sample, we present ptychographic reconstructions showing features consistent with surface steps. Due to the penetration power of x-rays, this method could find interesting applications for the study of surface structures under buried interfaces or in harsh environments

  6. Quantitative roughness characterization and 3D reconstruction of electrode surface using cyclic voltammetry and SEM image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhillon, Shweta; Kant, Rama

    2013-01-01

    Area measurements from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and image from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize electrode statistical morphology, 3D surface reconstruction and its electroactivity. SEM images of single phased materials correspond to two-dimensional (2D) projections of 3D structures, leading to an incomplete characterization. Lack of third dimension information in SEM image is circumvented using equivalence between denoised SEM image and CV area measurements. This CV-SEM method can be used to estimate power spectral density (PSD), width, gradient, finite fractal nature of roughness and local morphology of the electrode. We show that the surface morphological statistical property like distribution function of gradient can be related to local electro-activity. Electrode surface gradient micrographs generated here can provide map of electro-activity sites. Finally, the densely and uniformly packed small gradient over the Pt-surface is the determining criterion for high intrinsic electrode activity.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cardiovascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Yoshiaki; Imai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Sigeru; Inagaki, Yoshiaki; Tateno, Yukio; Ikehira, Hiroo.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new noninvasive technique for visualization of the cardiovascular system, and is used to evaluate tissue characteristics, cardiac function and blood flow abnormalities, as well as to obtain morphological information. In this paper we presented results of clinical and laboratory research obtained using conventional spin echo MRI with regard to cardiovascular anatomy, tissue characterization and physiology. Furthermore, experience with two new techniques, cine-MRI and volume-selected MR spectroscopy, and their potential clinical usefulness in detecting cardiovascular diseases are documented. (author)

  8. GRANITE- A steroscopic imaging Chernkov telescope system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubnell, M.; Akerlof, C.W.; Cawley, M.F.; Chantell, M.; Fegan, D.J.; Fennell, S.; O'Flaherty, K.S.; Freeman, S.; Frishman, D.; Gaidos, J.A.; Hagan, J.; Harris, K.; Hillas, A.M.; Kerrick, A.D.; Lamb, R.C.; Lappin, T.; Lawrence, M.A.; Levy, H.; Lewis, D.A.; Meyer, D.I.; Mohanty, G.; Punch, M.; Reynolds, P.T.; Rovero, A.C.; Sembroski, G.; Weaverdyck, C.; Weekes, T.C.; Whitaker, T.; Wilson, C.

    1993-01-01

    A second 10 meter class imaging telescope was constructed on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona, the site of the original 10 meter Whipple Cherenkov telescope. The twin telescope system with a 140 meter base line will allow both a reduction in the energy threshold and an improvement in the rejection of the hardonic background. The new telescope started operation in December 1991. With the final completion of the first installation stage (GRANITE I) during spring 92, it is now operating simultaneously with the orginal reflector. We describe in this paper design and construction of the new instrument and demonstrate the capability of the experiment to record coincident events

  9. Segmentation, surface rendering, and surface simplification of 3-D skull images for the repair of a large skull defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Weibing; Shi, Pengfei; Li, Shuguang

    2009-10-01

    Given the potential demonstrated by research into bone-tissue engineering, the use of medical image data for the rapid prototyping (RP) of scaffolds is a subject worthy of research. Computer-aided design and manufacture and medical imaging have created new possibilities for RP. Accurate and efficient design and fabrication of anatomic models is critical to these applications. We explore the application of RP computational methods to the repair of a pediatric skull defect. The focus of this study is the segmentation of the defect region seen in computerized tomography (CT) slice images of this patient's skull and the three-dimensional (3-D) surface rendering of the patient's CT-scan data. We see if our segmentation and surface rendering software can improve the generation of an implant model to fill a skull defect.

  10. An Ibm PC/AT-Based Image Acquisition And Processing System For Quantitative Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongmin; Alexander, Thomas

    1986-06-01

    In recent years, a large number of applications have been developed for image processing systems in the area of biological imaging. We have already finished the development of a dedicated microcomputer-based image processing and analysis system for quantitative microscopy. The system's primary function has been to facilitate and ultimately automate quantitative image analysis tasks such as the measurement of cellular DNA contents. We have recognized from this development experience, and interaction with system users, biologists and technicians, that the increasingly widespread use of image processing systems, and the development and application of new techniques for utilizing the capabilities of such systems, would generate a need for some kind of inexpensive general purpose image acquisition and processing system specially tailored for the needs of the medical community. We are currently engaged in the development and testing of hardware and software for a fairly high-performance image processing computer system based on a popular personal computer. In this paper, we describe the design and development of this system. Biological image processing computer systems have now reached a level of hardware and software refinement where they could become convenient image analysis tools for biologists. The development of a general purpose image processing system for quantitative image analysis that is inexpensive, flexible, and easy-to-use represents a significant step towards making the microscopic digital image processing techniques more widely applicable not only in a research environment as a biologist's workstation, but also in clinical environments as a diagnostic tool.

  11. Impulse radar imaging system for concealed object detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podd, F. J. W.; David, M.; Iqbal, G.; Hussain, F.; Morris, D.; Osakue, E.; Yeow, Y.; Zahir, S.; Armitage, D. W.; Peyton, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    Electromagnetic systems for imaging concealed objects at checkpoints typically employ radiation at millimetre and terahertz frequencies. These systems have been shown to be effective and provide a sufficiently high resolution image. However there are difficulties and current electromagnetic systems have limitations particularly in accurately differentiating between threat and innocuous objects based on shape, surface emissivity or reflectivity, which are indicative parameters. In addition, water has a high absorption coefficient at millimetre wavelength and terahertz frequencies, which makes it more difficult for these frequencies to image through thick damp clothing. This paper considers the potential of using ultra wideband (UWB) in the low gigahertz range. The application of this frequency band to security screening appears to be a relatively new field. The business case for implementing the UWB system has been made financially viable by the recent availability of low-cost integrated circuits operating at these frequencies. Although designed for the communication sector, these devices can perform the required UWB radar measurements as well. This paper reports the implementation of a 2 to 5 GHz bandwidth linear array scanner. The paper describes the design and fabrication of transmitter and receiver antenna arrays whose individual elements are a type of antipodal Vivaldi antenna. The antenna's frequency and angular response were simulated in CST Microwave Studio and compared with laboratory measurements. The data pre-processing methods of background subtraction and deconvolution are implemented to improve the image quality. The background subtraction method uses a reference dataset to remove antenna crosstalk and room reflections from the dataset. The deconvolution method uses a Wiener filter to "sharpen" the returned echoes which improves the resolution of the reconstructed image. The filter uses an impulse response reference dataset and a signal

  12. Integrated automated nanomanipulation and real-time cellular surface imaging for mechanical properties characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Sohrab; Zareian, Ramin; Jalili, Nader

    2012-10-01

    Surface microscopy of individual biological cells is essential for determining the patterns of cell migration to study the tumor formation or metastasis. This paper presents a correlated and effective theoretical and experimental technique to automatically address the biophysical and mechanical properties and acquire live images of biological cells which are of interest in studying cancer. In the theoretical part, a distributed-parameters model as the comprehensive representation of the microcantilever is presented along with a model of the contact force as a function of the indentation depth and mechanical properties of the biological sample. Analysis of the transfer function of the whole system in the frequency domain is carried out to characterize the stiffness and damping coefficients of the sample. In the experimental section, unlike the conventional atomic force microscope techniques basically using the laser for determining the deflection of microcantilever's tip, a piezoresistive microcantilever serving as a force sensor is implemented to produce the appropriate voltage and measure the deflection of the microcantilever. A micromanipulator robotic system is integrated with the MATLAB® and programmed in such a way to automatically control the microcantilever mounted on the tip of the micromanipulator to achieve the topography of biological samples including the human corneal cells. For this purpose, the human primary corneal fibroblasts are extracted and adhered on a sterilized culture dish and prepared to attain their topographical image. The proposed methodology herein allows an approach to obtain 2D quality images of cells being comparatively cost effective and extendable to obtain 3D images of individual cells. The characterized mechanical properties of the human corneal cell are furthermore established by comparing and validating the phase shift of the theoretical and experimental results of the frequency response.

  13. STEREOLOGICAL ESTIMATION OF SURFACE AREA FROM DIGITAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Ziegel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A sampling design of local stereology is combined with a method from digital stereology to yield a novel estimator of surface area based on counts of configurations observed in a digitization of an isotropic 2- dimensional slice with thickness s. As a tool, a result of the second author and J. Rataj on infinitesimal increase of volumes of morphological transforms is refined and used. The proposed surface area estimator is asymptotically unbiased in the case of sets contained in the ball centred at the origin with radius s and in the case of balls centred at the origin with unknown radius. For general shapes bounds for the asymptotic expected relative worst case error are given. A simulation example is discussed for surface area estimation based on 2×2×2-configurations.

  14. Land surface sensitivity of mesoscale convective systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournay, Robert C.

    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are important contributors to the hydrologic cycle in many regions of the world as well as major sources of severe weather. MCSs continue to challenge forecasters and researchers alike, arising from difficulties in understanding system initiation, propagation, and demise. One distinct type of MCS is that formed from individual convective cells initiated primarily by daytime heating over high terrain. This work is aimed at improving our understanding of the land surface sensitivity of this class of MCS in the contiguous United States. First, a climatology of mesoscale convective systems originating in the Rocky Mountains and adjacent high plains from Wyoming southward to New Mexico is developed through a combination of objective and subjective methods. This class of MCS is most important, in terms of total warm season precipitation, in the 500 to 1300m elevations of the Great Plains (GP) to the east in eastern Colorado to central Nebraska and northwest Kansas. Examining MCSs by longevity, short lasting MCSs (15 hrs) reveals that longer lasting systems tend to form further south and have a longer track with a more southerly track. The environment into which the MCS is moving showed differences across commonly used variables in convection forecasting, with some variables showing more favorable conditions throughout (convective inhibition, 0-6 km shear and 250 hPa wind speed) ahead of longer lasting MCSs. Other variables, such as convective available potential energy, showed improving conditions through time for longer lasting MCSs. Some variables showed no difference across longevity of MCS (precipitable water and large-scale vertical motion). From subsets of this MCS climatology, three regions of origin were chosen based on the presence of ridgelines extending eastward from the Rocky Mountains known to be foci for convection initiation and subsequent MCS formation: Southern Wyoming (Cheyenne Ridge), Colorado (Palmer divide) and

  15. Determination of forest road surface roughness by Kinect depth imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marinello

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Roughness is a dynamic property of the gravel road surface that affects safety, ride comfort as well as vehicle tyre life and maintenance costs. A rapid survey of gravel road condition is fundamental for an effective maintenance planning and definition of the intervention priorities.Different non-contact techniques such as laser scanning, ultrasonic sensors and photogrammetry have recently been proposed to reconstruct three-dimensional topography of road surface and allow extraction of roughness metrics. The application of Microsoft Kinect™ depth camera is proposed and discussed here for collection of 3D data sets from gravel roads, to be implemented in order to allow quantification of surface roughness.The objectives are to: i verify the applicability of the Kinect sensor for characterization of different forest roads, ii identify the appropriateness and potential of different roughness parameters and iii analyse the correlation with vibrations recoded by 3-axis accelerometers installed on different vehicles. The test took advantage of the implementation of the Kinect depth camera for surface roughness determination of 4 different forest gravel roads and one well-maintained asphalt road as reference. Different vehicles (mountain bike, off-road motorcycle, ATV vehicle, 4WD car and compact crossover were included in the experiment in order to verify the vibration intensity when travelling on different road surface conditions. Correlations between the extracted roughness parameters and vibration levels of the tested vehicles were then verified. Coefficients of determination of between 0.76 and 0.97 were detected between average surface roughness and standard deviation of relative accelerations, with higher values in the case of lighter vehicles.

  16. Stereological estimation of surface area from digital images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegel, Johanna; Kiderlen, Markus

    2010-01-01

    A sampling design of local stereology is combined with a method from digital stereology to yield a novel estimator of surface area based on counts of configurations observed in a digitization of an isotropic 2- dimensional slice with thickness s. As a tool, a result of the second author and J....... Rataj on infinitesimal increase of volumes of morphological transforms is refined and used. The proposed surface area estimator is asymptotically unbiased in the case of sets contained in the ball centred at the origin with radius s and in the case of balls centred at the origin with unknown radius...

  17. Spin-image surface matching based target recognition in laser radar range imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wang; Jian-Feng, Sun; Qi, Wang

    2010-01-01

    We explore the problem of in-plane rotation-invariance existing in the vertical detection of laser radar (Ladar) using the algorithm of spin-image surface matching. The method used to recognize the target in the range imagery of Ladar is time-consuming, owing to its complicated procedure, which violates the requirement of real-time target recognition in practical applications. To simplify the troublesome procedures, we improve the spin-image algorithm by introducing a statistical correlated coefficient into target recognition in range imagery of Ladar. The system performance is demonstrated on sixteen simulated noise range images with targets rotated through an arbitrary angle in plane. A high efficiency and an acceptable recognition rate obtained herein testify the validity of the improved algorithm for practical applications. The proposed algorithm not only solves the problem of in-plane rotation-invariance rationally, but also meets the real-time requirement. This paper ends with a comparison of the proposed method and the previous one. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  18. Anaphylaxis Imaging: Non-Invasive Measurement of Surface Body Temperature and Physical Activity in Small Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Manzano-Szalai

    Full Text Available In highly sensitized patients, the encounter with a specific allergen from food, insect stings or medications may rapidly induce systemic anaphylaxis with potentially lethal symptoms. Countless animal models of anaphylaxis, most often in BALB/c mice, were established to understand the pathophysiology and to prove the safety of different treatments. The most common symptoms during anaphylactic shock are drop of body temperature and reduced physical activity. To refine, improve and objectify the currently applied manual monitoring methods, we developed an imaging method for the automated, non-invasive measurement of the whole-body surface temperature and, at the same time, of the horizontal and vertical movement activity of small animals. We tested the anaphylaxis imaging in three in vivo allergy mouse models for i milk allergy, ii peanut allergy and iii egg allergy. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that the imaging technology represents a reliable non-invasive method for the objective monitoring of small animals during anaphylaxis over time. We propose that the method will be useful for monitoring diseases associated with both, changes in body temperature and in physical behaviour.

  19. A computer-aided surface roughness measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, F.J.; Schankula, M.H.

    1983-11-01

    A diamond stylus profilometer with computer-based data acquisitions/analysis system is being used to characterize surfaces of reactor components and materials, and to examine the effects of surface topography on thermal contact conductance. The current system is described; measurement problems and system development are discussed in general terms and possible future improvements are outlined

  20. AFM imaging of bacteria in liquid media immobilized on gelatin coated mica surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doktycz, M.J.; Sullivan, C.J.; Hoyt, P.R.; Pelletier, D.A.; Wu, S.; Allison, D.P

    2003-10-15

    Immobilization of particulates, especially biomolecules and cells, onto surfaces is critical for imaging with the atomic force microscope (AFM). In this paper, gelatin coated mica surfaces are shown to be suitable for immobilizing and imaging both gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus, and gram negative, Escherichia coli, bacteria in both air and liquid environments. Gelatin coated surfaces are shown to be superior to poly-L-lysine coated surfaces that are commonly used for the immobilization of cells. This cell immobilization technique is being developed primarily for live cell imaging of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The genome of R. palustris has been sequenced and the organism is the target of intensive studies aimed at understanding genome function. Images of R. palustris grown both aerobically and anaerobically in liquid media are presented. Images in liquid media show the bacteria is rod shaped and smooth while images in air show marked irregularity and folding of the surface. Significant differences in the vertical dimension are also apparent with the height of the bacteria in liquid being substantially greater than images taken in air. In air immobilized bacterial flagella are clearly seen while in liquid this structure is not visible. Additionally, significant morphological differences are observed that depend on the method of bacterial growth.

  1. SPECIAL ASPECTS OF INITIAL OPTICAL SCHEME SELECTION FOR DESIGN OF NON-IMAGING OPTICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Anitropov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The research results, structural composition analysis and the parametric synthesis of the projected imaging and non-imaging optical systems were presented. We made an attempt to use the gained experience about imaging systems while designing non-imaging systems, by adapting the composition theory for the calculations of non-imaging systems. Several patterns were revealed, which provide a deeper understanding of the design process of non-imaging optical systems; measures of its optimization were proposed. Method. We investigated the applicability of the theory of composition and synthesis of non-imaging optical systems. The main provisions of the theory of composition are based on the division of all available optical elements in four types depending on their functionality, which corresponds to a modular design. Similar items were identified in non-imaging optical systems and adaptation of composition theory to their design became possible. Main Results. General design patterns of imaging and non-imaging optical systems were studied. Classification of systems, components, as well as technical and generic characteristics of imaging and non-imaging optical systems was determined. Search mechanism of the initial optical system by means of structural and parametric synthesis of non-imaging optical system was formalized. The basic elements were determined included in non-imaging systems and their classification by functionality was done. They were subdivided into basic, corrective, wide angle and high aperture ones. The rules for formation of these elements and their composition were determined: surface reflecting, refracting, spherical and nonspherical elements with total internal reflection. The foundations of composition theory for non-imaging optical systems were laid. The approbation of this method was carried out on the example of the illumination system calculation for surgical room. A 3D model of an illumination optical

  2. Surface interpolation with radial basis functions for medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.C.; Beatson, R.K.; Fright, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Radial basis functions are presented as a practical solution to the problem of interpolating incomplete surfaces derived from three-dimensional (3-D) medical graphics. The specific application considered is the design of cranial implants for the repair of defects, usually holes, in the skull. Radial basis functions impose few restrictions on the geometry of the interpolation centers and are suited to problems where interpolation centers do not form a regular grid. However, their high computational requirements have previously limited their use to problems where the number of interpolation centers is small (<300). Recently developed fast evaluation techniques have overcome these limitations and made radial basis interpolation a practical approach for larger data sets. In this paper radial basis functions are fitted to depth-maps of the skull's surface, obtained from X-ray computed tomography (CT) data using ray-tracing techniques. They are used to smoothly interpolate the surface of the skull across defect regions. The resulting mathematical description of the skull's surface can be evaluated at any desired resolution to be rendered on a graphics workstation or to generate instructions for operating a computer numerically controlled (CNC) mill

  3. Biomechanical modeling constrained surface-based image registration for prostate MR guided TRUS biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, W.J.M. van de; Hu, Y.; Barentsz, J.O.; Karssemeijer, N.; Barratt, D.; Huisman, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Adding magnetic resonance (MR)-derived information to standard transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images for guiding prostate biopsy is of substantial clinical interest. A tumor visible on MR images can be projected on ultrasound (US) by using MR-US registration. A common approach is to use surface-based

  4. Spectrally enhanced imaging of occlusal surfaces and artificial shallow enamel erosions with a scanning fiber endoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2012-07-01

    An ultrathin scanning fiber endoscope, originally developed for cancer diagnosis, was used to image dental occlusal surfaces as well as shallow artificially induced enamel erosions from human extracted teeth (n=40). Enhanced image resolution of occlusal surfaces was obtained using a short-wavelength 405-nm illumination laser. In addition, artificial erosions of varying depths were also imaged with 405-, 404-, 532-, and 635-nm illumination lasers. Laser-induced autofluorescence images of the teeth using 405-nm illumination were also obtained. Contrast between sound and eroded enamel was quantitatively computed for each imaging modality. For shallow erosions, the image contrast with respect to sound enamel was greatest for the 405-nm reflected image. It was also determined that the increased contrast was in large part due to volume scattering with a smaller component from surface scattering. Furthermore, images obtained with a shallow penetration depth illumination laser (405 nm) provided the greatest detail of surface enamel topography since the reflected light does not contain contributions from light reflected from greater depths within the enamel tissue. Multilayered Monte Carlo simulations were also performed to confirm the experimental results.

  5. Image processing system for videotape review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettendroffer, E.

    1988-01-01

    In a nuclear plant, the areas in which fissile materials are stored or handled, have to be monitored continuously. One method of surveillance is to record pictures of TV cameras with determined time intervals on special video recorders. The 'time lapse' recorded tape is played back at normal speed and an inspector checks visually the pictures. This method requires much manpower and an automated method would be useful. The present report describes an automatic reviewing method based on an image processing system; the system detects scene changes in the picture sequence and stores the reduced data set on a separate video tape. The resulting reduction of reviewing time by inspector is important for surveillance data with few movements

  6. Plenoptic Imager for Automated Surface Navigation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Autonomous and semi-autonomous robotic systems require information about their surroundings in order to navigate properly. A video camera machine vision system can...

  7. SORIS-A standoff radiation imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelakiewicz, Scott; Hoctor, Ralph; Ivan, Adrian; Ross, William; Nieters, Edward; Smith, William; McDevitt, Daniel; Wittbrodt, Michael; Milbrath, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The detection of radiological and special nuclear material within the country's borders is a crucial component of the national security network. Being able to detect small amounts of radiological material at large distances is especially important for search applications. To provide this capability General Electric's Research Center has developed, as a part of DNDO's standoff radiation detection system advanced technology demonstration (SORDS-ATD) program, a standoff radiation imaging system (SORIS). This vehicle-based system is capable of detecting weak sources at large distances in relatively short times. To accomplish this, GE has developed a novel coded aperture detector based on commercial components from GE Healthcare. An array of commercial gamma cameras modified to increase the system efficiency and energy range are used as position sensitive detectors. Unlike typical coded aperture systems, however, SORIS employs a non-planar mask and thus does not suffer the typical limitations of partially encoded regions giving it a wide field of view. Source identification is done using both low-statistics anomaly indicators and conventional high-statistics algorithms being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of scanned areas and threats identified are displayed to the user and overlaid on satellite imagery.

  8. SORIS—A standoff radiation imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelakiewicz, Scott; Hoctor, Ralph; Ivan, Adrian; Ross, William; Nieters, Edward; Smith, William; McDevitt, Daniel; Wittbrodt, Michael; Milbrath, Brian

    2011-10-01

    The detection of radiological and special nuclear material within the country's borders is a crucial component of the national security network. Being able to detect small amounts of radiological material at large distances is especially important for search applications. To provide this capability General Electric's Research Center has developed, as a part of DNDO's standoff radiation detection system advanced technology demonstration (SORDS-ATD) program, a standoff radiation imaging system (SORIS). This vehicle-based system is capable of detecting weak sources at large distances in relatively short times. To accomplish this, GE has developed a novel coded aperture detector based on commercial components from GE Healthcare. An array of commercial gamma cameras modified to increase the system efficiency and energy range are used as position sensitive detectors. Unlike typical coded aperture systems, however, SORIS employs a non-planar mask and thus does not suffer the typical limitations of partially encoded regions giving it a wide field of view. Source identification is done using both low-statistics anomaly indicators and conventional high-statistics algorithms being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of scanned areas and threats identified are displayed to the user and overlaid on satellite imagery.

  9. Simultaneous Microwave Imaging System for Density and Temperature Fluctuation Measurements on TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.; Mazzucato, E.; Munsat, T.; Domier, C.W.; Johnson, M.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Wang, J.; Xia, Z.; Classen, I.G.J.; Donne, A.J.H.; Pol, M.J. van de

    2004-01-01

    Diagnostic systems for fluctuation measurements in plasmas have, of necessity, evolved from simple 1-D systems to multi-dimensional systems due to the complexity of the MHD and turbulence physics of plasmas illustrated by advanced numerical simulations. Using the recent significant advancements in millimeter wave imaging technology, Microwave Imaging Reflectometry (MIR) and Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI), simultaneously measuring density and temperature fluctuations, are developed for TEXTOR. The MIR system was installed on TEXTOR and the first experiment was performed in September, 2003. Subsequent MIR campaigns have yielded poloidally resolved spectra and assessments of poloidal velocity. The new 2-D ECE Imaging system (with a total of 128 channels), installed on TEXTOR in December, 2003, successfully captured a true 2-D images of Te fluctuations of m=1 oscillation (''sawteeth'') near the q ∼ 1 surface for the first time

  10. A Data Acquisition System for Medical Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abellan, Carlos; Cachemiche, Jean-Pierre; Rethore, Frederic; Morel, Christian

    2013-06-01

    A data acquisition system for medical imaging applications is presented. Developed at CPPM, it provides high performance generic data acquisition and processing capabilities. The DAQ system is based on the PICMG xTCA standard and is composed of 1 up to 10 cards in a single rack, each one with 2 Altera Stratix IV FPGAs and a Fast Mezzanine Connector (FMC). Several mezzanines have been produced, each one with different functionalities. Some examples are: a mezzanine capable of receiving 36 optical fibres with up to 180 Gbps sustained data rates or a mezzanine with 12 x 5 Gbps input links, 12 x 5 Gbps output links and an SFP+ connector for control purposes. Several rack sizes are also available, thus making the system scalable from a one card desktop system useful for development purpose up to a full featured rack mounted DAQ for high end applications. Depending on the application, boards may exchange data at speeds of up to 25.6 Gbps bidirectional sustained rates in a double star topology through back-plane connections. Also, front panel optical fibres can be used when higher rates are required by the application. The system may be controlled by a standard Ethernet connection, thus providing easy integration with control computers and avoiding the need for drivers. Two control systems are foreseen. A Socket connection provides easy interaction with automation software regardless of the operating system used for the control PC. Moreover a web server may run on the Envision cards and provide an easy intuitive user interface. The system and its different components will be introduced. Some preliminary measurements with high speed signal links will be presented as well as the signal conditioning used to allow these rates. (authors)

  11. A Lagrangian cylindrical coordinate system for characterizing dynamic surface geometry of tubular anatomic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Torbjörn; Suh, Ga-Young; DiGiacomo, Phillip; Cheng, Christopher

    2018-03-03

    Vascular morphology characterization is useful for disease diagnosis, risk stratification, treatment planning, and prediction of treatment durability. To quantify the dynamic surface geometry of tubular-shaped anatomic structures, we propose a simple, rigorous Lagrangian cylindrical coordinate system to monitor well-defined surface points. Specifically, the proposed system enables quantification of surface curvature and cross-sectional eccentricity. Using idealized software phantom examples, we validate the method's ability to accurately quantify longitudinal and circumferential surface curvature, as well as eccentricity and orientation of eccentricity. We then apply the method to several medical imaging data sets of human vascular structures to exemplify the utility of this coordinate system for analyzing morphology and dynamic geometric changes in blood vessels throughout the body. Graphical abstract Pointwise longitudinal curvature of a thoracic aortic endograft surface for systole and diastole, with their absolute difference.

  12. Triangular SPECT system for 3-D total organ volume imaging: Design concept and preliminary imaging results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C.B.; Anderson, J.; Covic, J.

    1985-01-01

    SPECT systems based on 2-D detectors for projection data collection and filtered back-projection image reconstruction have the potential for true 3-D imaging, providing contiguous slice images in any orientation. Anger camera-based SPECT systems have the natural advantage supporting planar imaging clinical procedures. However, current systems suffer from two drawbacks; poor utilization of emitted photons, and inadequate system design for SPECT. A SPECT system consisting of three rectangular cameras with radial translation would offer the variable cylindrical FOV of 25 cm to 40 cm diameter allowing close detector access to the object. This system would provide optimized imaging for both brain and body organs in terms of sensitivity and resolution. For brain imaging a tight detector triangle with fan beam collimation, matching detector UFOV to the head, allows full 2 π utilization of emitted photons, resulting in >4 times sensitivity increase over the single detector system. Minification of intrinsic detector resolution in fan beam collimation further improves system resolution. For body organ imaging the three detectors with parallel hole collimators, rotating in non-circular orbit, provide both improved resolution and three-fold sensitivity increase. Practical challenges lie in ensuring perfect image overlap from three detectors without resolution degradation and artifact generation in order to benefit from the above improvements. An experimental system has been developed to test the above imaging concept and we have successfully demonstrated the superior image quality of the overlapped images. Design concept will be presented with preliminary imaging results

  13. Quantification of image persistence in a digital angiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okkalides, D.P.; Raptou, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Image persistence, as a characteristic of video imaging systems affecting the quality of fast moving fluoroscopic images, is shown to vary considerably. A simple quantitative method for measuring image persistence in a digital angiography system is presented, together with a series of image intensifier exposure-response curves. For the Saticon tube, used with the Siemens 3VA Digitron, it was found that persistence increased for low exposure rates and may increase to 31% at a 120 ms interval. In addition, a sharp increase in image persistence, from 8.3% to 33%, was observed within 18 months from installation of the system. (author)

  14. Characterization of lipid films by an angle-interrogation surface plasmon resonance imaging device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Linlin; Wang, Qiong; Yang, Zhong; Wang, Wangang; Hu, Ning; Luo, Hongyan; Liao, Yanjian; Zheng, Xiaolin; Yang, Jun

    2015-04-01

    Surface topographies of lipid films have an important significance in the analysis of the preparation of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). In order to achieve accurately high-throughput and rapidly analysis of surface topographies of lipid films, a homemade SPR imaging device is constructed based on the classical Kretschmann configuration and an angle interrogation manner. A mathematical model is developed to accurately describe the shift including the light path in different conditions and the change of the illumination point on the CCD camera, and thus a SPR curve for each sampling point can also be achieved, based on this calculation method. The experiment results show that the topographies of lipid films formed in distinct experimental conditions can be accurately characterized, and the measuring resolution of the thickness lipid film may reach 0.05 nm. Compared with existing SPRi devices, which realize detection by monitoring the change of the reflective-light intensity, this new SPRi system can achieve the change of the resonance angle on the entire sensing surface. Thus, it has higher detection accuracy as the traditional angle-interrogation SPR sensor, with much wider detectable range of refractive index. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical and mechanical properties of spinach for whole-surface online imaging inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiuying; Mo, Chang Y.; Chan, Diane E.; Peng, Yankun; Qin, Jianwei; Yang, Chun-Chieh; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin

    2011-06-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of baby spinach were investigated, including density, Young's modulus, fracture strength, and friction coefficient. The average apparent density of baby spinach leaves was 0.5666 g/mm3. The tensile tests were performed using parallel, perpendicular, and diagonal directions with respect to the midrib of each leaf. The test results showed that the mechanical properties of spinach are anisotropic. For the parallel, diagonal, and perpendicular test directions, the average values for the Young's modulus values were found to be 2.137MPa, 1.0841 MPa, and 0.3914 MPa, respectively, and the average fracture strength values were 0.2429 MPa, 0.1396 MPa, and 0.1113 MPa, respectively. The static and kinetic friction coefficient between the baby spinach and conveyor belt were researched, whose test results showed that the average coefficients of kinetic and maximum static friction between the adaxial (front side) spinach leaf surface and conveyor belt were 1.2737 and 1.3635, respectively, and between the abaxial (back side) spinach leaf surface and conveyor belt were 1.1780 and 1.2451 respectively. These works provide the basis for future development of a whole-surface online imaging inspection system that can be used by the commercial vegetable processing industry to reduce food safety risks.

  16. Conversion of a Surface Model of a Structure of Interest into a Volume Model for Medical Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmad ISTEPHAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Volumetric medical image datasets contain vital information for noninvasive diagnosis, treatment planning and prognosis. However, direct and unlimited query of such datasets is hindered due to the unstructured nature of the imaging data. This study is a step towards the unlimited query of medical image datasets by focusing on specific Structures of Interest (SOI. A requirement in achieving this objective is having both the surface and volume models of the SOI. However, typically, only the surface model is available. Therefore, this study focuses on creating a fast method to convert a surface model to a volume model. Three methods (1D, 2D and 3D are proposed and evaluated using simulated and real data of Deep Perisylvian Area (DPSA within the human brain. The 1D method takes 80 msec for DPSA model; about 4 times faster than 2D method and 7.4 fold faster than 3D method, with over 97% accuracy. The proposed 1D method is feasible for surface to volume conversion in computer aided diagnosis, treatment planning and prognosis systems containing large amounts of unstructured medical images.

  17. Raster Scan Computer Image Generation (CIG) System Based On Refresh Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichter, W.; Doris, K.; Conkling, C.

    1982-06-01

    A full color, Computer Image Generation (CIG) raster visual system has been developed which provides a high level of training sophistication by utilizing advanced semiconductor technology and innovative hardware and firmware techniques. Double buffered refresh memory and efficient algorithms eliminate the problem of conventional raster line ordering by allowing the generated image to be stored in a random fashion. Modular design techniques and simplified architecture provide significant advantages in reduced system cost, standardization of parts, and high reliability. The major system components are a general purpose computer to perform interfacing and data base functions; a geometric processor to define the instantaneous scene image; a display generator to convert the image to a video signal; an illumination control unit which provides final image processing; and a CRT monitor for display of the completed image. Additional optional enhancements include texture generators, increased edge and occultation capability, curved surface shading, and data base extensions.

  18. A mobile laboratory for surface and subsurface imaging in geo-hazard monitoring activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchia, Carmela; Bavusi, Massimo; Loperte, Antonio; Pergola, Nicola; Pignatti, Stefano; Ponzo, Felice; Lapenna, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    A new research infrastructure for supporting ground-based remote sensing observations in the different phases of georisk management cycle is presented. This instrumental facility has been designed and realised by TeRN, a public-private consortium on Earth Observations and Natural Risks, in the frame of the project "ImpresAmbiente" funded by Italian Ministry of Research and University. The new infrastructure is equipped with ground-based sensors (hyperspectral cameras, thermal cameras, laser scanning and electromagnetic antennae) able to remotely map physical parameters and/or earth-surface properties (temperature, soil moisture, land cover, etc…) and to illuminate near-surface geological structures (fault, groundwater tables, landslide bodies etc...). Furthermore, the system can be used for non-invasive investigations of architectonic buildings and civil infrastructures (bridges, tunnel, road pavements, etc...) interested by natural and man-made hazards. The hyperspectral cameras can acquire high resolution images of earth-surface and cultural objects. They are operating in the Visible Near InfraRed (0.4÷1.0μm) with 1600 spatial pixel and 3.7nm of spectral sampling and in the Short Wave InfraRed (1.3÷2.5µm) spectral region with 320 spatial pixel and 5nm of spectral sampling. The IR cameras are operating in the Medium Wavelength InfraRed (3÷5µm; 640x512; NETDcultural heritage. As a consequence, laser data can be useful integrated with traditional monitoring techniques. The Laser Scanner is characterized by very high data acquisition repetition rate up to 500.000 pxl/sec with a range resolution of 0.1 mm, vertical and horizontal FoV of 310° and 360° respectively with a resolution of 0.0018°. The system is also equipped with a metric camera allows to georeference the high resolution images acquired. The electromagnetic sensors allow to obtain in near real time high-resolution 2D and 3D subsurface tomographic images. The main components are a fully automatic

  19. Imaging of surface plasmon polariton interference using phase-sensitive scanning tunneling microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, J.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2011-01-01

    We report the surface plasmon polariton interference, generated via a ‘buried’ gold grating, and imaged using a phase-sensitive Photon Scanning Tunneling Microscope (PSTM). The phase-resolved PSTM measurement unravels the complex surface plasmon polariton interference fields at the gold-air

  20. Evaluation of an X-ray-excited optical microscope for chemical imaging of metal and other surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbe, Pieter-Jan; Dowsett, Mark; Hand, Matthew; Grayburn, Rosie; Thompson, Paul; Bras, Wim; Adriaens, Annemie

    2014-12-02

    The application of a modular system for the nondestructive chemical imaging of metal and other surfaces is described using heritage metals as an example. The custom-built X-ray-excited optical luminescence (XEOL) microscope, XEOM 1, images the chemical state and short-range atomic order of the top 200 nm of both amorphous and crystalline surfaces. A broad X-ray beam is used to illuminate large areas (up to 4 mm(2)) of the sample, and the resulting XEOL emission is collected simultaneously for each pixel by a charge-coupled device sensor to form an image. The input X-ray energy is incremented across a range typical for the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and an image collected for each increment. The use of large-footprint beams combined with parallel detection allows the power density to be kept low and facilitates complete nondestructive XANES mapping on a reasonable time scale. In this study the microscope was evaluated by imaging copper surfaces with well-defined patterns of different corrosion products (cuprite Cu2O and nantokite CuCl). The images obtained show chemical contrast, and filtering the XEOL light allowed different corrosion products to be imaged separately. Absorption spectra extracted from software-selected regions of interest exhibit characteristic XANES fingerprints for the compounds present. Moreover, when the X-ray absorption edge positions were extracted from each spectrum, an oxidation state map of the sample could be compiled. The results show that this method allows one to obtain nondestructive and noninvasive information at the micrometer scale while using full-field imaging.

  1. Atmospheric Polarization Imaging with Variable Aerosols, Clouds, and Surface Albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    values found in this region only during episodes of intense wildfire smoke. Detailed analysis of the aerosols in this smoke plume and their effect...Continuous outdoor operation of an all-sky polarization imager,” Proc. SPIE 7672 (Polarization: Measurement, Analysis , and Remote Sensing IX), 76720A-1-7, 7...Pust, “ Lunar corona in ice wave cloud,” 10th International Meeting on Light and Color in Nature, St. Mary’s College of Maryland, 16-20 June 2010. 2

  2. Surface imaging, portal imaging, and skin marker set-up vs. CBCT for radiotherapy of the thorax and pelvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallotta, Stefania; Bucciolini, Marta [Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Sperimentali e Cliniche, Florence (Italy); AOU Careggi, Sezione di Fisica Medica, Florence (Italy); Vanzi, Eleonora; Marrazzo, Livia [AOU Careggi, Sezione di Fisica Medica, Florence (Italy); Simontacchi, Gabriele; Paiar, Fabiola [AOU Careggi, Sezione di Radioterapia, Florence (Italy); Ceroti, Marco [ISPO, U.O. Epidemiologia Molecolare e Nutrizionale, Florence (Italy); Livi, Lorenzo [Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Sperimentali e Cliniche, Florence (Italy); AOU Careggi, Sezione di Radioterapia, Florence (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this study was to compare surface imaging, portal imaging, and skin marker set-up in radiotherapy of thoracic and pelvic regions, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data as the gold standard. Twenty patients were included in this study. CBCT, surface acquisition (SA), and two orthogonal portal images (PI) were acquired during the first four treatment sessions. Patient set-up corrections, obtained by registering the planning CT with CBCT, were used as the gold standard. Registration results of the PI and SA were evaluated and compared with those obtained with CBCT. The advantage derived from using SA or PI verification systems over a skin marker set-up was also quantified. A statistically significant difference between PI and SA (in favour of PI) was observed in seven patients undergoing treatment of the pelvic region and in two patients undergoing treatment of the thoracic region. The use of SA or PI, compared with a skin marker set-up, improved patient positioning in 50% and 57 % of the thoracic fractions, respectively. For pelvic fractions, the use of PI was beneficial in 73 % of the cases, while the use of SA was beneficial in only 45 %. Patient positioning worsened with SA, particularly along longitudinal and vertical directions. PI yielded more accurate registration results than SA for both pelvic and thoracic fractions. Compared with the skin marker set-up, PI performances were superior to SA for pelvic fractions while comparable results were obtained for thoracic fractions. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Studie ist der Vergleich der Patientenpositionierung mittels der 3-D/4-D-Erfassung der Patientenoberflaeche durch ein Abtastsystem, kV/MV-Verifikationsaufnahmen mit Hochenergiebildsystemen und Markierungen auf der Haut bei Bestrahlungen im Thorax- bzw. Beckenbereich. Als Goldstandard zum Vergleich dienten CBCT(''cone beam computed tomography'')-Aufnahmen. Die Studie basiert auf Untersuchungen an 20 Patienten. Es wurden

  3. Incorporation of a laser range scanner into image-guided liver surgery: Surface acquisition, registration, and tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, David M.; Sinha, Tuhin K.; Chapman, William C.; Terawaki, Hiromi; Dawant, Benoit M.; Galloway, Robert L.; Miga, Michael I.

    2003-01-01

    As image guided surgical procedures become increasingly diverse, there will be more scenarios where point-based fiducials cannot be accurately localized for registration and rigid body assumptions no longer hold. As a result, procedures will rely more frequently on anatomical surfaces for the basis of image alignment and will require intraoperative geometric data to measure and compensate for tissue deformation in the organ. In this paper we outline methods for which a laser range scanner may be used to accomplish these tasks intraoperatively. A laser range scanner based on the optical principle of triangulation acquires a dense set of three-dimensional point data in a very rapid, noncontact fashion. Phantom studies were performed to test the ability to link range scan data with traditional modes of image-guided surgery data through localization, registration, and tracking in physical space. The experiments demonstrate that the scanner is capable of localizing point-based fiducials to within 0.2 mm and capable of achieving point and surface based registrations with target registration error of less than 2.0 mm. Tracking points in physical space with the range scanning system yields an error of 1.4±0.8 mm. Surface deformation studies were performed with the range scanner in order to determine if this device was capable of acquiring enough information for compensation algorithms. In the surface deformation studies, the range scanner was able to detect changes in surface shape due to deformation comparable to those detected by tomographic image studies. Use of the range scanner has been approved for clinical trials, and an initial intraoperative range scan experiment is presented. In all of these studies, the primary source of error in range scan data is deterministically related to the position and orientation of the surface within the scanner's field of view. However, this systematic error can be corrected, allowing the range scanner to provide a rapid, robust

  4. Surface Fitting for Quasi Scattered Data from Coordinate Measuring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qing; Liu, Shugui; Wang, Sen; Ma, Xinhui

    2018-01-13

    Non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface fitting from data points is wildly used in the fields of computer aided design (CAD), medical imaging, cultural relic representation and object-shape detection. Usually, the measured data acquired from coordinate measuring systems is neither gridded nor completely scattered. The distribution of this kind of data is scattered in physical space, but the data points are stored in a way consistent with the order of measurement, so it is named quasi scattered data in this paper. Therefore they can be organized into rows easily but the number of points in each row is random. In order to overcome the difficulty of surface fitting from this kind of data, a new method based on resampling is proposed. It consists of three major steps: (1) NURBS curve fitting for each row, (2) resampling on the fitted curve and (3) surface fitting from the resampled data. Iterative projection optimization scheme is applied in the first and third step to yield advisable parameterization and reduce the time cost of projection. A resampling approach based on parameters, local peaks and contour curvature is proposed to overcome the problems of nodes redundancy and high time consumption in the fitting of this kind of scattered data. Numerical experiments are conducted with both simulation and practical data, and the results show that the proposed method is fast, effective and robust. What's more, by analyzing the fitting results acquired form data with different degrees of scatterness it can be demonstrated that the error introduced by resampling is negligible and therefore it is feasible.

  5. A rapid method for creating qualitative images indicative of thick oil emulsion on the ocean's surface from imaging spectrometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, K. Eric; Swayze, Gregg A.; Leifer, Ira; McCubbin, Ian B.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Green, Robert O.; Lundeen, Sarah R.; Sarture, Charles M.; Steele, Denis; Ryan, Thomas; Bradley, Eliza S.; Roberts, Dar A.; ,

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a method to create color-composite images indicative of thick oil:water emulsions on the surface of clear, deep ocean water by using normalized difference ratios derived from remotely sensed data collected by an imaging spectrometer. The spectral bands used in the normalized difference ratios are located in wavelength regions where the spectra of thick oil:water emulsions on the ocean's surface have a distinct shape compared to clear water and clouds. In contrast to quantitative analyses, which require rigorous conversion to reflectance, the method described is easily computed and can be applied rapidly to radiance data or data that have been atmospherically corrected or ground-calibrated to reflectance. Examples are shown of the method applied to Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer data collected May 17 and May 19, 2010, over the oil spill from the Deepwater Horizon offshore oil drilling platform in the Gulf of Mexico.

  6. Automatic and improved radiometric correction of Landsat imagery using reference values from MODIS surface reflectance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, X.; Pesquer, L.; Cristóbal, J.; González-Guerrero, O.

    2014-12-01

    Radiometric correction is a prerequisite for generating high-quality scientific data, making it possible to discriminate between product artefacts and real changes in Earth processes as well as accurately produce land cover maps and detect changes. This work contributes to the automatic generation of surface reflectance products for Landsat satellite series. Surface reflectances are generated by a new approach developed from a previous simplified radiometric (atmospheric + topographic) correction model. The proposed model keeps the core of the old model (incidence angles and cast-shadows through a digital elevation model [DEM], Earth-Sun distance, etc.) and adds new characteristics to enhance and automatize ground reflectance retrieval. The new model includes the following new features: (1) A fitting model based on reference values from pseudoinvariant areas that have been automatically extracted from existing reflectance products (Terra MODIS MOD09GA) that were selected also automatically by applying quality criteria that include a geostatistical pattern model. This guarantees the consistency of the internal and external series, making it unnecessary to provide extra atmospheric data for the acquisition date and time, dark objects or dense vegetation. (2) A spatial model for atmospheric optical depth that uses detailed DEM and MODTRAN simulations. (3) It is designed so that large time-series of images can be processed automatically to produce consistent Landsat surface reflectance time-series. (4) The approach can handle most images, acquired now or in the past, regardless of the processing system, with the exception of those with extremely high cloud coverage. The new methodology has been successfully applied to a series of near 300 images of the same area including MSS, TM and ETM+ imagery as well as to different formats and processing systems (LPGS and NLAPS from the USGS; CEOS from ESA) for different degrees of cloud coverage (up to 60%) and SLC

  7. Massive Modularity of Space and Surface Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will conduct a systems level investigation of a modular design and operations approach for future NASA exploration systems. Particular emphasis will be...

  8. Millimeter-wave Imaging Systems with Aperture Synthesis Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löffler, Torsten; Krozer, Viktor; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes development of a millimetre-wave imaging system using multi-element aperture filling techniques [1]. Such imaging systems are increasingly demonstrated for security applications and in particular standoff imaging of persons and bonding flaw and defect detection [2]. The major ...

  9. Prototype of Microwave Imaging System for Breast-Cancer Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2009-01-01

    Microwave imaging for breast-cancer detection has received the attention of a large number of research groups in the last decade. In this paper, the imaging system currently being developed at the Technical university of Denmark is presented. This includes a description of the antenna system......, the microwave hardware, and the imaging algorithm....

  10. Recent developments of MR imaging system and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujieda, Kunimi

    1996-01-01

    Because MR imaging technique has no limitation of slice direction, uses none of mechanically moving components and can employ electronic scanning method for data acquisition, the most advanced electronics and CPU techniques have been applied to develop MR imaging systems. Along with pursuance of better equipment performance as clinical diagnostic equipment, cost reduction, improvement of operability and safety, easy siting, comfortable examination and economical operation cost by remarkable reduction of running cost have become important factors in development of MR imaging system. From this viewpoint, MR imaging systems incorporating an open gantry with a relatively low field strength and of vertical field system have been developed recently and they are being accepted as clinically useful equipment. The vertical field, open gantry system has an optimum structure capable of performing interventional imaging, thus clinical application of the system have been actively attempted. Thanks to recent development of various MRI techniques, image quality quite acceptable for routine clinical diagnosis can now be obtained by using the systems with permanent magnet and resistive magnet. Thus, it is considered that evaluation of not only equipment performance but also the total performances of the MR imaging system as described above will become important. The MR imaging technique has a possibility to substitute itself for other conventional imaging modalities because the technique can visualize physiological and metabolic functions in addition to morphological imaging. It is expected that application of MR imaging modality will be further expanded by continuous investigation of applicable clinical fields and development of imaging technologies. (J.P.N.)

  11. Thin plate spline feature point matching for organ surfaces in minimally invasive surgery imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bingxiong; Sun, Yu; Qian, Xiaoning

    2013-03-01

    Robust feature point matching for images with large view angle changes in Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is a challenging task due to low texture and specular reflections in these images. This paper presents a new approach that can improve feature matching performance by exploiting the inherent geometric property of the organ surfaces. Recently, intensity based template image tracking using a Thin Plate Spline (TPS) model has been extended for 3D surface tracking with stereo cameras. The intensity based tracking is also used here for 3D reconstruction of internal organ surfaces. To overcome the small displacement requirement of intensity based tracking, feature point correspondences are used for proper initialization of the nonlinear optimization in the intensity based method. Second, we generate simulated images from the reconstructed 3D surfaces under all potential view positions and orientations, and then extract feature points from these simulated images. The obtained feature points are then filtered and re-projected to the common reference image. The descriptors of the feature points under different view angles are stored to ensure that the proposed method can tolerate a large range of view angles. We evaluate the proposed method with silicon phantoms and in vivo images. The experimental results show that our method is much more robust with respect to the view angle changes than other state-of-the-art methods.

  12. Monitoring of biofilm formation on different material surfaces of medical devices using hyperspectral imaging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hyun; Kim, Moon S.; Hwang, Jeeseong

    2012-03-01

    Contamination of the inner surface of indwelling (implanted) medical devices by microbial biofilm is a serious problem. Some microbial bacteria such as Escherichia coli form biofilms that lead to potentially lifethreatening infections. Other types of medical devices such as bronchoscopes and duodenoscopes account for the highest number of reported endoscopic infections where microbial biofilm is one of the major causes for these infections. We applied a hyperspectral imaging method to detect biofilm contamination on the surface of several common materials used for medical devices. Such materials include stainless steel, titanium, and stainless-steeltitanium alloy. Potential uses of hyperspectral imaging technique to monitor biofilm attachment to different material surfaces are discussed.

  13. Reconstruction of pseudo three-dimensional dental image from dental panoramic radiograph and tooth surface shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imura, Masataka; Kuroda, Yoshihiro; Oshiro, Osamu; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Kagiyama, Yoshiyuki; Yagi, Masakazu; Takada, Kenji; Azuma, Hiroko

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional volume data set is useful for diagnosis in dental treatments. However, to obtain three-dimensional images of a dental arch in general dental clinics is difficult. In this paper, we propose a method to reconstruct pseudo three-dimensional dental images from a dental panoramic radiograph and a tooth surface shape which can be obtained from three dimensional shape measurement of a dental impression. The proposed method finds an appropriate curved surface on which the dental panoramic radiograph is mapped by comparing a virtual panoramic image made from a tooth surface shape to a real panoramic radiograph. The developed pseudo three-dimensional dental images give clear impression of patient's dental condition. (author)

  14. SERS imaging of cell-surface biomolecules metabolically labeled with bioorthogonal Raman reporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ming; Lin, Liang; Li, Zefan; Liu, Jie; Hong, Senlian; Li, Yaya; Zheng, Meiling; Duan, Xuanming; Chen, Xing

    2014-08-01

    Live imaging of biomolecules with high specificity and sensitivity as well as minimal perturbation is essential for studying cellular processes. Here, we report the development of a bioorthogonal surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) imaging approach that exploits small Raman reporters for visualizing cell-surface biomolecules. The cells were cultured and imaged by SERS microscopy on arrays of Raman-enhancing nanoparticles coated on silicon wafers or glass slides. The Raman reporters including azides, alkynes, and carbondeuterium bonds are small in size and spectroscopically bioorthogonal (background-free). We demonstrated that various cell-surface biomolecules including proteins, glycans, and lipids were metabolically incorporated with the corresponding precursors bearing a Raman reporter and visualized by SERS microscopy. The coupling of SERS microscopy with bioorthogonal Raman reporters expands the capabilities of live-cell microscopy beyond the modalities of fluorescence and label-free imaging. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Development of gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid system for simultaneous imaging of I-131 radionuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Suzuki, Mayumi; Kato, Katsuhiko [Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu [Department of Molecular Imaging in Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Ogata, Yoshimune [Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Hatazawa, Jun [Department of Molecular Imaging in Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2016-09-11

    Although iodine 131 (I-131) is used for radionuclide therapy, high resolution images are difficult to obtain with conventional gamma cameras because of the high energy of I-131 gamma photons (364 keV). Cerenkov-light imaging is a possible method for beta emitting radionuclides, and I-131 (606 MeV maximum beta energy) is a candidate to obtain high resolution images. We developed a high energy gamma camera system for I-131 radionuclide and combined it with a Cerenkov-light imaging system to form a gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system to compare the simultaneously measured images of these two modalities. The high energy gamma imaging detector used 0.85-mm×0.85-mm×10-mm thick GAGG scintillator pixels arranged in a 44×44 matrix with a 0.1-mm thick reflector and optical coupled to a Hamamatsu 2 in. square position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT: H12700 MOD). The gamma imaging detector was encased in a 2 cm thick tungsten shield, and a pinhole collimator was mounted on its top to form a gamma camera system. The Cerenkov-light imaging system was made of a high sensitivity cooled CCD camera. The Cerenkov-light imaging system was combined with the gamma camera using optical mirrors to image the same area of the subject. With this configuration, we simultaneously imaged the gamma photons and the Cerenkov-light from I-131 in the subjects. The spatial resolution and sensitivity of the gamma camera system for I-131 were respectively ~3 mm FWHM and ~10 cps/MBq for the high sensitivity collimator at 10 cm from the collimator surface. The spatial resolution of the Cerenkov-light imaging system was 0.64 mm FWHM at 10 cm from the system surface. Thyroid phantom and rat images were successfully obtained with the developed gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system, allowing direct comparison of these two modalities. Our developed gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system will be useful to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of these two

  16. Real-time beam profile imaging system for actinotherapy accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yong; Wang Jingjin; Song Zheng; Zheng Putang; Wang Jianguo

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a real-time beam profile imaging system for actinotheraphy accelerator. With the flash X-ray imager and the technique of digital image processing, a real-time 3-dimension dosage image is created from the intensity profile of the accelerator beam in real time. This system helps to obtain all the physical characters of the beam in any section plane, such as FWHM, penumbra, peak value, symmetry and homogeneity. This system has been used to acquire a 3-dimension dosage distribution of dynamic wedge modulator and the transient process of beam dosage. The system configure and the tested beam profile images are also presented

  17. IMIS: An intelligence microscope imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Michael; Hunter, Norwood; Taylor, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Until recently microscope users in space relied on traditional microscopy techniques that required manual operation of the microscope and recording of observations in the form of written notes, drawings, or photographs. This method was time consuming and required the return of film and drawings from space for analysis. No real-time data analysis was possible. Advances in digital and video technologies along with recent developments in article intelligence will allow future space microscopists to have a choice of three additional modes of microscopy: remote coaching, remote control, and automation. Remote coaching requires manual operations of the microscope with instructions given by two-way audio/video transmission during critical phases of the experiment. When using the remote mode of microscopy, the Principal Investigator controls the microscope from the ground. The automated mode employs artificial intelligence to control microscope functions and is the only mode that can be operated in the other three modes as well. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the four modes of of microscopy and how the IMIS, a proposed intelligent microscope imaging system, can be used as a model for developing and testing concepts, operating procedures, and equipment design of specifications required to provide a comprehensive microscopy/imaging capability onboard Space Station Freedom.

  18. SU-E-J-171: Surface Imaging Based Intrafraction Motion Assessments for Whole Brain Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiant, D; Vanderstraeten, C; Maurer, J; Pursley, J; Terrell, J; Sintay, B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify and characterize intrafraction motion for whole brain radiotherapy treatments in open face masks using 3D surface imaging. Methods: Fifteen whole brain patients were monitored with 3D surface imaging over a total of 202 monitoring sessions. Mean translations and rotations were calculated over each minute, each session, and over all sessions combined. The percentage of each session that the root mean square (RMS) of the linear translations were outside of 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm, and 5 mm were determined for each patient. Correlations between mean translations per minute and time and between standard deviation per minute and time were evaluated using Pearson's r value. Results: The mean RMS translation averaged over all patients was 1.45 mm +/− 1.52 mm. The patients spent an average of 18%, 10%, 6%, and 3% of the monitoring time outside of 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm, and 5 mm RMS tolerances, respectively. The RMS values averaged over all patients were 1.31 mm +/− 0.98 mm, 1.52 +/- 1.04, and 1.30 mm +/− 0.71 mm over the 1th, 5th, and 10th minutes of monitoring, respectively. Neither, the RMS values (p = 0.15) or the standard deviations of the RMS values (p = 0.16) showed significant correlations with time. Conclusion: The patients were positioned within 2 mm of isocenter, which was the initial set-up tolerance, for the majority of their treatments. The average position changed by < 0.3 mm over 10 minutes of monitoring. Short term movements, reflected by the standard deviations, where on the order of 1 mm. This immobilization system provides adequate immobilization over a course of treatment for whole brain radiotherapy. This system may also be suitable for head and neck or stereotactic radiosurgery treatments as well

  19. Do carotid MR surface coils affect PET quantification in PET/MR imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willemink, Martin J; Eldib, Mootaz; Leiner, Tim; Fayad, Zahi A; Mani, Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of surface coils for carotid MR imaging on PET quantification in a clinical simultaneous whole-body PET/MR scanner. A cylindrical phantom was filled with a homogeneous 2L water-FDG mixture at a starting dose of 301.2MBq. Clinical PET/MR and PET/CT systems were used to acquire PET-data without a coil (reference standard) and with two carotid MRI coils (Siemens Special Purpose 8-Channel and Machnet 4-Channel Phased Array). PET-signal attenuation was evaluated with Osirix using 51 (PET/MR) and 37 (PET/CT) circular ROIs. Mean and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVs) were quantified for each ROI. Furthermore, SUVs of PET/MR and PET/CT were compared. For validation, a patient was scanned with an injected dose of 407.7MBq on both a PET/CT and a PET/MR system without a coil and with both coils. PET/MR underestimations were -2.2% (Siemens) and -7.8% (Machnet) for SUVmean, and -1.2% (Siemens) and -3.3% (Machnet) for SUVmax, respectively. For PET/CT, underestimations were -1.3% (Siemens) and -1.4% (Machnet) for SUVmean and -0.5% (both Siemens and Machnet) for SUVmax, respectively using no coil data as reference. Except for PET/CT SUVmax values all differences were significant. SUVs differed significantly between PET/MR and PET/CT with SUVmean values of 0.51-0.55 for PET/MR and 0.68-0.69 for PET/CT, respectively. The patient examination showed that median SUVmean values measured in the carotid arteries decreased from 0.97 without a coil to 0.96 (Siemens) and 0.88 (Machnet). Carotid surface coils do affect attenuation correction in both PET/MR and PET/CT imaging. Furthermore, SUVs differed significantly between PET/MR and PET/CT.

  20. Self-consistent density functional calculation of the image potential at a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, J; Alvarellos, J E; Chacon, E; GarcIa-Gonzalez, P

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that the exchange-correlation (XC) potential at a metal surface has an image-like asymptotic behaviour given by -1/4(z-z 0 ), where z is the coordinate perpendicular to the surface. Using a suitable fully non-local functional prescription, we evaluate self-consistently the XC potential with the correct image behaviour for simple jellium surfaces in the range of metallic densities. This allows a proper comparison between the corresponding image-plane position, z 0 , and other related quantities such as the centroid of an induced charge by an external perturbation. As a by-product, we assess the routinely used local density approximation when evaluating electron density profiles, work functions, and surface energies by focusing on the XC effects included in the fully non-local description

  1. Self-consistent density functional calculation of the image potential at a metal surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, J [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Apartado 60141, 28080 Madrid (Spain); Alvarellos, J E [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Apartado 60141, 28080 Madrid (Spain); Chacon, E [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); GarcIa-Gonzalez, P [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Apartado 60141, 28080 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-04

    It is well known that the exchange-correlation (XC) potential at a metal surface has an image-like asymptotic behaviour given by -1/4(z-z{sub 0}), where z is the coordinate perpendicular to the surface. Using a suitable fully non-local functional prescription, we evaluate self-consistently the XC potential with the correct image behaviour for simple jellium surfaces in the range of metallic densities. This allows a proper comparison between the corresponding image-plane position, z{sub 0}, and other related quantities such as the centroid of an induced charge by an external perturbation. As a by-product, we assess the routinely used local density approximation when evaluating electron density profiles, work functions, and surface energies by focusing on the XC effects included in the fully non-local description.

  2. Spontaneous reorientation is guided by perceived surface distance, not by image matching or comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ah Lee

    Full Text Available Humans and animals recover their sense of position and orientation using properties of the surface layout, but the processes underlying this ability are disputed. Although behavioral and neurophysiological experiments on animals long have suggested that reorientation depends on representations of surface distance, recent experiments on young children join experimental studies and computational models of animal navigation to suggest that reorientation depends either on processing of any continuous perceptual variables or on matching of 2D, depthless images of the landscape. We tested the surface distance hypothesis against these alternatives through studies of children, using environments whose 3D shape and 2D image properties were arranged to enhance or cancel impressions of depth. In the absence of training, children reoriented by subtle differences in perceived surface distance under conditions that challenge current models of 2D-image matching or comparison processes. We provide evidence that children's spontaneous navigation depends on representations of 3D layout geometry.

  3. Dust Plate, Retina, Photograph: Imaging on Experimental Surfaces in Early Nineteenth-Century Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Chitra

    2015-09-01

    This article explores the entangled histories of three imaging techniques in early nineteenth-century British physical science, techniques in which a dynamic event (such as a sound vibration or an electric spark) was made to leave behind a fixed trace on a sensitive surface. Three categories of "sensitive surface" are examined in turn: first, a metal plate covered in fine dust; second, the retina of the human eye; and finally, a surface covered with a light-sensitive chemical emulsion (a photographic plate). For physicists Michael Faraday and Charles Wheatstone, and photographic pioneer William Henry Fox Talbot, transient phenomena could be studied through careful observation and manipulation of the patterns wrought on these different surfaces, and through an understanding of how the imaging process unfolded through time. This exposes the often-ignored materiality and temporality of epistemic practices around nineteenth-century scientific images said to be "drawn by nature."

  4. Fusion of MODIS and landsat-8 surface temperature images: a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazaymeh, Khaled; Hassan, Quazi K

    2015-01-01

    Here, our objective was to develop a spatio-temporal image fusion model (STI-FM) for enhancing temporal resolution of Landsat-8 land surface temperature (LST) images by fusing LST images acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS); and implement the developed algorithm over a heterogeneous semi-arid study area in Jordan, Middle East. The STI-FM technique consisted of two major components: (i) establishing a linear relationship between two consecutive MODIS 8-day composite LST images acquired at time 1 and time 2; and (ii) utilizing the above mentioned relationship as a function of a Landsat-8 LST image acquired at time 1 in order to predict a synthetic Landsat-8 LST image at time 2. It revealed that strong linear relationships (i.e., r2, slopes, and intercepts were in the range 0.93-0.94, 0.94-0.99; and 2.97-20.07) existed between the two consecutive MODIS LST images. We evaluated the synthetic LST images qualitatively and found high visual agreements with the actual Landsat-8 LST images. In addition, we conducted quantitative evaluations of these synthetic images; and found strong agreements with the actual Landsat-8 LST images. For example, r2, root mean square error (RMSE), and absolute average difference (AAD)-values were in the ranges 084-0.90, 0.061-0.080, and 0.003-0.004, respectively.

  5. Rapid surface sampling and archival record system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barren, E.; Penney, C.M.; Sheldon, R.B. [GE Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    A number of contamination sites exist in this country where the area and volume of material to be remediated is very large, approaching or exceeding 10{sup 6} m{sup 2} and 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}. Typically, only a small fraction of this material is actually contaminated. In such cases there is a strong economic motivation to test the material with a sufficient density of measurements to identify which portions are uncontaminated, so extensively they be left in place or be disposed of as uncontaminated waste. Unfortunately, since contamination often varies rapidly from position to position, this procedure can involve upwards of one million measurements per site. The situation is complicated further in many cases by the difficulties of sampling porous surfaces, such as concrete. This report describes a method for sampling concretes in which an immediate distinction can be made between contaminated and uncontaminated surfaces. Sample acquisition and analysis will be automated.

  6. High-resolution MR imaging of the carpal tunnel and the wrist. Application of a 5-cm surface coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, J.; Bleschkowski, A.; Tempka, A.; Felix, R. [Medical Faculty of the Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2000-07-01

    In order to make a comparative analysis of transversal tomograms obtained by high-resolution MR imaging with frozen cross-sections of an anatomical forearm specimen, twenty-two healthy volunteers were also examined using the same coil system to test for a range of possible clinical applications and for the depiction of morphological and morphometrical values of normal anatomy in vivo. MR images of the carpal tunnel of 22 healthy volunteers were obtained with a 1.5-T whole-body system with a 5-cm surface coil. Measurements were recorded with a field-of-view between 50x50 mm{sup 2} and 60x60 mm{sup 2} in a 256x256 pixel matrix for the T1 sequence. A slice thickness of 2 mm was used. The images were acquired using a T1-weighted SE sequence (TR/TE 500/38 ms) and a T2-weighted SE sequence (TR/TE 2000/70 ms). Additionally, a formalin-fixed anatomical forearm specimen was imaged for anatomic correlation. The imaged transversal cross-section levels in the specimen were subsequently freeze-sectioned. The anatomical structures of the MR findings were identified and compared with the macroscopical sections of the specimen. Based on the good depiction of details at this coil system with a pixel size in T1 of 0.195x0.195 mm, high-resolution MR imaging enabled identification of the interior structures of the carpal tunnel, as well as delineation of connective tissue. The clinical value of high-resolution MR includes the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome and inflammatory disorders of the wrist. Our results support the feasibility of high-resolution MR imaging of the carpal tunnel and the wrist using small surface coils.

  7. High-resolution MR imaging of the carpal tunnel and the wrist. Application of a 5-cm surface coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, J.; Bleschkowski, A.; Tempka, A.; Felix, R.

    2000-01-01

    In order to make a comparative analysis of transversal tomograms obtained by high-resolution MR imaging with frozen cross-sections of an anatomical forearm specimen, twenty-two healthy volunteers were also examined using the same coil system to test for a range of possible clinical applications and for the depiction of morphological and morphometrical values of normal anatomy in vivo. MR images of the carpal tunnel of 22 healthy volunteers were obtained with a 1.5-T whole-body system with a 5-cm surface coil. Measurements were recorded with a field-of-view between 50x50 mm 2 and 60x60 mm 2 in a 256x256 pixel matrix for the T1 sequence. A slice thickness of 2 mm was used. The images were acquired using a T1-weighted SE sequence (TR/TE 500/38 ms) and a T2-weighted SE sequence (TR/TE 2000/70 ms). Additionally, a formalin-fixed anatomical forearm specimen was imaged for anatomic correlation. The imaged transversal cross-section levels in the specimen were subsequently freeze-sectioned. The anatomical structures of the MR findings were identified and compared with the macroscopical sections of the specimen. Based on the good depiction of details at this coil system with a pixel size in T1 of 0.195x0.195 mm, high-resolution MR imaging enabled identification of the interior structures of the carpal tunnel, as well as delineation of connective tissue. The clinical value of high-resolution MR includes the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome and inflammatory disorders of the wrist. Our results support the feasibility of high-resolution MR imaging of the carpal tunnel and the wrist using small surface coils

  8. Nanoscale imaging of surface piezoresponse on GaN epitaxial layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoica, T.; Calarco, R.; Meijers, R.; Lueth, H.

    2007-01-01

    Surfaces of GaN films were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) with implemented piezoelectric force microscopy technique. A model of PFM based on the surface depletion region in GaN films is discussed. The local piezoelectric effect of the low frequency regime was found to be in phase with the applied voltage on large domains, corresponding to a Ga-face of the GaN layer. Low piezoresponse is obtained within the inter-domain regions. The use of frequencies near a resonance frequency enhances very much the resolution of piezo-imaging, but only for very low scanning speed the piezo-imaging can follow the local piezoelectric effect. An inversion of the PFM image contrast is obtained for frequencies higher than the resonance frequencies. The effect of a chemical surface treatment on the topography and the piezoresponse of the GaN films was also investigated. Textured surfaces with very small domains were observed after the chemical treatment. For this kind of surfaces, piezo-induced torsion rather than bending of the AFM cantilever dominates the contrast of the PFM images. A small memory effect was observed, and explained by surface charging and confinement of the piezoelectric effect within the carrier depletion region at the GaN surface

  9. Atomic imaging of an InSe single-crystal surface with atomic force microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Uosaki, Kohei; Koinuma, Michio

    1993-01-01

    The atomic force microscope was employed to observed in air the surface atomic structure of InSe, one of III-VI compound semiconductors with layered structures. Atomic arrangements were observed in both n-type and p-type materials. The observed structures are in good agreement with those expected from bulk crystal structures. The atomic images became less clear by repeating the imaging process. Wide area imaging after the imaging of small area clearly showed that a mound was created at the sp...

  10. Data acquisition system for radiographic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, R.C.; Votano, J.R.; Russ, T.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a continuous data acquisition system for radiographic imaging without interrupting acquisition activity the acquisition system. It comprises at least two memory means for storing radiographic data from a radiation detector wherein each of the memory means having a plurality of addressable memory locations and each of the memory means are such that the locations of the memory means correspond to spatial locations in the radiation detector; logic control means for sensing radiographic data transmitted by the radiation detector, for selecting one of the memory means for storage of the data, for transferring data to the selected memory means, and for switching form one memory means to another memory means according to a predefined schedule and according to memory capacity level, the logic control means further comprising a logic device which receives data and increments the contents of locations in a memory means in response to such data; and interface control means for reading data from one or the other memory means when such memory means is not actively acquiring data such that data can be acquired continuously by the system

  11. Automatic system for detecting pornographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kevin I. C.; Chen, Tung-Shou; Ho, Jun-Der

    2002-09-01

    Due to the dramatic growth of network and multimedia technology, people can more easily get variant information by using Internet. Unfortunately, it also makes the diffusion of illegal and harmful content much easier. So, it becomes an important topic for the Internet society to protect and safeguard Internet users from these content that may be encountered while surfing on the Net, especially children. Among these content, porno graphs cause more serious harm. Therefore, in this study, we propose an automatic system to detect still colour porno graphs. Starting from this result, we plan to develop an automatic system to search porno graphs or to filter porno graphs. Almost all the porno graphs possess one common characteristic that is the ratio of the size of skin region and non-skin region is high. Based on this characteristic, our system first converts the colour space from RGB colour space to HSV colour space so as to segment all the possible skin-colour regions from scene background. We also apply the texture analysis on the selected skin-colour regions to separate the skin regions from non-skin regions. Then, we try to group the adjacent pixels located in skin regions. If the ratio is over a given threshold, we can tell if the given image is a possible porno graph. Based on our experiment, less than 10% of non-porno graphs are classified as pornography, and over 80% of the most harmful porno graphs are classified correctly.

  12. Digital image processing: Cylindrical surface plane development of CAREM fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caccavelli, J; Cativa Tolosa, S; Gommes, C

    2012-01-01

    As part of the development of fuel pellets (FPs) for nuclear reactor CAREM-25, is necessary to systematize the analysis of the mechanical integrity of the FPs that is now done manually by a human operator. Following specifications and standards of reference for this purpose, the FPs should be inspected visually for detecting material discontinuities in the FPs surfaces to minimize any deterioration, loss of material and excessive breakage during operation and load of fuel bars. The material discontinuities are classified into two defects: surface cracks and chips. For each of these surface defects exist acceptance criteria that determine if the fuel pellet (FP) as a whole is accepted or rejected. One criteria for surface cracks is that they do not exceed one third (1/3) of the circumferential surface of the FP. The FP has cylindrical shape, so some of these acceptance criteria make difficult to analyze the FP in a single photographic image. Depending on the axial rotation of the FP, the crack could not be entirely visualized on the picture frame. Even a single crack that appears in different parts of the FP rotated images may appear to be different cracks in the FP when it is actually one. For this reason it is necessary, for the automatic detection and measurement of surface defects, obtain the circumferential surface of the FP into a single image in order to decide the acceptance or reject of the FP. As the FP shape is cylindrical, it is possible to obtain the flat development of the cylindrical surface (surface unrolling) of the FPs into a single image combining the image set of the axial rotation of the FP. In this work, we expose the procedure to implement the flat development of the cylindrical surface (surface unrolling). Starting from a photographic image of the FP surface, which represents the projection of a cylinder in the plane, we obtain three-dimensional information of each point on the cylindrical surface of the FP (3D-mapping). Then, we can

  13. Surfaces and Interfaces of Magnetoelectric Oxide Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shi

    Magnetoelectric materials Cr2O3, hexagonal LuFeO 3 and YbFeO3 are studied in this thesis. The surface of chromia (Cr2O3) has a surface electronic structure distinct from the bulk. Our work shows that placing a Cr2O3 single crystal into a single domain state will result in net Cr2O 3 spin polarization at the boundary, even in the presence of a gold overlayer. From the Cr 2p3/2 X-ray magnetic circular dichroism signal, there is clear evidence of interface polarization with overlayers of both Pd and Pt on chromia. Cobalt thin films on Cr2O3(0001) show larger magnetic contrast in magnetic force microscopy indicating enhancement of perpendicular anisotropy induced by Cr2O3. The interfacial charge transfer between mechanically exfoliated few-layer graphene and Cr2O3(0001) surfaces has been investigated showing hole doping of few-layer graphene. Density functional theory calculations furthermore confirm the p-type nature of the graphene on top of chromia, and suggest that the chromia is able to induce a significant carrier spin polarization in the graphene layer. The surface termination and the nominal valence states for hexagonal LuFeO3 thin films were characterized. The stable surface terminates in a Fe-O layer. This is consistent wit the results of density functional calculations. The structural transition at about 1000 °C, from the hexagonal to the orthorhombic phase of LuFeO3, has been investigated in thin films of LuFeO3. The electronic structure for the conduction bands of both hexagonal and orthorhombic LuFeO3 thin films have been measured. Dramatic differences in both the spectral features and the linear dichroism are observed. We have also studied the ferrimagnetism in h-YbFeO3 by measuring the magnetization of Fe and Yb separately. The results directly show antialignment of magnetization of Yb and Fe ions in h-YbFeO3 at low temperature, with an exchange field on Yb of about 17 kOe. All ferrimagnets, by default, are magnetoelectrics. These findings directly

  14. PC imaging system for reactor NDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    PC-based systems have been given recent attention by EPRI to organize and manage inspection data (RP-2405-15, TestPro system); integrate with larger, mainframe computers to maintain dialogue for on-site and remote applications; and, in this project, to aid the operator in providing guidance to render decisions on the data. The PC system configuration for this project consisted of a central processing unit (CPU), a hard disk and a floppy disk, 640K bytes of system memory, a high-resolution graphics card and compatible color monitor, and a mouse for operator interaction with software. The software package was written in FORTRAN under the PC Disk Operating System (PC-DOS) and utilized a graphics package for image display. Application of this package to crack-counterbore discrimination in piping welds was investigated. Present automatic techniques utilize signal features from single, A-scan data to render a decision on whether the reflector is benign (i.e., counterbore, weld root) or a crack. However, experienced manual operators in the field make reliable decisions based on the integrated response from the reflector as the transducer is scanned past the suspicious region. Since this software package could display and manipulate ensemble A-scans, spatial features - similar to those used by experts - were developed as discriminants. Ultrasonic responses from intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCCs) were discovered to vary both in time-of-flight and in their amplitude, whereas counterbore responses were more consistent. The software package contains methods for viewing and quantifying these spatial features

  15. Conflict simulation for surface transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeton, S.C.; De Laquil, P. III.

    1977-07-01

    An important element in the analysis of transportation safeguards systems is the determination of the outcome of an armed attack against the system. Such information is necessary to understand relationships among the various defender tactics, weapons systems, and adversary attributes. A battle model, SABRES, which can simulate safeguards engagements is under development. This paper briefly describes the first phase of SABRES and presents some examples of its capabilities

  16. An integrated compact airborne multispectral imaging system using embedded computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuedong; Wang, Li; Zhang, Xuguo

    2015-08-01

    An integrated compact airborne multispectral imaging system using embedded computer based control system was developed for small aircraft multispectral imaging application. The multispectral imaging system integrates CMOS camera, filter wheel with eight filters, two-axis stabilized platform, miniature POS (position and orientation system) and embedded computer. The embedded computer has excellent universality and expansibility, and has advantages in volume and weight for airborne platform, so it can meet the requirements of control system of the integrated airborne multispectral imaging system. The embedded computer controls the camera parameters setting, filter wheel and stabilized platform working, image and POS data acquisition, and stores the image and data. The airborne multispectral imaging system can connect peripheral device use the ports of the embedded computer, so the system operation and the stored image data management are easy. This airborne multispectral imaging system has advantages of small volume, multi-function, and good expansibility. The imaging experiment results show that this system has potential for multispectral remote sensing in applications such as resource investigation and environmental monitoring.

  17. Multi region based image retrieval system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    data mining, information theory, statistics and psychology. ∗ .... ground complication and independent of image size and orientation (Zhang 2007). ..... Figure 2. Significant regions: (a) the input image, (b) the primary significant region, (c) the ...

  18. Clinical usefulness of a newly-developed head and neck surface coil for MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Morio; Kogure, Takashi; Hayashi, Sanshin

    1995-01-01

    To obtain correct diagnosis at early stages of cervical lymph node swelling, especially cases with suspected epipharyngeal carcinoma, and cerebral arterial sclerotic diseases, high-quality MR images visualizing the entire head and neck structures and vessels are of crucial importance. When obtaining images of head and neck regions using a head coil, signal intensity (SI) and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of regions below the hypopharynx are weakened. Moreover, when obtaining images of head and neck regions using an anterior neck coil, SI and SNR of upper regions of epipharynx are also weakened. In an attempt to solve these problems, we developed a new head and neck surface coil for MR imaging. With this new coil we were able to obtain better images (153 cases) from regions below the hypopharynx to the upper regions of the epipharynx in the same time as images obtained using the head coil and anterior neck coil. 2D TOF MR angiographic images (11 cases) obtained by the head and neck surface coil are superior to 2D TOF angiographic images obtained by the anterior neck coil. MR images obtained with this improved method are valuable in the evaluation and management of head and neck region disease. (author)

  19. Reference reactor module for NASA's lunar surface fission power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, David I.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.; Werner, James; Qualls, Louis; Radel, Ross

    2009-01-01

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. The AFSPS concept is now being further developed within the Fission Surface Power (FSP) Project, which is a near-term technology program to demonstrate system-level TRL-6 by 2013. This paper describes the reference FSP reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based. UO 2 -fueled, pumped-NaK fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a 'workhorse' power system that NASA can utilize in near-term and future Lunar and Martian mission architectures, with the eventual capability to evolve to very high power, low mass systems, for either surface, deep space, and/or orbital missions.

  20. IDENTIFYING SURFACE CHANGES ON HRSC IMAGES OF THE MARS SOUTH POLAR RESIDUAL CAP (SPRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. D. Putri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The surface of Mars has been an object of interest for planetary research since the launch of Mariner 4 in 1964. Since then different cameras such as the Viking Visual Imaging Subsystem (VIS, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO Context Camera (CTX and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE have been imaging its surface at ever higher resolution. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC on board of the European Space Agency (ESA Mars Express, has been imaging the Martian surface, since 25th December 2003 until the present-day. HRSC has covered 100 % of the surface of Mars, about 70 % of the surface with panchromatic images at 10-20 m/pixel, and about 98 % at better than 100 m/pixel (Neukum et. al., 2004, including the polar regions of Mars. The Mars polar regions have been studied intensively recently by analysing images taken by the Mars Express and MRO missions (Plaut et al., 2007. The South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC does not change very much in volume overall but there are numerous examples of dynamic phenomena associated with seasonal changes in the atmosphere. In particular, we can examine the time variation of layers of solid carbon dioxide and water ice with dust deposition (Bibring, 2004, spider-like channels (Piqueux et al., 2003 and so-called Swiss Cheese Terrain (Titus et al., 2004. Because of seasonal changes each Martian year, due to the sublimation and deposition of water and CO2 ice on the Martian south polar region, clearly identifiable surface changes occur in otherwise permanently icy region. In this research, good quality HRSC images of the Mars South Polar region are processed based on previous identification as the optimal coverage of clear surfaces (Campbell et al., 2015. HRSC images of the Martian South Pole are categorized in terms of quality, time, and location to find overlapping areas, processed into high quality Digital Terrain Models (DTMs and