Pizzo, Nick
2017-11-01
A simple criterion for water particles to surf an underlying surface gravity wave is presented. It is found that particles travelling near the phase speed of the wave, in a geometrically confined region on the forward face of the crest, increase in speed. The criterion is derived using the equation of John (Commun. Pure Appl. Maths, vol. 6, 1953, pp. 497-503) for the motion of a zero-stress free surface under the action of gravity. As an example, a breaking water wave is theoretically and numerically examined. Implications for upper-ocean processes, for both shallow- and deep-water waves, are discussed.
2015-09-30
Interaction of Surface Gravity Waves with Nonlinear Internal Gravity Waves Lian Shen St. Anthony Falls Laboratory and Department of Mechanical...on studying surface gravity wave evolution and spectrum in the presence of surface currents caused by strongly nonlinear internal solitary waves...interaction of surface and internal gravity waves in the South China Sea. We will seek answers to the following questions: 1) How does the wind-wave
Field verification of ADCP surface gravity wave elevation spectra
Hoitink, A.J.F.; Peters, H.C.; Schroevers, M.
2007-01-01
Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) can measure orbital velocities induced by surface gravity waves, yet the ADCP estimates of these velocities are subject to a relatively high noise level. The present paper introduces a linear filtration technique to significantly reduce the influence of
Internal gravity wave contributions to global sea surface variability
Savage, A.; Arbic, B. K.; Richman, J. G.; Shriver, J. F.; Buijsman, M. C.; Zamudio, L.; Wallcraft, A. J.; Sharma, H.
2016-02-01
High-resolution (1/12th and 1/25th degree) 41-layer simulations of the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), forced by both atmospheric fields and the astronomical tidal potential, are used to construct global maps of sea-surface height (SSH). The HYCOM output has been separated into steric, non-steric, and total sea-surface height and the maps display variance in subtidal, tidal, and supertidal bands. Two of the global maps are of particular interest in planning for the upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) wide-swath satellite altimeter mission; (1) a map of the nonstationary tidal signal (estimated after removing the stationary tidal signal via harmonic analysis), and (2) a map of the steric supertidal contributions, which are dominated by the internal gravity wave continuum. Both of these maps display signals of order 1 cm2, the target accuracy for the SWOT mission. Therefore, both non-stationary internal tides and non-tidal internal gravity waves are likely to be important sources of "noise" that must be accurately removed before examination of lower-frequency phenomena can take place.
2015-09-30
by internal wave surface currents, a process that can be validated with both in-situ observations and synthetic aperature radar (SAR) imagery which...spectrum? How does this affect the detectability of ISWs in SAR imagery? 5) How does the seasonal variability of ISW currents impact the surface gravity...LZSNFS for 2014/02/01 00Z. It shows an intrusion of Kuroshio southwest off Taiwan as often obsevered during winter season. RESULTS A 1.5 year-long
The Effect of the Leeuwin Current on Offshore Surface Gravity Waves in Southwest Western Australia
Wandres, Moritz; Wijeratne, E. M. S.; Cosoli, Simone; Pattiaratchi, Charitha
2017-11-01
The knowledge of regional wave regimes is critical for coastal zone planning, protection, and management. In this study, the influence of the offshore current regime on surface gravity waves on the southwest Western Australian (SWWA) continental shelf was examined. This was achieved by coupling the three dimensional, free surface, terrain-following hydrodynamic Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) and the third generation wave model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-WaveSediment Transport (COAWST) model. Different representative states of the Leeuwin Current (LC), a strong pole-ward flowing boundary current with a persistent eddy field along the SWWA shelf edge were simulated and used to investigate their influence on different large wave events. The coupled wave-current simulations were compared to wave only simulations, which represented scenarios in the absence of a background current field. Results showed that the LC and the eddy field significantly impact SWWA waves. Significant wave heights increased (decreased) when currents were opposing (aligning with) the incoming wave directions. During a fully developed LC system significant wave heights were altered by up to ±25% and wave directions by up to ±20°. The change in wave direction indicates that the LC may modify nearshore wave dynamics and consequently alter sediment patterns. Operational regional wave forecasts and hindcasts may give flawed predictions if wave-current interaction is not properly accounted for.
Impacts of climate changes on ocean surface gravity waves over the eastern Canadian shelf
Guo, Lanli; Sheng, Jinyu
2017-05-01
A numerical study is conducted to investigate the impact of climate changes on ocean surface gravity waves over the eastern Canadian shelf (ECS). The "business-as-usual" climate scenario known as Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8.5 is considered in this study. Changes in the ocean surface gravity waves over the study region for the period 1979-2100 are examined based on 3 hourly ocean waves simulated by the third-generation ocean wave model known as WAVEWATCHIII. The wave model is driven by surface winds and ice conditions produced by the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CanRCM4). The whole study period is divided into the present (1979-2008), near future (2021-2050) and far future (2071-2100) periods to quantify possible future changes of ocean waves over the ECS. In comparison with the present ocean wave conditions, the time-mean significant wave heights ( H s ) are expected to increase over most of the ECS in the near future and decrease over this region in the far future period. The time-means of the annual 5% largest H s are projected to increase over the ECS in both near and far future periods due mainly to the changes in surface winds. The future changes in the time-means of the annual 5% largest H s and 10-m wind speeds are projected to be twice as strong as the changes in annual means. An analysis of inverse wave ages suggests that the occurrence of wind seas is projected to increase over the southern Labrador and central Newfoundland Shelves in the near future period, and occurrence of swells is projected to increase over other areas of the ECS in both the near and far future periods.
Damping of short gravity-capillary waves due to oil derivatives film on the water surface
Sergievskaya, Irina; Ermakov, Stanislav; Lazareva, Tatyana
2016-10-01
In this paper new results of laboratory studies of damping of gravity-capillary waves on the water surface covered by kerosene are presented and compared with our previous analysis of characteristics of crude oil and diesel fuel films. Investigations of kerosene films were carried out in a wide range values of film thicknesses (from some hundreds millimetres to a few millimetres) and in a wide range of surface wave frequencies (from 10 to 27 Hz). The selected frequency range corresponds to the operating wavelengths of microwave, X- to Ka-band radars typically used for the ocean remote sensing. The studied range of film thickness covers typical thicknesses of routine spills in the ocean. It is obtained that characteristics of waves, measured in the presence of oil derivatives films differ from those for crude oil films, in particular, because the volume viscosity of oil derivatives and crude oil is strongly different. To retrieve parameters of kerosene films from the experimental data the surface wave damping was analyzed theoretically in the frame of a model of two-layer fluid. The films are assumed to be soluble, so the elasticity on the upper and lower boundaries is considered as a function of wave frequency. Physical parameters of oil derivative films were estimated when tuning the film parameters to fit theory and experiment. Comparison between wave damping due to crude oil, kerosene and diesel fuel films have shown some capabilities of distinguishing of oil films from remote sensing of short surface waves.
Second generation diffusion model of interacting gravity waves on the surface of deep fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Pushkarev
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a second generation phenomenological model for nonlinear interaction of gravity waves on the surface of deep water. This model takes into account the effects of non-locality of the original Hasselmann diffusion equation still preserving important properties of the first generation model: physically consistent scaling, adherence to conservation laws and the existence of Kolmogorov-Zakharov solutions. Numerical comparison of both models with the original Hasselmann equation shows that the second generation models improves the angular distribution in the evolving wave energy spectrum.
2D instabilities of surface gravity waves on a linear shear current
Francius, Marc; Kharif, Christian
2016-04-01
instabilities due to resonant four-wave interactions, as well as to study the influence of vorticity and nonlinearity on the characteristics of linear instabilities due to resonant five-wave and six-wave interactions. Depending on the dimensionless depth, superharmonic instabilities due to five-wave interactions can become dominant with increasing positive vorticiy. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Direction Générale de l'Armement and funded by the ANR project n°. ANR-13-ASTR-0007. References [1] A. Constantin, Two-dimensionality of gravity water flows of constant non-zero vorticity beneath a surface wave train, Eur. J. Mech. B/Fluids, 2011, 30, 12-16. [2] R. S. Johnson, On the modulation of water waves on shear flows, Proc. Royal Soc. Lond. A., 1976, 347, 537-546. [3] M. Oikawa, K. Chow, D. J. Benney, The propagation of nonlinear wave packets in a shear flow with a free surface, Stud. Appl. Math., 1987, 76, 69-92. [4] A. I Baumstein, Modulation of gravity waves with shear in water, Stud. Appl. Math., 1998, 100, 365-90. [5] R. Thomas, C. Kharif, M. Manna, A nonlinear Schrödinger equation for water waves on finite depth with constant vorticity, Phys. Fluids, 2012, 24, 127102. [6] M. M Rienecker, J. D Fenton, A Fourier approximation method for steady water waves , J. Fluid Mech., 1981, 104, 119-137 [7] M. Francius, C. Kharif, Three-dimensional instabilities of periodic gravity waves in shallow water, J. Fluid Mech., 2006, 561, 417-437
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Vikulin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Gravity phenomena related to the Earth movements in the Solar System and through the Galaxy are reviewed. Such movements are manifested by geological processes on the Earth and correlate with geophysical fields of the Earth. It is concluded that geodynamic processes and the gravity phenomena (including those of cosmic nature are related. The state of the geomedium composed of blocks is determined by stresses with force moment and by slow rotational waves that are considered as a new type of movements [Vikulin, 2008, 2010]. It is shown that the geomedium has typical rheid properties [Carey, 1954], specifically an ability to flow while being in the solid state [Leonov, 2008]. Within the framework of the rotational model with a symmetric stress tensor, which is developed by the authors [Vikulin, Ivanchin, 1998; Vikulin et al., 2012a, 2013], such movement of the geomedium may explain the energy-saturated state of the geomedium and a possibility of its movements in the form of vortex geological structures [Lee, 1928]. The article discusses the gravity wave detection method based on the concept of interactions between gravity waves and crustal blocks [Braginsky et al., 1985]. It is concluded that gravity waves can be recorded by the proposed technique that detects slow rotational waves. It is shown that geo-gravitational movements can be described by both the concept of potential with account of gravitational energy of bodies [Kondratyev, 2003] and the nonlinear physical acoustics [Gurbatov et al., 2008]. Based on the combined description of geophysical and gravitational wave movements, the authors suggest a hypothesis about the nature of spin, i.e. own moment as a demonstration of the space-time ‘vortex’ properties.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. M. Abd-Alla
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Estimation is done to investigate the gravitational and rotational parameters effects on surface waves in fibre-reinforced thermoelastic media. The theory of generalized surface waves has been firstly developed and then it has been employed to investigate particular cases of waves, namely, Stoneley waves, Rayleigh waves, and Love waves. The analytical expressions for surface waves velocity and attenuation coefficient are obtained in the physical domain by using the harmonic vibrations and four thermoelastic theories. The wave velocity equations have been obtained in different cases. The numerical results are given for equation of coupled thermoelastic theory (C-T, Lord-Shulman theory (L-S, Green-Lindsay theory (G-L, and the linearized (G-N theory of type II. Comparison was made with the results obtained in the presence and absence of gravity, rotation, and parameters for fibre-reinforced of the material media. The results obtained are displayed by graphs to clear the phenomena physical meaning. The results indicate that the effect of gravity, rotation, relaxation times, and parameters of fibre-reinforced of the material medium is very pronounced.
Spectral decomposition of internal gravity wave sea surface height in global models
Savage, Anna C.; Arbic, Brian K.; Alford, Matthew H.; Ansong, Joseph K.; Farrar, J. Thomas; Menemenlis, Dimitris; O'Rourke, Amanda K.; Richman, James G.; Shriver, Jay F.; Voet, Gunnar; Wallcraft, Alan J.; Zamudio, Luis
2017-10-01
Two global ocean models ranging in horizontal resolution from 1/12° to 1/48° are used to study the space and time scales of sea surface height (SSH) signals associated with internal gravity waves (IGWs). Frequency-horizontal wavenumber SSH spectral densities are computed over seven regions of the world ocean from two simulations of the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and three simulations of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm). High wavenumber, high-frequency SSH variance follows the predicted IGW linear dispersion curves. The realism of high-frequency motions (>0.87 cpd) in the models is tested through comparison of the frequency spectral density of dynamic height variance computed from the highest-resolution runs of each model (1/25° HYCOM and 1/48° MITgcm) with dynamic height variance frequency spectral density computed from nine in situ profiling instruments. These high-frequency motions are of particular interest because of their contributions to the small-scale SSH variability that will be observed on a global scale in the upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite altimetry mission. The variance at supertidal frequencies can be comparable to the tidal and low-frequency variance for high wavenumbers (length scales smaller than ˜50 km), especially in the higher-resolution simulations. In the highest-resolution simulations, the high-frequency variance can be greater than the low-frequency variance at these scales.
Sullivan, Peter P.; McWilliams, James C.; Melville, W. Kendall
The wind-driven stably stratified mid-latitude oceanic surface turbulent boundary layer is computationally simulated in the presence of a specified surface gravity-wave field. The gravity waves have broad wavenumber and frequency spectra typical of measured conditions in near-equilibrium with the mean wind speed. The simulation model is based on (i) an asymptotic theory for the conservative dynamical effects of waves on the wave-averaged boundary-layer currents and (ii) a boundary-layer forcing by a stochastic representation of the impulses and energy fluxes in a field of breaking waves. The wave influences are shown to be profound on both the mean current profile and turbulent statistics compared to a simulation without these wave influences and forced by an equivalent mean surface stress. As expected from previous studies with partial combinations of these wave influences, Langmuir circulations due to the wave-averaged vortex force make vertical eddy fluxes of momentum and material concentration much more efficient and non-local (i.e. with negative eddy viscosity near the surface), and they combine with the breakers to increase the turbulent energy and dissipation rate. They also combine in an unexpected positive feedback in which breaker-generated vorticity seeds the creation of a new Langmuir circulation and instigates a deep strong intermittent downwelling jet that penetrates through the boundary layer and increases the material entrainment rate at the base of the layer. These wave effects on the boundary layer are greater for smaller wave ages and higher mean wind speeds.
Acoustic-gravity waves generated by atmospheric and near-surface sources
Kunitsyn, Viacheslav E.; Kholodov, Alexander S.; Krysanov, Boris Yu.; Andreeva, Elena S.; Nesterov, Ivan A.; Vorontsov, Artem M.
2013-04-01
Numerical simulation of the acoustic-gravity waves (AGW) generated by long-period oscillations of the Earth's (oceanic) surface, earthquakes, explosions, thermal heating, seiches, and tsunami is carried out. Wavelike disturbances are quite frequent phenomena in the atmosphere and ionosphere. These events can be caused by the impacts from space and atmosphere, by oscillations of the Earth'as surface and other near-surface events. These wavelike phenomena in the atmosphere and ionosphere appear as the alternating areas of enhanced and depleted density (in the atmosphere) or electron concentration (in the ionosphere). In the paper, AGW with typical frequencies of a few hertz - millihertz are analyzed. AGW are often observed after the atmospheric perturbations, during the earthquakes, and some time (a few days to hours) in advance of the earthquakes. Numerical simulation of the generation of AGW by long-period oscillations of the Earth's and oceanic surface, earthquakes, explosions, thermal heating, seiches, and tsunami is carried out. The AGW generated by the near-surface phenomena within a few hertz-millihertz frequency range build up at the mid-atmospheric and ionospheric altitudes, where they assume their typical spatial scales of the order of a few hundred kilometers. Oscillations of the ionospheric plasma within a few hertz-millihertz frequency range generate electromagnetic waves with corresponding frequencies as well as travelling ionospheric irregularities (TIDs). Such structures can be successfully monitored using satellite radio tomography (RT) techniques. For the purposes of RT diagnostics, 150/400 MHz transmissions from low-orbiting navigational satellites flying in polar orbits at the altitudes of about 1000 km as well as 1.2-1.5 GHz signals form high-orbiting (orbital altitudes about 20000 km) navigation systems like GPS/GLONASS are used. The results of experimental studies on generation of wavelike disturbances by particle precipitation are presented
Guest, Tristan B.; Hay, Alex E.
2017-01-01
The vertical structure of surface gravity wave-induced pore pressure is investigated within the intertidal zone of a natural, steeply sloping, megatidal, mixed sand-gravel-cobble beach. Results from a coherent vertical array of buried pore pressure sensors are presented in terms of signal phase lag and attenuation as functions of oscillatory forcing frequency and burial depth. Comparison of the observations with the predictions of a theoretical poro-elastic bed response model indicates that the large observed phase lags and attenuation are attributable to interstitial trapped air. In addition to the dependence on entrapped air volume, the pore pressure phase and attenuation are shown to be sensitive to the hydraulic conductivity of the sediment, to the changing mean water depth during the tidal cycle, and to the redistribution/rearrangement of beach face material by energetic wave action during storm events. The latter result indicates that the effects on pore pressure of sediment column disturbance during instrument burial can persist for days to weeks, depending upon wave forcing conditions. Taken together, these results raise serious questions as to the practicality of using pore pressure measurements to estimate the kinematic properties of surface gravity waves on steep, mixed sand-gravel beaches.
Hanes, D.M.; Erikson, L.H.
2013-01-01
Ocean surface gravity waves propagating over shallow bathymetry undergo spatial modification of propagation direction and energy density, commonly due to refraction and shoaling. If the bathymetric variations are significant the waves can undergo changes in their direction of propagation (relative to deepwater) greater than 90° over relatively short spatial scales. We refer to this phenomenon as ultra-refraction. Ultra-refracted swell waves can have a powerful influence on coastal areas that otherwise appear to be sheltered from ocean waves. Through a numerical modeling investigation it is shown that San Francisco Bay, one of the earth's largest and most protected natural harbors, is vulnerable to ultra-refracted ocean waves, particularly southwest incident swell. The flux of wave energy into San Francisco Bay results from wave transformation due to the bathymetry and orientation of the large ebb tidal delta, and deep, narrow channel through the Golden Gate. For example, ultra-refracted swell waves play a critical role in the intermittent closure of the entrance to Crissy Field Marsh, a small restored tidal wetland located on the sheltered north-facing coast approximately 1.5 km east of the Golden Gate Bridge.
Trinh, Philippe H.
2016-07-01
The standard analytical approach for studying steady gravity free-surface waves generated by a moving body often relies upon a linearization of the physical geometry, where the body is considered asymptotically small in one or several of its dimensions. In this paper, a methodology that avoids any such geometrical simplification is presented for the case of steady-state flows at low speeds. The approach is made possible through a reduction of the water-wave equations to a complex-valued integral equation that can be studied using the method of steepest descents. The main result is a theory that establishes a correspondence between different bluff-bodied free-surface flow configurations, with the topology of the Riemann surface formed by the steepest descent paths. Then, when a geometrical feature of the body is modified, a corresponding change to the Riemann surface is observed, and the resultant effects to the water waves can be derived. This visual procedure is demonstrated for the case of two-dimensional free-surface flow past a surface-piercing ship and over an angled step in a channel.
Near-surface current meter array measurements of internal gravity waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jones, H.B.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
1994-11-15
We have developed various processing algorithms used to estimate the wave forms produced by hydrodynamic Internal Waves. Furthermore, the estimated Internal Waves are used to calculate the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) which relates the current and strain rate subsurface fields to surface scattering phenomenon imaged by radar. Following a brief discussion of LLNL`s measurement platform (a 10 sensor current meter array) we described the generation of representative current and strain rate space-time images from measured or simulated data. Then, we present how our simulation capability highlighted limitations in estimating strain rate. These limitations spurred the application of beamforming techniques to enhance our estimates, albeit at the expense of collapsing our space-time images to 1-D estimates. Finally, we discuss progress with regard to processing the current meter array data captured during the recent Loch Linnhe field trials.
2011-09-01
and large ( sand waves) transverse bedforms [21]. Note that in the literature the term ” sand dunes ” can refer to both sand waves and megaripples...Bottom ripples have wave- lengths of centimeters, whereas the length scales of megaripples and sand waves are tens and even hundreds of meters. The last...number. Full field numerical modeling of low frequency sound propaga- tion through large sand waves located on a sloped bottom was performed using the
Simulation of Gravity Wave Propagation in Free Surface Flows by an Incompressible SPH Algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amanifard, N.; Mahnama, S. M.; Neshaei, S. A. L.; Mehrdad, M. A.; Farahani, M. H.
2012-01-01
This paper presents an incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics model to simulate wave propagation in a free surface flow. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved in a Lagrangian framework using a three-step fractional method. In the first step, a temporary velocity field is provided according to the relevant body forces. This velocity field is renewed in the second step to include the viscosity effects. A Poisson equation is employed in the third step as an alternative for the equation of state in order to evaluate pressure. This Poisson equation considers a trade-off between density and pressure which is utilized in the third step to impose the incompressibility effect. The computations are compared with the experimental as well as numerical data and a good agreement is observed. In order to validate proposed algorithm, a dam-break problem is solved as a benchmark solution and the computational results are compared with the previous numerical ones.
Laser Source for Atomic Gravity Wave Detector
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atom Interferometry (AI) Technology for Gravity Wave Measurements demonstrates new matter wave Interferometric sensor technology for precise detection and...
2008-05-30
is a dynamical component of sea surface elevation and h is a local resting depth. The primary-wave-averaged effects, which we call WEC (wave effects on...empirical parameters related to wave breaking, and Hrm, is R.M.S. wave height. A comparative simulation with DUCK 94. The barotropic ROMS with WEC and the...driven by obliquely incident waves to beaches. The barotropic ROMS with WEC and CEW is used to carried out an experiment for reproducing shear waves
Gravity waves from relativistic binaries
Levin, Janna; O'Reilly, Rachel; Copeland, E. J.
1999-01-01
The stability of binary orbits can significantly shape the gravity wave signal which future Earth-based interferometers hope to detect. The inner most stable circular orbit has been of interest as it marks the transition from the late inspiral to final plunge. We consider purely relativistic orbits beyond the circular assumption. Homoclinic orbits are of particular importance to the question of stability as they lie on the boundary between dynamical stability and instability. We identify thes...
Gravity induced wave function collapse
Gasbarri, G.; Toroš, M.; Donadi, S.; Bassi, A.
2017-11-01
Starting from an idea of S. L. Adler [in Quantum Nonlocality and Reality: 50 Years of Bell's Theorem, edited by M. Bell and S. Gao (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England 2016)], we develop a novel model of gravity induced spontaneous wave function collapse. The collapse is driven by complex stochastic fluctuations of the spacetime metric. After deriving the fundamental equations, we prove the collapse and amplification mechanism, the two most important features of a consistent collapse model. Under reasonable simplifying assumptions, we constrain the strength ξ of the complex metric fluctuations with available experimental data. We show that ξ ≥10-26 in order for the model to guarantee classicality of macro-objects, and at the same time ξ ≤10-20 in order not to contradict experimental evidence. As a comparison, in the recent discovery of gravitational waves in the frequency range 35 to 250 Hz, the (real) metric fluctuations reach a peak of ξ ˜10-21.
The sources of atmospheric gravity waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagpal, O.P.
1979-01-01
The gravity wave theory has been very successful in the interpretation of various upper atmospheric phenomena. This article offers a review of the present state of knowledge about the various sources of atmospheric gravity waves, particularly those which give rise to different types of travelling ionospheric disturbance. Some specific case studies are discussed. (author)
Luznik, L.; Lust, E.; Flack, K. A.
2014-12-01
There are few studies describing the interaction between marine current turbines and an overlying surface gravity wave field. In this work we present an experimental study on the effects of surface gravity waves of different wavelengths on the wave phase averaged performance characteristics of a marine current turbine model. Measurements are performed with a 1/25 scale (diameter D=0.8m) two bladed horizontal axis turbine towed in the large (116m long) towing tank at the U.S. Naval Academy equipped with a dual-flap, servo-controlled wave maker. Three regular waves with wavelengths of 15.8, 8.8 and 3.9m with wave heights adjusted such that all waveforms have the same energy input per unit width are produced by the wave maker and model turbine is towed into the waves at constant carriage speed of 1.68 m/s. This representing the case of waves travelling in the same direction as the mean current. Thrust and torque developed by the model turbine are measured using a dynamometer mounted in line with the turbine shaft. Shaft rotation speed and blade position are measured using in in-house designed shaft position indexing system. The tip speed ratio (TSR) is adjusted using a hysteresis brake which is attached to the output shaft. Free surface elevation and wave parameters are measured with two optical wave height sensors, one located in the turbine rotor plane and other one diameter upstream of the rotor. All instruments are synchronized in time and data is sampled at a rate of 700 Hz. All measured quantities are conditionally sampled as a function of the measured surface elevation and transformed to wave phase space using the Hilbert Transform. Phenomena observed in earlier experiments with the same turbine such as phase lag in the torque signal and an increase in thrust due to Stokes drift are examined and presented with the present data as well as spectral analysis of the torque and thrust data.
Nonlinear gravity-capillary water waves
Jiang, Lei
1997-11-01
Two-dimensional gravity-capillary water waves are analyzed using a fully-nonlinear Cauchy-integral method with spectral accuracy. Standing waves are generated in experiments by vertical oscillation and measured by a non-intrusive optical system along with a wave probe. Nonlinear resonance of standing waves with non-wetting contact line effects are discussed in detail. Amplitude- dependent wave frequency and damping in a glass rectangular tank suggest a new contact-line model. A new type of sideband resonance due to modulated forcing is discovered and explained by weakly-nonlinear analysis. This analytical solution is verified by our numerical simulations and physical experiments. New standing waveforms with dimpled or sharp crests are observed in experiments and computations. These new waveforms have strong symmetry breaking in time as a result of nonlinear harmonic interaction. With increasing wave steepness, steep standing waves experience period- tripling with three distinct forms: sharp crest, dimpled or flat crest, and round crest. Significant breaking occurs in the sharp-crest mode and the dimpled-crest mode. Using a complex-demodulation technique, I find that these breaking waves are related to the same 1:2 internal resonance (harmonic interaction) that causes the new steep waveforms. Novel approaches are used to estimate the (breaking and non-breaking) wave dissipation in steep and breaking standing waves. The breaking events (spray, air entrainment, and plunging) approximately double the wave dissipation. Weak capillarity significantly affects the limiting wave height and the form of standing waves, as demonstrated by both computations and small-scale Faraday-wave experiments. Capillary ripple generation on traveling waves is shown to be significant even at moderate wave steepness. The ubiquitous horizontal asymmetry of traveling waves is shown to be critical to capillary ripple generation. Two new asymmetric modes are identified and are shown to have an
An introduction to atmospheric gravity waves
Nappo, Carmen J
2012-01-01
Gravity waves exist in all types of geophysical fluids, such as lakes, oceans, and atmospheres. They play an important role in redistributing energy at disturbances, such as mountains or seamounts and they are routinely studied in meteorology and oceanography, particularly simulation models, atmospheric weather models, turbulence, air pollution, and climate research. An Introduction to Atmospheric Gravity Waves provides readers with a working background of the fundamental physics and mathematics of gravity waves, and introduces a wide variety of applications and numerous recent advances. Nappo provides a concise volume on gravity waves with a lucid discussion of current observational techniques and instrumentation.An accompanying website contains real data, computer codes for data analysis, and linear gravity wave models to further enhance the reader's understanding of the book's material. Companion web site features animations and streaming video Foreword by George Chimonas, a renowned expert on the interac...
Techniques for studying gravity waves and turbulence
Geller, M. A.
1983-01-01
Gravity waves and their associated breaking into turbulence are very important in producing the overall picture of middle atmosphere global dynamics and associated transport. It is shown in this research that MST radars represent a most powerful technique for obtaining the needed parameters for gravity-wave-induced drag and diffusion effects as well as measuring wave accelerations and diffusion directly. A mathematical solution to this problem is that of radiative equilibrium with a balanced thermal wind.
On resonant coupling of acoustic waves and gravity waves
Millet, Christophe
2017-11-01
Acoustic propagation in the atmosphere is often modeled using modes that are confined within waveguides causing the sound to propagate through multiple paths to the receiver. On the other hand, direct observations in the lower stratosphere show that the gravity wave field is intermittent, and is often dominated by rather well defined large-amplitude wave packets. In the present work, we use normal modes to describe both the gravity wave field and the acoustic field. The gravity wave spectrum is obtained by launching few monochromatic waves whose properties are chosen stochastically to mimic the intermittency. Owing to the disparity of the gravity and acoustic length scales, the interactions between the gravity wave field and each of the acoustic modes can be described using a multiple-scale analysis. The appropriate amplitude evolution equation for the acoustic field involves certain random terms that can be directly related to the gravity wave sources. We will show that the cumulative effect of gravity wave breakings makes the sensitivity of ground-based acoustic signals large, in that small changes in the gravity wave parameterization can create or destroy specific acoustic features.
Dense Gravity Currents with Breaking Internal Waves
Tanimoto, Yukinobu; Hogg, Charlie; Ouellette, Nicholas; Koseff, Jeffrey
2017-11-01
Shoaling and breaking internal waves along a pycnocline may lead to mixing and dilution of dense gravity currents, such as cold river inflows into lakes or brine effluent from desalination plants in near-coastal environments. In order to explore the interaction between gravity currents and breaking interfacial waves a series of laboratory experiments was performed in which a sequence of internal waves impinge upon a shelf-slope gravity current. The waves are generated in a two-layer thin-interface ambient water column under a variety of conditions characterizing both the waves and the gravity currents. The mixing of the gravity current is measured through both intrusive (CTD probe) and nonintrusive (Planar-laser inducted fluorescence) techniques. We will present results over a full range of Froude number (characterizing the waves) and Richardson number (characterizing the gravity current) conditions, and will discuss the mechanisms by which the gravity current is mixed into the ambient environment including the role of turbulence in the process. National Science Foundation.
Gravity Wave Modeling and Airglow Applications
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Fritts, David
1999-01-01
This AASERT supplemental grant supported numerical, theoretical, and observational studies of gravity wave and shear instability processes in the atmosphere and their impact on airglow layers near the mesopause...
Wang, K.; Gu, N.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, G.
2017-12-01
The Tanlu fault is a major fault located in the eastern China, which stretches 2400 km long from Tancheng in the north to Lujiang in the south. It is generally believed that the Tanlu fault zone was formed in Proterozoic era and underwent a series of complicated processes since then. To understand the upper crustal structure around the southern segment of the Tanlu fault zone, in 2017 we deployed 53 short period seismic stations around the fault zone to the southeast of Hefei, capital city of Anhui province. The temporary array continuously recorded the data for about one month from 17 March to 26 April 2017. The seismic array spans an area of about 30km x 30Km with an average station spacing of about 5-6km. The vertical component data were used for extracting Rayleigh wave phase and group velocity dispersion data for the period of 0.2 to 5 seconds. To improve imaging the upper crustal structure of the fault zone, we jointly inverted the surface wave dispersion data and the gravity data because they have complementary strengths. To combine surface wave dispersion data and gravity observations into a single inversion framework, we used an empirical relationship between seismic velocity and density of Maceira and Ammon (2009). By finding the optimal relative weighting between two data types, we are able to find a shear wave velocity (Vs) model that fits both data types. The joint inversion can resolve the upper crustal fault zone structure down to about 7 km in depth. The Vs model shows that in this region the Tanlu fault is associated with high velocity anomalies, corresponding well to the Feidong complex seen on the surface. This indicates that the Tanlu fault zone may provide a channel for the intrusion of hot materials.
Tidal and gravity waves study from the airglow measurements at ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The other waves may be the upward propagating gravity waves or waves resulting from the interaction of inter-mode tidal oscillations, interaction of tidal waves with planetary waves and gravity waves. Some times, the second harmonic wave has higher vertical velocity than the corresponding fundamental wave. Application ...
Troitskaya, Yuliya; Sergeev, Daniil; Vdovin, Maxim; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kazakov, Vassily
2015-04-01
The most important characteristics that determine the interaction between atmosphere and ocean are fluxes of momentum, heat and moisture. For their parameterization the dimensionless exchange coefficients (the surface drag coefficient CD and the heat transfer coefficient or the Stanton number CT) are used. Numerous field and laboratory experiments show that CD increases with increasing wind speed at moderate and strong wind, and as it was shows recently CD decreases at hurricane wind speed. Waves are known to increase the sea surface resistance due to enhanced form drag, the sea spray is considered as a possible mechanism of the 'drag reduction' at hurricane conditions. The dependence of heat transfer coefficient CD on the wind speed is not so certain and the role of the mechanism associated with the wave disturbances in the mass transfer is not completely understood. Observations and laboratory data show that this dependence is weaker than for the CD, and there are differences in the character of the dependence in different data sets. The purpose of this paper is investigation of the effect of surface waves on the turbulent exchange of momentum and heat within the laboratory experiment, when wind and wave parameters are maintained and controlled. The effect of spray on turbulent exchange at strong winds is also estimated. A series of experiments to study the processes of turbulent exchange of momentum and heat in a stably stratified temperature turbulent boundary layer air flow over waved water surface were carried out at the Wind - wave stratified flume of IAP RAS, the peculiarity of this experiment was the option to change the surface wave parameters regardless of the speed of the wind flow in the channel. For this purpose a polyethylene net with the variable depth (0.25 mm thick and a cell of 1.6 mm × 1.6mm) has been stretched along the channel. The waves were absent when the net was located at the level of the undisturbed water surface, and had maximum
Active Absorption of Irregular Gravity Waves in BEM-Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter
1992-01-01
The boundary element method is applied to the computation of irregular gravity waves. The boundary conditions at the open boundaries are obtained by a digital filtering technique, where the surface elevations in front of the open boundary are filtered numerically yielding the velocity to be presc......The boundary element method is applied to the computation of irregular gravity waves. The boundary conditions at the open boundaries are obtained by a digital filtering technique, where the surface elevations in front of the open boundary are filtered numerically yielding the velocity...
Eckermann, S. D.; Broutman, D.; Ma, J.; Doyle, J. D.; Pautet, P. D.; Taylor, M. J.; Bossert, K.; Williams, B. P.; Fritts, D. C.; Smith, R. B.; Kuhl, D.; Hoppel, K.; McCormack, J. P.; Ruston, B. C.; Baker, N. L.; Viner, K.; Whitcomb, T.; Hogan, T. F.; Peng, M.
2016-12-01
The Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE) was an international aircraft-based field program to observe and study the end-to-end dynamics of atmospheric gravity waves from 0-100 km altitude and the effects on atmospheric circulations. On 14 July 2014, aircraft remote-sensing instruments detected large-amplitude gravity-wave oscillations within mesospheric airglow and sodium layers downstream of the Auckland Islands, located 1000 km south of Christchurch, New Zealand. A high-altitude reanalysis and a three-dimensional Fourier gravity wave model are used to investigate the dynamics of this event from the surface to the mesosphere. At 0700 UTC when first observations were made, surface flow across the islands' terrain generated linear three-dimensional wavefields that propagated rapidly to ˜78 km altitude, where intense breaking occurred in a narrow layer beneath a zero-wind region at ˜83 km altitude. In the following hours, the altitude of weak winds descended under the influence of a large-amplitude migrating semidiurnal tide, leading to intense breaking of these wavefields in subsequent observations starting at 1000 UTC. The linear Fourier model constrained by upstream reanalysis reproduces the salient aspects of observed wavefields, including horizontal wavelengths, phase orientations, temperature and vertical displacement amplitudes, heights and locations of incipient wave breaking, and momentum fluxes. Wave breaking has huge effects on local circulations, with inferred layer-averaged westward mean-flow accelerations of ˜350 m s-1 hour-1 and dynamical heating rates of ˜8 K hour-1, supporting recent speculation of important impacts of orographic gravity waves from subantarctic islands on the mean circulation and climate of the middle atmosphere during austral winter. We also study deep orographic gravity waves from islands during DEEPWAVE more widely using observations from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and high-resolution high
The physics of orographic gravity wave drag
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel A C Teixeira
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The drag and momentum fluxes produced by gravity waves generated in flow over orography are reviewed, focusing on adiabatic conditions without phase transitions or radiation effects, and steady mean incoming flow. The orographic gravity wave drag is first introduced in its simplest possible form, for inviscid, linearized, non-rotating flow with the Boussinesq and hydrostatic approximations, and constant wind and static stability. Subsequently, the contributions made by previous authors (primarily using theory and numerical simulations to elucidate how the drag is affected by additional physical processes are surveyed. These include the effect of orography anisotropy, vertical wind shear, total and partial critical levels, vertical wave reflection and resonance, non-hydrostatic effects and trapped lee waves, rotation and nonlinearity. Frictional and boundary layer effects are also briefly mentioned. A better understanding of all of these aspects is important for guiding the improvement of drag parametrization schemes.
Laser Source for Atomic Gravity Wave Detector Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atom Interferometry (AI) Technology for Gravity Wave Measurements demonstrates new matter wave Interferometric sensor technology for precise detection and...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
McWilliams, James C; Uchiyama, Yusuke
2008-01-01
... (Uchiyama and McWilliams, 2008). An investigation of shear instability due to breaking-wave-driven barotropic littoral currents on a barred beach is being carried out by extending the asymptotic theory appropriate for a strong current regime near surf zones with a parameterized, non-conservative wave breaking (Uchiyama et al., 2008).
Chen, Pengzhen; Wang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Li; Chong, Jinsong
2016-06-01
According to Bragg theory, capillary waves are the predominant scatterers of high-frequency band (such as Ka-band) microwave radiation from the surface of the ocean. Therefore, understanding the modulation mechanism of capillary waves is an important foundation for interpreting high-frequency microwave remote sensing images of the surface of the sea. In our experiments, we discovered that modulations of capillary waves are significantly larger than the values predicted by the classical theory. Further, analysis shows that the difference in restoring force results in an inflection point while the phase velocity changes from gravity waves region to capillary waves region, and this results in the capillary waves being able to resonate with gravity waves when the phase velocity of the gravity waves is equal to the group velocity of the capillary waves. Consequently, we propose a coupling modulation model in which the current modulates the capillary wave indirectly by modulating the resonant gravity waves, and the modulation of the former is approximated by that of the latter. This model very effectively explains the results discovered in our experiments. Further, based on Bragg scattering theory and this coupling modulation model, we simulate the modulation of normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of typical internal waves and show that the high-frequency bands are superior to the low-frequency bands because of their greater modulation of NRCS and better radiometric resolution. This result provides new support for choice of radar band for observation of wave-current modulation oceanic phenomena such as internal waves, fronts, and shears.
Gravity's kiss the detection of gravitational waves
Collins, Harry
2017-01-01
Scientists have been trying to confirm the existence of gravitational waves for fifty years. Then, in September 2015, came a "very interesting event" (as the cautious subject line in a physicist's email read) that proved to be the first detection of gravitational waves. In Gravity's Kiss, Harry Collins -- who has been watching the science of gravitational wave detection for forty-three of those fifty years and has written three previous books about it -- offers a final, fascinating account, written in real time, of the unfolding of one of the most remarkable scientific discoveries ever made. Predicted by Einstein in his theory of general relativity, gravitational waves carry energy from the collision or explosion of stars. Dying binary stars, for example, rotate faster and faster around each other until they merge, emitting a burst of gravitational waves. It is only with the development of extraordinarily sensitive, highly sophisticated detectors that physicists can now confirm Einstein's prediction. This is...
Toward An Internal Gravity Wave Spectrum In Global Ocean Models
2015-05-14
Toward an internal gravity wave spectrum in global ocean models Malte Müller1,2, Brian K. Arbic3, James G. Richman4, Jay F. Shriver4, Eric L. Kunze5...fields and tides are beginning to display realistic internal gravity wave spectra, especially as model resolution increases. This paper examines...able to simulate the internal gravity wave spectrum and the extent to which nonlinear internal wave-wave interactions contribute to the simulated
Dynamics of flexural gravity waves: from sea ice to Hawking radiation and analogue gravity
Das, S.; Sahoo, T.; Meylan, M. H.
2018-01-01
The propagation of flexural gravity waves, routinely used to model wave interaction with sea ice, is studied, including the effect of compression and current. A number of significant and surprising properties are shown to exist. The occurrence of blocking above a critical value of compression is illustrated. This is analogous to propagation of surface gravity waves in the presence of opposing current and light wave propagation in the curved space-time near a black hole, therefore providing a novel system for studying analogue gravity. Between the blocking and buckling limit of the compressive force, the dispersion relation possesses three positive real roots, contrary to an earlier observation of having a single positive real root. Negative energy waves, in which the phase and group velocity point in opposite directions, are also shown to exist. In the presence of an opposing current and certain critical ranges of compressive force, the second blocking point shifts from the positive to the negative branch of the dispersion relation. Such a shift is known as the Hawking effect from the analogous behaviour in the theory of relativity which leads to Hawking radiation. The theory we develop is illustrated with simulations of linear waves in the time domain.
Gravity the quest for gravitational wave
Binétruy, Pierre
2018-01-01
What force do the Big Bang, the expansion of the Universe, dark matter and dark energy, black holes, and gravitational waves all have in common? This book uncovers gravity as a key to understanding these fascinating phenomena that have so captivated public interest in recent years. Readers will discover the latest findings on how this familiar force in our everyday lives powers the most colossal changes in the Universe. Written by the widely recognized French public scientist and leading astrophysicist Pierre Binetruy, the book also explains the recent experimental confirmation of the existence of gravitational waves.
Gravitational Waves in Viable Modified Gravity Theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geng, C Q
2012-01-01
We review our recent work [1] on gravitational waves in viable f(R) models. We concentrate on the exponential gravity and Starobinsky models. We show that in both cases, the mass of the scalar mode is order of 10 −33 eV when it propagates in vacuum. In the presence of matter density, such as galaxy, the scalar mode can be heavy. In particular, it becomes almost infinity so that the scalar mode of gravitational wave for the exponential model disappears like the ACDM, whereas it can be as low as 10 −24 eV in the Starobinsky model, corresponding to the lowest frequency of 10 −9 Hz, which may be detected by the current and future gravitational wave probes in space.
Gravity Wave Variances and Propagation Derived from AIRS Radiances
2011-04-15
even if the waves are initially conservative there. The zonal mean values of N2 at January, 2005 are shown in Fig. 1. The input 2-D wave amplitude A is...Sigmond, M., Vin - cent, R., and Watanabe, S.: Recent developments in gravity-wave effects in climate models and the global distribution of gravity
Gravity-capillary free-surface flows
Vanden-Broeck, Jean-Marc
2010-01-01
Free surface problems occur in many aspects of science and of everyday life such as the waves on a beach, bubbles rising in a glass of champagne, melting ice, pouring flows from a container and sails billowing in the wind. Consequently, the effect of surface tension on gravity-capillary flows continues to be a fertile field of research in applied mathematics and engineering. Concentrating on applications arising from fluid dynamics, Vanden-Broeck draws upon his years of experience in the field to address the many challenges involved in attempting to describe such flows mathematically. Whilst careful numerical techniques are implemented to solve the basic equations, an emphasis is placed upon the reader developing a deep understanding of the structure of the resulting solutions. The author also reviews relevant concepts in fluid mechanics to help readers from other scientific fields who are interested in free boundary problems.
A case study of gravity waves in noctilucent clouds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Dalin
2004-06-01
Full Text Available We present a case study of a noctilucent cloud (NLC display appearing on 10-11 August 2000 over Northern Sweden. Clear wave structures were visible in the clouds and time-lapse photography was used to derive the parameters characterising the gravity waves which could account for the observed NLC modulation. Using two nearby atmospheric radars, the Esrange MST Radar data and Andoya MF radar, we have identified gravity waves propagating upward from the upper stratosphere to NLC altitudes. The wave parameters derived from the radar measurements support the suggestion that gravity waves are responsible for the observed complex wave dynamics in the NLC.
Shear waves in inhomogeneous, compressible fluids in a gravity field.
Godin, Oleg A
2014-03-01
While elastic solids support compressional and shear waves, waves in ideal compressible fluids are usually thought of as compressional waves. Here, a class of acoustic-gravity waves is studied in which the dilatation is identically zero, and the pressure and density remain constant in each fluid particle. These shear waves are described by an exact analytic solution of linearized hydrodynamics equations in inhomogeneous, quiescent, inviscid, compressible fluids with piecewise continuous parameters in a uniform gravity field. It is demonstrated that the shear acoustic-gravity waves also can be supported by moving fluids as well as quiescent, viscous fluids with and without thermal conductivity. Excitation of a shear-wave normal mode by a point source and the normal mode distortion in realistic environmental models are considered. The shear acoustic-gravity waves are likely to play a significant role in coupling wave processes in the ocean and atmosphere.
Gravity Waves Ripple over Marine Stratocumulus Clouds
2004-01-01
In this natural-color image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), a fingerprint-like gravity wave feature occurs over a deck of marine stratocumulus clouds. Similar to the ripples that occur when a pebble is thrown into a still pond, such 'gravity waves' sometimes appear when the relatively stable and stratified air masses associated with stratocumulus cloud layers are disturbed by a vertical trigger from the underlying terrain, or by a thunderstorm updraft or some other vertical wind shear. The stratocumulus cellular clouds that underlie the wave feature are associated with sinking air that is strongly cooled at the level of the cloud-tops -- such clouds are common over mid-latitude oceans when the air is unperturbed by cyclonic or frontal activity. This image is centered over the Indian Ocean (at about 38.9o South, 80.6o East), and was acquired on October 29, 2003.The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82o north and 82o south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbit 20545. The image covers an area of 245 kilometers x 378 kilometers, and uses data from blocks 121 to 122 within World Reference System-2 path 134.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.
New Gravity Wave Treatments for GISS Climate Models
Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Ruedy, Reto; Aleinov, Igor; Nazarenko, Larissa; Tausnev, Nikolai L.; Sun, Shan; Kelley, Maxwell; Cheng, Ye
2011-01-01
Previous versions of GISS climate models have either used formulations of Rayleigh drag to represent unresolved gravity wave interactions with the model-resolved flow or have included a rather complicated treatment of unresolved gravity waves that, while being climate interactive, involved the specification of a relatively large number of parameters that were not well constrained by observations and also was computationally very expensive. Here, the authors introduce a relatively simple and computationally efficient specification of unresolved orographic and nonorographic gravity waves and their interaction with the resolved flow. Comparisons of the GISS model winds and temperatures with no gravity wave parameterization; with only orographic gravity wave parameterization; and with both orographic and nonorographic gravity wave parameterizations are shown to illustrate how the zonal mean winds and temperatures converge toward observations. The authors also show that the specifications of orographic and nonorographic gravity waves must be different in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Then results are presented where the nonorographic gravity wave sources are specified to represent sources from convection in the intertropical convergence zone and spontaneous emission from jet imbalances. Finally, a strategy to include these effects in a climate-dependent manner is suggested.
On the Chemical Mixing Induced by Internal Gravity Waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rogers, T. M. [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); McElwaine, J. N. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)
2017-10-10
Detailed modeling of stellar evolution requires a better understanding of the (magneto)hydrodynamic processes that mix chemical elements and transport angular momentum. Understanding these processes is crucial if we are to accurately interpret observations of chemical abundance anomalies, surface rotation measurements, and asteroseismic data. Here, we use two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the generation and propagation of internal gravity waves in an intermediate-mass star to measure the chemical mixing induced by these waves. We show that such mixing can generally be treated as a diffusive process. We then show that the local diffusion coefficient does not depend on the local fluid velocity, but rather on the wave amplitude. We then use these findings to provide a simple parameterization for this diffusion, which can be incorporated into stellar evolution codes and tested against observations.
Gravity waves from tachyonic preheating after hybrid inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dufaux, Jean-Francois [Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Felder, Gary [Department of Physics, Clark Science Center, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); Kofman, Lev [CITA, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Navros, Olga, E-mail: jeff.dufaux@uam.es, E-mail: gfelder@email.smith.edu, E-mail: kofman@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: navros@email.unc.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, CB3250 Philips Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)
2009-03-15
We study the stochastic background of gravitational waves produced from preheating in hybrid inflation models. We investigate different dynamical regimes of preheating in these models and we compute the resulting gravity wave spectra using analytical estimates and numerical simulations. We discuss the dependence of the gravity wave frequencies and amplitudes on the various potential parameters. We find that large regions of the parameter space leads to gravity waves that may be observable in upcoming interferometric experiments, including Advanced LIGO, but this generally requires very small coupling constants.
Investigating gravity waves evidences in the Venus upper atmosphere
Migliorini, Alessandra; Altieri, Francesca; Shakun, Alexey; Zasova, Ludmila; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Bellucci, Giancarlo; Grassi, Davide
2014-05-01
We present a method to investigate gravity waves properties in the upper mesosphere of Venus, through the O2 nightglow observations acquired with the imaging spectrometer VIRTIS on board Venus Express. Gravity waves are important dynamical features that transport energy and momentum. They are related to the buoyancy force, which lifts air particles. Then, the vertical displacement of air particles produces density changes that cause gravity to act as restoring force. Gravity waves can manifest through fluctuations on temperature and density fields, and hence on airglow intensities. We use the O2 nightglow profiles showing double peaked structures to study the influence of gravity waves in shaping the O2 vertical profiles and infer the waves properties. In analogy to the Earth's and Mars cases, we use a well-known theory to model the O2 nightglow emissions affected by gravity waves propagation. Here we propose a statistical discussion of the gravity waves characteristics, namely vertical wavelength and wave amplitude, with respect to local time and latitude. The method is applied to about 30 profiles showing double peaked structures, and acquired with the VIRTIS/Venus Express spectrometer, during the mission period from 2006-07-05 to 2008-08-15.
The measurement of surface gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crossley, David; Hinderer, Jacques; Riccardi, Umberto
2013-01-01
This review covers basic theory and techniques behind the use of ground-based gravimetry at the Earth's surface. The orientation is toward modern instrumentation, data processing and interpretation for observing surface, land-based, time-variable changes to the geopotential. The instrumentation side is covered in some detail, with specifications and performance of the most widely used models of the three main types: the absolute gravimeters (FG5, A10 from Micro-g LaCoste), superconducting gravimeters (OSG, iGrav from GWR instruments), and the new generation of spring instruments (Micro-g LaCoste gPhone, Scintrex CG5 and Burris ZLS). A wide range of applications is covered, with selected examples from tides and ocean loading, atmospheric effects on gravity, local and global hydrology, seismology and normal modes, long period and tectonics, volcanology, exploration gravimetry, and some examples of gravimetry connected to fundamental physics. We show that there are only a modest number of very large signals, i.e. hundreds of µGal (10 −8 m s −2 ), that are easy to see with all gravimeters (e.g. tides, volcanic eruptions, large earthquakes, seasonal hydrology). The majority of signals of interest are in the range 0.1–5.0 µGal and occur at a wide range of time scales (minutes to years) and spatial extent (a few meters to global). Here the competing effects require a careful combination of different gravimeter types and measurement strategies to efficiently characterize and distinguish the signals. Gravimeters are sophisticated instruments, with substantial up-front costs, and they place demands on the operators to maximize the results. Nevertheless their performance characteristics such as drift and precision have improved dramatically in recent years, and their data recording ability and ruggedness have seen similar advances. Many subtle signals are now routinely connected with known geophysical effects such as coseismic earthquake displacements, post
The measurement of surface gravity
Crossley, David; Hinderer, Jacques; Riccardi, Umberto
2013-04-01
This review covers basic theory and techniques behind the use of ground-based gravimetry at the Earth's surface. The orientation is toward modern instrumentation, data processing and interpretation for observing surface, land-based, time-variable changes to the geopotential. The instrumentation side is covered in some detail, with specifications and performance of the most widely used models of the three main types: the absolute gravimeters (FG5, A10 from Micro-g LaCoste), superconducting gravimeters (OSG, iGrav from GWR instruments), and the new generation of spring instruments (Micro-g LaCoste gPhone, Scintrex CG5 and Burris ZLS). A wide range of applications is covered, with selected examples from tides and ocean loading, atmospheric effects on gravity, local and global hydrology, seismology and normal modes, long period and tectonics, volcanology, exploration gravimetry, and some examples of gravimetry connected to fundamental physics. We show that there are only a modest number of very large signals, i.e. hundreds of µGal (10-8 m s-2), that are easy to see with all gravimeters (e.g. tides, volcanic eruptions, large earthquakes, seasonal hydrology). The majority of signals of interest are in the range 0.1-5.0 µGal and occur at a wide range of time scales (minutes to years) and spatial extent (a few meters to global). Here the competing effects require a careful combination of different gravimeter types and measurement strategies to efficiently characterize and distinguish the signals. Gravimeters are sophisticated instruments, with substantial up-front costs, and they place demands on the operators to maximize the results. Nevertheless their performance characteristics such as drift and precision have improved dramatically in recent years, and their data recording ability and ruggedness have seen similar advances. Many subtle signals are now routinely connected with known geophysical effects such as coseismic earthquake displacements, post-glacial rebound
Borcherdt, R. D.
2007-12-01
General theoretical solutions for Rayleigh- and Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media describe physical characteristics of the surface waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitrary amounts of intrinsic absorption. In contrast to corresponding physical characteristics for Rayleigh waves in elastic media, Rayleigh- Type surface waves in anelastic media demonstrate; 1) tilt of the particle motion orbit that varies with depth, and 2) amplitude and volumetric strain distributions with superimposed sinusoidal variations that decay exponentially with depth. Each characteristic is dependent on the amount of intrinsic absorption and the chosen model of viscoelasticity. Distinguishing characteristics of anelastic Love-Type surface waves include: 1) dependencies of the wave speed and absorption coefficient on the chosen model and amount of intrinsic absorption and frequency, and 2) superimposed sinusoidal amplitude variations with an exponential decay with depth. Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physical characteristics of both types of viscoelastic surface waves appropriate for interpretations pertinent to models of earth materials ranging from low-loss in the crust to moderate- and high-loss in water-saturated soils.
Parsimonious Surface Wave Interferometry
Li, Jing
2017-10-24
To decrease the recording time of a 2D seismic survey from a few days to one hour or less, we present a parsimonious surface-wave interferometry method. Interferometry allows for the creation of a large number of virtual shot gathers from just two reciprocal shot gathers by crosscoherence of trace pairs, where the virtual surface waves can be inverted for the S-wave velocity model by wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD). Synthetic and field data tests suggest that parsimonious wave-equation dispersion inversion (PWD) gives S-velocity tomograms that are comparable to those obtained from a full survey with a shot at each receiver. The limitation of PWD is that the virtual data lose some information so that the resolution of the S-velocity tomogram can be modestly lower than that of the S-velocity tomogram inverted from a conventional survey.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Takayama, Osamu; Crasovan, Lucian Cornel; Johansen, Steffen Kjær
2008-01-01
The interface of two semi-infinite media, where at least one of them is a birefringent crystal, supports a special type of surface wave that was predicted theoretically by D'yakonov in 1988. Since then, the properties of such waves, which exist in transparent media only under very special...... conditions, have been analyzed in different geometries and settings. Nevertheless, they are still awaiting experimental demonstration. The most important advances in this topic are briefly discussed in this review, pointing out aspects that have not been clearly covered by the literature. Finally......, the existence of these surface waves in specific material examples is analyzed, discussing the challenge posed by their experimental observation....
Energy density of relic gravity waves from inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahni, V.
1990-01-01
We evaluate both the spectral energy density and the total energy density for relic gravity waves produced during the transition from an early inflationary phase to a matter-dominated Friedmann-Robertson-Walker-type expansion: a∼t c (c μν =8πG left-angle T μν right-angle. In the case of power-law and quasiexponential inflation we find that the ratio of the energy density of gravity waves to the background matter density increases with time, as gravity waves with longer wavelengths and larger amplitudes enter the horizon at successively later epochs. This could lead to the energy density of gravity waves becoming comparable to the energy density of matter at late times, if inflation commenced at Planckian energies
Gravity waves from quantum stress tensor fluctuations in inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Chun-Hsien; Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Ford, L. H.; Ng, Kin-Wang
2011-01-01
We consider the effects of the quantum stress tensor fluctuations of a conformal field in generating gravity waves in inflationary models. We find a nonscale invariant, non-Gaussian contribution which depends upon the total expansion factor between an initial time and the end of inflation. This spectrum of gravity wave perturbations is an illustration of a negative power spectrum, which is possible in quantum field theory. We discuss possible choices for the initial conditions. If the initial time is taken to be sufficiently early, the fluctuating gravity waves are potentially observable both in the CMB radiation and in gravity wave detectors, and could offer a probe of trans-Planckian physics. The fact that they have not yet been observed might be used to constrain the duration and energy scale of inflation. However, this conclusion is contingent upon including the contribution of modes which were trans-Planckian at the beginning of inflation.
Gravity waves from quantum stress tensor fluctuations in inflation
Wu, Chun-Hsien; Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Ford, L. H.; Ng, Kin-Wang
2011-11-01
We consider the effects of the quantum stress tensor fluctuations of a conformal field in generating gravity waves in inflationary models. We find a nonscale invariant, non-Gaussian contribution which depends upon the total expansion factor between an initial time and the end of inflation. This spectrum of gravity wave perturbations is an illustration of a negative power spectrum, which is possible in quantum field theory. We discuss possible choices for the initial conditions. If the initial time is taken to be sufficiently early, the fluctuating gravity waves are potentially observable both in the CMB radiation and in gravity wave detectors, and could offer a probe of trans-Planckian physics. The fact that they have not yet been observed might be used to constrain the duration and energy scale of inflation. However, this conclusion is contingent upon including the contribution of modes which were trans-Planckian at the beginning of inflation.
Bounding the Speed of Gravity with Gravitational Wave Observations.
Cornish, Neil; Blas, Diego; Nardini, Germano
2017-10-20
The time delay between gravitational wave signals arriving at widely separated detectors can be used to place upper and lower bounds on the speed of gravitational wave propagation. Using a Bayesian approach that combines the first three gravitational wave detections reported by the LIGO Scientific and Virgo Collaborations we constrain the gravitational waves propagation speed c_{gw} to the 90% credible interval 0.55cLIGO detectors will constrain the speed of gravity to within 20% of the speed of light, while just five detections by the LIGO-Virgo-Kagra network will constrain the speed of gravity to within 1% of the speed of light.
Climatology of gravity wave activity during the West African Monsoon
Kafando, P.; Chane-Ming, F.; Petitdidier, M.
2008-12-01
Gravity wave activity is analysed in the lower stratosphere using 6 year radiosonde data (2001-2006) above two meteorological stations in the West African tropical region such as Niamey (13.47° N; 2.16° E) and Ouagadougou (12.35° N; 1.51° W). Monthly total energy density of gravity waves is computed with temperature and horizontal wind perturbations to highlight the West African Monsoon period from June to September. Comparison with monthly total energy density calculated with temperature only supports that observed small-scale temperature and wind perturbations are mostly associated with gravity waves in the lower stratosphere especially for large values during the wet season. Above the two sites, monthly evolution of gravity wave total energy density reveals a maximum intensity of gravity wave activity in July during the West African Monsoon period. Indicators of convective activity such as mean Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rain rates reveal to be adequate monsoon proxies to be compared to gravity wave energy intensity during the West African Monsoon.
Climatology of gravity wave activity during the West African Monsoon
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Kafando
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Gravity wave activity is analysed in the lower stratosphere using 6 year radiosonde data (2001–2006 above two meteorological stations in the West African tropical region such as Niamey (13.47° N; 2.16° E and Ouagadougou (12.35° N; 1.51° W. Monthly total energy density of gravity waves is computed with temperature and horizontal wind perturbations to highlight the West African Monsoon period from June to September. Comparison with monthly total energy density calculated with temperature only supports that observed small-scale temperature and wind perturbations are mostly associated with gravity waves in the lower stratosphere especially for large values during the wet season. Above the two sites, monthly evolution of gravity wave total energy density reveals a maximum intensity of gravity wave activity in July during the West African Monsoon period. Indicators of convective activity such as mean Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM rain rates reveal to be adequate monsoon proxies to be compared to gravity wave energy intensity during the West African Monsoon.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dühring, Maria Bayard
application is modulation of optical waves in waveguides. This presentation elaborates on how a SAW is generated by interdigital transducers using a 2D model of a piezoelectric, inhomogeneous material implemented in the high-level programming language Comsol Multiphysics. The SAW is send through a model......The work of this project is concerned with the simulation of surface acoustic waves (SAW) and topology optimization of SAW devices. SAWs are elastic vibrations that propagate along a material surface and are extensively used in electromechanical filters and resonators in telecommunication. A new...
No further gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bamba, Kazuharu, E-mail: bamba@kmi.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Capozziello, Salvatore, E-mail: capozziello@na.infn.it [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II” (Italy); INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); De Laurentis, Mariafelicia, E-mail: felicia@na.infn.it [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II” (Italy); INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Nojiri, Shin' ichi, E-mail: nojiri@phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sáez-Gómez, Diego, E-mail: diego.saezgomez@uct.ac.za [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC) and Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Fisika Teorikoaren eta Zientziaren Historia Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 Posta Kutxatila, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)
2013-11-25
We explore the possibility of further gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity, where T is the torsion scalar in teleparallelism. It is explicitly demonstrated that gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity are equivalent to those in General Relativity. This result is achieved by calculating the Minkowskian limit for a class of analytic function of F(T). This consequence is also confirmed by the preservative analysis around the flat background in the weak field limit with the scalar–tensor representation of F(T) gravity.
No further gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bamba, Kazuharu; Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Sáez-Gómez, Diego
2013-01-01
We explore the possibility of further gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity, where T is the torsion scalar in teleparallelism. It is explicitly demonstrated that gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity are equivalent to those in General Relativity. This result is achieved by calculating the Minkowskian limit for a class of analytic function of F(T). This consequence is also confirmed by the preservative analysis around the flat background in the weak field limit with the scalar–tensor representation of F(T) gravity
Electromagnetic internal gravity waves in the Earth's ionospheric E-layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaladze, T.D.; Tsamalashvili, L.V.; Kaladze, D.T.
2011-01-01
In the Earth's ionospheric E-layer existence of the new waves connecting with the electromagnetic nature of internal gravity waves is shown. They represent the mixture of the ordinary internal gravity waves and the new type of dispersive Alfven waves. -- Highlights: ► Existence of electromagnetic internal gravity waves in the ionospheric E-layer is shown. ► Electromagnetic nature of internal gravity waves is described. ► Appearance of the new dispersive Alfven waves is shown.
Surface Wave Focusing and Acoustic Communications in the Surf Zone
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Preisig, James
2004-01-01
The forward scattering of acoustic signals off of shoaling surface gravity waves in the surf zone results in a time-varying channel impulse response that is characterized by intense, rapidly fluctuating arrivals...
Atmospheric gravity waves observed by an international network of micro-barographs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marty, Julien
2010-01-01
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) manages an international network of forty-two operational infra-sound stations recording the pressure fluctuations produced at the ground surface by infrasonic waves. This thesis demonstrates that most of these stations also accurately detect the pressure fluctuations in the entire gravity wave band. This work includes carrying out and analyzing several metrological laboratory experiments and a field campaign (M2008) in Mongolia in 2008. The layout of the experiments as well as the interpretation of their results gave rise to the development of a new linear spectral numerical model able to simulate the generation and propagation of gravity waves. This model was used to quantify the gravity waves produced by the atmospheric cooling that occurs during solar eclipses. The pressure fluctuations expected at ground level were estimated and compared to the data recorded during the 1 August 2008 solar eclipse by the CTBTO and M2008 stations. A detailed data analysis reveals two waves with similar time-frequency characteristics to those simulated for a stratospheric and tropospheric cooling. This constitutes, to our knowledge, a unique result. The validation of worldwide and pluri-annual pressure measurements in the entire gravity wave band allowed the statistical study of gravity wave spectra and atmospheric tides. The work presented throughout this thesis has led to the publication of two articles. A third one is in the drafting process. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitsotakis, Dimitrios, E-mail: dmitsot@gmail.com [Victoria University of Wellington, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Operations Research, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Dutykh, Denys, E-mail: Denys.Dutykh@univ-savoie.fr [LAMA, UMR 5127 CNRS, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, Campus Scientifique, F-73376 Le Bourget-du-Lac Cedex (France); Assylbekuly, Aydar, E-mail: asylbekuly@mail.ru [Khoja Akhmet Yassawi International Kazakh–Turkish University, Faculty of Natural Science, Department of Mathematics, 161200 Turkestan (Kazakhstan); Zhakebayev, Dauren, E-mail: daurjaz@mail.ru [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Department of Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 050000 Almaty (Kazakhstan)
2017-05-25
In this Letter we consider long capillary–gravity waves described by a fully nonlinear weakly dispersive model. First, using the phase space analysis methods we describe all possible types of localized travelling waves. Then, we especially focus on the critical regime, where the surface tension is exactly balanced by the gravity force. We show that our long wave model with a critical Bond number admits stable travelling wave solutions with a singular crest. These solutions are usually referred to in the literature as peakons or peaked solitary waves. They satisfy the usual speed-amplitude relation, which coincides with Scott–Russel's empirical formula for solitary waves, while their decay rate is the same regardless their amplitude. Moreover, they can be of depression or elevation type independent of their speed. The dynamics of these solutions are studied as well. - Highlights: • A model for long capillary–gravity weakly dispersive and fully nonlinear water waves is derived. • Shallow capillary–gravity waves are classified using phase plane analysis. • Peaked travelling waves are found in the critical regime. • The dynamics of peakons in Serre–Green–Naghdi equations is studied numerically.
Conversion from surface wave to surface wave on reflection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Novitsky, Andrey
2010-01-01
can be transmitted without changing its direction (nevertheless the amplitude varies). For other media parameters, only normally incident surface waves can be converted to surface waves. We propose applications of the predicted conversion as a beam splitter and polarization filter for surface waves.......We discuss the reflection and transmission of an incident surface wave to a pure surface wave state at another interface. This is allowed only for special media parameters: at least one of the media must be magnetic. We found such material characteristics that the obliquely incident surface wave...
Asymptotic expansions for solitary gravity-capillary waves in two and three dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ablowitz, M J; Haut, T S
2010-01-01
High-order asymptotic series are obtained for gravity-capillary solitary waves, where the first term in the series is the well-known sech 2 solution of the KdV equation. The asymptotic series is used, with nine terms included, to investigate the effects of surface tension on the height and energy of large amplitude waves, and waves close to the solitary version of Stokes' extreme wave. In particular, for surface tension below a critical value, the solitary wave with the maximum energy is obtained. For large surface tension, the series is also used to study the energy related to the solitary waves of depression. Energy considerations suggest that, for large enough surface tension, there are solitary waves that can get close to the fluid bottom. Comparisons are also made with recent experiments.
Mayr, Hans G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Huang, F. T.
2010-01-01
As Lindzen (1981) had shown, small-scale gravity waves (GW) produce the observed reversals of the zonal-mean circulation and temperature variations in the upper mesosphere. The waves also play a major role in modulating and amplifying the diurnal tides (DT) (e.g., Waltersheid, 1981; Fritts and Vincent, 1987; Fritts, 1995a). We summarize here the modeling studies with the mechanistic numerical spectral model (NSM) with Doppler spread parameterization for GW (Hines, 1997a, b), which describes in the middle atmosphere: (a) migrating and non-migrating DT, (b) planetary waves (PW), and (c) global-scale inertio gravity waves. Numerical experiments are discussed that illuminate the influence of GW filtering and nonlinear interactions between DT, PW, and zonal mean variations. Keywords: Theoretical modeling, Middle atmosphere dynamics, Gravity wave interactions, Migrating and non-migrating tides, Planetary waves, Global-scale inertio gravity waves.
Analysis of gravity-waves produced by intense tropical cyclones
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Chane Ming
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Conventional and wavelet methods are combined to characterize gravity-waves (GWs produced by two intense tropical cyclones (TCs in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS from GPS winsonde data. Analyses reveal large contribution of GWs induced by TCs to wave energy densities in the UT/LS. An increase in total energy density of about 30% of the climatological energy density in austral summer was estimated in the LS above Tromelin during TC Dina. Four distinct periods in GW activity in relation with TC Faxai stages is observed in the UT. Globally, GWs have periods of 6 h–2.5 days, vertical wavelenghts of 1–3 km and horizontal wavelengths <1000 km in the UT during the evolution of TCs. Horizontal wavelengths are longer in the LS and about 2200 km during TCs. Convective activity over the basin and GW energy density were modulated by mixed equatorial waves of 3–4 days, 6–8 days and 10–13 days confirmed by Hövmöller diagram, Fourier and wavelet analyses of OLR data. Moreover, location of GW sources is below the tropopause height when TCs are intense otherwise varies at lower tropospheric heights depending on the strength of convection. Finally, the maximum surface wind speeds of TCs Dina and Faxai can be linearly estimated with total energy densities.
Analysis of gravity-waves produced by intense tropical cyclones
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chane Ming, F. [La Reunion Univ. (France). Lab. de l' Atmosphere et des Cyclones; Chen, Z. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Atmospheric; Roux, F. [UMR CNRS Paul Sabatier Univ., Toulouse (France). Lab. d' Aerologie
2010-07-01
Conventional and wavelet methods are combined to characterize gravity-waves (GWs) produced by two intense tropical cyclones (TCs) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) from GPS winsonde data. Analyses reveal large contribution of GWs induced by TCs to wave energy densities in the UT/LS. An increase in total energy density of about 30% of the climatological energy density in austral summer was estimated in the LS above Tromelin during TC Dina. Four distinct periods in GW activity in relation with TC Faxai stages is observed in the UT. Globally, GWs have periods of 6 h-2.5 days, vertical wavelengths of 1-3 km and horizontal wavelengths <1000 km in the UT during the evolution of TCs. Horizontal wavelengths are longer in the LS and about 2200 km during TCs. Convective activity over the basin and GW energy density were modulated by mixed equatorial waves of 3-4 days, 6-8 days and 10-13 days confirmed by Hoevmoeller diagram, Fourier and wavelet analyses of OLR data. Moreover, location of GW sources is below the tropopause height when TCs are intense otherwise varies at lower tropospheric heights depending on the strength of convection. Finally, the maximum surface wind speeds of TCs Dina and Faxai can be linearly estimated with total energy densities. (orig.)
VHF radar observations of gravity waves at a low latitude
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Dutta
1999-08-01
Full Text Available Wind observations made at Gadanki (13.5°N by using Indian MST Radar for few days in September, October, December 1995 and January, 1996 have been analyzed to study gravity wave activity in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Horizontal wind variances have been computed for gravity waves of period (2-6 h from the power spectral density (PSD spectrum. Exponential curves of the form eZ/H have been fitted by least squares technique to these variance values to obtain height variations of the irregular winds upto the height of about 15 km, where Z is the height in kilometers. The value of H, the scale height, as determined from curve fitting is found to be less than the theoretical value of scale height of neutral atmosphere in this region, implying that the waves are gaining energy during their passage in the troposphere. In other words, it indicates that the sources of gravity waves are present in the troposphere. The energy densities of gravity wave fluctuations have been computed. Polynomial fits to the observed values show that wave energy density increases in the troposphere, its source region, and then decreases in the lower stratosphere.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence; waves and tides
Gravity Wave Detection through All-sky Imaging of Airglow
Nguyen, T. V.; Martinez, A.; Porat, I.; Hampton, D. L.; Bering, E., III; Wood, L.
2017-12-01
Airglow, the faint glow of the atmosphere, is caused by the interaction of air molecules with radiation from the sun. Similarly, the aurora is created by interactions of air molecules with the solar wind. It has been shown that airglow emissions are altered by gravity waves passing through airglow source region (100-110km), making it possible to study gravity waves and their sources through airglow imaging. University of Houston's USIP - Airglow team designed a compact, inexpensive all-sky imager capable of detecting airglow and auroral emissions using a fisheye lens, a simple optical train, a filter wheel with 4 specific filters, and a CMOS camera. This instrument has been used in USIP's scientific campaign in Alaska throughout March 2017. During this period, the imager captured auroral activity in the Fairbanks region. Due to lunar conditions and auroral activity images from the campaign did not yield visible signs of airglow. Currently, the team is trying to detect gravity wave patterns present in the images through numerical analysis. Detected gravity wave patterns will be compared to local weather data, and may be used to make correlations between gravity waves and weather events. Such correlations could provide more data on the relationship between the mesosphere and lower layers of the atmosphere. Practical applications of this research include weather prediction and detection of air turbulence.
Free surface flows under compensated gravity conditions
Dreyer, Miachel E
2007-01-01
This book considers the behavior of fluids in a low-gravity environment with special emphasis on application in PMD (propellant management device) systems . In the compensated gravity environment of a spacecraft, the hydrostatic pressure decreases to very low values depending on the residual acceleration, and surface tension forces become dominant. Consequently, surface tension can be used to transport and position liquids if the residual acceleration and the resulting hydrostatic pressure are small compared to the capillary pressure. One prominent application is the use of PMDs in surface-tension satellite tanks. PMDs must ensure that the tank outlet is covered with liquid whenever outflow is demanded. Furthermore, PMDs are used to ensure expulsion and refilling of tanks for liquids and gases for life support, reactants, and experiment supplies. Since most of the PMD designs are not testable on ground and thus rely on analytical or numerical concepts, this book treats three different flow problems with analy...
Acoustic-Gravity Waves Interacting with a Rectangular Trench
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Usama Kadri
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A mathematical solution of the two-dimensional linear problem of an acoustic-gravity wave interacting with a rectangular trench, in a compressible ocean, is presented. Expressions for the flow field on both sides of the trench are derived. The dynamic bottom pressure produced by the acoustic-gravity waves on both sides of the trench is measurable, though on the transmission side it decreases with the trench depth. A successful recording of the bottom pressures could assist in the early detection of tsunami.
Climatology of gravity wave activity during the West African Monsoon
Kafando, P.; Chane-Ming, Fabrice; Petitdidier, Monique
2008-01-01
Gravity wave activity is analysed in the lower stratosphere using 6 year radiosonde data (2001–2006) above two meteorological stations in the West African tropical region such as Niamey (13.47° N; 2.16° E) and Ouagadougou (12.35° N; 1.51° W). Monthly total energy density of gravity waves is computed with temperature and horizontal wind perturbations to highlight the West African Monsoon period from June to September. Comparison with monthly total energy density...
Kurdyaeva, Yuliya; Kshevetskii, Sergey; Gavrilov, Nikolay
2017-04-01
The processes of heating/cooling gas during phase transitions of water are one of the most important energy sources of acoustic-gravity waves in the atmosphere. Meteorological wave sources are very diverse and have complex, evolving spatial structure. The available experimental data are usually not enough for a detailed description of these wave sources. Therefore, modeling of acoustic-gravity waves from meteorological sources is challenging. The waves propagated from meteorological sources affect the atmospheric pressure. The atmospheric pressure variations with frequencies of acoustic-gravity wave spectrum are well recorded with microbarographs. It is interesting to use these experimental data, atmospheric pressure variations, for simulation of acoustic-gravity waves in the atmosphere. The hydrodynamic problem of propagation of acoustic-gravity waves from atmospheric pressure variations given on the Earth's surface is set and studied. It is shown that the solution of this boundary problem is completely determined by the pressure field. The numerical method for solving the problem is suggested. The program is tested by comparison of numerical simulations with known analytical solutions. The simulation of acoustic-gravity waves propagated from atmospheric pressure variation experimentally observed with microbarographs is performed. The effects of waves generated by atmospheric pressure variations in the atmosphere are investigated.
Conjugate ionospheric signatures of tsunami-generated gravity waves
Makela, J. J.; Grawe, M.; Coisson, P.; Lognonne, P. H.
2015-12-01
Over the past decade, it has been shown that gravity waves generated by earthquakes and tsunamis can reach the upper atmosphere, where they can have a measureable effect on the ionosphere. Observations made with networks of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers as well as airglow imaging systems have been used to study the properties of these waves through the signatures they leave in the electron density and airglow layers, respectively. Using the Naval Research Laboratory first-principles model, SAMI3, coupled to a model of the tsunami-generated gravity waves, it has been suggested that in addition to generating perturbations in the ionospheric electron density, the neutral winds associated with the gravity waves should produce perturbations in the electric field. These electric field perturbations would map along the Earth's magnetic field where they would drive disturbances in the ionosphere, generating a signature in the conjugate hemisphere. We present GPS-derived total electron content data from several tsunami events demonstrating that this effect is, indeed, measurable. Being able to observe the effects of tsunami-generated gravity waves in the conjugate hemisphere increases the number of observations that can be used to study this ion-neutral coupling phenomenon.
An axisymmetric inertia-gravity wave generator
Maurer, P.; Ghaemsaidi, S. J.; Joubaud, S.; Peacock, T.; Odier, P.
2017-10-01
There has been a rich interplay between laboratory experimental studies of internal waves and advancing understanding of their role in the ocean and atmosphere. In this study, we present and demonstrate the concept for a new form of laboratory internal wave generator that can excite axisymmetric wave fields of arbitrary radial structure. The construction and operation of the generator are detailed, and its capabilities are demonstrated through a pair of experiments using a Bessel function and a bourrelet (i.e., ring-shaped) configuration. The results of the experiments are compared with the predictions of an accompanying analytical model.
Analysis of gravity-waves produced by intense tropical cyclones
Chane Ming, F.; Chen, Z.; Roux, F.
2010-01-01
International audience; Conventional and wavelet methods are combined to characterize gravity-waves (GWs) produced by two intense tropical cyclones (TCs) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) from GPS winsonde data. Analyses reveal large contribution of GWs induced by TCs to wave energy densities in the UT/LS. An increase in total energy density of about 30% of the climatological energy density in austral summer was estimated in the LS above Tromelin during TC Dina. Four dis...
Hart, V. P.; Taylor, M. J.; Doyle, T. E.; Zhao, Y.; Pautet, P.-D.; Carruth, B. L.; Rusch, D. W.; Russell, J. M.
2018-01-01
This research presents the first application of tomographic techniques for investigating gravity wave structures in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) imaged by the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size instrument on the NASA AIM satellite. Albedo data comprising consecutive PMC scenes were used to tomographically reconstruct a 3-D layer using the Partially Constrained Algebraic Reconstruction Technique algorithm and a previously developed "fanning" technique. For this pilot study, a large region (760 × 148 km) of the PMC layer (altitude 83 km) was sampled with a 2 km horizontal resolution, and an intensity weighted centroid technique was developed to create novel 2-D surface maps, characterizing the individual gravity waves as well as their altitude variability. Spectral analysis of seven selected wave events observed during the Northern Hemisphere 2007 PMC season exhibited dominant horizontal wavelengths of 60-90 km, consistent with previous studies. These tomographic analyses have enabled a broad range of new investigations. For example, a clear spatial anticorrelation was observed between the PMC albedo and wave-induced altitude changes, with higher-albedo structures aligning well with wave troughs, while low-intensity regions aligned with wave crests. This result appears to be consistent with current theories of PMC development in the mesopause region. This new tomographic imaging technique also provides valuable wave amplitude information enabling further mesospheric gravity wave investigations, including quantitative analysis of their hemispheric and interannual characteristics and variations.
Impulsive gravitational waves in general massive 3D gravity
Baykal, Ahmet; Dereli, Tekin
2017-10-01
Impulsive, nondiverging, Petrov-Segre type-N gravitational wave solutions to a general massive three-dimensional gravity in the de Sitter, anti-de Sitter, and flat Minkowski backgrounds are constructed in a unified manner by using the exterior algebra of differential forms.
Atmospheric gravity waves due to the Tohoku-Oki tsunami observed in the thermosphere by GOCE
Garcia, R.F.; Doornbos, E.N.; Bruinsma, S.; Hebert, H.
2014-01-01
Oceanic tsunami waves couple with atmospheric gravity waves, as previously observed through ionospheric and airglow perturbations. Aerodynamic velocities and density variations are computed from Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) accelerometer and thruster data during
Surface Waves on Metamaterials Interfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee
2016-01-01
We analyze surface electromagnetic waves supported at the interface between isotropic medium and effective anisotropic material that can be realized by alternating conductive and dielectrics layers. This configuration can host various types of surface waves and therefore can serve as a rich...... platform for applications of surface photonics. Most of these surface waves are directional and as such their propagation can be effectively controlled by changing wavelength or material parameters tuning....
Testing strong gravity with gravitational waves and Love numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franzin, E; Cardoso, V; Raposo, G; Pani, P
2017-01-01
The LIGO observation of GW150914 has inaugurated the gravitational-wave astronomy era and the possibility of testing gravity in extreme regimes. While distorted black holes are the most convincing sources of gravitational waves, similar signals might be produced also by other compact objects. In particular, we discuss what the gravitational-wave ringdown could tell us about the nature of the emitting object, and how measurements of the tidal Love numbers could help us in understanding the internal structure of compact dark objects. (paper)
Testing strong gravity with gravitational waves and Love numbers
Franzin, E.; Cardoso, V.; Pani, P.; Raposo, G.
2017-05-01
The LIGO observation of GW150914 has inaugurated the gravitational-wave astronomy era and the possibility of testing gravity in extreme regimes. While distorted black holes are the most convincing sources of gravitational waves, similar signals might be produced also by other compact objects. In particular, we discuss what the gravitational-wave ringdown could tell us about the nature of the emitting object, and how measurements of the tidal Love numbers could help us in understanding the internal structure of compact dark objects.
Avery, S. K.; Carter, D. A.
1983-01-01
One of the most important atmospheric measurements that is needed is a measure of the gravity-wave spectrum. The MST radar has been investigated as means to measure the temporal resolution required to determine gravity-wave oscillations. The required vertical and horizontal resolution is dependent on the particular part of the gravity wave spectrum that is analyzed. Horizontal spacing is also discussed.
Impacts of Ocean Waves on the Atmospheric Surface Layer: Simulations and Observations
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Sullivan, Peter P; McWilliams, James C; Melville, W. K
2008-01-01
... planetary boundary layers (PBL). Efforts were focused on the effects of surface gravity waves on the near-surface dynamics, surface fluxes, and coupling between the atmospheric and oceanic PBLs...
Empirical Equations For The Surface Gas Gravity of Nigerian ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... pressure volume temperature (PVT) data of the gas gravity of gas associated with Niger Delta crude oil. The crude oil is subdivided into 3 broad groups in order of ascending order of American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity. The accuracy of the calculated surface gravity is determined through statistical error analysis.
LAICE CubeSat mission for gravity wave studies
Westerhoff, John; Earle, Gregory; Bishop, Rebecca; Swenson, Gary R.; Vadas, Sharon; Clemmons, James; Davidson, Ryan; Fanelli, Lucy; Fish, Chad; Garg, Vidur; Ghosh, Alex; Jagannatha, Bindu B.; Kroeker, Erik; Marquis, Peter; Martin, Daniel; Noel, Stephen; Orr, Cameron; Robertson, Robert
2015-10-01
The Lower Atmosphere/Ionosphere Coupling Experiment (LAICE) CubeSat mission will focus on understanding the interaction of atmospheric gravity waves generated by weather systems in the lower atmosphere with the mesosphere, lower thermosphere, and ionosphere (MLTI). Specifically, LAICE will focus on the energy and momentum delivered by these waves and attempt to connect the wave sources and the wave effects in three widely different altitude ranges, substantially adding to our knowledge of critical coupling processes between disparate atmospheric regions. The LAICE mission consists of a 6U CubeSat with a four-instrument payload. The retarding potential analyzer (RPA) will provide in-situ ion density and temperature measurements. A four-channel photometer will measure density and temperature variations in the mesosphere through observations of O2 (0, 0) Atmospheric band and O2 Herzberg I band airglows. There are two pressure sensors that comprise the Space Pressure Suite (SPS): the Space Neutral Pressure Instrument (SNeuPI) and the LAICE Ionization gauge Neutral Atmosphere Sensor (LINAS). Both will provide neutral density measurements, but SNeuPI is a prototype sensor that will be validated by LINAS. This CubeSat mission, scheduled for launch in early 2016 from the International Space Station, provides a cost-effective approach to measuring low altitude in-situ parameters along with simultaneous imaging that is capable of addressing the fundamental questions of atmospheric gravity wave coupling in the MLTI region.
Resonant excitation of coastal Kelvin waves by inertia-gravity waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reznik, G.M.; Zeitlin, V.
2009-01-01
We reveal a mechanism of resonant excitation of non-dispersive coastal Kelvin waves by pairs of incident/reflected inertia-gravity waves in the rotating stratified fluid. In the simplest rotating shallow water model on the semi-infinite plane we show that the mechanism works for a continuum of incoming waves, and thus should be ubiquitous in the ocean. Subsequent slow evolution of thus excited Kelvin waves is governed by harmonically forced simple-wave equation and leads to nontrivial transport and mixing properties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.-D. Zhang
2000-10-01
Full Text Available By analyzing the results of the numerical simulations of nonlinear propagation of three Gaussian gravity-wave packets in isothermal atmosphere individually, the nonlinear effects on the characteristics of gravity waves are studied quantitatively. The analyses show that during the nonlinear propagation of gravity wave packets the mean flows are accelerated and the vertical wavelengths show clear reduction due to nonlinearity. On the other hand, though nonlinear effects exist, the time variations of the frequencies of gravity wave packets are close to those derived from the dispersion relation and the amplitude and phase relations of wave-associated disturbance components are consistent with the predictions of the polarization relation of gravity waves. This indicates that the dispersion and polarization relations based on the linear gravity wave theory can be applied extensively in the nonlinear region.Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Animesh Mukherjee
1991-01-01
Full Text Available Based upon Biot's [1965] theory of initial stresses of hydrostatic nature produced by the effect of gravity, a study is made of surface waves in higher order visco-elastic media under the influence of gravity. The equation for the wave velocity of Stonely waves in the presence of viscous and gravitational effects is obtained. This is followed by particular cases of surface waves including Rayleigh waves and Love waves in the presence of viscous and gravity effects. In all cases the wave-velocity equations are found to be in perfect agreement with the corresponding classical results when the effects of gravity and viscosity are neglected.
On the unstable mode merging of gravity-inertial waves with Rossby waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. F. McKenzie
2011-08-01
Full Text Available We recapitulate the results of the combined theory of gravity-inertial-Rossby waves in a rotating, stratified atmosphere. The system is shown to exhibit a "local" (JWKB instability whenever the phase speed of the low-frequency-long wavelength westward propagating Rossby wave exceeds the phase speed ("Kelvin" speed of the high frequency-short wavelength gravity-inertial wave. This condition ensures that mode merging, leading to instability, takes place in some intermediate band of frequencies and wave numbers. The contention that such an instability is "spurious" is not convincing. The energy source of the instability resides in the background enthalpy which can be released by the action of the gravitational buoyancy force, through the combined wave modes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Imamura, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science-Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Read, P. L. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Luz, D. [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa (CAAUL), Observatório Astronómico de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisboa (Portugal); Piccialli, A., E-mail: peralta@iaa.es [LATMOS, UVSQ, 11 bd dAlembert, 78280 Guyancourt (France)
2014-07-01
This paper is the first of a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases when the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this first part, only waves that are direct solutions of the generic dispersion relation are studied—acoustic and inertia-gravity waves. Concerning inertia-gravity waves, we found that in the cases of short horizontal wavelengths, null background wind, or propagation in the equatorial region, only pure gravity waves are possible, while for the limit of large horizontal wavelengths and/or null static stability, the waves are inertial. The correspondence between classical atmospheric approximations and wave filtering has been examined too, and we carried out a classification of the mesoscale waves found in the clouds of Venus at different vertical levels of its atmosphere. Finally, the classification of waves in exoplanets is discussed and we provide a list of possible candidates with cyclostrophic regimes.
Formation of ice supersaturation by mesoscale gravity waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Spichtinger
2005-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the formation and evolution of an ice-supersaturated region (ISSR that was detected by means of an operational radiosonde sounding launched from the meteorological station of Lindenberg on 21 March 2000, 00:00 UTC. The supersaturated layer was situated below the local tropopause, between 320 and 408 hPa altitude. Our investigation uses satellite imagery from METEOSAT and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR and analyses of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. Mesoscale simulations reveal that the ISSR was formed by a temporary vertical uplift of upper tropospheric air parcels by 20 to 40 hPa in 1 to 2 h. This resulted in a significant local increase of the specific humidity by the moisture transport from below. The ascent was triggered by the superposition of two internal gravity waves, a mountain wave induced by flow past the Erzgebirge and Riesengebirge south of Lindenberg, and an inertial gravity wave excited by the anti-cyclonically curved jet stream over the Baltic Sea. The wave-induced ISSR was rather thick with a depth of about 2 km. The wave-induced upward motion causing the supersaturation also triggered the formation of a cirrus cloud. METEOSAT imagery shows that the cirrus cloud got optically thick within two hours. During this period another longer lasting thin but extended cirrus existed just beneath the tropopause. The wave-induced ISSR disappeared after about half a day in accordance with the decaying wave activity.
Observation and a numerical study of gravity waves during tropical cyclone Ivan~(2008)
F. Chane Ming; C. Ibrahim; S. Jolivet; P. Keckhut; Y.-A. Liou; Y. Kuleshov
2013-01-01
Activity and spectral characteristics of gravity-waves (GWs) are analyzed during tropical cyclone (TC) Ivan (2008) in the troposphere and lower stratosphere using radiosonde and GPS radio occultation data, ECMWF outputs and simulations of French numerical model Meso-NH with vertical resolution varying between 150 m near the surface and 500 m in the lower stratosphere. Conventional methods for GW analysis and signal and image processing tools provide information on a wide spectrum of GW...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fedorchenko, Alexander I.; Stachiv, Ivo; Trávníček, Zdeněk
2013-01-01
Roč. 20, č. 2 (2013), s. 133-138 ISSN 0869-8643 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP107/10/0824; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : inertial gravity wave * free surface * rotating flow Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.295, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S0869864313020017
Touching random surfaces and Liouville gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klebanov, I.R.
1995-01-01
Large N matrix models modified by terms of the form g(TrΦ n ) 2 generate random surfaces which touch at isolated points. Matrix model results indicate that, as g is increased to a special value g t , the string susceptibility exponent suddenly jumps from its conventional value γ to γ/(γ-1). We study this effect in Liouville gravity and attribute it to a change of the interaction term from Oe α + φ for g t to Oe α - φ for g=g t (α + and α - are the two roots of the conformal invariance condition for the Liouville dressing of a matter operator O). Thus, the new critical behavior is explained by the unconventional branch of Liouville dressing in the action
Megaquakes, prograde surface waves and urban evolution
Lomnitz, C.; Castaños, H.
2013-05-01
Cities grow according to evolutionary principles. They move away from soft-ground conditions and avoid vulnerable types of structures. A megaquake generates prograde surface waves that produce unexpected damage in modern buildings. The examples (Figs. 1 and 2) were taken from the 1985 Mexico City and the 2010 Concepción, Chile megaquakes. About 400 structures built under supervision according to modern building codes were destroyed in the Mexican earthquake. All were sited on soft ground. A Rayleigh wave will cause surface particles to move as ellipses in a vertical plane. Building codes assume that this motion will be retrograde as on a homogeneous elastic halfspace, but soft soils are intermediate materials between a solid and a liquid. When Poisson's ratio tends to ν→0.5 the particle motion turns prograde as it would on a homogeneous fluid halfspace. Building codes assume that the tilt of the ground is not in phase with the acceleration but we show that structures on soft ground tilt into the direction of the horizontal ground acceleration. The combined effect of gravity and acceleration may destabilize a structure when it is in resonance with its eigenfrequency. Castaños, H. and C. Lomnitz, 2013. Charles Darwin and the 1835 Chile earthquake. Seismol. Res. Lett., 84, 19-23. Lomnitz, C., 1990. Mexico 1985: the case for gravity waves. Geophys. J. Int., 102, 569-572. Malischewsky, P.G. et al., 2008. The domain of existence of prograde Rayleigh-wave particle motion. Wave Motion 45, 556-564.; Figure 1 1985 Mexico megaquake--overturned 15-story apartment building in Mexico City ; Figure 2 2010 Chile megaquake Overturned 15-story R-C apartment building in Concepción
Sediment gravity flows triggered by remotely generated earthquake waves
Johnson, H. Paul; Gomberg, Joan S.; Hautala, Susan L.; Salmi, Marie S.
2017-06-01
Recent great earthquakes and tsunamis around the world have heightened awareness of the inevitability of similar events occurring within the Cascadia Subduction Zone of the Pacific Northwest. We analyzed seafloor temperature, pressure, and seismic signals, and video stills of sediment-enveloped instruments recorded during the 2011-2015 Cascadia Initiative experiment, and seafloor morphology. Our results led us to suggest that thick accretionary prism sediments amplified and extended seismic wave durations from the 11 April 2012 Mw8.6 Indian Ocean earthquake, located more than 13,500 km away. These waves triggered a sequence of small slope failures on the Cascadia margin that led to sediment gravity flows culminating in turbidity currents. Previous studies have related the triggering of sediment-laden gravity flows and turbidite deposition to local earthquakes, but this is the first study in which the originating seismic event is extremely distant (> 10,000 km). The possibility of remotely triggered slope failures that generate sediment-laden gravity flows should be considered in inferences of recurrence intervals of past great Cascadia earthquakes from turbidite sequences. Future similar studies may provide new understanding of submarine slope failures and turbidity currents and the hazards they pose to seafloor infrastructure and tsunami generation in regions both with and without local earthquakes.
Zhao, J.; Geraghty, I.; Chu, X.; Vadas, S.; Becker, E.; Harvey, V. L.; Jones, R. M.; Chen, C.; Lu, X.
2017-12-01
After Antarctic persistent gravity waves (GWs) in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) were discovered from lidar observations [Chen et al., 2013, 2016], secondary wave generation theory was proposed to explain the source. Here we perform a source investigation of such persistent GWs through analyzing both stratospheric and MLT GWs at McMurdo using temperature measurements (30 - 50 km, year 2011 - 2015) obtained by Fe Boltzmann lidar. In the stratosphere, GW vertical wavelengths (λ) and periods exhibit seasonal cycles with winter maxima and summer minima, which linearly correlated with mean zonal wind velocities. GWs dissipate more in winter than in summer due to larger wave amplitudes. The potential energy density (Ep) are anti-correlated with wind rotation angles but positively correlated with surface and stratospheric winds. Critical level filtering, in-situ generation of GWs, and wave saturation changes play roles in Ep seasonal variations (winter maxima and summer minima). The large increase of Ep from summer to winter possibly results from the decrease in critical level filtering. The gradual variations of Ep from Mar to Oct are likely related both to the increased λ towards winter, allowing larger wave amplitudes before saturation, and to in-situ GW generation via geostrophic adjustment, secondary GW generation. Large Ep occur when McMurdo is inside the jet stream core 5-24º poleward from vortex edge. In winter MLT, the persistent GWs cause larger temperature perturbations (± 30 K, compared to ± 10 K in the stratosphere) with longer λ (23.5 km) and larger vertical phase speeds (1.8 m/s). More waves (95.4%) show downward phase progression compared to the stratospheric GWs (70.4%). Since the inferred horizontal wavelength of stratospheric GWs (350 - 450 km) are much shorter than those of the persistent GWs in the MLT (1000 - 2000 km), the dominant stratospheric GWs are not the direct source of the MLT persistent GWs. Secondary wave generation
Atmospheric gravity waves in the Red Sea: a new hotspot
Magalhaes, J. M.
2011-02-03
The region of the Middle East around the Red Sea (between 32° E and 44° E longitude and 12° N and 28° N latitude) is a currently undocumented hotspot for atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs). Satellite imagery shows evidence that this region is prone to relatively high occurrence of AGWs compared to other areas in the world, and reveals the spatial characteristics of these waves. The favorable conditions for wave propagation in this region are illustrated with three typical cases of AGWs propagating in the lower troposphere over the sea. Using weakly nonlinear long wave theory and the observed characteristic wavelengths we obtain phase speeds which are consistent with those observed and typical for AGWs, with the Korteweg-de Vries theory performing slightly better than Benjamin-Davis-Acrivos-Ono theory as far as phase speeds are concerned. ERS-SAR and Envisat-ASAR satellite data analysis between 1993 and 2008 reveals signatures consistent with horizontally propagating large-scale internal waves. These signatures cover the entire Red Sea and are more frequently observed between April and September, although they also occur during the rest of the year. The region\\'s (seasonal) propagation conditions for AGWs, based upon average vertical atmospheric stratification profiles suggest that many of the signatures identified in the satellite images are atmospheric internal waves. © Author(s) 2011.
2D gravity, random surfaces and all that
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambjoern, J.
1990-11-01
I review the recent progress in 2d gravity and discuss the new numerical simulations for 2d gravity and for random surfaces in d>2. The random surface theories of interest in d>2 have extrinsic curvature terms, and for a finite value of the extrinsic curvature coupling there seems to be a second order phase transition where the string tension scales. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dühring, Maria Bayard
application is modulation of optical waves in waveguides. This presentation elaborates on how a SAW is generated by interdigital transducers using a 2D model of a piezoelectric, inhomogeneous material implemented in the high-level programming language Comsol Multiphysics. The SAW is send through a model...
Investigation of gravity waves using horizontally resolved radial velocity measurements
Stober, G.; Sommer, S.; Rapp, M.; Latteck, R.
2013-10-01
The Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) on the island of Andøya in Northern Norway (69.3° N, 16.0° E) observes polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE). These echoes are used as tracers of atmospheric dynamics to investigate the horizontal wind variability at high temporal and spatial resolution. MAARSY has the capability of pulse-to-pulse beam steering allowing for systematic scanning experiments to study the horizontal structure of the backscatterers as well as to measure the radial velocities for each beam direction. Here we present a method to retrieve gravity wave parameters from these horizontally resolved radial wind variations by applying velocity azimuth display and volume velocity processing. Based on the observations a detailed comparison of the two wind analysis techniques is carried out in order to determine the zonal and meridional wind as well as to measure first-order inhomogeneities. Further, we demonstrate the possibility to resolve the horizontal wave properties, e.g., horizontal wavelength, phase velocity and propagation direction. The robustness of the estimated gravity wave parameters is tested by a simple atmospheric model.
Investigation of gravity waves using horizontally resolved radial velocity measurements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Stober
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY on the island of Andøya in Northern Norway (69.3° N, 16.0° E observes polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE. These echoes are used as tracers of atmospheric dynamics to investigate the horizontal wind variability at high temporal and spatial resolution. MAARSY has the capability of pulse-to-pulse beam steering allowing for systematic scanning experiments to study the horizontal structure of the backscatterers as well as to measure the radial velocities for each beam direction. Here we present a method to retrieve gravity wave parameters from these horizontally resolved radial wind variations by applying velocity azimuth display and volume velocity processing. Based on the observations a detailed comparison of the two wind analysis techniques is carried out in order to determine the zonal and meridional wind as well as to measure first-order inhomogeneities. Further, we demonstrate the possibility to resolve the horizontal wave properties, e.g., horizontal wavelength, phase velocity and propagation direction. The robustness of the estimated gravity wave parameters is tested by a simple atmospheric model.
Variational space–time (dis)continuous Galerkin method for nonlinear free surface water waves
Gagarina, Elena; Ambati, V.R.; van der Vegt, Jacobus J.W.; Bokhove, Onno
2014-01-01
A new variational finite element method is developed for nonlinear free surface gravity water waves using the potential flow approximation. This method also handles waves generated by a wave maker. Its formulation stems from Miles’ variational principle for water waves together with a finite element
Variational space-time (dis)continuous Galerkin method for nonlinear free surface waves
Gagarina, Elena; van der Vegt, Jacobus J.W.; Ambati, V.R.; Bokhove, Onno
A new variational finite element method is developed for nonlinear free surface gravity water waves. This method also handles waves generated by a wave maker. Its formulation stems from Miles' variational principle for water waves together with a space-time finite element discretization that is
MJO-Related Intraseasonal Variation in the Stratosphere: Gravity Waves and Zonal Winds
Alexander, M. J.; Grimsdell, A. W.; Stephan, C. C.; Hoffmann, L.
2018-01-01
Previous work has shown eastward migrating regions of enhanced temperature variance due to long-vertical wavelength stratospheric gravity waves that are in sync with intraseasonal precipitation and tropopause wind anomalies associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Here the origin of these intraseasonal gravity wave variations is investigated with a set of idealized gravity wave-resolving model experiments. The experiments specifically test whether tropopause winds act to control gravity wave propagation into the stratosphere by a critical level filtering mechanism or play a role in gravity wave generation through an obstacle source effect. All experiments use identical convective latent heating variability, but the large-scale horizontal wind profile is varied to investigate relationships between stratospheric gravity waves and zonal winds at different levels. Results show that the observed long vertical wavelength gravity waves are primarily sensitive to stratospheric zonal wind variations, while tropopause wind variations have only a very small effect. Thus, neither the critical level filter mechanism nor the obstacle source play much of a role in the observed intraseasonal gravity wave variations. Instead, the results suggest that the stratospheric waves follow the MJO precipitation sources, and tropopause wind anomalies follow the same sources. We further find evidence of intraseasonal wave drag effects on the stratospheric circulation in reanalyzed winds. The results suggest that waves drive intraseasonal stratospheric zonal wind anomalies that descend in altitude with increasing MJO phases 3 through 7. Eastward anomalies descend farther than westward, suggesting that MJO-related stratospheric waves cause larger eastward drag forces.
Internal gravity waves in Titan's atmosphere observed by Voyager radio occultation
Hinson, D. P.; Tyler, G. L.
1983-01-01
The radio scintillations caused by scattering from small-scale irregularities in Titan's neutral atmosphere during a radio occultation of Voyager 1 by Titan are investigated. Intensity and frequency fluctuations occurred on time scales from about 0.1 to 1.0 sec at 3.6 and 13 cm wavelengths whenever the radio path passed within 90 km of the surface, indicating the presence of variations in refractivity on length scales from a few hundred meters to a few kilometers. Above 25 km, the altitude profile of intensity scintillations closely agrees with the predictions of a simple theory based on the characteristics of internal gravity waves propagating with little or no attenuation through the vertical stratification in Titan's atmosphere. These observations support a hypothesis of stratospheric gravity waves, possibly driven by a cloud-free convective region in the lowest few kilometers of the stratosphere.
Capillary waves with surface viscosity
Shen, Li; Denner, Fabian; Morgan, Neal; van Wachem, Berend; Dini, Daniele
2017-11-01
Experiments over the last 50 years have suggested a correlation between the surface (shear) viscosity and the stability of a foam or emulsion. With recent techniques allowing more accurate measurements of the elusive surface viscosity, we examine this link theoretically using small-amplitude capillary waves in the presence of the Marangoni effect and surface viscosity modelled via the Boussinesq-Scriven model. The surface viscosity effect is found to contribute a damping effect on the amplitude of the capillary wave with subtle differences to the effect of the convective-diffusive Marangoni transport. The general wave dispersion is augmented to take into account the Marangoni and surface viscosity effects, and a first-order correction to the critical damping wavelength is derived. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Shell University Technology Centre for fuels and lubricants.
A review of atmospheric gravity waves and travelling ionospheric disturbances: 1982-1995
K. Hocke; K. Schlegel
1996-01-01
Recent investigations of atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) and travelling ionospheric disturbances (TID) in the Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere are reviewed. In the past decade, the generation of gravity waves at high latitudes and their subsequent propagation to low latitudes have been studied by several global model simulations and coordinated observation campaigns such as the Worldwide Atmospheric Gravity-wave Study (WAGS), the results are presented in the first part of the review. ...
Three-wave interactions in a gravity-capillary range of wind waves
Kosnik, M.; Dulov, V.; Kudryavtsev, V.
2009-04-01
The effects of three-wave interactions on forming of short wind waves spectrum are investigated. Wavenumber spectrum in gravity-capillary and capillary range is found as a result of evolution of initial arbitrary spectrum under the influence of assigned sources of kinetic equation. Three-wave interactions are taken into account using exact collision integral without any additional assumptions simplifying a problem. Model validity is proved by reproducing Zaharov & Filonenko (1967) theoretical spectra describing the "energy equipartition" and "inertial interval" cases. Numerical calculations show that the main role of three-wave interactions consists in energy transfer from short gravity waves to waves of smaller lengths. The prominent feature of most of resulting spectra is a dip on curvature spectrum in the vicinity of phase speed minimum. Wind forcing, viscous dissipation and mechanism of generation of parasitic capillaries are considered in a number of calculations using parameterization for corresponding sources by Kudryavtsev, Makin, Chapron, 1999. The necessity of additional nonlinear dissipation terms in kinetic equation for short gravity and capillary waves is revealed. The results of calculation with this realistic parameterization of kinetic equation sources show that, when accounted, nonlinear dissipation and parasitic capillaries terms play much more significant part in capillary range than wave-wave interactions. The latter are important only in phase speed minimum area where the typical dip remains at the same wavenumber in all numerical experiments. This work was supported by the EU under the projects INTAS 05-1000008-8014, INTAS/ESA 06-1000025-9264 and Contract # SST5 CT 2006 031001 (MONRUK) of FP6.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Achmad
2006-12-01
Full Text Available Gravity wave signatures were extracted from OH airglow observations using all-sky CCD imagers at four different stations: Cachoeira Paulista (CP (22.7° S, 45° W and São João do Cariri (7.4° S, 36.5° W, Brazil; Tanjungsari (TJS (6.9° S, 107.9° E, Indonesia and Shigaraki (34.9° N, 136° E, Japan. The gravity wave parameters are used as an input in a reverse ray tracing model to study the gravity wave vertical propagation trajectory and to estimate the wave source region. Gravity waves observed near the equator showed a shorter period and a larger phase velocity than those waves observed at low-middle latitudes. The waves ray traced down into the troposphere showed the largest horizontal wavelength and phase speed. The ray tracing results also showed that at CP, Cariri and Shigaraki the majority of the ray paths stopped in the mesosphere due to the condition of m2m2m|→∞, which suggests the presence of ducting waves and/or waves generated in-situ. In the troposphere, the possible gravity wave sources are related to meteorological front activities and cloud convections at CP, while at Cariri and TJS tropical cloud convections near the equator are the most probable gravity wave sources. The tropospheric jet stream and the orography are thought to be the major responsible sources for the waves observed at Shigaraki.
Atmosphere-ionosphere coupling from convectively generated gravity waves
Azeem, Irfan; Barlage, Michael
2018-04-01
Ionospheric variability impacts operational performances of a variety of technological systems, such as HF communication, Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation, and radar surveillance. The ionosphere is not only perturbed by geomagnetic inputs but is also influenced by atmospheric tides and other wave disturbances propagating from the troposphere to high altitudes. Atmospheric Gravity Waves (AGWs) excited by meteorological sources are one of the largest sources of mesoscale variability in the ionosphere. In this paper, Total Electron Content (TEC) data from networks of GPS receivers in the United States are analyzed to investigate AGWs in the ionosphere generated by convective thunderstorms. Two case studies of convectively generated gravity waves are presented. On April 4, 2014 two distinct large convective systems in Texas and Arkansas generated two sets of concentric AGWs that were observed in the ionosphere as Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs). The period of the observed TIDs was 20.8 min, the horizontal wavelength was 182.4 km, and the horizontal phase speed was 146.4 m/s. The second case study shows TIDs generated from an extended squall line on December 23, 2015 stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to the Great Lakes in North America. Unlike the concentric wave features seen in the first case study, the extended squall line generated TIDs, which exhibited almost plane-parallel phase fronts. The TID period was 20.1 min, its horizontal wavelength was 209.6 km, and the horizontal phase speed was 180.1 m/s. The AGWs generated by both of these meteorological events have large vertical wavelength (>100 km), which are larger than the F2 layer thickness, thus allowing them to be discernible in the TEC dataset.
Observations of up- and downward propagating gravity waves in the strato- and mesosphere.
Strelnikova, Irina; Baumgarten, Gerd; Lübken, Franz-Josef; Hildebrand, Jens; Höffner, Josef; Stober, Gunter
2017-04-01
Experimental and modeling efforts show that small-scale gravity waves (GW) essentially affect large-scale circulations, thermal states, and dynamics from the surface to the middle atmosphere. In climate modeling and weather-forecasting applications the gravity-wave drag and its interaction with large-scale dynamics are referred to as sub-gridscale, i.e. unresolved processes and are the most uncertain aspect of these models. Advances in lidar measurement techniques allow for experimental studies of GWs at very small spatial and temporal scales, which are not accessible by other means. The state of the art Doppler lidars and radars at the ALOMAR research station located in Northern Norway (69°N, 16°E) provide an observational database of GWs at the edge of the polar vortex connected to global dynamics of the Earth atmosphere. Doppler Rayleigh Iodine System (DoRIS) provides horizontal wind measurements in addition to the temperature observation. The altitude coverage is extended from 30 to 110 km by using the temperature observed by mobile Fe lidar with wind observations taken from meteor radar system. This give us unique possibility to obtain wave propagation direction, intrinsic frequency and horizontal wavelength from the single station. Making use of the advantage of this system, we derive wave parameters more precisely, and under some conditions we observe waves with downward propagating energy. In this paper we will present results of analyses of the GW observations by lidars and radars and discuss implications on atmospheric dynamics.
Characteristics of equatorial gravity waves derived from mesospheric airglow imaging observations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Suzuki
2009-04-01
Full Text Available We present the characteristics of small-scale (<100 km gravity waves in the equatorial mesopause region derived from OH airglow imaging observations at Kototabang (100.3° E, 0.2° S, Indonesia, from 2002 to 2005. We adopted a method that could automatically detect gravity waves in the airglow images using two-dimensional cross power spectra of gravity waves. The propagation directions of the waves were likely controlled by zonal filtering due to stratospheric mean winds that show a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO and the presence of many wave sources in the troposphere.
Capillary-gravity waves and the Navier-Stokes equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behroozi, F.; Podolefsky, N.
2001-01-01
Water waves are a source of great fascination for undergraduates and thus provide an excellent context for introducing some important topics in fluid dynamics. In this paper we introduce the potential theory for incompressible and inviscid flow and derive the differential equation that governs the behaviour of the velocity potential. Next we obtain the harmonic solutions of the velocity potential by a very general argument. These solutions in turn yield the equations for the velocity and displacement of a water element under the action of a harmonic wave. Finally we obtain the dispersion relation for surface waves by requiring that the harmonic solutions satisfy the Navier-Stokes equation. (author)
On the nonlinear shaping mechanism for gravity wave spectrum in the atmosphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. P. Chunchuzov
2009-11-01
Full Text Available The nonlinear mechanism of shaping of a high vertical wave number spectral tail in the field of a few discrete internal gravity waves in the atmosphere is studied in this paper. The effects of advection of fluid parcels by interacting gravity waves are taken strictly into account by calculating wave field in Lagrangian variables, and performing a variable transformation from Lagrangian to Eulerian frame. The vertical profiles and vertical wave number spectra of the Eulerian displacement field are obtained for both the case of resonant and non-resonant wave-wave interactions. The evolution of these spectra with growing parameter of nonlinearity of the internal wave field is studied and compared to that of a broad band spectrum of gravity waves with randomly independent amplitudes and phases. The calculated vertical wave number spectra of the vertical displacements or relative temperature fluctuations are found to be consistent with the observed spectra in the middle atmosphere.
(abstract) Tropospheric Calibration for the Mars Observer Gravity Wave Experiment
Walter, Steven J.; Armstrong, John
1994-01-01
In spring 1993, microwave radiometer-based tropospheric calibration was provided for the Mars Observer gravitational wave search. The Doppler shifted X-band radio signals propagating between Earth and the Mars Observer satellite were precisely measured to determine path length variations that might signal passage of gravitational waves. Experimental sensitivity was restricted by competing sources of variability in signal transit time. Principally, fluctuations in the solar wind and ionospheric plasma density combined with fluctions in tropospheric refractivity determined the detection limit. Troposphere-induced path delay fluctions are dominated by refractive changes caused by water vapor inhomogeneities blowing through the signal path. Since passive microwave remote sensing techniques are able to determine atmospheric propagation delays, radiometer-based tropospheric calibration was provided at the Deep Space Network Uranus tracking site (DSS-15). Two microwave water vapor radiometers (WVRs), a microwave temperature profiler (MTP), and a ground based meterological station were deployed to determine line-of-sight vapor content and vertical temperature profile concurrently with Mars Observer tracking measurements. This calibration system provided the capability to correct Mars Observer Doppler data for troposphere-induced path variations. We present preliminary analysis of the Doppler and WVR data sets illustrating the utility of WVRs to calibrate Doppler data. This takes an important step toward realizing the ambitious system required to support future Ka-band Cassini satellite gravity wave tropospheric calibration system.
Hoffmann, Lars; Wu, Xue; Alexander, M. Joan
2018-02-01
Forecasting the intensity of tropical cyclones is a challenging problem. Rapid intensification is often preceded by the formation of "hot towers" near the eyewall. Driven by strong release of latent heat, hot towers are high-reaching tropical cumulonimbus clouds that penetrate the tropopause. Hot towers are a potentially important source of stratospheric gravity waves. Using 13.5 years (2002-2016) of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder observations of stratospheric gravity waves and tropical cyclone data from the International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship, we found empirical evidence that stratospheric gravity wave activity is associated with the intensification of tropical cyclones. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder and International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship data showed that strong gravity wave events occurred about twice as often for tropical cyclone intensification compared to storm weakening. Observations of stratospheric gravity waves, which are not affected by obscuring tropospheric clouds, may become an important future indicator of storm intensification.
Field investigations on port non-tranquility caused by infra-gravity water waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Najafi-Jilani
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Field investigations have been carried out in two 60-day stages on the surf beat low frequency waves in Anzali port, one of the main commercial ports in Iran, located in southwest coast of the Caspian Sea. The characteristics of significant water waves were measured at three metering stations in the sea, one at the entrance of the port and three in the basin. The measured data were inspected to investigate the surf beat negative effects on the tranquility of the port. Using field measurements and complementary numerical modeling, the response of the basin to the infra-gravity long waves was inspected for a range of wave frequencies. It was concluded that the water surface fluctuations in the port is strongly related to the incident wave period. The long waves with periods of about 45s were recognized as the worst cases for water surfaceperturbation in the port. For wave periods higher than the mentioned range, the order of fluctuation was generally low.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wrasse, C.M.; Takahashi, H.; Gobbi, D.; Denardini, C.M.; Fechine, J. [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Nakamura, T. [Inst. for Sustainable Humanosphere (RISH), Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan); Medeiros, A.F.; Buriti, R.A. [Univ. Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande (Brazil); Taylor, M.J. [Space Dynamics Lab. and Physics Dept., Logan, UT (United States); Salatun, A.; Suratno; Achmad, E.; Admiranto, A.G. [Space Science Center, National Inst. of Aeronautics and Space, Jakarta (Indonesia)
2006-07-01
Gravity wave signatures were extracted from OH airglow observations using all-sky CCD imagers at four different stations: Cachoeira Paulista (CP) (22.7 S, 45 W) and Sao Joao do Cariri (7.4 S, 36.5 W), Brazil; Tanjungsari (TJS) (6.9 S, 107.9 E), Indonesia and Shigaraki (34.9 N, 136 E), Japan. The gravity wave parameters are used as an input in a reverse ray tracing model to study the gravity wave vertical propagation trajectory and to estimate the wave source region. Gravity waves observed near the equator showed a shorter period and a larger phase velocity than those waves observed at low-middle latitudes. The waves ray traced down into the troposphere showed the largest horizontal wavelength and phase speed. The ray tracing results also showed that at CP, Cariri and Shigaraki the majority of the ray paths slopped in the mesosphere due to the condition of m{sup 2} <0, while at TJS most of the waves are traced back into the troposphere. In summer time, most of the back traced waves have their final position stopped in the mesosphere due to m{sup 2}<0 or critical level interactions (vertical stroke m vertical stroke {yields}{infinity}), which suggests the presence of ducting waves and/or waves generated in-situ. In the troposphere, the possible gravity wave sources are related to meteorological front activities and cloud convections at CP, while at Cariri and TJS tropical cloud convections near the equator are the most probable gravity wave sources. The tropospheric jet stream and the orography are thought to be the major responsible sources for the waves observed at Shigaraki. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Sun
2007-10-01
Full Text Available In order to study the filter effect of the background winds on the propagation of gravity waves, a three-dimensional transfer function model is developed on the basis of the complex dispersion relation of internal gravity waves in a stratified dissipative atmosphere with background winds. Our model has successfully represented the main results of the ray tracing method, e.g. the trend of the gravity waves to travel in the anti-windward direction. Furthermore, some interesting characteristics are manifest as follows: (1 The method provides the distribution characteristic of whole wave fields which propagate in the way of the distorted concentric circles at the same altitude under the control of the winds. (2 Through analyzing the frequency and wave number response curve of the transfer function, we find that the gravity waves in a wave band of about 15–30 min periods and of about 200–400 km horizontal wave lengths are most likely to propagate to the 300-km ionospheric height. Furthermore, there is an obvious frequency deviation for gravity waves propagating with winds in the frequency domain. The maximum power of the transfer function with background winds is smaller than that without background winds. (3 The atmospheric winds may act as a directional filter that will permit gravity wave packets propagating against the winds to reach the ionospheric height with minimum energy loss.
Wu, J. F.; Xue, X. H.; Hoffmann, L.; Dou, X. K.; Li, H. M.; Chen, T. D.
2015-01-01
Atmospheric gravity waves (GWs) significantly influence global circulation. Deep convection, particularly that associated with typhoons, is believed to be an important source of gravity waves. Stratospheric gravity waves induced by Typhoon Mindulle (2004) were detected by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Semicircular GWs with horizontal wavelengths of 100–400 km were found over Taiwan through an inspection of AIRS radiances at 4.3 μm. Characteristics of the stratospheric gravity waves...
Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized SurfaceWaves
Zhang, Zhendong
2015-08-19
We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized surface waves because the dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave is inverted using finite-difference solutions to the wave equation. The best match between the predicted and observed dispersion curves provides the optimal S-wave velocity model. Results with synthetic and field data illustrate the benefits and limitations of this method.
Roecker, S. W.; Ebinger, C. J.; Tiberi, C.; Mulibo, G. D.; Ferdinand-Wambura, R.; Muzuka, A.; Khalfan, M.; Kianji, G.; Gautier, S.; Albaric, J.; Peyrat, S.
2015-12-01
With several rift segments at different stages of the rifting cycle, and the last orogenic episode more than 500 Mya, the young (Ngorongoro caldera appears to be physically cut off from the magma beneath the main part of the rift zone by a relatively thin (< 10 km) wide zone of higher shear wave speeds that lies along the western edge of the fault-bounded rift. The narrow ridge of higher velocity lower crustal material may be a consequence of flexural uplift of the rift flank in response to stretching of strong, cratonic lithosphere.
Borchert, Sebastian; Achatz, Ulrich; Rieper, Felix; Fruman, Mark
2013-04-01
We use a numerical model of the classic differentially heated rotating annulus experiment to study the spontaneous emission of gravity waves (GWs) from jet stream imbalances, which is a major source of these waves in the atmosphere for which no satisfactory parameterization exists. Atmospheric observations are the main tool for the testing and verification of theoretical concepts but have their limitations. Given their specific potential for yielding reproducible data and for studying process dependence on external system parameters, laboratory experiments are an invaluable complementary tool. Experiments with a rotating annulus exhibiting a jet modulated by large-scale waves due to baroclinic instability have already been used to study GWs: Williams et al (2008) observed spontaneously emitted interfacial GWs in a two-layer flow, and Jacoby et al (2011) detected GWs emitted from boundary-layer instabilities in a differentially heated rotating annulus. Employing a finite-volume code for the numerical simulation of a continuously stratified liquid in a differentially heated rotating annulus, we here investigate the GWs in a wide and shallow annulus with relatively large temperature difference between inner and outer cylinder walls. In this atmosphere-like regime where the Brunt-Vaisala frequency is larger than the inertial frequency, various analyses suggest a distinct gravity wave activity. To identify regions of GW emission we decompose the flow into the geostrophic and ageostrophic part through the inversion of the quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity (e.g. Verkley, 2009). The analysis of the geostrophic sources of the ageostrophic flow indicates that, in addition to boundary layer instabilities, spontaneous imbalance in the jet region acts as an important source mechanism. Jacoby, T. N. L., Read, P. L., Williams, P. D. and Young, R. M. B., 2011: Generation of inertia-gravity waves in the rotating thermal annulus by a localised boundary layer instability. Geophys
Lin, Ying-Tsong; McMahon, Kara G; Lynch, James F; Siegmann, William L
2013-01-01
The acoustic ducting effect by curved nonlinear gravity waves in shallow water is studied through idealized models in this paper. The internal wave ducts are three-dimensional, bounded vertically by the sea surface and bottom, and horizontally by aligned wavefronts. Both normal mode and parabolic equation methods are taken to analyze the ducted sound field. Two types of horizontal acoustic modes can be found in the curved internal wave duct. One is a whispering-gallery type formed by the sound energy trapped along the outer and concave boundary of the duct, and the other is a fully bouncing type due to continual reflections from boundaries in the duct. The ducting condition depends on both internal-wave and acoustic-source parameters, and a parametric study is conducted to derive a general pattern. The parabolic equation method provides full-field modeling of the sound field, so it includes other acoustic effects caused by internal waves, such as mode coupling/scattering and horizontal Lloyd's mirror interference. Two examples are provided to present internal wave ducts with constant curvature and meandering wavefronts.
Surface singularities in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity.
Pani, Paolo; Sotiriou, Thomas P
2012-12-21
Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity was recently proposed as an alternative to general relativity that offers a resolution of spacetime singularities. The theory differs from Einstein's gravity only inside matter due to nondynamical degrees of freedom, and it is compatible with all current observations. We show that the theory is reminiscent of Palatini f(R) gravity and that it shares the same pathologies, such as curvature singularities at the surface of polytropic stars and unacceptable Newtonian limit. This casts serious doubt on its viability.
Particle dispersion and mixing induced by breaking internal gravity waves
Bouruet-Aubertot, Pascale; Koudella, C.; Staquet, C.; Winters, K. B.
2001-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to analyze diapycnal mixing induced by the breaking of an internal gravity wave — the primary wave — either standing or propagating. To achieve this aim we apply two different methods. The first method consists of a direct estimate of vertical eddy diffusion from particle dispersion while the second method relies upon potential energy budgets [Winters, K.B., Lombard, P.N., Riley, J.J., D'Asaro, E.A., 1995. J. Fluid Mech. 289, 115-128; Winters, K.B., D'Asaro, E.A., 1996. J. Fluid Mech. 317, 179-193]. The primary wave we consider is of small amplitude and is statically stable, a case for which the breaking process involves two-dimensional instabilities. The dynamics of the waves have been previously analyzed by means of two-dimensional direct numerical simulations [Bouruet-Aubertot, P., Sommeria, J., Staquet, C., 1995. J. Fluid Mech. 285, 265-301; Bouruet-Aubertot, P., Sommeria, J., Staquet, C., 1996. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans 29, 41-63; Koudella, C., Staquet, C., 1998. In: Davis, P. (Ed.), Proceedings of the IMA Conference on Mixing and Dispersion on Stably-stratified Flows, Dundee, September 1996. IMA Publication]. High resolution three-dimensional calculations of the same wave are also reported here [Koudella, C., 1999]. A local estimate of mixing is first inferred from the time evolution of sets of particles released in the flow during the breaking regime. We show that, after an early evolution dominated by shear effects, a diffusion law is reached and the dispersion coefficient is fairly independent of the initial seeding location of the particles in the flow. The eddy diffusion coefficient, K, is then estimated from the diapycnal diffusive flux. A good agreement with the value inferred from particle dispersion is obtained. This finding is of particular interest regarding the interpretation of in situ estimates of K inferred either from tracer dispersion or from microstructure measurements. Computation of the Cox number, equal to the
Gandikota, G; Chatain, D; Amiroudine, S; Lyubimova, T; Beysens, D
2014-01-01
The frozen-wave instability which appears at a liquid-vapor interface when a harmonic vibration is applied in a direction tangential to it has been less studied until now. The present paper reports experiments on hydrogen (H2) in order to study this instability when the temperature is varied near its critical point for various gravity levels. Close to the critical point, a liquid-vapor density difference and surface tension can be continuously varied with temperature in a scaled, universal way. The effect of gravity on the height of the frozen waves at the interface is studied by performing the experiments in a magnetic facility where effective gravity that results from the coupling of the Earth's gravity and magnetic forces can be varied. The stability diagram of the instability is obtained. The experiments show a good agreement with an inviscid model [Fluid Dyn. 21 849 (1987)], irrespective of the gravity level. It is observed in the experiments that the height of the frozen waves varies weakly with temperature and increases with a decrease in the gravity level, according to a power law with an exponent of 0.7. It is concluded that the wave height becomes of the order of the cell size as the gravity level is asymptotically decreased to zero. The interface pattern thus appears as a bandlike pattern of alternate liquid and vapor phases, a puzzling phenomenon that was observed with CO2 and H2 near their critical point in weightlessness [Acta Astron. 61 1002 (2007); Europhys. Lett. 86 16003 (2009)].
Vorontsov, Artem; Andreeva, Elena; Nesterov, Ivan; Padokhin, Artem; Kurbatov, Grigory
2016-04-01
The acoustic-gravity waves (AGW) in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere can be generated by a variety of the phenomena in the near-Earth environment and atmosphere as well as by some perturbations of the Earth's ground or ocean surface. For instance, the role of the AGW sources can be played by the earthquakes, explosions, thermal heating, seisches, tsunami waves. We present the examples of AGWs excited by the tsunami waves traveling in the ocean, by seisches, and by ionospheric heating by the high-power radio wave. In the last case, the gravity waves are caused by the pulsed modulation of the heating wave. The AGW propagation in the upper atmosphere induces the variations and irregularities in the electron density distribution of the ionosphere, whose structure can be efficiently reconstructed by the method of the ionospheric radio tomography (RT) based on the data from the global navigational satellite systems (GNSS). The input data for RT diagnostics are composed of the 150/400 MHz radio signals from the low-orbiting (LO) satellites and 1.2-1.5 GHz radio signals from the high-orbiting (HO) satellites with their orbits at ~1000 and ~20000 km above the ground, respectively. These data enable ionospheric imaging on different spatiotemporal scales with different spatiotemporal resolution and coverage, which is suitable, inter alia, for tracking the waves and wave-like features in the ionosphere. In particular, we demonstrate the maps of the ionospheric responses to the tornado at Moore (Oklahoma, USA) of May 20, 2013, which are reconstructed from the HO data. We present the examples of LORT images containing the waves and wavelike disturbances associated with various sources (e.g., auroral precipitation and high-power heating of the ionosphere). We also discuss the results of modeling the AGW generation by the surface and volumetric sources. The millihertz AGW from these sources initiate the ionospheric perturbation with a typical scale of a few hundred km at the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laouar Abdelhamid
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This work is interested in the study of the passage of a long gravity wave above an immersed vertical barrier. The latter is placed at a right angle in the middle of the occupied fluid domain which is limited vertically by both a free surface and an impermeable horizontal bottom. We want to determine the field velocity and the local disturbances in the vicinity of the barrier. For this, we use the generalized theory of shallow water and complex variables method. For illustration, we consider a solitary wave as an emitted long wave.
Activity of convective tropical gravity-waves above the south west indian ocean
Evan, S.; Chane-Ming, F.; Keckhut, P.
Tropical gravity waves play an important role in the dynamics of the middle atmosphere Such small-scale waves can transport energy and momentum vertically as well as horizontally from the troposphere to the middle and upper atmosphere affecting the global circulation Recent studies have focused on the characterization of gravity-waves from local and global observation to improve numerical modelling in terms of parameterisation and comparison for more realistic outputs Many studies have used high-resolution radiosoundings but first climatologies concern continental regions such as Australia and the US Allen and Vincent 1995 Wang and Geller 2003 In the tropics and over ocean and especially in the South-West Indian Ocean measurements are scarce and little is known about the activity of the gravity-waves except using satellite data for large-scale gravity waves above the lower stratosphere In this study a climatology and spatial distribution of the gravity-wave activity for the South West Indian Ocean is produced The dataset includes measurements of daily soundings in the South-West Indian Ocean located between 4oS-30oS and 30oE-56oE Waves parameters energy spatial and temporal scales of waves direction of horizontal wave propagation are analyzed from January 1998 to November 2005 in the troposphere and lower stratosphere A daily activity and wave sources tropical cyclones QBO convection are also investigated
Internal Gravity Waves in the Magnetized Solar Atmosphere. I. Magnetic Field Effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vigeesh, G.; Steiner, O. [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstrasse 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Jackiewicz, J., E-mail: vigeesh@leibniz-kis.de [New Mexico State University, Department of Astronomy, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)
2017-02-01
Observations of the solar atmosphere show that internal gravity waves are generated by overshooting convection, but are suppressed at locations of magnetic flux, which is thought to be the result of mode conversion into magnetoacoustic waves. Here, we present a study of the acoustic-gravity wave spectrum emerging from a realistic, self-consistent simulation of solar (magneto)convection. A magnetic field free, hydrodynamic simulation and a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation with an initial, vertical, homogeneous field of 50 G flux density were carried out and compared with each other to highlight the effect of magnetic fields on the internal gravity wave propagation in the Sun’s atmosphere. We find that the internal gravity waves are absent or partially reflected back into the lower layers in the presence of magnetic fields and argue that the suppression is due to the coupling of internal gravity waves to slow magnetoacoustic waves still within the high- β region of the upper photosphere. The conversion to Alfvén waves is highly unlikely in our model because there is no strongly inclined magnetic field present. We argue that the suppression of internal waves observed within magnetic flux concentrations may also be due to nonlinear breaking of internal waves due to vortex flows that are ubiquitously present in the upper photosphere and the chromosphere.
Fedorchenko, A. I.; Stachiv, I.; Trávníček, Z.
2013-06-01
A new phenomenon of the spontaneous development of the rotating inertial gravity wave inside the rigid cylindrical tank has been observed. The experimental set-up combines both the inflow and outflow. Three regimes of the flow inside the tank have been disclosed for the fixed rate of the liquid height change: a) nonrotating flow, b) nonrotating flow with the ripple localized to the tank's wall, and c) emergence of the rotating inertial gravity wave. The rotating inertial gravity wave forces the fluid to rotate in the opposite direction. Each of these regimes is realized in some ranges of the outlet diameters and liquid heights, and the maps of these regimes are established.
Preusse, Peter; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Offermann, Dirk; Jackman, Charles H. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Gravity wave temperature fluctuations acquired by the CRISTA instrument are compared to previous estimates of zonal-mean gravity wave temperature variance inferred from the LIMS, MLS and GPS/MET satellite instruments during northern winter. Careful attention is paid to the range of vertical wavelengths resolved by each instrument. Good agreement between CRISTA data and previously published results from LIMS, MLS and GPS/MET are found. Key latitudinal features in these variances are consistent with previous findings from ground-based measurements and some simple models. We conclude that all four satellite instruments provide reliable global data on zonal-mean gravity wave temperature fluctuations throughout the middle atmosphere.
Gravity waves as a probe of the Hubble expansion rate during an electroweak scale phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, Daniel J. H.; Zhou Peng
2010-01-01
Just as big bang nucleosynthesis allows us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the Universe was around 1 MeV, the measurement of gravity waves from electroweak scale first order phase transitions may allow us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the Universe was at the electroweak scale. We compute the simple transformation rule for the gravity wave spectrum under the scaling transformation of the Hubble expansion rate. We then apply this directly to the scenario of quintessence kination domination and show how gravity wave spectra would shift relative to Laser Interferometer Space Antenna and Big Bang Observer projected sensitivities.
Study of Magnetohydrodynamic Surface Waves on Liquid Gallium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hantao Ji; William Fox; David Pace; Rappaport, H.L.
2004-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) surface waves on liquid gallium are studied theoretically and experimentally in the small magnetic Reynolds number limit. A linear dispersion relation is derived when a horizontal magnetic field and a horizontal electric current is imposed. No wave damping is found in the shallow liquid limit while waves always damp in the deep liquid limit with a magnetic field parallel to the propagation direction. When the magnetic field is weak, waves are weakly damped and the real part of the dispersion is unaffected, while in the opposite limit waves are strongly damped with shortened wavelengths. In a table-top experiment, planar MHD surface waves on liquid gallium are studied in detail in the regime of weak magnetic field and deep liquid. A non-invasive diagnostic accurately measures surface waves at multiple locations by reflecting an array of lasers off the surface onto a screen, which is recorded by an Intensified-CCD camera. The measured dispersion relation is consistent with the linear theory with a reduced surface tension likely due to surface oxidation. In excellent agreement with linear theory, it is observed that surface waves are damped only when a horizontal magnetic field is imposed parallel to the propagation direction. No damping is observed under a perpendicular magnetic field. The existence of strong wave damping even without magnetic field suggests the importance of the surface oxide layer. Implications to the liquid metal wall concept in fusion reactors, especially on the wave damping and a Rayleigh-Taylor instability when the Lorentz force is used to support liquid metal layer against gravity, are discussed
Databases of surface wave dispersion
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L. Boschi
2005-06-01
Full Text Available Observations of seismic surface waves provide the most important constraint on the elastic properties of the Earths lithosphere and upper mantle. Two databases of fundamental mode surface wave dispersion were recently compiled and published by groups at Harvard (Ekström et al., 1997 and Utrecht/Oxford (Trampert and Woodhouse, 1995, 2001, and later employed in 3-d global tomographic studies. Although based on similar sets of seismic records, the two databases show some significant discrepancies. We derive phase velocity maps from both, and compare them to quantify the discrepancies and assess the relative quality of the data; in this endeavour, we take careful account of the effects of regularization and parametrization. At short periods, where Love waves are mostly sensitive to crustal structure and thickness, we refer our comparison to a map of the Earths crust derived from independent data. On the assumption that second-order effects like seismic anisotropy and scattering can be neglected, we find the measurements of Ekström et al. (1997 of better quality; those of Trampert and Woodhouse (2001 result in phase velocity maps of much higher spatial frequency and, accordingly, more difficult to explain and justify geophysically. The discrepancy is partly explained by the more conservative a priori selection of data implemented by Ekström et al. (1997. Nevertheless, it becomes more significant with decreasing period, which indicates that it could also be traced to the different measurement techniques employed by the authors.
Internal Gravity Wave Interactions with Double-Diffusive Instabilities
Brown, Justin; Radko, Timour
2017-04-01
In this study, we focus on the phenomenon of oscillatory double-diffusive convection, which occurs when cool fresh water is stratified above warm salty water, as commonly observed in the Arctic Ocean. In the Arctic, these regions are generally stable to the development of oscillatory double-diffusive instabilities; despite this, observations show the presence of staircases, i.e., the well-defined structures consisting of a series of homogeneous layers separated by thin high-gradient interfaces. Recent studies have shown that an instability can develop in such circumstances if weak static shear is present even when the shear and double-diffusion are themselves individually stable. However, the impact of oscillating shear, associated with the ubiquitous presence of internal gravity waves, has not yet been addressed for the diffusive case. Through two-dimensional simulations of diffusive convection, we have investigated the impact of magnitude and frequency of externally forced internal waves on the double-diffusive shear instability. The analysis is focused on the parameter regime in which the flow is individually stable with respect to double-diffusion and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, but could be susceptible to the combined thermohaline-shear instability. We have illustrated that rapid oscillation inhibits the development of this instability if the dominant period is shorter than four hours for the oceanographically relevant parameters; otherwise, models with static shear adequately reproduce our results. If the dominant period is shorter than four hours but still significantly exceeds the buoyancy period, the instability range is much reduced to the low Richardson number regime. Some of these simulations show the saturated system developing into structures reminiscent of double-diffusive staircases whose thickness is given by the wavelength of the forced shear. Finally, preliminary three-dimensional simulations show no major differences in the growth rate of
Mesospheric gravity wave momentum flux estimation using hybrid Doppler interferometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. J. Spargo
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Mesospheric gravity wave (GW momentum flux estimates using data from multibeam Buckland Park MF radar (34.6° S, 138.5° E experiments (conducted from July 1997 to June 1998 are presented. On transmission, five Doppler beams were symmetrically steered about the zenith (one zenith beam and four off-zenith beams in the cardinal directions. The received beams were analysed with hybrid Doppler interferometry (HDI (Holdsworth and Reid, 1998, principally to determine the radial velocities of the effective scattering centres illuminated by the radar. The methodology of Thorsen et al. (1997, later re-introduced by Hocking (2005 and since extensively applied to meteor radar returns, was used to estimate components of Reynolds stress due to propagating GWs and/or turbulence in the radar resolution volume. Physically reasonable momentum flux estimates are derived from the Reynolds stress components, which are also verified using a simple radar model incorporating GW-induced wind perturbations. On the basis of these results, we recommend the intercomparison of momentum flux estimates between co-located meteor radars and vertical-beam interferometric MF radars. It is envisaged that such intercomparisons will assist with the clarification of recent concerns (e.g. Vincent et al., 2010 of the accuracy of the meteor radar technique.
Tropical Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes and Latent Heating Distributions
Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Love, Peter T.
2015-01-01
Recent satellite determinations of global distributions of absolute gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes in the lower stratosphere show maxima over the summer subtropical continents and little evidence of GW momentum fluxes associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). This seems to be at odds with parameterizations forGWmomentum fluxes, where the source is a function of latent heating rates, which are largest in the region of the ITCZ in terms of monthly averages. The authors have examined global distributions of atmospheric latent heating, cloud-top-pressure altitudes, and lower-stratosphere absolute GW momentum fluxes and have found that monthly averages of the lower-stratosphere GW momentum fluxes more closely resemble the monthly mean cloud-top altitudes rather than the monthly mean rates of latent heating. These regions of highest cloud-top altitudes occur when rates of latent heating are largest on the time scale of cloud growth. This, plus previously published studies, suggests that convective sources for stratospheric GW momentum fluxes, being a function of the rate of latent heating, will require either a climate model to correctly model this rate of latent heating or some ad hoc adjustments to account for shortcomings in a climate model's land-sea differences in convective latent heating.
A global climatology of stratospheric gravity waves from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder observations
Hoffmann, Lars; Xue, Xianghui; Alexander, M. Joan
2014-05-01
We present the results of a new study that aims on the detection and classification of `hotspots' of stratospheric gravity waves on a global scale. The analysis is based on a nine-year record (2003 to 2011) of radiance measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. We detect the presence of stratospheric gravity waves based on 4.3 micron brightness temperature variances. Our method is optimized for peak events, i.e., strong gravity wave events for which the local variance considerably exceeds background levels. We estimated the occurrence frequencies of these peak events for different seasons and time of day and used the results to find local maxima of gravity wave activity. In addition, we use AIRS radiances at 8.1 micron to simultaneously detect convective events, including deep convection in the tropics and mesoscale convective systems at mid latitudes. We classified the gravity waves according to their sources, based on seasonal occurrence frequencies for convection and by means of topographic data. Our study reproduces well-known hotspots of gravity waves, e.g., the mountain wave hotspots at the Andes and the Antarctic Peninsula or the convective hotspot during the thunderstorm season over the North American Great Plains. However, the high horizontal resolution of the AIRS observations also helped us to locate several smaller hotspots, which were partly unknown or poorly studied so far. Most of these smaller hotspots are found near orographic features like small mountain ranges, in coastal regions, in desert areas, or near isolated islands. This new study will help to select the most promising regions and seasons for future observational studies of gravity waves. Reference: Hoffmann, L., X. Xue, and M. J. Alexander, A global view of stratospheric gravity wave hotspots located with Atmospheric Infrared Sounder observations, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 416-434, doi:10.1029/2012JD018658, 2013.
Bassiri, Sassan; Hajj, George A.
1993-01-01
Natural and man-made events like earthquakes and nuclear explosions launch atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) into the atmosphere. Since the particle density decreases exponentially with height, the gravity waves increase exponentially in amplitude as they propagate toward the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. As atmospheric gravity waves approach the ionospheric heights, the neutral particles carried by gravity waves collide with electrons and ions, setting these particles in motion. This motion of charged particles manifests itself by wave-like fluctuations and disturbances that are known as traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID). The perturbation in the total electron content due to TID's is derived analytically from first principles. Using the tilted dipole magnetic field approximation and a Chapman layer distribution for the electron density, the variations of the total electron content versus the line-of-sight direction are numerically analyzed. The temporal variation associated with the total electron content measurements due to AGW's can be used as a means of detecting characteristics of the gravity waves. As an example, detection of tsunami generated earthquakes from their associated atmospheric gravity waves using the Global Positioning System is simulated.
Formation and mechanics of granular waves in gravity and shallow overland flow
Römkens, Mathias J. M.; Suryadevara, Madhu R.; Prasad, Shyam N.
2010-05-01
Sediment transport in overland flow is a highly complex process involving many properties relative to the flow regime characteristics, soil surface conditions, and type of sediment. From a practical standpoint, most sediment transport studies are concerned with developing relationships of rates of sediment movement under different hydraulic regimes in channel flow for use in soil erosion and sediment transport prediction models. Relatively few studies have focused on the more basic aspects of sediment movement in which particle-to-particle, particle-to-boundary, and particle-to-fluid interactions determine in an important way the nature of the movement. Our experimental work under highly controlled experimental conditions with both gravity flow of granular material (glass beads) in air and sediment transport (sand particles and glass beads) in shallow overland flow have shown that sediment movement is not a simple phenomenon solely determined by flow rates on a proportional basis, but that it is represented by a highly structured and organized regime determined by sedimentary fluid mechanical principles which yield very characteristic waves during transport. In the gravity flow case involving granular chute flow, two-dimensional grain waves developed into the rolling and saltating moving grain mass at certain grain concentrations. This phenomenon appeared to be related to an energy exchange process as a result of collisions between moving grain particles that led to reduced kinetic velocities. As a result, particle concentration differences in the direction of flow developed that were noted as denser zones. In these zones, particles dropped out at the upstream part of these denser zones to resume their accelerating motion once they reached the downstream part of the zone until, during the next collision event, the process is repeated. Thus a periodic granular wave structure evolved. Depending on the addition rate, the granular flow regime may be a fluidized
Thermal effect on gravity waves in a compressible liquid layer over a ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Abstract. This paper deals with the effect of temperature on gravity waves in a compressible liquid layer over a solid half-space. It has been assumed that the liquid layer is under the action of gravity, while the solid half-space is under the influence of initial compressive hydrostatic stress. When the temperature of the.
Thermal effect on gravity waves in a compressible liquid layer over a ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This paper deals with the effect of temperature on gravity waves in a compressible liquid layer over a solid half-space. It has been assumed that the liquid layer is under the action of gravity, while the solid half-space is under the inﬂuence of initial compressive hydrostatic stress. When the temperature of the half-space is ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gravity wave detection using space-based long-baseline laser interferometric sensors imposes stringent noise requirements on the system components, including the...
Gravity wave characteristics over Tromelin Island during the passage of cyclone Hudah
Chane-Ming, Fabrice; Roff, Greg; Robert, Laurent; Leveau, Jean
2002-03-01
The time and spatial evolution of gravity-wave characteristics are analysed using wavelets in vertical profiles of temperature and winds at Tromelin Island (15.53°S, 54.31°E) during the passage of the intense tropical cyclone Hudah in the Southern Ocean Indian Basin in 2000. Inertia-gravity waves were observed in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere with dominant vertical wavelengths of 1.5-3 km, horizontal wavelengths <2000 km and periods of 0.6-1.6 days. Large amounts of gravity-wave energy were detected during landfalls of the tropical cyclone. The distribution of total energy indicates that mesoscale convective structures such as tropical cyclones are important gravity-wave sources in the upper troposphere.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Ehard
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This study evaluates commonly used methods of extracting gravity-wave-induced temperature perturbations from lidar measurements. The spectral response of these methods is characterized with the help of a synthetic data set with known temperature perturbations added to a realistic background temperature profile. The simulations are carried out with the background temperature being either constant or varying in time to evaluate the sensitivity to temperature perturbations not caused by gravity waves. The different methods are applied to lidar measurements over New Zealand, and the performance of the algorithms is evaluated. We find that the Butterworth filter performs best if gravity waves over a wide range of periods are to be extracted from lidar temperature measurements. The running mean method gives good results if only gravity waves with short periods are to be analyzed.
A review of atmospheric gravity waves and travelling ionospheric disturbances: 1982-1995
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Hocke
1996-09-01
Full Text Available Recent investigations of atmospheric gravity waves (AGW and travelling ionospheric disturbances (TID in the Earth\\'s thermosphere and ionosphere are reviewed. In the past decade, the generation of gravity waves at high latitudes and their subsequent propagation to low latitudes have been studied by several global model simulations and coordinated observation campaigns such as the Worldwide Atmospheric Gravity-wave Study (WAGS, the results are presented in the first part of the review. The second part describes the progress towards understanding the AGW/TID characteristics. It points to the AGW/TID relationship which has been recently revealed with the aid of model-data comparisons and by the application of new inversion techniques. We describe the morphology and climatology of gravity waves and their ionospheric manifestations, TIDs, from numerous new observations.
A review of atmospheric gravity waves and travelling ionospheric disturbances: 1982-1995
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Hocke
Full Text Available Recent investigations of atmospheric gravity waves (AGW and travelling ionospheric disturbances (TID in the Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere are reviewed. In the past decade, the generation of gravity waves at high latitudes and their subsequent propagation to low latitudes have been studied by several global model simulations and coordinated observation campaigns such as the Worldwide Atmospheric Gravity-wave Study (WAGS, the results are presented in the first part of the review. The second part describes the progress towards understanding the AGW/TID characteristics. It points to the AGW/TID relationship which has been recently revealed with the aid of model-data comparisons and by the application of new inversion techniques. We describe the morphology and climatology of gravity waves and their ionospheric manifestations, TIDs, from numerous new observations.
Observation and Modeling of Tsunami-Generated Gravity Waves in the Earth’s Upper Atmosphere
2015-10-08
Observation and modeling of tsunami-generated gravity waves in the earth’s upper atmosphere 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6... perturbations caused by the GWs) as a function of space and time at the altitudes z=200-300 km. These perturbations will then be given to Dr. Makela to...for public release; distribution is unlimited. Observation and modeling of tsunami-generated gravity waves in the earth’s upper atmosphere Sharon
Gravitational Wave Polarizations in f (R Gravity and Scalar-Tensor Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gong Yungui
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The detection of gravitational waves by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory opens a new era to use gravitational waves to test alternative theories of gravity. We investigate the polarizations of gravitational waves in f (R gravity and Horndeski theory, both containing scalar modes. These theories predict that in addition to the familiar + and × polarizations, there are transverse breathing and longitudinal polarizations excited by the massive scalar mode and the new polarization is a single mixed state. It would be very difficult to detect the longitudinal polarization by interferometers, while pulsar timing array may be the better tool to detect the longitudinal polarization.
Gravitational Wave Polarizations in f (R) Gravity and Scalar-Tensor Theory
Gong, Yungui; Hou, Shaoqi
2018-01-01
The detection of gravitational waves by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory opens a new era to use gravitational waves to test alternative theories of gravity. We investigate the polarizations of gravitational waves in f (R) gravity and Horndeski theory, both containing scalar modes. These theories predict that in addition to the familiar + and × polarizations, there are transverse breathing and longitudinal polarizations excited by the massive scalar mode and the new polarization is a single mixed state. It would be very difficult to detect the longitudinal polarization by interferometers, while pulsar timing array may be the better tool to detect the longitudinal polarization.
Photonics surface waves on metamaterials interfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Takayama, Osamu; Bogdanov, Andrey; Lavrinenko, Andrei V
2017-01-01
A surface wave (SW) in optics is a light wave, which is supported at an interface of two dissimilar media and propagates along the interface with its field amplitude exponentially decaying away from the boundary. The research on surface waves has been flourishing in last few decades thanks to the...
Gravity Wave Relations in Density Coordinates and Application to Constant Density Balloon Data
Walterscheid, R. L.; Gelinas, L.; Mechoso, C. R.; Schubert, G.
2008-12-01
Super pressure balloons that are constrained to float on constant density surfaces have been used in a number of campaigns for gathering data for studies of stratospheric dynamics. The natural coordinate system for analyzing data from balloons that float at constant density is one where density, rather than geometrical height or pressure is the vertical coordinate. We show the equations of motion derived for constant density coordinates and show the gravity wave relations derived from them. Using these relations, we analyze data from the CNES VORCORE campaign, in which a total of 27 balloons circulated in the Antarctic polar stratospheric vortex during the late summer and spring of 2005. For this campaign, horizontal wind and pressure data were suitable for gravity wave analysis and we give relations for deducing the quantities (e.g., temperature and vertical wind fluctuations) required to calculate the momentum, heat and energy fluxes. We apply these relations to VORCORE data and show the results of flux calculations for balloon trajectories in various regions of the vortex.
Complexity-action duality of the shock wave geometry in a massive gravity theory
Miao, Yan-Gang; Zhao, Long
2018-01-01
On the holographic complexity dual to the bulk action, we investigate the action growth for a shock wave geometry in a massive gravity theory within the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at the late time limit. For a global shock wave, the graviton mass does not affect the action growth in the bulk, i.e., the complexity on the boundary, showing that the action growth (complexity) is the same for both the Einstein gravity and the massive gravity. Nevertheless, for a local shock wave that depends on transverse coordinates, the action growth (complexity) caused by the boundary disturbance (perturbation) is proportional to the butterfly velocity for the two gravity theories, but the butterfly velocity of the massive gravity theory is smaller than that of the Einstein gravity theory, indicating that the action growth (complexity) of the massive gravity is depressed by the graviton mass. In addition, we extend the black hole thermodynamics of the massive gravity and obtain the right Smarr formula.
Licer, Matjaz; Mourre, Baptiste; Troupin, Charles; Krietemeyer, Andreas; Tintoré, Joaquín
2017-04-01
A high resolution nested ocean modelling system forced by synthetic atmospheric gravity waves is used to investigate meteotsunami generation, amplification and propagation properties over the Mallorca-Menorca shelf (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean Sea). We determine how meteotsunami amplitude outside and inside of the Balearic port of Ciutadella depends on forcing gravity wave direction, speed and trajectory. Contributions of Mallorca shelves and Menorca Channel are quantified for different gravity wave forcing angles and speeds. Results indicate that the Channel is the key build-up region and that Northern and Southern Mallorca shelves do not significantly contribute to the amplitude of substantial harbour oscillations in Ciutadella. This fact seriously reduces early-warning alert times in cases of locally generated pressure perturbations. Tracking meteotsunami propagation paths in the Menorca Channel for several forcing velocities, we show that the Channel bathymetry serves as a focusing lens for meteotsunami waves whose paths are constrained by the forcing direction. Faster meteotsunamis are shown to propagate over deeper ocean regions, as required by the Proudman resonance. Meteotsunami speed under sub- and supercritical forcing is estimated and a first order estimate of its magnitude is derived. Meteotsunamis generated by the supercritical gravity waves are found to propagate with a velocity which is equal to an arithmetic mean of the gravity wave speed and local ocean barotropic wave speed.
Simultaneous airglow, lidar, and radar measurements of mesospheric gravity waves over Japan
Suzuki, Shin; Nakamura, Takuji; Ejiri, Mitsumu K.; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Kawahara, Takuya D.
In order to investigate the gravity wave dynamics in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region, we have conducted coordinated observations of mesospheric gravity waves during the ANDON campaign at midlatitude. Two all-sky airglow imagers (ASIs) were used in this campaign to derive two-dimensional structure of the gravity waves: one has been operated by Nagoya university as a part of the optical mesosphere thermosphere imagers (OMTIS) at the MU observatory in Shigaraki (34.9N, 136.1E), and the other imager, named ANDON, developed by Kyoto University is newly installed at the DYNIC Astropark Observatory in Taga (35.2N, 136.3E). Simultaneous horizontal winds and temperatures in the MLT region are provided by meteor-mode observations of the MU radar at Shigaraki and a sodium lidar at Uji (34.9N, 135.8E), respectively. On 2 October 2008, gravity waves with a horizontal wavelength of 180 km and wave period of 1 h propagating northeastward at 50 m/s were observed in the airglow keograms. We also found that similar wave structures were observed in the time-series of the meteor wind and lidar temperature, and their phase relations with the airglow intensity variations were consistent with the linear theory of gravity wave. The phase speed estimated from the MU radar and the momentum fluxes of the wave were also in good agreements with the airglow measurements. These results show that, for the first time, a comprehensive structure of mesospheric gravity waves (wave-induced airglow intensities, horizontal wind, and temperature perturbations) was observed.
Conditions on holographic entangling surfaces in higher curvature gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erdmenger, Johanna; Flory, Mario; Sleight, Charlotte [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805, Munich (Germany)
2014-06-17
We study the extremal surfaces of functionals recently proposed for the holographic calculation of entanglement entropy in general higher curvature theories, using New Massive gravity and Gauss-Bonnet gravity as concrete examples. We show that the entropy functionals admit closed extremal surfaces, which for black hole backgrounds can encircle the event horizon of the black hole. In the examples considered, such closed surfaces correspond to a lower value of the entropy functional than expected from CFT calculations, implying a seeming mismatch between the bulk and boundary calculations. For Lorentzian settings we show that this problem can be resolved by imposing a causality constraint on the extremal surfaces. The possibility of deriving conditions from an alternative conical boundary condition method as proposed by Lewkowycz and Maldacena is explored.
Surface waves on metal-dielectric metamaterials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee
2016-01-01
of surface waves and, therefore, can serve as a platform allowing many applications for surface photonics. Most of these surface waves are directional and their propagation direction is sensitive to permittivities of the media forming the interface. Hence, their propagation can be effectively controlled...... by changing a wavelength or material parameters. We discover that two new types of surface waves with complex dispersion exist for a uniaxial medium with both negative ordinary and extraordinary permittivities. Such new surface wave solutions originate from the anisotropic permittivities of the uniaxial media...
Characteristics of two gravity wave sources in the US high vertical-resolution radiosonde data
Gong, Jie
Understanding gravity wave sources is essential to gravity wave research, and has profound effect on improving general circulation models (GCMs). My Ph.D. work is to analyze, diagnose and simulate the source behaviors of gravity waves that are observed in the US high vertical-resolution radiosonde data. Two sources---convection and jet imbalance---are of the major interest. I used a ray-tracing gravity wave model GROGRAT to characterize the "mean" source spectrum of gravity waves in the lower stratosphere that are observed from US high vertical-resolution radiosonde profiles on a monthly scale. With a fixed source spectral function, one can get "best-fits" for most of the stations. A universal source function is found to be most powerful in capturing the major features of the variations, while another, which represents the convection source, works better for tropical stations. "Fits" are generally better for winter than for summer, indicating possible jet-related sources. I furthermore examined the perturbation field of the ascent rate that is likely to be representative of higher-frequency gravity waves that are generated from the convection sources. The newly defined variable, VE, as well as the apparent dominant vertical wavelength analyzed from the ascent rate fluctuations turned out to be collocated very well with moist convection in the troposphere, especially during warm seasons. The waves tend to have higher frequencies, and this seems consistent with theory. Forcing terms associated with the jet imbalance source are analyzed on a climatological basis. The derived forcings reveal some characteristics of the jet imbalance source, which we can sometimes see in the radiosonde profiles. GROGRAT and a linear forcing-response model are used to study a specific case, which sheds some light on parameterizations of gravity wave drag associated with the jet imbalance.
SURFACE ALFVEN WAVES IN SOLAR FLUX TUBES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goossens, M.; Andries, J.; Soler, R.; Van Doorsselaere, T. [Centre for Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Arregui, I.; Terradas, J., E-mail: marcel.goossens@wis.kuleuven.be [Solar Physics Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2012-07-10
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere. Alfven waves and magneto-sonic waves are particular classes of MHD waves. These wave modes are clearly different and have pure properties in uniform plasmas of infinite extent only. Due to plasma non-uniformity, MHD waves have mixed properties and cannot be classified as pure Alfven or magneto-sonic waves. However, vorticity is a quantity unequivocally related to Alfven waves as compression is for magneto-sonic waves. Here, we investigate MHD waves superimposed on a one-dimensional non-uniform straight cylinder with constant magnetic field. For a piecewise constant density profile, we find that the fundamental radial modes of the non-axisymmetric waves have the same properties as surface Alfven waves at a true discontinuity in density. Contrary to the classic Alfven waves in a uniform plasma of infinite extent, vorticity is zero everywhere except at the cylinder boundary. If the discontinuity in density is replaced with a continuous variation of density, vorticity is spread out over the whole interval with non-uniform density. The fundamental radial modes of the non-axisymmetric waves do not need compression to exist unlike the radial overtones. In thin magnetic cylinders, the fundamental radial modes of the non-axisymmetric waves with phase velocities between the internal and the external Alfven velocities can be considered as surface Alfven waves. On the contrary, the radial overtones can be related to fast-like magneto-sonic modes.
Swimming using surface acoustic waves.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yannyk Bourquin
Full Text Available Microactuation of free standing objects in fluids is currently dominated by the rotary propeller, giving rise to a range of potential applications in the military, aeronautic and biomedical fields. Previously, surface acoustic waves (SAWs have been shown to be of increasing interest in the field of microfluidics, where the refraction of a SAW into a drop of fluid creates a convective flow, a phenomenon generally known as SAW streaming. We now show how SAWs, generated at microelectronic devices, can be used as an efficient method of propulsion actuated by localised fluid streaming. The direction of the force arising from such streaming is optimal when the devices are maintained at the Rayleigh angle. The technique provides propulsion without any moving parts, and, due to the inherent design of the SAW transducer, enables simple control of the direction of travel.
Universal power law of the gravity wave manifestation in the AIM CIPS polar mesospheric cloud images
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Rong
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We aim to extract a universal law that governs the gravity wave manifestation in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs. Gravity wave morphology and the clarity level of display vary throughout the wave population manifested by the PMC albedo data. Higher clarity refers to more distinct exhibition of the features, which often correspond to larger variances and a better-organized nature. A gravity wave tracking algorithm based on the continuous Morlet wavelet transform is applied to the PMC albedo data at 83 km altitude taken by the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS instrument to obtain a large ensemble of the gravity wave detections. The horizontal wavelengths in the range of ∼ 20–60 km are the focus of the study. It shows that the albedo (wave power statistically increases as the background gets brighter. We resample the wave detections to conform to a normal distribution to examine the wave morphology and display clarity beyond the cloud brightness impact. Sample cases are selected at the two tails and the peak of the normal distribution to represent the full set of wave detections. For these cases the albedo power spectra follow exponential decay toward smaller scales. The high-albedo-power category has the most rapid decay (i.e., exponent = −3.2 and corresponds to the most distinct wave display. The wave display becomes increasingly blurrier for the medium- and low-power categories, which hold the monotonically decreasing spectral exponents of −2.9 and −2.5, respectively. The majority of waves are straight waves whose clarity levels can collapse between the different brightness levels, but in the brighter background the wave signatures seem to exhibit mildly turbulent-like behavior.
Universal power law of the gravity wave manifestation in the AIM CIPS polar mesospheric cloud images
Rong, Pingping; Yue, Jia; Russell, James M., III; Siskind, David E.; Randall, Cora E.
2018-01-01
We aim to extract a universal law that governs the gravity wave manifestation in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). Gravity wave morphology and the clarity level of display vary throughout the wave population manifested by the PMC albedo data. Higher clarity refers to more distinct exhibition of the features, which often correspond to larger variances and a better-organized nature. A gravity wave tracking algorithm based on the continuous Morlet wavelet transform is applied to the PMC albedo data at 83 km altitude taken by the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument to obtain a large ensemble of the gravity wave detections. The horizontal wavelengths in the range of ˜ 20-60 km are the focus of the study. It shows that the albedo (wave) power statistically increases as the background gets brighter. We resample the wave detections to conform to a normal distribution to examine the wave morphology and display clarity beyond the cloud brightness impact. Sample cases are selected at the two tails and the peak of the normal distribution to represent the full set of wave detections. For these cases the albedo power spectra follow exponential decay toward smaller scales. The high-albedo-power category has the most rapid decay (i.e., exponent = -3.2) and corresponds to the most distinct wave display. The wave display becomes increasingly blurrier for the medium- and low-power categories, which hold the monotonically decreasing spectral exponents of -2.9 and -2.5, respectively. The majority of waves are straight waves whose clarity levels can collapse between the different brightness levels, but in the brighter background the wave signatures seem to exhibit mildly turbulent-like behavior.
Heale, C. J.; Snively, J. B.
2014-12-01
Short-period (~5-15 minute), small-scale (10s of km) gravity waves propagating through the middle atmosphere will encounter and interact with other atmospheric waves and flows, which can vary horizontally, vertically, and temporally across a wide range of scales. Simulations of gravity wave impacts over global scales generally consider vertical propagation and atmospheric variations, and neglect small scale wave reflection and interactions between waves of different scales and the time dependent background atmosphere [e.g., Fritts and Alexander, Rev. Geo., 41, 1, 2003, and references cited therein]. Short period gravity waves , which are often subject to reflection, nevertheless carry significant momentum through the atmosphere [Hines, 1997, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 59]. Prior studies have investigated gravity wave propagation through horizontally sheared winds [e.g., Basovich and Tsimring, J. Fluid. Mech., 142, 1984], or in altitude and time varying backgrounds [e.g., Broutman and Young, J. Fluid. Mech., 166, 1986]. Senf and Achatz [JGR, 116, D24, 2011, and references cited therein] have also considered propagation through vertically, horizontally, and temporally varying background winds, finding significant reduction of dissipation by critical levels. We here use a combination of 2D numerical simulations and ray-tracing to study the effects of medium scale background wave wind fields on the upward propagation of small-scale, short-period waves. In particular, we consider cases where the short-period waves would be classically reflected or ducted in static realistic background temperature and wind structures. Results suggest an important role for medium-scale temporal and spatial atmospheric variability in reducing the strength of reflections and facilitating the upward propagation of small-scale waves.
Bramberger, Martina; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Bossert, Katrina; Ehard, Benedikt; Fritts, David C.; Kaifler, Bernd; Mallaun, Christian; Orr, Andrew; Pautet, P.-Dominique; Rapp, Markus; Taylor, Michael J.; Vosper, Simon; Williams, Bifford P.; Witschas, Benjamin
2017-11-01
On 4 July 2014, during the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE), strong low-level horizontal winds of up to 35 m s-1 over the Southern Alps, New Zealand, caused the excitation of gravity waves having the largest vertical energy fluxes of the whole campaign (38 W m-2). At the same time, large-amplitude mesospheric gravity waves were detected by the Temperature Lidar for Middle Atmospheric Research (TELMA) located at Lauder (45.0°S, 169.7°E), New Zealand. The coincidence of these two events leads to the question of whether the mesospheric gravity waves were generated by the strong tropospheric forcing. To answer this, an extensive data set is analyzed, comprising TELMA, in situ aircraft measurements, radiosondes, wind lidar measurements aboard the DLR Falcon as well as Rayleigh lidar and advanced mesospheric temperature mapper measurements aboard the National Science Foundation/National Center for Atmospheric Research Gulfstream V. These measurements are further complemented by limited area simulations using a numerical weather prediction model. This unique data set confirms that strong tropospheric forcing can cause large-amplitude gravity waves in the mesosphere, and that three essential ingredients are required to achieve this: first, nearly linear propagation across the tropopause; second, leakage through the stratospheric wind minimum; and third, amplification in the polar night jet. Stationary gravity waves were detected in all atmospheric layers up to the mesosphere with horizontal wavelengths between 20 and 100 km. The complete coverage of our data set from troposphere to mesosphere proved to be valuable to identify the processes involved in deep gravity wave propagation.
Atom Interferometry for detection of Gravity Waves-a
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atom interferometers are more sensitive to inertial effects. This is because atoms in their inertial frame are ideal test masses for detection of gravity effects and...
Numerical study of surface water waves generated by mass movement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghozlani, Belgacem; Hafsia, Zouhaier; Maalel, Khlifa, E-mail: ghozlanib@yahoo.fr [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Tunis, Laboratoire de Modelisation en ' Hydraulique et Environnement, BP 37, Le Belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia)
2013-10-01
In this paper waves generated by two-dimensional mass movement are simulated using a numerical model based on the full hydrodynamic coupling between rigid-body motion and ambient fluid flow. This approach has the capability to represent the dynamics of the moving rigid body, which avoids the need to prescribe the body velocity based on the data measurements. This model is implemented in the CFX code and uses the Reynolds average Navier-Stokes equations solver coupled to the recently developed immersed solid technique. The latter technique allows us to follow implicitly the motion of the solid block based on the rigid body solver. The volume-of-fluid method is used to track the free surface locations. The accuracy of the present model is firstly examined against the simple physical case of a freely falling rigid body into water reproducing Scott Russell's solitary waves. More complex and realistic simulations of aerial and submarine mass-movement, simulated by a rigid wedge sliding into water along a 45 Degree-Sign slope, are then performed. Simulated results of the aerial mass movement show the complex flow patterns in terms of the velocity fields and free surface profiles. Results are in good agreement with the available experimental data. In addition, the physical processes associated with the generation of water wave by two-dimensional submarine mass-movement are explored. The effects of the initial submergence and specific gravity on the slide mass kinematics and maximum wave amplitude are investigated. The terminal velocity and initial acceleration of the slide mass are well predicted when compared to experimental results. It is found that the initial submergence did not have a significant effect on the initial acceleration of the slide block centre of mass. However, it depends nonlinearly on the specific gravity. The maximum wave amplitude and the time at which it occurred are also presented as a function of the initial submergence and specific gravity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhdanov, Michael; Cai, Hongzhu
2014-01-01
We introduce a new method of modeling and inversion of potential field data generated by a density contrast surface. Our method is based on 3D Cauchy-type integral representation of the potential fields. Traditionally, potential fields are calculated using volume integrals of the domains occupied...... by anomalous masses subdivided into prismatic cells. This discretization is computationally expensive, especially in a 3D case. The Cauchy-type integral technique makes it possible to represent the gravity field and its gradients as surface integrals. This is especially significant in the solution of problems...
Vals, M.
2017-09-01
We use MAVEN/NGIMS CO2 density measurements to analyse gravity waves in the thermosphere of Mars. In particular the seasonal/latitudinal variability of their amplitude is studied and interpreted. Key background parameters controlling the activity of gravity waves are analysed with the help of the Mars Climate Database (MCD). Gravity waves activity presents a good anti-correlation to the temperature variability retrieved from the MCD. An analysis at pressure levels is ongoing.
Wave scattering from statistically rough surfaces
Bass, F G; ter Haar, D
2013-01-01
Wave Scattering from Statistically Rough Surfaces discusses the complications in radio physics and hydro-acoustics in relation to wave transmission under settings seen in nature. Some of the topics that are covered include radar and sonar, the effect of variations in topographic relief or ocean waves on the transmission of radio and sound waves, the reproduction of radio waves from the lower layers of the ionosphere, and the oscillations of signals within the earth-ionosphere waveguide. The book begins with some fundamental idea of wave transmission theory and the theory of random processes a
Influence of internal waves on the dispersion and transport of inclined gravity currents
Hogg, C. A. R.; Pietrasz, V. B.; Ouellette, N. T.; Koseff, J. R.
2016-02-01
Brine discharge from desalination facilities presents environmental risks, particularly to benthic organisms. High concentrations of salt and chemical additives, which can be toxic to local ecosystems, are typically mitigated by dilution close to the source. Our laboratory experiments investigate how breaking internal tides can help to dilute gravity currents caused by desalination effluents and direct them away from the benthic layer. In laboratory experiments, internal waves at the pycnocline of an ambient stratification were directed towards a sloping shelf, down which ran a gravity current. The breaking internal waves were seen to increase the proportion of the fluid from the gravity current diverted away from the slope into an intrusion along the pycnocline. In a parametric study, increasing the amplitude of the internal wave was seen to increase the amount of dense fluid in the pycnocline intrusion. The amplitude required to divert the gravity current into the intrusion compares well with an analytical theory that equates the incident energy in the internal wave to the potential energy required to dilute the gravity current. These experimental results suggest that sites of breaking internal waves may be good sites for effluent disposal. Effluent diverted into the intrusion avoids the ecologically sensitive benthic layer.
Gravity Waves and Wind-Farm Efficiency in Neutral and Stable Conditions
Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan
2018-02-01
We use large-eddy simulations (LES) to investigate the impact of stable stratification on gravity-wave excitation and energy extraction in a large wind farm. To this end, the development of an equilibrium conventionally neutral boundary layer into a stable boundary layer over a period of 8 h is considered, using two different cooling rates. We find that turbulence decay has considerable influence on the energy extraction at the beginning of the boundary-layer transition, but afterwards, energy extraction is dominated by geometrical and jet effects induced by an inertial oscillation. It is further shown that the inertial oscillation enhances gravity-wave excitation. By comparing LES results with a simple one-dimensional model, we show that this is related to an interplay between wind-farm drag, variations in the Froude number and the dispersive effects of vertically-propagating gravity waves. We further find that the pressure gradients induced by gravity waves lead to significant upstream flow deceleration, reducing the average turbine output compared to a turbine in isolated operation. This leads us to the definition of a non-local wind-farm efficiency, next to a more standard wind-farm wake efficiency, and we show that both can be of the same order of magnitude. Finally, an energy flux analysis is performed to further elucidate the effect of gravity waves on the flow in the wind farm.
Seasonal variations in gravity wave activity at three locations in Brazil
Clemesha, B. R.; Batista, P. P.; Buriti da Costa, R. A.; Schuch, N.
2009-03-01
Using the variance in meteor radar winds as a measure of gravity wave activity, we investigate the temporal variations in gravity waves at three locations in Brazil: São João do Cariri (7.3° S, 36.4° W), Cachoeira Paulista (22.7° S, 45.0° W) and Santa Maria (29.7° S, 53.7° W). The technique used is that of Hocking (2005) which makes it possible to separate the zonal and meridional components of the fluctuating wind velocity. We find that the seasonal variation of the fluctuating wind is similar to that of the amplitude of the diurnal tide, showing a predominantly semi-annual variation, stronger at Cachoeira Paulista and Santa Maria than at the quasi-equatorial station, Cariri. Both with respect to the seasonal trend and shorter term variations, strong coupling between gravity wave activity and tides is indicated by a remarkably close correlation between the fluctuating velocity and the vertical shear in the tidal winds. It is not clear as to whether this is caused by gravity wave forcing of the tides or whether it results from in situ generation of gravity waves by tidal wind shear.
Seasonal variations in gravity wave activity at three locations in Brazil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clemesha, B.R.; Batista, P.P. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Buriti da Costa, R.A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Schuch, N. [Centro Regional Sul de Pesquisas Espaciais-INPE, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)
2009-07-01
Using the variance in meteor radar winds as a measure of gravity wave activity, we investigate the temporal variations in gravity waves at three locations in Brazil: Sao Joao do Cariri (7.3 S,36.4 W), Cachoeira Paulista (22.7 S,45.0 W) and Santa Maria (29.7 S,53.7 W). The technique used is that of Hocking (2005) which makes it possible to separate the zonal and meridional components of the fluctuating wind velocity. We find that the seasonal variation of the fluctuating wind is similar to that of the amplitude of the diurnal tide, showing a predominantly semi-annual variation, stronger at Cachoeira Paulista and Santa Maria than at the quasi-equatorial station, Cariri. Both with respect to the seasonal trend and shorter term variations, strong coupling between gravity wave activity and tides is indicated by a remarkably close correlation between the fluctuating velocity and the vertical shear in the tidal winds. It is not clear as to whether this is caused by gravity wave forcing of the tides or whether it results from in situ generation of gravity waves by tidal wind shear. (orig.)
Improved analysis of all-sky meteor radar measurements of gravity wave variances and momentum fluxes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. F. Andrioli
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The advantages of using a composite day analysis for all-sky interferometric meteor radars when measuring mean winds and tides are widely known. On the other hand, problems arise if this technique is applied to Hocking's (2005 gravity wave analysis for all-sky meteor radars. In this paper we describe how a simple change in the procedure makes it possible to use a composite day in Hocking's analysis. Also, we explain how a modified composite day can be constructed to test its ability to measure gravity wave momentum fluxes. Test results for specified mean, tidal, and gravity wave fields, including tidal amplitudes and gravity wave momentum fluxes varying strongly with altitude and/or time, suggest that the modified composite day allows characterization of monthly mean profiles of the gravity wave momentum fluxes, with good accuracy at least at the altitudes where the meteor counts are large (from 89 to 92.5 km. In the present work we also show that the variances measured with Hocking's method are often contaminated by the tidal fields and suggest a method of empirical correction derived from a simple simulation model. The results presented here greatly increase our confidence because they show that our technique is able to remove the tide-induced false variances from Hocking's analysis.
Seasonal variations in gravity wave activity at three locations in Brazil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. R. Clemesha
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Using the variance in meteor radar winds as a measure of gravity wave activity, we investigate the temporal variations in gravity waves at three locations in Brazil: São João do Cariri (7.3° S, 36.4° W, Cachoeira Paulista (22.7° S, 45.0° W and Santa Maria (29.7° S, 53.7° W. The technique used is that of Hocking (2005 which makes it possible to separate the zonal and meridional components of the fluctuating wind velocity. We find that the seasonal variation of the fluctuating wind is similar to that of the amplitude of the diurnal tide, showing a predominantly semi-annual variation, stronger at Cachoeira Paulista and Santa Maria than at the quasi-equatorial station, Cariri. Both with respect to the seasonal trend and shorter term variations, strong coupling between gravity wave activity and tides is indicated by a remarkably close correlation between the fluctuating velocity and the vertical shear in the tidal winds. It is not clear as to whether this is caused by gravity wave forcing of the tides or whether it results from in situ generation of gravity waves by tidal wind shear.
Behavior of flexural gravity waves on ice shelves: Application to the Ross Ice Shelf
Sergienko, O. V.
2017-08-01
Ocean waves continuously impact floating ice shelves and affect their stress regime. Low-frequency, long-period (75-400 s), ocean waves are able to reach ice-shelf cavities from distant sources and excite flexural gravity waves that represent coupled motion in the water of the cavity and the ice covering above. Analytic treatment of simplified geometric configuration and three-dimensional numerical simulations of these flexural gravity waves applied to the Ross Ice Shelf show that propagation and ice-shelf flexural stresses are strongly controlled by the geometry of the system, bathymetry of the ice-shelf cavity, and ice-shelf cavity thickness. The derived dispersion relationships, group and phase velocities of these waves can be used to infer poorly constrained characteristics of ice shelves from field observations. The results of numerical simulations show that the flexural gravity waves propagate as beams. The orientation of these beams is determined by the direction of the open ocean waves incident on the ice-shelf front. The higher frequency ocean waves cause larger flexural stresses, while lower frequency waves can propagate farther away from the ice-shelf front and cause flexural stresses in the vicinity of the grounding line.
Precise surface gravities of δ Scuti stars from asteroseismology
García Hernández, A.; Suárez, J. C.; Moya, A.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.; Guo, Z.; Reese, D. R.; Pascual-Granado, J.; Barceló Forteza, S.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Garrido, R.; Nieto, J.
2017-10-01
The work reported here demonstrates that it is possible to accurately determine surface gravities of δ Scuti (δ Sct) stars using the frequency content from high-precision photometry and a measurement of the parallax. Using a sample of 10 eclipsing binary systems with a δ Sct component and the unique δ Sct star discovered with a transiting planet, WASP-33, we were able to refine the Δν-\\bar{ρ } relation. Using this relation and parallaxes, we obtained independent values for the masses and radii, allowing us to calculate the surface gravities without any constraints from spectroscopic or binary analysis. A remarkably good agreement was found between our results and those published, extracted from the analysis of the radial velocities and light curves of the systems. This reinforces the potential of Δν as a valuable observable for δ Sct stars and settles the degeneracy problem for the log g determination through spectroscopy.
Improving GOMOS High Resolution Temperature validation by discriminating atmospheric gravity waves
Quirino Iannone, Rosario; Casadio, Stefano; Saavedra de Miguel, Lidia; De Laurentis, Marta; Brizzi, Gabriele; Dehn, Angelika
2013-04-01
Atmospheric gravity waves play an important role in the thermodynamic processes of the atmosphere. The gravity waves, once generated in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, propagate upward and deposit their energy and momentum when dissipating. These atmospheric waves can cause strong fluctuations in the thermal structure of the middle and upper atmosphere. The satellite temperature retrievals, together with innovative analysis methods, are often used to provide constraints for model parameterization, which can improve the treatment of these phenomena in climate-prediction models, as the temperature profiles are expected to present wave-like structures due to the global distribution of the gravity-wave momentum flux. The analysis of temperature variability as a function of spatial and temporal separation indicates that gravity wave activity has impacts also on validation study site selection. The aim of this study is to analyse the characteristics of the atmospheric gravity waves detectable in the GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars) High Resolution Temperature Profiles (HRTP). These are collected over altitudes ranging from 18 to 35 km, in the 2002 to 2012 time period. The GOMOS instrument is a medium-resolution star-occultation spectrometer operating in the ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-VIS-NIR) spectral range, onboard of the ESA/ENVISAT platform. The HRTP products are the result of the analysis of the two fast photometer measurements, and the retrieval is based on a GPS-like inversion scheme (Kyrola et al., 2010). Following our new approach, based on the use of the "Morlet" wavelet transform (Torrence and Compo, 1998), it is possible to capture the vertical amplitude and phase of waves of very different size along the temperature profile. The wavy signal is estimated and subtracted to the original profile, thus providing a "wave-free" profile. Comparison of wave-free temperature profiles and gravity wave structures with those
Excitation of surface plasma waves over corrugated slow-wave ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
elements in metal waveguides increase the number of their natural modes and give rise to new effects accompanying wave propagation, e.g. excitation of SPW in these waveguides. Such large area surface wave plasma sources have been reported using a microwave launcher of large aperture formed on a waveguide, ...
Excitation of surface plasma waves over corrugated slow-wave ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. A microwave propagating along vacuum–dielectric–plasma interface excites surface plasma wave (SPW). A periodic slow-wave structure placed over dielectric slows down the SPW. The phase velocity of slow SPW is sensitive to height, periodicity, number of periods, thickness and the separation between ...
A monochromatic gravity wave observed by the Flatland Atmospheric Observatory
Vanzandt, T. E.; Chun, Hye-Yeong; Clark, W. L.; Einaudi, F.; Nastrom, G. D.; Riddle, A. C.; Warnock, J. M.
1993-01-01
On 21 December 1991 from approximately 1300 to approximately 1600 UTC a monochromatic wave train with an 8.2-min period was observed by the suite of instruments at the Flatland Atmospheric Observatory (FAO), located in very flat terrain near Champaign-Urbana, Illinois. A 915-MHz radar measured the vertical wind velocity w every 60 s from 0.55 km MSL (0.34 km AGL) to approximately 3 km with 250-m range gates, and a 50-MHz radar measured the oblique wind in four directions, as well as w, every 130 s from 2.75 to approximately 7.25 km with 750-m range gates. A meteorological ground station measured the surface pressure P, wind speed vector u and azimuth alpha, temperature, solar insolation, etc., every 30 s. P was also measured every 120 s by six digital barograph stations within 30 km of Flatland. Using the hodograph of surface vector u and alpha and the impedance relation, we estimated the azimuthal direction of propagation phi to be 45 deg +/- 15 deg clockwise from north, the intrinsic and apparent horizontal phase speeds C(sub i) and C(sub o), respectively, (which are about equal since the direction of propagation is about normal to the mean wind) to be 21 +/- 5 m/s, and the horizontal wavelength lambda to be 10.0 +/- 2.5 km. The peak-to-peak surface horizontal perturbation velocity varied from approximately 2 to 5 m/s from cycle to cycle.
Gravity darkening in stars with surface differential rotation
Zorec, J.; Rieutord, M.; Espinosa Lara, F.; Frémat, Y.; Domiciano de Souza, A.; Royer, F.
2017-10-01
Context. The interpretation of stellar apparent fundamental parameters (viewing-angle dependent) requires that they be treated consistently with the characteristics of their surface rotation law. Aims: We aim to develop a model to determine the distribution of the effective temperature and gravity, which explicitly depend on the surface differential rotation law and on the concomitant stellar external geometry. Methods: The basic assumptions in this model are: a) the external stellar layers are in radiative equilibrium; b) the emergent bolometric flux is anti-parallel with the effective gravity; c) the angular velocity in the surface obeys relations like Ω(θ) = Ωo [ 1 + αΥ(θ,k) ] where Υ(θ,k) = coskθ or sinkθ, and where (α,k) are free parameters. Results: The effective temperature varies with co-latitude θ, with amplitudes that depend on the differential-rotation law through the surface effective gravity and the gravity-darkening function (GDF). Although the derived expressions can be treated numerically, for some low integer values of k, analytical forms of the integral of characteristic curves, on which the determination of the GDF relies, are obtained. The effects of the quantities (η,α,k) (η = ratio between centrifugal and gravitational accelerations at the equator) on the determination of the Vsini parameter and on the gravity-darkening exponent are studied. Depending on the values of (η,α,k) the velocity V in the derived Vsini may strongly deviate from the equatorial rotational velocity. It is shown that the von Zeipel's-like gravity-darkening exponent β1 depends on all parameters (η,α,k) and that its value also depends on the viewing-angle I. Hence, there no unique interpretation of this exponent determined empirically in terms of (I,α). Conclusions: We stress that the data on rotating stars should be analyzed by taking into account the rotational effects through the GDF, by assuming k = 2 as a first approximation. Instead of the classic
The Role of Gravity Waves in the Formation and Organization of Clouds during TWPICE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reeder, Michael J. [Monash University; Lane, Todd P. [University of Melbourne; Hankinson, Mai Chi Nguyen [Monash University
2013-09-27
All convective clouds emit gravity waves. While it is certain that convectively-generated waves play important parts in determining the climate, their precise roles remain uncertain and their effects are not (generally) represented in climate models. The work described here focuses mostly on observations and modeling of convectively-generated gravity waves, using the intensive observations from the DoE-sponsored Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE), which took place in Darwin, from 17 January to 13 February 2006. Among other things, the research has implications the part played by convectively-generated gravity waves in the formation of cirrus, in the initiation and organization of further convection, and in the subgrid-scale momentum transport and associated large-scale stresses imposed on the troposphere and stratosphere. The analysis shows two groups of inertia-gravity waves are detected: group L in the middle stratosphere during the suppressed monsoon period, and group S in the lower stratosphere during the monsoon break period. Waves belonging to group L propagate to the south-east with a mean intrinsic period of 35 h, and have vertical and horizontal wavelengths of about 5-6 km and 3000-6000 km, respectively. Ray tracing calculations indicate that these waves originate from a deep convective region near Indonesia. Waves belonging to group S propagate to the south-south-east with an intrinsic period, vertical wavelength and horizontal wavelength of about 45 h, 2 km and 2000-4000 km, respectively. These waves are shown to be associated with shallow convection in the oceanic area within about 1000 km of Darwin. The intrinsic periods of high-frequency waves are estimated to be between 20-40 minutes. The high-frequency wave activity in the stratosphere, defined by mass-weighted variance of the vertical motion of the sonde, has a maximum following the afternoon local convection indicating that these waves are generated by local convection
Stoneley waves in a non-homogeneous orthotropic granular medium under the influence of gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. M. Ahmed
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the Stoneley waves in a non-homogeneous orthotropic granular medium under the influence of a gravity field. The frequency equation obtained, in the form of a sixth-order determinantal expression, is in agreement with the corresponding result when both media are elastic. The frequency equation when the gravity field is neglected has been deduced as a particular case.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Laštovička, Jan
2001-01-01
Roč. 26, 6, Part C (2001), s. 381-386 ISSN 1464-1917 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS3012007; GA AV ČR IAA3042102; GA MŠk OC 271.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : planetary wave * gravity wave * lower ionosphere Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2001
The Atmospheric Waves Experiment (AWE): Quantifying the Impact of Gravity Waves on the Edge of Space
Taylor, M. J.; Forbes, J. M.; Fritts, D. C.; Eckermann, S. D.; Snively, J. B.; Liu, H.; Janches, D.; Syrstad, E. A.; Esplin, R. W.; Pautet, P. D.; Zhao, Y.; Pendleton, W. R.
2017-12-01
New theory and modeling now indicate that upward-propagating gravity waves (GWs) originating in the lower atmosphere have profound effects on the variability and mean state of the ionosphere-thermosphere-mesosphere (ITM) system. A major unknown is the spectrum of small-scale ( 30-300 km) GWs entering this system from below. Yet, this part of the spectrum contains most of the waves that will produce the greatest ITM effects. To address this knowledge gap, the Atmospheric Waves Experiment (AWE) plans to deploy a high-resolution imager (based on the successful Utah State University Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper) on the International Space Station (ISS) to gain a transformative set of GW-resolving temperature measurements using the OH nightglow emission (altitude 87 km). The ISS provides the ideal combination of altitude, geographic and local time coverage to accomplish our proposed science objectives, which seeks not only near-global measurements of GW characteristics in the mesopause region, but also quantification of GW momentum and energy fluxes driving the IT from below. Combined with state-of-the-art high-resolution models, the AWE mission will also assess the relative importance of sources versus propagation conditions in explaining the observed spatial and temporal variability of the GWs. The AWE mission was recently selected for a "Phase A" study as part of the NASA 2016 Heliophysics Explorers Mission of Opportunity (MO) Program. In this presentation, we describe the primary goals of this program and introduce our proposed research methods using proven IR instrument technology. AWE's exceptional capabilities are illustrated with recent discoveries in observing GWs from the ground and from aircraft during the NSF DEEPWAVE campaign, promising a major step forward in understanding how troposphere weather translates to space weather.
Shukla, K. K.; Phani Kumar, D. V.; Kondapalli, N. K.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Newsom, R. K.
2014-12-01
In this study, we present a case study on 16 October 2011 to show the first observational evidence of the influence of short period gravity waves in aerosol transport during daytime over the central Himalayan region. The Doppler lidar data has been utilized to address the daytime boundary layer evolution and related aerosol dynamics over the site. Mixing layer height is estimated by wavelet covariance transform method and found to be ~ 0.7 km, AGL. Aerosol optical depth observations during daytime revealed an asymmetry showing clear enhancement during afternoon hours as compared to forenoon. Interestingly, Fourier and wavelet analysis of vertical velocity and attenuated backscatter showed similar 50-90 min short period gravity wave signatures during afternoon hours. Moreover, our observations showed that gravity waves are dominant within the boundary layer implying that the daytime boundary layer dynamics is playing a vital role in transporting the aerosols from surface to the top of the boundary layer. Similar modulations are also evident in surface parameters like temperature, relative humidity and wind speed indicating these waves are associated with the dynamical aspects over Himalayan region. Finally, time evolution of range-height indicator snapshots during daytime showed strong upward velocities especially during afternoon hours implying that convective processes through short period gravity waves plays a significant role in transporting aerosols from the nearby valley region to boundary layer top over the site. These observations also establish the importance of wave induced daytime convective boundary layer dynamics in the lower Himalayan region.
Skeletonized wave-equation Qs tomography using surface waves
Li, Jing
2017-08-17
We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is then found that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs tomography (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to Q full waveform inversion (Q-FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsur-face Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.
Wave-equation Qs Inversion of Skeletonized Surface Waves
Li, Jing
2017-02-08
We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is the one that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs inversion (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to full waveform inversion (FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsurface Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.
Bramberger, Martina; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Ehard, Benedikt; Kaifler, Bernd; Kaifler, Natalie; Rahm, Stephan; Witschas, Benjamin; Rapp, Markus; Vosper, Simon; Orr, Andrew; Williams, Bifford P.; Fritts, David C.; Pautet, P.-Dominique; Taylor, Michael J.; Mallaun, Christian
2017-04-01
On 4 July 2014, during the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE), strong horizontal winds up to 35 ms-1 caused the excitation of gravity waves containing the largest energy fluxes of the complete campaign (38 W m-2). At the same time, large amplitude mesospheric gravity waves were detected by the Temperature Lidar for Middle Atmospheric Research (TELMA) located in Lauder (45.0° S, 169.7° E). This combination lead to the question whether the observed mesospheric gravity waves are generated by the tropospheric forcing. For our study we use an extensive data set which comprises TELMA data, in situ measurements of the two aircraft, radiosondes, wind lidar measurements aboard DLR Falcon as well as Rayleigh lidar and advanced mesospheric temperature mapper (AMTM) measurements aboard the NSF/NCAR GV. To complement the measurements, studies with limited area simulations of the Unified Model are taken into account. This unique data set allows for the observation of the evolution of the gravity waves from the troposphere to the mesosphere. Our investigations revealed a complicated situation where the propagation of mountain waves is influenced by partial reflection at the tropopause, a valve layer in the lower stratosphere filtering a part of the wave spectrum and possibly partial reflection at the polar night jet. Nevertheless stationary waves are found in the AMTM measurements with horizontal wavelengths between 30 and 130 km. Although the measurements comprised all altitudes from the troposphere to the mesosphere, still numerical studies proved to be a valuable asset in order to answer the question raised.
Analysis and modeling of ducted and evanescent gravity waves observed in the Hawaiian airglow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. B. Simkhada
2009-08-01
Full Text Available Short-period gravity waves of especially-small horizontal scale have been observed in the Maui, Hawaii airglow. Typical small-scale gravity wave events have been investigated, and intrinsic wave propagation characteristics have been calculated from simultaneous meteor radar wind measurements. Here we report specific cases where wave structure is significantly determined by the local wind structure, and where wave characteristics are consistent with ducted or evanescent waves throughout the mesopause region. Two of the documented events, exhibiting similar airglow signatures but dramatically different propagation conditions, are selected for simple numerical modeling case studies. First, a Doppler-ducted wave trapped within relatively weak wind flow is examined. Model results confirm that the wave is propagating in the 85–95 km region, trapped weakly by evanescence above and below. Second, an evanescent wave in strong wind flow is examined. Model results suggest an opposite case from the first case study, where the wave is instead trapped above or below the mesopause region, with strong evanescence arising in the 85–95 km airglow region. Distinct differences between the characteristics of these visibly-similar wave events demonstrate the need for simultaneous observations of mesopause winds to properly assess local propagation conditions.
Surface waves on currents with arbitrary vertical shear
Smeltzer, Benjamin K.; Ellingsen, Simen Å.
2017-04-01
We study dispersion properties of linear surface gravity waves propagating in an arbitrary direction atop a current profile of depth-varying magnitude using a piecewise linear approximation and develop a robust numerical framework for practical calculation. The method has been much used in the past for the case of waves propagating along the same axis as the background current, and we herein extend and apply it to problems with an arbitrary angle between the wave propagation and current directions. Being valid for all wavelengths without loss of accuracy, the scheme is particularly well suited to solve problems involving a broad range of wave vectors, such as ship waves and Cauchy-Poisson initial value problems. We examine the group and phase velocities over different wavelength regimes and current profiles, highlighting characteristics due to the depth-variable vorticity. We show an example application to ship waves on an arbitrary current profile and demonstrate qualitative differences in the wake patterns between concave down and concave up profiles when compared to a constant shear profile with equal depth-averaged vorticity. We also discuss the nature of additional solutions to the dispersion relation when using the piecewise-linear model. These are vorticity waves, drifting vortical structures which are artifacts of the piecewise model. They are absent for a smooth profile and are spurious in the present context.
Skeletonized wave equation of surface wave dispersion inversion
Li, Jing
2016-09-06
We present the theory for wave equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. Similar to wave-equation travel-time inversion, the complicated surface-wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the (kx,ω) domain. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2D or 3D velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is less prone to the cycle skipping problems of full waveform inversion (FWI). The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can accurately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distribution in laterally heterogeneous media.
Criddle, N.; Taylor, M. J.; Pautet, P. D.; Zhao, Y.
2014-12-01
DEEPWAVE is a new international collaborative research program focused on identifying, characterizing, and predicting the generation and propagation of deeply propagating atmospheric gravity waves from the Earth's surface up to ̴100 km altitude and beyond. An extended series of coordinated airborne and ground-based measurements were recently conducted from New Zealand's South Island to investigate gravity wave forcing during the winter months when strong North-Westerly winds are known to generate gravity waves capable of penetrating well into the stratosphere. As part of this collaborative effort the Atmospheric Imaging Lab at Utah State University (USU) deployed and operated an Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM) at the National Institute for Water and Atmosphere (NIWA) Lauder research station, NZ (45°S 169°E). In the lee of the Southern Alps, Lauder is well positioned for measuring a broad spectrum of gravity waves launched from south island orography and from other meteorological sources. The AMTM is uniquely capable of mapping the wave-induced temperature perturbations to investigate the two-dimensional gravity wave field with high temporal ( ̴10 sec) and high temperature precision ( ̴1-2 K in 30 sec). High-quality infrared image measurements of the OH (3,1) band emission layer (altitude ̴ 87 km) were made nightly from May 31 to July 22, 2014. The DEEPWAVE program has been a resounding success and over 42 nights of data were obtained at Lauder with distinct mesospheric mountain wave signatures recorded there in OH intensity, and in temperatures for the first time. In this poster we provide a summary of the AMTM data set from Lauder, complemented by data from coincident airborne over-flights where appropriate, and we present initial results characterizing the mesopause gravity wave field under varying orographic forcings. We thank the NSF for sponsoring this research program.
Shallow water sound propagation with surface waves.
Tindle, Chris T; Deane, Grant B
2005-05-01
The theory of wavefront modeling in underwater acoustics is extended to allow rapid range dependence of the boundaries such as occurs in shallow water with surface waves. The theory allows for multiple reflections at surface and bottom as well as focusing and defocusing due to reflection from surface waves. The phase and amplitude of the field are calculated directly and used to model pulse propagation in the time domain. Pulse waveforms are obtained directly for all wavefront arrivals including both insonified and shadow regions near caustics. Calculated waveforms agree well with a reference solution and data obtained in a near-shore shallow water experiment with surface waves over a sloping bottom.
Zhang, Xiaoming
2016-11-01
The purpose of this Letter to the Editor is to demonstrate an effective method for estimating viscoelasticity based on measurements of the Rayleigh surface wave speed. It is important to identify the surface wave mode for measuring surface wave speed. A concept of start frequency of surface waves is proposed. The surface wave speeds above the start frequency should be used to estimate the viscoelasticity of tissue. The motivation was to develop a noninvasive surface wave elastography (SWE) technique for assessing skin disease by measuring skin viscoelastic properties. Using an optical based SWE system, the author generated a local harmonic vibration on the surface of phantom using an electromechanical shaker and measured the resulting surface waves on the phantom using an optical vibrometer system. The surface wave speed was measured using a phase gradient method. It was shown that different standing wave modes were generated below the start frequency because of wave reflection. However, the pure symmetric surface waves were generated from the excitation above the start frequency. Using the wave speed dispersion above the start frequency, the viscoelasticity of the phantom can be correctly estimated.
Yan, X.; Tao, Y.; Xia, C.; Qi, Y.; Zuo, X.
2017-12-01
Several studies have reported the earthquake-induced atmospheric gravity waves detected by some new technologies such as airglow (Makela et al., 2011), GOCE (Garcia et al., 2013), GRACE (Yang et al., 2014), F3/C radio occultation sounding (Coïsson et al., 2015). In this work, we collected all occultation events on 11 March, and selected four events to analyze at last. The original and filtered podTEC is represented as function of the altitude of the impact parameter and UT of the four events. Then, the travel time diagrams of filtered podTEC derived from the events were analyzed. The occultation signal from one event (marked as No.73) is consistent with the previous results reported by Coïsson. 2015, which is corresponds to the ionospheric signal induced from tsunami gravity wave. What is noticeable, in this work, is that three occultation events of No.403, 77 and 118 revealed a disturbance of atmospheric gravity wave with velocity 300m/s, preceding the tsunami. It would probably be correspond to the gravity waves caused by seismic rupture but not tsunami. In addition, it can be seen that the perturbation height of occultation observation TEC is concentrated at 200-400km, corresponding ionosphere F region. The signals detected above are compared with GPS measurements of TEC from GEONET and IGS. From GPS data, traveling ionospheric disturbances were observed spreading out from the epicenter as a quasi-circular propagation pattern with the time. Exactly, we observed an acoustic wave coupled with Rayleigh wave starting from the epicenter with a speed of 3.0km/s and a superimposed acoustic-gravity wave moving with a speed of 800m/s. The acoustic-gravity wave generated at the epicenter and gradually attenuated 800km away, then it is replaced by a gravity wave coupled with the tsunami that moves with a speed of between 100 and 300m/s. It is necessary to confirm the propagation process of the waves if we attempt to evaluate the use of ionospheric seismology as a
Tapping of Love waves in an isotropic surface waveguide by surface-to-bulk wave transduction.
Tuan, H.-S.; Chang, C.-P.
1972-01-01
A theoretical study of tapping a Love wave in an isotropic microacoustic surface waveguide is given. The surface Love wave is tapped by partial transduction into a bulk wave at a discontinuity. It is shown that, by careful design of the discontinuity, the converted bulk wave power and the radiation pattern may be controlled. General formulas are derived for the calculation of these important characteristics from a relatively general surface contour deformation.
Gravity Waves Activity in Tropical and Equatorial Africa: Climatology and Sources (abstract)
Kafando, P.; Chane-Ming, F.; Petitdidier, M.
2009-04-01
Gravity wave activity is studied with six years radio sounding data from some of the African meteorological stations located in the 18° N and 05° S latitude domains. This study focuses on gravity wave parameters (e.g., total energy, kinetic and potential energies, fraction of upward propagating energy) above Bamako, Mali (12°53' N, 07°95' W). Climatology and seasonal variation are analyzed in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere. Sources and variability are also examined in relation to convection indices and monsoons.
Tidal and gravity waves study from the airglow measurements at ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
E) during the period 2004–2007 are analyzed to study the dominant waves present in the 80–100 km altitude region of the atmosphere. The nocturnal intensity variations of different airglow emissions are observed using scanning temperature controlled filter photometers. Waves having period lying between 2 and 12 hours ...
Tidal and gravity waves study from the airglow measurements at ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
downward phase propagation both for the first and the second harmonics. In normal condition, down- ward wave propagation is not tenable. Such propa- gation in localized region may be observed due to the strong wind effect or the influence of multi- wave mode coupling. Analysing OI and OH emis- sion data, Fagundes et ...
Geometric controls of the flexural gravity waves on the Ross Ice Shelf
Sergienko, O. V.
2017-12-01
Long-period ocean waves, formed locally or at distant sources, can reach sub-ice-shelf cavities and excite coupled motion in the cavity and the ice shelf - flexural gravity waves. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the flexural gravity waves on the Ross Ice Shelf show that propagation of these waves is strongly controlled by the geometry of the system - the cavity shape, its water-column thickness and the ice-shelf thickness. The results of numerical simulations demonstrate that propagation of the waves is spatially organized in beams, whose orientation is determined by the direction of the of the open ocean waves incident on the ice-shelf front. As a result, depending on the beams orientation, parts of the Ross Ice Shelf experience significantly larger flexural stresses compared to other parts where the flexural gravity beams do not propagate. Very long-period waves can propagate farther away from the ice-shelf front exciting flexural stresses in the vicinity of the grounding line.
On the Dynamics of Two-Dimensional Capillary-Gravity Solitary Waves with a Linear Shear Current
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dali Guo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The numerical study of the dynamics of two-dimensional capillary-gravity solitary waves on a linear shear current is presented in this paper. The numerical method is based on the time-dependent conformal mapping. The stability of different kinds of solitary waves is considered. Both depression wave and large amplitude elevation wave are found to be stable, while small amplitude elevation wave is unstable to the small perturbation, and it finally evolves to be a depression wave with tails, which is similar to the irrotational capillary-gravity waves.
Liang, C.; Prochnow, B. N.; OReilly, O. J.; Dunham, E. M.; Karlstrom, L.
2016-12-01
Oscillation of magma in volcanic conduits connected to cracks (dikes and sills) has been suggested as an explanation for very long period (VLP) seismic signals recorded at active basaltic volcanoes such as. Kilauea, Hawaii, and Erebus, Antarctica. We investigate the VLP seismicity using a linearized model for waves in and associated eigenmodes of a coupled conduit-crack system filled with multiphase magma, an extension of the Karlstrom and Dunham (2016) model for acoustic-gravity waves in volcanic conduits. We find that the long period surface displacement (as recorded on broadband seismometers) is dominated by opening/closing of the crack rather than the deformation of the conduit conduit walls. While the fundamental eigenmode is sensitive to the fluid properties and the geometry of the magma plumbing system, a closer scrutiny of various resonant modes reveals that the surface displacement is often more sensitive to higher modes. Here we present a systematic analysis of various long period acoustic-gravity wave resonant modes of a coupled conduit-crack system that the surface displacement is most sensitive to. We extend our previous work on a quasi-one-dimensional conduit model with inviscid magma to a more general axisymmetric conduit model that properly accounts for viscous boundary layers near the conduit walls, based on the numerical method developed by Prochnow et al. (submitted to Computers and Fluids, 2016). The surface displacement is dominated by either the fundamental or higher eigenmodes, depending on magma properties and the geometry of conduit and crack. An examination of the energetics of these modes reveals the complex interplay of different restoring forces (magma compressibility in the conduit, gravity, and elasticity of the crack) driving the VLP oscillations. Both nonequilibrium bubble growth and resorption and viscosity contribute to the damping of VLP signals. Our models thus provide a means to infer properties of open-vent basaltic volcanoes
Analytical and numerical investigation of nonlinear internal gravity waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. P. Kshevetskii
2001-01-01
Full Text Available The propagation of long, weakly nonlinear internal waves in a stratified gas is studied. Hydrodynamic equations for an ideal fluid with the perfect gas law describe the atmospheric gas behaviour. If we neglect the term Ͽ dw/dt (product of the density and vertical acceleration, we come to a so-called quasistatic model, while we name the full hydro-dynamic model as a nonquasistatic one. Both quasistatic and nonquasistatic models are used for wave simulation and the models are compared among themselves. It is shown that a smooth classical solution of a nonlinear quasistatic problem does not exist for all t because a gradient catastrophe of non-linear internal waves occurs. To overcome this difficulty, we search for the solution of the quasistatic problem in terms of a generalised function theory as a limit of special regularised equations containing some additional dissipation term when the dissipation factor vanishes. It is shown that such solutions of the quasistatic problem qualitatively differ from solutions of a nonquasistatic nature. It is explained by the fact that in a nonquasistatic model the vertical acceleration term plays the role of a regularizator with respect to a quasistatic model, while the solution qualitatively depends on the regularizator used. The numerical models are compared with some analytical results. Within the framework of the analytical model, any internal wave is described as a system of wave modes; each wave mode interacts with others due to equation non-linearity. In the principal order of a perturbation theory, each wave mode is described by some equation of a KdV type. The analytical model reveals that, in a nonquasistatic model, an internal wave should disintegrate into solitons. The time of wave disintegration into solitons, the scales and amount of solitons generated are important characteristics of the non-linear process; they are found with the help of analytical and numerical investigations. Satisfactory
Observations of height-dependent pressure-perturbation structure of a strong mesoscale gravity wave
Starr, David O'C.; Korb, C. L.; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Weng, Chi Y.
1992-01-01
Airborne observations using a downward-looking, dual-frequency, near-infrared, differential absorption lidar system provide the first measurements of the height-dependent pressure-perturbation field associated with a strong mesoscale gravity wave. A pressure-perturbation amplitude of 3.5 mb was measured within the lowest 1.6 km of the atmosphere over a 52-km flight line. Corresponding vertical displacements of 250-500 m were inferred from lidar-observed displacement of aerosol layers. Accounting for probable wave orientation, a horizontal wavelength of about 40 km was estimated. Satellite observations reveal wave structure of a comparable scale in concurrent cirrus cloud fields over an extended area. Smaller-scale waves were also observed. Local meteorological soundings are analyzed to confirm the existence of a suitable wave duct. Potential wave-generation mechanisms are examined and discussed. The large pressure-perturbation wave is attributed to rapid amplification or possible wave breaking of a gravity wave as it propagated offshore and interacted with a very stable marine boundary layer capped by a strong shear layer.
Locating the Tohoku-Oki 2011 tsunami source using acoustic-gravity waves
Andriamiranto Raveloson; Rainer Kind; Xiaohui Yuan; L. Cerana
2012-01-01
The giant Tohoku-Oki earthquake of 11 March 2011 in offshore Japan did not only generate tsunami waves in the ocean but also infrasound (or acoustic-gravity) waves in the atmosphere. We indentified ultra-long-period signals (>500s) in the recordings of infrasound stations in northeast Asia, the northwest Pacific, and Alaska. Their source was fond close to the earthquake epicenter. Therefore, we conclude that in general, infrasound observations after a large offshore earthquake are evidence th...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Onishchenko
2013-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated vortex structures (e.g. convective cells of internal gravity waves (IGWs in the earth's atmosphere with a finite vertical temperature gradient. A closed system of nonlinear equations for these waves and the condition for existence of solitary convective cells are obtained. In the atmosphere layers where the temperature decreases with height, the presence of IGW convective cells is shown. The typical parameters of such structures in the earth's atmosphere are discussed.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Chum, Jaroslav; Šindelářová, Tereza; Laštovička, Jan; Hruška, František; Burešová, Dalia; Baše, Jiří
2010-01-01
Roč. 115, - (2010), A11322/1-A11322/13 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/1367; GA ČR GA205/09/1253 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100420901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Ionosphere * gravity waves * wave propagation * remote sensing Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.303, year: 2010
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šauli, Petra; Roux, S. G.; Abry, P.; Boška, Josef
2007-01-01
Roč. 69, 17-18 (2007), s. 2465-2484 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/1619; GA AV ČR IAA300420504 Grant - others:CNRS(FR) 18098 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Acoustic–gravity wave * Vertical ionospheric sounding * F-layer * Wavelet transform * Wave-packet characterization Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.566, year: 2007
Effects of high-latitude atmospheric gravity wave disturbances on artificial HF radar backscatter
A. Senior; M. J. Kosch; T. K. Yeoman; M. T. Rietveld; I. W. McCrea
2006-01-01
International audience; Observations of HF radar backscatter from artificial field-aligned irregularities in an ionosphere perturbed by travelling disturbances due to atmospheric gravity waves are presented. Some features of the spatio-temporal structure of the artificial radar backscatter can be explained in terms of the distortion of the ionosphere resulting from the travelling disturbances. The distorted ionosphere can allow the HF pump wave to access upper-hybrid resonance at larger dista...
Frequency tunable surface magneto elastic waves
Janusonis, J.; Chang, C. L.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.; Tobey, R. I.
2015-01-01
We use the transient grating technique to generate narrow-band, widely tunable, in-plane surface magnetoelastic waves in a nickel film. We monitor both the structural deformation of the acoustic wave and the accompanying magnetic precession and witness their intimate coupling in the time domain.
Quantum spreading of a self-gravitating wave-packet in singularity free gravity
Buoninfante, Luca; Lambiase, Gaetano; Mazumdar, Anupam
2018-01-01
In this paper we will study for the first time how the wave-packet of a self-gravitating meso-scopic system spreads in theories beyond Einstein's general relativity. In particular, we will consider a ghost-free infinite derivative gravity, which resolves the 1 / r singularity in the potential - such that the gradient of the potential vanishes within the scale of non-locality. We will show that a quantum wave-packet spreads faster for a ghost-free and singularity-free gravity as compared to the Newtonian case, therefore providing us a unique scenario for testing classical and quantum properties of short-distance gravity in a laboratory in the near future.
Cosmic Tsunamis in Modified Gravity: Disruption of Screening Mechanisms from Scalar Waves.
Hagala, R; Llinares, C; Mota, D F
2017-03-10
Extending general relativity by adding extra degrees of freedom is a popular approach for explaining the accelerated expansion of the Universe and to build high energy completions of the theory of gravity. The presence of such new degrees of freedom is, however, tightly constrained from several observations and experiments that aim to test general relativity in a wide range of scales. The viability of a given modified theory of gravity, therefore, strongly depends on the existence of a screening mechanism that suppresses the extra degrees of freedom. We perform simulations, and find that waves propagating in the new degrees of freedom can significantly impact the efficiency of some screening mechanisms, thereby threatening the viability of these modified gravity theories. Specifically, we show that the waves produced in the symmetron model can increase the amplitude of the fifth force and the parametrized post Newtonian parameters by several orders of magnitude.
Observations of gravity waves of meteorological origin in the F-region
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Boška, Josef; Šauli, Petra
2001-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 6 (2001), s. 425-428 ISSN 1464-1917 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/98/0058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : ionosphere * acoustic gravity waves * electron density profiles Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2001
Ehard, Benedikt; Kaifler, Bernd; Kaifler, Natalie; Rapp, Markus
2015-01-01
This study evaluates commonly used methods of extracting gravity wave induced temperature perturbations from lidar measurements. The spectral response of these methods is characterized with the help of a synthetic dataset with known temperature perturbations added to a realistic background temperature profile. The simulations are carried out with the background temperature being either constant or varying in time to evaluate the sensitivit...
Surface wave generation due to glacier calving
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Stanisław R. Massel
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Coastal glaciers reach the ocean in a spectacular process called "calving". Immediately after calving, the impulsive surface waves are generated, sometimes of large height. These waves are particularly dangerous for vessels sailing close to the glacier fronts. The paper presents a theoretical model of surface wave generation due to glacier calving. To explain the wave generation process, four case studies of ice blocks falling into water are discussed: a cylindrical ice block of small thickness impacting on water, an ice column sliding into water without impact, a large ice block falling on to water with a pressure impulse, and an ice column becoming detached from the glacier wall and falling on to the sea surface. These case studies encompass simplified, selected modes of the glacier calving, which can be treated in a theoretical way. Example calculations illustrate the predicted time series of surface elevations for each mode of glacier calving.
Simulation and Observation of Acoustic-Gravity Waves in the Ionosphere
Kunitsyn, Viacheslav; Andreeva, Elena; Krysanov, Boris; Nesterov, Ivan
Atmospheric and ionospheric perturbations associated with the acoustic-gravity waves (AGW) with typical frequencies of a few hertz -millihertz are considered. These events may be caused by the influence from space and atmosphere as well as by oscillations of the Earth surface and other near-surface phenomena. The surface sources include long-period oscillations of the Earth's surface, earthquakes, explosions, thermal heating, seisches and tsunami waves. The wavelike phenomena manifest themself as travelling disturbances of air (in the atmosphere) and of electron density (in the ionosphere). Travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) are well detected by radio physical methods. AGW generation by near-surface sources is modeled by the numerical solution of the equation of geophysical fluid dynamics for different sources in two-dimensional non-linear dissipative compressible atmosphere. The numerical calculations are based on the FCT (Flux Corrected Transport) technique of the second order accuracy in time and space. Different scenarios of AGW generation are analyzed. The AGW caused by the surface sources within a few hertz-millihertz frequency band appear at the altitudes of middle atmosphere and ionosphere as the disturbances with typical scales from a few kilometers to several hundreds kilometers. Such structures can be successfully monitored by the methods of satellite radio tomography (RT). For the purposes of RT diagnostics of such disturbances, low-orbiting navigational satellites like Transit and Tsikada and high-orbiting navigation systems GPS/GLONASS are used. The results of numerical modeling of AGW generation by the surface sources are compared with the data of RT sounding. Also, generation of AGW by volumetric sources such as particle precipitation, rocket launching, heating by high-frequency radiation and other are considered. The obtained results proved the capability of RT methods of detecting and distinguishing between TIDs caused by AGW generated by
Quantum surface and intertwiner dynamics in loop quantum gravity
Feller, Alexandre; Livine, Etera R.
2017-06-01
We introduce simple generic models of surface dynamics in loop quantum gravity (LQG). A quantum surface is defined as a set of elementary patches of area glued together. We provide it with an extra structure of locality (nearest neighbors), thought of as induced by the whole spin network state defining the 3d bulk geometry around the quantum surface. Here, we focus on classical surface dynamics, using a spinorial description of surface degrees of freedom. We introduce two classes of dynamics, to be thought as templates for future investigation of LQG dynamics with the dynamics of quantum black holes in mind. The first defines global dynamics of the closure defect of the surface, with two basic toy models, either a dissipative dynamics relaxing towards the closure constraint or a Hamiltonian dynamics precessing the closure defect. The second class of dynamics describes the isolated regime, when both area and closure defect are conserved throughout the evolution. The surface dynamics is implemented through U (N ) transformations and generalizes to a Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian with a local quadratic potential interaction. We briefly discuss the implications of modeling the quantum black hole dynamics by a surface Bose-Hubbard model.
Surface Acoustic Waves in ferroelectrics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Tarasenko A., Nataliya; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Tarasenko, Alexander
2004-01-01
Roč. 298, - (2004), s. 325-333 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS1010203 Keywords : Rayleigh waves * ferroelectric films * phase transition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.517, year: 2004
Mixing by internal gravity waves that break at sloping topography
Chalamalla, Vamsi; Sarkar, Sutanu
2013-11-01
Direct and large eddy simulations are performed to study the near-bottom mixing that occurs during the interaction of internal waves with a critical slope. The pathway from the input wave energy to the irreversible mixing of density field is explored. Diagnostics such as the turbulent kinetic energy budget and the density variance budget are discussed to explain the phasing of turbulence and associated mixing. Background and available potential energies are utilized to differentiate irreversible mixing from the reversible buoyancy flux. Mixing efficiency in all the simulated cases is found to be much higher than the frequently used value of 0.2 especially during large convective overturns. The ratio of Ozmidov and Thorpe length scales averaged over various sections of a wave cycle is investigated to assess inferences of turbulent dissipation rate from the Thorpe length scale.
On the spectrum of vertically propagating gravity waves generated by a transient heat source
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. J. Alexander
2004-01-01
Full Text Available It is commonly believed that cumulus convection preferentially generates gravity waves with tropospheric vertical wavelengths approximately twice the depth of the convective heating. Individual cumulonimbus, however, act as short term transient heat sources (duration 10 to 30min. Gravity waves generated by such sources have broad frequency spectra and a wide range of vertical scales. The high-frequency components tend to have vertical wavelengths much greater than twice the depth of the heating. Such waves have large vertical group velocities, and are only observed for a short duration and at short horizontal distances from the convective source. At longer times and longer distances from the source the dominant wave components have short vertical wavelengths and much slower group velocities, and thus are more likely to be observed even though their contribution to the momentum flux in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere may be less than that of the high frequency waves. These properties of convectively generated waves are illustrated by a linear numerical model for the wave response to a specified transient heat source. The wave characteristics are documented through Fourier and Wavelet analysis, and implications for observing systems are discussed.
Photonics surface waves on metamaterials interfaces.
Takayama, Osamu; Bogdanov, Andrey; Lavrinenko, Andrei V
2017-09-12
A surface wave (SW) in optics is a light wave, which is supported at an interface of two dissimilar media and propagates along the interface with its field amplitude exponentially decaying away from the boundary. The research on surface waves has been flourishing in last few decades thanks to their unique properties of surface sensitivity and field localization. These features have resulted in applications in nano-guiding, sensing, light-trapping and imaging based on the near-field techniques, contributing to the establishment of the nanophotonics as a field of research. Up to present, a wide variety of surface waves has been investigated in numerous material and structure settings. This paper reviews the recent progress and development in the physics of SWs localized at metamaterial interfaces, as well as bulk media in order to provide broader perspectives on optical surface waves in general. For each type of the surface waves, we discuss material and structural platforms. We mainly focus on experimental realizations in the visible and near-infrared wavelength ranges. We also address existing and potential application of SWs in chemical and biological sensing, and experimental excitation and characterization methods. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Analysis of Gravity Waves Structures Visible in Noctilucent Cloud Images
2010-01-01
Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento , Universidade do Vale do Paraíba, São José dos Campos SP, Brazil d Computational Physics Inc., Boulder, CO...mesopause region airglow emissions as markers of the waves (e.g., Taylor et al., 1997; Pautet et al., 2005; Nielsen et al., 2009). Since the NLC layer...94 95 96 The small-scale waves, termed ripples or billows, are short-lived (typically few tens of minutes) structures due to localized regions
Unsteady motion of the parasitic capillary ripples on the gravity-capillary waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seki, K.; Tsuji, Y.; Kukita, Y.
2001-01-01
Parasitic capillary ripples generated on the forward face of the gravity-capillary waves are investigated experimentally. Using the optical technique, the slope angle of the wave is measured with sufficient space and time resolution to characterize the small ripple fluctuations. The ripple generation and its steepness is considered from the point of dominant wave asymmetry. The unsteady motion of ripples is analyzed by the two-points optical measurements. Dominant wave has the same phase speed with ripple on average, however the relative distance to the dominant wave fluctuates which can't be negligible comparing with the ripple wavelength. That is, the non-linear interactions with the dominant wave assumed to be essential. (authors)
Fátima Andrioli, Vânia; Clemesha, Barclay; Prado Batista, Paulo; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Buriti, Ricardo
It is well known that the upward propagation of internal gravity waves from the lower atmo-sphere to the mesosphere plays an important role in the dynamics and energy balance of this region. Hocking (2005) developed a technique to calculate gravity wave momentum flux using meteor radar data. This technique is a generalization of the 2-beam technique of Vincent and Reid (1983). Hocking's technique uses radial velocity variances, from 80 to 100 km, which are mainly caused by gravity waves, to determine the gravity wave momentum fluxes. We apply this technique to data from a SKiMET meteor radar located at Santa Maria (29.7S, 53.7o W) during 2005. The data were analyzed in 3-km/2-h bins centered on 82, 85, 88 km etc. and 1, 3, 5 UT etc., generating monthly means. It was found that the meridional variances showed a fairly constant behavior throughout the year, with maximum at around 90 km. The zonal and vertical variances were less consistent. The monthly means of the horizontal momentum flux, uv, showed an oscillatory behavior with phase decreasing with increasing altitude and similar behavior was observed in the v'w' component. Although the behavior of u'w' was observed to be oscillatory, its phase did not show altitude propagation. In order to study the features of gravity wave activity in different latitude these results will be compared with two other radars located at São João do Cariri (7.3S, 36.4W) and Cachoeira Paulista (22.7S, 45.0W) for the a a same period.
Propagation of an ionizing surface electromagnetic wave
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boev, A.G.; Prokopov, A.V.
1976-11-01
The propagation of an rf surface wave in a plasma which is ionized by the wave itself is analyzed. The exact solution of the nonlinear Maxwell equations is discussed for the case in which the density of plasma electrons is an exponential function of the square of the electric field. The range over which the surface wave exists and the frequency dependence of the phase velocity are found. A detailed analysis is given for the case of a plasma whose initial density exceeds the critical density at the wave frequency. An increase in the wave amplitude is shown to expand the frequency range over which the plasma is transparent; The energy flux in the plasma tends toward a certain finite value which is governed by the effective ionization field.
Gravity induced corrections to quantum mechanical wave functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, T.P.
1990-03-01
We perform a semiclassical expansion in the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, in powers of the gravitational constant. We then show that quantum gravitational fluctuations can provide a correction to the wave-functions which are solutions of the Schroedinger equation for matter. This also implies a correction to the expectation values of quantum mechanical observables. (author). 6 refs
Validation of the CUTLASS HF radar gravity wave observing capability using EISCAT CP-1 data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. F. Arnold
1998-10-01
Full Text Available Quasi-periodic fluctuations in the returned ground-scatter power from the SuperDARN HF radars have been linked to the passage of medium-scale gravity waves. We have applied a technique that extracts the first radar range returns from the F-region to study the spatial extent and characteristics of these waves in the CUTLASS field-of-view. Some ray tracing was carried out to test the applicability of this method. The EISCAT radar facility at Tromsø is well within the CUTLASS field-of-view for these waves and provides a unique opportunity to assess independently the ability of the HF radars to derive gravity wave information. Results from 1st March, 1995, where the EISCAT UHF radar was operating in its CP-1 mode, demonstrate that the radars were in good agreement, especially if one selects the electron density variations measured by EISCAT at around 235 km. CUTLASS and EISCAT gravity wave observations complement each other; the former extends the spatial field of view considerably, whilst the latter provides detailed vertical information about a range of ionospheric parameters.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere – atmosphere interactions · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics · Radio science (ionospheric propagations
Validation of the CUTLASS HF radar gravity wave observing capability using EISCAT CP-1 data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. F. Arnold
Full Text Available Quasi-periodic fluctuations in the returned ground-scatter power from the SuperDARN HF radars have been linked to the passage of medium-scale gravity waves. We have applied a technique that extracts the first radar range returns from the F-region to study the spatial extent and characteristics of these waves in the CUTLASS field-of-view. Some ray tracing was carried out to test the applicability of this method. The EISCAT radar facility at Tromsø is well within the CUTLASS field-of-view for these waves and provides a unique opportunity to assess independently the ability of the HF radars to derive gravity wave information. Results from 1st March, 1995, where the EISCAT UHF radar was operating in its CP-1 mode, demonstrate that the radars were in good agreement, especially if one selects the electron density variations measured by EISCAT at around 235 km. CUTLASS and EISCAT gravity wave observations complement each other; the former extends the spatial field of view considerably, whilst the latter provides detailed vertical information about a range of ionospheric parameters.
Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere – atmosphere interactions · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics · Radio science (ionospheric propagations
Array processing for seismic surface waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marano, S.
2013-01-01
This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich takes a look at the analysis of surface wave properties which allows geophysicists to gain insight into the structure of the subsoil, thus avoiding more expensive invasive techniques such as borehole drilling. This thesis aims at improving signal processing techniques for the analysis of surface waves in various directions. One main contribution of this work is the development of a method for the analysis of seismic surface waves. The method also deals with the simultaneous presence of multiple waves. Several computational approaches to minimize costs are presented and compared. Finally, numerical experiments that verify the effectiveness of the proposed cost function and resulting array geometry designs are presented. These lead to greatly improved estimation performance in comparison to arbitrary array geometries
Gamow, George
2003-01-01
A distinguished physicist and teacher, George Gamow also possessed a special gift for making the intricacies of science accessible to a wide audience. In Gravity, he takes an enlightening look at three of the towering figures of science who unlocked many of the mysteries behind the laws of physics: Galileo, the first to take a close look at the process of free and restricted fall; Newton, originator of the concept of gravity as a universal force; and Einstein, who proposed that gravity is no more than the curvature of the four-dimensional space-time continuum.Graced with the author's own draw
Heavens, N. G.
2017-12-01
It has been recognized for over two decades that the mesoscale statistical variance observed by Earth-observing satellites at temperature-sensitive frequencies above the instrumental noise floor is a measure of gravity wave activity. These types of observation have been made by a variety of satellite instruments have been an important validation tool for gravity wave parameterizations in global and mesoscale models. At Mars, the importance of topographic and non-topographic sources of gravity waves for the general circulation is now widely recognized and the target of recent modeling efforts. However, despite several ingenious studies, gravity wave activity near hypothetical lower atmospheric sources has been poorly and unsystematically characterized, partly because of the difficulty of separating the gravity wave activity from baroclinic wave activity and the thermal tides. Here will be presented a preliminary analysis of calibrated radiance variance at 15.4 microns (635-665 cm-1) from nadir, off-nadir, and limb observations by the Mars Climate Sounder on board Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The overarching methodology follows Wu and Waters (1996, 1997). Nadir, off-nadir, and lowest detector limb observations should sample variability with vertical weighting functions centered high in the lower atmosphere (20-30 km altitude) and full width half maximum (FWHM) 20 km but be sensitive to gravity waves with different horizontal wavelengths and slightly different vertical wavelengths. This work is supported by NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program (NNX14AM32G). References Wu, D.L. and J.W. Waters, 1996, Satellite observations of atmospheric variances: A possible indication of gravity waves, GRL, 23, 3631-3634. Wu D.L. and J.W. Waters, 1997, Observations of Gravity Waves with the UARS Microwave Limb Sounder. In: Hamilton K. (eds) Gravity Wave Processes. NATO ASI Series (Series I: Environmental Change), vol 50. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Gravity wave exclusion circles in background flows modulated by the semidiurnal tide
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Zhong
Full Text Available In this short paper the exclusion circles and vertical phase locities for gravity waves launched from the ground into a time-varying wind are studied using a ray-tracing technique. It is shown that waves with initial observed phase speeds that should place them within the local temporally varying exclusion circle, are often Doppler shifted outside of the circle. This, and the finite lifetime of some critical levels, allow waves to survive the critical layer and reach higher altitudes. Also, for slower phase-speed waves, the temporally varying wind can shift the observed frequency to negative values, so that the observed phase motions will be opposite (i.e. horizontally reversed and vertically upward, even though the energy still propagates upward. This effect can also cause the phase velocity to move inside the local exclusion circle. Due to the directional filtering of wave sources by the stratospheric wind, the percentage of such reverse-propagating waves will change systematically with local time and height in our simplified but realistic model. These results are related to ground-based systems, optical and radar, which sample the wind field and gravity waves in the middle atmosphere.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. A. K. Ford
2008-02-01
Full Text Available Data from the Fabry-Perot Interferometers at KEOPS (Sweden, Sodankylä (Finland, and Svalbard (Norway, have been analysed for gravity wave activity on all the clear nights from 2000 to 2006. A total of 249 nights were available from KEOPS, 133 from Sodankylä and 185 from the Svalbard FPI. A Lomb-Scargle analysis was performed on each of these nights to identify the periods of any wave activity during the night. Comparisons between many nights of data allow the general characteristics of the waves that are present in the high latitude upper thermosphere to be determined. Comparisons were made between the different parameters: the atomic oxygen intensities, the thermospheric winds and temperatures, and for each parameter the distribution of frequencies of the waves was determined. No dependence on the number of waves on geomagnetic activity levels, or position in the solar cycle, was found. All the FPIs have had different detectors at various times, producing different time resolutions of the data, so comparisons between the different years, and between data from different sites, showed how the time resolution determines which waves are observed. In addition to the cutoff due to the Nyquist frequency, poor resolution observations significantly reduce the number of short-period waves (<1 h period that may be detected with confidence. The length of the dataset, which is usually determined by the length of the night, was the main factor influencing the number of long period waves (>5 h detected. Comparisons between the number of gravity waves detected at KEOPS and Sodankylä over all the seasons showed a similar proportion of waves to the number of nights used for both sites, as expected since the two sites are at similar latitudes and therefore locations with respect to the auroral oval, confirming this as a likely source region. Svalbard showed fewer waves with short periods than KEOPS data for a season when both had the same time resolution data
Rivera, Andrea
2017-01-01
Gravity is all around us. Learn how it is used in art, technology, and engineering. Five easy-to-read chapters explain the science behind gravity, as well as its real-world applications. Vibrant, full-color photos, bolded glossary words, and a key stats section let readers zoom in even deeper. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Zoom is a division of ABDO.
Demultiplexing Surface Waves With Silicon Nanoantennas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sinev, I.; Bogdanov, A.; Komissarenko, F.
2017-01-01
We demonstrate directional launching of surface plasmon polaritons on thin gold film with a single silicon nanosphere. The directivity pattern of the excited surface waves exhibits rapid switching from forward to backward excitation within extremely narrow spectral hand (! 50 nm), which is driven...
Modelling and simulation of surface water waves
van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.; Westhuis, J.H.
2002-01-01
The evolution of waves on the surface of a layer of fluid is governed by non-linear effects from surface deformations and dispersive effects from the interaction with the interior fluid motion. Several simulation tools are described in this paper and compared with real life experiments in large
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Colin C. Triplett
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The meteorological control of gravity wave activity through ﬁltering by winds and generation by spontaneous adjustment of unbalanced ﬂows is investigated. This investigation is based on a new analysis of Rayleigh LiDAR measurements of gravity wave activity in the upper stratosphere-lower mesosphere (USLM,40–50kmon 152 nights at Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR, Chatanika, Alaska (65◦ N, 147◦ W, over 13 years between 1998 and 2014. The LiDAR measurements resolve inertia-gravity waves with observed periods between 1 h and 4 h and vertical wavelengths between 2 km and 10 km. The meteorological conditions are deﬁned by reanalysis data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA. The gravity wave activity shows large night-to-night variability, but a clear annual cycle with a maximum in winter,and systematic interannual variability associated with stratospheric sudden warming events. The USLM gravity wave activity is correlated with the MERRA winds and is controlled by the winds in the lower stratosphere through ﬁltering by critical layer ﬁltering. The USLM gravity wave activity is also correlated with MERRA unbalanced ﬂow as characterized by the residual of the nonlinear balance equation. This correlation with unbalanced ﬂow only appears when the wind conditions are taken into account, indicating that wind ﬁltering is the primary control of the gravity wave activity.
Observation of mesospheric gravity waves at Comandante Ferraz Antarctica Station (62° S
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. B. Souza
2009-06-01
Full Text Available An airglow all-sky imager was operated at Comandante Ferraz Antarctica Station (62.1° S, 58.4° W, between April and October of 2007. Mesospheric gravity waves were observed using the OH airglow layer during 43 nights with good weather conditions. The waves presented horizontal wavelengths between 10 and 60 km and observed periods mainly distributed between 5 and 20 min. The observed phase speeds range between 5 m/s and 115 m/s; the majority of the wave velocities were between 10 and 60 m/s. The waves showed a preferential propagation direction towards the southwest in winter (May to July, while during spring (August to October there was an anisotropy with a preferential propagation direction towards the northwest. Unusual mesospheric fronts were also observed. The most probable wave source could be associated to orographic forcing, cold fronts or strong cyclonic activity in the Antarctica Peninsula.
Tsuda, Toshitaka
2014-01-01
The wind velocity and temperature profiles observed in the middle atmosphere (altitude: 10-100 km) show perturbations resulting from superposition of various atmospheric waves, including atmospheric gravity waves. Atmospheric gravity waves are known to play an important role in determining the general circulation in the middle atmosphere by dynamical stresses caused by gravity wave breaking. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar in Japan, as well as novel satellite data obtained from global positioning system radio occultation (GPS RO) measurements. In particular, we focus on the behavior of gravity waves in the mesosphere (50-90 km), where considerable gravity wave attenuation occurs. We also report on the global distribution of gravity wave activity in the stratosphere (10-50 km), highlighting various excitation mechanisms such as orographic effects, convection in the tropics, meteorological disturbances, the subtropical jet and the polar night jet.
Automated detection and association of surface waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. R. D. Woodgold
1994-06-01
Full Text Available An algorithm for the automatic detection and association of surface waves has been developed and tested over an 18 month interval on broad band data from the Yellowknife array (YKA. The detection algorithm uses a conventional STA/LTA scheme on data that have been narrow band filtered at 20 s periods and a test is then applied to identify dispersion. An average of 9 surface waves are detected daily using this technique. Beamforming is applied to determine the arrival azimuth; at a nonarray station this could be provided by poIarization analysis. The detected surface waves are associated daily with the events located by the short period array at Yellowknife, and later with the events listed in the USGS NEIC Monthly Summaries. Association requires matching both arrival time and azimuth of the Rayleigh waves. Regional calibration of group velocity and azimuth is required. . Large variations in both group velocity and azimuth corrections were found, as an example, signals from events in Fiji Tonga arrive with apparent group velocities of 2.9 3.5 krn/s and azimuths from 5 to + 40 degrees clockwise from true (great circle azimuth, whereas signals from Kuriles Kamchatka have velocities of 2.4 2.9 km/s and azimuths off by 35 to 0 degrees. After applying the regional corrections, surface waves are considered associated if the arrival time matches to within 0.25 km/s in apparent group velocity and the azimuth is within 30 degrees of the median expected. Over the 18 month period studied, 32% of the automatically detected surface waves were associated with events located by the Yellowknife short period array, and 34% (1591 with NEIC events; there is about 70% overlap between the two sets of events. Had the automatic detections been reported to the USGS, YKA would have ranked second (after LZH in terms of numbers of associated surface waves for the study period of April 1991 to September 1992.
Chameleon fields, wave function collapse and quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zanzi, A
2015-01-01
Chameleon fields are quantum (usually scalar) fields, with a density-dependent mass. In a high-density environment, the mass of the chameleon is large. On the contrary, in a small-density environment (e.g. on cosmological distances), the chameleon is very light. A model where the collapse of the wave function is induced by chameleon fields is presented. During this analysis, a Chameleonic Equivalence Principle (CEP) will be formulated: in this model, quantum gravitation is equivalent to a conformal anomaly. Further research efforts are necessary to verify whether this proposal is compatible with phenomeno logical constraints. (paper)
Tutorial review of seismic surface waves' phenomenology
Levshin, A. L.; Barmin, M. P.; Ritzwoller, M. H.
2018-03-01
In recent years, surface wave seismology has become one of the leading directions in seismological investigations of the Earth's structure and seismic sources. Various applications cover a wide spectrum of goals, dealing with differences in sources of seismic excitation, penetration depths, frequency ranges, and interpretation techniques. Observed seismic data demonstrates the great variability of phenomenology which can produce difficulties in interpretation for beginners. This tutorial review is based on the many years' experience of authors in processing and interpretation of seismic surface wave observations and the lectures of one of the authors (ALL) at Workshops on Seismic Wave Excitation, Propagation and Interpretation held at the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (Trieste, Italy) in 1990-2012. We present some typical examples of wave patterns which could be encountered in different applications and which can serve as a guide to analysis of observed seismograms.
Nayak, Chinmaya; Yiǧit, Erdal
2018-01-01
The present work investigates ionospheric effects of the 21 August 2017 total solar eclipse, particularly targeting eclipse-generated gravity waves in the ionosphere. Ionospheric total electron content (TEC) derived from Global Positioning System (GPS) data obtained from a number of stations located both along and across the path of eclipse totality has been utilized for this purpose. Distinct gravity wave-like signatures with wave periods around 20-90 min (with dominant peak at 25-30 min wave period) have been observed at all locations both in the path of totality and away from it. The observed gravity waves are more intense at locations closer to the path of totality, and the wave amplitudes decrease gradually with increasing distance from the path of totality. Our result highlights the manifestation of eclipse-generated waves in the variability of the terrestrial ionosphere.
The gravitational wave stress–energy (pseudo)-tensor in modified gravity
Saffer, Alexander; Yunes, Nicolás; Yagi, Kent
2018-03-01
The recent detections of gravitational waves by the advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors open up new tests of modified gravity theories in the strong-field and dynamical, extreme gravity regime. Such tests rely sensitively on the phase evolution of the gravitational waves, which is controlled by the energy–momentum carried by such waves out of the system. We here study four different methods for finding the gravitational wave stress–energy pseudo-tensor in gravity theories with any combination of scalar, vector, or tensor degrees of freedom. These methods rely on the second variation of the action under short-wavelength averaging, the second perturbation of the field equations in the short-wavelength approximation, the construction of an energy complex leading to a Landau–Lifshitz tensor, and the use of Noether’s theorem in field theories about a flat background. We apply these methods in general relativity, Jordan–Fierz–Brans–Dicky theoy, and Einstein-Æther theory to find the gravitational wave stress–energy pseudo-tensor and calculate the rate at which energy and linear momentum is carried away from the system. The stress–energy tensor and the rate of linear momentum loss in Einstein-Æther theory are presented here for the first time. We find that all methods yield the same rate of energy loss, although the stress–energy pseudo-tensor can be functionally different. We also find that the Noether method yields a stress–energy tensor that is not symmetric or gauge-invariant, and symmetrization via the Belinfante procedure does not fix these problems because this procedure relies on Lorentz invariance, which is spontaneously broken in Einstein-Æther theory. The methods and results found here will be useful for the calculation of predictions in modified gravity theories that can then be contrasted with observations.
Surface waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic elastic media
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45
reinforced solid elastic media. First, the theory of general surface waves has been derived and applied to study the particular cases of surface waves –. Rayleigh, Love and Stoneley types. The wave velocity equations are found to.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wrasse, Cristiano Max [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (IPeD), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Takahashi, Hisao; Fechine, Joaquim; Denardini, Clezio Marcos [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Wickert, Jens, E-mail: cmw@univap.br, E-mail: hisaotak@laser.inpe.br, E-mail: joaquim@laser.inpe.br, E-mail: denardin@dae.inpe.br, E-mail: jens.wickert@gfz-potsdam.de [GeoForschungsZentrum, Potsdam (GFZ), Department of Geodesy and Remote Sensing (Germany)
2007-07-01
Stratospheric gravity wave activities were deduced from GPS radio occultation temperature profiles obtained by CHAMP satellite between 2001 and 2005. Potential energy profiles are used to analyze the gravity wave activity over South America. The results showed an inter-annual variation of the potential energy integrated between 24 and 34 km of altitude. The gravity wave activity is more concentrated around the equatorial region. In order to evaluate the seasonal variation of the gravity wave activity, a mean potential energy was determined over (10 deg N-10 deg S) and (100 deg W-20 deg W). The results showed a lower gravity wave activity during winter time, while during spring time the mean potential energy showed an increase in the wave activity. The results of the mean potential energy also showed that the gravity wave activity in the lower stratosphere exhibits a higher wave activity during 2002 and 2004 and a lower wave activity during 2003 and 2005. (author)
Long-Term Observation of Small and Medium-Scale Gravity Waves over the Brazilian Equatorial Region
Essien, Patrick; Buriti, Ricardo; Wrasse, Cristiano M.; Medeiros, Amauri; Paulino, Igo; Takahashi, Hisao; Campos, Jose Andre
2016-07-01
This paper reports the long term observations of small and medium-scale gravity waves over Brazilian equatorial region. Coordinated optical and radio measurements were made from OLAP at Sao Joao do Cariri (7.400S, 36.500W) to investigate the occurrences and properties and to characterize the regional mesospheric gravity wave field. All-sky imager measurements were made from the site. for almost 11 consecutive years (September 2000 to November 2010). Most of the waves propagated were characterized as small-scale gravity. The characteristics of the two waves events agreed well with previous gravity wave studies from Brazil and other sites. However, significant differences in the wave propagation headings indicate dissimilar source regions. The observed medium-scale gravity wave events constitute an important new dataset to study their mesospheric properties at equatorial latitudes. These data exhibited similar propagation headings to the short period events, suggesting they originated from the same source regions. It was also observed that some of the medium-scale were capable of propagating into the lower thermosphere where they may have acted directly as seeds for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability development. The wave events were primarily generated by meteorological processes since there was no correlation between the evolution of the wave events and solar cycle F10.7.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zurek, W.H.
1984-01-01
The author shows that nondemolition monitoring of a Weber bar may prevent changes of the number of phonons, and thus influence the sensitivity of quantum-counting gravity wave detectors. This effect is similar to the Watchdog Effect which is predicted to delay decays of the monitored, unstable quantum system. Relations between watchdog effect and Environment-Induced Superselection Rules as well as its connections to the fundamental questions of the quantum theory of measurement are briefly considered. (Auth.)
Massive, massless and ghost modes of gravitational waves from higher-order gravity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bogdanos, Charalampos; Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia
, we investigate the possible detectability of such additional polarization modes of a stochastic gravitational wave by ground-based and space interferometric detectors. Finally, we extend the formalism of the cross-correlation analysis, including the additional polarization modes, and calculate...... the detectable energy density of the spectrum for a stochastic background of the relic gravity waves that corresponds to our model. For the situation considered here, we find that these massive modes are certainly of interest for direct detection by the LISA experiment....
Gravitational waves from quasicircular black-hole binaries in dynamical Chern-Simons gravity.
Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás; Tanaka, Takahiro
2012-12-21
Dynamical Chern-Simons gravity cannot be strongly constrained with current experiments because it reduces to general relativity in the weak-field limit. This theory, however, introduces modifications in the nonlinear, dynamical regime, and thus it could be greatly constrained with gravitational waves from the late inspiral of black-hole binaries. We complete the first self-consistent calculation of such gravitational waves in this theory. For favorable spin orientations, advanced ground-based detectors may improve existing solar system constraints by 6 orders of magnitude.
Traveling neutral disturbances. [acoustic-gravity wave coupling to minor species in atmosphere
Gross, S. H.; Eun, H.
1976-01-01
The coupling of acoustic-gravity waves in the main atmosphere to acoustic waves characteristic of individual minor species in the atmosphere is postulated. Such coupling would exist as a result of resonances in the response of the minor species, and its likelihood depends on the mass of the atmospheric particle relative to the major species mass, the diffusion of the minor species, and the direction of propagation of the main disturbance. These minor-species disturbances may explain some AE-C measurements in the thermosphere and could possibly play a role in the distribution of minor species and their chemistry in the mesosphere.
Kelvin-Helmholtz billows and their effects on mean state during gravity wave propagation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. Liu
2009-07-01
Full Text Available The Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH billows which appear in the process of gravity wave (GW propagation are simulated directly by using a compressible nonlinear two-dimensional gravity wave model. The differences between our model and others include: the background field has no special initial configuration and there is no initial triggering mechanism needed in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT region to excite the KH billows. However, the initial triggering mechanism is performed in the lower atmosphere through GW, which then propagate into the MLT region and form billows. The braid structures and overturning of KH billows, caused by nonlinear interactions between GWs and mean flow, can be resolved precisely by the model. These results support the findings in airglow studies that GWs propagating from below into the MLT region are important sources of KH billows. The onset of small scale waves and the wave energy transfer induce the shallower vertical wave number power spectral densities (PSD. However, most of the slopes are steeper than the expected kz−3 power law, which indicates that GWs with 10 km vertical wavelength are still a dominant mode. The results also show that the evolution of mean wind vary substantially between the different processes of GWs propagation. Before the KH billows evolve, the mean wind is accelerated greatly by GWs. By contrast, as the KH billows evolve and mix with mean flow, the mean wind and its peak value decrease.
Gravity wave spectra in the lower stratosphere diagnosed from project loon balloon trajectories
Schoeberl, M. R.; Jensen, E.; Podglajen, A.; Coy, L.; Lodha, C.; Candido, S.; Carver, R.
2017-08-01
Project Loon has been launching superpressure balloons since January 2013 to provide worldwide Internet coverage. These balloons typically fly between 18 and 21 km and provide measurements of winds and pressure fluctuations in the lower stratosphere. We divide 1560 Loon flights into 3405 two-day segments for gravity wave analysis. We derive the kinetic energy spectrum from the horizontal balloon motion and estimate the temperature perturbation spectrum (proportional to the potential energy spectrum) from the pressure variations. We fit the temperature (and kinetic energy) data to the functional form T'2 = T'o2[ω/ωο)α, where ω is the wave frequency, ωο is daily frequency, T'o is the base temperature amplitude, and α is the spectral slope. Both the kinetic energy and temperature spectra show -1.9 ± 0.2 power-law dependence in the intrinsic frequency window 3-50 cycles/day. The temperature spectrum slope is weakly anticorrelated with the base temperature amplitude. We also find that the wave base temperature distribution is highly skewed. The tropical modal temperature is 0.77 K. The highest amplitude waves occur over the mountainous regions, the tropics, and the high southern latitudes. Temperature amplitudes show little height variation over our 18-21 km domain. Our results are consistent with other limited superpressure balloon analyses. The modal temperature is higher than the temperature currently used in high-frequency gravity wave parameterizations.
Acoustic Gravity Waves in the Ionosphere and Thermosphere During the 2017 Solar Eclipse
Lin, C. Y. T.; Deng, Y.
2017-12-01
During the 2017 solar eclipse, as the sudden cavity of solar radiation created by the lunar shadow moves across the United States on August 21, 2017, decreases in local IT temperature and density are expected. The average velocity of the total solar eclipse across the United States is 700 m/s. The forefront and wake of the lunar shadow are expected to induce acoustic gravity waves according to previous studies of atmosphere waves induced by traveling wave packets moving at different velocities. Meanwhile, moving toward the cross-track direction of the obscuration footprint, weaker transitions will likely create mesoscale to large-scale traveling disturbances. We will use the Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model, a global circulation model solving for non-hydrostatic equations, with high-resolution settings to investigate the IT responses related to the acoustic-gravity wave perturbations during the 2017 solar eclipse. The simulation will be performed with a sub-degree resolution in longitude and latitude for 3 hours when the atmosphere of the North America sector is mostly obscured. The observable differences between the eclipsed and non-eclipsed scenarios will be examined in detail and be interpreted as consequences from the solar eclipse. We will investigate the evolution of waves during the event and establish a theoretical baseline for further comparisons with observations.
QBO Modulation of the Mesopause Gravity Wave Momentum Flux over Tierra del Fuego
De Wit, R. J.; Janches, D.; Fritts, D. C.; Hibbins, R. E.
2016-01-01
The interannual variability of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) gravity wave momentum flux over southern mid latitudes (53.7degS) has been studied using more than 7 years of meteor radar observations at Ro Grande, Argentina. A modulation, with periods similar to that of the equatorial stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), is observed in the vertical flux of zonal as well as meridional momentum. The QBO signal is largest in the zonal component during summer and is in phase with the stratospheric QBO at 50 hPa (approx. 21 km). The relation between the stratospheric QBO and the QBO modulation in the MLT gravity wave forcing (derived from the divergence of the momentum flux) was found to be consistent with that expected from the Holton-Tan effect coupled to the interhemispheric coupling mechanism. These results provide the first observational support for the existence of the midlatitude gravity wave forcing anomalies as hypothesized in the interhemispheric coupling mechanism.
Influence of tides and gravity waves on layering processes in the polar summer mesopause region
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Hoffmann
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE have been studied at Andenes (69° N, 16° E, Norway, using VHF radar observations since 1994. One remarkable feature of these observations is the fact that {during 50% of the time,} the radar echoes occur in the form of two or more distinct layers. In the case of multiple PMSE layers, statistical analysis shows that the lower layer occurs at a mean height of ~83.4 km, which is almost identical to the mean height of noctilucent clouds (NLC derived from observation with the ALOMAR Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar at the same site. To investigate the layering processes microphysical model simulations under the influence of tidal and gravity waves were performed. In the presence of long period gravity waves, these model investigations predict an enhanced formation of multiple PMSE layer structures, where the lower layer is a consequence of the occurrence of the largest particles at the bottom of the ice cloud. This explains the coincidence of the lowermost PMSE layers and NLC. During periods with enhanced amplitudes of the semidiurnal tide, the observed NLC and PMSE show pronounced tidal structures comparable to the results of corresponding microphysical simulations. At periods with short period gravity waves there is a tendency for a decreasing occurrence of NLC and for variable weak PMSE structures.
Modeling Volcanic Eruption Parameters by Near-Source Internal Gravity Waves.
Ripepe, M; Barfucci, G; De Angelis, S; Delle Donne, D; Lacanna, G; Marchetti, E
2016-11-10
Volcanic explosions release large amounts of hot gas and ash into the atmosphere to form plumes rising several kilometers above eruptive vents, which can pose serious risk on human health and aviation also at several thousands of kilometers from the volcanic source. However the most sophisticate atmospheric models and eruptive plume dynamics require input parameters such as duration of the ejection phase and total mass erupted to constrain the quantity of ash dispersed in the atmosphere and to efficiently evaluate the related hazard. The sudden ejection of this large quantity of ash can perturb the equilibrium of the whole atmosphere triggering oscillations well below the frequencies of acoustic waves, down to much longer periods typical of gravity waves. We show that atmospheric gravity oscillations induced by volcanic eruptions and recorded by pressure sensors can be modeled as a compact source representing the rate of erupted volcanic mass. We demonstrate the feasibility of using gravity waves to derive eruption source parameters such as duration of the injection and total erupted mass with direct application in constraining plume and ash dispersal models.
Katamzi, Z. T.; Habarulema, J. B.; Aruliah, A. L.; Oksavik, K.
2017-12-01
Atmospheric gravity waves have been observed as perturbations in the neutral density and temperatures and hence fluctuations of airglow intensity and electron density. Since gravity waves are a dynamical process that transport energy between different atmospheric regions, they are an interesting example of the coupling of the ionosphere from below (e.g. generated through meteorological processes) and from above (e.g. generated through space weather conditions). In this study, gravity waves have been observed using Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) intensity of oxygen red line emission at 630 nm and Global Positioning System (GPS) total electron content (TEC) measurements over Svalbard during enhanced auroral activity associated with substorms on the night of 6-7 Jan 2014. These disturbances have periods ranging between 32 and 58 minutes. Their propagation characteristics at 240 km as measured by the FPI and at 350 km as measured by GPS ground based receivers will be compared in order to gather further insight on the dissipation of energy as they propagate away from their source region.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We study the cosmological dynamics for R p exp( λ R ) gravity theory in the metric formalism, using dynamical systems approach. Considering higher-dimensional FRW geometries in case of an imperfect fluid which has two different scale factors in the normal and extra dimensions, we find the exact solutions, and study its ...
Viscoelastic love-type surface waves
Borcherdt, Roger D.
2008-01-01
The general theoretical solution for Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media provides theoreticalexpressions for the physical characteristics of the waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitraryamounts of intrinsic damping. The general solution yields dispersion and absorption-coefficient curves for the waves as a function of frequency and theamount of intrinsic damping for any chosen viscoelastic model.Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physicalcharacteristics of the waves pertinent to models of Earth materials ranging from small amounts of damping in the Earth’s crust to moderate and large amounts of damping in soft soils and water-saturated sediments. Numerical results, presented herein, are valid for a wide range of solids and applications.
Surface Acoustic Wave Transducer Study.
1978-05-01
ment. — ISO Lir — ~.1 L ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ L~~~I&jr ~~ —- — — —--- - - - - t - s’ rlr ~~T I O , 4 ) F ~ H I ’ ~~,! ~WI.ft ?).s. ~~~~MEPORT DOCUMENTAT I...multiplying the norma l stress components thus ensuring that the normal stress is zero at x 2 = 0. For the present , an open-circuit elec trical...boundary condition is assumed so that the norma l D-uield is zero at the surface. This is taken .5 into account in a similar manner with a step-function
Active micromixer using surface acoustic wave streaming
Branch,; Darren W. , Meyer; Grant D. , Craighead; Harold, G [Ithaca, NY
2011-05-17
An active micromixer uses a surface acoustic wave, preferably a Rayleigh wave, propagating on a piezoelectric substrate to induce acoustic streaming in a fluid in a microfluidic channel. The surface acoustic wave can be generated by applying an RF excitation signal to at least one interdigital transducer on the piezoelectric substrate. The active micromixer can rapidly mix quiescent fluids or laminar streams in low Reynolds number flows. The active micromixer has no moving parts (other than the SAW transducer) and is, therefore, more reliable, less damaging to sensitive fluids, and less susceptible to fouling and channel clogging than other types of active and passive micromixers. The active micromixer is adaptable to a wide range of geometries, can be easily fabricated, and can be integrated in a microfluidic system, reducing dead volume. Finally, the active micromixer has on-demand on/off mixing capability and can be operated at low power.
Modeling and Inversion of Scattered Surface waves
Riyanti, C.D.
2005-01-01
In this thesis, we present a modeling method based on a domain-type integral representation for waves propagating along the surface of the Earth which have been scattered in the vicinity of the source or the receivers. Using this model as starting point, we formulate an inversion scheme to estimate
Miyoshi, Y.; Jin, H.; Fujiwara, H.; Shinagawa, H.
2017-12-01
It has been recognized that gravity waves (GWs) play an important role on the momentum and energy budget in the thermosphere/ionosphere. In this study, using a whole atmosphere-ionosphere coupled model (GAIA), behaviors of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs) generated by upward propagating GWs in the thermosphere are investigated. The horizontal resolution of GAIA is 1 degree longitude by 1 degree latitude, which is adequate to simulate large-scale GWs. The GAIA contains the region from the ground surface to the upper thermosphere, so that we can simulate excitation of gravity waves in the lower atmosphere, their upward propagation to the mesosphere and thermosphere, and their impacts on the thermosphere/ionosphere system. The GAIA can simulate TIDs because interaction processes between the ionosphere and neutral atmosphere are included. We focus on seasonal and longitudinal variations of TIDs and their relation to GW activity in the thermosphere. Our results indicate that many TIDs are generated by upward propagating GWs in the thermosphere, and these TIDs propagate equatorward. TIDs are much stronger in winter than in summer. Moreover, day-to-day variability of GW activity in the stratosphere and mesosphere are examined, and their impacts on temporal variability of TIDs are discussed.
Testing effective quantum gravity with gravitational waves from extreme mass ratio inspirals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yunes, N; Sopuerta, C F
2010-01-01
Testing deviation of GR is one of the main goals of the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. For the first time, we consistently compute the generation of gravitational waves from extreme-mass ratio inspirals (stellar compact objects into supermassive black holes) in a well-motivated alternative theory of gravity, that to date remains weakly constrained by double binary pulsar observations. The theory we concentrate on is Chern-Simons (CS) modified gravity, a 4-D, effective theory that is motivated both from string theory and loop-quantum gravity, and which enhances the Einstein-Hilbert action through the addition of a dynamical scalar field and the parity-violating Pontryagin density. We show that although point particles continue to follow geodesics in the modified theory, the background about which they inspiral is a modification to the Kerr metric, which imprints a CS correction on the gravitational waves emitted. CS modified gravitational waves are sufficiently different from the General Relativistic expectation that they lead to significant dephasing after 3 weeks of evolution, but such dephasing will probably not prevent detection of these signals, but instead lead to a systematic error in the determination of parameters. We end with a study of radiation-reaction in the modified theory and show that, to leading-order, energy-momentum emission is not CS modified, except possibly for the subdominant effect of scalar-field emission. The inclusion of radiation-reaction will allow for tests of CS modified gravity with space-borne detectors that might be two orders of magnitude larger than current binary pulsar bounds.
Louie, J. N.; Basler-Reeder, K.; Kent, G. M.; Pullammanappallil, S. K.
2015-12-01
Simultaneous joint seismic-gravity optimization improves P-wave velocity models in areas with sharp lateral velocity contrasts. Optimization is achieved using simulated annealing, a metaheuristic global optimization algorithm that does not require an accurate initial model. Balancing the seismic-gravity objective function is accomplished by a novel approach based on analysis of Pareto charts. Gravity modeling uses a newly developed convolution algorithm, while seismic modeling utilizes the highly efficient Vidale eikonal equation traveltime generation technique. Synthetic tests show that joint optimization improves velocity model accuracy and provides velocity control below the deepest headwave raypath. Detailed first arrival picking followed by trial velocity modeling remediates inconsistent data. We use a set of highly refined first arrival picks to compare results of a convergent joint seismic-gravity optimization to the Plotrefa™ and SeisOpt® Pro™ velocity modeling packages. Plotrefa™ uses a nonlinear least squares approach that is initial model dependent and produces shallow velocity artifacts. SeisOpt® Pro™ utilizes the simulated annealing algorithm and is limited to depths above the deepest raypath. Joint optimization increases the depth of constrained velocities, improving reflector coherency at depth. Kirchoff prestack depth migrations reveal that joint optimization ameliorates shallow velocity artifacts caused by limitations in refraction ray coverage. Seismic and gravity data from the San Emidio Geothermal field of the northwest Basin and Range province demonstrate that joint optimization changes interpretation outcomes. The prior shallow-valley interpretation gives way to a deep valley model, while shallow antiformal reflectors that could have been interpreted as antiformal folds are flattened. Furthermore, joint optimization provides a clearer image of the rangefront fault. This technique can readily be applied to existing datasets and could
Gravity Waves and Tidal Measurement Capabilities from a Space-borne Lidar across the Mesopause.
Dawkins, E. C. M.; Gardner, C. S.; Kaifler, B.; Marsh, D. R.; Janches, D.
2017-12-01
A new proposed NASA mission, ACaDAMe (Atmospheric Coupling and Dynamics Across the Mesopause region) consists of a space-borne sodium lidar, mounted upon the International Space Station. Combining the advantages of a lidar with the near-global coverage provided by the ISS (orbital inclination: 51.6o, orbital period: 92.7 mins), the ACaDAMe mission has enormous potential to quantify the waves that provide the major momentum and energy forcing of the Ionosphere-Thermosphere-Mesosphere system from below. Specifically, this mission seeks to quantify the dominant wave momentum and energy inputs across the mesopause, and identify the near-global distribution of gravity waves and tides that impact the Thermosphere/Ionosphere and are the terrestrial drivers of Space Weather. Leveraging on existing instrument heritage and expertise, this nadir-pointing narrowband lidar would be tuned to two-frequencies (at the peak of the D2a line, and at the minimum between the D2a and D2b peaks), with a capability to retrieve vertically-resolved [Na] and temperature, T, for both nighttime and daytime conditions. Here we outline the proposed mission, present an error characterization for [Na] and T, and describe the capabilities to estimate gravity waves and tidal features which will provide a crucial role in advancing our understanding of small-scale dynamical processes and coupling across this important atmospheric region.
The Propagation of Tsunami Generated Acoustic-Gravity Waves in the Atmosphere
Wu, Y.; Llewellyn Smith, S.; Rottman, J.; Broutman, D.; Minster, J. B. H.
2014-12-01
Tsunami-generated acoustic-gravity waves propagate in the atmosphere up to the ionosphere, where they have been observed to have an impact on the total electron content (TEC). We simulate the propagation of 2D&3D linearized acoustic-gravity waves in the atmosphere by Fourier transforming in the horizontal and solving the vertical structure with a tsunami-perturbed lower boundary and an upper radiation boundary conditions. Starting from the algorithm of Broutman (2013) and the atmospheric profile of the 2004 Sumatra Tsunami, we add compressibility to the atmosphere and extend the calculation to three dimensions. Compressibility is an important feature of the real atmosphere, and we investigate its effect on wave propagation. We obtain the vertical wavenumber as a function of buoyancy frequency, density scale height, sound speed, and background wind velocity. Results show that wind shear and compressibility have a significant impact on wave transmission and reflection. We also investigate the 3D problem to allow variations in the bottom boundary condition and in the background wind profiles. Results are quite similar to the 2D case.
Contributions to a fifth-order model equation for steady capillary-gravity waves over a bump
Tsai, Chung-Hsien
1999-12-01
The objective of this dissertation is to study the solutions, h(x) , of a nonlinear model equation for steady capillary-gravity waves on an ideal fluid flow over a compact or non-compact bump with the Bond number, a nondimensional surface tension coefficient, close to its critical value 1/3 and the Froude number, a nondimensional wave speed, close to 1. There are nine cases to be discussed according to the eigenvalues of the linearized model equation. First, we study the stability of zero solution which will confirm that the solutions of the model equation will remain bounded when the waves pass the compact bump, [x1,x2] , if it is stable and dhn/dxn| x=x2,n=0,1,2,3 , are sufficiently close to zero solution. Next, we show that there exist periodic solutions, symmetric and unsymmetric solitary wave solutions, bounded solutions and asymptotic solutions in all nine cases with a compact bump. We also show there exist explicit exact solutions for all cases with a special non-compact bump. Finally we carry out numerical computations to verify the theoretical results discussed cussed above.
Multi-channel Analysis of Passive Surface Waves (MAPS)
Xia, J.; Cheng, F. Mr; Xu, Z.; Wang, L.; Shen, C.; Liu, R.; Pan, Y.; Mi, B.; Hu, Y.
2017-12-01
Urbanization is an inevitable trend in modernization of human society. In the end of 2013 the Chinese Central Government launched a national urbanization plan—"Three 100 Million People", which aggressively and steadily pushes forward urbanization. Based on the plan, by 2020, approximately 100 million people from rural areas will permanently settle in towns, dwelling conditions of about 100 million people in towns and villages will be improved, and about 100 million people in the central and western China will permanently settle in towns. China's urbanization process will run at the highest speed in the urbanization history of China. Environmentally friendly, non-destructive and non-invasive geophysical assessment method has played an important role in the urbanization process in China. Because human noise and electromagnetic field due to industrial life, geophysical methods already used in urban environments (gravity, magnetics, electricity, seismic) face great challenges. But humanity activity provides an effective source of passive seismic methods. Claerbout pointed out that wavefileds that are received at one point with excitation at the other point can be reconstructed by calculating the cross-correlation of noise records at two surface points. Based on this idea (cross-correlation of two noise records) and the virtual source method, we proposed Multi-channel Analysis of Passive Surface Waves (MAPS). MAPS mainly uses traffic noise recorded with a linear receiver array. Because Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves can produces a shear (S) wave velocity model with high resolution in shallow part of the model, MPAS combines acquisition and processing of active source and passive source data in a same flow, which does not require to distinguish them. MAPS is also of ability of real-time quality control of noise recording that is important for near-surface applications in urban environment. The numerical and real-world examples demonstrated that MAPS can be
Surface and body waves from surface and underground explosions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kusubov, A.S.
1976-06-01
The characteristics of surface and ground waves were recorded for surface and underground explosions up to 100 tons and 40 kt in magnitude, respectively, and a preliminary analysis of these results is presented. The experiments were conducted at NTS in the Yucca Flats, Nevada. Ground motions were detected with triaxial geophones along seismic lines extending up to 16 miles from the point of explosions. A comparison of Rayleigh waves generated by surface and underground explosions in the same lake bed is presented indicating a very different behavior of surface and ground waves from the two types of explosions. The magnitude of the transverse wave for surface shots was smaller by a factor of two than its longitudinal counterpart. The dependence of apparent periods on the blast energy was not apparent at a fixed distance from the explosions. Changes in the apparent period with distance for both types of explosion are compared indicating a strong layering effect of the lake bed. The ground motion study was complimented by excavation of cavities generated by the explosions
Gravitational waves during inflation from a 5D large-scale repulsive gravity model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reyes, Luz M., E-mail: luzmarinareyes@gmail.com [Departamento de Matematicas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e ingenierias (CUCEI), Universidad de Guadalajara (UdG), Av. Revolucion 1500, S.R. 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Moreno, Claudia, E-mail: claudia.moreno@cucei.udg.mx [Departamento de Matematicas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e ingenierias (CUCEI), Universidad de Guadalajara (UdG), Av. Revolucion 1500, S.R. 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Madriz Aguilar, Jose Edgar, E-mail: edgar.madriz@red.cucei.udg.mx [Departamento de Matematicas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e ingenierias (CUCEI), Universidad de Guadalajara (UdG), Av. Revolucion 1500, S.R. 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Bellini, Mauricio, E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMdP), Funes 3350, C.P. 7600, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR) - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)
2012-10-22
We investigate, in the transverse traceless (TT) gauge, the generation of the relic background of gravitational waves, generated during the early inflationary stage, on the framework of a large-scale repulsive gravity model. We calculate the spectrum of the tensor metric fluctuations of an effective 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric on cosmological scales. This metric is obtained after implementing a planar coordinate transformation on a 5D Ricci-flat metric solution, in the context of a non-compact Kaluza-Klein theory of gravity. We found that the spectrum is nearly scale invariant under certain conditions. One interesting aspect of this model is that it is possible to derive the dynamical field equations for the tensor metric fluctuations, valid not just at cosmological scales, but also at astrophysical scales, from the same theoretical model. The astrophysical and cosmological scales are determined by the gravity-antigravity radius, which is a natural length scale of the model, that indicates when gravity becomes repulsive in nature.
Gravitational waves during inflation from a 5D large-scale repulsive gravity model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reyes, Luz M.; Moreno, Claudia; Madriz Aguilar, José Edgar; Bellini, Mauricio
2012-01-01
We investigate, in the transverse traceless (TT) gauge, the generation of the relic background of gravitational waves, generated during the early inflationary stage, on the framework of a large-scale repulsive gravity model. We calculate the spectrum of the tensor metric fluctuations of an effective 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric on cosmological scales. This metric is obtained after implementing a planar coordinate transformation on a 5D Ricci-flat metric solution, in the context of a non-compact Kaluza-Klein theory of gravity. We found that the spectrum is nearly scale invariant under certain conditions. One interesting aspect of this model is that it is possible to derive the dynamical field equations for the tensor metric fluctuations, valid not just at cosmological scales, but also at astrophysical scales, from the same theoretical model. The astrophysical and cosmological scales are determined by the gravity-antigravity radius, which is a natural length scale of the model, that indicates when gravity becomes repulsive in nature.
Dimensional reduction of gravity and relation between static states, cosmologies, and waves
de Alfaro, V.; Filippov, A. T.
2007-12-01
We introduce generalized dimensional reductions of an integrable (1+1)-dimensional dilaton gravity coupled to matter down to one-dimensional static states (black holes in particular), cosmological models, and waves. An unusual feature of these reductions is that the wave solutions depend on two variables: space and time. They are obtained here both by reducing the moduli space (available because of complete integrability) and by a generalized separation of variables (also applicable to nonintegrable models and to higher-dimensional theories). Among these new wavelike solutions, we find a class of solutions for which the matter fields are finite everywhere in space-time, including infinity. These considerations clearly demonstrate that a deep connection exists between static states, cosmologies, and waves. We argue that it should also exist in realistic higher-dimensional theories. Among other things, we also briefly outline the relations existing between the low-dimensional models that we discuss here and the realistic higher-dimensional ones.
Electromagnetic waves in an axion-active relativistic plasma non-minimally coupled to gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balakin, Alexander B.; Muharlyamov, Ruslan K.; Zayats, Alexei E.
2013-01-01
We consider cosmological applications of a new self-consistent system of equations, accounting for a non-minimal coupling of the gravitational, electromagnetic and pseudoscalar (axion) fields in a relativistic plasma. We focus on dispersion relations for electromagnetic perturbations in an initially isotropic ultrarelativistic plasma coupled to the gravitational and axion fields in the framework of isotropic homogeneous cosmological model of the de Sitter type. We classify the longitudinal and transversal electromagnetic modes in an axionically active plasma and distinguish between waves (damping, instable or running), and nonharmonic perturbations (damping or instable). We show that for the special choice of the guiding model parameters the transversal electromagnetic waves in the axionically active plasma, non-minimally coupled to gravity, can propagate with the phase velocity smaller than the speed of light in vacuum, thus displaying a possibility for a new type of resonant particle-wave interactions. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lucas Lombriser
2017-02-01
Full Text Available With the advent of gravitational-wave astronomy marked by the aLIGO GW150914 and GW151226 observations, a measurement of the cosmological speed of gravity will likely soon be realised. We show that a confirmation of equality to the speed of light as indicated by indirect Galactic observations will have important consequences for a very large class of alternative explanations of the late-time accelerated expansion of our Universe. It will break the dark degeneracy of self-accelerated Horndeski scalar–tensor theories in the large-scale structure that currently limits a rigorous discrimination between acceleration from modified gravity and from a cosmological constant or dark energy. Signatures of a self-acceleration must then manifest in the linear, unscreened cosmological structure. We describe the minimal modification required for self-acceleration with standard gravitational-wave speed and show that its maximum likelihood yields a 3σ poorer fit to cosmological observations compared to a cosmological constant. Hence, equality between the speeds challenges the concept of cosmic acceleration from a genuine scalar–tensor modification of gravity.
Lombriser, Lucas; Lima, Nelson A.
2017-02-01
With the advent of gravitational-wave astronomy marked by the aLIGO GW150914 and GW151226 observations, a measurement of the cosmological speed of gravity will likely soon be realised. We show that a confirmation of equality to the speed of light as indicated by indirect Galactic observations will have important consequences for a very large class of alternative explanations of the late-time accelerated expansion of our Universe. It will break the dark degeneracy of self-accelerated Horndeski scalar-tensor theories in the large-scale structure that currently limits a rigorous discrimination between acceleration from modified gravity and from a cosmological constant or dark energy. Signatures of a self-acceleration must then manifest in the linear, unscreened cosmological structure. We describe the minimal modification required for self-acceleration with standard gravitational-wave speed and show that its maximum likelihood yields a 3σ poorer fit to cosmological observations compared to a cosmological constant. Hence, equality between the speeds challenges the concept of cosmic acceleration from a genuine scalar-tensor modification of gravity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Y.
1996-01-01
We present two simple analytical methods for computing the gravity-wave contribution to the cosmic background radiation (CBR) anisotropy in inflationary models; one method uses a time-dependent transfer function, the other methods uses an approximate gravity-mode function which is a simple combination of the lowest order spherical Bessel functions. We compare the CBR anisotropy tensor multipole spectrum computed using our methods with the previous result of the highly accurate numerical method, the open-quote open-quote Boltzmann close-quote close-quote method. Our time-dependent transfer function is more accurate than the time-independent transfer function found by Turner, White, and Lindsey; however, we find that the transfer function method is only good for l approx-lt 120. Using our approximate gravity-wave mode function, we obtain much better accuracy; the tensor multipole spectrum we find differs by less than 2% for l approx-lt 50, less than 10% for l approx-lt 120, and less than 20% for l≤300 from the open-quote open-quote Boltzmann close-quote close-quote result. Our approximate graviton mode function should be quite useful in studying tensor perturbations from inflationary models. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Regional variations of mesospheric gravity-wave momentum flux over Antarctica
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P. J. Espy
2006-03-01
Full Text Available Images of mesospheric airglow and radar-wind measurements have been combined to estimate the difference in the vertical flux of horizontal momentum carried by high-frequency gravity waves over two dissimilar Antarctic stations. Rothera (67° S, 68° W is situated in the mountains of the Peninsula near the edge of the wintertime polar vortex. In contrast, Halley (76° S, 27° W, some 1658 km to the southeast, is located on an ice sheet at the edge of the Antarctic Plateau and deep within the polar vortex during winter. The cross-correlation coefficients between the vertical and horizontal wind perturbations were calculated from sodium (Na airglow imager data collected during the austral winter seasons of 2002 and 2003 at Rothera for comparison with the 2000 and 2001 results from Halley reported previously (Espy et al., 2004. These cross-correlation coefficients were combined with wind-velocity variances from coincident radar measurements to estimate the daily averaged upper-limit of the vertical flux of horizontal momentum due to gravity waves near the peak emission altitude of the Na nightglow layer, 90km. The resulting momentum flux at both stations displayed a large day-to-day variability and showed a marked seasonal rotation from the northwest to the southwest throughout the winter. However, the magnitude of the flux at Rothera was about 4 times larger than that at Halley, suggesting that the differences in the gravity-wave source functions and filtering by the underlying winds at the two stations create significant regional differences in wave forcing on the scale of the station separation.
Blackfolds, plane waves and minimal surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Armas, Jay [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Blau, Matthias [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)
2015-07-29
Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and compact. We use the blackfold approach in order to scan for possible black hole horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat, plane wave and de Sitter space-times. In the process we uncover several new configurations, such as black helicoids and catenoids, some of which have an asymptotically flat counterpart. In particular, we find that the ultraspinning regime of singly-spinning Myers-Perry black holes, described in terms of the simplest minimal surface (the plane), can be obtained as a limit of a black helicoid, suggesting that these two families of black holes are connected. We also show that minimal surfaces embedded in spheres rather than Euclidean space can be used to construct static compact horizons in asymptotically de Sitter space-times.
Lagrangian modelling of ocean surface waves and synthetic aperture radar wave measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fouques, Sebastien
2005-07-01
, along with a RAR modulation transfer function (MTF) with a larger amplitude. Eventually, an optimization of the RAR MTF is carried out by making use of the co-located database and the dependency of the optimized parameters on the wind velocity is studied. In the last three articles. Lagrangian models for ocean surface waves are investigated, and the main results are the following. In Article III, ocean surface properties such as the slope and the curvature are studied for linear irregular waves, and the difference between the Eulerian and the Lagrangian wave spectra is illustrated. In addition, some features of the second-order Lagrangian solution for irregular long-crested waves are presented. Then, in Article IV, the Lagrangian equations of motion, as given in Lamb (1932), are extended to include the irrotational flow assumption and simplified by eliminating the pressure. The first-order solution for two-dimensional irregular waves given by Pierson (1961) is modified through a change of variables that makes the mass conservation equation be fulfilled exactly, instead of being correct to the first order only. The resulting waves show higher sharp crests than in Pierson's solution, in which some water locally and temporary disappears in the vicinity of the surface. Furthermore, a three-dimensional second-order irrotational solution is derived. Monte Carlo simulations of irregular long-crested waves reveal that the fronts of some waves may steepen, while the fluid located on their back side and near the surface is hurled forward, in a way similar to an early stage breaking wave. Then, it is demonstrated that at the second order, short-crested waves develop curved crests owing to a non-uniform current field. Finally, the ability of the Lagrangian formalism to describe capillary waves is investigated in Article V. Assuming that surface tension is the only restoring force, the profile of the first-order monochromatic solution is the same as for gravity waves, with
The internal gravity wave spectrum in two high-resolution global ocean models
Arbic, B. K.; Ansong, J. K.; Buijsman, M. C.; Kunze, E. L.; Menemenlis, D.; Müller, M.; Richman, J. G.; Savage, A.; Shriver, J. F.; Wallcraft, A. J.; Zamudio, L.
2016-02-01
We examine the internal gravity wave (IGW) spectrum in two sets of high-resolution global ocean simulations that are forced concurrently by atmospheric fields and the astronomical tidal potential. We analyze global 1/12th and 1/25th degree HYCOM simulations, and global 1/12th, 1/24th, and 1/48th degree simulations of the MITgcm. We are motivated by the central role that IGWs play in ocean mixing, by operational considerations of the US Navy, which runs HYCOM as an ocean forecast model, and by the impact of the IGW continuum on the sea surface height (SSH) measurements that will be taken by the planned NASA/CNES SWOT wide-swath altimeter mission. We (1) compute the IGW horizontal wavenumber-frequency spectrum of kinetic energy, and interpret the results with linear dispersion relations computed from the IGW Sturm-Liouville problem, (2) compute and similarly interpret nonlinear spectral kinetic energy transfers in the IGW band, (3) compute and similarly interpret IGW contributions to SSH variance, (4) perform comparisons of modeled IGW kinetic energy frequency spectra with moored current meter observations, and (5) perform comparisons of modeled IGW kinetic energy vertical wavenumber-frequency spectra with moored observations. This presentation builds upon our work in Muller et al. (2015, GRL), who performed tasks (1), (2), and (4) in 1/12th and 1/25th degree HYCOM simulations, for one region of the North Pacific. New for this presentation are tasks (3) and (5), the inclusion of MITgcm solutions, and the analysis of additional ocean regions.
An investigation of long-distance propagation of gravity waves under CAWSES India Phase II Programme
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Parihar
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Coordinated measurements of airglow features from the mesosphere–lower thermosphere (MLT region were performed at Allahabad (25.5° N, 81.9° E and Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, India to study the propagation of gravity waves in 13–27° N latitude range during the period June 2009 to May 2010 under CAWSES (Climate And Weather of Sun Earth System India Phase II Programme. At Allahabad, imaging observations of OH broadband emissions and OI 557.7 nm emission were made using an all-sky imager, while at Gadanki photometric measurements of OH (6, 2 Meinel band and O2 (0, 1 Atmospheric band emissions were carried out. On many occasions, the nightly observations reveal the presence of similar waves at both locations. Typically, the period of observed similar waves lay in the 2.2–4.5 h range, had large phase speeds (~ 77–331 m s−1 and large wavelengths (~ 1194–2746 km. The images of outgoing long-wave radiation activity of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA and the high-resolution infrared images of KALPANA-1 satellite suggest that such waves possibly originated from some nearby convective sources. An analysis of their propagation characteristics in conjunction with SABER/TIMED temperature profiles and Horizontal Wind Model (HWM 2007 wind estimates suggest that the waves propagated over long distances (~ 1200–2000 km in atmospheric ducts.
Recent progress in mesospheric gravity wave studies using nightglow imaging system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taylor, Michael J.; Pendleton Junior, William R.; Pautet, Pierre-Dominique; Zhao, Yucheng; Olsen, Chris; Babu, Hema Karnam Surendra [Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, Utah (United States); Medeiros, Amauri F. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Unidade Academica de Fisica, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Takahashi, Hisao, E-mail: mtaylor@cc.usu.edu, E-mail: wpen@cc.usu.edu, E-mail: dominiquepautet@gmail.com, E-mail: yucheng@cc.usu.edu, E-mail: cmellob@gmail.com, E-mail: hema_sb@rediffmail.com, E-mail: afragoso@df.ufcg.edu.br, E-mail: hisaotak@laser.inpe.br [INPE, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)
2007-07-01
A variety of optical remote sensing techniques have now revealed a rich spectrum of wave activity in the upper atmosphere. Many of these perturbations, with periodicities ranging from {approx} 5 min to many hours and horizontal scales of a few tens of km to several thousands km, are due to freely propagating atmospheric gravity waves and forced tidal oscillations. Passive optical observations of the spatial and temporal characteristics of these waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region ( {approx} 80-100 km) are facilitated by several naturally occurring, vertically distinct nightglow layers. This paper describes the use of state-of-the-art ground-based CCD imaging techniques to detect these waves in intensity and temperature. All-sky (180 deg ) image measurements are used to illustrate the characteristics of small-scale, short period ( < 1 hour) waves and to investigate their seasonal propagation and momentum impact on the MLT region. These results are then contrasted with measurements of mesospheric temperature made using a new temperature mapping imaging system capable of determining induced temperature amplitudes of a large range of wave motions and investigating night-to-night and seasonal variability in mesospheric temperature. (author)
Instability of combined gravity-inertial-Rossby waves in atmospheres and oceans
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J. F. McKenzie
2011-06-01
Full Text Available The properties of the instability of combined gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane are investigated. The wave-energy exchange equation shows that there is an exchange of energy with the background stratified medium. The energy source driving the instability lies in the background enthalpy released by the gravitational buoyancy force. It is shown that if the phase speed of the westward propagating low frequency-long wavelength Rossby wave exceeds the Poincaré-Kelvin (or "equivalent" shallow water wave speed, instability arises from the merging of Rossby and Poincaré modes. There are two key parameters in this instability condition; namely, the equatorial/rotational Mach (or Froude number M and the latitude θ0 of the β-plane. In general waves equatorward of a critical latitude for given M can be driven unstable, with corresponding growth rates of the order of a day or so. Although these conclusions may only be safely drawn for short wavelengths corresponding to a JWKB wave packet propagating internally and located far from boundaries, nevertheless such a local instability may play a significant role in atmosphere-ocean dynamics.
Mathematical aspects of surface water waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Craig, Walter; Wayne, Clarence E
2007-01-01
The theory of the motion of a free surface over a body of water is a fascinating subject, with a long history in both applied and pure mathematical research, and with a continuing relevance to the enterprises of mankind having to do with the sea. Despite the recent advances in the field (some of which we will hear about during this Workshop on Mathematical Hydrodynamics at the Steklov Institute), and the current focus of the mathematical community on the topic, many fundamental mathematical questions remain. These have to do with the evolution of surface water waves, their approximation by model equations and by computer simulations, the detailed dynamics of wave interactions, such as would produce rogue waves in an open ocean, and the theory (partially probabilistic) of approximating wave fields over large regions by averaged 'macroscopic' quantities which satisfy essentially kinetic equations of motion. In this note we would like to point out open problems and some of the directions of current research in the field. We believe that the introduction of new analytical techniques and novel points of view will play an important role in the future development of the area.
Vertical Transport of Momentum by the Inertial-Gravity Internal Waves in a Baroclinic Current
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Slepyshev
2017-08-01
Full Text Available When the internal waves break, they are one of the sources of small-scale turbulence. Small-scale turbulence causes the vertical exchange in the ocean. However, internal waves with regard to the Earth rotation in the presence of vertically inhomogeneous two-dimensional current are able to contribute to the vertical transport. Free inertial-gravity internal waves in a baroclinic current in a boundless basin of a constant depth are considered in the Bussinesq approximation. Boundary value problem of linear approximation for the vertical velocity amplitude of internal waves has complex coefficients when current velocity component, which is transversal to the wave propagation direction, depends on the vertical coordinate (taking into account the rotation of the Earth. Eigenfunction and wave frequency are complex, and it is shown that a weak wave damping takes place. Dispersive relation and wave damping decrement are calculated in the linear approximation. At a fixed wave number damping decrement of the second mode is larger (in the absolute value than the one of the first mode. The equation for vertical velocity amplitude for real profiles of the Brunt – Vaisala frequency and current velocity are numerically solved according to implicit Adams scheme of the third order of accuracy. The dispersive curves of the first two modes do not reach inertial frequency in the low-frequency area due to the effect of critical layers in which wave frequency of the Doppler shift is equal to the inertial one. Termination of the second mode dispersive curves takes place at higher frequency than the one of the first mode. In the second order of the wave amplitude the Stokes drift speed is determined. It is shown that the Stokes drift speed, which is transversal to the wave propagation direction, differs from zero if the transversal component of current velocity depends on the vertical coordinate. In this case, the Stokes drift speed in the second mode is lower than
Gudadze, N.; Chau, J. L.; Stober, G.; Latteck, R.
2016-12-01
Mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT) polar dynamics are interesting and important subject for study in atmospheric physic. It is considered that mesopause region is where the main part of the Atmospheric gravity waves breaks and/or dissipates. However this region is difficult to observe. Continuous Observations of the polar summer mesosphere with the Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) and its predecessor the ALOMAR-Wind-Radar (ALWIN) (before 2010), have been used to investigate dynamical structures of well-known phenomenon - Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE) which is an important tracer in the summer polar mesopause region. Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Doppler radial velocity from the PMSE are used to investigate the wave-like motions with periods larger than 5 minutes. Such oscillations are studied in terms of atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs). Processes also connected with AGWs as PMSE layering, are studied in connection with the background conditions of the neutral atmosphere as well. Background winds are obtained from collocated meteor radar (MR). We used local enhancement method for the processing of altitude-time SNR images to detect layers in the PMSEs and characterised them. Our preliminary results indicate that PMSE strength and behaviour is correlated with the meridional wind. Furthermore we found that the spectral width (SW), which is a proxy of turbulence, is most of the time weakly dependent on SNR strength. However, there are some events where SW is highly dependent on SNR intensity indicating that they could be associated to turbulent-dominated events.
Influence of the spatial distribution of gravity wave activity on the middle atmospheric dynamics
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P. Šácha
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Analysing GPS radio occultation density profiles, we have recently pointed out a localised area of enhanced gravity wave (GW activity and breaking in the lower stratosphere of the east Asian–northwestern Pacific (EA/NP region. With a mechanistic model of the middle and upper atmosphere, experiments are performed to study the possible effect of such a localised GW breaking region on large-scale circulation and transport and, more generally, a possible influence of the spatial distribution of gravity wave activity on middle atmospheric dynamics.The results indicate the important role of the spatial distribution of GW activity for polar vortex stability, formation of planetary waves and for the strength and structure of zonal-mean residual circulation. Furthermore, a possible effect of a zonally asymmetric GW breaking in the longitudinal variability of the Brewer–Dobson circulation is analysed. Finally, consequences of our results for a variety of research topics (e.g. sudden stratospheric warming, atmospheric blocking, teleconnection patterns and a compensation mechanism between resolved and unresolved drag are discussed.
Parametric analysis of change in wave number of surface waves
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Tadić Ljiljana
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the dependence of the change wave number of materials soil constants, ie the frequency of the waves. The starting point in this analysis cosists of wave equation and dynamic stiffness matrix of soil.
Imaging gravity waves in lower stratospheric AMSU-A radiances, Part 2: Validation case study
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S. D. Eckermann
2006-01-01
, horizontal structure and time evolution that closely match those observed in the AMSU-A data. These comparisons not only verify gravity wave detection and horizontal imaging capabilities for AMSU-A Channel 9, but provide an absolute validation of the anticipated radiance signals for a given three-dimensional gravity wave, based on the modeling of Eckermann and Wu (2006.
Stober, Gunter; Sommer, Svenja; Chau, Jorge L.; Latteck, Ralph
2014-05-01
In summer 2013 the Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) conducted a multi-beam scanning experiment using 65 different beam directions. These systematic scanning experiments are analysed with respect to gravity waves with periods from 4 minutes up to 8 hours using polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) as tracer. The gravity waves are investigated by decomposing the wind field into a mean wind and superimposed tidal components (diurnal, semidiurnal and terdiurnal). After subtracting these mean winds and tides we get a residuum wind dominated by the gravity waves with periods shorter than 8 hours. Using this approach we have been able to identified significant wave burst, with amplitudes as high as 50 m/s and 10-20 m/s for the horizontal and vertical wind components, respectively. In addition, we have identified events that indicate the development of KH-instabilities.
Sentman, D. D.; Wescott, E. M.; Picard, R. H.; Winick, J. R.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Dewan, E. M.; Moudry, D. R.; Sa~O Sabbas, F. T.; Heavner, M. J.; Morrill, J.
2003-03-01
The present report investigates using simultaneous observations of coincident gravity waves and sprites to establish an upper limit on sprite-associated thermal energy deposition in the mesosphere. The University of Alaska operated a variety of optical imagers and photometers at two ground sites in support of the NASA Sprites99 balloon campaign. One site was atop a US Forest Service lookout tower on Bear Mt. in the Black Hills, in western South Dakota. On the night of 18 August 1999 we obtained from this site simultaneous images of sprites and OH airglow modulated by gravity waves emanating from a very active sprite producing thunderstorm over Nebraska, to the Southeast of Bear Mt. Using 25s exposures with a bare CCD camera equipped with a red filter, we were able to coincidentally record both short duration (3MR) N2 1PG red emissions from sprites and much weaker (~1kR), but persistent, OH Meinel nightglow emissions. A time lapse movie created from images revealed short period, complete /360° concentric wave structures emanating radially outward from a central excitation region directly above the storm. During the initial stages of the storm outwardly expanding waves possessed a period of τ~10min and wavelength λ~50km. Over a 1h interval the waves gradually changed to longer period τ~11min and shorter wavelength λ~40km. Over the full 2h observation time, about two dozen bright sprites generated by the underlying thunderstorm were recorded near the center of the outwardly radiating gravity wave pattern. No distinctive OH brightness signatures uniquely associated with the sprites were detected at the level of 2% of the ambient background brightness, establishing an associated upper limit of approximately ΔTthe volume of the sprites. The corresponding total thermal energy deposited by the sprite is bounded by these measurements to be less than ~1GJ. This value is well above the total energy deposited into the medium by the sprite, estimated by several
Illusions and Cloaks for Surface Waves
McManus, T. M.; Valiente-Kroon, J. A.; Horsley, S. A. R.; Hao, Y.
2014-08-01
Ever since the inception of Transformation Optics (TO), new and exciting ideas have been proposed in the field of electromagnetics and the theory has been modified to work in such fields as acoustics and thermodynamics. The most well-known application of this theory is to cloaking, but another equally intriguing application of TO is the idea of an illusion device. Here, we propose a general method to transform electromagnetic waves between two arbitrary surfaces. This allows a flat surface to reproduce the scattering behaviour of a curved surface and vice versa, thereby giving rise to perfect optical illusion and cloaking devices, respectively. The performance of the proposed devices is simulated using thin effective media with engineered material properties. The scattering of the curved surface is shown to be reproduced by its flat analogue (for illusions) and vice versa for cloaks.
Polarization-Based Tests of Gravity with the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background
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Thomas Callister
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The direct observation of gravitational waves with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo offers novel opportunities to test general relativity in strong-field, highly dynamical regimes. One such opportunity is the measurement of gravitational-wave polarizations. While general relativity predicts only two tensor gravitational-wave polarizations, general metric theories of gravity allow for up to four additional vector and scalar modes. The detection of these alternative polarizations would represent a clear violation of general relativity. The LIGO-Virgo detection of the binary black hole merger GW170814 has recently offered the first direct constraints on the polarization of gravitational waves. The current generation of ground-based detectors, however, is limited in its ability to sensitively determine the polarization content of transient gravitational-wave signals. Observation of the stochastic gravitational-wave background, in contrast, offers a means of directly measuring generic gravitational-wave polarizations. The stochastic background, arising from the superposition of many individually unresolvable gravitational-wave signals, may be detectable by Advanced LIGO at design sensitivity. In this paper, we present a Bayesian method with which to detect and characterize the polarization of the stochastic background. We explore prospects for estimating parameters of the background and quantify the limits that Advanced LIGO can place on vector and scalar polarizations in the absence of a detection. Finally, we investigate how the introduction of new terrestrial detectors like Advanced Virgo aid in our ability to detect or constrain alternative polarizations in the stochastic background. We find that, although the addition of Advanced Virgo does not notably improve detection prospects, it may dramatically improve our ability to estimate the parameters of backgrounds of mixed polarization.
Latitudinal and seasonal variability of gravity-wave energy in the South-West Indian Ocean
F. Chane-Ming; D. Faduilhe; J. Leveau
2008-01-01
Vertical temperature profiles obtained by radiosonde and Raman lidar measurements are used to investigate a climatology of total energy density of gravity waves (GW) in the Upper Troposphere (UT) and the Lower Stratosphere (LS) from 1992 to 2004 above Mahé (4° S, 55° E), Tromelin (15° S, 54° E) and La Réunion (21° S, 55° E) located in the tropical South-West Indian Ocean. The commonly used spectral index value (p≈5/3) of the i...
Thermospheric gravity waves in Fabry-Perot Interferometer measurements of the 630.0nm OI line
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. A. K. Ford
2006-03-01
Full Text Available Gravity waves are an important feature of mesosphere - lower thermosphere (MLT dynamics, observed using many techniques and providing an important mechanism for energy transfer between atmospheric regions. It is known that some gravity waves may propagate through the mesopause and reach greater altitudes before eventually "breaking" and depositing energy. The generation, propagation, and breaking of upper thermospheric gravity waves have not been studied directly often. However, their ionospheric counterparts, travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs, have been extensively studied in, for example, radar data. At high latitudes, it is believed localised auroral activity may generate gravity waves in-situ. Increases in sensor efficiency of Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs located in northern Scandinavia have provided higher time resolution measurements of the auroral oval and polar cap atomic oxygen red line emission at 630.0 nm. A Lomb-Scargle analysis of this data has shown evidence of gravity wave activity with periods ranging from a few tens of minutes to several hours. Oscillations are seen in the intensity of the line as well as the temperatures and line of sight winds. Instruments are located in Sodankylä, Finland; Kiruna, Sweden; Skibotn, Norway, and Svalbard in the Arctic Ocean. A case study is presented here, where a wave of 1.8 h period has a phase speed of 250 ms^{-1} with a propagation angle of 302°, and a horizontal wavelength of 1600 km. All the FPIs are co-located with EISCAT radars, as well as being supplemented by a range of other instrumentation. This allows the waves found in the FPI data to be put in context with the ionosphere and atmosphere system. Consequently, the source region of the gravity waves can be determined.
Thermospheric gravity waves in Fabry-Perot Interferometer measurements of the 630.0nm OI line
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. A. K. Ford
2006-03-01
Full Text Available Gravity waves are an important feature of mesosphere - lower thermosphere (MLT dynamics, observed using many techniques and providing an important mechanism for energy transfer between atmospheric regions. It is known that some gravity waves may propagate through the mesopause and reach greater altitudes before eventually "breaking" and depositing energy. The generation, propagation, and breaking of upper thermospheric gravity waves have not been studied directly often. However, their ionospheric counterparts, travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs, have been extensively studied in, for example, radar data. At high latitudes, it is believed localised auroral activity may generate gravity waves in-situ. Increases in sensor efficiency of Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs located in northern Scandinavia have provided higher time resolution measurements of the auroral oval and polar cap atomic oxygen red line emission at 630.0 nm. A Lomb-Scargle analysis of this data has shown evidence of gravity wave activity with periods ranging from a few tens of minutes to several hours. Oscillations are seen in the intensity of the line as well as the temperatures and line of sight winds. Instruments are located in Sodankylä, Finland; Kiruna, Sweden; Skibotn, Norway, and Svalbard in the Arctic Ocean. A case study is presented here, where a wave of 1.8 h period has a phase speed of 250 ms-1 with a propagation angle of 302°, and a horizontal wavelength of 1600 km. All the FPIs are co-located with EISCAT radars, as well as being supplemented by a range of other instrumentation. This allows the waves found in the FPI data to be put in context with the ionosphere and atmosphere system. Consequently, the source region of the gravity waves can be determined.
MLT gravity wave climatology in the South America equatorial region observed by airglow imager
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. F. Medeiros
2007-03-01
Full Text Available An all-sky CCD imager for OH, O2 and OI (557.7 nm airglow emission measurements was operated at São João do Cariri (Cariri, Brazil (7° S, 36° W, from October 2000 to December 2004. A large amount of image data, more than 3000 h of observation and around 1000 wave events, makes it possible to classify the gravity wave characteristics, which are statistically significant. The observed waves show a typically short horizontal wavelength (5–45 km and a short period (5–35 min, and horizontal phase speeds of 1 to 80 m/s. In most cases band-type waves (horizontal wavelength between 10 and 60 km showed a clear preference for the horizontal propagation direction from the South American continent to the Atlantic Ocean. Ripples also have similar features but with different anisotropy. In this paper we focus our discussion on the wave characteristics of the bands and ripples and a comparison between them.
Surface Gravities for 228 M, L, and T Dwarfs in the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, Emily C.; Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S.; Logsdon, Sarah E.; Rice, Emily L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Burgasser, Adam J.; McGovern, Mark R.; Prato, Lisa
2017-01-01
We combine 131 new medium-resolution ( R ∼ 2000) J -band spectra of M, L, and T dwarfs from the Keck NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey (BDSS) with 97 previously published BDSS spectra to study surface-gravity-sensitive indices for 228 low-mass stars and brown dwarfs spanning spectral types M5–T9. Specifically, we use an established set of spectral indices to determine surface gravity classifications for all of the M6–L7 objects in our sample by measuring the equivalent widths (EW) of the K i lines at 1.1692, 1.1778, and 1.2529 μ m, and the 1.2 μ m FeH J absorption index. Our results are consistent with previous surface gravity measurements, showing a distinct double peak—at ∼L5 and T5—in K i EW as a function of spectral type. We analyze the K i EWs of 73 objects of known ages and find a linear trend between log(Age) and EW. From this relationship, we assign age ranges to the very low gravity, intermediate gravity, and field gravity designations for spectral types M6–L0. Interestingly, the ages probed by these designations remain broad, change with spectral type, and depend on the gravity-sensitive index used. Gravity designations are useful indicators of the possibility of youth, but current data sets cannot be used to provide a precise age estimate.
Surface Gravities for 228 M, L, and T Dwarfs in the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, Emily C.; Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S.; Logsdon, Sarah E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Rice, Emily L. [Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of Staten Island, 2800 Victory Boulevard, Staten Island, NY 10301 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); McGovern, Mark R. [Math and Sciences Division, Antelope Valley College, 3041 West Avenue K, Lancaster, CA 93536 (United States); Prato, Lisa, E-mail: emartin@astro.ucla.edu [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)
2017-03-20
We combine 131 new medium-resolution ( R ∼ 2000) J -band spectra of M, L, and T dwarfs from the Keck NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey (BDSS) with 97 previously published BDSS spectra to study surface-gravity-sensitive indices for 228 low-mass stars and brown dwarfs spanning spectral types M5–T9. Specifically, we use an established set of spectral indices to determine surface gravity classifications for all of the M6–L7 objects in our sample by measuring the equivalent widths (EW) of the K i lines at 1.1692, 1.1778, and 1.2529 μ m, and the 1.2 μ m FeH{sub J} absorption index. Our results are consistent with previous surface gravity measurements, showing a distinct double peak—at ∼L5 and T5—in K i EW as a function of spectral type. We analyze the K i EWs of 73 objects of known ages and find a linear trend between log(Age) and EW. From this relationship, we assign age ranges to the very low gravity, intermediate gravity, and field gravity designations for spectral types M6–L0. Interestingly, the ages probed by these designations remain broad, change with spectral type, and depend on the gravity-sensitive index used. Gravity designations are useful indicators of the possibility of youth, but current data sets cannot be used to provide a precise age estimate.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. J. Sica
2007-11-01
Full Text Available The Purple Crow Lidar (PCL is a large power-aperture product monostatic Rayleigh-Raman-Sodium-resonance-fluorescence lidar, which has been in operation at the Delaware Observatory (42.9° N, 81.4° W, 237 m elevation near the campus of The University of Western Ontario since 1992. Kinetic-energy density has been calculated from the Rayleigh-scatter system measurements of density fluctuations at temporal-spatial scales relevant for gravity waves, e.g. soundings at 288 m height resolution and 9 min temporal resolution in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. The seasonal averages from 10 years of measurements show in all seasons some loss of gravity-wave energy in the upper stratosphere. During the equinox periods and summer the measurements are consistent with gravity waves growing in height with little saturation, in agreement with the classic picture of the variations in the height at which gravity waves break given by Lindzen (1981. The mean values compare favourably to previous measurements when computed as nightly averages, but the high temporal-spatial resolution measurements show considerable day-to-day variability. The variability over a night is often extremely large, with typical RMS fluctuations of 50 to 100% at all heights and seasons common. These measurements imply that using a daily or nightly-averaged gravity-wave energy density in numerical models may be highly unrealistic.
Two-dimensional free-surface flow under gravity: A new benchmark case for SPH method
Wu, J. Z.; Fang, L.
2018-02-01
Currently there are few free-surface benchmark cases with analytical results for the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation. In the present contribution we introduce a two-dimensional free-surface flow under gravity, and obtain an analytical expression on the surface height difference and a theoretical estimation on the surface fractal dimension. They are preliminarily validated and supported by SPH calculations.
Surface Wave Dynamics in Delaware Bay and Its Adjacent Coastal Shelf
Kukulka, Tobias; Jenkins, Robert L.; Kirby, James T.; Shi, Fengyan; Scarborough, Robert W.
2017-11-01
This study presents a broad overview of surface gravity wave dynamics in Delaware Bay and the adjacent continental shelf by employing the wave model Simulating Waves Nearshore one-way coupled to the ocean model Regional Ocean Modeling System for a period from 2006 to 2012. The distributions of simulated wave statistics agree well with observations obtained from three wave buoys located on the shelf, in the bay near the open ocean, and about 35 km up the bay. A partitioning analysis to separate the two-dimensional wave height spectrum into wind-forced and swell parts reveals that waves on the shelf are predominantly remotely generated swell. Bathymetric refraction shelters the bay from energetic open ocean waves, which is supported by an idealized ray tracing analysis. Waves near the bay entrance are also refracted by oblique tidal currents, whose refraction characteristics critically depend on the detailed spatial distributions of the currents. Opposing tidal currents, flowing against the wave propagation direction, focus wave energy outside the bay entrance and in the deeper bay channels, where currents are relatively strong. A spectral partitioning analysis for waves in the bay indicates that less energetic wave fields are likely not directly forced by the wind. More energetic waves, on the other hand, are dominantly driven by winds and the wave response in the bay depends on the fetch-setting wind direction. Our results for wind-driven waves in the bay are consistent with previous fetch-limited observations, but we find a systematic bias between wind and wave directions due to bathymetric refraction.
Surface wave propagation over sinusoidally varying topography: Theory and observation
Davies, A. G.; Heathershaw, A. D.
Linear perturbation theory is used to show that the reflection coefficient of a patch of sinusoidal ripples on an otherwise flat bed is oscillatory in the quotient of the length of the patch and the surface wave length, and strongly dependent upon the quotient of the surface and bed wave numbers. Resonant interaction between the surface waves and the ripples if the surface wavenumber is half the ripple wavenumber is demonstrated. Few ripples, of relatively small steepness, are required to produce a substantial reflected wave. In resonant cases, the partially standing wave on the up-wave side of the ripple patch gives way, in an almost linear manner over the the ripple patch itself, to a progressive (transmitted) wave on the down-wave side. Wave tank data agree well with predictions, and suggest coupling between wave reflection and ripple growth on an erodible bed.
Vadas, S.
2017-12-01
In this paper, we investigate the generation, propagation and effectsof secondary gravity waves (GWs) from momentum deposition in the stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and ionosphere in high-resolution GW-resolving models and in TEC/lidar/redline data. We show that secondary GWs generated from the dissipation of orographic GWs at McMurdo Station in Antarctica play a dominant role in the wave activity over McMurdo in the wintertime mesosphere. These secondary GWs are created in the stratosphere, and have been identified in models and data via their telltale "fishbone" appearance in z-t plots. We also show that secondary GWs from the dissipation of GWs excited by deep convectiongenerate concentric rings in the F-region ionosphere. These model results and data point to the importance of secondary GWs from momentumdeposition in the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere.
Studies of Gravity Waves Using Michelson Interferometer Measurements of OH (3-1 Bands
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Young-In Won
2001-06-01
Full Text Available As part of a long-term program for polar upper atmospheric studies, temperatures and intensities of the OH (3-1 bands were derived from spectrometric observations of airglow emissions over King Sejong station (62.22o S, 301.25o E. These measurements were made with a Michelson interferometer to cover wavelength regions between 1000 nm and 2000 nm. A spectral analysis was performed to individual nights of data to acquire information on the waves in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere. It is assumed that the measured fluctuations in the intensity and temperature of the OH (3-1 airglow were caused by gravity waves propagating through the emission layer. Correlation of intensity and temperature variation revealed oscillations with periods ranging from 2 to 9 hours. We also calculated Krassovsky's parameter and compared with published values.
Fucugauchi, J. U.; Ortiz-Aleman, C.; Martin, R.
2017-12-01
Large complex craters are characterized by central uplifts that represent large-scale differential movement of deep basement from the transient cavity. Here we investigate the central sector of the large multiring Chicxulub crater, which has been surveyed by an array of marine, aerial and land-borne geophysical methods. Despite high contrasts in physical properties,contrasting results for the central uplift have been obtained, with seismic reflection surveys showing lack of resolution in the central zone. We develop an integrated seismic and gravity model for the main structural elements, imaging the central basement uplift and melt and breccia units. The 3-D velocity model built from interpolation of seismic data is validated using perfectly matched layer seismic acoustic wave propagation modeling, optimized at grazing incidence using shift in the frequency domain. Modeling shows significant lack of illumination in the central sector, masking presence of the central uplift. Seismic energy remains trapped in an upper low velocity zone corresponding to the sedimentary infill, melt/breccias and surrounding faulted blocks. After conversion of seismic velocities into a volume of density values, we use massive parallel forward gravity modeling to constrain the size and shape of the central uplift that lies at 4.5 km depth, providing a high-resolution image of crater structure.The Bouguer anomaly and gravity response of modeled units show asymmetries, corresponding to the crater structure and distribution of post-impact carbonates, breccias, melt and target sediments
Sprites and mesospheric gravity waves during a summertime mesoscale convective event
Vollmer, D. R.; Sebben, J. E.; Murphy, R. L.; McHarg, M. G.; Harley, J.; Haaland, R. K.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.
2017-12-01
During the night of 22-23 July 2014, a mesoscale convective system containing several severe thunderstorms over western South Dakota and Nebraska produced a large number of sprites, photographed from the Wyoming Infrared Observatory using Phantom high-speed cameras. Several sprites were located in time and space via comparisons with large-amplitude positive cloud-to-ground (CG) flash locations using national Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) data. We analyze radar, NLDN, and satellite data from this event to examine the origin locations of the sprites relative to storm structure and CG lightning distribution. Additionally, one frame per second images obtained from a low-noise Andor Scientific CMOS camera showed regularly-spaced horizontal striations in the airglow both before and during several of the sprite events, suggesting the presence of vertically-propagating gravity waves in the middle atmosphere. Previous work hypothesized that these gravity waves are generated by the convective event itself and have been observed with other sprite events.
Fagre, M.; Elias, A. G.; Chum, J.; Cabrera, M. A.
2017-12-01
In the present work, ray tracing of high frequency (HF) signals in ionospheric disturbed conditions is analyzed, particularly in the presence of electron density perturbations generated by gravity waves (GWs). The three-dimensional numerical ray tracing code by Jones and Stephenson, based on Hamilton's equations, which is commonly used to study radio propagation through the ionosphere, is used. An electron density perturbation model is implemented to this code based upon the consideration of atmospheric GWs generated at a height of 150 km in the thermosphere and propagating up into the ionosphere. The motion of the neutral gas at these altitudes induces disturbances in the background plasma which affects HF signals propagation. To obtain a realistic model of GWs in order to analyze the propagation and dispersion characteristics, a GW ray tracing method with kinematic viscosity and thermal diffusivity was applied. The IRI-2012, HWM14 and NRLMSISE-00 models were incorporated to assess electron density, wind velocities, neutral temperature and total mass density needed for the ray tracing codes. Preliminary results of gravity wave effects on ground range and reflection height are presented for low-mid latitude ionosphere.
Influences of Gravity Waves on Convectively Induced Turbulence (CIT): A Review
Sharman, Robert D.; Trier, S. B.
2018-03-01
Thunderstorms are known to produce turbulence. Such turbulence is commonly referred to as convectively induced turbulence or CIT, and can be hazardous to aviation. Although this turbulence can occur both within and outside the convection, out-of-cloud CIT is particularly hazardous, since it occurs in clear air and cannot be seen by eye or onboard radar. Furthermore, due to its small scale and its ties to the underlying convection, it is very difficult to forecast. Guidelines for out-of-cloud CIT avoidance are available, but they are oversimplified and can be misleading. In the search for more appropriate and physically based avoidance guidelines, considerable research has been conducted in recent years on the nature of the phenomenon, and in particular, its connection to gravity waves generated by the convection. This paper reviews the advances in our understanding of out-of-cloud CIT and its relation to convective gravity waves, and provides several detailed examples of observed cases to elucidate some of the underlying dynamics.
Merkel, A; Tournat, V; Gusev, V
2014-08-01
We report the experimental observation of the gravity-induced asymmetry for the nonlinear transformation of acoustic waves in a noncohesive granular phononic crystal. Because of the gravity, the contact precompression increases with depth inducing space variations of not only the linear and nonlinear elastic moduli but also of the acoustic wave dissipation. We show experimentally and explain theoretically that, in contrast to symmetric propagation of linear waves, the amplitude of the nonlinearly self-demodulated wave depends on whether the propagation of the waves is in the direction of the gravity or in the opposite direction. Among the observed nonlinear processes, we report frequency mixing of the two transverse-rotational modes belonging to the optical band of vibrations and propagating with negative phase velocities, which results in the excitation of a longitudinal wave belonging to the acoustic band of vibrations and propagating with positive phase velocity. We show that the measurements of the gravity-induced asymmetry in the nonlinear acoustic phenomena can be used to compare the in-depth distributions of the contact nonlinearity and of acoustic absorption.
Couston, Louis-Alexandre; Lecoanet, Daniel; Favier, Benjamin; Le Bars, Michael
2017-11-01
We investigate via direct numerical simulations the spontaneous generation and reversals of mean zonal flows in a stably-stratified fluid layer lying above a turbulent convective fluid. Contrary to the leading idealized theories of mean flow generation by self-interacting internal waves, the emergence of a mean flow in a convectively-generated internal gravity wave field is not always possible because nonlinear interactions of waves of different frequencies can disrupt the mean flow generation mechanism. Strong mean flows thus emerge when the divergence of the Reynolds stress resulting from the nonlinear interactions of internal waves produces a strong enough anti-diffusive acceleration for the mean flow, which, as we will demonstrate, is the case when the Prandtl number is sufficiently low, or when the energy input into the internal wavefield by the convection and density stratification are sufficiently large. Implications for mean zonal flow production as observed in the equatorial stratospheres of the Earth, Saturn and Jupiter, and possibly occurring in other geophysical systems such as planetary and stellar interiors will be briefly discussed. Funding provided by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program through Grant Agreement No. 681835-FLUDYCO-ERC-2015-CoG.
Review of Electrical and Gravity Methods of Near-Surface ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The theory and practice of electrical and gravity methods of geophysics for groundwater exploration was reviewed with illustrations and data examples. With the goal of reducing cases of borehole/water-well failure attributed to the lack of the knowledge of the methods of geophysics for groundwater exploration and ...
Resonant surface acoustic wave chemical detector
Brocato, Robert W.; Brocato, Terisse; Stotts, Larry G.
2017-08-08
Apparatus for chemical detection includes a pair of interdigitated transducers (IDTs) formed on a piezoelectric substrate. The apparatus includes a layer of adsorptive material deposited on a surface of the piezoelectric substrate between the IDTs, where each IDT is conformed, and is dimensioned in relation to an operating frequency and an acoustic velocity of the piezoelectric substrate, so as to function as a single-phase uni-directional transducer (SPUDT) at the operating frequency. Additionally, the apparatus includes the pair of IDTs is spaced apart along a propagation axis and mutually aligned relative to said propagation axis so as to define an acoustic cavity that is resonant to surface acoustic waves (SAWs) at the operating frequency, where a distance between each IDT of the pair of IDTs ranges from 100 wavelength of the operating frequency to 400 wavelength of the operating frequency.
The MaCWAVE program to study gravity wave influences on the polar mesosphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. A. Goldberg
2006-07-01
Full Text Available MaCWAVE (Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending VErtically was a highly coordinated rocket, ground-based, and satellite program designed to address gravity wave forcing of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT. The MaCWAVE program was conducted at the Norwegian Andøya Rocket Range (ARR, 69.3° N in July 2002, and continued at the Swedish Rocket Range (Esrange, 67.9° N during January 2003. Correlative instrumentation included the ALOMAR MF and MST radars and RMR and Na lidars, Esrange MST and meteor radars and RMR lidar, radiosondes, and TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics satellite measurements of thermal structures. The data have been used to define both the mean fields and the wave field structures and turbulence generation leading to forcing of the large-scale flow. In summer, launch sequences coupled with ground-based measurements at ARR addressed the forcing of the summer mesopause environment by anticipated convective and shear generated gravity waves. These motions were measured with two 12-h rocket sequences, each involving one Terrier-Orion payload accompanied by a mix of MET rockets, all at ARR in Norway. The MET rockets were used to define the temperature and wind structure of the stratosphere and mesosphere. The Terrier-Orions were designed to measure small-scale plasma fluctuations and turbulence that might be induced by wave breaking in the mesosphere. For the summer series, three European MIDAS (Middle Atmosphere Dynamics and Structure rockets were also launched from ARR in coordination with the MaCWAVE payloads. These were designed to measure plasma and neutral turbulence within the MLT. The summer program exhibited a number of indications of significant departures of the mean wind and temperature structures from ``normal" polar summer conditions, including an unusually warm mesopause and a slowing of the formation of polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE and noctilucent clouds (NLC. This
Oliveira, T. C. A.; Kadri, U.
2016-02-01
An uplift of the ocean bottom caused by a submarine earthquake can generate Acoustic-Gravity Waves (AGW), progressive compression-type waves that travel at near the speed of sound in water. The role of AGW for oceans hydrodynamics has recently became a topic of increasing scientific interest. Kadri [Deep ocean water transport by acoustic-gravity waves, J.Geo. Res. Oceans, 119, (2014)] showed theoretically that AGW can contribute to deep ocean currents and circulation. We analyze and simulate the fundamental AGW modes generated by a submarine earthquake. We consider the first five AGW modes and show that they may all induce comparable temporal variations in water particle velocities at different depths in regions far from the epicenter. Results of temporal variations of horizontal and vertical fluid parcel velocities induced by AGW confirm chaotic flow trajectories at different water depths. A realistic example based on the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake shows that vertical water particle displacements of O(10-2 ) m can be generated at 1 Km depth in a 4 km water depth ocean. We show that the velocity field depends on the presence of the leading AGW modes. Each AGW mode becomes evanescent at a critical time, at which energy is transferred to the next higher modes. Consequently, the main pattern of the velocity field changes as the leading mode change. As an example, for a reference point located at 1000 Km from the epicenter, the first five AGW become evanescent after 1.6, 4.6, 7.7, 10.8 and 13.8 hours, respectively. Our analysis and simulations shed light on the spatio-temporal evolution of the deep water velocities and particle displacements induced by AGW that radiate during submarine earthquakes. Thus, this work is a contribution to understand the role of high moment magnitude submarine earthquakes in deep water mixing mechanism.
Surface acoustic wave actuated cell sorting (SAWACS).
Franke, T; Braunmüller, S; Schmid, L; Wixforth, A; Weitz, D A
2010-03-21
We describe a novel microfluidic cell sorter which operates in continuous flow at high sorting rates. The device is based on a surface acoustic wave cell-sorting scheme and combines many advantages of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and fluorescence activated droplet sorting (FADS) in microfluidic channels. It is fully integrated on a PDMS device, and allows fast electronic control of cell diversion. We direct cells by acoustic streaming excited by a surface acoustic wave which deflects the fluid independently of the contrast in material properties of deflected objects and the continuous phase; thus the device underlying principle works without additional enhancement of the sorting by prior labelling of the cells with responsive markers such as magnetic or polarizable beads. Single cells are sorted directly from bulk media at rates as fast as several kHz without prior encapsulation into liquid droplet compartments as in traditional FACS. We have successfully directed HaCaT cells (human keratinocytes), fibroblasts from mice and MV3 melanoma cells. The low shear forces of this sorting method ensure that cells survive after sorting.
Study of Planar Surface Wave Excited Plasma
Tian, Caizhong
2008-10-01
The need for plasma processing has increased as miniaturization in semiconductor manufacturing goes ahead. In these processes, a large-diameter plasma source is required with respect to 300mm wafer size. A Radial Line Slot Antenna (RLSA) driven surface-wave-sustained plasma is a potential best candidate to various applications with respect to damage free process. Many researches focus on the control of plasma density and electron temperature in RLSA technique. However, the plasma stability and uniformity control are less implemented in the practice. In recent years, we study sheath formation and plasma behavior at the interface, where the surface wave propagate, by using electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation techniques. The simulations include the effects of ionization, and allow us to study the buildup of plasma density associated with ionization in the presence of the large fields of the RF-enhanced sheath. Our results show both the mechanism of plasma generation and heating at the plasma dielectric interface and the strong effect on geometric design of dielectric. Various scenarios are of interest, and help us to design an optimal RLSA driven plasma source, where the plasma stability and uniformity are firmly sustained under the various process conditions. Plasma diagnosis is carried out to reveal the more essential difference in plasma behavior between our RLSA and a custom inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source.
Properties of internal planetary-scale inertio gravity waves in the mesosphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. G. Mayr
2004-11-01
Full Text Available At high latitudes in the upper mesosphere, horizontal wind oscillations have been observed with periods around 10h. Waves with such a period are generated in our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM, and they are identified as planetary-scale inertio gravity waves (IGW. These IGWs have periods between 9 and 11h and appear above 60km in the zonal mean (m=0, as well as in m=1 to 4, propagating eastward and westward. Under the influence of the Coriolis force, the amplitudes of the waves propagating westward are larger at high latitudes than those propagating eastward. The waves grow in magnitude at least up to about 100km and have vertical wavelengths around 25km. Applying a running window of 15 days for spectral analysis, the amplitudes in the wind field are typically between 10 and 20m/s and can reach 30m/s in the westward propagating component for m=1 at the poles. In the temperature perturbations, the wave amplitudes above 100km are typically 5K and as large as 10K for m=0 at the poles. The IGWs are intermittent but reveal systematic seasonal variations, with the largest amplitudes occurring generally in late winter and spring. Numerical experiments show that such waves are also generated without excitation of the migrating tides. The amplitudes and periods then are similar, indicating that the tides are not essential to generate the waves. However, the seasonal variations without tides are significantly different, which leads to the conclusion that non linear interactions between the semidiurnal tide and planetary waves must contribute to the excitation of the IGWs. Directly or indirectly through the planetary waves, the IGWs are apparently excited by the instabilities that arise in the zonal mean circulation. When the solar heating is turned off for m=0, both the PWs and IGWs essentially disappear. That the IGWs and PWs have common roots in their excitation mechanism is also indicated by the striking similarity of their seasonal variations in the
Assessing ground compaction via time lapse surface wave analysis
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Al-Arifi, N.; Moustafa, S.S.R.
2016-01-01
Roč. 13, č. 3 (2016), s. 249-256 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Full velocity spectrum (FVS) analysis * ground compaction * ground compaction * phase velocities * Rayleigh waves * seismic data inversion * surface wave dispersion * surface waves Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.699, year: 2016
Surface waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic elastic media
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
reinforced solid elastic media. First, the theory of general surface waves has been derived and applied to study the particular cases of surface waves – Rayleigh, Love and Stoneley types. The wave velocity equations are found to be in agreement with ...
Surface waves in a cylindrical borehole through partially-saturated ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M D Sharma
published online 14 February 2018. Propagation of surface waves is discussed in a cylindrical borehole through a liquid-saturated porous solid of infinite extent. ...... 1992). In the dictionary of exploration geophysics, pseudo-Rayleigh waves are identified as the ground roll, which is a particular type of surface wave that.
Garcia, R. R.
1986-01-01
The influence of breaking gravity waves on the dynamics and chemical composition of the 60 to 110 km region is investigated with a two dimensional model that includes a parameterization of gravity wave momentum deposition and diffusion. The dynamical model is described by Garcia and Solomon (1983) and Solomon and Garcia (1983) and includes a complete chemical scheme for the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The parameterization of Lindzen (1981) is used to calculate the momentum deposited and the turbulent diffusion produced by the gravity waves. It is found that wave momentum deposition drives a very vigorous mean meridional circulation, produces a very cold summer mesopause and reverse the zonal wind jets above about 85 km. The seasonal variation of the turbulent diffusion coefficient is consistent with the behavior of mesospheric turbulences inferred from MST radar echoes. The large degree of consistency between model results and various types of dynamical and chemical data supports very strongly the hypothesis that breaking gravity waves play a major role in determining the zonally-averaged dynamical and chemical structure of the 60 to 110 km region of the atmosphere.
The MaCWAVE program to study gravity wave influences on the polar mesosphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. A. Goldberg
2006-07-01
Full Text Available MaCWAVE (Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending VErtically was a highly coordinated rocket, ground-based, and satellite program designed to address gravity wave forcing of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT. The MaCWAVE program was conducted at the Norwegian Andøya Rocket Range (ARR, 69.3° N in July 2002, and continued at the Swedish Rocket Range (Esrange, 67.9° N during January 2003. Correlative instrumentation included the ALOMAR MF and MST radars and RMR and Na lidars, Esrange MST and meteor radars and RMR lidar, radiosondes, and TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics satellite measurements of thermal structures. The data have been used to define both the mean fields and the wave field structures and turbulence generation leading to forcing of the large-scale flow. In summer, launch sequences coupled with ground-based measurements at ARR addressed the forcing of the summer mesopause environment by anticipated convective and shear generated gravity waves. These motions were measured with two 12-h rocket sequences, each involving one Terrier-Orion payload accompanied by a mix of MET rockets, all at ARR in Norway. The MET rockets were used to define the temperature and wind structure of the stratosphere and mesosphere. The Terrier-Orions were designed to measure small-scale plasma fluctuations and turbulence that might be induced by wave breaking in the mesosphere. For the summer series, three European MIDAS (Middle Atmosphere Dynamics and Structure rockets were also launched from ARR in coordination with the MaCWAVE payloads. These were designed to measure plasma and neutral turbulence within the MLT. The summer program exhibited a number of indications of significant departures of the mean wind and temperature structures from ``normal" polar summer conditions, including an unusually warm mesopause and
Near-perfect conversion of a propagating plane wave into a surface wave using metasurfaces
Tcvetkova, S. N.; Kwon, D.-H.; Díaz-Rubio, A.; Tretyakov, S. A.
2018-03-01
In this paper theoretical and numerical studies of perfect/nearly perfect conversion of a plane wave into a surface wave are presented. The problem of determining the electromagnetic properties of an inhomogeneous lossless boundary which would fully transform an incident plane wave into a surface wave propagating along the boundary is considered. An approximate field solution which produces a slowly growing surface wave and satisfies the energy conservation law is discussed and numerically demonstrated. The results of the study are of great importance for the future development of such devices as perfect leaky-wave antennas and can potentially lead to many novel applications.
Surface tension of the horizon and Archimedes' principle for gravity
Shu, Liangsuo; Cui, Kaifeng; Liu, Xiaokang; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei
2018-01-01
In this letter, by combining the holographic principle with the graviton Bose-Einstein condensates hypothesis of gravitational backgrounds, we provide a theory of gravity, which provides some kinetic details of how the gravitational coupling between matter and spacetime works. The effective radial potential energy of an object in a gravitational field is found to be the sum of the interfacial energy caused by its micro horizon and the energy required to make room for it by displacing graviton...
Identification of nonlinear coupling in wave turbulence at the surface of water
Campagne, Antoine; Hassaini, Roumaissa; Redor, Ivan; Aubourg, Quentin; Sommeria, Joël; Mordant, Nicolas
2017-11-01
The Weak Turbulence Theory is a theory, in the limit of vanishing nonlinearity, that derive analytically statistical features of wave turbulence. The stationary spectrum for the surface elevation in the case of gravity waves, is predicted to E(k) k - 5 / 2 . This spectral exponent -5/2 remains elusive in all experiments. in which the measured exponent is systematically lower than the prediction. Furthermore in the experiments the weaker the nonlinearity the further the spectral exponent is from the prediction. In order to investigate the reason for this observation we developed an experiment in the CORIOLIS facility in Grenoble. It is a 13m-diameter circular pool filled with water with a 70 cm depth. We generate wave turbulence by using two wedge wavemakers. Surface elevation measurements are performed by a stereoscopic optical technique and by capacitive probes. The nonlinear coupling at work in this system are analyzed by computing 3- and 4-wave correlations of the Fourier wave amplitudes in frequency. Theory predicts that coupling should occur through 4-wave resonant interaction. In our data, strong 3-wave correlations are observed in addition to the 4-wave correlation. Most our observations are consistent with field observation in the Black Sea (Leckler et al. 2015). This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC, Grant Agreement No 647018-WATU).
Gravity wave and neutrino bursts from stellar collapse: A sensitive test of neutrino masses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnaud, N.; Barsuglia, M.; Bizouard, M.A.; Cavalier, F.; Davier, M.; Hello, P.; Pradier, T.
2002-01-01
New methods are proposed with the goal to determine absolute neutrino masses from the simultaneous observation of the bursts of neutrinos and gravitational waves emitted during a stellar collapse. It is shown that the neutronization electron neutrino flash and the maximum amplitude of the gravitational wave signal are tightly synchronized with the bounce occurring at the end of the core collapse on a time scale better than 1 ms. The existing underground neutrino detectors (SuperKamiokande, SNO,...) and the gravity wave antennas soon to operate (LIGO, VIRGO,...) are well matched in their performance for detecting galactic supernovae and for making use of the proposed approach. Several methods are described, which apply to the different scenarios depending on neutrino mixing. Given the present knowledge on neutrino oscillations, the methods proposed are sensitive to a mass range where neutrinos would essentially be mass degenerate. The 95% C.L. upper limit which can be achieved varies from 0.75 eV/c 2 for large ν e survival probabilities to 1.1 eV/c 2 when in practice all ν e 's convert into ν μ 's or ν τ 's. The sensitivity is nearly independent of the supernova distance
Propagation of 3D internal gravity wave beams in a slowly varying stratification
Fan, Boyu; Akylas, T. R.
2017-11-01
The time-mean flows induced by internal gravity wave beams (IGWB) with 3D variations have been shown to have dramatic implications for long-term IGWB dynamics. While uniform stratifications are convenient both theoretically and in the laboratory, stratifications in the ocean can vary by more than an order of magnitude over the ocean depth. Here, in view of this fact, we study the propagation of a 3D IGWB in a slowly varying stratification. We assume that the stratification varies slowly relative to the local variations in the wave profile. In the 2D case, the IGWB bends in response to the changing stratification, but nonlinear effects are minor even in the finite amplitude regime. For a 3D IGWB, in addition to bending, we find that nonlinearity results in the transfer of energy from waves to a large-scale time-mean flow associated with the mean potential vorticity, similar to IGWB behavior in a uniform stratification. In a weakly nonlinear setting, we derive coupled evolution equations that govern this process. We also use these equations to determine the stability properties of 2D IGWB to 3D perturbations. These findings indicate that 3D effects may be relevant and possibly fundamental to IGWB dynamics in nature. Supported by NSF Grant DMS-1512925.
Competing s-wave orders from Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Li, Zhi-Hong; Fu, Yun-Chang; Nie, Zhang-Yu
2018-01-01
In this paper, the holographic superconductor model with two s-wave orders from 4 + 1 dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity is explored in the probe limit. At different values of the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient α, we study the influence of tuning the mass and charge parameters of the bulk scalar field on the free energy curve of condensed solution with signal s-wave order, and compare the difference of tuning the two different parameters while the changes of the critical temperature are the same. Based on the above results, it is indicated that the two free energy curves of different s-wave orders can have one or two intersection points, where two typical phase transition behaviors of the s + s coexistent phase, including the reentrant phase transition near the Chern-Simons limit α = 0.25, can be found. We also give an explanation to the nontrivial behavior of the Tc- α curves near the Chern-Simons limit, which might be heuristic to understand the origin of the reentrant behavior near the Chern-Simons limit.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Vargas
2009-06-01
Full Text Available We show in this report the momentum flux content input in the mesosphere due to relatively fast and small scale gravity waves (GWs observed through OH airglow images. The acquisition of OH NIR images was carried out in Brazil at Brasilia (14.8° S, 47.6° W and Cariri (7.4° S, 36.5° W from September 2005 to November 2005 during the SpreadFEx Campaign. Horizontal wind information from meteor radar was available in Cariri only. Our findings showed strong wave activity in both sites, mainly in Cariri. High wave directionality was also observed in both sites during SpreadFEx, which have been observed by other investigators using different analysis' techniques and different types of data during the campaign. We discuss also the possibility of plasma bubble seeding by gravity waves presenting spatial and temporal scales estimated with our novel analysis technique during the SpreadFEx campaign.
Artificial TE-mode surface waves at metal surfaces mimicking surface plasmons.
Sun, Zhijun; Zuo, Xiaoliu; Guan, Tengpeng; Chen, Wei
2014-02-24
Manipulation of light in subwavelength scale can be realized with metallic nanostructures for TM-polarization components due to excitation of surface plasmons. TE-polarization components of light are usually excluded in subwavelength metal structures for mesoscopic optical interactions. Here we show that, by introducing very thin high index dielectric layers on structured metal surfaces, pseudo surface polarization currents can be induced near metal surfaces, which bring to excitation of artificial TE-mode surface waves at the composite meta-surfaces. This provides us a way to manipulate TE-polarized light in subwavelength scale. Typical properties of the artificial surface waves are further demonstrate for their excitation, propagation, optical transmission, and enhancement and resonances of the localized fields, mimicking those of surface plasmon waves.
Gauge/gravity duality for interactions of spherical membranes in 11-dimensional pp-wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Hok Kong; McLoughlin, Tristan; Wu Xinkai
2005-01-01
We investigate the gauge/gravity duality in the interaction between two spherical membranes in the 11-dimensional pp-wave background. On the supergravity side, we find the solution to the field equations at locations close to a spherical source membrane, and use it to obtain the light-cone Lagrangian of a spherical probe membrane very close to the source, i.e., with their separation much smaller than their radii. On the gauge theory side, using the BMN matrix model, we compute the one-loop effective potential between two membrane fuzzy spheres. Perfect agreement is found between the two sides. Moreover, the one-loop effective potential we obtain on the gauge theory side is valid beyond the small-separation approximation, giving the full interpolation between interactions of membrane-like objects and that of graviton-like objects
THz detectors using surface Josephson plasma waves in layered superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savel'ev, Sergey; Yampol'skii, Valery; Nori, Franco
2006-01-01
We describe a proposal for THz detectors based on the excitation of surface waves, in layered superconductors, at frequencies lower than the Josephson plasma frequency ω J . These waves propagate along the vacuum-superconductor interface and are attenuated in both transverse directions out of the surface (i.e., towards the superconductor and towards the vacuum). The surface Josephson plasma waves are also important for the complete suppression of the specular reflection from a sample (Wood's anomalies, used for gratings) and produce a huge enhancement of the wave absorption, which can be used for the detection of THz waves
Quasilinear ridge structures in water surface waves
Blümel, R.; Davidson, I. H.; Reinhardt, W. P.; Lin, H.; Sharnoff, M.
1992-02-01
Nodal patterns of stationary capillary waves formed on the surface of water enclosed in an agitated ripple tank with circular and stadium-shaped cylindrical walls are examined in the low-frequency (ν700 Hz) regimes. In the low-frequency regime, in agreement with predictions of quantum-chaos theory, the shape of the tank's boundaries (integrable or nonintegrable) dictates the type of nodal patterns obtained. In the high-frequency regime we obtain nodal patterns characterized by short-range order (called ``scarlets'' because they are believed to be the precursors of quantum scars), as recently predicted in the quantum-chaos context by P. O'Connor, J. Gehlen, and E. J. Heller [Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1296 (1987)].
Some Expressions for Gravity without the Big G and their Possible Wave-Theoretical-Explanation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tank H. K.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This letter presents some new expressions for gravity without the big G and proposes their possible wave-theoretical-explanation. This attempt leads to some insight that: (i We need the proportionality-constant G because we measure masses and distances in our arbitrarily-chosen units of kg and meters; but if we measure “mass” as a fraction of “total-mass of the universe” M 0 and measure distances as a fraction of “radius-of-the- universe” R 0 then there is no need for the proportionality-constant G . However, large uncertainties in the M 0 and R 0 limit the general application of this relation presently. (ii The strength of gravity would be different if the total-mass of the universe were different. Then this possibility is supported with the help of wave-theory. (iii This understanding of G leads to an insight that Plancks-length, Planck-mass and Planck’s unit of time are geometric-mean-values of astrophysical quantities like: total-mass of the universe and the smallest-possible-mass hH 0 = c 2 . (iv There appears a law followed by various systems-of-matter, like: the electron, the proton, the nucleus-of-atom, the globular-clusters, the spiral-galaxies, the galactic-clusters and the whole universe; that their ratio Mass / Radius 2 remains constant. This law seems to be more fundamental than the fundamental-forces because it is obeyed irrespective of the case, whether the system is bound by strong-force, electric-force, or gravitational-force.
Surface Plasmon Wave Adapter Designed with Transformation Optics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Jingjing; Xiao, Sanshui; Wubs, Martijn
2011-01-01
On the basis of transformation optics, we propose the design of a surface plasmon wave adapter which confines surface plasmon waves on non-uniform metal surfaces and enables adiabatic mode transformation of surface plasmon polaritons with very short tapers. This adapter can be simply achieved wit...... with homogeneous anisotropic naturally occurring materials or subwavelength grating-structured dielectric materials. Full wave simulations based on a finite-element method have been performed to validate our proposal.......On the basis of transformation optics, we propose the design of a surface plasmon wave adapter which confines surface plasmon waves on non-uniform metal surfaces and enables adiabatic mode transformation of surface plasmon polaritons with very short tapers. This adapter can be simply achieved...
Li, Panpan; Chen, Zhenqian; Shi, Juan
2017-12-01
A volume of fluid (VOF) method is adopted to simulate the condensation of R134a in a horizontal single square minichannel with 1 mm side length. The effect of gravity, surface tension and gas-liquid interfacial shear stress are taken into account. The result denotes that condensation is first appeared at the corner of channel, and then the condensation is stretched at the effect of surface tension until the whole channel boundary covered. The effect of gravity on the distribution of the liquid film depends on the channel length. In short channel, the gravity shows no significant effect, the distribution shape of steam in the cross section of the channel is approximately circular. In long channel, due to the influence of gravity, the liquid converges at the bottom under the effect of gravity, and the thickness of the liquid film at the bottom is obviously higher than that of the upper part of the channel. The effect of surface tension on condensation is also analysed. The surface tension can enhance the condensation heat transfer significantly when the inlet mass flux is low. Whilst, at high mass flux, the enhancement of surface tension on heat transfer is unobvious and can be neglected.
Frequency and wavelength prediction of ultrasonic induced liquid surface waves.
Mahravan, Ehsan; Naderan, Hamid; Damangir, Ebrahim
2016-12-01
A theoretical investigation of parametric excitation of liquid free surface by a high frequency sound wave is preformed, using potential flow theory. Pressure and velocity distributions, resembling the sound wave, are applied to the free surface of the liquid. It is found that for impinging wave two distinct capillary frequencies will be excited: One of them is the same as the frequency of the sound wave, and the other is equal to the natural frequency corresponding to a wavenumber equal to the horizontal wavenumber of the sound wave. When the wave propagates in vertical direction, mathematical formulation leads to an equation, which has resonance frequency equal to half of the excitation frequency. This can explain an important contradiction between the frequency and the wavelength of capillary waves in the two cases of normal and inclined interaction of the sound wave and the free surface of the liquid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW Vibration Sensors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jerzy Filipiak
2011-12-01
Full Text Available In the paper a feasibility study on the use of surface acoustic wave (SAW vibration sensors for electronic warning systems is presented. The system is assembled from concatenated SAW vibration sensors based on a SAW delay line manufactured on a surface of a piezoelectric plate. Vibrations of the plate are transformed into electric signals that allow identification of the sensor and localization of a threat. The theoretical study of sensor vibrations leads us to the simple isotropic model with one degree of freedom. This model allowed an explicit description of the sensor plate movement and identification of the vibrating sensor. Analysis of frequency response of the ST-cut quartz sensor plate and a damping speed of its impulse response has been conducted. The analysis above was the basis to determine the ranges of parameters for vibrating plates to be useful in electronic warning systems. Generally, operation of electronic warning systems with SAW vibration sensors is based on the analysis of signal phase changes at the working frequency of delay line after being transmitted via two circuits of concatenated four-terminal networks. Frequencies of phase changes are equal to resonance frequencies of vibrating plates of sensors. The amplitude of these phase changes is proportional to the amplitude of vibrations of a sensor plate. Both pieces of information may be sent and recorded jointly by a simple electrical unit.
A Surface Wave's View of the Mid-Continent Rift
Foster, A. E.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Schaeffer, A. J.
2017-12-01
The presence of the Mid-Continent Rift (MCR), a 1.1Ga failed rift in central North America, raises many questions. We address the following: what lasting effects has it had on the continental lithosphere? Though many studies have looked at the area with a variety of data types, the combination of USArray Transportable Array stations to the south, permanent and temporary Canadian stations to the north, and SPREE stations in strategic locations crossing the rift provide a new opportunity for a regional surface-wave study. We select 80 stations with roughly 200 km spacing, resulting in dense path coverage of a broad area centered on the MCR. We use teleseismic data for all earthquakes from January 2005-August 2016 with a magnitude greater than 6.0, amounting to over 1200 events, and we make Rayleigh wave two-station dispersion measurements for all station pairs with suitable event-station geometry. We invert these measurements for anisotropic phase-velocity maps at periods of 20-200 s, yielding information not only on the wave speed but also the current fabric of the lithosphere, a complicated record of strain from formation, through modification from orogeny, attempted rifting, and hotspot interaction, to present day plate motion. We observe a clear signature of the MCR at short (20-25 s) periods, with the slowest phase-velocity anomaly in the region aligning with the strongest gravity anomaly. At increasing periods, and thus greater depths, this slowest anomaly shifts to beneath the center of Lake Superior (30-40 s). Eventually, it appears to merge with a slow anomaly to the north associated with the Nipigon Embayment, and contrasts sharply with an adjacent fast anomaly in the western Superior Province. In our preliminary anisotropy results, we observe weak anisotropy at the latitude of the MCR and to the south, whereas to the north of the MCR we find strong anisotropy. This is similar to the spatial variations in magnitude of delay times from shear-wave splitting
Distortion of gravitational-wave packets due to their self-gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kocsis, Bence; Loeb, Abraham
2007-01-01
When a source emits a gravity-wave (GW) pulse over a short period of time, the leading edge of the GW signal is redshifted more than the inner boundary of the pulse. The GW pulse is distorted by the gravitational effect of the self-energy residing in between these shells. We illustrate this distortion for GW pulses from the final plunge of black hole binaries, leading to the evolution of the GW profile as a function of the radial distance from the source. The distortion depends on the total GW energy released ε and the duration of the emission τ, scaled by the total binary mass M. The effect should be relevant in finite box simulations where the waveforms are extracted within a radius of 2 M. For characteristic emission parameters at the final plunge between binary black holes of arbitrary spins, this effect could distort the simulated GW templates for LIGO and LISA by a fraction of 10 -3 . Accounting for the wave distortion would significantly decrease the waveform extraction errors in numerical simulations
Gravity wave momentum fluxes studies using OH imager, Na Lidar and meteor radar
Andrioli, Vania Fatima; Clemesha, Barclay; Batista, Paulo
In this paper we have used atmospheric data, from 80 to 100 km altitude, measured by three different equipments for studying gravity wave activity. An OH CCD imager and a meteor radar located at Cachoeira Paulista (22.7 ° S, 45 ° W) were used together with a sodium lidar operating at São José dos Campos (23.1 ° S, 45.9 °W). We have used two years of data from 2007 to 2008 with 28 days of simultaneous data, totalizing 148 hours of observations. In an earlier presentation we inferred mean momentum fluxes and variances by using Hocking’s (2005) analysis of the meteor radar data and compared the variances values with the ones derived from Na lidar temperature profiles. The main objective of the present work is a comparison between the momentum fluxes inferred by using Hocking’s (2005) analysis of the meteor radar data and those derived from imaging data using the Swenson and Gardner (1998) model. This is an analytical model that relates the intensity perturbation of the OH emission to the relative perturbation in the atmospheric density. And then applying the GW polarization relations it is possible to compute the vertical energy and momentum fluxes due to waves seen in the OH emission.This analysis will make possible a comprehensive study of the momentum flux and variance due to GW over this region.
On the influence of zonal gravity wave distributions on the Southern Hemisphere winter circulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Lilienthal
2017-07-01
Full Text Available A mechanistic global circulation model is used to simulate the Southern Hemisphere stratospheric, mesospheric, and lower thermospheric circulation during austral winter. The model includes a gravity wave (GW parameterization that is initiated by prescribed 2-D fields of GW parameters in the troposphere. These are based on observations of GW potential energy calculated using GPS radio occultations and show enhanced GW activity east of the Andes and around the Antarctic. In order to detect the influence of an observation-based and thus realistic 2-D GW distribution on the middle atmosphere circulation, we perform model experiments with zonal mean and 2-D GW initialization, and additionally with and without forcing of stationary planetary waves (SPWs at the lower boundary of the model. As a result, we find additional forcing of SPWs in the stratosphere, a weaker zonal wind jet in the mesosphere, cooling of the mesosphere and warming near the mesopause above the jet. SPW wavenumber 1 (SPW1 amplitudes are generally increased by about 10 % when GWs are introduced being longitudinally dependent. However, at the upper part of the zonal wind jet, SPW1 in zonal wind and GW acceleration are out of phase, which reduces the amplitudes there.
Latitudinal and seasonal variability of gravity-wave energy in the South-West Indian Ocean
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Chane-Ming
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Vertical temperature profiles obtained by radiosonde and Raman lidar measurements are used to investigate a climatology of total energy density of gravity waves (GW in the Upper Troposphere (UT and the Lower Stratosphere (LS from 1992 to 2004 above Mahé (4° S, 55° E, Tromelin (15° S, 54° E and La Réunion (21° S, 55° E located in the tropical South-West Indian Ocean. The commonly used spectral index value (p≈5/3 of the intrinsic frequency spectrum is used for calculating estimated total energy density in the UT and LS. Estimated total energy density provides good estimation of total energy density in the LS but underestimates total energy density by one half in the UT above Mahé and Tromelin probably due to the activity of near-inertial frequency waves. Estimated total energy density reveals a strong seasonal variability as a function of latitude and convection as an evident active source of GW activity in the LS in austral summer. Above La Réunion, a semi-annual GW activity is observed in the LS with the signature of the subtropical barrier in the UT. Moreover, radiosondes and Raman lidar provide consistent GW surveys in the UT/LS at heights<23 km above La Réunion.
Latitudinal and seasonal variability of gravity-wave energy in the South-West Indian Ocean
Chane-Ming, F.; Faduilhe, D.; Leveau, J.
2007-12-01
Vertical temperature profiles obtained by radiosonde and Raman lidar measurements are used to investigate a climatology of total energy density of gravity waves (GW) in the Upper Troposphere (UT) and the Lower Stratosphere (LS) from 1992 to 2004 above Mahé (4° S, 55° E), Tromelin (15° S, 54° E) and La Réunion (21° S, 55° E) located in the tropical South-West Indian Ocean. The commonly used spectral index value (p≈5/3) of the intrinsic frequency spectrum is used for calculating estimated total energy density in the UT and LS. Estimated total energy density provides good estimation of total energy density in the LS but underestimates total energy density by one half in the UT above Mahé and Tromelin probably due to the activity of near-inertial frequency waves. Estimated total energy density reveals a strong seasonal variability as a function of latitude and convection as an evident active source of GW activity in the LS in austral summer. Above La Réunion, a semi-annual GW activity is observed in the LS with the signature of the subtropical barrier in the UT. Moreover, radiosondes and Raman lidar provide consistent GW surveys in the UT/LS at heights<23 km above La Réunion.
Latitudinal and seasonal variability of gravity-wave energy in the South-West Indian Ocean
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Chane-Ming
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Vertical temperature profiles obtained by radiosonde and Raman lidar measurements are used to investigate a climatology of total energy density of gravity waves (GW in the Upper Troposphere (UT and the Lower Stratosphere (LS from 1992 to 2004 above Mahé (4° S, 55° E, Tromelin (15° S, 54° E and La Réunion (21° S, 55° E located in the tropical South-West Indian Ocean. The commonly used spectral index value (p≈5/3 of the intrinsic frequency spectrum is used for calculating estimated total energy density in the UT and LS. Estimated total energy density provides good estimation of total energy density in the LS but underestimates total energy density by one half in the UT above Mahé and Tromelin probably due to the activity of near-inertial frequency waves. Estimated total energy density reveals a strong seasonal variability as a function of latitude and convection as an evident active source of GW activity in the LS in austral summer. Above La Réunion, a semi-annual GW activity is observed in the LS with the signature of the subtropical barrier in the UT. Moreover, radiosondes and Raman lidar provide consistent GW surveys in the UT/LS at heights<23 km above La Réunion.
Transformation of second sound into surface waves in superfluid helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khalatnikov, I.M.; Kolmakov, G.V.; Pokrovsky, V.L.
1995-01-01
The Hamiltonian theory of superfluid liquid with a free boundary is developed. Nonlinear amplitudes of parametric Cherenkov radiation of a surface wave by second sound and the inner decay of second sound waves are found. Threshold amplitudes of second sound waves for these two processes are determined. 4 refs
Phase spectral composition of wind generated ocean surface waves
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Varkey, M.J.
A study of the composition of the phase spectra of wind generated ocean surface waves is carried out using wave records collected employing a ship borne wave recorder. It is found that the raw phase spectral estimates could be fitted by the Uniform...
Nonlinear interaction of the surface waves at a plasma boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolgopolov, V.V.; El-Naggar, I.A.; Hussein, A.M.; Khalil, Sh.M.
1976-01-01
Amplitudes of electromagnetic waves with combination frequencies, radiating from the plasma boundary due to nonlinear interaction of the surface waves, have been found. Previous papers on this subject did not take into account that the tangential components of the electric field of waves with combination frequencies were discontinuous at the plasma boundary. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pogorel'tsev, A.I.; Bidlingmajer, E.R.
1992-01-01
A numeric model of electromagnetic field disturbances generated under the interaction of acoustic-gravitational waves with ionospheric plasma is elaborated and vertical structure of the above disturbances is calculated. The estimates shown that electromagnetic disturbances can penetrate into neutral atmosphere and can be recorded through measurements of the variation of magnetic field and electron field vertical component near the earth is surface. A conclusion is made on a feasibility of monitoring of acoustic-gravitational wave activity in the lower thermosphere through land measurements of magnetic and electric field variations
Satellite observations of middle atmosphere–thermosphere vertical coupling by gravity waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Q. T. Trinh
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Atmospheric gravity waves (GWs are essential for the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. Recent studies have shown that these waves are also important for the thermosphere/ionosphere (T/I system. Via vertical coupling, GWs can significantly influence the mean state of the T/I system. However, the penetration of GWs into the T/I system is not fully understood in modeling as well as observations. In the current study, we analyze the correlation between GW momentum fluxes observed in the middle atmosphere (30–90 km and GW-induced perturbations in the T/I. In the middle atmosphere, GW momentum fluxes are derived from temperature observations of the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER satellite instrument. In the T/I, GW-induced perturbations are derived from neutral density measured by instruments on the Gravity field and Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE and CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP satellites. We find generally positive correlations between horizontal distributions at low altitudes (i.e., below 90 km and horizontal distributions of GW-induced density fluctuations in the T/I (at 200 km and above. Two coupling mechanisms are likely responsible for these positive correlations: (1 fast GWs generated in the troposphere and lower stratosphere can propagate directly to the T/I and (2 primary GWs with their origins in the lower atmosphere dissipate while propagating upwards and generate secondary GWs, which then penetrate up to the T/I and maintain the spatial patterns of GW distributions in the lower atmosphere. The mountain-wave related hotspot over the Andes and Antarctic Peninsula is found clearly in observations of all instruments used in our analysis. Latitude–longitude variations in the summer midlatitudes are also found in observations of all instruments. These variations and strong positive correlations in the summer midlatitudes suggest that GWs with origins related to convection also
Temperature-mediated transition from Dyakonov-Tamm surface waves to surface-plasmon-polariton waves
Chiadini, Francesco; Fiumara, Vincenzo; Mackay, Tom G.; Scaglione, Antonio; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh
2017-08-01
The effect of changing the temperature on the propagation of electromagnetic surface waves (ESWs), guided by the planar interface of a homogeneous isotropic temperature-sensitive material (namely, InSb) and a temperature-insensitive structurally chiral material (SCM) was numerically investigated in the terahertz frequency regime. As the temperature rises, InSb transforms from a dissipative dielectric material to a dissipative plasmonic material. Correspondingly, the ESWs transmute from Dyakonov-Tamm surface waves into surface-plasmon-polariton waves. The effects of the temperature change are clearly observed in the phase speeds, propagation distances, angular existence domains, multiplicity, and spatial profiles of energy flow of the ESWs. Remarkably large propagation distances can be achieved; in such instances the energy of an ESW is confined almost entirely within the SCM. For certain propagation directions, simultaneous excitation of two ESWs with (i) the same phase speeds but different propagation distances or (ii) the same propagation distances but different phase speeds are also indicated by our results.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Sivakumar, V
2006-07-01
Full Text Available of the study Instrument used : LiDAR ( System and Specifications ) Data used and Method of analysis Results Gravity Wave characteristics ( Time period, vertical wavelength and potential energy ) Over all mean characteristics Summer and Winter... technique in the height range 30 - 80 km. GW Studies are confined to mid- and high latitudes. Mid- and high latitude results are : Gravity wave activity maximum during winter and minimum during summer. The dominant wave periods range from 2 to 8 hrs...
Buzanowicz, M. E.; Yue, J.; Russell, J. M., III; Sato, K.; Kohma, M.; Nakamura, T.
2015-12-01
Polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) are high-altitude ice clouds that form in the cold summer mesopause region due to adiabatic cooling caused by an upwelling induced by the global meridional circulation, which is driven by gravity wave dissipation and forcing. Polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSEs) are strong coherent echoes also observed in the polar summer mesosphere and are considered to be related to ionization and the small-scale structure associated with PMCs, with their origins thought to be strongly related. The peak PMSE height can be located slightly below the summer mesopause temperature minimum but above the PMC altitude. Upward propagating atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) are usually considered to be the cause of the wave patterns seen in PMCs. Monitoring PMCs and PMSEs will provide important tools in detecting climate change in the upper atmosphere and a better understanding of the earth-climate system. The science goal I plan to accomplish is to investigate the possibility of a connection between gravity wave perturbation characteristics in PMCs from the AIM (Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere) satellite and PMSE structures observed by PANSY (program of the Antarctic Syowa MST/IS radar). Data from the CIPS instrument onboard AIM, PANSY, and AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) will be used. AIM provides a two-dimensional horizontal view of the atmosphere dynamics embedded in PMCs, while PANSY provides a vertical view of PMSEs and gravity waves with high temporal resolution. The combination of AIM and PANSY will provide a three-dimensional view of the atmosphere, AGWs, PMCs and PMSEs. AIRS provides information about AGWs in the stratosphere. Wave analysis of the Fast Fourier Transform or a wavelet analysis will be used to complete the science goal. AIRS will be used to examine how lower atmosphere meteorology may impact the PMC and PMSE structures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. Liu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We study the momentum deposition in the thermosphere from the dissipation of small amplitude gravity waves (GWs within a wave packet using a fully nonlinear two-dimensional compressible numerical model. The model solves the nonlinear propagation and dissipation of a GW packet from the stratosphere into the thermosphere with realistic molecular viscosity and thermal diffusivity for various Prandtl numbers. The numerical simulations are performed for GW packets with initial vertical wavelengths (λz ranging from 5 to 50 km. We show that λz decreases in time as a GW packet dissipates in the thermosphere, in agreement with the ray trace results of Vadas and Fritts (2005 (VF05. We also find good agreement for the peak height of the momentum flux (zdiss between our simulations and VF05 for GWs with initial λz ≤ 2π H in an isothermal, windless background, where H is the density scale height. We also confirm that zdiss increases with increasing Prandtl number. We include eddy diffusion in the model, and find that the momentum deposition occurs at lower altitudes and has two separate peaks for GW packets with small initial λz. We also simulate GW packets in a non-isothermal atmosphere. The net λz profile is a competition between its decrease from viscosity and its increase from the increasing background temperature. We find that the wave packet disperses more in the non-isothermal atmosphere, and causes changes to the momentum flux and λz spectra at both early and late times for GW packets with initial λz ≥ 10 km. These effects are caused by the increase in T in the thermosphere, and the decrease in T near the mesopause.
Opportunities and pitfalls in surface-wave interpretation
Schuster, Gerard T.
2017-01-21
Many explorationists think of surface waves as the most damaging noise in land seismic data. Thus, much effort is spent in designing geophone arrays and filtering methods that attenuate these noisy events. It is now becoming apparent that surface waves can be a valuable ally in characterizing the near-surface geology. This review aims to find out how the interpreter can exploit some of the many opportunities available in surface waves recorded in land seismic data. For example, the dispersion curves associated with surface waves can be inverted to give the S-wave velocity tomogram, the common-offset gathers can reveal the presence of near-surface faults or velocity anomalies, and back-scattered surface waves can be migrated to detect the location of near-surface faults. However, the main limitation of surface waves is that they are typically sensitive to S-wave velocity variations no deeper than approximately half to one-third the dominant wavelength. For many exploration surveys, this limits the depth of investigation to be no deeper than approximately 0.5-1.0 km.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
JOEL Arnault
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The case study of a mountain wave triggered by the Antarctic Peninsula on 6 October 2005, which has already been documented in the literature, is chosen here to quantify the associated gravity wave forcing on the large-scale flow, with a budget analysis of the horizontal wind components and horizontal kinetic energy. In particular, a numerical simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model is compared to a control simulation with flat orography to separate the contribution of the mountain wave from that of other synoptic processes of non-orographic origin. The so-called differential budgets of horizontal wind components and horizontal kinetic energy (after subtracting the results from the simulation without orography are then averaged horizontally and vertically in the inner domain of the simulation to quantify the mountain wave dynamical influence at this scale. This allows for a quantitative analysis of the simulated mountain wave's dynamical influence, including the orographically induced pressure drag, the counterbalancing wave-induced vertical transport of momentum from the flow aloft, the momentum and energy exchanges with the outer flow at the lateral and upper boundaries, the effect of turbulent mixing, the dynamics associated with geostrophic re-adjustment of the inner flow, the deceleration of the inner flow, the secondary generation of an inertia–gravity wave and the so-called baroclinic conversion of energy between potential energy and kinetic energy.
Instability of coupled gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in solar system atmospheres
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. F. McKenzie
2009-11-01
Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the combined theory of gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in the Boussinesq approximation. The wave equation for the system is fifth order in space and time and demonstrates how gravity-inertial waves on the one hand are coupled to Rossby waves on the other through the combined effects of β, the stratification characterized by the Väisälä-Brunt frequency N, the Coriolis frequency f at a given latitude, and vertical propagation which permits buoyancy modes to interact with westward propagating Rossby waves. The corresponding dispersion equation shows that the frequency of a westward propagating gravity-inertial wave is reduced by the coupling, whereas the frequency of a Rossby wave is increased. If the coupling is sufficiently strong these two modes coalesce giving rise to an instability. The instability condition translates into a curve of critical latitude Θc versus effective equatorial rotational Mach number M, with the region below this curve exhibiting instability. "Supersonic" fast rotators are unstable in a narrow band of latitudes around the equator. For example Θc~12° for Jupiter. On the other hand slow "subsonic" rotators (e.g. Mercury, Venus and the Sun's Corona are unstable at all latitudes except very close to the poles where the β effect vanishes. "Transonic" rotators, such as the Earth and Mars, exhibit instability within latitudes of 34° and 39°, respectively, around the Equator. Similar results pertain to Oceans. In the case of an Earth's Ocean of depth 4km say, purely westward propagating waves are unstable up to 26° about the Equator. The nonlinear evolution of this instability which feeds off rotational energy and gravitational buoyancy may play an important role in atmospheric dynamics.
Instability of coupled gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in solar system atmospheres
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. F. McKenzie
2009-11-01
Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the combined theory of gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in the Boussinesq approximation. The wave equation for the system is fifth order in space and time and demonstrates how gravity-inertial waves on the one hand are coupled to Rossby waves on the other through the combined effects of β, the stratification characterized by the Väisälä-Brunt frequency N, the Coriolis frequency f at a given latitude, and vertical propagation which permits buoyancy modes to interact with westward propagating Rossby waves. The corresponding dispersion equation shows that the frequency of a westward propagating gravity-inertial wave is reduced by the coupling, whereas the frequency of a Rossby wave is increased. If the coupling is sufficiently strong these two modes coalesce giving rise to an instability. The instability condition translates into a curve of critical latitude Θ_{c} versus effective equatorial rotational Mach number M, with the region below this curve exhibiting instability. "Supersonic" fast rotators are unstable in a narrow band of latitudes around the equator. For example Θ_{c}~12° for Jupiter. On the other hand slow "subsonic" rotators (e.g. Mercury, Venus and the Sun's Corona are unstable at all latitudes except very close to the poles where the β effect vanishes. "Transonic" rotators, such as the Earth and Mars, exhibit instability within latitudes of 34° and 39°, respectively, around the Equator. Similar results pertain to Oceans. In the case of an Earth's Ocean of depth 4km say, purely westward propagating waves are unstable up to 26° about the Equator. The nonlinear evolution of this instability which feeds off rotational energy and gravitational buoyancy may play an important role in atmospheric dynamics.
Improving the realism of gravity waves generated by convection in numerical models
Stephan, Claudia Christine
Small-scale gravity waves (GWs) with horizontal wavelengths of tens up to several hundred kilometers have demonstrated importance for driving the general circulation of the atmosphere, which affects many climate processes. GWs that propagate vertically from the troposphere into the middle atmosphere eventually dissipate and deposit momentum to the mean flow. Through this process they influence the timing of the transition in springtime from winter westerlies to summer easterlies in the stratosphere. They also play an important role in driving the mean-meridional transport circulation, the Brewer-Dobson circulation, and in the tropics help drive the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation and the Semi-Annual Oscillation. GWs with scales on the order of the size of a model grid box or smaller remain unresolved in Global Circulation Models (GCMs) and therefore need to be parameterized. GWs are generated by a variety of sources including orography, convection, and geostrophic adjustment in regions of baroclinic instability. We focus here in particular on convectively-generated GWs, which are prevalent in the tropics and summer mid-latitudes. Their parameterizations in climate models range in complexity from simple assumptions of uniform sources to more complex methods that relate the spectrum of GWs to properties of convection in the climate model. The parameter settings that must be chosen to apply these GW parameterizations are poorly constrained by observations, so they are instead based largely on cloud-resolving model results. Cloud-resolving model studies themselves use parameterized physics for the microphysics of precipitation particle formation. We first explore the sensitivity of the waves generated in cloud-resolving models to these physics parameterizations and show that knowledge of large-scale storm conditions is sufficient to predict the large-area and time-average spectrum of GW momentum flux above storms, irrespective of the convective details that coarse
HF Surface Wave Radar Operation in Adverse Conditions
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ponsford, Anthony M; Dizaji, Reza M; McKerracher, Richard
2005-01-01
...) system based on HF Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR). the primary objective behind the programme was to demonstrate the capability of HFSWR to continuously detect and track surface targets (ships and icebergs...
Surface wave propagation in a fluid-saturated incompressible ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
saturated incompressible porous media. Many studies have discussed the surface wave propagation in elastic media and a com- prehensive review is available in the standard texts, e.g., Ewing et al (1957) and Achenbach. (1976). The surface ...
Surface wave propagation characteristics in atmospheric pressure plasma column
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pencheva, M; Benova, E; Zhelyazkov, I
2007-01-01
In the typical experiments of surface wave sustained plasma columns at atmospheric pressure the ratio of collision to wave frequency (ν/ω) is much greater than unity. Therefore, one might expect that the usual analysis of the wave dispersion relation, performed under the assumption ν/ω = 0, cannot give adequate description of the wave propagation characteristics. In order to study these characteristics we have analyzed the wave dispersion relationship for arbitrary ν/ω. Our analysis includes phase and wave dispersion curves, attenuation coefficient, and wave phase and group velocities. The numerical results show that a turning back point appears in the phase diagram, after which a region of backward wave propagation exists. The experimentally observed plasma column is only in a region where wave propagation coefficient is higher than the attenuation coefficient. At the plasma column end the electron density is much higher than that corresponding to the turning back point and the resonance
Multi-component joint analysis of surface waves
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Moura, R.M.M.; Moustafa, S.S.R.
2015-01-01
Roč. 119, AUG (2015), s. 128-138 ISSN 0926-9851 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : surface waves * surface wave dispersion * seismic data acquisition * seismic data inversion * velocity spectrum Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.355, year: 2015
Surface acoustic wave devices for sensor applications
Bo, Liu; Xiao, Chen; Hualin, Cai; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Xiangguang, Tian; Luqi, Tao; Yi, Yang; Tianling, Ren
2016-02-01
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been widely used in different fields and will continue to be of great importance in the foreseeable future. These devices are compact, cost efficient, easy to fabricate, and have a high performance, among other advantages. SAW devices can work as filters, signal processing units, sensors and actuators. They can even work without batteries and operate under harsh environments. In this review, the operating principles of SAW sensors, including temperature sensors, pressure sensors, humidity sensors and biosensors, will be discussed. Several examples and related issues will be presented. Technological trends and future developments will also be discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 60936002, 61025021, 61434001, 61574083), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2015CB352100), the National Key Project of Science and Technology (No. 2011ZX02403-002) and the Special Fund for Agroscientific Research in the Public Interest of China (No. 201303107). M.A.M is additionally supported by the Postdoctoral Fellowship (PDF) program of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (CPSF).
Gravity wave control on ESF day-to-day variability: An empirical approach
Aswathy, R. P.; Manju, G.
2017-06-01
The gravity wave control on the daily variation in nighttime ionization irregularity occurrence is studied using ionosonde data for the period 2002-2007 at magnetic equatorial location Trivandrum. Recent studies during low solar activity period have revealed that the seed perturbations should have the threshold amplitude required to trigger equatorial spread F (ESF), at a particular altitude and that this threshold amplitude undergoes seasonal and solar cycle changes. In the present study, the altitude variation of the threshold seed perturbations is examined for autumnal equinox of different years. Thereafter, a unique empirical model, incorporating the electrodynamical effects and the gravity wave modulation, is developed. Using the model the threshold curve for autumnal equinox season of any year may be delineated if the solar flux index (F10.7) is known. The empirical model is validated using the data for high, moderate, and low solar epochs in 2001, 2004, and 1995, respectively. This model has the potential to be developed further, to forecast ESF incidence, if the base height of ionosphere is in the altitude region where electrodynamics controls the occurrence of ESF. ESF irregularities are harmful for communication and navigation systems, and therefore, research is ongoing globally to predict them. In this context, this study is crucial for evolving a methodology to predict communication as well as navigation outages.Plain Language SummaryThe manifestation of nocturnal ionospheric irregularities at magnetic equatorial regions poses a major hazard for communication and navigation systems. It is therefore essential to arrive at prediction methodologies for these irregularities. The present study puts forth a novel empirical model which, using only solar flux index, successfully differentiates between days with and without nocturnal ionization irregularity occurrence. The model-derived curve is obtained such that the days with and without occurrence of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Naggar, I.A.; Hussein, A.M.; Khalil, Sh.M.
1992-09-01
Electromagnetic waves radiated with combination frequencies from a semi-bounded plasma due to nonlinear interaction of radiation with surface wave (both of P-polarization) has been investigated. Waves are radiated both into vacuum and plasma are found to be P-polarized. We take into consideration the continuity at the plasma boundary of the tangential components of the electric field of the waves. The case of normal incidence of radiation and rarefield plasma layer is also studied. (author). 7 refs
Eigenwave spectrum of surface acoustic waves on a rough self-affine fractal surface
Palasantzas, George
1994-01-01
The propagation of a sound wave along a statistically rough solid-vacuum interface is investigated for the case of self-affine fractals. The wave-number relation ω=ω(k) is examined for the transverse polarized surface wave. The range of existence of this wave is analyzed as a function of the degree
Wave-current interaction near the Gulf Stream during the surface wave dynamics experiment
Wang, David W.; Liu, Antony K.; Peng, Chih Y.; Meindl, Eric A.
1994-01-01
This paper presents a case study on the wave-current interaction near the local curvature of a Gulf Stream meander. The wave data were obtained from in situ measurements by a pitch-roll discus buoy during the Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment (SWADE) conducted off Wallops Island, Virginia, from October 1990 to March 1991. Owing to the advection of the Gulf Stream by the semidiurnal tide, the discus buoy was alternately located outside and inside the Gulf Stream. The directional wave measurements from the buoy show the changes in wave direction, wave energy, and directional spreading when waves encountered the current in the Gulf Stream meanders. A wave refraction model, using the ray-tracing method with an estimated Gulf Stream velocity field and meandering condition, was used to simulate wave refraction patterns and to estimate wave parameters at relative locations corresponding to buoy measurements. The numerical simulation shows that a focusing zone of wave rays was formed near the boundary and behind the crest of a simulated Gulf Stream meander. The focusing of wave rays causes changes in wave direction, increases in wave energy, and decreases in wave directional spreading, which are in good agreement with the results from the buoy measurements.
Near-surface characterization for seismic exploration based on gravity and resistivity data
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Mrlina, Jan
(2016), č. článku 41892. [Middle East Geoscience Conference and Exhibition /12./. Manama, 07.03.2016-10.03.2016] Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : gravity and resistivity surveys * near-surface formations * seismic velocity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure
A study of atmospheric gravity waves and travelling ionospheric disturbances at equatorial latitudes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. L. Balthazor
Full Text Available A global coupled thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere model is used to simulate a family of large-scale imperfectly ducted atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs and associated travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs originating at conjugate magnetic latitudes in the north and south auroral zones and subsequently propagating meridionally to equatorial latitudes. A 'fast' dominant mode and two slower modes are identified. We find that, at the magnetic equator, all the clearly identified modes of AGW interfere constructively and pass through to the opposite hemisphere with unchanged velocity. At F-region altitudes the 'fast' AGW has the largest amplitude, and when northward propagating and southward propagating modes interfere at the equator, the TID (as parameterised by the fractional change in the electron density at the F2 peak increases in magnitude at the equator. The amplitude of the TID at the magnetic equator is increased compared to mid-latitudes in both upper and lower F-regions with a larger increase in the upper F-region. The ionospheric disturbance at the equator persists in the upper F-region for about 1 hour and in the lower F-region for 2.5 hours after the AGWs first interfere, and it is suggested that this is due to enhancements of the TID by slower AGW modes arriving later at the magnetic equator. The complex effects of the interplays of the TIDs generated in the equatorial plasmasphere are analysed by examining neutral and ion winds predicted by the model, and are demonstrated to be consequences of the forcing of the plasmasphere along the magnetic field lines by the neutral air pressure wave.
Note on the surface wave due to the prescribed elevation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
oscillatory motion with the increase of time, leaving behind the highest elevation initially. On the other hand in case of spiral cyclonic motion for which the sea surface experiences the elliptical pressure distribution, the motion diminishes as g the ac- celeration due to gravity diminishes and oscillates with the variation of time.
Direct detection of near-surface faults by migration of back-scattered surface waves
Yu, Han
2014-08-05
We show that diffraction stack migration can be used to estimate the distribution of near-surface faults. The assumption is that near-surface faults generate detectable back-scattered surface waves from impinging surface waves. The processing steps are to isolate the back-scattered surface waves, and then migrate them by diffraction migration using the surface wave velocity as the migration velocity. Instead of summing events along trial quasi-hyperbolas, surface wave migration sums events along trial quasi-linear trajectories that correspond to the moveout of back-scattered surface waves. A deconvolution filter derived from the data can be used to collapse a dispersive arrival into a non-dispersive event. Results with synthetic data and field records validate the feasibility of this method. Applying this method to USArray data or passively recorded exploration data might open new opportunities in mapping tectonic features over the extent of the array.
Kelley, M. C.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Dao, E. V.; Holzworth, R. H., II
2014-12-01
With the increase in solar activity, the Communications/Outage Forecast System satellite (C/NOFS) now goes below the F peak. As such, we now can study the development of Convective Ionospheric Storms (CIS) and, most importantly, large-scale seeding of the low growth-rate Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability. Two mechanisms have been suggested for such seeding: the Collisional Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability (CKHI) and internal atmospheric gravity waves. A number of observations have shown that the spectrum of fully developed topside structures peaks at 600 km and extends to over 1000 km. These structures are exceedingly difficult to explain by CKHI. Here we show that sinusoidal plasma oscillations on the bottomside during daytime develop classical R-T structures on the nightside with the background 600 km structure still apparent. In two case studies, thunderstorm activity was observed east of the sinusoidal features in the two hours preceding the C/NOFS passes. Thus, we argue that convective tropospheric storms are a likely source of these sinusoidal features.
Fritts, David C.; Wang, Ling; Laughman, Brian; Lund, Thomas S.; Collins, Richard L.
2018-01-01
A companion paper by Fritts, Laughman, et al. (2017) employed an anelastic numerical model to explore the dynamics of gravity waves (GWs) encountering a mesospheric inversion layer (MIL) having a moderate static stability enhancement and a layer of weaker static stability above. That study revealed that MIL responses, including GW transmission, reflection, and instabilities, are sensitive functions of GW parameters. This paper expands on two of the Fritts, Laughman, et al. (2017) simulations to examine GW instability dynamics and turbulence in the MIL; forcing of the mean wind and stability environments by GW, instability, and turbulence fluxes; and associated heat and momentum transports. These direct numerical simulations resolve turbulence inertial-range scales and yield the following results: GW breaking and turbulence in the MIL occur below where they would otherwise, due to enhancements of GW amplitudes and shears in the MIL. 2-D GW and instability heat and momentum fluxes are 20-30 times larger than 3-D instability and turbulence fluxes. Mean fields are driven largely by 2-D GW and instability dynamics rather than 3-D instabilities and turbulence. 2-D and 3-D heat fluxes in regions of strong turbulence yield small departures from initial T(z) and N2(z) profiles, hence do not yield nearly adiabatic "mixed" layers. Our MIL results are consistent with the relation between the turbulent vertical velocity variance and energy dissipation rate proposed by Weinstock (1981) for the limited intervals evaluated.
Electronics for the IBM gravity wave detector. Concept, implementation, and experience
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levine, J.L.; Garwin, R.L.
1975-01-01
The apparatus - antenna, transducer, signal processor, and calibrator - was designed to settle the question of the existence of gravity waves at 1.7kHz of the numbers and intensities claimed at the time (end-1971). The design criteria were: modest sensitivity, sensitivity independent of signal arrival time and state of excitation of the antenna, absolute calibration with pulsed mechanical excitation of the antenna, full simulation of the apparatus, hands-off computer analysis with every point published. It was recognized that a single bar would ultimately be limited by some Boltzmann distribution of noise at sub-thermal temperature, and that such an ideal antenna would be equivalent to an ideal coincidence pair of antennas, each of half the mass. Transducer, amplifier, signal processor, and programming were all done by the experimenters in order to reduce the cycle time for introducing improvements. Before the antenna and amplifier were ready, the processing algorithms were developed and tested with digitally-simulated antenna output, and many problems avoided. Any excess local noise proved to be sufficiently infrequent so that the single antenna could negate claims by Weber of the detection of gravitational radiation. The computer processing obviated the need for temperature control of the antenna or for tracking of the bar resonant frequency with the reference oscillator
Farsoiya, Palas Kumar; Dasgupta, Ratul
2017-11-01
When the interface between two radially unbounded, viscous fluids lying vertically in a stable configuration (denser fluid below) at rest, is perturbed, radially propagating capillary-gravity waves are formed which damp out with time. We study this process analytically using a recently developed linearised theory. For small amplitude initial perturbations, the analytical solution to the initial value problem, represented as a linear superposition of Bessel modes at time t = 0 , is found to agree very well with results obtained from direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, for a range of initial conditions. Our study extends the earlier work by John W. Miles who studied this initial value problem analytically, taking into account, a single viscous fluid only. Implications of this study for the mechanistic understanding of droplet impact into a deep pool, will be discussed. Some preliminary, qualitative comparison with experiments will also be presented. We thank SERB Dept. Science & Technology, Govt. of India, Grant No. EMR/2016/000830 for financial support.
Ibrahim, C.; Chane-Ming, F.; Barthe, C.; Kuleshov, Y.
2010-05-01
Tropical cyclone (TC) activity is diagnosed through convective gravity waves (GWs) observed in the upper troposphere (UT)/lower stratosphere (LS) above Tromelin island (15.53°S, 54.31°E) in the tropical southwest Indian Ocean. Monthly and weekly GW total energy densities derived from daily GPS windsonde data are compared with Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) and TC hours in the vicinity of Tromelin. A relationship between GW energy density and TC activity is observed in the LS, for the TC season 2001/2002. Moreover TCs (local convection) produce GWs with total energy density mostly higher (lower) than 12 J kg-1. A 10-season climatology (1997/1998-2006/2007) confirms that large values of GW total energy density in the LS are associated with weak values of OLR during the TC passage. Monthly total, kinetic and potential GW energy densities within 2000 km radius of Tromelin can be estimated using linear relationships with TC hours for a threshold of above 6 TC days per month. A linear relationship also exists between weekly GW total energy density in the LS and the activity of intense TCs above a threshold of 2 TC days per week within 1000 km radius of Tromelin. GW energy density in the LS could be used as a possible index to investigate TC activity in the UT/LS.
Diurnal variation in gravity wave activity at low and middle latitudes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. F. Andrioli
2013-11-01
Full Text Available We employ a modified composite day extension of the Hocking (2005 analysis method to study gravity wave (GW activity in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere using 4 meteor radars spanning latitudes from 7° S to 53.6° S. Diurnal and semidiurnal modulations were observed in GW variances over all sites. Semidiurnal modulation with downward phase propagation was observed at lower latitudes mainly near the equinoxes. Diurnal modulations occur mainly near solstice and, except for the zonal component at Cariri (7° S, do not exhibit downward phase propagation. At a higher latitude (SAAMER, 53.6° S these modulations are only observed in the meridional component where we can observe diurnal variation from March to May, and semidiurnal, during January, February, October (above 88 km and November. Some of these modulations with downward phase progression correlate well with wind shear. When the wind shear is well correlated with the maximum of the variances the diurnal tide has its largest amplitudes, i.e., near equinox. Correlations exhibiting variations with tidal phases suggest significant GW-tidal interactions that have different characters depending on the tidal components and possible mean wind shears. Modulations that do not exhibit phase variations could be indicative of diurnal variations in GW sources.
Some characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed by radio-interferometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claude Mercier
Full Text Available Observations of atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs are considered through their effect on the horizontal gradient G of the slant total electron content (slant TEC, which can be directly obtained from two-dimensional radio-interferometric observations of cosmic radio-sources with the Nançay radioheligraph (2.2^{°}E, 47.3^{°}N. Azimuths of propagation can be deduced (modulo 180^{°}. The total database amounts to about 800 h of observations at various elevations, local time and seasons. The main results are:
a AGWs are partially directive, confirming our previous results.
b The propagation azimuths considered globally are widely scattered with a preference towards the south.
c They show a bimodal time distribution with preferential directions towards the SE during daytime and towards the SW during night-time (rather than a clockwise rotation as reported by previous authors.
d The periods are scattered but are larger during night-time than during daytime by about 60%.
e The effects observed with the solar radio-sources are significantly stronger than with other radio-sources (particularly at higher elevations, showing the role of the geometry in line of sight-integrated observations.
Frequency variations of gravity waves interacting with a time-varying tide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, C.M.; Zhang, S.D.; Yi, F.; Huang, K.M.; Gan, Q.; Gong, Y. [Wuhan Univ., Hubei (China). School of Electronic Information; Ministry of Education, Wuhan, Hubei (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment and Geodesy; State Observatory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zhang, Y.H. [Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Technology (China). College of Hydrometeorolgy
2013-11-01
Using a nonlinear, 2-D time-dependent numerical model, we simulate the propagation of gravity waves (GWs) in a time-varying tide. Our simulations show that when aGW packet propagates in a time-varying tidal-wind environment, not only its intrinsic frequency but also its ground-based frequency would change significantly. The tidal horizontal-wind acceleration dominates the GW frequency variation. Positive (negative) accelerations induce frequency increases (decreases) with time. More interestingly, tidal-wind acceleration near the critical layers always causes the GW frequency to increase, which may partially explain the observations that high-frequency GW components are more dominant in the middle and upper atmosphere than in the lower atmosphere. The combination of the increased ground-based frequency of propagating GWs in a time-varying tidal-wind field and the transient nature of the critical layer induced by a time-varying tidal zonal wind creates favorable conditions for GWs to penetrate their originally expected critical layers. Consequently, GWs have an impact on the background atmosphere at much higher altitudes than expected, which indicates that the dynamical effects of tidal-GW interactions are more complicated than usually taken into account by GW parameterizations in global models.
Observation of Zenneck-Like Waves over a Metasurface Designed for Launching HF Radar Surface Wave
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Florent Jangal
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 20th century a controversy has been continuously revived about the existence of the Zenneck Wave. This wave is a theoretical solution of Maxwell’s equations and might be propagated along the interface between the air and a dielectric medium. The expected weak attenuation at large distance explains the constant interest for this wave. Notably in the High Frequency band such a wave had been thought as a key point to reduce the high attenuation observed in High Frequency Surface Wave Radar. Despite many works on that topic and various experiments attempted during one century, there is still an alternation of statements between its existence and its nonexistence. We report here an experiment done during the optimisation of the transmitting antennas for Surface Wave Radars. Using an infrared method, we visualize a wave having the structure described by Zenneck above a metasurface located on a dielectric slab.
Chane Ming, Fabrice; Vignelles, Damien; Jegou, Fabrice; Berthet, Gwenael; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Gheusi, François; Kuleshov, Yuriy
2016-01-01
International audience; Coupled balloon-borne observations of Light Optical Aerosol Counter (LOAC), M10 meteorological global positioning system (GPS) sondes, ozonesondes, and GPS radio occultation data, are examined to identify gravity-wave (GW)-induced fluctuations on tracer gases and on the vertical distribution of stratospheric aerosol concentrations during the 2013 ChArMEx (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) campaign. Observations reveal signatures of GWs with short vertical wav...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Altadill, D.; Apostolov, E. M.; Boška, Josef; Laštovička, Jan; Šauli, Petra
2004-01-01
Roč. 47, 2/3 (2004), s. 1109-1119 ISSN 1593-5213. [Final Meeting COST271 Action. Effects of the upper atmosphere on terrestrial and Earth- space communications (EACOS). Abingdon, 26.08.2004-27.08.2004] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 271.10; GA ČR GA205/01/1071; GA ČR GP205/02/P077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : ionosphere * planetary waves * gravity waves Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.413, year: 2004
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šauli, Petra; Abry, P.; Boška, Josef; Duchayne, L.
2006-01-01
Roč. 68, 3-5 (2006), s. 586-598 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP205/02/P077; GA ČR(CZ) GA205/01/1071; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3042102 Grant - others:CNRS(FR) 18098 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Solar eclipse * Acoustic-gravity waves * Vertical ionospheric sounding * Wavelet decomposition * Wave packet characterisation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.448, year: 2006
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Sauli
2004-06-01
Full Text Available The aim of this work within the WP 3.1 of the COST 271 Action is the characterization of the variability introduced in the F-region ionosphere by -Planetary Wave Signatures- (PWS and -Gravity Wave Signatures- (GWS. Typical patterns of percentage of time occurrence and time duration of PWS, their climatology and main drivers, as well as their vertical and longitudinal structure have been obtained. Despite the above characterization, the spectral distribution of event duration is too broad to allow for a reasonable prediction of PWS from ionospheric measurements themselves. GWS with a regular morning/evening wave bursts and specific GWS events whose arising can be predicted have been evaluated. As above, their typical pattern of occurrence and time duration, and their vertical structure have been obtained. The latter events remain in the ionospheric variability during disturbed days while additional wave enhancements of auroral origin occur. However, both types of disturbances can be distinguished.
Highly Efficient Wave-Front Reshaping of Surface Waves with Dielectric Metawalls
Dong, Shaohua; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Huijie; Duan, Jingwen; Guan, Fuxin; He, Qiong; Zhao, Haibin; Zhou, Lei; Sun, Shulin
2018-01-01
Controlling the wave fronts of surface waves (including surface-plamon polaritons and their equivalent counterparts) at will is highly important in photonics research, but the available mechanisms suffer from the issues of low efficiency, bulky size, and/or limited functionalities. Inspired by recent studies of metasurfaces that can freely control the wave fronts of propagating waves, we propose to use metawalls placed on a plasmonic surface to efficiently reshape the wave fronts of incident surface waves (SWs). Here, the metawall is constructed by specifically designed meta-atoms that can reflect SWs with desired phases and nearly unit amplitudes. As a proof of concept, we design and fabricate a metawall in the microwave regime (around 12 GHz) that can anomalously reflect the SWs following the generalized Snell's law with high efficiency (approximately 70%). Our results, in excellent agreement with full-wave simulations, provide an alternative yet efficient way to control the wave fronts of SWs in different frequency domains. We finally employ full-wave simulations to demonstrate a surface-plasmon-polariton focusing effect at telecom wavelength based on our scheme.
Physical Retracking of Jason-1 LRM data for ocean surface height/gravity field determination
Jain, Maulik; Baltazar Andersen, Ole; Stenseng, Lars; Dall, Jørgen
2013-04-01
Jason-1 Low Resolution Mode (LRM) waveforms can be processed to extract accurate heights of the ocean surface. These heights are adjusted taking into account various corrections available. Further the along surface slope/variation of these ocean heights can be used to make an estimation of the gravity field. An important part of this gravity field estimation is dependent on the way the LRM waveform is processed. Thus a physical model based on an error function is used, and the LRM waveforms are fit to this model. A processing system made up of 2 parameter and 3 parameter fitting models are used in order to extract the most reliable ocean surface heights. The quality of the processing system is judged by evaluating the standard deviation of the sea surface anomaly obtained after all corrections and the mean sea surface/geoid are removed. The lower the value of the standard deviation of the sea surface anomaly, the better the quality of processing is. Hence, different processing schemes are considered and evaluated in order to conclude towards the best retracking procedure which would eventually result in high accuracy gravity field estimations.
Bechert, M.; Scheid, B.
2017-11-01
The draw resonance effect appears in fiber spinning processes if the ratio of take-up to inlet velocity, the so-called draw ratio, exceeds a critical value and manifests itself in steady oscillations of flow velocity and fiber diameter. We study the effect of surface tension on the draw resonance behavior of Newtonian fiber spinning in the presence of inertia and gravity. Utilizing an alternative scaling makes it possible to visualize the results in stability maps of highly practical relevance. The interplay of the destabilizing effect of surface tension and the stabilizing effects of inertia and gravity lead to nonmonotonic stability behavior and local stability maxima with respect to the dimensionless fluidity and the dimensionless inlet velocity. A region of unconditional instability caused by the influence of surface tension is found in addition to the region of unconditional stability caused by inertia, which was described in previous works [M. Bechert, D. W. Schubert, and B. Scheid, Eur. J. Mech B 52, 68 (2015), 10.1016/j.euromechflu.2015.02.005; Phys. Fluids 28, 024109 (2016), 10.1063/1.4941762]. Due to its importance for a particular group of fiber spinning applications, a viscous-gravity-surface-tension regime, i.e., negligible effect of inertia, is analyzed separately. The mechanism underlying the destabilizing effect of surface tension is discussed and established stability criteria are tested for validity in the presence of surface tension.
Surface charges for gravity and electromagnetism in the first order formalism
Frodden, Ernesto; Hidalgo, Diego
2018-02-01
A new derivation of surface charges for 3 + 1 gravity coupled to electromagnetism is obtained. Gravity theory is written in the tetrad-connection variables. The general derivation starts from the Lagrangian, and uses the covariant symplectic formalism in the language of forms. For gauge theories, surface charges disentangle physical from gauge symmetries through the use of Noether identities and the exactness symmetry condition. The surface charges are quasilocal, explicitly coordinate independent, gauge invariant and background independent. For a black hole family solution, the surface charge conservation implies the first law of black hole mechanics. As a check, we show the first law for an electrically charged, rotating black hole with an asymptotically constant curvature (the Kerr–Newman (anti-)de Sitter family). The charges, including the would-be mass term appearing in the first law, are quasilocal. No reference to the asymptotic structure of the spacetime nor the boundary conditions is required and therefore topological terms do not play a rôle. Finally, surface charge formulae for Lovelock gravity coupled to electromagnetism are exhibited, generalizing the one derived in a recent work by Barnich et al Proc. Workshop ‘ About Various Kinds of Interactions’ in honour of Philippe Spindel (4–5 June 2015, Mons, Belgium) C15-06-04 (2016 (arXiv:1611.01777 [gr-qc])). The two different symplectic methods to define surface charges are compared and shown equivalent.
Millimeter-wave radar scattering from the water surfaceÂ : a wind-wave tank study
Guerin, Charles-Antoine; Boisot, Olivier; Pioch, Sébastien; Caulliez, Guillemette; Lalaurie, Jean-Claude; Fatras, Christophe; Borderies, Pierre
2014-05-01
We report on a recent experiment conducted in the large wind-wave tank of Marseille-Luminy aimed at characterizing the small-scale statistics of ocean- and river-like surfaces as well as their radar return at millimeter waves (Ka-band). Simultaneous measurements of waves elevations and slopes from gravity to capillarity-gravity scale as well as the corresponding Ka-band Normalised Radar Cross Section (NRCS) have been performed for various wind speeds and scattering configurations. For each wind speed, the incidence angle of the radar beam has been varied between 0 and 15 degrees away from nadir and several azimuthal directions with respect to wind have been investigated by step of 45 degrees. Based on this data set we have developed an original technique to estimate the directional wave number spectrum of the water surface from decimeter to millimeter scales. We show that the inclusion of surface current is crucial in the correct derivation of the omnidirectional spectrum and that a non-trivial angular spreading function can be obtained from the measurements of the up-wind and down-wind slope spectra, providing some additional reasonable assumptions. The resulting spectrum is compared with the high-frequency part of the classical oceanic models such as Elfouhaily unified spectrum and Kudryavtsev et al. spectrum. Some consistency tests are proposed to validate the surface model, which is then incorporated in classical analytical scattering models. The main qualitative features of the observed NRCS are a minimum of sensibility to wind speed around 7-8 degrees incidence, non-monotonic variations with incidence at small wind speeds and a marked up/cross wind asymetry. We show that the Physical Optics approximation provides a very satisfactory estimation of the NRCS as compared the experimental values at all wind speeds and azimuths, contrarily to the Geometrical Optics model which is found inaccurate even at the larger wind speeds. The unconventional behavior of the
Frolov, Vladimir; Chernogor, Leonid; Rozumenko, Victor
The Radiophysical Research Institute (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) and Kharkiv V. N. Karazin National University (Kharkiv, Ukraine) have studied opportunities for the effective generation of acoustic gravity waves (AGWs) in 3 - 180-min period range. The excitation of such waves was conducted for the last several years using the SURA heating facility (Nizhny Novgorod). The detection of the HF-induced AGWs was carried out in the Radiophysical Observatory located near Kharkiv City at a distance of about 960 km from the SURA. A coherent radar for vertical sounding, an ionosonde, and magnetometer chains were used in our measurements. The main results are the following (see [1-5]): 1. Infrasound oscillation trains with a period of 6 min are detected during periodic SURA heater turn-on and -off. Similar oscillation trains are detected after long time pumping, during periodic transmissions with a period of 20 s, as well as after pumping turn-off. The train recordings begin 28 - 54 min after the heater turn-on or -off, and the train propagation speeds are about 300 - 570 m/s, the value of which is close to the sound speed at upper atmospheric altitudes. The amplitude of the Doppler shift frequency is of 10 - 40 mHz, which fits to the 0.1 - 0.3% electron density disturbances at ionospheric altitudes. The amplitude of the infrasound oscillations depends on the SURA mode of operation and the state of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. 2. High-power radio transmissions stimulate the generation (or enhancement) of waves at ionospheric altitudes in the range of internal gravity wave periods. The HF-induced waves propagate with speeds of 360 - 460 m/s and produce changes in electron density with amplitudes of 2 - 3%. The generation of such periodic perturbations is more preferable with periods of 10 - 60 minutes. Their features depend significantly on the heater mode of operation. It should be stressed that perturbation intensity increases when a pumping wave frequency approaches
Buffoni, Boris; Groves, Mark D.; Wahlén, Erik
2017-12-01
Fully localised solitary waves are travelling-wave solutions of the three- dimensional gravity-capillary water wave problem which decay to zero in every horizontal spatial direction. Their existence has been predicted on the basis of numerical simulations and model equations (in which context they are usually referred to as `lumps'), and a mathematically rigorous existence theory for strong surface tension (Bond number {β} greater than {1/3} ) has recently been given. In this article we present an existence theory for the physically more realistic case {0 < β < 1/3} . A classical variational principle for fully localised solitary waves is reduced to a locally equivalent variational principle featuring a perturbation of the functional associated with the Davey-Stewartson equation. A nontrivial critical point of the reduced functional is found by minimising it over its natural constraint set.
Enhanced Sensitive Love Wave Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor Designed for Immunoassay Formats
Puiu, Mihaela; Gurban, Ana-Maria; Rotariu, Lucian; Brajnicov, Simona; Viespe, Cristian; Bala, Camelia
2015-01-01
We report a Love wave surface acoustic wave (LW-SAW) immunosensor designed for the detection of high molecular weight targets in liquid samples, amenable also for low molecular targets in surface competition assays. We implemented a label-free interaction protocol similar to other surface plasmon resonance bioassays having the advantage of requiring reduced time analysis. The fabricated LW-SAW sensor supports the detection of the target in the nanomolar range, and can be ultimately incorporat...
Ray-map migration of transmitted surface waves
Li, Jing
2016-08-25
Near-surface normal faults can sometimes separate two distinct zones of velocity heterogeneity, where the medium on one side of the fault has a faster velocity than on the other side. Therefore, the slope of surface-wave arrivals in a common-shot gather should abruptly change near the surface projection of the fault. We present ray-map imaging method that migrates transmitted surface waves to the fault plane, and therefore it roughly estimates the orientation, depth, and location of the near-surface fault. The main benefits of this method are that it is computationally inexpensive and robust in the presence of noise.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Imamura, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science-Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Read, P. L. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Luz, D. [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa (CAAUL), Observatório Astronómico de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisboa (Portugal); Piccialli, A., E-mail: peralta@iaa.es [LATMOS, UVSQ, 11 bd dAlembert, 78280 Guyancourt (France)
2014-07-01
This paper is the second in a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases where the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this second part, we study the waves' solutions when several atmospheric approximations are applied: Lamb, surface, and centrifugal waves. Lamb and surface waves are found to be quite similar to those in a geostrophic regime. By contrast, centrifugal waves turn out to be a special case of Rossby waves that arise in atmospheres in cyclostrophic balance. Finally, we use our results to identify the nature of the waves behind atmospheric periodicities found in polar and lower latitudes of Venus's atmosphere.
Numerical simulation of floating bodies in extreme free surface waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Z. Hu
2011-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we use the in-house Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD flow code AMAZON-SC as a numerical wave tank (NWT to study wave loading on a wave energy converter (WEC device in heave motion. This is a surface-capturing method for two fluid flows that treats the free surface as contact surface in the density field that is captured automatically without special provision. A time-accurate artificial compressibility method and high resolution Godunov-type scheme are employed in both fluid regions (air/water. The Cartesian cut cell method can provide a boundary-fitted mesh for a complex geometry with no requirement to re-mesh globally or even locally for moving geometry, requiring only changes to cut cell data at the body contour. Extreme wave boundary conditions are prescribed in an empty NWT and compared with physical experiments prior to calculations of extreme waves acting on a floating Bobber-type device. The validation work also includes the wave force on a fixed cylinder compared with theoretical and experimental data under regular waves. Results include free surface elevations, vertical displacement of the float, induced vertical velocity and heave force for a typical Bobber geometry with a hemispherical base under extreme wave conditions.
Effect of irregularity on torsional surface waves in an initially ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Effect of irregularity on torsional surface waves in an initially stressed anisotropic porous layer sandwiched between homogeneous and non-homogeneous half- ... Torsional wave; anisotropy; initial stress; irregularity; non-homogeneity ... Department of Applied Mathematics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826 004, India.
Interpretation of nonlinearity in wind generated ocean surface waves
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Varkey, M.J.
This study attempts to resolve a mix-up between a physical process and its mathematical interpretation in the context of wind waves on ocean surface. Wind generated wave systems, are conventionally interpreted as a result of interaction of a number...
Surface waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic elastic media
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
MS received 1 March 2002. Abstract. In the paper under discussion, the problem of surface waves in fibre- reinforced anisotropic elastic media has been studied. The authors express the plane strain displacement components in terms of two scalar potentials to decouple the plane motion into P and SV waves. In the present ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sugimoto, Norihiko, E-mail: nori@phys-h.keio.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Keio University, 4-1-1 Hiyoshi, Kouhoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan)
2015-12-15
Inertia-gravity wave radiation from the merging of two co-rotating vortices is investigated numerically in a rotating shallow water system in order to focus on cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry at different values of the Rossby number (Ro). A numerical study is conducted on a model using a spectral method in an unbounded domain to estimate the gravity wave flux with high accuracy. Continuous gravity wave radiation is observed in three stages of vortical flows: co-rotating of the vortices, merging of the vortices, and unsteady motion of the merged vortex. A cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry appears at all stages at smaller Ro (≤20). Gravity waves from anticyclones are always larger than those from cyclones and have a local maximum at smaller Ro (∼2) compared with that for an idealized case of a co-rotating vortex pair with a constant rotation rate. The source originating in the Coriolis acceleration has a key role in cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry in gravity waves. An additional important factor is that at later stages, the merged axisymmetric anticyclone rotates faster than the elliptical cyclone due to the effect of the Rossby deformation radius, since a rotation rate higher than the inertial cutoff frequency is required to radiate gravity waves.
The zero gravity curve and surface and radii for geostationary and geosynchronous satellite orbits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sjöberg L.E.
2017-02-01
Full Text Available A geosynchronous satellite orbits the Earth along a constant longitude. A special case is the geostationary satellite that is located at a constant position above the equator. The ideal position of a geostationary satellite is at the level of zero gravity, i.e. at the geocentric radius where the gravitational force of the Earth equals the centrifugal force. These forces must be compensated for several perturbing forces, in particular for the lunisolar tides. Considering that the gravity field of the Earth varies not only radially but also laterally, this study focuses on the variations of zero gravity not only on the equator (for geostationary satellites but also for various latitudes. It is found that the radius of a geostationary satellite deviates from its mean value of 42164.2 km only within ±2 m, mainly due to the spherical harmonic coefficient J22, which is related with the equatorial flattening of the Earth. Away from the equator the zero gravity surface deviates from the ideal radius of a geosynchronous satellite, and more so for higher latitudes. While the radius of the former surface increases towards infinity towards the poles, the latter decreases about 520 m from the equator to the pole. Tidal effects vary these radii within ±2.3 km.
Ocean Surface Waves and Turbulence: Air-Sea Fluxes and Climate Variability
Melville, W. Kendall
2009-11-01
Apart from heating of the atmosphere, two of the most important consequences of current climate variability are changes in sea level, and acidification of the oceans. Over decadal time scales, changes in sea level are caused by changes in heat content and salinity of the ocean, and by changes in mass resulting from exchanges between the ocean, glaciers and other land-based reservoirs. The oceans have absorbed about one third of the anthropogenic CO2 due to fossil fuel burning. This reduces the green house effect in the atmosphere, but the CO2 reacts in the surface waters of the ocean to lower pH. Conservative projections of sea level rise over the next century are O(0.1 - 1) m, while ocean acidification is already having an impact on marine ecosystems. Both these processes depend on air-sea fluxes: heat flux for sea level rise, and gas flux for ocean acidification. These fluxes are among the most poorly constrained in current climate models, but both ultimately depend on fluid dynamics at the ocean surface and in the adjacent boundary layers. Traditional boundary layer models of the marine boundary layer and the marine atmospheric boundary layer were based on classical theories of boundary layers over rigid surfaces, but there is increasing evidence that these models must now include surface wave effects. In this talk the motivating climate data and modeling will be briefly reviewed, and then recent work on surface wave dynamics, air-sea fluxes and the adjacent boundary layers will be presented. The roles of surface wave breaking, Langmuir circulations, wave-turbulence interactions and gravity-capillary waves will be discussed.
Prospects for Improving Gravity-Fed Surface Irrigation Systems in Mediterranean European Contexts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniele Masseroni
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Traditionally, most irrigation practices in Southern Europe have been based on gravity-fed surface irrigation systems. Currently, these systems remain a relevant typology in the European Union (EU member states of the Mediterranean areas, where it is often the only sustainable method for farmers due to the small size of agricultural holdings, their reduced capacity and readiness to invest and the low ratio between yield profits and irrigation costs. In the last several years, in response to European and national directives, surface irrigation has garnered increasing attention at the political and bureaucratic levels due to frequent criticisms of its postulated low efficiency and high water wastage. However, these systems commonly provide a number of ecosystem services and nature-based solutions that increase the positive externalities in different rural socio-ecological contexts and often have the potential to extend these services and provide solutions that are compatible with economical sustainability. This study aims to discuss the prospects for new practices and for the rehabilitation and modernization of the gravity-fed surface irrigation systems in EU Mediterranean areas to enhance water efficiency, thus gaining both economic advantages and environmental benefits. The difficulties, stimuli for improvements and peculiarities of the irrigation water management of four rural environments located in Italy, Spain and Portugal were analyzed and compared to the current state of the gravity-fed surface irrigation systems with hypothetical future improvements achievable by innovative technologies and practices. In these different case studies, the current gravity-fed surface irrigation systems have an obsolete regulatory structure; water-use efficiency is not a driving criterion for the management of the conveyance and distribution canal network, and farmers are not yet adequately encouraged to adopt more efficient gravity-fed irrigation practices
Finite element simulations of surface effect on Rayleigh waves
He, Jin; Zhao, Jinling
2018-03-01
Rayleigh waves influenced by surface effect are investigated by using finite element methods, in which eigenfrequency analysis are performed on a model composed of a half-space covered by the surface effect dominated domain. For a given wavelength, the frequency of the Rayleigh wave is obtained as the eigenfrequency of the model satisfying Floquet periodic boundary conditions. The thickness of the surface effect can be set to be infinitely small or a finite value in the finite element methods. The curvature-dependent out-of-plane force induced by surface tension as described by the generalized Young-Laplace equation is realized through geometric nonlinear analysis. The finite element simulations show that the assumptions of small curvature and infinitely small thickness of the surface effect widely used in theoretical approaches become invalid when Rayleigh waves are highly influenced by the surface effect. This work gives a more accurate insight into the surface effect on Rayleigh waves and provides a potential method for measuring the thickness of the surface effect from the dispersion curves of surface effect influenced Rayleigh wave velocities.
Response of surface buoy moorings in steady and wave flows
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Anand, N.M.; Nayak, B.U.; SanilKumar, V.
A numerical model has been developed to evaluate the dynamics of surface buoy mooring systems under wave and current loading. System tension response and variation of tension in the mooring line at various depths have been evaluated for deep water...
CAMEX-3 JPL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE (SAW) HYGROMETER V1
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This CAMEX-3 Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Hygrometer dataset consists of dewpoint timeline measurements acquired during each DC-8...
Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor
Xu, Wenyuan; Huizinga, John S.
2010-03-16
Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.
Lage-area planar RF plasma productions by surface waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nonaka, S.
1994-01-01
Large-area rf plasmas are confirmed to be produced by means of RF discharges inside a large-area dielectric tube. The plasma space is 73 cm x 176 cm and 2.5 cm. The plasma is thought to be produced by an odd plasma-surface wave (PSW ο ) in case of using large-area electrodes and by an even plasma-surface wave (PSW ο ) in case of without the electrodes. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs
Modulation of cavity-polaritons by surface acoustic waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
de Lima, M. M.; Poel, Mike van der; Hey, R.
2006-01-01
We modulate cavity-polaritons using surface acoustic waves. The corresponding formation of a mini-Brillouin zone and band folding of the polariton dispersion is demonstrated for the first time. Results are in good agreement with model calculations.......We modulate cavity-polaritons using surface acoustic waves. The corresponding formation of a mini-Brillouin zone and band folding of the polariton dispersion is demonstrated for the first time. Results are in good agreement with model calculations....
Anomalous Surface Wave Launching by Handedness Phase Control
Zhang, Xueqian
2015-10-09
Anomalous launch of a surface wave with different handedness phase control is achieved in a terahertz metasurface based on phase discontinuities. The polarity of the phase profile of the surface waves is found to be strongly correlated to the polarization handedness, promising polarization-controllable wavefront shaping, polarization sensing, and environmental refractive-index sensing. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Oscillon dynamics and rogue wave generation in Faraday surface ripples.
Xia, H; Maimbourg, T; Punzmann, H; Shats, M
2012-09-14
We report new experimental results which suggest that the generation of extreme wave events in the Faraday surface ripples is related to the increase in the horizontal mobility of oscillating solitons (oscillons). The analysis of the oscillon trajectories in a horizontal plane shows that at higher vertical acceleration, oscillons move chaotically, merge and form enclosed areas on the water surface. The probability of the formation of such craters, which precede large wave events, increases with the increase in horizontal mobility.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Tuan, T
1999-01-01
.... The second phenomenon is the simultaneous observation of OH airglow wave structure propagating along an azimuth of 340 deg with a phase speed of 35 m/s, a horizontal wavelength of 80 km remaining...
The Surface Wave Scattering-Microwave Scanner (SWS-MS)
Geffrin, Jean-Michel; Chamtouri, Maha; Merchiers, Olivier; Tortel, Hervé; Litman, Amélie; Bailly, Jean-Sébastien; Lacroix, Bernard; Francoeur, Mathieu; Vaillon, Rodolphe
2016-01-01
The Surface Wave Scattering-Microwave Scanner (SWS-MS) is a device that allows the measurement of the electromagnetic fields scattered by objects totally or partially submerged in surface waves. No probe is used to illuminate the sample, nor to guide or scatter the local evanescent waves. Surface waves are generated by total internal reflection and the amplitude and phase of the fields scattered by the samples are measured directly, both in the far-field and the near-field regions. The device's principles and their practical implementation are described in details. The surface wave generator is assessed by measuring the spatial distribution of the electric field above the surface. Drift correction and the calibration method for far-field measurements are explained. Comparison of both far-field and near-field measurements against simulation data shows that the device provides accurate results. This work suggests that the SWS-MS can be used for producing experimental reference data, for supporting a better understanding of surface wave scattering, for assisting in the design of near-field optical or infrared systems thanks to the scale invariance rule in electrodynamics, and for performing nondestructive control of defects in materials.
Rayleigh waves, surface disorder, and phonon localization in nanostructures
Maurer, L. N.; Mei, S.; Knezevic, I.
2016-07-01
We introduce a technique to calculate thermal conductivity in disordered nanostructures: a finite-difference time-domain solution of the elastic-wave equation combined with the Green-Kubo formula. The technique captures phonon wave behavior and scales well to nanostructures that are too large or too surface disordered to simulate with many other techniques. We investigate the role of Rayleigh waves and surface disorder on thermal transport by studying graphenelike nanoribbons with free edges (allowing Rayleigh waves) and fixed edges (prohibiting Rayleigh waves). We find that free edges result in a significantly lower thermal conductivity than fixed ones. Free edges both introduce Rayleigh waves and cause all low-frequency modes (bulk and surface) to become more localized. Increasing surface disorder on free edges draws energy away from the center of the ribbon and toward the disordered edges, where it gets trapped in localized surface modes. These effects are not seen in ribbons with fixed boundary conditions and illustrate the importance of phonon-surface modes in nanostructures.
Electric field vector measurements in a surface ionization wave discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldberg, Benjamin M; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R; Böhm, Patrick S; Czarnetzki, Uwe
2015-01-01
This work presents the results of time-resolved electric field vector measurements in a short pulse duration (60 ns full width at half maximum), surface ionization wave discharge in hydrogen using a picosecond four-wave mixing technique. Electric field vector components are measured separately, using pump and Stokes beams linearly polarized in the horizontal and vertical planes, and a polarizer placed in front of the infrared detector. The time-resolved electric field vector is measured at three different locations across the discharge gap, and for three different heights above the alumina ceramic dielectric surface, ∼100, 600, and 1100 μm (total of nine different locations). The results show that after breakdown, the discharge develops as an ionization wave propagating along the dielectric surface at an average speed of 1 mm ns −1 . The surface ionization wave forms near the high voltage electrode, close to the dielectric surface (∼100 μm). The wave front is characterized by significant overshoot of both vertical and horizontal electric field vector components. Behind the wave front, the vertical field component is rapidly reduced. As the wave propagates along the dielectric surface, it also extends further away from the dielectric surface, up to ∼1 mm near the grounded electrode. The horizontal field component behind the wave front remains quite significant, to sustain the electron current toward the high voltage electrode. After the wave reaches the grounded electrode, the horizontal field component experiences a secondary rise in the quasi-dc discharge, where it sustains the current along the near-surface plasma sheet. The measurement results indicate presence of a cathode layer formed near the grounded electrode with significant cathode voltage fall, ≈3 kV, due to high current density in the discharge. The peak reduced electric field in the surface ionization wave is 85–95 Td, consistent with dc breakdown field estimated from the Paschen
Liquid free surface response to a step change from terrestrial conditions to zero gravity
Vatistas, G. H.; Kozel, V.; Yan, W.; Sankar, T. S.
Numerical results concerning the dynamic behavior of the free surface of a liquid placed in a rectangular container, during a step transition from terrestrial conditions to weightlessness are presented. The first damped natural frequency of the system is shown to depend strongly on the characteristic Reynolds number (Re) and the contact angle (alpha) but not on the original liquid level. The required time for the surface oscillations to decay to 10 percent of the original amplitude was also found to depend on Re and alpha. The numerically obtained results approach asymptotically the exact zero-gravity equilibrium state, thus confirming the minimum surface energy principle.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Vijaya Bhaskara Rao
2008-06-01
Full Text Available The potential utility of Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST radar measurements of zonal, meridional and vertical winds for divulging the gravity wave vertical wave number spectra is discussed. The data collected during the years 1995–2004 are used to obtain the mean vertical wave number spectra of gravity wave kinetic energy in the tropical troposphere over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E. First, the climatology of 3-dimensional wind components is developed using ten years of radar observations, for the first time, over this latitude. This climatology brought out the salient features of background tropospheric winds over Gadanki. Further, using the second order polynomial fit as background, the day-to-day wind anomalies are estimated. These wind anomalies in the 4–14 km height regions are used to estimate the profiles of zonal, meridional and vertical kinetic energy per unit mass, which are then used to estimate the height profile of total kinetic energy. Finally, the height profiles of total kinetic energy are subjected to Fourier analysis to obtain the monthly mean vertical wave number spectra of gravity wave kinetic energy. The monthly mean vertical wave number spectra are then compared with a saturation spectrum predicted by gravity wave saturation theory. A slope of 5/3 is used for the model gravity wave spectrum estimation. In general, the agreement is good during all the months. However, it is noticed that the model spectrum overestimates the PSD at lower vertical wave numbers and underestimates it at higher vertical wave numbers, which is consistently observed during all the months. The observed discrepancies are attributed to the differences in the slopes of theoretical and observed gravity wave spectra. The slopes of the observed vertical wave number spectra are estimated and compared with the model spectrum slope, which are in good agreement. The estimated slopes of the observed monthly vertical wave number spectra are in the
Seismic surface wave tomography of waste sites. 1997 annual progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Long, T.L.
1997-01-01
'The objective of the Seismic Surface Wave Tomography of Waste Sites is to develop a robust technique for field acquisition and analysis of surface wave data for the interpretation of shallow structures, such as those associated with the burial of wastes. The analysis technique is to be developed and tested on an existing set of seismic data covering the K-901 burial site at the East Tennessee Technology Park. Also, a portable prototype for a field acquisition system will be designed and developed to obtain additional data for analysis and testing of the technique. The K-901 data have been examined and a preliminary Single Valued Decomposition inversion has been obtained. The preliminary data indicates a need for additional seismic data to ground-truth the inversion. The originally proposed gravity data acquisition has been dropped because sufficient gravity data are now available for a preliminary analysis and because the seismic data are considered more critical to the interpretation. The proposed prototype for the portable acquisition and analysis system was developed during the first year and will be used in part of the acquisition of additional seismic data.'
Nucleation of reaction-diffusion waves on curved surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kneer, Frederike; Schöll, Eckehard; Dahlem, Markus A
2014-01-01
We study reaction-diffusion waves on curved two-dimensional surfaces, and determine the influence of curvature upon the nucleation and propagation of spatially localized waves in an excitable medium modelled by the generic FitzHugh–Nagumo model. We show that the stability of propagating wave segments depends crucially on the curvature of the surface. As they propagate, they may shrink to the uniform steady state, or expand, depending on whether they are smaller or larger, respectively, than a critical nucleus. This critical nucleus for wave propagation is modified by the curvature acting like an effective space-dependent local spatial coupling, similar to diffuson, thus extending the regime of propagating excitation waves beyond the excitation threshold of flat surfaces. In particular, a negative gradient of Gaussian curvature Γ, as on the outside of a torus surface (positive Γ), when the wave segment symmetrically extends into the inside (negative Γ), allows for stable propagation of localized wave segments remaining unchanged in size and shape, or oscillating periodically in size. (paper)
Eckermann, S. D.; Wu, D. L.
2012-01-01
Orographic gravity-wave (OGW) parameterizations in models produce waves over subtropical mountain ranges in Australia and Africa that propagate into the stratosphere during austral winter and deposit momentum, affecting weather and climate. Satellite sensors have measured stratospheric GWs for over a decade, yet find no evidence of these waves. So are parameterizations failing here? Here we argue that the short wavelengths of subtropical OGWs place them near or below the detection limits of satellite sensors. To test this hypothesis, we reanalyze nine years of stratospheric radiances from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua satellite during austral winter, applying new averaging techniques to maximize signal-to-noise and improve thresholds for OGW detection. Deep climatological enhancements in stratospheric OGW variance over specific mountain ranges in Australia and southern Africa are revealed for the first time, which exhibit temporal and vertical variations consistent with predicted OGW responses to varying background winds.
Surface-wave potential for triggering tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor
Hill, D.P.
2010-01-01
Source processes commonly posed to explain instances of remote dynamic triggering of tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor by surface waves include frictional failure and various modes of fluid activation. The relative potential for Love- and Rayleigh-wave dynamic stresses to trigger tectonic tremor through failure on critically stressed thrust and vertical strike-slip faults under the Coulomb-Griffith failure criteria as a function of incidence angle is anticorrelated over the 15- to 30-km-depth range that hosts tectonic tremor. Love-wave potential is high for strike-parallel incidence on low-angle reverse faults and null for strike-normal incidence; the opposite holds for Rayleigh waves. Love-wave potential is high for both strike-parallel and strike-normal incidence on vertical, strike-slip faults and minimal for ~45?? incidence angles. The opposite holds for Rayleigh waves. This pattern is consistent with documented instances of tremor triggered by Love waves incident on the Cascadia mega-thrust and the San Andreas fault (SAF) in central California resulting from shear failure on weak faults (apparent friction, ????? 0.2). However, documented instances of tremor triggered by surface waves with strike-parallel incidence along the Nankai megathrust beneath Shikoku, Japan, is associated primarily with Rayleigh waves. This is consistent with the tremor bursts resulting from mixed-mode failure (crack opening and shear failure) facilitated by near-lithostatic ambient pore pressure, low differential stress, with a moderate friction coefficient (?? ~ 0.6) on the Nankai subduction interface. Rayleigh-wave dilatational stress is relatively weak at tectonic tremor source depths and seems unlikely to contribute significantly to the triggering process, except perhaps for an indirect role on the SAF in sustaining tremor into the Rayleigh-wave coda that was initially triggered by Love waves.
Perturbation of higher-genus spatial surfaces in (2+1)-dimensional gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okamura, T.; Ishihara, H.
1992-01-01
We study dynamical evolutions of spatial surfaces with genus g≥2 in (2+1)-dimensional pure Einstein gravity by the perturbation analysis around static moduli solutions. We find that an action of the perturbed Teichmueller parameters has a harmonic-oscillator form with a time-dependent mass and frequency. It is also shown that a set of the static moduli solutions is an attractor of nearby solutions
Improved ion acceleration via laser surface plasma waves excitation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bigongiari, A. [CEA/DSM/LSI, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); TIPS/LULI, Université Paris 6, CNRS, CEA, Ecole Polytechnique, 3, rue Galilée, 94200 Ivry-sur-Seine (France); Raynaud, M. [CEA/DSM/LSI, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Riconda, C. [TIPS/LULI, Université Paris 6, CNRS, CEA, Ecole Polytechnique, 3, rue Galilée, 94200 Ivry-sur-Seine (France); Héron, A. [CPHT, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)
2013-05-15
The possibility of enhancing the emission of the ions accelerated in the interaction of a high intensity ultra-short (<100 fs) laser pulse with a thin target (<10λ{sub 0}), via surface plasma wave excitation is investigated. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are performed for laser intensities ranging from 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} Wcm{sup −2}μm{sup 2}. The surface wave is resonantly excited by the laser via the coupling with a modulation at the target surface. In the cases where the surface wave is excited, we find an enhancement of the maximum ion energy of a factor ∼2 compared to the cases where the target surface is flat.
Scattering of surface waves modelled by the integral equation method
Lu, Laiyu; Maupin, Valerie; Zeng, Rongsheng; Ding, Zhifeng
2008-09-01
The integral equation method is used to model the propagation of surface waves in 3-D structures. The wavefield is represented by the Fredholm integral equation, and the scattered surface waves are calculated by solving the integral equation numerically. The integration of the Green's function elements is given analytically by treating the singularity of the Hankel function at R = 0, based on the proper expression of the Green's function and the addition theorem of the Hankel function. No far-field and Born approximation is made. We investigate the scattering of surface waves propagating in layered reference models imbedding a heterogeneity with different density, as well as Lamé constant contrasts, both in frequency and time domains, for incident plane waves and point sources.
A Gravity-Responsive Time-Keeping Protein of the Plant and Animal Cell Surface
Morre, D. James
2003-01-01
The hypothesis under investigation was that a ubiquinol (NADH) oxidase protein of the cell surface with protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity (= NOX protein) is a plant and animal time-keeping ultradian (period of less than 24 h) driver of both cell enlargement and the biological clock that responds to gravity. Despite considerable work in a large number of laboratories spanning several decades, this is, to my knowledge, our work is the first demonstration of a time-keeping biochemical reaction that is both gravity-responsive and growth-related and that has been shown to determine circadian periodicity. As such, the NOX protein may represent both the long-sought biological gravity receptor and the core oscillator of the cellular biological clock. Completed studies have resulted in 12 publications and two issued NASA-owned patents of the clock activity. The gravity response and autoentrainment were characterized in cultured mammalian cells and in two plant systems together with entrainment by light and small molecules (melatonin). The molecular basis of the oscillatory behavior was investigated using spectroscopic methods (Fourier transform infrared and circular dichroism) and high resolution electron microscopy. We have also applied these findings to an understanding of the response to hypergravity. Statistical methods for analysis of time series phenomena were developed (Foster et al., 2003).
The gravimeter "B-grave" for the in-situ surface gravity measurements of an asteroid
van Ruymbeke, Michel; karatekin, ozgur; rasson, jean; wielant, françois; dumont, Phillipe; Ritter, Birgit; zhu, Ping
2016-04-01
In the context of the preliminary study phase for the CubeSats supporting ESA's Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) to the Didymos, we investigate a miniaturized gravimeter as part of the geophysical instrument package for the Asteroid Geophysical Explorer (AGEX). AGEX intends to land a CubeSat on the secondary object in the Didymos system, Didymoon in order to characterize the asteroid surface and internal structure A 3D compact gravimeter is developed at the Royal Observatory of Belgium. Its design allows to meter a weak 50 μm/sec² gravity field corresponding to 5 ppm of Earth gravity in a harsh environment. A system with three components mounted in an orthogonal geometry allows obtaining the gravity field in amplitude and in angular position without any requirement of levelling. B-GRAVES will use a in-situ calibration and multi-parameter approach for validation of the measurements. A laboratory simulation is induced with centrifugal forces applied to the pendulum set-up in a vertical position to reject the Earth gravity field. Signal treatment and uncertainties are discussed keeping in mind questions of thermal and vibration influence. The B-GRAVES can serve as a novel and robust instrument for future lander and rover missions .
Experimental Investigations on Microshock Waves and Contact Surfaces
Kai, Yun; Garen, Walter; Teubner, Ulrich
2018-02-01
The present work reports on progress in the research of a microshock wave. Because of the lack of a good understanding of the propagation mechanism of the microshock flow system (shock wave, contact surface, and boundary layer), the current work concentrates on measuring microshock flows with special attention paid to the contact surface. A novel setup involving a glass capillary (with a 200 or 300 μ m hydraulic diameter D ) and a high-speed magnetic valve is applied to generate a shock wave with a maximum initial Mach number of 1.3. The current work applies a laser differential interferometer to perform noncontact measurements of the microshock flow's trajectory, velocity, and density. The current work presents microscale measurements of the shock-contact distance L that solves the problem of calculating the scaling factor Sc =Re ×D /(4 L ) (introduced by Brouillette), which is a parameter characterizing the scaling effects of shock waves. The results show that in contrast to macroscopic shock waves, shock waves at the microscale have a different propagation or attenuation mechanism (key issue of this Letter) which cannot be described by the conventional "leaky piston" model. The main attenuation mechanism of microshock flow may be the ever slower moving contact surface, which drives the shock wave. Different from other measurements using pressure transducers, the current setup for density measurements resolves the whole microshock flow system.
Temperature Compensation of Surface Acoustic Waves on Berlinite
Searle, David Michael Marshall
The surface acoustic wave properties of Berlinite (a-AlPO4) have been investigated theoretically and experimentally, for a variety of crystallographic orientations, to evaluate its possible use as a substrate material for temperature compensated surface acoustic wave devices. A computer program has been developed to calculate the surface wave properties of a material from its elastic, piezoelectric, dielectric and lattice constants and their temperature derivatives. The program calculates the temperature coefficient of delay, the velocity of the surface wave, the direction of power flow and a measure of the electro-mechanical coupling. These calculations have been performed for a large number of orientations using a modified form of the data given by Chang and Barsch for Berlinite and predict several new temperature compensated directions. Experimental measurements have been made of the frequency-temperature response of a surface acoustic wave oscillator on an 80° X axis boule cut which show it to be temperature compensated in qualitative agreement with the theoretical predictions. This orientation shows a cubic frequency-temperature dependence instead of the expected parabolic response. Measurements of the electro-mechanical coupling coefficient k gave a value lower than predicted. Similar measurements on a Y cut plate gave a value which is approximately twice that of ST cut quartz, but again lower than predicted. The surface wave velocity on both these cuts was measured to be slightly higher than predicted by the computer program. Experimental measurements of the lattice parameters a and c are also presented for a range of temperatures from 25°C to just above the alpha-beta transition at 584°C. These results are compared with the values obtained by Chang and Barsch. The results of this work indicate that Berlinite should become a useful substrate material for the construction of temperature compensated surface acoustic wave devices.
Scattering of a TEM wave from a time varying surface
Elcrat, Alan R.; Harder, T. Mark; Stonebraker, John T.
1990-03-01
A solution is given for reflection of a plane wave with TEM polarization from a planar surface with time varying properties. These properties are given in terms of the currents on the surface. The solution is obtained by numerically solving a system of differential-delay equations in the time domain.
New and updated stellar parameters for 90 transit hosts. The effect of the surface gravity
Mortier, A.; Santos, N. C.; Sousa, S. G.; Fernandes, J. M.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Delgado Mena, E.; Montalto, M.; Israelian, G.
2013-10-01
Context. Precise stellar parameters are crucial in exoplanet research for correctly determining the planetary parameters. For stars hosting a transiting planet, determining the planetary mass and radius depends on the stellar mass and radius, which in turn depend on the atmospheric stellar parameters. Different methods can provide different results, which leads to different planet characteristics. Aims: In this paper, we use a uniform method to spectroscopically derive stellar atmospheric parameters, chemical abundances, stellar masses, and stellar radii for a sample of 90 transit hosts. Surface gravities are also derived photometrically using the stellar density as derived from the light curve. We study the effect of using these different surface gravities on the determination of the chemical abundances and the stellar mass and radius. Methods: A spectroscopic analysis based on Kurucz models in local thermodynamical equilibrium was performed through the MOOG code to derive the atmospheric parameters and the chemical abundances. The photometric surface gravity was determined through isochrone fitting and the use of the stellar density, directly determined from the light curve. Stellar masses and radii are determined through calibration formulae. Results: Spectroscopic and photometric surface gravities differ, but this has very little effect on the precise determination of the stellar mass in our spectroscopic analysis. The stellar radius, and hence the planetary radius, is most affected by the surface gravity discrepancies. For the chemical abundances, the difference is, as expected, only noticable for the abundances derived from analyzing lines of ionized species. The data presented herein are based on observations collected at the La Silla Paranal Observatory, ESO (Chile) with the FEROS spectrograph at the 2.2-m telescope (ESO runs ID 088.C-0892, 089.C-0444, 090.C-0146) and the HARPS spectrograph at the 3.6-m telescope (ESO archive), the Paranal Observatory, ESO
Solar energy converter using surface plasma waves
Anderson, L. M. (Inventor)
1984-01-01
Sunlight is dispersed over a diffraction grating formed on the surface of a conducting film on a substrate. The angular dispersion controls the effective grating period so that a matching spectrum of surface plasmons is excited for parallel processing on the conducting film. The resulting surface plasmons carry energy to an array of inelastic tunnel diodes. This solar energy converter does not require different materials for each frequency band, and sunlight is directly converted to electricity in an efficient manner by extracting more energy from the more energetic photons.
Surface waves in the partially ionized solar plasma slab
Pandey, B. P.
2013-12-01
The properties of surface waves in the partially ionized, incompressible magnetized plasma slab are investigated in the present work. The waves are affected by the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects which cause the finite drift of the magnetic field in the medium. When the finite drift of the magnetic field is ignored, the characteristics of the wave propagation in the partially ionized plasma fluid are similar to the ideal MHD, except now the propagation properties depend on the fractional ionization of the medium. In the presence of the Hall diffusion, the propagation of the sausage and kink surface waves depends on the level of fractional ionization of the medium. For example, short wavelength surface modes cannot propagate in the medium if the scale over which Hall operates is comparable to the size of the plasma slab. With the increasing ionization, the surface modes of shorter wavelength are permitted in the system. When both the Hall and Pedersen diffusion are present in the medium, the waves undergo damping. In the case of Pedersen dominating Hall, the damping of the long wavelength fluctuations is dependent on the ratio of the plasma densities inside and outside the slab and on the square of the Pedersen diffusivity. For typical solar parameters, waves may damp over few minutes.
Near Surface Characterization Of Concrete Structures Using Rayleigh Waves
Al Wardany, R.; Ballivy, G.; Saleh, K.; Rhazi, J.; Gallias, J.
2004-05-01
The deterioration of the near surface concrete minimises the structural behaviour, capacity, and working lifespan for civil engineering structures and dams. Repair strategy and maintenance require careful examination and determination of the degraded depth. In this aim, dispersive properties of Rayleigh waves are used to detect concrete stratification and cracks. Current work focuses on an experimental study and application of multichannel Rayleigh wave methods on high concrete volumes. The method considers a wavefield in the frequency-wavenumber domain to separate existing Rayleigh modes and determine the appropriate shear wave velocity profile. The classical phase unwrapping analysis technique is also used to localise near surface cracks and defects. This new way in concrete nondestructive testing lead to a best evaluation of near surface stiffness and properties from the surface of concrete structures.
Experiments on seismic metamaterials: molding surface waves.
Brûlé, S; Javelaud, E H; Enoch, S; Guenneau, S
2014-04-04
Materials engineered at the micro- and nanometer scales have had a tremendous and lasting impact in photonics and phononics. At much larger scales, natural soils civil engineered at decimeter to meter scales may interact with seismic waves when the global properties of the medium are modified, or alternatively thanks to a seismic metamaterial constituted of a mesh of vertical empty inclusions bored in the initial soil. Here, we show the experimental results of a seismic test carried out using seismic waves generated by a monochromatic vibrocompaction probe. Measurements of the particles' velocities show a modification of the seismic energy distribution in the presence of the metamaterial in agreement with numerical simulations using an approximate plate model. For complex natural materials such as soils, this large-scale experiment was needed to show the practical feasibility of seismic metamaterials and to stress their importance for applications in civil engineering. We anticipate this experiment to be a starting point for smart devices for anthropic and natural vibrations.
Experiments on Seismic Metamaterials: Molding Surface Waves
Brûlé, S.; Javelaud, E. H.; Enoch, S.; Guenneau, S.
2014-04-01
Materials engineered at the micro- and nanometer scales have had a tremendous and lasting impact in photonics and phononics. At much larger scales, natural soils civil engineered at decimeter to meter scales may interact with seismic waves when the global properties of the medium are modified, or alternatively thanks to a seismic metamaterial constituted of a mesh of vertical empty inclusions bored in the initial soil. Here, we show the experimental results of a seismic test carried out using seismic waves generated by a monochromatic vibrocompaction probe. Measurements of the particles' velocities show a modification of the seismic energy distribution in the presence of the metamaterial in agreement with numerical simulations using an approximate plate model. For complex natural materials such as soils, this large-scale experiment was needed to show the practical feasibility of seismic metamaterials and to stress their importance for applications in civil engineering. We anticipate this experiment to be a starting point for smart devices for anthropic and natural vibrations.
Jain, Maulik; Baltazar Andersen, Ole; Dall, Jorgen; Stenseng, Lars
2014-05-01
Cryosat-2 Low Resolution Mode (LRM) altimetric data is processed to determine precise ocean surface heights and gravity fields in open ocean. These ocean surface heights are corrected using various geophysical corrections available. The along track variation of the ocean surface height anomaly is used to determine the gravity field. The quality of this gravity field estimation is dependent on the precision in the ocean surface height anomaly. Thus a three/two parameter based physical model based on an error function is used, and the Cryosat-2 LRM waveforms are fit to this model. The fitting routines which employ the Levenberg Marquadt technique generate estimated values of retracked epochs which are used to compute the ocean surface heights. A two step processing system made up of sequential 3 parameter (amplitude, rise time, retracked epoch) and 2 parameter (amplitude, retracked epoch) fitting models are used to determine precise ocean surface heights. The quality of the processing system is judged by evaluating the standard deviation of the ocean surface height anomaly obtained after all corrections and the mean sea surface/geoid are removed. The lower the value of the standard deviation of the ocean surface height anomaly, the better the quality of processing is. Hence, different processing schemes are considered and evaluated in order to conclude towards the best retracking procedure which would eventually result in high accuracy gravity field estimations. Also, the quality on the precision is judged by analyzing the standard deviation in the gravity field anomaly. The gravity field anomaly is obtained by subtracting the retracked gravity field with the marine gravity field available. A lower value of the standard deviation in the gravity field anomaly indicates a more precise retracking algorithm. Using the two retracker performance evaluation strategies, namely the ocean surface height anomaly and the gravity field anomaly, it was concluded that the three
Lin, Chunshan; Quintin, Jerome; Brandenberger, Robert H.
2018-01-01
We consider a modified gravity model with a massive graviton, but which nevertheless only propagates two gravitational degrees of freedom and which is free of ghosts. We show that non-singular bouncing cosmological background solutions can be generated. In addition, the mass term for the graviton prevents anisotropies from blowing up in the contracting phase and also suppresses the spectrum of gravitational waves compared to that of the scalar cosmological perturbations. This addresses two of the main problems of the matter bounce scenario.
Borchert, Sebastian; Zängl, Günther; Baldauf, Michael; Zhou, Guidi; Schmidt, Hauke; Manzini, Elisa
2017-04-01
In numerical weather prediction as well as climate simulations, there are ongoing efforts to raise the upper model lid, acknowledging the possible influence of middle and upper atmosphere dynamics on tropospheric weather and climate. As the momentum deposition of gravity waves (GWs) is responsible for key features of the large scale flow in the middle and upper atmosphere, the upward model extension has put GWs in the focus of atmospheric research needs. The Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) and the German Weather Service (DWD) have been developing jointly the non-hydrostatic global model ICON (Zängl et al, 2015) which features a new dynamical core based on an icosahedral grid. The extension of ICON beyond the mesosphere, where most GWs deposit their momentum, requires, e.g., relaxing the shallow-atmosphere and other traditional approximations as well as implementing additional physical processes that are important to the upper atmosphere. We would like to present aspects of the model development and its evaluation, and first results from a simulation of a period of the DEEPWAVE campaign in New Zealand in 2014 (Fritts et al, 2016) using grid nesting up to a horizontal mesh size of about 1.25 km. This work is part of the research unit: Multi-Scale Dynamics of Gravity Waves (MS-GWaves: sub-project GWING, https://ms-gwaves.iau.uni-frankfurt.de/index.php), funded by the German Research Foundation. Fritts, D.C. and Coauthors, 2016: "The Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE): An airborne and ground-based exploration of gravity wave propagation and effects from their sources throughout the lower and middle atmosphere". Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 97, 425 - 453, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00269.1 Zängl, G., Reinert, D., Ripodas, P., Baldauf, M., 2015: "The ICON (ICOsahedral Non-hydrostatic) modelling framework of DWD and MPI-M: Description of the non-hydrostatic dynamical core". Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 141, 563 - 579, doi:10.1002/qj.2378
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio Gledson Goulart
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the equation for the gravity wave spectra in mean atmosphere is analytically solved without linearization by the Adomian decomposition method. As a consequence, the nonlinear nature of problem is preserved and the errors found in the results are only due to the parameterization. The results, with the parameterization applied in the simulations, indicate that the linear solution of the equation is a good approximation only for heights shorter than ten kilometers, because the linearization the equation leads to a solution that does not correctly describe the kinetic energy spectra.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joel Arnault
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Gravity waves generated by the Vestfjella Mountains (in western Droning Maud Land, Antarctica, southwest of the Finnish/Swedish Aboa/Wasa station have been observed with the Moveable atmospheric radar for Antarctica (MARA during the SWEDish Antarctic Research Programme (SWEDARP in December 2007/January 2008. These radar observations are compared with a 2-month Weather Research Forecast (WRF model experiment operated at 2 km horizontal resolution. A control simulation without orography is also operated in order to separate unambiguously the contribution of the mountain waves on the simulated atmospheric flow. This contribution is then quantified with a kinetic energy budget analysis computed in the two simulations. The results of this study confirm that mountain waves reaching lower-stratospheric heights break through convective overturning and generate inertia gravity waves with a smaller vertical wavelength, in association with a brief depletion of kinetic energy through frictional dissipation and negative vertical advection. The kinetic energy budget also shows that gravity waves have a strong influence on the other terms of the budget, i.e. horizontal advection and horizontal work of pressure forces, so evaluating the influence of gravity waves on the mean-flow with the vertical advection term alone is not sufficient, at least in this case. We finally obtain that gravity waves generated by the Vestfjella Mountains reaching lower stratospheric heights generally deplete (create kinetic energy in the lower troposphere (upper troposphere–lower stratosphere, in contradiction with the usual decelerating effect attributed to gravity waves on the zonal circulation in the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Goldberg
2006-11-01
Full Text Available During the {MaCWAVE} campaign, combined rocket, radiosonde and ground-based measurements have been performed at the Norwegian Andøya Rocket Range (ARR near Andenes and the Swedish Rocket Range (ESRANGE near Kiruna in January 2003 to study gravity waves in the vicinity of the Scandinavian mountain ridge. The investigations presented here are mainly based on the evaluation of continuous radar measurements with the ALWIN VHF radar in the upper troposphere/ lower stratosphere at Andenes (69.3° N, 16.0° E and the ESRAD VHF radar near Kiruna (67.9° N, 21.9° E. Both radars are separated by about 260 km. Based on wavelet transformations of both data sets, the strongest activity of inertia gravity waves in the upper troposphere has been detected during the first period from 24–26 January 2003 with dominant vertical wavelengths of about 4–5 km as well as with dominant observed periods of about 13–14 h for the altitude range between 5 and 8 km under the additional influence of mountain waves. The results show the appearance of dominating inertia gravity waves with characteristic horizontal wavelengths of ~200 km moving in the opposite direction than the mean background wind. The results show the appearance of dominating inertia gravity waves with intrinsic periods in the order of ~5 h and with horizontal wavelengths of 200 km, moving in the opposite direction than the mean background wind. From the derived downward energy propagation it is supposed, that these waves are likely generated by a jet streak in the upper troposphere. The parameters of the jet-induced gravity waves have been estimated at both sites separately. The identified gravity waves are coherent at both locations and show higher amplitudes on the east-side of the Scandinavian mountain ridge, as expected by the influence of mountains.
Artificial ocean upwelling utilizing the energy of surface waves
Soloviev, Alexander
2016-04-01
Artificial upwelling can bring cold water from below the thermocline to the sea surface. Vershinsky, Pshenichnyy, and Soloviev (1987) developed a prototype device, utilizing the energy of surface waves to create an upward flow of water in the tube. This is a wave-inertia pump consisting of a vertical tube, a valve, and a buoy to keep the device afloat. An outlet valve at the top of the unit synchronizes the operation of the device with surface waves and prevents back-splashing. A single device with a 100 m long and 1.2 m diameter tube is able to produce up to 1 m3s-1 flow of deep water to the surface. With a 10 oC temperature difference over 100 m depth, the negative heat supply rate to the sea surface is 42 MW, which is equivalent to a 42 Wm-2 heat flux, if distributed over 1 km2 area. Such flux is comparable to the average net air-sea flux. A system of artificial upwelling devices can cool down the sea surface, modify climate on a regional scale and possibly help mitigate hurricanes. The cold water brought from a deeper layer, however, has a larger density than the surface water and therefore has a tendency to sink back down. In this work, the efficiency of wave-inertia pumps and climatic consequences are estimated for different environmental conditions using a computational fluid dynamics model.
Modeling surface water storage from space altimetry, remote sensing and gravity
Boy, Jean-Paul; Loomis, Bryant; Luthcke, Scott
2017-04-01
Since its launch in 2002, the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) is recording Earth gravity field variations with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolutions, mainly due to global circulation of surface geophysical fluids. Continental water storage variations estimated with GRACE are classically compared to global hydrology models such as GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) or MERRA (Modern Era-Retrospective Analysis) hydrology models. However most of these models do not take into account both the groundwater and the surface water (lakes and rivers) components of the hydrological cycle. We derive surface water storage in several large river basins, characterized by various climates, using a simple routing scheme, forced by runoff outputs of GLDAS and MERRA-land hydrology models. We adjust the flow velocity, i.e. the only free parameter in our modeling by fitting the modeled equivalent water height to the observed water elevation from radar altimetry measurements. The conversion of the observed geometric heights into the modeled equivalent water heights requires the knowledge of the variations of the river widths, which can be derived from MODIS observations. We validate river models by comparing the estimated discharge to independent in-situ measurements. We finally add to the soil-moisture and snow components of the GLDAS and MERRA-land models our estimates of surface water variations and show that they are in better agreement with GRACE. We also compare these estimates to WGHM, which includes both groundwater and surface components.
Propagation of short-period gravity waves at high-latitudes during the MaCWAVE winter campaign
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Nielsen
2006-07-01
Full Text Available As part of the MaCWAVE (Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending Vertically winter campaign an all-sky monochromatic CCD imager has been used to investigate the properties of short-period mesospheric gravity waves at high northern latitudes. Sequential measurements of several nightglow emissions were made from Esrange, Sweden, during a limited period from 27–31 January 2003. Coincident wind measurements over the altitude range (~80–100 km using two meteor radar systems located at Esrange and Andenes have been used to perform a novel investigation of the intrinsic properties of five distinct wave events observed during this period. Additional lidar and MSIS model temperature data have been used to investigate their nature (i.e. freely propagating or ducted. Four of these extensive wave events were found to be freely propagating with potential source regions to the north of Scandinavia. No evidence was found for strong orographic forcing by short-period waves in the airglow emission layers. The fifth event was most unusual exhibiting an extensive, but much smaller and variable wavelength pattern that appeared to be embedded in the background wind field. Coincident wind measurements indicated the presence of a strong shear suggesting this event was probably due to a large-scale Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.
LATERAL FLOODING ASSOCIATED TO WAVE FLOOD GENERATION ON RIVER SURFACE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Ramírez-Núñez
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This research provides a wave flood simulation using a high resolution LiDAR Digital Terrain Model. The simulation is based on the generation of waves of different amplitudes that modify the river level in such a way that water invades the adjacent areas. The proposed algorithm firstly reconstitutes the original river surface of the studied river section and then defines the percentage of water loss when the wave floods move downstream. This procedure was applied to a gently slope area in the lower basin of Coatzacoalcos river, Veracruz (Mexico defining the successive areas where lateral flooding occurs on its downstream movement.
Lateral Flooding Associated to Wave Flood Generation on River Surface
Ramírez-Núñez, C.; Parrot, J.-F.
2016-06-01
This research provides a wave flood simulation using a high resolution LiDAR Digital Terrain Model. The simulation is based on the generation of waves of different amplitudes that modify the river level in such a way that water invades the adjacent areas. The proposed algorithm firstly reconstitutes the original river surface of the studied river section and then defines the percentage of water loss when the wave floods move downstream. This procedure was applied to a gently slope area in the lower basin of Coatzacoalcos river, Veracruz (Mexico) defining the successive areas where lateral flooding occurs on its downstream movement.
Numerical Simulation of Floating Bodies in Extreme Free Surface Waves
Hu, Zheng Zheng; Causon, Derek; Mingham, Clive; Qiang, Ling
2010-05-01
A task of the EPSRC funded research project 'Extreme Wave loading on Offshore Wave Energy Devices: a Hierarchical Team Approach' is to investigate the survivability of two wave energy converter (WEC) devices Pelamis and the Manchester Bobber using different CFD approaches. Both devices float on the water surface, generating the electricity from the motion of the waves. In this paper, we describe developments of the AMAZON-SC 3D numerical wave tank (NWT) to study extreme wave loading of a fixed or floating (in Heave motion) structure. The extreme wave formulation as an inlet condition is due to Dalzell (1999) and Ning et. al. (2009) in which a first or second-order Stokes focused wave can be prescribed. The AMAZON-SC 3D code (see e.g. Hu et al. (2009)) uses a cell centred finite volume method of the Godunov-type for the space discretization of the Euler and Navier Stokes equations. The computational domain includes both air and water regions with the air/water boundary captured as a discontinuity in the density field thereby admitting the break up and recombination of the free surface. Temporal discretisation uses the artificial compressibility method and a dual time stepping strategy to maintain a divergence free velocity field. Cartesian cut cells are used to provide a fully boundary-fitted gridding capability on an regular background Cartesian grid. Solid objects are cut out of the background mesh leaving a set of irregularly shaped cells fitted to the boundary. The advantages of the cut cell approach have been outlined previously by Causon et al. (2000, 2001) including its flexibility for dealing with complex geometries whether stationary or in relative motion. The field grid does not need to be recomputed globally or even locally for moving body cases; all that is necessary is to update the local cut cell data at the body contour for as long as the motion continues. The handing of numerical wave paddles and device motion in a NWT is therefore straightforward
Surface waves in an heterogeneous anisotropic continental lithosphere
Maupin, V.
2003-04-01
At global as well as at regional scale, the lithosphere appears usually faster to Love waves than to Rayleigh waves. This Love-Rayleigh discrepancy can be modelled by introducing transverse isotropy in the mantle. In continental structures, the amount of transverse isotropy necessary to explain the discrepancy is however often quite large and not compatible with results of SKS-splitting analysis and azimuthal variation of surface wave velocities, at least in the simple framework of large scale uniform olivine orientation in the continental lithosphere. Models where the orientation of the olivine is incoherent at the scale of a few hundred km have been proposed to reconcile the different datasets, but the surface wave characteristics in such anisotropic heterogeneous models have not yet been analysed in detail. Using a mode-coupling scheme for calculating surface wave propagation in heterogeneous anisotropic structures, we analyse the characteristics of Rayleigh and Love waves in such laterally varying anisotropic models. We generate 3-D stochastic models of olivine orientation with different characteristics: preferred orientation dominantly horizontal, vertical or equally distributed in all directions, and use different correlation lengths in the horizontal and vertical directions to constrain the scale at which the anisotropy is coherent. We analyse the apparent Love-Rayleigh discrepancy and the phase velocity azimuthal variation these models generate and the mode-coupling and polarisation anomalies they produce.
Enhanced sensitive love wave surface acoustic wave sensor designed for immunoassay formats.
Puiu, Mihaela; Gurban, Ana-Maria; Rotariu, Lucian; Brajnicov, Simona; Viespe, Cristian; Bala, Camelia
2015-05-05
We report a Love wave surface acoustic wave (LW-SAW) immunosensor designed for the detection of high molecular weight targets in liquid samples, amenable also for low molecular targets in surface competition assays. We implemented a label-free interaction protocol similar to other surface plasmon resonance bioassays having the advantage of requiring reduced time analysis. The fabricated LW-SAW sensor supports the detection of the target in the nanomolar range, and can be ultimately incorporated in portable devices, suitable for point-of-care testing (POCT) applications.
Enhanced Sensitive Love Wave Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor Designed for Immunoassay Formats
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihaela Puiu
2015-05-01
Full Text Available We report a Love wave surface acoustic wave (LW-SAW immunosensor designed for the detection of high molecular weight targets in liquid samples, amenable also for low molecular targets in surface competition assays. We implemented a label-free interaction protocol similar to other surface plasmon resonance bioassays having the advantage of requiring reduced time analysis. The fabricated LW-SAW sensor supports the detection of the target in the nanomolar range, and can be ultimately incorporated in portable devices, suitable for point-of-care testing (POCT applications.
Surface-Wave Relocation of Remote Continental Earthquakes
Kintner, J. A.; Ammon, C. J.; Cleveland, M.
2017-12-01
Accurate hypocenter locations are essential for seismic event analysis. Single-event location estimation methods provide relatively imprecise results in remote regions with few nearby seismic stations. Previous work has demonstrated that improved relative epicentroid precision in oceanic environments is obtainable using surface-wave cross correlation measurements. We use intermediate-period regional and teleseismic Rayleigh and Love waves to estimate relative epicentroid locations of moderately-sized seismic events in regions around Iran. Variations in faulting geometry, depth, and intermediate-period dispersion make surface-wave based event relocation challenging across this broad continental region. We compare and integrate surface-wave based relative locations with InSAR centroid location estimates. However, mapping an earthquake sequence mainshock to an InSAR fault deformation model centroid is not always a simple process, since the InSAR observations are sensitive to post-seismic deformation. We explore these ideas using earthquake sequences in western Iran. We also apply surface-wave relocation to smaller magnitude earthquakes (3.5 wave dispersion. Frequency-domain inter-event phase observations are used to understand the time-domain cross-correlation information, and to choose the appropriate band for applications using shorter periods. Over short inter-event distances, the changing group velocity does not strongly degrade the relative locations. For small-magnitude seismic events in continental regions, surface-wave relocation does not appear simple enough to allow broad routine application, but using this method to analyze individual earthquake sequences can provide valuable insight into earthquake and faulting processes.
Relationship between ultrasonic Rayleigh waves and surface residual stress
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adler, L.; Cook, K.V.; Dewey, B.R.; King, R.T.
1977-01-01
Local variations of Rayleigh (surface) circumferential ultrasonic wave velocity near a pipe-girth weld in large-diameter thin-wall type 316H stainless steel pipe were measured. The weldment was similar to those anticipated for the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) piping systems. The residual stress distribution was estimated independently from shell theory for an elastic, infinite, thin shell with circumferential line loading. An upper bound on the magnitude of the residual stresses was estimated assuming the deformation of the shell was entirely elastic. The pattern of surface wave velocity variations matches the theoretical residual stress pattern closely. It is suggested that the monitoring of surface wave velocity variations might be used for characterizing residual stress patterns near critical welds in piping, aiding in design calculations, and for in-service monitoring of the state of stress of weldments
Surface Acoustic Wave Devices for Harsh Environment Wireless Sensing
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David W. Greve
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh-environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity.
Langasite Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors: Fabrication and Testing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng, Peng; Greve, David W.; Oppenheim, Irving J.; Chin, Tao-Lun; Malone, Vanessa
2012-02-01
We report on the development of harsh-environment surface acoustic wave sensors for wired and wireless operation. Surface acoustic wave devices with an interdigitated transducer emitter and multiple reflectors were fabricated on langasite substrates. Both wired and wireless temperature sensing was demonstrated using radar-mode (pulse) detection. Temperature resolution of better than ±0.5°C was achieved between 200°C and 600°C. Oxygen sensing was achieved by depositing a layer of ZnO on the propagation path. Although the ZnO layer caused additional attenuation of the surface wave, oxygen sensing was accomplished at temperatures up to 700°C. The results indicate that langasite SAW devices are a potential solution for harsh-environment gas and temperature sensing.
Surface Wave Velocity-Stress Relationship in Uniaxially Loaded Concrete
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shokouhi, Parisa; Zoëga, Andreas; Wiggenhauser, Herbert
2012-01-01
loading cycles revealed that the velocities show a stress-memory effect in good agreement with the Kaiser effect. Comparing the velocities measured during loading and unloading, the effects of stress and damage on the measured velocities could be differentiated. Moreover, the stress dependency of surface......The sonic surface wave (or Rayleigh wave) velocity measured on prismatic concrete specimens under uniaxial compression was found to be highly stress-dependent. At low stress levels, the acoustoelastic effect and the closure of existing microcracks results in a gradual increase in surface wave...... velocities. At higher stress levels, concrete suffers irrecoverable damage: the existing microcracks widen and coalesce and new microcracks form. This progressive damage process leads first to the flattening and eventually the drop in the velocity-stress curves. Measurements on specimens undergoing several...
Ultrasonic attenuation of surface acoustic waves in superconducting zinc
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bailey, W.E.; Marshall, B.J.
1979-01-01
The attenuation of 90-MHz elastic surface waves propagating in both 3,000 and 10,000 A films of zinc has been measured as a function of temperature from 3 to 0.38 K. The surface acoustic waves were generated and detected by using a surface-acoustic-wave device interdigital transducers plated onto a Y-Z cut lithium-niobate substrate. Utilizing the experimental results, in the BCS theory, energy gaps of 2Δ (0) equal to 4.17 +- 0.20 and 3.81 +- 0.20 in units of k/sub B/T/sub c/ were calculated for the 3,000 and 10,000 A films, respectively. The transition temperatures for the 3,000 and 10,000 A films were 1.5 +- 0.01 and 1.31 +- 0.01 K, respectively
Blázquez-Salcedo, Jose Luis
2016-01-01
Gravitational waves emitted by distorted black holes---such as those arising from the coalescence of two neutron stars or black holes---carry not only information about the corresponding spacetime but also about the underlying theory of gravity. Although general relativity remains the simplest, most elegant and viable theory of gravitation, there are generic and robust arguments indicating that it is not the ultimate description of the gravitational universe. Here we focus on a particularly appealing extension of general relativity, which corrects Einstein's theory through the addition of terms which are second order in curvature: the topological Gauss-Bonnet invariant coupled to a dilaton. We study gravitational-wave emission from black holes in this theory, and (i) find strong evidence that black holes are linearly (mode) stable against both axial and polar perturbations; (ii) discuss how the quasinormal modes of black holes can be excited during collisions involving black holes, and finally (iii) show that...
Engineered metabarrier as shield from seismic surface waves.
Palermo, Antonio; Krödel, Sebastian; Marzani, Alessandro; Daraio, Chiara
2016-12-20
Resonant metamaterials have been proposed to reflect or redirect elastic waves at different length scales, ranging from thermal vibrations to seismic excitation. However, for seismic excitation, where energy is mostly carried by surface waves, energy reflection and redirection might lead to harming surrounding regions. Here, we propose a seismic metabarrier able to convert seismic Rayleigh waves into shear bulk waves that propagate away from the soil surface. The metabarrier is realized by burying sub-wavelength resonant structures under the soil surface. Each resonant structure consists of a cylindrical mass suspended by elastomeric springs within a concrete case and can be tuned to the resonance frequency of interest. The design allows controlling seismic waves with wavelengths from 10-to-100 m with meter-sized resonant structures. We develop an analytical model based on effective medium theory able to capture the mode conversion mechanism. The model is used to guide the design of metabarriers for varying soil conditions and validated using finite-element simulations. We investigate the shielding performance of a metabarrier in a scaled experimental model and demonstrate that surface ground motion can be reduced up to 50% in frequency regions below 10 Hz, relevant for the protection of buildings and civil infrastructures.
Measuring sea surface height with a GNSS-Wave Glider
Morales Maqueda, Miguel Angel; Penna, Nigel T.; Foden, Peter R.; Martin, Ian; Cipollini, Paolo; Williams, Simon D.; Pugh, Jeff P.
2017-04-01
A GNSS-Wave Glider is a novel technique to measure sea surface height autonomously using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). It consists of an unmanned surface vehicle manufactured by Liquid Robotics, a Wave Glider, and a geodetic-grade GNSS antenna-receiver system, with the antenna installed on a mast on the vehicle's deck. The Wave Glider uses the differential wave motion through the water column for propulsion, thus guaranteeing an, in principle, indefinite autonomy. Solar energy is collected to power all on-board instrumentation, including the GNSS system. The GNSS-Wave Glider was first tested in Loch Ness in 2013, demonstrating that the technology is capable of mapping geoid heights within the loch with an accuracy of a few centimetres. The trial in Loch Ness did not conclusively confirm the reliability of the technique because, during the tests, the state of the water surface was much more benign than would normally be expect in the open ocean. We now report on a first deployment of a GNSS-Wave Glider in the North Sea. The deployment took place in August 2016 and lasted thirteen days, during which the vehicle covered a distance of about 350 nautical miles in the north western North Sea off Great Britain. During the experiment, the GNSS-Wave Glider experienced sea states between 1 (0-0.1 m wave heights) and 5 (2.5-4 m wave heights). The GNSS-Wave Glider data, recorded at 5 Hz frequency, were analysed using a post-processed kinematic GPS-GLONASS precise point positioning (PPP) approach, which were quality controlled using double difference GPS kinematic processing with respect to onshore reference stations. Filtered with a 900 s moving-average window, the PPP heights reveal geoid patterns in the survey area that are very similar to the EGM2008 geoid model, thus demonstrating the potential use of a GNSS-Wave Glider for marine geoid determination. The residual of subtracting the modelled or measured marine geoid from the PPP signal combines information
Super-virtual Interferometric Separation and Enhancement of Back-scattered Surface Waves
Guo, Bowen
2015-08-19
Back-scattered surface waves can be migrated to detect near-surface reflectors with steep dips. A robust surface-wave migration requires the prior separation of the back-scattered surface-wave events from the data. This separation is often difficult to implement because the back-scattered surface waves are masked by the incident surface waves. We mitigate this problem by using a super-virtual interferometric method to enhance and separate the back-scattered surface waves. The key idea is to calculate the virtual back-scattered surface waves by stacking the resulting virtual correlated and convolved traces associated with the incident and back-scattered waves. Stacking the virtual back-scattered surface waves improves their signal-to-noise ratio and separates the back-scattered surface-waves from the incident field. Both synthetic and field data results validate the robustness of this method.
Photonic Crystal Biosensor Based on Optical Surface Waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giovanni Dietler
2013-02-01
Full Text Available A label-free biosensor device based on registration of photonic crystal surface waves is described. Angular interrogation of the optical surface wave resonance is used to detect changes in the thickness of an adsorbed layer, while an additional simultaneous detection of the critical angle of total internal reflection provides independent data of the liquid refractive index. The abilities of the device are demonstrated by measuring of biotin molecule binding to a streptavidin monolayer, and by measuring association and dissociation kinetics of immunoglobulin G proteins. Additionally, deposition of PSS / PAH polyelectrolytes is recorded in situ resulting calculation of PSS and PAH monolayer thicknesses separately.
Velocity profiles and surface roughness under breaking waves
Craig, Peter D.
1996-01-01
Recent measurements under wave-breaking conditions in the ocean, lakes, and tanks reveal a layer immediately below the surface in which dissipation decays as depth to the power -2 to -4 and downwind velocities are approximately linear with depth. This behavior is consistent with predictions of a conventional, one-dimensional, level 2.5 turbulence closure model, in which the influence of breaking waves is parameterized as a surface source of turbulent kinetic energy. The model provides an analytic solution which describes the near-surface power law behavior and the deeper transition to the "law of the wall." The mixing length imposed in the model increases linearly away from a minimum value, the roughness length, at the surface. The surface roughness emerges as an important scaling factor in the wave-enhanced layer but is the major unknown in the formulation. Measurements in the wave-affected layer are still rare, but one exceptional set, both in terms of its accuracy and proximity to the surface, is that collected by Cheung and Street [1988] in the Stanford wind tunnel. Their velocity profiles first confirm the accuracy of the model, and, second, allow estimation, via a best fit procedure, of roughness lengths at five different wind speeds. Conclusions are tentative but indicate that the roughness length increases with wind speed and appears to take a value of approximately one sixth the dominant surface wavelength. A more traditional wall-layer model, which ignores the flux of turbulent kinetic energy, will also accurately reproduce the measured velocity profiles. In this case, enhanced surface turbulence is forced on the model by the assumption of a large surface roughness, three times that required by the full model. However, the wall-layer model cannot predict the enhanced dissipation near the surface.
Smarr, L. L.; Vessot, R. F. C.; Lundquist, C. A.; Decher, R.; Piran, T.
1983-01-01
A two-step satellite mission for improving the accuracy of gravitational wave detection and for observing actual gravity waveforms is proposed. The spacecraft would carry both a highly stable hydrogen maser, which would control a transmitter sending signals to earth, and a Doppler transponder operating in the two-way mode. The use of simultaneous one- and two-way Doppler transmissions offers four time records of frequency pulsations, which can reveal gravitational radiation at 1-10 MHz with an amplitude accuracy of a factor of six. The first mission phase would consist of a Shuttle launch into a highly eccentric orbit to obtain measurements of the gravitational redshift using gravitational potentials of different earth regions to establish that gravity is describable by a metric theory. Then, after a boost into a heliocentric orbit at 6 AU, the earth-satellite system could detect gravitational waves in the solar system, as well as bursts emitted by the collisions of supermassive black holes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Álvaro de la Cruz Dombriz
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Combined cosmological, astrophysical and numerical tests may shed some light on the viability of theories of gravity beyond Einsteinian relativity. In this letter, we present two different techniques providing complementary ways of testing new physics beyond the Λ CDM cosmological paradigm. First, we shall present some of the latest progress and shortcomings in the cosmographic model-independent approach for several modified gravity theories using supernovae catalogues, baryonic acoustic oscillation data and H ( z differential age compilations. Second, we shall show how once the Einsteinian paradigm is abandoned, the phenomenology of neutron stars changes dramatically since neutron-star masses can be much larger than their General Relativity counterparts. Consequently, the total energy available for radiating gravitational waves could be of the order of several solar masses, and thus a merger of these stars constitutes a privileged wave source. Unfortunately at the present time our persisting lack of understanding in the strong interaction sector does not allow to distinguish the alternative theories from the usual General Relativity predictions.
Boussinesq modeling of surface waves due to underwater landslides
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Dutykh
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Consideration is given to the influence of an underwater landslide on waves at the surface of a shallow body of fluid. The equations of motion that govern the evolution of the barycenter of the landslide mass include various dissipative effects due to bottom friction, internal energy dissipation, and viscous drag. The surface waves are studied in the Boussinesq scaling, with time-dependent bathymetry. A numerical model for the Boussinesq equations is introduced that is able to handle time-dependent bottom topography, and the equations of motion for the landslide and surface waves are solved simultaneously. The numerical solver for the Boussinesq equations can also be restricted to implement a shallow-water solver, and the shallow-water and Boussinesq configurations are compared. A particular bathymetry is chosen to illustrate the general method, and it is found that the Boussinesq system predicts larger wave run-up than the shallow-water theory in the example treated in this paper. It is also found that the finite fluid domain has a significant impact on the behavior of the wave run-up.
Analysis of Surface Wave Attenuation in Mangrove Forests
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Safwan Hadi
2003-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study on surface wave attenuation in mangrove forest using analytical model developed by Massel et.al. (1999. The energy dissipation in the frequency domain is determined by treating the mangrove forest as a random media with certain characteristics using the geometry of mangrove trunks and their locations. Initial nonlinear governing equations are linearized using the concept of minimalization in the stochastic sense and interactions between mangrove trunks and roots have been introduced through the modification of the drag coefficients. To see the effectiveness of the mangrove forest in attenuating wave energy the analytical model was applied to two types of mangrove forest i.e. Rhizophora and Ceriops forests. The resulting rate of wave energy attenuation depends strongly on the density of the mangrove forest, and on diameter of mangrove roots and trunks. More effective wave energy attenuation is shown by Rhizophora.
Optimized nonlinear inversion of surface-wave dispersion data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raykova, Reneta B.
2014-01-01
A new code for inversion of surface wave dispersion data is developed to obtain Earth’s crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. The author developed Optimized Non–Linear Inversion ( ONLI ) software, based on Monte-Carlo search. The values of S–wave velocity VS and thickness h for a number of horizontal homogeneous layers are parameterized. Velocity of P–wave VP and density ρ of relevant layers are calculated by empirical or theoretical relations. ONLI explores parameters space in two modes, selective and full search, and the main innovation of software is evaluation of tested models. Theoretical dispersion curves are calculated if tested model satisfied specific conditions only, reducing considerably the computation time. A number of tests explored impact of parameterization and proved the ability of ONLI approach to deal successfully with non–uniqueness of inversion problem. Key words: Earth’s structure, surface–wave dispersion, non–linear inversion, software
Imaging near-surface heterogeneities by natural migration of backscattered surface waves
AlTheyab, Abdullah
2016-02-01
We present a migration method that does not require a velocity model to migrate backscattered surface waves to their projected locations on the surface. This migration method, denoted as natural migration, uses recorded Green\\'s functions along the surface instead of simulated Green\\'s functions. The key assumptions are that the scattering bodies are within the depth interrogated by the surface waves, and the Green\\'s functions are recorded with dense receiver sampling along the free surface. This natural migration takes into account all orders of multiples, mode conversions and non-linear effects of surface waves in the data. The natural imaging formulae are derived for both active source and ambient-noise data, and computer simulations show that natural migration can effectively image near-surface heterogeneities with typical ambient-noise sources and geophone distributions.
La, I.; Yum, S. S.; Yeom, J. M.; Gultepe, I.
2017-12-01
Since microphysical and dynamical processes of fog are not well-known and have non-linear relationships among processes that are related to fog formation, improving the accuracy of the fog forecasting/nowcasting system is challenging. For these reasons, understanding the fog mechanism is needed to develop the fog forecasting system. So, we focus on understanding fog-turbulence interactions and fog-gravity wave interactions. Many studies noted that turbulence plays important roles in fog. However, a discrepancy between arguments for the effect of turbulent mixing on fog formation exists. Several studies suggested that turbulent mixing suppresses fog formation. Some other studies reported that turbulent mixing contributes to fog formation. On the other hand, several quasi-periodic oscillations of temperature, visibility, and vertical velocity, which have period of 10-20 minutes, were observed to be related to gravity waves in fog; because gravity waves play significant dynamic roles in the atmosphere. Furthermore, a numerical study suggested that gravity waves, simulated near the top of the fog layer, may affect fog microphysics. Thus, we investigate the effects of turbulent mixing on fog formation and the influences of gravity waves on fog microphysics to understand fog structure in Pyeongchang. In these studies, we analyze the data that are obtained from doppler lidar and 3.5 m meteorological observation tower including 3D-ultrasonic anemometer, IR sensor, and fog monitor during ICE-POP (International Collaborative Experiments for Pyeongchang 2018 Olympic and Paralympic winter games) campaign. In these instruments, doppler lidar is a good instrument to observe the gravity waves near the fog top, while in situ measurements have small spatial coverage. The instruments are installed at the mountainous terrain of Pyeongchang, Korea. More details will be presented at the conference.
Generalized plane waves in Poincaré gauge theory of gravity
Blagojević, Milutin; Cvetković, Branislav; Obukhov, Yuri N.
2017-09-01
A family of exact vacuum solutions, representing generalized plane waves propagating on the (anti-)de Sitter background, is constructed in the framework of Poincaré gauge theory. The wave dynamics is defined by the general Lagrangian that includes all parity even and parity odd invariants up to the second order in the gauge field strength. The structure of the solution shows that the wave metric significantly depends on the spacetime torsion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Costantino
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this work we perform numerical simulations of convective gravity waves (GWs, using the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting model. We first run an idealized, simplified and highly resolved simulation with model top at 80 km. Below 60 km of altitude, a vertical grid spacing smaller than 1 km is supposed to reliably resolve the effects of GW breaking. An eastward linear wind shear interacts with the GW field generated by a single convective thunderstorm. After 70 min of integration time, averaging within a radius of 300 km from the storm centre, results show that wave breaking in the upper stratosphere is largely dominated by saturation effects, driving an average drag force up to −41 m s−1 day−1. In the lower stratosphere, mean wave drag is positive and equal to 4.4 m s−1 day−1. In a second step, realistic WRF simulations are compared with lidar measurements from the NDACC network (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes of gravity wave potential energy (Ep over OHP (Haute-Provence Observatory, southern France. Using a vertical grid spacing smaller than 1 km below 50 km of altitude, WRF seems to reliably reproduce the effect of GW dynamics and capture qualitative aspects of wave momentum and energy propagation and transfer to background mean flow. Averaging within a radius of 120 km from the storm centre, the resulting drag force for the study case (2 h storm is negative in the higher (−1 m s−1 day−1 and positive in the lower stratosphere (0.23 m s−1 day−1. Vertical structures of simulated potential energy profiles are found to be in good agreement with those measured by lidar. Ep is mostly conserved with altitude in August while, in October, Ep decreases in the upper stratosphere to grow again in the lower mesosphere. On the other hand, the magnitude of simulated wave energy is clearly underestimated with respect to lidar data by about 3–4 times.
Optimizing surface acoustic wave sensors for trace chemical detection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frye, G.C.; Kottenstette, R.J.; Heller, E.J. [and others
1997-06-01
This paper describes several recent advances for fabricating coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors for applications requiring trace chemical detection. Specifically, we have demonstrated that high surface area microporous oxides can provide 100-fold improvements in SAW sensor responses compared with more typical polymeric coatings. In addition, we fabricated GaAs SAW devices with frequencies up to 500 MHz to provide greater sensitivity and an ideal substrate for integration with high-frequency electronics.
Surface plasma waves over bismuth–vacuum interface
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 61; Issue 3. Surface plasma waves over bismuth–vacuum interface. Ashim P Jain J Parashar. Brief Report Volume 61 Issue ... Author Affiliations. Ashim P Jain1 J Parashar1. Department of Applied Physics, Samrat Ashok Technological Institute, Vidisha 464 001, India ...
Quantitative photography of intermittency in surface wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wright, W.; Budakian, R.; Putterman, S.J.
1997-01-01
At high amplitudes of excitation surface waves on water distribute their energy according to a Kolmogorov type of turbulent power spectrum. We have used diffusing light photography to measure the power spectrum and to quantify the presence of large structures in the turbulent state
Standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW) based multichannel cell sorting.
Ding, Xiaoyun; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Lapsley, Michael Ian; Li, Sixing; Guo, Xiang; Chan, Chung Yu; Chiang, I-Kao; Wang, Lin; McCoy, J Philip; Huang, Tony Jun
2012-11-07
We introduce a novel microfluidic device for cell sorting in continuous flow using tunable standing surface acoustic waves. This method allows individual cells to be precisely directed into five different outlet channels in a single step. It is versatile, simple, label-free, non-invasive, and highly controllable.
Surface wave multipath signals in near-field microwave imaging.
Meaney, Paul M; Shubitidze, Fridon; Fanning, Margaret W; Kmiec, Maciej; Epstein, Neil R; Paulsen, Keith D
2012-01-01
Microwave imaging techniques are prone to signal corruption from unwanted multipath signals. Near-field systems are especially vulnerable because signals can scatter and reflect from structural objects within or on the boundary of the imaging zone. These issues are further exacerbated when surface waves are generated with the potential of propagating along the transmitting and receiving antenna feed lines and other low-loss paths. In this paper, we analyze the contributions of multi-path signals arising from surface wave effects. Specifically, experiments were conducted with a near-field microwave imaging array positioned at variable heights from the floor of a coupling fluid tank. Antenna arrays with different feed line lengths in the fluid were also evaluated. The results show that surface waves corrupt the received signals over the longest transmission distances across the measurement array. However, the surface wave effects can be eliminated provided the feed line lengths are sufficiently long independently of the distance of the transmitting/receiving antenna tips from the imaging tank floor. Theoretical predictions confirm the experimental observations.
Surface Wave Multipath Signals in Near-Field Microwave Imaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul M. Meaney
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Microwave imaging techniques are prone to signal corruption from unwanted multipath signals. Near-field systems are especially vulnerable because signals can scatter and reflect from structural objects within or on the boundary of the imaging zone. These issues are further exacerbated when surface waves are generated with the potential of propagating along the transmitting and receiving antenna feed lines and other low-loss paths. In this paper, we analyze the contributions of multi-path signals arising from surface wave effects. Specifically, experiments were conducted with a near-field microwave imaging array positioned at variable heights from the floor of a coupling fluid tank. Antenna arrays with different feed line lengths in the fluid were also evaluated. The results show that surface waves corrupt the received signals over the longest transmission distances across the measurement array. However, the surface wave effects can be eliminated provided the feed line lengths are sufficiently long independently of the distance of the transmitting/receiving antenna tips from the imaging tank floor. Theoretical predictions confirm the experimental observations.
Note on the surface wave due to the prescribed elevation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 62; Issue 1. Note on the surface wave due to the prescribed elevation. Niranjan Das. Brief Reports Volume 62 Issue 1 January 2004 pp 135-142. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/062/01/0135-0142 ...
Surface plasma waves over bismuth–vacuum interface
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
electron laser, a fast emerging device of high power coherent radiation. In §2 we derive the dispersion relation for surface plasma waves using a fluid theory. In §3 we study the SPW excitation by an electron beam. A discussion of results is given in §4. 2. SPW propagation. Consider a bismuth (Bi)–free space interface (x = 0) ...