WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface geological features

  1. Geological History of the Tyre Region of Europa: A Regional Perspective on Europan Surface Features and Ice Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadel, Steven D.; Chuang, Frank C.; Greeley, Ronald; Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2000-01-01

    Galileo images of the Tyre Macula region of Europa at regional (170 m/pixel) and local (approx. 40 m/pixel) scales allow mapping and understanding of surface processes and landforms. Ridged plains, doublet and complex ridges, shallow pits, domes, "chaos" areas. impact structures, tilted blocks and massifs, and young fracture systems indicate a complex history of surface deformation on Europa. Regional and local morphologies of the Tyre region of Europa suggest that an impactor penetrated through several kilometers of water ice tc a mobile layer below. The surface morphology was initially dominated by formation of ridged plains, followed by development of ridge bands and doublet ridges, with chaos and fracture formation dominating the latter part of the geologic history of the Tyre region. Two distinct types of chaos have been identified which, along with upwarped dome materials, appear to represent a continuum of features (domes-play chaos-knobby chaos) resulting from increasing degree of surface disruption associated with local lithospheric heating and thinning. Local and regional stratigraphic relationships, block heights, and the morphology of the Tyre impact structure suggest the presence of low-viscosity ice or liquid water beneath a thin (severa1 kilometers) surface ice shell at the time of the impact. The very low impact crater density on the surface of Europa suggests that this thin shell has either formed or been thoroughly resurfaced in the very recent past.

  2. Effects of mass transfer between Martian satellites on surface geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-21

    suspected. Published by Elsevier Inc.1. Introduction Several features about the surface geology on the moons of Mars remain poorly understood. The grooves on...Deimos may have an effect on Phobos’ geology ; we shall attempt to estimate the magnitude of that effect in Section 4. For impacts with Mars, Phobos or...global surface geology , particularly in the 100+ Ma since the last Voltaire-sized impact. Therefore we believe it unlikely that the red veneer of

  3. Construction of ideas and practice for 'nuclear geology featured database'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Guanglin; Feng Kai

    2010-01-01

    East China Institute of Technology is engaged in training person in areas of Nuclear Resource exploration. It is Nuclear Featured multi-Institute of Technology. At present, our library was done several collections system, which were focusing on Uranium and Geology. The library decide to be organizational force to construct Nuclear and Geology Featured database and put into use as soon as possible. 'Nuclear Geology Featured Database' put forward for construction principles of uniqueness, standardization, completeness, practicality, security and respecting knowledge property rights. The database contains 'Map and Table', 'periodical thesis', 'dissertations', 'conference papers', newspapers', 'books', ect. The types of literatures mainly includes monographs, periodicals, dissertations, conference papers, newspapers, as well as videos. The database can get information by ways of searching titles, authors and texts, and gradually become a more authoritative Nuclear Geology Database for study. (authors)

  4. The surface of Io - Geologic units, morphology, and tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, G. G.

    1980-09-01

    The geologic units, morphology and tectonics evident on a preliminary geological map obtained from best-resolution Voyager 1 images and a preliminary pictorial map of the surface of Io are discussed. Nine volcanic units are identified on the surface which are composed of mountain materials, intervent, layered and eroded layered plains, and wall and floor, pit crater flow, shield crater flow, fissure flow and crater cone units associated with volcanic vents, along with seven types of structural features. The cumulative volcanic crater size distribution of 170 Ionian vents with craters greater than 14 km is similar to that of impact craters on other solar system bodies, with a surplus of small craters and a preponderance of volcanic vents in the Io equatorial zone. The observed surface morphologies provide evidence for a mixture of silicates and sulfur as the dominant surface material. Lineaments and grabens are also apparent on the surface, in a common planetary grid pattern.

  5. Geological features and geophysical signatures of continental margins of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.

    margins of India, with which some of the main geological features of continental margins have been modified. This article provides a brief review on theory of plate tectonics for understanding the process of intra- continental breakup..., thereby the results are discussed for classification of the margins. The Theory of Plate Tectonics The theory of continental drift, which paves the way for discovery of plate tectonics, was put forward by Alfred Lother Wegener as early as in 1912...

  6. Mapping three-dimensional geological features from remotely-sensed images and digital elevation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kevin Peter

    Accurate mapping of geological structures is important in numerous applications, ranging from mineral exploration through to hydrogeological modelling. Remotely sensed data can provide synoptic views of study areas enabling mapping of geological units within the area. Structural information may be derived from such data using standard manual photo-geologic interpretation techniques, although these are often inaccurate and incomplete. The aim of this thesis is, therefore, to compile a suite of automated and interactive computer-based analysis routines, designed to help a the user map geological structure. These are examined and integrated in the context of an expert system. The data used in this study include Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Airborne Thematic Mapper images, both with a spatial resolution of 5m, for a 5 x 5 km area surrounding Llyn Cow lyd, Snowdonia, North Wales. The geology of this area comprises folded and faulted Ordo vician sediments intruded throughout by dolerite sills, providing a stringent test for the automated and semi-automated procedures. The DEM is used to highlight geomorphological features which may represent surface expressions of the sub-surface geology. The DEM is created from digitized contours, for which kriging is found to provide the best interpolation routine, based on a number of quantitative measures. Lambertian shading and the creation of slope and change of slope datasets are shown to provide the most successful enhancement of DEMs, in terms of highlighting a range of key geomorphological features. The digital image data are used to identify rock outcrops as well as lithologically controlled features in the land cover. To this end, a series of standard spectral enhancements of the images is examined. In this respect, the least correlated 3 band composite and a principal component composite are shown to give the best visual discrimination of geological and vegetation cover types. Automatic edge detection (followed by line

  7. Geology and origin of Europa's "Mitten" feature (Murias Chaos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, P.H.; Chuang, F.C.; Rathbun, J.; Kirk, R.L.; Greeley, R.

    2002-01-01

    The "Mitten" (provisionally named Murias Chaos by the International Astronomical Union) is a region of elevated chaos-like terrain in the leading hemisphere of Europa. Its origin had been explained under the currently debated theories of melting through a thin lithosphere or convection within a thick one. Galileo observations reveal several characteristics that suggest that the Mitten is distinct from typical chaos terrain and point to a different formational process. Photoclinometric elevation estimates suggest that the Mitten is slightly elevated with respect to the surrounding terrain; geologic relations indicate that it must have raised significantly from the plains in its past, resembling disrupted domes on Europa's trailing hemisphere. Moreover, the Mitten material appears to have extruded onto the plains and flowed for tens of kilometers. The area subsequently subsided as a result of isostatic adjustment, viscous relaxation, and/or plains loading. Using plate flexure models, we estimated the elastic lithosphere in the area to be several kilometers thick. We propose that the Mitten originated by the ascent and extrusion of a large thermal diapir. Thermal-mechanical modeling shows that a Mitten-sized plume would remain sufficiently warm and buoyant to pierce through the crust and flow unconfined on the surface. Such a diapir probably had an initial radius between 5 and 8 km and an initial depth of 20-40 km, consistent with a thick-lithosphere model. In this scenario the Mitten appears to represent the surface expression of the rare ascent of a large diapir, in contrast to lenticulae and chaos terrain, which may form by isolated and clustered small diapirs, respectively.

  8. Geology and Origin of Europa's Mitten Feature (Murias Chaos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, P. H.; Chuang, F. C.; Rathbun, J.; Kirk, R. L.; Greeley, R.

    2002-01-01

    The "Mitten" (provisionally named Murias Chaos by the International Astronomical Union) is a region of elevated chaos-like terrain in the leading hemisphere of Europa. Its origin had been explained under the currently debated theories of melting through a thin lithosphere or convection within a thick one. Galileo observations reveal several characteristics that suggest that the Mitten is distinct from typical chaos terrain and point to a different formational process. Photoclinometric elevation estimates suggest that the Mitten is slightly elevated with respect to the surrounding terrain; geologic relations indicate that it must have raised significantly from the plains in its past, resembling disrupted domes on Europa's trailing hemisphere. Moreover, the Mitten material appears to have extruded onto the plains and flowed for tens of kilometers. The area subsequently subsided as a result of isostatic adjustment, viscous relaxation, and/or plains loading. Using plate flexure models, we estimated the elastic lithosphere in the area to be several kilometers thick. We propose that the Mitten originated by the ascent and extrusion of a large thermal diapir. Thermal-mechanical modeling shows that a Mitten-sized plume would remain sufficiently warm and buoyant to pierce through the crust and flow unconfined on the surface. Such a diapir probably had an initial radius between 5 and 8 km and an initial depth of 20-40 km, consistent with a thick-lithosphere model. In this scenario the Mitten appears to represent the surface expression of the rare ascent of a large diapir, in contrast to lenticulae and chaos terrain, which may form by isolated and clustered small diapirs, respectively.

  9. Feature sensitive multiscale editing on surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarenz, U.; Griebel, M.; Rumpf, M.; Schweitzer, M.A.; Telea, A.

    2004-01-01

    A novel editing method for large triangular meshes is presented. We detect surface features, such as edge and corners, by computing local zero and first surface moments, using a robust and noise resistant method. The feature detection is encoded in a finite element matrix, passed to an algebraic

  10. Surface characterization based upon significant topographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, J; Grime, D; Blateyron, F, E-mail: fblateyron@digitalsurf.fr [Digital Surf, 16 rue Lavoisier, F-25000 Besancon (France)

    2011-08-19

    Watershed segmentation and Wolf pruning, as defined in ISO 25178-2, allow the detection of significant features on surfaces and their characterization in terms of dimension, area, volume, curvature, shape or morphology. These new tools provide a robust way to specify functional surfaces.

  11. Surface characterization based upon significant topographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, J; Grime, D; Blateyron, F

    2011-01-01

    Watershed segmentation and Wolf pruning, as defined in ISO 25178-2, allow the detection of significant features on surfaces and their characterization in terms of dimension, area, volume, curvature, shape or morphology. These new tools provide a robust way to specify functional surfaces.

  12. Outstanding diversity of heritage features in large geological bodies: The Gachsaran Formation in southwest Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Tahereh; Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2017-09-01

    The ideas of geological heritage and geological diversity have become very popular in the modern science. These are usually applied to geological domains or countries, provinces, districts, etc. Additionally, it appears to be sensible to assess heritage value of geological bodies. The review of the available knowledge and the field investigation of the Gachsaran Formation (lower Miocene) in southwest Iran permit to assign its features and the relevant phenomena to as much as 10 geological heritage types, namely stratigraphical, sedimentary, palaeontological, palaeogeographical, geomorphological, hydrogeological, engineering, structural, economical, and geohistorical types. The outstanding diversity of the features of this formation determines its high heritage value and the national rank. The geological heritage of the Gachsaran Formation is important to scientists, educators, and tourists. The Papoon and Abolhaiat sections of this formation are potential geological heritage sites, although these do not represent all above-mentioned types. The large territory, where the Gachsaran Formation outcrop, has a significant geoconservation and geotourism potential, and further inventory of geosites on this territory is necessary. Similar studies of geological bodies in North Africa and the Middle East can facilitate better understanding of the geological heritage of this vast territory.

  13. Measuring the surface roughness of geological rock surfaces in SAR data using fractal geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafouri, Ali; Amini, Jalal; Dehmollaian, Mojtaba; Kavoosi, Mohammad Ali

    2017-05-01

    Determining surface morphology using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data requires accurate topographic and microtopographic models. To distinguish different surface geometric patterns and to differentiate the formation of geological rock surfaces, it is necessary to model the smoothness and roughness of surfaces based on radar signal backscattering. Euclidean geometry is less able than fractal geometry to describe natural phenomena; however, in application to radar backscattering models, fractal geometry has never fully replaced Euclidean geometry. Using fractal geometry only, this paper attempts to improve the backscattering simulation generated by an Integral Equation Model to improve the description of geological rock surfaces. As the application of radar signal backscattering is a rarity in the domain of geology, the paper also discusses the efficiency of the method in improving the results of conventional geological mapping methods. The proposed method is applied to the Anaran geological formation (between Dehloran and Ilam in IRAN) using TerraSAR-X SAR data and in situ roughness measurements on pure sites with rough, intermediate, and smooth morphologies. This implementation shows fractal and diffractal behavior of geological morphologies under various conditions.

  14. Application of VRML to dynamic display of three dimension geologic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rui, X.; Yu, Z.; Xu, Y. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Resource and Environment Technology

    2001-06-01

    The basic concept of Virtual Reality and VRML is introduced. According to the actual condition of the geologic surface, the virtual space to display dynamically the three-dimensional geologic surface is constructed by using GRID file and Elevation Grid node. The application of this method to coalfield geologic surface has achieved very good visual effect. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Minearl associated microbial communities from The Cedars, associate with specific geological features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, A. R.; Wanger, G. P.; Bhartia, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Cedars, an area of active serpentinization located in the Russian River area of Northern California, represents one of the few terrestrial areas on Earth undergoing active serpentinization. One of the products of the serpentinization reaction is the formation of hydroxyl radicals making the springs of the Cedars some of the most alkaline natural waters on Earth. These waters, with very high pH (pH>11), low EH and, low concentrations of electron acceptors are extremely inhospitible; however microbial life has found a way to thrive and a distinct microbial community is observed in the spring waters. Previous work with environmental samples and pure culture isolates [3] derived from The Cedars has suggested the importance of minearal association to these characteristic microbes. Here we show the results combined spectroscopic and molecular studies on aseries of mineral colonization experiemnts performed with a pure culture Cedar's isolate (Serpentenamonas str. A1) and in situ at CS spring. Centimeter scale, polished coupons of a variety of mminerals were prepared in the lab, spectroscopically characterized (Green Raman, DUV Raman, and DUV Fluorescence maps) and deployed into the springs for three months. The coupons were recovered and the distribution of the microbes on the minerals was mapped using a deep-UV native fluorescent mapping sustem that allows for non-destructive mapping of organics and microbes on surfaces. Subsequently the DNA from the minerals was extracted for community structure analysis. The MOSAIC (i.e. deep UV Fluorescence) showed extensicve colonization of the minerals and in some cases we were able to correlate microbial assemblages with specific geological features. In one example, organisms tended to associate strongly with carbonate features on Chromite mineral surfaces (Figure 1). The 16s rDNA revealed the microbial assemblages from each slide was dominated by active Cedars community memebers (i.e., Serpentinamonas and Silanimonas species

  16. Robust Features Of Surface Electromyography Signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, M I; Miskon, M F; Yaacob, M R

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, application of robotics in human life has been explored widely. Robotics exoskeleton system are one of drastically areas in recent robotic research that shows mimic impact in human life. These system have been developed significantly to be used for human power augmentation, robotics rehabilitation, human power assist, and haptic interaction in virtual reality. This paper focus on solving challenges in problem using neural signals and extracting human intent. Commonly, surface electromyography signal (sEMG) are used in order to control human intent for application exoskeleton robot. But the problem lies on difficulty of pattern recognition of the sEMG features due to high noises which are electrode and cable motion artifact, electrode noise, dermic noise, alternating current power line interface, and other noise came from electronic instrument. The main objective in this paper is to study the best features of electromyography in term of time domain (statistical analysis) and frequency domain (Fast Fourier Transform).The secondary objectives is to map the relationship between torque and best features of muscle unit activation potential (MaxPS and RMS) of biceps brachii. This project scope use primary data of 2 male sample subject which using same dominant hand (right handed), age between 20–27 years old, muscle diameter 32cm to 35cm and using single channel muscle (biceps brachii muscle). The experiment conduct 2 times repeated task of contraction and relaxation of biceps brachii when lifting different load from no load to 3kg with ascending 1kg The result shows that Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) has less error than mean value of reading compare to root mean square (RMS) value. Thus, Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) show the linear relationship against torque experience by elbow joint to lift different load. As the conclusion, the best features is MaxPS because it has the lowest error than other features and

  17. Robust Features Of Surface Electromyography Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, M. I.; Miskon, M. F.; Yaacob, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, application of robotics in human life has been explored widely. Robotics exoskeleton system are one of drastically areas in recent robotic research that shows mimic impact in human life. These system have been developed significantly to be used for human power augmentation, robotics rehabilitation, human power assist, and haptic interaction in virtual reality. This paper focus on solving challenges in problem using neural signals and extracting human intent. Commonly, surface electromyography signal (sEMG) are used in order to control human intent for application exoskeleton robot. But the problem lies on difficulty of pattern recognition of the sEMG features due to high noises which are electrode and cable motion artifact, electrode noise, dermic noise, alternating current power line interface, and other noise came from electronic instrument. The main objective in this paper is to study the best features of electromyography in term of time domain (statistical analysis) and frequency domain (Fast Fourier Transform).The secondary objectives is to map the relationship between torque and best features of muscle unit activation potential (MaxPS and RMS) of biceps brachii. This project scope use primary data of 2 male sample subject which using same dominant hand (right handed), age between 20-27 years old, muscle diameter 32cm to 35cm and using single channel muscle (biceps brachii muscle). The experiment conduct 2 times repeated task of contraction and relaxation of biceps brachii when lifting different load from no load to 3kg with ascending 1kg The result shows that Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) has less error than mean value of reading compare to root mean square (RMS) value. Thus, Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) show the linear relationship against torque experience by elbow joint to lift different load. As the conclusion, the best features is MaxPS because it has the lowest error than other features and show

  18. Subsurface geologic features of the 2011 central Virginia earthquakes revealed by airborne geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anjana K.; Horton, J. Wright; Burton, William C.; Spears, David B; Gilmer, Amy K

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing geologic features associated with major earthquakes provides insights into mechanisms contributing to fault slip and assists evaluation of seismic hazard. We use high-resolution airborne geophysical data combined with ground sample measurements to image subsurface geologic features associated with the 2011 moment magnitude (Mw) 5.8 central Virginia (USA) intraplate earthquake and its aftershocks. Geologic mapping and magnetic data analyses suggest that the earthquake occurred near a complex juncture of geologic contacts. These contacts also intersect a >60-km-long linear gravity gradient. Distal aftershocks occurred in tight, ~1-km-wide clusters near other obliquely oriented contacts that intersect gravity gradients, in contrast to more linearly distributed seismicity observed at other seismic zones. These data and corresponding models suggest that local density contrasts (manifested as gravity gradients) modified the nearby stress regime in a manner favoring failure. However, along those gradients seismic activity is localized near structural complexities, suggesting a significant contribution from variations in associated rock characteristics such as rheological weakness and/or rock permeability, which may be enhanced in those areas. Regional magnetic data show a broader bend in geologic structures within the Central Virginia seismic zone, suggesting that seismic activity may also be enhanced in other nearby areas with locally increased rheological weaknesses and/or rock permeability. In contrast, away from the Mw5.8 epicenter, geophysical lineaments are nearly continuous for tens of kilometers, especially toward the northeast. Continuity of associated geologic structures probably contributed to efficient propagation of seismic energy in that direction, consistent with moderate to high levels of damage from Louisa County to Washington, D.C., and neighboring communities.

  19. Spatial analysis of geologic and hydrologic features relating to sinkhole occurrence in Jefferson County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Doctor, Katarina Z.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the influence of geologic features related to sinkhole susceptibility was analyzed and the results were mapped for the region of Jefferson County, West Virginia. A model of sinkhole density was constructed using Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) that estimated the relations among discrete geologic or hydrologic features and sinkhole density at each sinkhole location. Nine conditioning factors on sinkhole occurrence were considered as independent variables: distance to faults, fold axes, fracture traces oriented along bedrock strike, fracture traces oriented across bedrock strike, ponds, streams, springs, quarries, and interpolated depth to groundwater. GWR model parameter estimates for each variable were evaluated for significance, and the results were mapped. The results provide visual insight into the influence of these variables on localized sinkhole density, and can be used to provide an objective means of weighting conditioning factors in models of sinkhole susceptibility or hazard risk.

  20. Data Qualification Report: Precipitation and Surface Geology Data for Use on the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Wilson

    2000-01-01

    The unqualified data addressed in this qualification report have been cited in an Analysis Model Report (AMR) to support the Site Recommendation in determining the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository for high-level radioactive waste. The unqualified data include precipitation volumes and surface geology maps The precipitation data consist of daily precipitation volumes measured at Yucca Mountain. The surface geology data include identification of the types and surface expressions of geologic units and associated structural features such as faults. These data were directly used in AMR U0010, Simulation of Net Infiltration for Modern and Potential Future Climates, ANL-NBS-HS-000032 (Hevesi et al. 2000), to estimate net infiltration into Yucca Mountain. This report evaluates the unqualified data within the context of supporting studies of this type for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The purpose of this report is to identify data that can be cited as qualified for use in technical products to support the YMP Site Recommendation and that may also be used to support the License Application. The qualified data may either be retained in the original Data Tracking Number (DTN) or placed in new DTNs generated as a result of the evaluation. The appropriateness and limitations (if any) of the data with respect to intended use are addressed in this report. In accordance with Attachment 1 of procedure AP-3.15Q, Rev. 02, Managing Technical Product Inputs, it has been determined that the unqualified precipitation and surface geology data are not used in the direct calculation of Principal Factors for postclosure safety or disruptive events. References to tables, figures, and sections from Hevesi et al. (2000) are based on Rev. 00 of that document

  1. Ecological and geological features of agricultural territories of the Crimea-Caucasian mountainous zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Baraboshkina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological and biological features from territories of the Crimea-Caucasian mountain zone are considered in the article. Under the influence of agriculture (with geological and geomorphological and soil features during intensive managing in the given territory the activization of erosion was observed , there is as much as possible changed a degree of soil supply by humus, separate local anomalies are revealed under gardens, on accumulative landscapes. For the rehabilitation of territory some measures are offered.

  2. Diamond Provenance Through Shape, Colour, Surface Features and Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J.

    2002-05-01

    The physical properties of diamond provide a possible means by which run-of-mine productions may be identified. Such properties as shape, the regularity and angularity of the crystal form, the level of transparency, colour, syngenetic inclusion content and surface feature characteristics, all as a function of diamond size, can classify diamond productions. In early work, up to 1500 diamonds in specific sizes ranging from just under 2mm up to 6mm were evaluated. Using this procedure, most of the diamonds from the main mines in southern Africa have now been classified. Within South Africa, the mine at Swartruggens is the only one to have measurable levels of cube-shaped diamonds and an absence of the spinel twin form of diamond, more commonly known as the macle. In Botswana, the proportion of cube related forms at Jwaneng is about four times that at Orapa. Whilst the common diamond colours, colourless, yellow and brown, occur in most mines, there is a marked change in the proportion of transparent green-coated diamonds with depth in mines such as Finsch and Jwaneng. Individual mines may also have very small proportions of distinctive diamond colours, such as pinks at the Argyle mine in Australia and blues in the Premier mine in South Africa. More recently, classification emphasis has shifted away from large numbers of diamonds examined and particular attention has been paid to surface features, which reflect changes to the diamond either whilst still in the kimberlite, or subsequently during transport to an alluvial source. A classification of diamonds at the Venetia mine, South Africa, for example, showed that the proportion of diamonds with the feature referred to as corrosion sculpture, was distinctive between kimberlite types within the mine. With alluvial diamonds, transport causes further defects, particularly a general increase in the proportion of diamonds with surface features referred to as percussion marks and edge abrasion. The above observational

  3. Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  4. Martian sub-surface ionising radiation: biosignatures and geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Ward

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The surface of Mars, unshielded by thick atmosphere or global magnetic field, is exposed to high levels of cosmic radiation. This ionising radiation field is deleterious to the survival of dormant cells or spores and the persistence of molecular biomarkers in the subsurface, and so its characterisation is of prime astrobiological interest. Here, we present modelling results of the absorbed radiation dose as a function of depth through the Martian subsurface, suitable for calculation of biomarker persistence. A second major implementation of this dose accumulation rate data is in application of the optically stimulated luminescence technique for dating Martian sediments.

    We present calculations of the dose-depth profile in the Martian subsurface for various scenarios: variations of surface composition (dry regolith, ice, layered permafrost, solar minimum and maximum conditions, locations of different elevation (Olympus Mons, Hellas basin, datum altitude, and increasing atmospheric thickness over geological history. We also model the changing composition of the subsurface radiation field with depth compared between Martian locations with different shielding material, determine the relative dose contributions from primaries of different energies, and discuss particle deflection by the crustal magnetic fields.

  5. GEOLOGICAL FEATURES MAPPING USING PALSAR-2 DATA IN KELANTAN RIVER BASIN, PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Pour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the recently launched Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2 onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2, remote sensing data were used to map geologic structural and topographical features in the Kelantan river basin for identification of high potential risk and susceptible zones for landslides and flooding areas. A ScanSAR and two fine mode dual polarization level 3.1 images cover Kelantan state were processed for comprehensive analysis of major geological structures and detailed characterizations of lineaments, drainage patterns and lithology at both regional and district scales. Red-Green-Blue (RGB colour-composite was applied to different polarization channels of PALSAR-2 data to extract variety of geological information. Directional convolution filters were applied to the data for identifying linear features in particular directions and edge enhancement in the spatial domain. Results derived from ScanSAR image indicate that lineament occurrence at regional scale was mainly linked to the N-S trending of the Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ in the west and Lebir Fault Zone in the east of the Kelantan state. Combination of different polarization channels produced image maps contain important information related to water bodies, wetlands and lithological units for the Kelantan state using fine mode observation data. The N-S, NE-SW and NNE-SSW lineament trends were identified in the study area using directional filtering. Dendritic, sub-dendritic and rectangular drainage patterns were detected in the Kelantan river basin. The analysis of field investigations data indicate that many of flooded areas were associated with high potential risk zones for hydro-geological hazards such as wetlands, urban areas, floodplain scroll, meander bend, dendritic and sub-dendritic drainage patterns, which are located in flat topograghy regions. Numerous landslide points were located in rectangular drainage system

  6. Geological Features Mapping Using PALSAR-2 Data in Kelantan River Basin, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, A. B.; Hashim, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the recently launched Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2), remote sensing data were used to map geologic structural and topographical features in the Kelantan river basin for identification of high potential risk and susceptible zones for landslides and flooding areas. A ScanSAR and two fine mode dual polarization level 3.1 images cover Kelantan state were processed for comprehensive analysis of major geological structures and detailed characterizations of lineaments, drainage patterns and lithology at both regional and district scales. Red-Green-Blue (RGB) colour-composite was applied to different polarization channels of PALSAR-2 data to extract variety of geological information. Directional convolution filters were applied to the data for identifying linear features in particular directions and edge enhancement in the spatial domain. Results derived from ScanSAR image indicate that lineament occurrence at regional scale was mainly linked to the N-S trending of the Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ) in the west and Lebir Fault Zone in the east of the Kelantan state. Combination of different polarization channels produced image maps contain important information related to water bodies, wetlands and lithological units for the Kelantan state using fine mode observation data. The N-S, NE-SW and NNE-SSW lineament trends were identified in the study area using directional filtering. Dendritic, sub-dendritic and rectangular drainage patterns were detected in the Kelantan river basin. The analysis of field investigations data indicate that many of flooded areas were associated with high potential risk zones for hydro-geological hazards such as wetlands, urban areas, floodplain scroll, meander bend, dendritic and sub-dendritic drainage patterns, which are located in flat topograghy regions. Numerous landslide points were located in rectangular drainage system that associated

  7. Evaluation of geologic and geophysical techniques for surface-to-subsurface projections of geologic characteristics in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    Granitic and gneissic rock complexes are being considered for their potential to contain and permanently isolate high-level nuclear waste in a deep geologic repository. The use of surface geologic and geophysical techniques has several advantages over drilling and testing methods for geologic site characterization in that the techniques are typically less costly, provide data over a wider area, and do not jeopardize the physical integrity of a potential repository. For this reason, an extensive literature review was conducted to identify appropriate surface geologic and geophysical techniques that can be used to characterize geologic conditions in crystalline rock at proposed repository depths of 460 to 1,220 m. Characterization parameters such as rock quality; fracture orientation, spacing; and aperture; depths to anomalies; degree of saturation; rock body dimensions; and petrology are considered to be of primary importance. Techniques reviewed include remote sensing, geologic mapping, petrographic analysis, structural analysis, gravity and magnetic methods, electrical methods, and seismic methods. Each technique was reviewed with regard to its theoretical basis and field application; geologic parameters that can be evaluated; advantages and limitations, and, where available, case history applications in crystalline rock. Available information indicates that individual techniques provide reliable information on characteristics at the surface, but have limited success in projections to depths greater that approximately 100 m. A combination of integrated techniques combines with data from a limited number of boreholes would significantly improve the reliability and confidence of early characterization studies to provide qualitative rock body characteristics for region-to-area and area-to-site selection evaluations. 458 refs., 32 figs., 14 tabs

  8. An analysis of spatial relation predicates in U.S. Geological Survey feature definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Holly K.; Varanka, Dalia E.

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web uses a data model called a triple, which consists of a subject -predicate - object structure. When represented as triples, geospatial data require a spatial relation term to serve as the predicate linking two spatial features. This document summarizes the approaches and procedures used during the identification of spatial relationships common between topographic features using terms from topographic data standards. This project identified verb-predicate arguments that could be used in the creation of data triples and ontologies for The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey and also investigated the possibility of deriving ontology from predefined textual definitions. The primary purpose of this report is to present the data used for subsequent analysis. A summary of terms organized by basic categories is provided.

  9. China organic-rich shale geologic features and special shale gas production issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Ju

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The depositional environment of organic-rich shale and the related tectonic evolution in China are rather different from those in North America. In China, organic-rich shale is not only deposited in marine environment, but also in non-marine environment: marine-continental transitional environment and lacustrine environment. Through analyzing large amount of outcrops and well cores, the geologic features of organic-rich shale, including mineral composition, organic matter richness and type, and lithology stratigraphy, were analyzed, indicating very special characteristics. Meanwhile, the more complex and active tectonic movements in China lead to strong deformation and erosion of organic-rich shale, well-development of fractures and faults, and higher thermal maturity and serious heterogeneity. Co-existence of shale gas, tight sand gas, and coal bed methane (CBM proposes a new topic: whether it is possible to co-produce these gases to reduce cost. Based on the geologic features, the primary production issues of shale gas in China were discussed with suggestions.

  10. Surface features of central North America: a synoptic view from computer graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    A digital shaded-relief image of the 48 contiguous United States shows the details of large- and small-scale landforms, including several linear trends. The features faithfully reflect tectonism, continental glaciation, fluvial activity, volcanism, and other surface-shaping events and processes. The new map not only depicts topography accurately and in its true complexity, but does so in one synoptic view that provides a regional context for geologic analysis unobscured by clouds, culture, vegetation, or artistic constraints. -Author

  11. Quantitative roughness characterization of geological surfaces and implications for radar signature analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierking, Wolfgang

    1999-01-01

    Stochastic surface models are useful for analyzing in situ roughness profiles and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of geological terrain. In this paper, two different surface models are discussed: surfaces with a stationary random roughness (conventional model) and surfaces with a power...

  12. The Impact of Solid Surface Features on Fluid-Fluid Interface Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, J. B.; Brusseau, M. L. L.

    2017-12-01

    Pore-scale fluid processes in geological media are critical for a broad range of applications such as radioactive waste disposal, carbon sequestration, soil moisture distribution, subsurface pollution, land stability, and oil and gas recovery. The continued improvement of high-resolution image acquisition and processing have provided a means to test the usefulness of theoretical models developed to simulate pore-scale fluid processes, through the direct quantification of interfaces. High-resolution synchrotron X-ray microtomography is used in combination with advanced visualization tools to characterize fluid distributions in natural geologic media. The studies revealed the presence of fluid-fluid interface associated with macroscopic features on the surfaces of the solids such as pits and crevices. These features and respective fluid interfaces, which are not included in current theoretical or computational models, may have a significant impact on accurate simulation and understanding of multi-phase flow, energy, heat and mass transfer processes.

  13. Cryovolcanic features on Titan's surface as revealed by the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R.M.C.; Mitchell, K.L.; Stofan, E.R.; Lunine, J.I.; Lorenz, R.; Paganelli, F.; Kirk, R.L.; Wood, C.A.; Wall, S.D.; Robshaw, L.E.; Fortes, A.D.; Neish, Catherine D.; Radebaugh, J.; Reffet, E.; Ostro, S.J.; Elachi, C.; Allison, M.D.; Anderson, Y.; Boehmer, R.; Boubin, G.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Janssen, M.A.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.O.; Ori, G.; Orosei, R.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.E.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Soderblom, L.A.; Stiles, B.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.D.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper obtained Synthetic Aperture Radar images of Titan's surface during four fly-bys during the mission's first year. These images show that Titan's surface is very complex geologically, showing evidence of major planetary geologic processes, including cryovolcanism. This paper discusses the variety of cryovolcanic features identified from SAR images, their possible origin, and their geologic context. The features which we identify as cryovolcanic in origin include a large (180 km diameter) volcanic construct (dome or shield), several extensive flows, and three calderas which appear to be the source of flows. The composition of the cryomagma on Titan is still unknown, but constraints on rheological properties can be estimated using flow thickness. Rheological properties of one flow were estimated and appear inconsistent with ammonia-water slurries, and possibly more consistent with ammonia-water-methanol slurries. The extent of cryovolcanism on Titan is still not known, as only a small fraction of the surface has been imaged at sufficient resolution. Energetic considerations suggest that cryovolcanism may have been a dominant process in the resurfacing of Titan. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc.

  14. Rare earth elements in coastal sediments of the northern Galician shelf: Influence of geological features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prego, Ricardo; Caetano, Miguel; Bernárdez, Patricia; Brito, Pedro; Ospina-Alvarez, Natalia; Vale, Carlos

    2012-03-01

    The Northern coast of Galicia, NW Iberian Peninsula, exhibits a variety of geological features: Ortegal allochthonous complex, Ollo-de-Sapo autochthonous domain and massifs of Bares, Barqueiro and San-Ciprian. In order to examine the influence of terrestrial lithologies on coastal sediments, 103 samples were collected in the Rias of Ortigueira, Barqueiro and Viveiro, their neighbouring shelf and the estuaries of Mera, Sor and Landro rivers. Aluminium, Fe, Sc, particulate inorganic and organic carbon and rare earth elements (REE) were determined in the lanthanides (ΣREEN>6) near Cape Ortegal and the innermost ria zones. The ratio between light and heavy REE (L/H) showed lower values (4-11) around Cape Ortegal and the shelf while higher ratios (15-23) were detected in west of the Cape Estaca-de-Bares and in the inner Viveiro Ria due to elevated contributions of La and Ce. The L/H values normalised to ES reflects the importance of HREE in the adjacent area to Ortegal Complex (LN/HN1.4) in the inner estuaries and west Cape Estaca-de-Bares. The highest REE individual ES normalised were measured in fine-grained sediments of the Mera and Sor estuaries. Sediments from the eastern shelf of Cape Ortegal presented enhanced ratios only for HREE. These results indicate that distribution of REE in the northern Galician region is highly depending on the neighbouring lithological pattern, contrasting with the situation found in the western Galician shelf and the Bay of Biscay. Lanthanides can, thus, provide a useful tool to follow the sediment pathway in the land-sea boundary zones, denoting continental geochemical imprint or fluvial outputs accordingly to the existing hydrological and geological conditions.

  15. Digital field mapping for stimulating Secondary School students in the recognition of geological features and landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco; Magagna, Alessandra; Ferrero, Elena; Perrone, Gianluigi

    2015-04-01

    Digital field mapping has certainly provided geoscientists with the opportunity to map and gather data in the field directly using digital tools and software rather than using paper maps, notebooks and analogue devices and then subsequently transferring the data to a digital format for subsequent analysis. But, the same opportunity has to be recognized for Geoscience education, as well as for stimulating and helping students in the recognition of landforms and interpretation of the geological and geomorphological components of a landscape. More, an early exposure to mapping during school and prior to university can optimise the ability to "read" and identify uncertainty in 3d models. During 2014, about 200 Secondary School students (aged 12-15) of the Piedmont region (NW Italy) participated in a research program involving the use of mobile devices (smartphone and tablet) in the field. Students, divided in groups, used the application Trimble Outdoors Navigators for tracking a geological trail in the Sangone Valley and for taking georeferenced pictures and notes. Back to school, students downloaded the digital data in a .kml file for the visualization on Google Earth. This allowed them: to compare the hand tracked trail on a paper map with the digital trail, and to discuss about the functioning and the precision of the tools; to overlap a digital/semitransparent version of the 2D paper map (a Regional Technical Map) used during the field trip on the 2.5D landscape of Google Earth, as to help them in the interpretation of conventional symbols such as contour lines; to perceive the landforms seen during the field trip as a part of a more complex Pleistocene glacial landscape; to understand the classical and innovative contributions from different geoscientific disciplines to the generation of a 3D structural geological model of the Rivoli-Avigliana Morainic Amphitheatre. In 2013 and 2014, some other pilot projects have been carried out in different areas of the

  16. Section-constrained local geological interface dynamic updating method based on the HRBF surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiateng; Wu, Lixin; Zhou, Wenhui; Li, Chaoling; Li, Fengdan

    2018-02-01

    Boundaries, attitudes and sections are the most common data acquired from regional field geological surveys, and they are used for three-dimensional (3D) geological modelling. However, constructing topologically consistent 3D geological models from rapid and automatic regional modelling with convenient local modifications remains unresolved. In previous works, the Hermite radial basis function (HRBF) surface was introduced for the simulation of geological interfaces from geological boundaries and attitudes, which allows 3D geological models to be automatically extracted from the modelling area by the interfaces. However, the reasonability and accuracy of non-supervised subsurface modelling is limited without further modifications generated through explanations and analyses performed by geology experts. In this paper, we provide flexible and convenient manual interactive manipulation tools for geologists to sketch constraint lines, and these tools may help geologists transform and apply their expert knowledge to the models. In the modified modelling workflow, the geological sections were treated as auxiliary constraints to construct more reasonable 3D geological models. The geometric characteristics of section lines were abstracted to coordinates and normal vectors, and along with the transformed coordinates and vectors from boundaries and attitudes, these characteristics were adopted to co-calculate the implicit geological surface function parameters of the HRBF equations and form constrained geological interfaces from topographic (boundaries and attitudes) and subsurface data (sketched sections). Based on this new modelling method, a prototype system was developed, in which the section lines could be imported from databases or interactively sketched, and the models could be immediately updated after the new constraints were added. Experimental comparisons showed that all boundary, attitude and section data are well represented in the constrained models, which are

  17. An ontology design pattern for surface water features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Gaurav; Mark, David; Kolas, Dave; Varanka, Dalia; Romero, Boleslo E.; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Usery, E. Lynn; Liebermann, Joshua; Sorokine, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Surface water is a primary concept of human experience but concepts are captured in cultures and languages in many different ways. Still, many commonalities exist due to the physical basis of many of the properties and categories. An abstract ontology of surface water features based only on those physical properties of landscape features has the best potential for serving as a foundational domain ontology for other more context-dependent ontologies. The Surface Water ontology design pattern was developed both for domain knowledge distillation and to serve as a conceptual building-block for more complex or specialized surface water ontologies. A fundamental distinction is made in this ontology between landscape features that act as containers (e.g., stream channels, basins) and the bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes) that occupy those containers. Concave (container) landforms semantics are specified in a Dry module and the semantics of contained bodies of water in a Wet module. The pattern is implemented in OWL, but Description Logic axioms and a detailed explanation is provided in this paper. The OWL ontology will be an important contribution to Semantic Web vocabulary for annotating surface water feature datasets. Also provided is a discussion of why there is a need to complement the pattern with other ontologies, especially the previously developed Surface Network pattern. Finally, the practical value of the pattern in semantic querying of surface water datasets is illustrated through an annotated geospatial dataset and sample queries using the classes of the Surface Water pattern.

  18. Quaternary Geology and Surface Faulting Hazard: Active and Capable Faults in Central Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcucci, E.; Gori, S.

    2015-12-01

    The 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.1), in central Italy, raised the issue of surface faulting hazard in Italy, since large urban areas were affected by surface displacement along the causative structure, the Paganica fault. Since then, guidelines for microzonation were drew up that take into consideration the problem of surface faulting in Italy, and laying the bases for future regulations about related hazard, similarly to other countries (e.g. USA). More specific guidelines on the management of areas affected by active and capable faults (i.e. able to produce surface faulting) are going to be released by National Department of Civil Protection; these would define zonation of areas affected by active and capable faults, with prescriptions for land use planning. As such, the guidelines arise the problem of the time interval and general operational criteria to asses fault capability for the Italian territory. As for the chronology, the review of the international literature and regulatory allowed Galadini et al. (2012) to propose different time intervals depending on the ongoing tectonic regime - compressive or extensional - which encompass the Quaternary. As for the operational criteria, the detailed analysis of the large amount of works dealing with active faulting in Italy shows that investigations exclusively based on surface morphological features (e.g. fault planes exposition) or on indirect investigations (geophysical data), are not sufficient or even unreliable to define the presence of an active and capable fault; instead, more accurate geological information on the Quaternary space-time evolution of the areas affected by such tectonic structures is needed. A test area for which active and capable faults can be first mapped based on such a classical but still effective methodological approach can be the central Apennines. Reference Galadini F., Falcucci E., Galli P., Giaccio B., Gori S., Messina P., Moro M., Saroli M., Scardia G., Sposato A. (2012). Time

  19. Geological survey of Maryland using EREP flight data. [mining, mapping, Chesapeake Bay islands, coastal water features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, K. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Underflight photography has been used in the Baltimore County mined land inventory to determine areas of disturbed land where surface mining of sand and ground clay, or stone has taken place. Both active and abandoned pits and quarries were located. Aircraft data has been used to update cultural features of Calvert, Caroline, St. Mary's, Somerset, Talbot, and Wicomico Counties. Islands have been located and catalogued for comparison with older film and map data for erosion data. Strip mined areas are being mapped to obtain total area disturbed to aid in future mining and reclamation problems. Coastal estuarine and Atlantic Coast features are being studied to determine nearshore bedforms, sedimentary, and erosional patterns, and manmade influence on natural systems.

  20. Feature Surfaces in Symmetric Tensor Fields Based on Eigenvalue Manifold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Jonathan; Yeh, Harry; Wang, Wenping; Zhang, Yue; Laramee, Robert S; Sharma, Ritesh; Schultz, Thomas; Zhang, Eugene

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional symmetric tensor fields have a wide range of applications in solid and fluid mechanics. Recent advances in the (topological) analysis of 3D symmetric tensor fields focus on degenerate tensors which form curves. In this paper, we introduce a number of feature surfaces, such as neutral surfaces and traceless surfaces, into tensor field analysis, based on the notion of eigenvalue manifold. Neutral surfaces are the boundary between linear tensors and planar tensors, and the traceless surfaces are the boundary between tensors of positive traces and those of negative traces. Degenerate curves, neutral surfaces, and traceless surfaces together form a partition of the eigenvalue manifold, which provides a more complete tensor field analysis than degenerate curves alone. We also extract and visualize the isosurfaces of tensor modes, tensor isotropy, and tensor magnitude, which we have found useful for domain applications in fluid and solid mechanics. Extracting neutral and traceless surfaces using the Marching Tetrahedra method can cause the loss of geometric and topological details, which can lead to false physical interpretation. To robustly extract neutral surfaces and traceless surfaces, we develop a polynomial description of them which enables us to borrow techniques from algebraic surface extraction, a topic well-researched by the computer-aided design (CAD) community as well as the algebraic geometry community. In addition, we adapt the surface extraction technique, called A-patches, to improve the speed of finding degenerate curves. Finally, we apply our analysis to data from solid and fluid mechanics as well as scalar field analysis.

  1. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Description of the bedrock geological map at the ground surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Bergman, Torbjoern (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Isaksson, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Petersson, Jesper (SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    A description of the bedrock geological map of the ground surface at the Forsmark site is presented here. This map is essentially a 2D model for the distribution of different types of rock unit on this surface. Besides showing the distribution of these rock units, the bedrock geological map also displays the distribution of some deformation zones that intersect the ground surface. It also presents information bearing on the position and form of outcrops, the location and projection of boreholes drilled during the site investigation programme, subordinate rock types, the occurrence of abandoned mines or exploration prospects, measurements of ductile structures in outcrops, inferred form lines, key minerals, and the occurrence of mylonite and cataclastic rock. Bedrock data from outcrops and excavations, airborne and ground magnetic data and information from the uppermost part of boreholes have all been used in the construction of the geological map. The description has also made use of complementary analytical data bearing on the composition and age of the rocks as well gamma-ray spectrometry and gravity data. Uncertainty in the position of the boundaries between rock units over the mapped area are addressed in a qualitative manner. Four model versions of the bedrock geological map have been delivered to SKB's GIS database (bedrock geological map, Forsmark, versions 1.1, 1.2, 2.2 and 2.3) at different times during the site investigation programme. The Forsmark area is situated along the coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Uppland, Sweden, in a region where the overall level of ductile strain in the bedrock is high. This high-strain region extends several tens of kilometres across the WNW-ENE to NW-SE strike of the rocks in this part of the Fennoscandian Shield. At Forsmark, the coastal region is composed partly of high-strain belts, which formed under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions, and partly of tectonic lenses, where the bedrock is also affected by

  2. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Description of the bedrock geological map at the ground surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Bergman, Torbjoern; Isaksson, Hans; Petersson, Jesper

    2008-12-01

    A description of the bedrock geological map of the ground surface at the Forsmark site is presented here. This map is essentially a 2D model for the distribution of different types of rock unit on this surface. Besides showing the distribution of these rock units, the bedrock geological map also displays the distribution of some deformation zones that intersect the ground surface. It also presents information bearing on the position and form of outcrops, the location and projection of boreholes drilled during the site investigation programme, subordinate rock types, the occurrence of abandoned mines or exploration prospects, measurements of ductile structures in outcrops, inferred form lines, key minerals, and the occurrence of mylonite and cataclastic rock. Bedrock data from outcrops and excavations, airborne and ground magnetic data and information from the uppermost part of boreholes have all been used in the construction of the geological map. The description has also made use of complementary analytical data bearing on the composition and age of the rocks as well gamma-ray spectrometry and gravity data. Uncertainty in the position of the boundaries between rock units over the mapped area are addressed in a qualitative manner. Four model versions of the bedrock geological map have been delivered to SKB's GIS database (bedrock geological map, Forsmark, versions 1.1, 1.2, 2.2 and 2.3) at different times during the site investigation programme. The Forsmark area is situated along the coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Uppland, Sweden, in a region where the overall level of ductile strain in the bedrock is high. This high-strain region extends several tens of kilometres across the WNW-ENE to NW-SE strike of the rocks in this part of the Fennoscandian Shield. At Forsmark, the coastal region is composed partly of high-strain belts, which formed under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions, and partly of tectonic lenses, where the bedrock is also affected by

  3. Automatic selective feature retention in patient specific elastic surface registration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jansen van Rensburg, GJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available . An intelligent mesh morphing strategy where dissimilar feature surfaces can be extracted automatically also greatly reduces the amount of user input required. REFERENCES [1] R. Bryan, P.S. Mohan, A. Hopkins, F. Galloway, M. Taylor and P. Nair, Statitical...

  4. An Ontology Design Pattern for Surface Water Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Gaurav [Ohio University; Mark, David [University at Buffalo (SUNY); Kolas, Dave [Raytheon BBN Technologies; Varanka, Dalia [U.S. Geological Survey, Rolla, MO; Romero, Boleslo E [University of California, Santa Barbara; Feng, Chen-Chieh [National University of Singapore; Usery, Lynn [U.S. Geological Survey, Rolla, MO; Liebermann, Joshua [Tumbling Walls, LLC; Sorokine, Alexandre [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Surface water is a primary concept of human experience but concepts are captured in cultures and languages in many different ways. Still, many commonalities can be found due to the physical basis of many of the properties and categories. An abstract ontology of surface water features based only on those physical properties of landscape features has the best potential for serving as a foundational domain ontology. It can then be used to systematically incor-porate concepts that are specific to a culture, language, or scientific domain. The Surface Water ontology design pattern was developed both for domain knowledge distillation and to serve as a conceptual building-block for more complex surface water ontologies. A fundamental distinction is made in this on-tology between landscape features that act as containers (e.g., stream channels, basins) and the bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes) that occupy those containers. Concave (container) landforms semantics are specified in a Dry module and the semantics of contained bodies of water in a Wet module. The pattern is imple-mented in OWL, but Description Logic axioms and a detailed explanation is provided. The OWL ontology will be an important contribution to Semantic Web vocabulary for annotating surface water feature datasets. A discussion about why there is a need to complement the pattern with other ontologies, es-pecially the previously developed Surface Network pattern is also provided. Fi-nally, the practical value of the pattern in semantic querying of surface water datasets is illustrated through a few queries and annotated geospatial datasets.

  5. Study on geological environment in the Tono area. An approach to surface-based investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    Mizunami Underground Research (MIU) Project has aimed at preparation of basis of investigation, analysis and evaluation of geology of deep underground and basis of engineering technologies of ultra deep underground. This report stated an approach and information of surface-based investigation for ground water flow system and MIU Project by the following contents, 1) objects and preconditions, 2) information of geological environment for analysis of material transition and design of borehole, 3) modeling, 4) tests and investigations and 5) concept of investigation. The reference data consists of results of studies such as the geological construction model, topography, geologic map, structural map, linear structure and estimated fault, permeability, underground stream characteristics, the quality of underground water and rock mechanics. (S.Y.)

  6. Representing images using curvilinear feature driven subdivision surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hailing; Zheng, Jianmin; Wei, Lei

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a subdivision-based vector graphics for image representation and creation. The graphics representation is a subdivision surface defined by a triangular mesh augmented with color attribute at vertices and feature attribute at edges. Special cubic B-splines are proposed to describe curvilinear features of an image. New subdivision rules are then designed accordingly, which are applied to the mesh and the color attribute to define the spatial distribution and piecewise-smoothly varying colors of the image. A sharpness factor is introduced to control the color transition across the curvilinear edges. In addition, an automatic algorithm is developed to convert a raster image into such a vector graphics representation. The algorithm first detects the curvilinear features of the image, then constructs a triangulation based on the curvilinear edges and feature attributes, and finally iteratively optimizes the vertex color attributes and updates the triangulation. Compared with existing vector-based image representations, the proposed representation and algorithm have the following advantages in addition to the common merits (such as editability and scalability): 1) they allow flexible mesh topology and handle images or objects with complicated boundaries or features effectively; 2) they are able to faithfully reconstruct curvilinear features, especially in modeling subtle shading effects around feature curves; and 3) they offer a simple way for the user to create images in a freehand style. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been demonstrated in experiments.

  7. Main features of the geological structure of upper-Frasnian barrier reefs in relation to their petroleum content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikonov, N.I.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of new geological geophysical and industrial materials has made it possible to distinguish in the boundary part of the late Devonician shoal carbonate shelf barrier reefs of various ages. In confines of individual distinguished reefs there have been established deposits of oil (Western Tebuksk, Pashsor and Khar'yatinsk). There are given prospecting features of classification of buried reefs and prognoses for the finding possible oil deposits in them (Beyaksk, Sandiveis reefs).

  8. Integrating GPR and RIP Methods for Water Surface Detection of Geological Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Hou Yang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical surveying in water-covered and swampy areas is particularly challenging. This paper presents a new survey strategy for such surveying that integrates ground penetrating radar (GPR and resistivity image profiling (RIP methods at the water surface to investigate geologic structures beneath rivers, ponds, and swamps.

  9. Nanometer polymer surface features: the influence on surface energy, protein adsorption and endothelial cell adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Joseph; Khang, Dongwoo; Webster, Thomas J.

    2008-12-01

    Current small diameter (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) surfaces elevated endothelial cell adhesion, proliferation, and extracellular matrix synthesis when compared to nanosmooth surfaces. Nonetheless, these studies failed to address the importance of lateral and vertical surface feature dimensionality coupled with surface free energy; nor did such studies elicit an optimum specific surface feature size for promoting endothelial cell adhesion. In this study, a series of highly ordered nanometer to submicron structured PLGA surfaces of identical chemistry were created using a technique employing polystyrene nanobeads and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) molds. Results demonstrated increased endothelial cell adhesion on PLGA surfaces with vertical surface features of size less than 18.87 nm but greater than 0 nm due to increased surface energy and subsequently protein (fibronectin and collagen type IV) adsorption. Furthermore, this study provided evidence that the vertical dimension of nanometer surface features, rather than the lateral dimension, is largely responsible for these increases. In this manner, this study provides key design parameters that may promote vascular graft efficacy.

  10. Geological features of the Tertiary Galician Coalfields and their value in economic terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, J.; Rey, J. (Ibergesa, dep. mineria, Madrid (Spain))

    1983-03-01

    The article takes stock of known geological data on the Tertiary period in Galicia; indicates the importance of this period in mining terms, especially with regard to lignite; and presents a statistical picture of Galicia's energy production and consumption.

  11. Towards understanding how surface life can affect interior geological processes: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Dyke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Life has significantly altered the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and crust. To what extent has it also affected interior geological processes? To address this question, three models of geological processes are formulated: mantle convection, continental crust uplift and erosion and oceanic crust recycling. These processes are characterised as non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems. Their states of disequilibrium are maintained by the power generated from the dissipation of energy from the interior of the Earth. Altering the thickness of continental crust via weathering and erosion affects the upper mantle temperature which leads to changes in rates of oceanic crust recycling and consequently rates of outgassing of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Estimates for the power generated by various elements in the Earth system are shown. This includes, inter alia, surface life generation of 264 TW of power, much greater than those of geological processes such as mantle convection at 12 TW. This high power results from life's ability to harvest energy directly from the sun. Life need only utilise a small fraction of the generated free chemical energy for geochemical transformations at the surface, such as affecting rates of weathering and erosion of continental rocks, in order to affect interior, geological processes. Consequently when assessing the effects of life on Earth, and potentially any planet with a significant biosphere, dynamical models may be required that better capture the coupled nature of biologically-mediated surface and interior processes.

  12. Thermal impact of waste emplacement and surface cooling associated with geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Mangold, D.C.; Spencer, R.K.; Tsang, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    The age of nuclear waste - the length of time between its removal from the reactor cores and its emplacement in a repository - is a significant factor in determining the thermal loading of a repository. The surface cooling period as well as the density and sequence of waste emplacement affects both the near-field repository structure and the far-field geologic environment. To investigate these issues, a comprehensive review was made of the available literature pertaining to thermal effects and thermal properties of mined geologic repositories. This included a careful evaluation of the effects of different surface cooling periods of the wastes, which is important for understanding the optimal thermal loading of a repository. The results led to a clearer understanding of the importance of surface cooling in evaluating the overall thermal effects of a radioactive waste repository. The principal findings from these investigations are summarized in this paper

  13. Geologic features of the Connecticut Valley, Massachusetts, as related to recent floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahns, Richard Henry

    1947-01-01

    This report gives the results of a geologic study of certain features that bear upon the recent flood behavior of rivers flowing in the Massachusetts part of the Connecticut Valley. It is in part an outline of the physiographic history of the Connecticut River, a 'history that is treated in progressively greater detail as it concerns events occurring from Mesozoic time to the present, and in part a discussion of erosional and depositional processes associated with the extraordinary floods of March 1936 and September 1938. The Connecticut River flows southward through Massachusetts in a broad lowland area of more than 400 square miles and is joined in this area by four large tributaries, the Deerfield and Westfield Rivers from the west and the Millers and Chicopee Rivers from the east. The lowland area, or :Connecticut Valley province, is flanked on the west by the Berkshire Hills, a, deeply incised uplifted plateau, and on the east by the central upland, or Worcester .County plateau, a lower upland marked by rolling topography. Most of the broad, relatively flat valley floor is underlain by Triassic sedimentary rocks. Rising above it, however, are the prominent Holyoke-Mount Tom and Deerfield Ranges, which consist in large part of dark-colored igneous rocks, also of Triassic age. There is evidence of several cycles of erosion in central western Massachusetts, the last two of which are of Tertiary age and appear to have reached nature and very youthful stages of topographic development, respectively. Immediately prior to the glacial epoch, therefore, the Connecticut River flowed in a fairly narrow, deep gorge, which it had incised in the rather flat 5ottom of the valley that it had formed at an earlier stage. A Pleistocene crustal subsidence probably of several hundred feet, for which there has been only partial compensation in postglacial time, was responsible for the present position of much of this gorge below sea level. That an estuary does not now occupy the

  14. Geology and structural features of vein-type lead and zinc deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasov, E. M.

    2007-12-01

    The geological and structural position and localization conditions of the vein-type Pb-Zn deposits of the Sadon (North Ossetia) and East Karamazar (North Tajikistan) ore districts are considered. The leading role of long-lived deep faults in the control of large deposits is emphasized. Examples of such deposits in different provinces are given. The study of fractures and faults at Pb-Zn deposits is important for understanding of the formation conditions of other hydrothermal deposits.

  15. Touching Textured Surfaces: Cells in Somatosensory Cortex Respond Both to Finger Movement and to Surface Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darian-Smith, Ian; Sugitani, Michio; Heywood, John; Karita, Keishiro; Goodwin, Antony

    1982-11-01

    Single neurons in Brodmann's areas 3b and 1 of the macaque postcentral gyrus discharge when the monkey rubs the contralateral finger pads across a textured surface. Both the finger movement and the spatial pattern of the surface determine this discharge in each cell. The spatial features of the surface are represented unambiguously only in the responses of populations of these neurons, and not in the responses of the constituent cells.

  16. Detection of a bright feature on the surface of Betelgeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buscher, D.F.; Baldwin, J.E.; Warner, P.J. (Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory, Cambridge (UK). Cavendish Lab.); Haniff, C.A. (Palomar Observatory, Pasadena, CA (USA))

    1990-07-01

    We present high-resolution images of the M-supergiant Betelgeuse in 1989 February at wavelengths of 633, 700 and 710 nm, made using the non-redundant masking method. At all these wavelengths, there is unambiguous evidence for an asymmetric feature on the surface of the star, which contributes 10-15 per cent of the total observed flux. This might be due to a close companion passing in front of the stellar disc or, more likely, to large-scale convection in the stellar atmosphere. (author).

  17. The use of fluoride as a natural tracer in water and the relationship to geological features: Examples from the Animas River Watershed, San Juan Mountains, Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, D.J.; Walton-Day, K.; Kimball, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Investigations within the Silverton caldera, in southwestern Colorado, used a combination of traditional geological mapping, alteration-assemblage mapping, and aqueous geochemical sampling that showed a relationship between geological and hydrologic features that may be used to better understand the provenance and evolution of the water. Veins containing fluorite, huebnerite, and elevated molybdenum concentrations are temporally and perhaps genetically associated with the emplacement of high-silica rhyolite intrusions. Both the rhyolites and the fluorite-bearing veins produce waters containing elevated concentrations of F-, K and Be. The identification of water samples with elevated F/Cl molar ratios (> 10) has also aided in the location of water draining F-rich sources, even after these waters have been diluted substantially. These unique aqueous geochemical signatures can be used to relate water chemistry to key geological features and mineralized source areas. Two examples that illustrate this relationship are: (1) surface-water samples containing elevated F-concentrations (> 1.8 mg/l) that closely bracket the extent of several small high-silica rhyolite intrusions; and (2) water samples containing elevated concentrations of F-(> 1.8 mg/ l) that spatially relate to mines or areas that contain late-stage fluorite/huebnerite veins. In two additional cases, the existence of high F-concentrations in water can be used to: (1) infer interaction of the water with mine waste derived from systems known to contain the fluorite/huebnerite association; and (2) relate changes in water quality over time at a high elevation mine tunnel to plugging of a lower elevation mine tunnel and the subsequent rise of the water table into mineralized areas containing fluorite/huebnerite veining. Thus, the unique geochemical signature of the water produced from fluorite veins indicates the location of high-silica rhyolites, mines, and mine waste containing the veins. Existence of high F

  18. Land surface and climate parameters and malaria features in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Y. A.; Anh, N. K.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface parameters may affect local microclimate, which in turn alters the development of mosquito habitats and transmission risks (soil-vegetation-atmosphere-vector borne diseases). Forest malaria is a chromic issue in Southeast Asian countries, in particular, such as Vietnam (in 1991, approximate 2 million cases and 4,646 deaths were reported (https://sites.path.org)). Vietnam has lowlands, sub-tropical high humidity, and dense forests, resulting in wide-scale distribution and high biting rate of mosquitos in Vietnam, becoming a challenging and out of control scenario, especially in Vietnamese Central Highland region. It is known that Vietnam's economy mainly relies on agriculture and malaria is commonly associated with poverty. There is a strong demand to investigate the relationship between land surface parameters (land cover, soil moisture, land surface temperature, etc.) and climatic variables (precipitation, humidity, evapotranspiration, etc.) in association with malaria distribution. GIS and remote sensing have been proven their powerful potentials in supporting environmental and health studies. The objective of this study aims to analyze physical attributes of land surface and climate parameters and their links with malaria features. The outcomes are expected to illustrate how remotely sensed data has been utilized in geohealth applications, surveillance, and health risk mapping. In addition, a platform with promising possibilities of allowing disease early-warning systems with citizen participation will be proposed.

  19. Geological and Mineralogical-technological features chromite ore from nickel-weathering crusts Average Bug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkov E.S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Conditions of occurrence and distribution features of chromites ore bodies in the ultra-basic nickel bearing weathering crusts of Middle Bug Area are considered. Main types of exogenous chromites ores in weathering crusts and beyond of them are identified as well as mineralogical, chemical and grain features of mineralization are given. Obtained data are substantiated in order to apply them while developing the efficient schemes of mining and processing of exogenous chromites ores.

  20. Relationship between morphological feature of submarine landslides and geological condition -focus on Oshima-Oshima, Kaimon and Hawaii regions-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, T.; Yamazaki, H.; Kato, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Huge submarine landslides which generate the tsunami are found in the world. Those submarine landslides are generated by the collapse of the volcano and an unstable slope of sediments on the continental shelf. It is thought that a generation mechanism and morphological features of submarine landslides are different according to the environment (geological condition, topography, and transportation mechanism, etc) in each region. We compared submarine landslides in three different regions to clarify the relation of them. The comparison items are geological condition, morphological feature, form of submarine landslide and transportation mechanism. Oshima-Oshima is a volcanic island and tsunami was generated by collapse of volcanic edifice in 1741 eruption. Kaimon submarine landslide was generated by collapse of continental shelf slope off Kaimon volcano which has acted since 4000BP. There are many submarine landslides around Hawaii Islands. Nuuanu-Wailau submarine landslides are peculiar in those submarine landslides. Moreover, we compare some submarine landslides around Hawaii islands with Oshima-Oshima debris avalanche. Both Oshima-Oshima and Hawaii islands are volcanic islands, however the morphological features are different. As a morphological feature, Oshima-Oshima has thick sediment of 100-120m in front of collapse area and those sediment thins with distance. Nuuanu-Wailau submarine landslides have sediment including a huge blocks of 2km height at equal intervals around Hawaii islands. On the other hand, Kaimon submarine landslide has evenly thin sediment as a non volcanic type. In addition, in the case of Nuuanu-Wailau slides are smaller than Oshima-Oshima's case when we think about sediment extension to lateral side. Especially, sediment extension of Kaimon submarine landslide is small. These sediment distributions are related to the transportation mechanism. In general, sediment gravity flow is divided into 4 types (turbidity current, fluidized sediment flow

  1. Global geologic context for rock types and surface alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, M.B.; McSween, H.Y.; Tanaka, K.L.; Head, J. W.

    2004-01-01

    Petrologic interpretations of thermal emission spectra from Mars orbiting spacecraft indicate the widespread occurrence of surfaces having basaltic and either andesitic or partly altered basalt compositions. Global concentration of ice-rich mantle deposits and near-surface ice at middle to high latitudes and their spatial correlation with andesitic or partly altered basalt materials favor the alteration hypothesis. We propose the formation of these units through limited chemical weathering from basalt interactions with icy mantles deposited during periods of high obliquity. Alteration of sediments in the northern lowlands depocenter may have been enhanced by temporary standing bodies of water and ice. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  2. Hydrochemical characteristic of surface and groundwater Lisichansk and Almazno-Marevske geological and industrial districts Nnorth-Eastern Donbas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udalov Y.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Incorporates a complex of problems accompanying the operation of coal deposits of Donbass. See hydrochemical characteristics of surface and groundwater Lisichansk and Almazno-Maryevskogo geological and industrial areas of the North-Eastern Donbass. Identified the main hydrochemical features of the waste mine waters of the enterprises of the coal industry on the territory of the studies. It is established that the surface waters of the study area exposed to intensive anthropogenic influence. Set content of basic elements-pollutants in surface waters. It is revealed that this pollution is of a complex nature. Identifies key elements contained in the effluent of industrial enterprises. Analyzed that a change of the chemical composition of groundwater has led to increased hardness and mineralization of water in the main water intakes of the research area. Identifies key elements-contaminants in groundwater. It was found that as a result of mine dewatering groundwater level fell over an area of 200km2, far exceeding the area of coal mining. This operational reserves fresh underground waters in the groundwater runoff module 1.2 dm3 / sec. km2 decreased by 200 - 300 m3 / day. Within funnel depression hydraulic connection is created not only a few confined aquifers, but also located near the mine fields. For example, in the area of Stakhanov the Luhansk region in general depression funnel width of about 25 km and a depth of 600-800m were 8 mine ("Central Irmino", "Maximovska" Ilyich, named after I.V. Chesnokov, "Krivoy Rog", 11-RAD "Brjankovsky" and "Dzerzhinsk". The purpose of research is general hydrochemical characteristics and identification of key elements polluting surface and groundwater Lisichanskiy and diamond-Marevskogo geological and industrial areas of the North-East Donbas.

  3. Surface feature characterization test plan: Conceptual design of a high level nuclear waste repository in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This report presents the Surface Feature Characterization Test Plan for conceptual design. The Test Plan is part of the surface feature characterization program for conceptual design which will obtain information on site topography, hydrology, stratigraphy, and soil and rock engineering properties. The information will be obtained by the Geologic Project Manager (GPM). This Test Plan provides guidance to the GPM as to (1) the kinds of data to be collected, (2) anticipated methods, (3) the level of detail required, (4) interpretation to be made, and (5) the format for presentation. Based on this Test Plan and on conditions at the site that is selected, the GPM will develop an Activity Plan describing the methods to be used in obtaining the needed information. For each item of information, the Test Plan describes those facilities which require it for their design. The GPM can then determine the appropriate methods and level of effort for obtaining the information, taking into account its use and conditions at the selected site. 7 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Ceres' deformational surface features compared to other planetary bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Gathen, Isabel; Jaumann, Ralf; Krohn, Katrin; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Elgner, Stephan; Kersten, Elke; Matz, Klaus-Dieter; Nass, Andrea; Otto, Katharina; Preusker, Frank; Roatsch, Thomas; Schröder, Stefanus E.; Schulzeck, Franziska; Stephan, Katrin; Wagner, Roland; De Sanctis, Maria C.; Schenk, Paul; Scully, Jennifer E. C.; Williams, Dave A.; Raymond, Carol A.

    2016-04-01

    On March 2015, NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the dwarf planet Ceres and has been providing images of its surface. Based on High Altitude Mapping Orbiter (HAMO) clear filter images (140 m/px res.), a Survey mosaic (~400 m/px) and a series of Low Altitude Mapping Orbiter (LAMO) clear filter images (35 m/px) of the Dawn mission [1], deformational features are identified on the surface of Ceres. In order to further our knowledge about the nature and origin of these features, we start a comparative analysis of similar features on different planetary bodies, like Enceladus, Ganymede and the Moon, based on images provided by the Cassini, Galileo and Lunar Orbiter mission. This study focuses on the small scale fractures, mostly located on Ceres' crater floors, in comparison with crater fractures on the planetary bodies named above. The fractures were analyzed concerning the morphology and shape, the distribution, orientation and possible building mechanisms. On Ceres, two different groups of fractures are distinct. The first one includes fractures, normally arranged in subparallel pattern, which are usually located on crater floors, but also on crater rims. Their sense of direction is relatively uniform but in some cases they get deformed by shearing. The second group consists of joint systems, which spread out of one single location, sometimes arranged concentric to the crater rim. They were likely formed by cooling-melting processes linked to the impact process or up doming material. Fractures located on crater floors are also common on the icy satellite Enceladus [3]. While Enceladus' fractures don't seem to have a lot in common compared to those on Ceres, we assume that similar fracture patterns and therefore similar building mechanism can be found e.g. on Ganymede and especially on the Moon [2]. Further work will include the comparison of the fractures with additional planetary bodies and the trial to explain why fracturing e.g. on Enceladus differs from that on

  5. Observation of surface features on an active landslide, and implications for understanding its history of movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parise

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface features are produced as a result of internal deformation of active landslides, and are continuously created and destroyed by the movement. Observation of their presence and distribution, and surveying of their evolution may provide insights for the zonation of the mass movement in sectors characterized by different behaviour. The present study analyses and describes some example of surface features observed on an active mass movement, the Slumgullion earthflow, in the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado. The Slumgullion earthflow is one of the most famous and spectacular landslides in the world; it consists of a younger, active part which moves on and over an older, much larger, inactive part. Total length of the earthflow is 6.8 km, with an estimated volume of 170 × 10 6 m 3 . Its nearly constant rate of movement (ranging from about 2 m per year at the head, to a maximum of 6–7 m per year at its narrow and central part, to values between 1.3 and 2 m per year at the active toe, and the geological properties of moving material, are well suited for the observation of the development and evolution of surface features. In the last 11 years, repeated surveying at the Slumgullion site has been performed through recognition of surface features, measurements of their main characteristics, and detailed mapping. In this study, two sectors of the Slumgullion earthflow are analysed through comparison of the features observed in this time span, and evaluation of the changes occurred: they are the active toe and an area located at the left flank of the landslide. Choice of the sectors was dictated in the first case, by particular activity of movement and the nearby presence of elements at risk (highway located only 250 m downhill from the toe; and in the second case, by the presence of many surface features, mostly consisting of several generations of flank ridges. The active toe of the landslide is characterized by continuous movement

  6. Investigation of silicate surface chemistry and reaction mechanisms associated with mass transport in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.F.; Perry, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    The concentration and rate of transport of radionuclides through geologic media can be strongly influenced by the extent of sorption on aquifer surfaces. Over time intervals relevant to such transport processes, rock and mineral surfaces cannot be considered as inert, unreactive substrates but rather as groundwater/solidphase interfaces which are commonly in a state of natural or artificially induced disequilibrium. The goal of the present research is to define experimentally the type of water/rock interactions that will influence surface chemistry and hence sorption characteristics and capacities of natural aquifers. As wide a range of silicate minerals as possible was selected for study to represent rock-forming minerals in basalt, tuff, and granite. The minerals include K-feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, olivine, hornblende, biotite, and volcanic glass

  7. Replication of surface features from a master model to an amorphous metallic article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William L.; Bakke, Eric; Peker, Atakan

    1999-01-01

    The surface features of an article are replicated by preparing a master model having a preselected surface feature thereon which is to be replicated, and replicating the preselected surface feature of the master model. The replication is accomplished by providing a piece of a bulk-solidifying amorphous metallic alloy, contacting the piece of the bulk-solidifying amorphous metallic alloy to the surface of the master model at an elevated replication temperature to transfer a negative copy of the preselected surface feature of the master model to the piece, and separating the piece having the negative copy of the preselected surface feature from the master model.

  8. Wavelength feature mapping as a proxy to mineral chemistry for investigating geologic systems: An example from the Rodalquilar epithermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Freek; Kopačková, Veronika; Koucká, Lucie; van der Werff, Harald M. A.; van Ruitenbeek, Frank J. A.; Bakker, Wim H.

    2018-02-01

    The final product of a geologic remote sensing data analysis using multi spectral and hyperspectral images is a mineral (abundance) map. Multispectral data, such as ASTER, Landsat, SPOT, Sentinel-2, typically allow to determine qualitative estimates of what minerals are in a pixel, while hyperspectral data allow to quantify this. As input to most image classification or spectral processing approach, endmembers are required. An alternative approach to classification is to derive absorption feature characteristics such as the wavelength position of the deepest absorption, depth of the absorption and symmetry of the absorption feature from hyperspectral data. Two approaches are presented, tested and compared in this paper: the 'Wavelength Mapper' and the 'QuanTools'. Although these algorithms use a different mathematical solution to derive absorption feature wavelength and depth, and use different image post-processing, the results are consistent, comparable and reproducible. The wavelength images can be directly linked to mineral type and abundance, but more importantly also to mineral chemical composition and subtle changes thereof. This in turn allows to interpret hyperspectral data in terms of mineral chemistry changes which is a proxy to pressure-temperature of formation of minerals. We show the case of the Rodalquilar epithermal system of the southern Spanish Gabo de Gata volcanic area using HyMAP airborne hyperspectral images.

  9. Interpretation and mapping of geological features using mobile devices for 3D outcrop modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Simon J.; Kehl, Christian; Mullins, James R.; Howell, John A.

    2016-04-01

    Advances in 3D digital geometric characterisation have resulted in widespread adoption in recent years, with photorealistic models utilised for interpretation, quantitative and qualitative analysis, as well as education, in an increasingly diverse range of geoscience applications. Topographic models created using lidar and photogrammetry, optionally combined with imagery from sensors such as hyperspectral and thermal cameras, are now becoming commonplace in geoscientific research. Mobile devices (tablets and smartphones) are maturing rapidly to become powerful field computers capable of displaying and interpreting 3D models directly in the field. With increasingly high-quality digital image capture, combined with on-board sensor pose estimation, mobile devices are, in addition, a source of primary data, which can be employed to enhance existing geological models. Adding supplementary image textures and 2D annotations to photorealistic models is therefore a desirable next step to complement conventional field geoscience. This contribution reports on research into field-based interpretation and conceptual sketching on images and photorealistic models on mobile devices, motivated by the desire to utilise digital outcrop models to generate high quality training images (TIs) for multipoint statistics (MPS) property modelling. Representative training images define sedimentological concepts and spatial relationships between elements in the system, which are subsequently modelled using artificial learning to populate geocellular models. Photorealistic outcrop models are underused sources of quantitative and qualitative information for generating TIs, explored further in this research by linking field and office workflows through the mobile device. Existing textured models are loaded to the mobile device, allowing rendering in a 3D environment. Because interpretation in 2D is more familiar and comfortable for users, the developed application allows new images to be captured

  10. Relationship Between the Surface Area to Volume Ratio and Temperature across Geologic Time in Ostracods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C.; Zaroff, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2014-12-01

    In 1877 Joseph Allen proposed that endothermic terrestrial organisms would have lower surface area to volume ratios (SAVR) in colder climates and higher SAVRs in warmer climates. With a smaller surface area compared to volume, organisms can retain more heat in cold climates. We tested to see if this principle applied to ostracods, a type of ectothermic marine invertebrate. We hypothesised that Allen's rule applies to ostracods, as Allen's rule has been demonstrated in frogs (Alho 2011), which are also ectotherms . We used the linear dimensions of the three major carapace axes of ostracod holotypes to estimate the SAVR. We compared ostracod SAVRs with paleotemperatures from Royer et al. (2004). We found that there was a correlation between surface area and temperature; it is a small, but statistically significant correlation (adj. R2=0.0167). This means that as temperature increased, the SAVR also increased. We also found a negative correlation between ostracod SAVR to geologic time(adj. R2=0.0114), which shows us that as time has gone on, ostracod SAVR has decreased. We then plotted the correlation coefficient of SAVR to temperature over geologic time to explore trends in the strength of Allen's rule. For most of time there was no relationship but during the Devonian, Allen's Rule did explain the trend. In short, temperature does explain some of the correlation between the SAVR and temperature, but it is likely there were other environmental factors affecting this relationship.

  11. Influence of geology on arsenic concentrations in ground and surface water in central Lesvos, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloupi, Maria; Angelidis, Michael O; Gavriil, Apostolos M; Koulousaris, Michael; Varnavas, Soterios P

    2009-04-01

    The occurrence of As was studied in groundwater used for human consumption and irrigation, in stream water and sediments and in water from thermal springs in the drainage basin of Kalloni Gulf, island of Lesvos, Greece, in order to investigate the potential influence of the geothermal field of Polichnitos-Lisvori on the ground and surface water systems of the area. Total dissolved As varied in the range geology exerts a determinant influence on As geochemical behaviour. On the other hand, the geothermal activity manifested in the area of Polichnitos-Lisvori does not affect the presence of As in groundwater and streams.

  12. Adhesion of CO2 on hydrated mineral surfaces and its implications to geologic carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Clarens, A. F.; Tao, Z.; Persily, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Most mineral surfaces are water wetting, which has important implications for the transport of non-aqueous phase liquids, such as CO2, through porous media. In this work, contact angle experiments were carried out wherein unusual wetting behavior was observed between mineral surfaces and liquid or supercritical CO2 under certain geochemical conditions. This behavior can be understood in the context of adhesion between the CO2 and the mineral surface. When adhesion occurs, the wettability characteristics of the surfaces are significantly altered. More importantly, the CO2 exhibits a strong affinity for the surface and is highly resistant to shear forces in the aqueous phase. A static pendant drop method was used on a variety of polished mineral surfaces to measure contact angles. The composition of the aqueous phase (e.g., pH, ionic strength) and the characteristics of the mineral surface (e.g., composition, roughness), were evaluated to understand their impact on the prevalence of adhesion. Pressure and temperature conditions were selected to represent those that would be prevalent in geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) or during leakage from target repositories. Adhesion was widely observed on phlogopite mica, silica, and calcite surfaces with roughness on the order of ~10 nanometers. CO2 exhibited no adhesion on mineral surfaces with higher roughness (e.g., quartz). On smoother surfaces, the CO2 is thought to have more effective contact area with the mineral, enabling the weak van der Waals forces that drive most adhesion processes. Brine chemistry also had an important role in controlling CO2 adhesion. Increases in CO2 partial pressure and ionic strength both increased the incidence of adhesion. The addition of strong acid or strong base permanently inhibited the development of adhesion. These results suggest that the development of adhesion between the CO2 and the mineral surface is dependent on the integrity and thickness of the hydration layer between the CO2

  13. The Effects of Realistic Geological Heterogeneity on Seismic Modeling: Applications in Shear Wave Generation and Near-Surface Tunnel Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Christopher Scott

    Naturally occurring geologic heterogeneity is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of seismic wave propagation. This dissertation presents a strategy for modeling the effects of heterogeneity using a combination of geostatistics and Finite Difference simulation. In the first chapter, I discuss my motivations for studying geologic heterogeneity and seis- mic wave propagation. Models based upon fractal statistics are powerful tools in geophysics for modeling heterogeneity. The important features of these fractal models are illustrated using borehole log data from an oil well and geomorphological observations from a site in Death Valley, California. A large part of the computational work presented in this disserta- tion was completed using the Finite Difference Code E3D. I discuss the Python-based user interface for E3D and the computational strategies for working with heterogeneous models developed over the course of this research. The second chapter explores a phenomenon observed for wave propagation in heteroge- neous media - the generation of unexpected shear wave phases in the near-source region. In spite of their popularity amongst seismic researchers, approximate methods for modeling wave propagation in these media, such as the Born and Rytov methods or Radiative Trans- fer Theory, are incapable of explaining these shear waves. This is primarily due to these method's assumptions regarding the coupling of near-source terms with the heterogeneities and mode conversion. To determine the source of these shear waves, I generate a suite of 3D synthetic heterogeneous fractal geologic models and use E3D to simulate the wave propaga- tion for a vertical point force on the surface of the models. I also present a methodology for calculating the effective source radiation patterns from the models. The numerical results show that, due to a combination of mode conversion and coupling with near-source hetero- geneity, shear wave energy on the order of 10% of the

  14. Near-surface monitoring strategies for geologic carbon dioxide storage verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Hepple, Robert P.

    2003-10-31

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and its storage in deep geologic formations. Geologic CO{sub 2} storage verification will be needed to ensure that CO{sub 2} is not leaking from the intended storage formation and seeping out of the ground. Because the ultimate failure of geologic CO{sub 2} storage occurs when CO{sub 2} seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, and because elevated concentrations of CO{sub 2} near the ground surface can cause health, safety, and environmental risks, monitoring will need to be carried out in the near-surface environment. The detection of a CO{sub 2} leakage or seepage signal (LOSS) in the near-surface environment is challenging because there are large natural variations in CO{sub 2} concentrations and fluxes arising from soil, plant, and subsurface processes. The term leakage refers to CO{sub 2} migration away from the intended storage site, while seepage is defined as CO{sub 2} passing from one medium to another, for example across the ground surface. The flow and transport of CO{sub 2} at high concentrations in the near-surface environment will be controlled by its high density, low viscosity, and high solubility in water relative to air. Numerical simulations of leakage and seepage show that CO{sub 2} concentrations can reach very high levels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively modest CO{sub 2} leakage fluxes. However, once CO{sub 2} seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, surface winds are effective at dispersing CO{sub 2} seepage. In natural ecological systems with no CO{sub 2} LOSS, near-surface CO{sub 2} fluxes and concentrations are controlled by CO{sub 2} uptake by photosynthesis, and production by root respiration, organic carbon biodegradation in soil, deep outgassing of CO{sub 2}, and by exchange of CO{sub 2} with the atmosphere. Existing technologies available for monitoring CO{sub 2} in the near-surface environment

  15. Kilometer-Scale Topographic Roughness of Mercury: Correlation with Geologic Features and Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.

    2014-01-01

    We present maps of the topographic roughness of the northern circumpolar area of Mercury at kilometer scales. The maps are derived from range profiles obtained by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) instrument onboard the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission. As measures of roughness, we used the interquartile range of profile curvature at three baselines: 0.7 kilometers, 2.8 kilometers, and 11 kilometers. The maps provide a synoptic overview of variations of typical topographic textures. They show a dichotomy between the smooth northern plains and rougher, more heavily cratered terrains. Analysis of the scale dependence of roughness indicates that the regolith on Mercury is thicker than on the Moon by approximately a factor of three. Roughness contrasts within northern volcanic plains of Mercury indicate a younger unit inside Goethe basin and inside another unnamed stealth basin. These new data permit interplanetary comparisons of topographic roughness.

  16. GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEOGENE BASINS HOSTING BORATE DEPOSITS: AN OVERVIEW OF DEPOSITS AND FUTURE FORECAST, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahit HELVACI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The geometry, stratigraphy, tectonics and volcanic components of the borate bearing Neogene basins in western Anatolia offer some important insights into on the relationship between basin evolution, borate formation and mode of extension in western Anatolia. Some of the borate deposits in NE-SW trending basins developed along the İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone (İBTZ (e.g. Bigadiç, Sultançayır and Kestelek basins, and other deposits in the NE-SW trending basins which occur on the northern side of the Menderes Core Complex (MCC are the Selendi and Emet basins. The Kırka borate deposit occurs further to the east and is located in a completely different geological setting and volcanostratigraphic succession. Boron is widely distributed; including in soil and water, plants and animals. The element boron does not exist freely by itself in nature, but rather it occurs in combination with oxygen and other elements in salts, commonly known as borates. Approximately 280 boron-bearing minerals have been identified, the most common being sodium, calcium and magnesium salts. Four main continental metallogenic borate provinces are recognized at a global scale. They are located in Anatolia (Turkey, California (USA, Central Andes (South America and Tibet (Central Asia. The origin of borate deposits is related to Cenozoic volcanism, thermal spring activity, closed basins and arid climate. Borax is the major commercial source of boron, with major supplies coming from Turkey, USA and Argentina. Colemanite is the main calcium borate and large scale production is restricted to Turkey. Datolite and szaibelyite are confined to Russia and Chinese sources. Four Main borax (tincal deposits are present in Anatolia (Kırka, California (Boron, and two in the Andes (Tincalayu and Loma Blanca. Kırka, Boron and Loma Blanca have similarities with regard to their chemical and mineralogical composition of the borate minerals. Colemanite deposits with/without probertite and

  17. Impact of caprock permeability on vertical ground surface displacements in geological underground utilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempka, Thomas; Tillner, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Geological underground utilisation inducing pore pressure changes in underground reservoirs is generally accompanied by hydro-mechanical processes. Thereby, pore pressure increase due to fluid injection may trigger ground surface uplift, while a decrease in pore pressure due to reservoir fluid production is known to induce ground subsidence. Different coupled hydro-mechanical simulation studies (e.g. Klimkowski et al., 2015, Kempka et al., 2014, Tillner et al., 2014) indicate that ground surface displacements can achieve a magnitude of several decimetres, if storage or production operations are being carried out at an industrial scale. Consequently, detailed knowledge on the parameters impacting ground surface uplift or subsidence is of major interest for the success of any geological underground utilisation in order to avoid surface infrastructure damage by spatially varying deformations. Furthermore, ground subsidence may result increased groundwater levels as experienced in different underground coal mining districts. In the present study, we carried out coupled hydro-mechanical simulations to account for the impact of caprock permeability on ground surface displacements resulting from geological underground utilisation. Thereto, different simulation scenarios were investigated using a synthetic 3D coupled numerical simulation model with varying caprock permeability and vertical location of the open well section in the target reservoir. Material property ranges were derived from available literature, while a normal faulting stress state was applied in all simulation scenarios. Our simulation results demonstrate that caprock permeability has a significant impact on the pressure development, and thus on vertical displacements at the ground surface as well as at the reservoir top. An increase in caprock permeability from 1 x 10-20 m2 by two orders of magnitude doubles vertical displacements at the ground surface, whereas vertical displacements at the reservoir top

  18. Improving surface stability of elevated spoil landforms using natural landform analogy and geological information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, Bevan; Burgess, Jon; Esterle, Joan; Erskine, Peter; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale open cut mining in the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia has undergone an evolutionary process over the period of a few decades, transitioning from shallow mining depths, limited spoil elevation and pasture based rehabilitation to increased mining depths, escalating pre-stripping, elevated mesa-like landforms and native woody species rehabilitation. As a consequence of this development, the stabilisation of recent constructed landforms has to be assured through means other than the establishment of vegetative cover. Recent developments are the specific selection and partitioning of resilient fragmental spoil types for the construction of final landform surface. They can also be used as cladding resources for stabilizing steep erosive batters and this has been identified as a practical methodology that has the potential to significantly improve rehabilitation outcomes. Examples of improvements are an increase of the surface rock cover, roughness and infiltration and reducing inherent erodibility and runoff and velocity of surface flow. However, a thorough understanding of the properties and behavior of individual spoil materials disturbed during mining is required. Relevant information from published literature on the geological origins, lithology and weathering characteristics of individual strata within the Bowen Basin Coal Measures located in Queensland, Australia (and younger overlying weathered strata) has been studied, and related both to natural landforms and to the surface stability of major strata types when disturbed by mining. The resulting spoil classification developed from this study is based primarily on inherent geological characteristics and weathering behaviour of identifiable lithologic components, and as such describes the expected fragmental resilience likely within disturbed materials at Bowen Basin coal mines. The proposed classification system allows the allocation of spoil types to use categories which have application in pre

  19. Understanding wetland sub-surface hydrology using geologic and isotopic signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sahu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to utilize hydrogeology and isotope composition of groundwater to understand the present hydrological processes prevalent in a freshwater wetland, source of wetland groundwater, surface water/groundwater interaction and mixing of groundwater of various depth zones in the aquifer. This study considers East Calcutta Wetlands (ECW – a freshwater peri-urban inland wetland ecosystem located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal Basin and east of Kolkata city. This wetland is well known over the world for its resource recovery systems, developed by local people through ages, using wastewater of the city. Geological investigations reveal that the sub-surface geology is completely blanketed by the Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of silty clay, sand of various grades and sand mixed with occasional gravels and thin intercalations of silty clay. At few places the top silty clay layer is absent due to scouring action of past channels. In these areas sand is present throughout the geological column and the areas are vulnerable to groundwater pollution. Groundwater mainly flows from east to west and is being over-extracted to the tune of 65×103 m3/day. δ18O and δD values of shallow and deep groundwater are similar indicating resemblance in hydrostratigraphy and climate of the recharge areas. Groundwater originates mainly from monsoonal rain with some evaporation prior to or during infiltration and partly from bottom of ponds, canals and infiltration of groundwater withdrawn for irrigation. Relatively high tritium content of the shallow groundwater indicates local recharge, while the deep groundwater with very low tritium is recharged mainly from distant areas. At places the deep aquifer has relatively high tritium, indicating mixing of groundwater of shallow and deep aquifers. Metals such as copper, lead, arsenic, cadmium, aluminium, nickel and chromium are also

  20. Understanding wetland sub-surface hydrology using geologic and isotopic signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, P. K.; Sahu, P.

    2009-07-01

    This paper attempts to utilize hydrogeology and isotope composition of groundwater to understand the present hydrological processes prevalent in a freshwater wetland, source of wetland groundwater, surface water/groundwater interaction and mixing of groundwater of various depth zones in the aquifer. This study considers East Calcutta Wetlands (ECW) - a freshwater peri-urban inland wetland ecosystem located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal Basin and east of Kolkata city. This wetland is well known over the world for its resource recovery systems, developed by local people through ages, using wastewater of the city. Geological investigations reveal that the sub-surface geology is completely blanketed by the Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of silty clay, sand of various grades and sand mixed with occasional gravels and thin intercalations of silty clay. At few places the top silty clay layer is absent due to scouring action of past channels. In these areas sand is present throughout the geological column and the areas are vulnerable to groundwater pollution. Groundwater mainly flows from east to west and is being over-extracted to the tune of 65×103 m3/day. δ18O and δD values of shallow and deep groundwater are similar indicating resemblance in hydrostratigraphy and climate of the recharge areas. Groundwater originates mainly from monsoonal rain with some evaporation prior to or during infiltration and partly from bottom of ponds, canals and infiltration of groundwater withdrawn for irrigation. Relatively high tritium content of the shallow groundwater indicates local recharge, while the deep groundwater with very low tritium is recharged mainly from distant areas. At places the deep aquifer has relatively high tritium, indicating mixing of groundwater of shallow and deep aquifers. Metals such as copper, lead, arsenic, cadmium, aluminium, nickel and chromium are also present in groundwater of various depths. Therefore

  1. Thermal impact of waste emplacement and surface cooling associated with geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Mangold, D.C.; Spencer, R.K.; Tsang, C.F.

    1982-08-01

    The thermal effects associated with the emplacement of aged radioactive wastes in a geologic repository were studied, with emphasis on the following subjects: the waste characteristics, repository structure, and rock properties controlling the thermally induced effects; the current knowledge of the thermal, thermomechanical, and thermohydrologic impacts, determined mainly on the basis of previous studies that assume 10-year-old wastes; the thermal criteria used to determine the repository waste loading densities; and the technical advantages and disadvantages of surface cooling of the wastes prior to disposal as a means of mitigating the thermal impacts. The waste loading densities determined by repository designs for 10-year-old wastes are extended to older wastes using the near-field thermomechanical criteria based on room stability considerations. Also discussed are the effects of long surface cooling periods determined on the basis of far-field thermomechanical and thermohydrologic considerations. The extension of the surface cooling period from 10 years to longer periods can lower the near-field thermal impact but have only modest long-term effects for spent fuel. More significant long-term effects can be achieved by surface cooling of reprocessed high-level waste.

  2. Sectoral Plan 'Deep Geological Disposal', Stage 2. Proposed site areas for the surface facilities of the deep geological repositories as well as for their access infrastructure. Annexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    In line with the provisions of the nuclear energy legislation, the sites for deep geological disposal of Swiss radioactive waste are selected in a three-stage Sectoral Plan process (Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal). The disposal sites are specified in Stage 3 of the selection process with the granting of a general licence in accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act. The first stage of the process was completed on 30 th November 2011, with the decision of the Federal Council to incorporate the six geological siting regions proposed by the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) into the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal, for further evaluation in Stage 2. The decision also specifies the planning perimeters within which the surface facilities and shaft locations for the repositories will be constructed. In the second stage of the process, at least two geological siting regions each will be specified for the repository for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and for the high-level waste (HLW) repository and these will undergo detailed geological investigation in Stage 3. For each of these potential siting regions, at least one location for the surface facility and a corridor for the access infrastructure will also be specified. NAGRA is responsible, at the beginning of Stage 2, for submitting proposals for potential locations for the surface facilities and their access infrastructure to the Federal Office of Energy (SFOE); these are then considered by the regional participation bodies in the siting regions. The general report and the present annexes volume document these proposals. In Stage 2, under the lead of the SFOE, socio-economic-ecological studies will also be carried out to investigate the impact of a repository project on the environment, economy and society. The present reports also contain the input data to be provided by NAGRA for the generic (site-independent) part of these impact studies. A meaningful

  3. Boundary|Time|Surface: Art and Geology Meet in Gros Morne National Park, NL, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Sydney; Waldron, John

    2015-04-01

    Environmental Art works range in scope from major permanent interventions in the landscape to less intrusive, more ephemeral site-specific installations constructed of materials from the local environment. Despite this range of intervention, however, these works all share in a tradition of art making that situates the artwork in direct response to the surrounding landscape. Andy Goldsworthy and Richard Long, for example, both favour methods that combine elements of both sculpture and performance in the creation of non-permanent interventions in the landscape, and both rely upon photographic, text-based, or video documentation as the only lasting indication of the works' existence. Similarly, Earth Scientists are responsible for interventions in the landscape, both physical and conceptual. For example, in Earth science, the periods of the geologic timescale - Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, etc. - were established by 19th century pioneers of geology at a time when they were believed to represent natural chapters in Earth history. Since the mid-20th century, stratigraphers have attempted to resolve ambiguities in the original definitions by defining stratotypes: sections of continuously deposited strata where a single horizon is chosen as a boundary. One such international stratotype, marking the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary, is defined at Green Point in Gros Morne National Park, Newfoundland. Boundary|Time|Surface was an ephemeral sculptural installation work constructed in June 2014. The main installation work was a fence of 52 vertical driftwood poles, 2-3 m tall, positioned precisely along the boundary stratotype horizon at Green Point in Newfoundland. The fence extended across a 150 m wave-cut platform from sea cliffs to the low-water mark, separating Ordovician from Cambrian strata. The installation was constructed by hand (with volunteer assistance) on June 22, as the wave-cut platform was exposed by the falling tide. During the remainder of the tidal cycle

  4. Near-surface test facility. Phase I. Geologic site characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moak, D.J.; Wintczak, T.M.

    1980-08-01

    The report is a description of the geology and characterization of the rock mass of the area in which the Phase I qualification tests at the Near-Surface Test Facility (NSTF) are being performed. The NSTF is located on Gable Mountain within the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. It is located in the entablature of the Pomona Member, an upper flow in the Columbia River Basalt Group, and is approximately 150 feet (47.5 meters) below the surface. Core logging from the instrument boreholes coupled with joint mapping, statistics, and other test data provided the basis for a detailed characterization of the 16-foot x 20-foot x 28-foot (5-meter x 6-meter x 9-meter) rock masses surrounding Full-Scale Heater Tests No. 1 and No. 2. The Pomona entablature contains three joint sets delineated by their degree of dip, each with apertures averaging 0.25 millimeter and having no preferred strike orientation. Although joint frequencies in the study area exceed 4 joints per foot (13 per meter), the rock-mass classification rating is good.

  5. A hybrid 3D SEM reconstruction method optimized for complex geologic material surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shang; Adegbule, Aderonke; Kibbey, Tohren C G

    2017-08-01

    Reconstruction methods are widely used to extract three-dimensional information from scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. This paper presents a new hybrid reconstruction method that combines stereoscopic reconstruction with shape-from-shading calculations to generate highly-detailed elevation maps from SEM image pairs. The method makes use of an imaged glass sphere to determine the quantitative relationship between observed intensity and angles between the beam and surface normal, and the detector and surface normal. Two specific equations are derived to make use of image intensity information in creating the final elevation map. The equations are used together, one making use of intensities in the two images, the other making use of intensities within a single image. The method is specifically designed for SEM images captured with a single secondary electron detector, and is optimized to capture maximum detail from complex natural surfaces. The method is illustrated with a complex structured abrasive material, and a rough natural sand grain. Results show that the method is capable of capturing details such as angular surface features, varying surface roughness, and surface striations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Oceanic whitecaps: Sea surface features detectable via satellite that ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Andreas et al (1995), and figure 1 of Monahan and Spillane (1984). et al (1995) made detailed measurements in a large wave basin of the increases in brightness tempera- ture associated with measured increases in stage A whitecap coverage. It follows that the fraction of the sea surface covered by stage A whitecaps can ...

  7. Surface and upper air meteorological features during onset phase of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Over the Bay of Bengal higher negative (air to sea) values of sensible flux prevailed before the monsoon onset which became less negative with the advance of monsoon over that region. The pre-onset period was characterized by large sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the Arabian Sea with rapid decrease ...

  8. FEATURES OF GEODEFORMATION CHANGES OF NEAR SURFACE SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Larionov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the deformation process in the near surface sedimentary rocks, which has been carried out in a seismically active region of Kamchatka peninsular since 2007,are presented. The peculiarity of the experiments on the registration of geodeformations is the application of a laser deformograph-interferometer constructed according to the Michelson interferometer scheme.

  9. From the repository to the deep geological repository - and back to the Terrain surface?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahodynsky, R.

    2011-01-01

    How deep is 'safe'? How long is long-term? How and for how long will something be isolated? Which rock, which formation and which location are suitable? A repository constructed for the safekeeping of radioactive or highly toxic wastes can be erected either on the surface, near the surface or underground. Radioactive waste is currently often stored at near-surface locations. The storage usually takes place nearby of a nuclear power plant in pits or concrete tombs (vaults). However, repositories can also be found in restricted areas, e.g. near nuclear weapon production or reprocessing plants (WAA) or nuclear weapons test sites (including Tomsk, Russia, Hanford and Nevada desert, USA), or in extremely low rainfall regions (South Africa). In addition there are disused mines which are now used as underground repositories. Low-level and medium-active (SMA) but also high-level waste (HAA) are stored at these types of sites (NPP, WAA, test areas, former mines). In Russia (Tomsk, Siberia) liquid radioactive waste has been injected into deep geological formations for some time (Minatom, 2001). However, all these locations are not the result of a systematic, scientific search or a holistic process for finding a location, but the result of political decisions, sometimes ignoring scientific findings. Why underground storage is given preference over high-security landfill sites (HSD) often has economic reasons. While a low safety standard can significantly reduce the cost of an above-ground high-security landfill as a waste disposal depot, spending remains high, especially due to the need for capital formation to cover operating expenses after filling the HSD. In the case of underground storage, on the other hand, no additional expenses are required for the period after backfilling. The assumption of lower costs for a deep repository runs through the past decades and coincides with the assumption that the desired ideal underground conditions actually exist and will

  10. Final Report: Optimal Model Complexity in Geological Carbon Sequestration: A Response Surface Uncertainty Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ye [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2018-01-17

    The critical component of a risk assessment study in evaluating GCS is an analysis of uncertainty in CO2 modeling. In such analyses, direct numerical simulation of CO2 flow and leakage requires many time-consuming model runs. Alternatively, analytical methods have been developed which allow fast and efficient estimation of CO2 storage and leakage, although restrictive assumptions on formation rock and fluid properties are employed. In this study, an intermediate approach is proposed based on the Design of Experiment and Response Surface methodology, which consists of using a limited number of numerical simulations to estimate a prediction outcome as a combination of the most influential uncertain site properties. The methodology can be implemented within a Monte Carlo framework to efficiently assess parameter and prediction uncertainty while honoring the accuracy of numerical simulations. The choice of the uncertain properties is flexible and can include geologic parameters that influence reservoir heterogeneity, engineering parameters that influence gas trapping and migration, and reactive parameters that influence the extent of fluid/rock reactions. The method was tested and verified on modeling long-term CO2 flow, non-isothermal heat transport, and CO2 dissolution storage by coupling two-phase flow with explicit miscibility calculation using an accurate equation of state that gives rise to convective mixing of formation brine variably saturated with CO2. All simulations were performed using three-dimensional high-resolution models including a target deep saline aquifer, overlying caprock, and a shallow aquifer. To evaluate the uncertainty in representing reservoir permeability, sediment hierarchy of a heterogeneous digital stratigraphy was mapped to create multiple irregularly shape stratigraphic models of decreasing geologic resolutions: heterogeneous (reference), lithofacies, depositional environment, and a (homogeneous) geologic formation. To ensure model

  11. Feature-based handling of surface faults in compact disc players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a novel method called feature-based control is presented. The method is designed to improve compact disc players’ handling of surface faults on the discs. The method is based on a fault-tolerant control scheme, which uses extracted features of the surface faults to remove those from...... the detector signals used for control during the occurrence of surface faults. The extracted features are coefficients of Karhunen–Loève approximations of the surface faults. The performance of the feature-based control scheme controlling compact disc players playing discs with surface faults has been...... validated experimentally. The proposed scheme reduces the control errors due to the surface faults, and in some cases where the standard fault handling scheme fails, our scheme keeps the CD-player playing....

  12. Engineered biomimicry: polymeric replication of surface features found on insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsifer, Drew P.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Pantano, Carlo G.

    2011-04-01

    By combining the modified conformal-evaporated-film-by-rotation (M-CEFR) technique with nickel electroforming, we have produced master negatives of nonplanar biotemplates. An approximately 250-nm-thick conformal coating of nanocrystaline nickel is deposited on a surface structure of interest found in class Insecta, and the coating is then reinforced with a roughly 60-μm-thick structural layer of nickel by electroforming. This structural layer endows the M-CEFR coating with the mechanical robustness necessary for casting or stamping multiple polymer replicas of the biotemplate. We have made master negatives of blowfly corneas, beetle elytrons, and butterfly wings.

  13. Local-Scale Simulations of Nucleate Boiling on Micrometer-Featured Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitaraman, Hariswaran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moreno, Gilberto [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dede, Ercan M. [Toyota Research Institute of North America; Joshi, Shailesh N. [Toyota Research Institute of North America; Zhou, Feng [Toyota Research Institute of North America

    2017-07-12

    A high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based model for bubble nucleation of the refrigerant HFE7100 on micrometer-featured surfaces is presented in this work. The single-fluid incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, along with energy transport and natural convection effects are solved on a featured surface resolved grid. An a priori cavity detection method is employed to convert raw profilometer data of a surface into well-defined cavities. The cavity information and surface morphology are represented in the CFD model by geometric mesh deformations. Surface morphology is observed to initiate buoyancy-driven convection in the liquid phase, which in turn results in faster nucleation of cavities. Simulations pertaining to a generic rough surface show a trend where smaller size cavities nucleate with higher wall superheat. This local-scale model will serve as a self-consistent connection to larger device scale continuum models where local feature representation is not possible.

  14. Local-Scale Simulations of Nucleate Boiling on Micrometer Featured Surfaces: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitaraman, Hariswaran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moreno, Gilberto [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dede, Ercan M. [Toyota Research Institute of North America; Joshi, Shailesh N. [Toyota Research Institute of North America; Zhou, Feng [Toyota Research Institute of North America

    2017-08-03

    A high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based model for bubble nucleation of the refrigerant HFE7100 on micrometer-featured surfaces is presented in this work. The single-fluid incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, along with energy transport and natural convection effects are solved on a featured surface resolved grid. An a priori cavity detection method is employed to convert raw profilometer data of a surface into well-defined cavities. The cavity information and surface morphology are represented in the CFD model by geometric mesh deformations. Surface morphology is observed to initiate buoyancy-driven convection in the liquid phase, which in turn results in faster nucleation of cavities. Simulations pertaining to a generic rough surface show a trend where smaller size cavities nucleate with higher wall superheat. This local-scale model will serve as a self-consistent connection to larger device scale continuum models where local feature representation is not possible.

  15. Wavelength feature mapping as a proxy to mineral chemistry for investigating geologic systems : An example from the Rodalquilar epithermal system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, F.D.; Kopačková, Veronika; Koucká, Lucie; van der Werff, H.M.A.; van Ruitenbeek, F.J.A.; Bakker, W.H.

    2018-01-01

    The final product of a geologic remote sensing data analysis using multi spectral and hyperspectral images is a mineral (abundance) map. Multispectral data, such as ASTER, Landsat, SPOT, Sentinel-2, typically allow to determine qualitative estimates of what minerals are in a pixel, while

  16. The African upper mantle and its relationship to tectonics and surface geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Keith; McKenzie, Dan; Debayle, Eric; Pilidou, Sylvana

    2008-12-01

    This paper focuses on the upper-mantle velocity structure of the African continent and its relationship to the surface geology. The distribution of seismographs and earthquakes providing seismograms for this study results in good fundamental and higher mode path coverage by a large number of relatively short propagation paths, allowing us to image the SV-wave speed structure, with a horizontal resolution of several hundred kilometres and a vertical resolution of ~50 km, to a depth of about 400 km. The difference in mantle structure between the Archean and Pan-African terranes is apparent in our African upper-mantle shear wave model. High-velocity (4-7 per cent) roots exist beneath the cratons. Below the West African, Congo and Tanzanian Cratons, these extend to 225-250 km depth, but beneath the Kalahari Craton, the high wave speed root extends to only ~170 km. With the exception of the Damara Belt that separates the Congo and Kalahari Cratons, any high-speed upper-mantle lid below the Pan-African terranes is too thin to be resolved by our long-period surface wave technique. The Damara Belt is underlain by higher wave speeds, similar to those observed beneath the Kalahari Craton. Extremely low SV-wave speeds occur to the bottom of our model beneath the Afar region. The temperature of the African upper mantle is determined from the SV-wave speed model. Large temperature variations occur at 125 km depth with low temperatures beneath west Africa and all of southern Africa and warm mantle beneath the Pan-African terrane of northern Africa. At 175 km depth, cool upper mantle occurs below the West African, Congo, Tanzanian and Kalahari Cratons and anomalously warm mantle occurs below a zone in northcentral Africa and beneath the region surrounding the Red Sea. All of the African volcanic centres are located above regions of warm upper mantle. The temperature profiles were fit to a geotherm to determine the thickness of the African lithosphere. Thick lithosphere exists

  17. Thermal Infrared Spectra of Microcrystalline Sedimentary Phases: Effects of Natural Surface Roughness on Spectral Feature Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardgrove, C.; Rogers, A. D.

    2012-03-01

    Thermal infrared spectral features of common microcrystalline phases (chert, alabaster, micrite) are presented. Spectra are sensitive to mineralogy and micron-scale (~1-25 µm) surface roughness. Roughness is on the scale of the average crystal size.

  18. Summary and evaluation of existing geological and geophysical data near prospective surface facilities in Midway Valley, Yucca Mountain Project, Nye County, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Bullard, T.F.; Perman, R.C.; Angell, M.M.; DiSilvestro, L.A. [Geomatrix Consultants, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Midway Valley, located at the eastern base of the Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada, is the preferred location of the surface facilities for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. One goal in siting these surface facilities is to avoid faults that could produce relative displacements in excess of 5 cm in the foundations of the waste-handling buildings. This study reviews existing geologic and geophysical data that can be used to assess the potential for surface fault rupture within Midway Valley. Dominant tectonic features in Midway Valley are north-trending, westward-dipping normal faults along the margins of the valley: the Bow Ridge fault to the west and the Paintbrush Canyon fault to the east. Published estimates of average Quaternary slip rates for these faults are very low but the age of most recent displacement and the amount of displacement per event are largely unknown. Surface mapping and interpretive cross sections, based on limited drillhole and geophysical data, suggest that additional normal faults, including the postulated Midway Valley fault, may exist beneath the Quaternary/Tertiary fill within the valley. Existing data, however, are inadequate to determine the location, recency, and geometry of this faulting. To confidently assess the potential for significant Quaternary faulting in Midway Valley, additional data are needed that define the stratigraphy and structure of the strata beneath the valley, characterize the Quaternary soils and surfaces, and establish the age of faulting. The use of new and improved geophysical techniques, combined with a drilling program, offers the greatest potential for resolving subsurface structure in the valley. Mapping of surficial geologic units and logging of soil pits and trenches within these units must be completed, using accepted state-of-the-art practices supported by multiple quantitative numerical and relative age-dating techniques.

  19. Summary and evaluation of existing geological and geophysical data near prospective surface facilities in Midway Valley, Yucca Mountain Project, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.D.; Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Bullard, T.F.; Perman, R.C.; Angell, M.M.; DiSilvestro, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    Midway Valley, located at the eastern base of the Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada, is the preferred location of the surface facilities for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. One goal in siting these surface facilities is to avoid faults that could produce relative displacements in excess of 5 cm in the foundations of the waste-handling buildings. This study reviews existing geologic and geophysical data that can be used to assess the potential for surface fault rupture within Midway Valley. Dominant tectonic features in Midway Valley are north-trending, westward-dipping normal faults along the margins of the valley: the Bow Ridge fault to the west and the Paintbrush Canyon fault to the east. Published estimates of average Quaternary slip rates for these faults are very low but the age of most recent displacement and the amount of displacement per event are largely unknown. Surface mapping and interpretive cross sections, based on limited drillhole and geophysical data, suggest that additional normal faults, including the postulated Midway Valley fault, may exist beneath the Quaternary/Tertiary fill within the valley. Existing data, however, are inadequate to determine the location, recency, and geometry of this faulting. To confidently assess the potential for significant Quaternary faulting in Midway Valley, additional data are needed that define the stratigraphy and structure of the strata beneath the valley, characterize the Quaternary soils and surfaces, and establish the age of faulting. The use of new and improved geophysical techniques, combined with a drilling program, offers the greatest potential for resolving subsurface structure in the valley. Mapping of surficial geologic units and logging of soil pits and trenches within these units must be completed, using accepted state-of-the-art practices supported by multiple quantitative numerical and relative age-dating techniques

  20. Comparison of Surface Flow Features from Lidar-Derived Digital Elevation Models with Historical Elevation and Hydrography Data for Minnehaha County, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppenga, Sandra K.; Worstell, Bruce B.; Stoker, Jason M.; Greenlee, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has taken the lead in the creation of a valuable remote sensing product by incorporating digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) into the National Elevation Dataset (NED), the elevation layer of 'The National Map'. High-resolution lidar-derived DEMs provide the accuracy needed to systematically quantify and fully integrate surface flow including flow direction, flow accumulation, sinks, slope, and a dense drainage network. In 2008, 1-meter resolution lidar data were acquired in Minnehaha County, South Dakota. The acquisition was a collaborative effort between Minnehaha County, the city of Sioux Falls, and the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. With the newly acquired lidar data, USGS scientists generated high-resolution DEMs and surface flow features. This report compares lidar-derived surface flow features in Minnehaha County to 30- and 10-meter elevation data previously incorporated in the NED and ancillary hydrography datasets. Surface flow features generated from lidar-derived DEMs are consistently integrated with elevation and are important in understanding surface-water movement to better detect surface-water runoff, flood inundation, and erosion. Many topographic and hydrologic applications will benefit from the increased availability of accurate, high-quality, and high-resolution surface-water data. The remotely sensed data provide topographic information and data integration capabilities needed for meeting current and future human and environmental needs.

  1. Surface-water quality-assurance plan for the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.

    2016-02-19

    This Surface-Water Quality-Assurance Plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center (WAWSC) for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of surface-water data. This plan serves as a guide to all WAWSC personnel involved in surface-water data activities, and changes as the needs and requirements of the WAWSC change. Regular updates to this plan represent an integral part of the quality-assurance process. In the WAWSC, direct oversight and responsibility by the hydrographer(s) assigned to a surface-water station, combined with team approaches in all work efforts, assure highquality data, analyses, reviews, and reports for cooperating agencies and the public.

  2. Fractal Features and Surface Micromorphology of Unworn Surfaces of Rigid Gas Permeable Contact Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ţălu, Ştefan; Bramowicz, Miroslaw; Kulesza, Slawomir; Fiorillo, Ilenia; Giovanzana, Stefano

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the micromorphology of surfaces of rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses (CLs) using atomic force microscopy (AFM) followed by fractal analysis. In order to characterize in a quantitative manner the micromorphology of surfaces of new and unworn RGP CLs made of twelve different materials, AFM was taken and then analyzed using fractal methods. Surface topography was sampled in an intermittent-contact mode in air, on square areas of 5 × 5 µm 2 (MultiMode with Nanoscope V (Bruker). Spatial characteristics of 3-D surface texture were obtained using parameters defined in ISO 25178-2: 2012 norm. The surface texture turned out to have complex 3-D nanoscale geometry. For quantitative characterization of the properties of surface geometry at nanometer level of CL on the global scale, a series of fractal parameters was used. Statistical and fractal parameters of 3-D surfaces can be used by manufacturers to assess the micromorphology of CLs in order to improve their 3-D surface texture characteristics. These parameters can also be used in an elastic-plastic finite element model with contact elements to simulate the friction, wear and micro-elastohydrodynamic lubrication at a nanometer scale between the CL with the corneal surface.

  3. Calcrete and near-surface geology of Kuwait City and suburbs, Kuwait, Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sulaimi, Jawad S.

    1988-01-01

    Near-surface accumulation of pedogenic carbonate (calcrete) is a common and characteristic feature of the landscape of Kuwait City and its suburbs. The principal host material for these calcretes is a thick sequence of unconsolidated quartzose sand. A typical fully developed soil profile can be divided into five zones: in descending order these are (1) a top calcareous aeolian soil; (2) a zone of friable sand with powdery or tightly cemented calcrete lumps (nodules); (3) a massive calcrete zone; (4) a mottled calcrete zone; and (5) unaltered parent material. Episodic formation of calcrete is indicated by the occurrence of multiple profiles in which zones are repeated. Calcrete ooids and pseudo-ooids of accretionary origin are characteristic of the upper calcrete zone. The carbonate fraction in the upper calcrete zone consists dominantly of low-Mg calcite with minor amounts of dolomite. Replacement was a major process in formation of the massive calcrete and the dominant cementing material is largely low-Mg calcite and/or microcrystalline dolomite. Aeolian dust is considered to be the major source of ions for calcrete formation in Kuwait City and suburbs. An earlier-introduced model* is applied to explain the mechanisms of formation and precipitation of low-Mg calcite and dolomite. The calcrete thickness in the study area is explained by episodic deposition of fluviatile sand and calcrete formation during the Oligocene through Lower Miocene period.

  4. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Vogt

    2004-08-26

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M&O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in the

  5. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Vogt

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M and O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in

  6. Old Geology and New Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 28 May 2003Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. A new procedure for characterizing textured surfaces with a deterministic pattern of valley features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Kühle, A; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there has been the development of a high number of manufacturing methods for creating textured surfaces which often present deterministic patterns of valley features. Unfortunately, suitable methodologies for characterizing them are lacking. Existing standards cannot in fact...... properly characterize such surfaces, providing at times unreasonable values. In this paper, a new procedure for characterizing such surfaces is proposed, relying on advanced filtering and feature recognition and separation. Existing advanced filtering methods do not always eliminate all distortions......, therefore some modifications are investigated. In particular the robust Gaussian regression filter has been modified providing an envelope first-guess in order to always fit the mean line through the plateau region. Starting from a filtered and aligned profile, the feature thresholds recognition...

  8. Remote sensing of coastal sea-surface features off northern British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, I.D.; Thomson, K.A.; LeBlond, P.H.; Foreman, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents an overview of surface oceanographic features identified by AVHRR imagery in Hecate Strait and adjacent waters surrounding the Queen Charlotte Islands, Canada, an area still poor in in situ observations. The observed features and their temporal variability are interpreted in terms of meteorological and hydrological forcing. The effects of tidal mixing are discussed through the application of a finite element numerical model

  9. Petroleum geological features and exploration prospect of deep marine carbonate rocks in China onshore: A further discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Wenzhi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep marine carbonate rocks have become one of the key targets of onshore oil and gas exploration and development for reserves replacement in China. Further geological researches of such rocks may practically facilitate the sustainable, steady and smooth development of the petroleum industry in the country. Therefore, through a deep investigation into the fundamental geological conditions of deep marine carbonate reservoirs, we found higher-than-expected resource potential therein, which may uncover large oil or gas fields. The findings were reflected in four aspects. Firstly, there are two kinds of hydrocarbon kitchens which were respectively formed by conventional source rocks and liquid hydrocarbons cracking that were detained in source rocks, and both of them can provide large-scale hydrocarbons. Secondly, as controlled by the bedding and interstratal karstification, as well as the burial and hydrothermal dolomitization, effective carbonate reservoirs may be extensively developed in the deep and ultra-deep strata. Thirdly, under the coupling action of progressive burial and annealing heating, some marine source rocks could form hydrocarbon accumulations spanning important tectonic phases, and large quantity of liquid hydrocarbons could be kept in late stage, contributing to rich oil and gas in such deep marine strata. Fourthly, large-scale uplifts were formed by the stacking of multi-episodic tectonism and oil and gas could be accumulated in three modes (i.e., stratoid large-area reservoir-forming mode of karst reservoirs in the slope area of uplift, back-flow type large-area reservoir-forming mode of buried hill weathered crust karst reservoirs, and wide-range reservoir-forming mode of reef-shoal reservoirs; groups of stratigraphic and lithologic traps were widely developed in the areas of periclinal structures of paleohighs and continental margins. In conclusion, deep marine carbonate strata in China onshore contain the conditions for

  10. Comparing experts and novices in Martian surface feature change detection and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlaw, Jessica; Sprinks, James; Houghton, Robert; Muller, Jan-Peter; Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Bamford, Steven; Marsh, Stuart

    2018-02-01

    Change detection in satellite images is a key concern of the Earth Observation field for environmental and climate change monitoring. Satellite images also provide important clues to both the past and present surface conditions of other planets, which cannot be validated on the ground. With the volume of satellite imagery continuing to grow, the inadequacy of computerised solutions to manage and process imagery to the required professional standard is of critical concern. Whilst studies find the crowd sourcing approach suitable for the counting of impact craters in single images, images of higher resolution contain a much wider range of features, and the performance of novices in identifying more complex features and detecting change, remains unknown. This paper presents a first step towards understanding whether novices can identify and annotate changes in different geomorphological features. A website was developed to enable visitors to flick between two images of the same location on Mars taken at different times and classify 1) if a surface feature changed and if so, 2) what feature had changed from a pre-defined list of six. Planetary scientists provided ;expert; data against which classifications made by novices could be compared when the project subsequently went public. Whilst no significant difference was found in images identified with surface changes by expert and novices, results exhibited differences in consensus within and between experts and novices when asked to classify the type of change. Experts demonstrated higher levels of agreement in classification of changes as dust devil tracks, slope streaks and impact craters than other features, whilst the consensus of novices was consistent across feature types; furthermore, the level of consensus amongst regardless of feature type. These trends are secondary to the low levels of consensus found, regardless of feature type or classifier expertise. These findings demand the attention of researchers who

  11. Shape based automated detection of pulmonary nodules with surface feature based false positive reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Y.; Itoh, H.; Masutani, Y.; Ohtomo, K.; Maeda, E.; Yoshikawa, T.; Hayashi, N.

    2007-01-01

    We proposed a shape based automated detection of pulmonary nodules with surface feature based false positive (FP) reduction. In the proposed system, the FP existing in internal of vessel bifurcation is removed using extracted surface of vessels and nodules. From the validation with 16 chest CT scans, we find that the proposed CAD system achieves 18.7 FPs/scan at 90% sensitivity, and 7.8 FPs/scan at 80% sensitivity. (orig.)

  12. Vesta: A Geological Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, R.

    2012-04-01

    Observations from the Dawn spacecraft [1] enable the derivation of the asteroid 4Vesta's shape, facilitate mapping of the surface geology, and provide the first evidence for interpreting Vesta's geological evolution. Science data were acquired during the approach to Vesta, a circular polar (Survey) orbit at an altitude of 2700 km providing ~ 230 m/pix camera scale, and during a circular high-altitude mapping orbit (HAMO) at 700 km altitude with a camera scale of ~ 65 m/pixel. Currently Dawn is orbiting Vesta in a low-altitude mapping orbit (LAMO) at 210 km altitude, yielding a global image coverage of ~20 m/pixel at the time of EGU [2,3,4,5]. Geomorphology and distribution of surface features provide evidence for impact cratering, tectonic activity, and regolith and probable volcanic processes. Craters with dark rays, bright rays, and dark rim streaks have been observed, suggesting buried stratigraphy. The largest fresh craters retain a simple bowl-shaped morphology, with depth/diameter ratios roughly comparable to lunar values. The largest crater Rheasilvia, an ~500 km diameter depression at the south pole, includes an incomplete inward facing cuspate scarp and a large central mound surrounded by unusual complex arcuate ridge and groove patterns, and overlies an older ~400 km wide basin. A set of large equatorial troughs is related to these south polar structures. Vesta exhibits rugged topography ranging from -22 km to +19 km relative to a best fit ellipsoidal shape. Vesta's topography has a much greater range in elevation relative to its radius (15%) than do the Moon and Mars (1%) or the Earth (0.3%), but less than highly battered smaller asteroids like Lutetia (40%). This also identifies Vesta as a transitional body between asteroids and planets. The surface of Vesta exhibits very steep topographic slopes that are near the angle of repose. Impacts onto these steep surfaces, followed by slope failure, make resurfacing - due to impacts and their associated

  13. Surface feature congruency effects in the object-reviewing paradigm are dependent on task memory demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Pirkner, Yossef

    2014-08-01

    Perception of object continuity depends on establishing correspondence between objects viewed across disruptions in visual information. The role of spatiotemporal information in guiding object continuity is well documented; the role of surface features, however, is controversial. Some researchers have shown an object-specific preview benefit (OSPB)-a standard index of object continuity-only when correspondence could be based on an object's spatiotemporal information, whereas others have found color-based OSPB, suggesting that surface features can also guide object continuity. This study shows that surface feature-based OSPB is dependent on the task memory demands. When the task involved letters and matching just one target letter to the preview ones, no color congruency effect was found under spatiotemporal discontinuity and spatiotemporal ambiguity (Experiments 1-3), indicating that the absence of feature-based OSPB cannot be accounted for by salient spatiotemporal discontinuity. When the task involved complex shapes and matching two target shapes to the preview ones, color-based OSPB was obtained. Critically, however, when a visual working memory task was performed concurrently with the matching task, the presence of a nonspatial (but not a spatial) working memory load eliminated the color-based OSPB (Experiments 4 and 5). These results suggest that the surface feature congruency effects that are observed in the object-reviewing paradigm (with the matching task) reflect memory-based strategies that participants use to solve a memory-demanding task; therefore, they are not reliable measures of online object continuity and cannot be taken as evidence for the role of surface features in establishing object correspondence.

  14. Leakage and Seepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and its storage in deep geologic formations. One of the concerns of geologic carbon sequestration is that injected CO 2 may leak out of the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment, and seep out of the ground or into surface water. In this research, we investigate the process of CO 2 leakage and seepage into saturated sediments and overlying surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes, wetlands, and continental shelf marine environments. Natural CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes are well studied and provide insight into the expected transport mechanisms and fate of seepage fluxes of similar magnitude. Also, natural CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes are pervasive in surface water environments at levels that may mask low-level carbon sequestration leakage and seepage. Extreme examples are the well known volcanic lakes in Cameroon where lake water supersaturated with respect to CO 2 overturned and degassed with lethal effects. Standard bubble formation and hydrostatics are applicable to CO 2 bubbles in surface water. Bubble-rise velocity in surface water is a function of bubble size and reaches a maximum of approximately 30 cm s -1 at a bubble radius of 0.7 mm. Bubble rise in saturated porous media below surface water is affected by surface tension and buoyancy forces, along with the solid matrix pore structure. For medium and fine grain sizes, surface tension forces dominate and gas transport tends to occur as channel flow rather than bubble flow. For coarse porous media such as gravels and coarse sand, buoyancy dominates and the maximum bubble rise velocity is predicted to be approximately 18 cm s -1 . Liquid CO 2 bubbles rise slower in water than gaseous CO 2 bubbles due to the smaller density contrast. A comparison of ebullition (i.e., bubble formation) and resulting bubble flow versus dispersive gas transport for CO 2 and CH 4 at three different seepage rates reveals that

  15. Geologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, T.E.; Rood, A.

    1983-01-01

    The modern Great Divide Basin is the end product of natural forces influenced by the Green River lake system, Laramide tectonism, and intermittent volcanic events. It ranks as one of the most complex structural and stratigtaphic features within the Tertiary basins of Wyoming. Portions of the Great Divide Basin and adjoining areas in Wyoming have been investigated by applying detailed and region exploration methods to known uranium deposits located within the Red Desert portions of the basin. Geologic field investigations conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporaton (Bendix) were restricted to reconnaissance observations made during infrequent visits to the project area by various Bendix personnel. Locations of the most comprehensive field activities are shown in Figure II-1. The principal source fo data for geologic studies of the Red Desert project area has been information and materials furnished by industry. Several hundred holes have been drilled by various groups to delineate the uranium deposits. Results from Bendix-drilled holes at selected locations within the project area are summarized in Table II-1. Additional details and gross subsurface characteristics are illustrated in cross sections; pertinent geologic features are illustrated in plan maps. Related details of continental sedimentation that pertain to the Wyoming Basins generally, and the project area specificially, are discussed in subsections of this Geologic Studies section

  16. Separation of Atmospheric and Surface Spectral Features in Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Christensen, Philip R.

    2000-01-01

    We present two algorithms for the separation of spectral features caused by atmospheric and surface components in Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data. One algorithm uses radiative transfer and successive least squares fitting to find spectral shapes first for atmospheric dust, then for water-ice aerosols, and then, finally, for surface emissivity. A second independent algorithm uses a combination of factor analysis, target transformation, and deconvolution to simultaneously find dust, water ice, and surface emissivity spectral shapes. Both algorithms have been applied to TES spectra, and both find very similar atmospheric and surface spectral shapes. For TES spectra taken during aerobraking and science phasing periods in nadir-geometry these two algorithms give meaningful and usable surface emissivity spectra that can be used for mineralogical identification.

  17. Geologic mapping of Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

    2014-11-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were

  18. Geologic Mapping of Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High- Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were

  19. The analysis of quartz grain surface features as a complementary method for studying their provenance: the Guadalete River Basin (Cádiz, SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral-Cardona, J. P.; Bellón, A. Sdnchez; López-Aguayo, F.; Caballero, M. A.

    1996-10-01

    The analysis of quartz grain surface features from several sandy deposits of the Guadalete River basin-Guadalete terraces, Miocene calcarenites and Aljibe sandstones-have yielded data of considerable value in the study of the provenance of these materials. The majority of the quartz grains of the Miocene calcarenites present the same primitive surface features as those of the Aljibe sandstones (generalised polishing of their surface, mechanical marks enlarged by solution) and many conchoidal fractures and grooves corresponding to the high-energy environment in which they were deposited. The quartz grains of the Guadalete terraces are mainly derived from the Miocene calcarenites (they show numerous fractures and polished grooves) and have undergone a later stage of evolution, forming isolated Vs and silica deposits corresponding to a final fluvial means of transport. These data indicate a possible evolution as follows: (1) Aljibe sandstones; (2) Miocene calcarenites; (3) fluvial sands of the Quaternary terraces of the Guadalete River. This evolution has been confirmed by study of the heavy mineral associations and the petrology of these materials. Thus, quartz grain surface features may be an extremely useful instrument for studying provenance, determining the evolutionary path that various sediments of a region have taken, thereby complementing the data yielded by the mineralogy of heavy minerals and regional geology.

  20. Geological remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Charlotte; Rivard, Benoit; de Souza Filho, Carlos; van der Meer, Freek

    2018-02-01

    Geology is defined as the 'study of the planet Earth - the materials of which it is made, the processes that act on these materials, the products formed, and the history of the planet and its life forms since its origin' (Bates and Jackson, 1976). Remote sensing has seen a number of variable definitions such as those by Sabins and Lillesand and Kiefer in their respective textbooks (Sabins, 1996; Lillesand and Kiefer, 2000). Floyd Sabins (Sabins, 1996) defined it as 'the science of acquiring, processing and interpreting images that record the interaction between electromagnetic energy and matter' while Lillesand and Kiefer (Lillesand and Kiefer, 2000) defined it as 'the science and art of obtaining information about an object, area, or phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired by a device that is not in contact with the object, area, or phenomenon under investigation'. Thus Geological Remote Sensing can be considered the study of, not just Earth given the breadth of work undertaken in planetary science, geological features and surfaces and their interaction with the electromagnetic spectrum using technology that is not in direct contact with the features of interest.

  1. The relationship of structures and geological-building of Rudòany ore field to geotechnics features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vavrek Pavol

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The geostructural and geotechnical analysis was aimed at the concrete conditions of the Rudòany ore field at the Spiš region, the part of the Slovak Republic. Our research results make it possible to minimalize the negative influence of moisture liquidation of the mine field from the ecological point of view. The paper is devided into followings parts: present and future moisture liquidations and their influences on surface subsidences, the theoretical principles for the geotechnical evaluation of the subsidences and application of the principles.

  2. Thermal Behaviour of Unusual Local-Scale Surface Features on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, F.; Capria, M. T.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Palomba, E.; Grassi, D.; Capaccioni, F.; Ammannito, E.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Sunshine, J. M.; McCord, T. B.; hide

    2012-01-01

    On Vesta, the region of the infrared spectrum beyond approximately 3.5 micrometers is dominated by the thermal emission of the asteroid's surface, which can be used to determine surface temperature by means of temperature-retrieval algorithms. The thermal behavior of areas of unusual albedo seen at the local scale can be related to physical properties that can provide information about the origin of those materials. Dawn's Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIR) hyperspectral cubes are used to retrieve surface temperatures, with high accuracy as long as temperatures are greater than 180 K. Data acquired in the Survey phase (23 July through 29 August 2011) show several unusual surface features: 1) high-albedo (bright) and low-albedo (dark) material deposits, 2) spectrally distinct ejecta, 3) regions suggesting finer-grained materials. Some of the unusual dark and bright features were re-observed by VIR in the subsequent High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) phases at increased pixel resolution. To calculate surface temperatures, we applied a Bayesian approach to nonlinear inversion based on the Kirchhoff law and the Planck function. These results were cross-checked through application of alternative methods. Here we present temperature maps of several local-scale features that were observed by Dawn under different illumination conditions and different local solar times. Some bright terrains have an overall albedo in the visible as much as 40% brighter than surrounding areas. Data from the IR channel of VIR show that bright regions generally correspond to regions with lower thermal emission, i.e. lower temperature, while dark regions correspond to areas with higher thermal emission, i.e. higher temperature. This behavior confirms that many of the dark appearances in the VIS mainly reflect albedo variations. In particular, it is shown that during maximum daily insolation, dark features in the equatorial region may rise to

  3. Geologic mapping of near-surface sediments in the northern Mississippi Embayment, McCracken County, KY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexton, Joshua L [JL Sexton and Son; Fryar, Alan E [Dept of Earth and Geoligical Sciences, Univ of KY,; Greb, s F [Univ of KY, KY Geological Survey

    2006-04-01

    POSTER: The Jackson Purchase region of western Kentucky consists of Coastal Plain sediments near the northern margin of the Mississippi Embayment. Within this region is the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), a uranium enrichment facility operated by the US Department of Energy. At PGDP, a Superfund site, soil and groundwater studies have provided subsurface lithologic data from hundreds of monitoring wells and borings. Despite preliminary efforts by various contractors, these data have not been utilized to develop detailed stratigraphic correlations of sedimentary units across the study area. In addition, sedimentary exposures along streams in the vicinityof PGDP have not been systematically described beyond the relatively simple geologic quadrangle maps published by the US Geological Survey in 1966-67. This study integrates lithologic logs, other previous site investigation data, and outcrop mapping to provide a compilation of near-surface lithologic and stratigraphic data for the PGDP area. A database of borehole data compiled during this study has been provided to PGDP for future research and archival.

  4. The potential of near-surface geophysical methods in a hierarchical monitoring approach for the detection of shallow CO2 seeps at geological storage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, U.; Schuetze, C.; Dietrich, P.

    2013-12-01

    The MONACO project (Monitoring approach for geological CO2 storage sites using a hierarchic observation concept) aims to find reliable monitoring tools that work on different spatial and temporal scales at geological CO2 storage sites. This integrative hierarchical monitoring approach based on different levels of coverage and resolutions is proposed as a means of reliably detecting CO2 degassing areas at ground surface level and for identifying CO2 leakages from storage formations into the shallow subsurface, as well as CO2 releases into the atmosphere. As part of this integrative hierarchical monitoring concept, several methods and technologies from ground-based remote sensing (Open-path Fourier-transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy), regional measurements (near-surface geophysics, chamber-based soil CO2 flux measurement) and local in-situ measurements (using shallow boreholes) will either be combined or used complementary to one another. The proposed combination is a suitable concept for investigating CO2 release sites. This also presents the possibility of adopting a modular monitoring concept whereby our monitoring approach can be expanded to incorporate other methods in various coverage scales at any temporal resolution. The link between information obtained from large-scale surveys and local in-situ monitoring can be realized by sufficient geophysical techniques for meso-scale monitoring, such as geoelectrical and self-potential (SP) surveys. These methods are useful for characterizing fluid flow and transport processes in permeable near-surface sedimentary layers and can yield important information concerning CO2-affected subsurface structures. Results of measurements carried out a natural analogue site in the Czech Republic indicate that the hierarchical monitoring approach represents a successful multidisciplinary modular concept that can be used to monitor both physical and chemical processes taking place during CO2 migration and seepage. The

  5. Thermal infrared remote sensing of surface features for renewable resource applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The subjects of infrared remote sensing of surface features for renewable resource applications is reviewed with respect to the basic physical concepts involved at the Earth's surface and up through the atmosphere, as well as the historical development of satellite systems which produce such data at increasingly greater spatial resolution. With this general background in hand, the growth of a variety of specific renewable resource applications using the developing thermal infrared technology are discussed, including data from HCMM investigators. Recommendations are made for continued growth in this field of applications.

  6. A surface defect detection method based on multi-feature fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaojun; Xiong, Huijiang; Yu, Zhiyang; Wen, Peizhi

    2017-07-01

    Automatic inspection takes a great role in guaranteeing the product quality. But one of the limitations of current inspection algorithms is either product specific or problem specific. In this paper, we propose a defect detection method based on three image features fusion for variety of industrial products surface detection. The proposed method learns sub-image gray level difference, color histogram and pixel regularity of qualified images off-line and test the images based on the detection results of these three image features. It avoids the feature training of defect products as it is difficult to collect large amount of defect samples. The experimental results show that the detection accuracy is between 93% and 98% and the approach is efficient for the real time applications of industrial product inspect.

  7. Supplementary Microstructural Features Induced During Laser Surface Melting of Thermally Sprayed Inconel 625 Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nauman; Voisey, K. T.; McCartney, D. G.

    2014-02-01

    Laser surface melting of thermally sprayed coatings has the potential to enhance their corrosion properties by incorporating favorable microstructural changes. Besides homogenizing the as-sprayed structure, laser melting may induce certain microstructural modifications (i.e., supplementary features) in addition to those that directly improve the corrosion performance. Such features, being a direct result of the laser treatment process, are described in this paper which is part of a broader study in which high velocity oxy-fuel sprayed Inconel 625 coatings on mild-steel substrates were treated with a diode laser and the modified microstructure characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The laser treated coating features several different zones, including a region with a microstructure in which there is a continuous columnar dendritic structure through a network of retained oxide stringers.

  8. Relationship between iris surface features and angle width in Asian eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhartha, Elizabeth; Nongpiur, Monisha Esther; Cheung, Carol Y; He, Mingguang; Wong, Tien Yin; Aung, Tin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2014-10-23

    To examine the associations between iris surface features with anterior chamber angle width in Asian eyes. In this prospective cross-sectional study, we recruited 600 subjects from a large population-based study, the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases (SEED) study. We obtained standardized digital slit-lamp iris photographs and graded the iris crypts (by number and size), furrows (by number and circumferential extent), and color (higher grade denoting darker iris). Vertical and horizontal cross-sections of anterior chamber were imaged using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Angle opening distance (AOD), angle recess area (ARA), and trabecular-iris space area (TISA) were measured using customized software. Associations of the angle width with the iris surface features in the subject's right eyes were assessed using linear regression analysis. A total of 464 eyes of the 464 subjects (mean age: 57.5 ± 8.6 years) had complete and gradable data for crypts and color, and 423 eyes had gradable data for furrows. After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, pupil size, and corneal arcus, higher crypt grade was independently associated with wider AOD750 (β [change in angle width per grade higher] = 0.018, P = 0.023), ARA750 (β = 0.022, P = 0.049), and TISA750 (β = 0.011, P = 0.019), and darker iris was associated narrower ARA750 (β = -0.025, P = 0.044) and TISA750 (β = -0.013, P = 0.011). Iris surface features, assessed and measured from slit-lamp photographs, correlated well with anterior chamber angle width; irises with more crypts and lighter color were associated with wider angle. These findings may provide another imaging modality to assess angle closure risk based on iris surface features. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  9. Satellite-based measurements of surface deformation reveal fluid flow associated with the geological storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D.W.; Rucci, A.; Ferretti, A.; Novali, F.; Bissell, R.; Ringrose, P.; Mathieson, A.; Wright, I.

    2009-10-15

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), gathered over the In Salah CO{sub 2} storage project in Algeria, provides an early indication that satellite-based geodetic methods can be effective in monitoring the geological storage of carbon dioxide. An injected volume of 3 million tons of carbon dioxide, from one of the first large-scale carbon sequestration efforts, produces a measurable surface displacement of approximately 5 mm/year. Using geophysical inverse techniques we are able to infer flow within the reservoir layer and within a seismically detected fracture/ fault zone intersecting the reservoir. We find that, if we use the best available elastic Earth model, the fluid flow need only occur in the vicinity of the reservoir layer. However, flow associated with the injection of the carbon dioxide does appear to extend several kilometers laterally within the reservoir, following the fracture/fault zone.

  10. Memory for surface features of unfamiliar melodies: independent effects of changes in pitch and tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Stalinski, Stephanie M; Marks, Bradley M

    2014-01-01

    A melody's identity is determined by relations between consecutive tones in terms of pitch and duration, whereas surface features (i.e., pitch level or key, tempo, and timbre) are irrelevant. Although surface features of highly familiar recordings are encoded into memory, little is known about listeners' mental representations of melodies heard once or twice. It is also unknown whether musical pitch is represented additively or interactively with temporal information. In two experiments, listeners heard unfamiliar melodies twice in an initial exposure phase. In a subsequent test phase, they heard the same (old) melodies interspersed with new melodies. Some of the old melodies were shifted in key, tempo, or key and tempo. Listeners' task was to rate how well they recognized each melody from the exposure phase while ignoring changes in key and tempo. Recognition ratings were higher for old melodies that stayed the same compared to those that were shifted in key or tempo, and detrimental effects of key and tempo changes were additive in between-subjects (Experiment 1) and within-subjects (Experiment 2) designs. The results confirm that surface features are remembered for melodies heard only twice. They also imply that key and tempo are processed and stored independently.

  11. Compressive Fracture of Brittle Geomaterial: Fractal Features of Compression-Induced Fracture Surfaces and Failure Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Compressive fracture is one of the most common failure patterns in geotechnical engineering. For better understanding of the local failure mechanism of compressive fractures of brittle geomaterials, three compressive fracture tests were conducted on sandstone. Edge cracked semicircular bend specimens were used and, consequently, fresh and unfilled compressive fracture surfaces were obtained. A laser profilometer was employed to measure the topography of each rough fracture surface, followed by fractal analysis of the irregularities of the obtained compression-induced fracture surfaces using the cubic cover method. To carry out a contrastive analysis with the results of compressive fracture tests, three tension mode fracture tests were also conducted and the fractal features of the obtained fracture surfaces were determined. The obtained average result of the fractal dimensions of the compression-induced surfaces was 2.070, whereas the average result was 2.067 for the tension-induced fracture surfaces. No remarkable differences between the fractal dimensions of the compression-induced and tension-induced fracture surfaces may indicate that compressive fracture may occur, at least on the investigative scale of this work, in a similar manner to tension fracture.

  12. Surface and morphological features of laser-irradiated silicon under vacuum, nitrogen and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, Asma, E-mail: asmahayat@gcu.edu.pk; Bashir, Shazia; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Iqbal, Muhammad Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Laser irradiation effects on Si surface have been explored. • An Excimer Laser was used as a source. • SEM analysis was performed to explore surface morphology. • Raman spectroscopy analysis was carried out to find crystallographical alterations. - Abstract: Laser-induced surface and structural modification of silicon (Si) has been investigated under three different environments of vacuum, nitrogen (100 Torr) and ethanol. The interaction of 1000 pulses of KrF (λ ≈ 248 nm, τ ≈ 18 ns, repetition rate ≈ 30 Hz) Excimer laser at two different fluences of 2.8 J/cm{sup 2} and 4 J/cm{sup 2} resulted in formation of various kinds of features such as laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), spikes, columns, cones and cracks. Surface morphology has been observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Whereas, structural modification of irradiated targets is explored by Raman spectroscopy. SEM analysis exhibits a non-uniform distribution of micro-scale pillars and spikes at the central ablated regime of silicon irradiated at low laser fluence of 2.8 J/cm{sup 2} under vacuum. Whereas cones, pits, cavities and ripples like features are seen at the boundaries. At higher fluence of 4 J/cm{sup 2}, laser induced periodic structures as well as micro-columns are observed. In the case of ablation in nitrogen environment, melting, splashing, self-organized granular structures and cracks along with redeposition are observed at lower fluence. Such types of small scaled structures in nitrogen are attributed to confinement and shielding effects of nitrogen plasma. Whereas, a crater with multiple ablative layers is formed in the case of ablation at higher fluence. Significantly different surface morphology of Si is observed in the case of ablation in ethanol. It reveals the formation of cavities along with small scale pores and less redeposition. These results reveal that the growth of surface and morphological features of irradiated Si are strongly

  13. Correlation of Plio Pleistocene Tephra in Ethiopian and Kenyan rift basins: Temporal calibration of geological features and hominid fossil records

    Science.gov (United States)

    WoldeGabriel, Giday; Hart, William K.; Katoh, Shigehiro; Beyene, Yonas; Suwa, Gen

    2005-10-01

    The 200-m-thick fossiliferous Konso Formation and overlying terrace deposits, which crop out at the end of the southern sector of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), contain more than 30 distal tephra layers. Local and regional tephra correlations of more than 20 tephra units were established using major and trace element data of discrete and purified bulk glass samples within the Konso study area. Eleven correlative marker tuffs were recognized in stratigraphic sections of both the Konso Formation and the Omo-Turkana Basin sediments in southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya. The Turoha, Hope, Ivory, Bright White, and Boleshe Tuffs in the Konso Formation, and the Upper White Tuff in the overlying terrace deposits are securely correlated with the KBS, Akait, Lokapetamoi, Chari, Lower Nariokotome, and Silbo Tuffs of the Omo-Turkana Basin, using least mobile major elements (CaO, Fe 2O 3*, and TiO 2) and geochronology. Preliminary correlations are also suggested between the Konso Formation distal tephra and proximal units of the Quaternary caldera-forming silicic centers in the central sector of the MER. The strongly peralkaline tuffs of the Konso Formation are compositionally similar to proximal eruptions mostly located along the Quaternary axial rift zone of the southern, central, and northern sectors of the MER. The tephra correlation provides information about the temporal and spatial features of the volcanic and tectonic processes recorded in the evolving basins. Thickness and sedimentation rate were determined for both the Konso Formation and the Omo-Turkana Basin sections, measured between the Turoha (=KBS; 1.91 ± 0.03 Ma) and the Bright White (=Chari; 1.40 ± 0.02 Ma) Tuffs. Although the lithostratigraphic sequence at the Konso study area is younger, sedimentation rate within the Konso Formation was comparable to that of the Koobi Fora Formation, higher in the Nachukui Formation, and lower in the Shungura Formation. Local and regional differences in thickness and

  14. Geologic framework and hydrogeologic features of the Glen Rose Limestone, Camp Bullis Training Site, Bexar County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allan K.

    2003-01-01

    The Glen Rose Limestone crops out over most of the Camp Bullis Training Site in northern Bexar County, Texas, where it consists of upper and lower members and composes the upper zone and the upper part of the middle zone of the Trinity aquifer. Uncharacteristically permeable in northern Bexar County, the Glen Rose Limestone can provide avenues for recharge to and potential contamination of the downgradient Edwards aquifer, which occupies the southeastern corner of Camp Bullis.The upper member of the Glen Rose Limestone characteristically is thin-bedded and composed mostly of soft limestone and marl, and the lower Glen Rose typically is composed mostly of relatively massive, fossiliferous limestone. The upper member, about 410 to 450 feet thick at Camp Bullis, was divided in this study into five hydrogeologic subdivisions, A through E (youngest to oldest).The approximately 120-foot-thick Interval A has an abundance of caves, which is indicative of its generally well developed fracture, channel, and cavern porosity that in places provides appreciable permeability. The 120- to 150-foot-thick Interval B is similar to Interval A but with less cave development and considerably less permeability. The 10- to 20-foot-thick Interval C, a layer of partly to mostly dissolved soluble carbonate minerals, is characterized by breccia porosity, boxwork permeability, and collapse structures that typically divert ground water laterally to discharge at land surface. The 135- to 180-foot-thick Interval D generally has low porosity and little permeability with some local exceptions, most notably the caprinid biostrome just below the top of the interval, which appears to be permeable by virtue of excellent moldic, vug, fracture, and cavern porosity. The 10- to 20-foot-thick Interval E, a layer of partly to mostly dissolved evaporites similar to Interval C, has similar hydrogeologic properties and a tendency to divert ground water laterally.

  15. Modeling of Oblique Penetration into Geologic Targets Using Cavity Expansion Penetrator Loading with Target free-Surface Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joe; Longcope, Donald B.; Tabbara, Mazen R.

    1999-06-01

    A procedure has been developed to represent the loading on a penetrator and its motion during oblique penetration into geologic media. The penetrator is modeled with the explicit dynamics, finite element computer program PRONTO 3D and the coupled pressure on the penetrator is given in a new loading option based on a separate cavity expansion (CE) solution that accounts for the pressure reduction from a nearby target free surface. The free-surface influence distance is selected in a predictive manner by considering the pressure to expand a spherical cavity in a finite radius sphere of the target material. The CE/PRONTO 3D procedure allows a detailed description of the penetrator for predicting shock environments or structural failure during the entire penetra- tion event and is sufficiently rapid to be used in design optimization. It has been evaluated by comparing its results with data from two field tests of a full-scale penetrator into frozen soil at an impact angles of 49.6 and 52.5 degrees from the horizontal. The measured penetrator rotations were 24 and 22 degrees, respectively. In the simulation, the rotation was 21 degrees and predom- inately resulted from the pressure reduction of the free surface. Good agreement was also found for the penetration depth and axial and lateral acceleration at two locations in the penetrator.

  16. Modeling of Oblique Penetration into Geologic Targets Using Cavity Expansion Penetrator Loading with Target free-Surface Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joe; Longcope, Donald B.; Tabbara, Mazen R.

    1999-05-03

    A procedure has been developed to represent the loading on a penetrator and its motion during oblique penetration into geologic media. The penetrator is modeled with the explicit dynamics, finite element computer program PRONTO 3D and the coupled pressure on the penetrator is given in a new loading option based on a separate cavity expansion (CE) solution that accounts for the pressure-reduction from a nearby target free surface. The free-surface influ- ence distance is selected in a predictive manner by considering the pressure to expand a spherical cavity in a finite radius sphere of the target material. The CE/PRONTO 3D procedure allows a detailed description of the penetrator for predicting shock environments or structural failure dur- ing the entire penetration event and is sufficiently rapid to be used in design optimization. It has been evaluated by comparing its results with data from two field tests of a full-scale penetrator into frozen soil at an impact angles of 49.6 and 52.5 degrees from the horizontal. The measured penetrator rotations were 24 and 22 degrees, respectively. In the simulation, the rotation was21 degrees and predominately resulted from the pressure reduction of the free surface. Good agree- ment was also found for the penetration depth and axial and lateral acceleration at two locations in the penetrator.

  17. Influence of pre-salt topographic features on supra-salt deformation in Mediterranean basins: Geology vs. physical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Oriol; Vidal-Royo, Oskar; Gratacós, Oscar; Roca, Eduard; Muñoz, Josep Anton; Esestime, Paolo; Rodriguez, Karyna; Yazmin Piragauta, Mary; Feliu, Nil

    2017-04-01

    The presence of a thick Messinian evaporite unit is a well known feature of the Mediterranean basins. This salt unit is composed of three sub-units (Lower, Mobile and Upper Units) in the Northwest Mediterranean. In contrast, in the Eastern Mediterranean it is characterized by a multilayered evaporite sequence. In both regions the salt acted as a detachment favoring the downslope gravitational failure of the overlying sediments in a thin-skinned deformation regime (e.g. Liguro-Provençal or Levant basins). As a result, these salt-bearing passive margins exhibit the classical three-domain structural zonation characterized by upslope extension, intermediate translation and downslope contraction. Nevertheless, the presence of pre-salt reliefs (e.g. irregularly eroded palaeotopography or volcanic edifices) is rather common in the translational domain of the Northwestern Mediterranean (e.g. Liguro-Provençal and West Corsica margins). In this scenario, pre-salt reliefs act as flow barriers and hinder salt drainage. When their summit lies close or above the top salt, these structures may partially or fully block salt flow. They also disrupt locally the structural zonation of the passive margin and constrain cover deformation. In contrast, in the Eastern Mediterranean the Eratosthenes seamount is characterized by a large scale submerged massif (ca. 120 km in size) that significantly influenced the structural evolution of the surrounding areas. This inherited relief acted as a buttress and deflected the Messinian salt flow constraining supra-salt deformation (e.g. Levant Basin and Nile margin). In addition, the geometry of the Eratosthenes seamount also restrained the structural style of the allochthonous salt that was expulsed during the development of the Cyprus subduction zone to the north. Using an experimental approach (sandbox models) and new analysis techniques, we investigate salt and supra-salt deformation in response to two different types of pre-salt relief: 1

  18. Site characterization field manual for near surface geologic disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCray, J.G.; Nowatzki, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    This field manual has been developed to aid states and regions to do a detailed characterization of a proposed near-surface low-level waste disposal site. The field manual is directed at planners, staff personnel and experts in one discipline to acquaint them with the requirements of other disciplines involved in site characterization. While it can provide a good review, it is not designed to tell experts how to do their job within their own discipline

  19. VERITAS: a Discovery-Class Venus Surface Geology and Geophysics Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony; Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Hensley, Scott; Wallace, Mark; Sotin, Christophe; Darrach, Murray; Xaypraseuth, Peter; Helbert, Joern; Mazarico, Erwan

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of solar system evolution is limited by a great unanswered question: How Earthlike is Venus? We know that these "twin" planets formed with similar bulk composition and size. Yet the evolutionary path Venus followed has diverged from Earth's, in losing its surface water and becoming hotter than Mercury. What led to this? The answer has profound implications for how terrestrial planets become habitable and the potential for life in the universe.

  20. The geology and geophysics of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    The current state of knowledge concerning the regional geology and geophysics of Mars is summarized. Telescopic observations of the planet are reviewed, pre-Mariner models of its interior are discussed, and progress achieved with the Mariner flybys, especially that of Mariner 9, is noted. A map of the Martian geological provinces is presented to provide a summary of the surface geology and morphology. The contrast between the northern and southern hemispheres is pointed out, and the characteristic features of the surface are described in detail. The global topography of the planet is examined along with its gravitational field, gravity anomalies, and moment of inertia. The general sequence of events in Martian geological history is briefly outlined.

  1. Lipase degradation of plasticized polyvinyl chloride endotracheal tube surfaces to create nanoscale features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Mary C; Webster, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) endotracheal tubes (ETTs) nanoetched with a fungal lipase have been shown to reduce bacterial growth and biofilm formation and could be an inexpensive solution to the complex problem of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Although bacterial growth and colonization on these nanoetched materials have been well characterized, little is known about the mechanism by which the fungal lipase degrades the PVC and, thus, alters its properties to minimize bacteria functions. This study used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to better describe the surface chemistry of both unetched and lipase nanoetched PVC ETT. ATR-FTIR analysis of the unetched and treated surfaces showed a similar presence of a plasticizer. This was confirmed by XPS analysis, which showed an increase of carbon and the presence of oxygen on both unetched and nanoetched surfaces. A quantitative comparison of the FTIR spectra revealed significant correlations (Pearson's correlation, R =0.997 [ R 2 =0.994, P degradation of the plasticizer by the fungal lipase. In contrast, results from this study did demonstrate significantly increased nanoscale surface features on the lipase etched compared to non-etched PVC ETTs. This led to a change in surface energetics, which altered ion adsorption to the ETTs. Thus, these results showed that PVC surfaces nanoetched with a 0.1% lipase solution for 48 hours have no significant change on surface chemistry but do significantly increase nanoscale surface roughness and alters ion adsorption, which suggests that the unique properties of these materials, including their previously reported ability to decrease bacterial adhesion and growth, are due to the changes in the degree of the nanoscale roughness, not changes in their surface chemistry.

  2. In vitro bioactivity of micro metal injection moulded stainless steel with defined surface features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Brose

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Micrometre- and nanometre-scale surface structuring with ordered topography features may dramatically enhance orthopaedic implant integration. In this study we utilised a previously optimised micron metal injection moulding (µ-MIM process to produce medical grade stainless steel surfaces bearing micrometre scale, protruding, hemispheres of controlled dimensions and spatial distribution. Additionally, the structured surfaces were characterised by the presence of submicrometre surface roughness resulting from metal grain boundary formation. Following cytocompatibility (cytotoxicity evaluation using 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line, the effect on primary human cell functionality was assessed focusing on cell attachment, shape and cytoskeleton conformation. In this respect, and by day 7 in culture, significant increase in focal adhesion size was associated with the microstructured surfaces compared to the planar control. The morphological conformation of the seeded cells, as revealed by fluorescence cytoskeleton labelling, also appeared to be guided in the vertical dimension between the hemisphere bodies. Quantitative evaluation of this guidance took place using live cytoplasm fluorescence labelling and image morphometry analysis utilising both, compactness and elongation shape descriptors. Significant increase in cell compactness was associated with the hemisphere arrays indicating collective increase in focused cell attachment to the hemisphere bodies across the entire cell population. Micrometre-scale hemisphere array patterns have therefore influenced cell attachment and conformation. Such influence may potentially aid in enhancing key cellular events such as, for example, neo-osteogenesis on implanted orthopaedic surfaces.

  3. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students' Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of…

  4. Exploring microstructure and surface features of Chinese coins using non-invasive approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Ruishi; Li, Yuanli; Guo, Baogang; Hu, Hailong; Jiang, Linhai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The microstructure and surface features of Chinese coins were systematically explored. • The application of non-invasive techniques enables unambiguous explorations of the component, morphology, microstructure and physical properties of the coins. • This work provides a new insight into exploration of surface properties of precious metal objects, metallic artefacts as well as monuments without causing any damage to them. - Abstract: Despite the apparent significance of Chinese coins, the knowledge about the surface properties of the coins is still largely unknown. To date, most analytical techniques (e.g., cross-section analysis, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, thermal analysis) require the partial or total destruction of the investigated sample, which is fatal to precious objects (e.g., artefacts and monuments). Herein, we systematically investigate the surface of a series of one yuan Chinese coins to disclose their chemical composition, morphology, and microstructure features using non-invasive techniques. Investigations were performed with scanning electron microscopy, coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The application of these approaches enables unambiguous explorations of the component, morphology, microstructure and physical properties of the samples without destroying them. The identification of the coins was achieved in light of the name of issuing authority and floral pattern. The morphology observations of the samples display that these coins possess mostly homogeneous surfaces; hence such a finding allows the formulation of a possible minting technology. Besides, the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy has proved of great role in exploring these coins, mainly because of its detectability to easily probe the presence of certain minor elements, which is critical in understanding surface finishing technologies, and production processes. The findings manifest that the coins were made

  5. Linear and Nonlinear Gait Features in Older Adults Walking on Inclined Surfaces at Different Speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Marcus Fraga; Rodrigues, Fábio Barbosa; de Sá E Souza, Gustavo Souto; Magnani, Rina Márcia; Lehnen, Georgia Cristina; Andrade, Adriano O

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated linear and nonlinear gait features in healthy older adults walking on inclined surfaces at different speeds. Thirty-seven active older adults (experimental group) and fifty young adults (control group) walked on a treadmill at 100% and ±20% of their preferred walking speed for 4 min under horizontal (0%), upward (UP) (+8%), and downward (DOWN) (-8%) conditions. Linear gait variability was assessed using the average standard deviation of trunk acceleration between strides (VAR). Gait stability was assessed using the margin of stability (MoS). Nonlinear gait features were assessed by using the maximum Lyapunov exponent, as a measure of local dynamic stability (LDS), and sample entropy (SEn), as a measure of regularity. VAR increased for all conditions, but the interaction effects between treadmill inclination and age, and speed and age were higher for young adults. DOWN conditions showed the lowest stability in the medial-lateral MoS, but not in LDS. LDS was smaller in UP conditions. However, there were no effects of age for either MoS or LDS. The values of SEn decreased almost linearly from the DOWN to the UP conditions, with significant interaction effects of age for anterior-posterior SEn. The overall results supported the hypothesis that inclined surfaces modulate nonlinear gait features and alter linear gait variability, particularly in UP conditions, but there were no significant effects of age for active older adults.

  6. Leakage and Sepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon SequestrationSites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2005-06-17

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and its storage in deep geologic formations. One of the concerns of geologic carbon sequestration is that injected CO{sub 2} may leak out of the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment, and seep out of the ground or into surface water. In this research, we investigate the process of CO{sub 2} leakage and seepage into saturated sediments and overlying surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes, wetlands, and continental shelf marine environments. Natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are well studied and provide insight into the expected transport mechanisms and fate of seepage fluxes of similar magnitude. Also, natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are pervasive in surface water environments at levels that may mask low-level carbon sequestration leakage and seepage. Extreme examples are the well known volcanic lakes in Cameroon where lake water supersaturated with respect to CO{sub 2} overturned and degassed with lethal effects. Standard bubble formation and hydrostatics are applicable to CO{sub 2} bubbles in surface water. Bubble-rise velocity in surface water is a function of bubble size and reaches a maximum of approximately 30 cm s{sup -1} at a bubble radius of 0.7 mm. Bubble rise in saturated porous media below surface water is affected by surface tension and buoyancy forces, along with the solid matrix pore structure. For medium and fine grain sizes, surface tension forces dominate and gas transport tends to occur as channel flow rather than bubble flow. For coarse porous media such as gravels and coarse sand, buoyancy dominates and the maximum bubble rise velocity is predicted to be approximately 18 cm s{sup -1}. Liquid CO{sub 2} bubbles rise slower in water than gaseous CO{sub 2} bubbles due to the smaller density contrast. A comparison of ebullition (i.e., bubble formation) and resulting bubble flow versus dispersive gas transport for CO

  7. Virtual laparoscopy: Initial experience with three-dimensional ultrasonography to characterize hepatic surface features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekimoto, Tadashi, E-mail: tad_sekimoto@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Maruyama, Hitoshi, E-mail: maru-cib@umin.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Kondo, Takayuki, E-mail: takakondonaika@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Shimada, Taro, E-mail: bobtaro51@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Takahashi, Masanori, E-mail: machat1215@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Yokosuka, Osamu, E-mail: yokosukao@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Otsuka, Masayuki, E-mail: otsuka-m@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of General Surgery, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Miyazaki, Masaru, E-mail: masaru@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of General Surgery, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Mine, Yoshitaka, E-mail: yoshitaka.mine@toshiba.co.jp [Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Ultrasound Systems Division, Ultrasound Systems Development Department, Otawara, Tochigi (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    Objective: To examine the potential utility of 3D-reconstructed sonograms to distinguish cirrhotic from non-cirrhotic livers by demonstrating hepatic surface characteristics. Materials and methods: A preliminary phantom study was performed to examine the potential resolution of 3D images, recognizing surface irregularities as a difference in height. In a prospective clinical study of 31 consecutive patients with ascites (21 cirrhosis, 10 non-cirrhosis), liver volume data were acquired by transabdominal mechanical scanning. The hepatic surface features of cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients were compared by 2 independent reviewers. Intra- and inter-operator/reviewer agreements were also examined. Results: The phantom study revealed that 0.4 mm was the minimum recognizable difference in height on the 3D sonograms. The hepatic surface image was successfully visualized in 74% patients (23/31). Success depended on the amount of ascites; visualization was 100% with ascites of 10 mm or more between the hepatic surface and abdominal wall. The images showed irregularity of the hepatic surface in all cirrhotic patients. The surface appearance was confirmed as being very similar in 3 patients who had both 3D sonogram and liver resection for transplantation. The ability to distinguish cirrhotic liver from non-cirrhotic liver improved with the use of combination of 2D- and 3D-imaging versus 2D-imaging alone (sensitivity, p = 0.02; accuracy, p = 0.02) or 3D-imaging alone (sensitivity, p = 0.03). Intra-/inter-operator and inter-reviewer agreement were excellent (κ = 1.0). Conclusion: 3D-based sonographic visualization of the hepatic surface showed high reliability and reproducibility, acting as a virtual laparoscopy method, and the technique has the potential to improve the diagnosis of cirrhosis.

  8. Virtual laparoscopy: Initial experience with three-dimensional ultrasonography to characterize hepatic surface features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Tadashi; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Kondo, Takayuki; Shimada, Taro; Takahashi, Masanori; Yokosuka, Osamu; Otsuka, Masayuki; Miyazaki, Masaru; Mine, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the potential utility of 3D-reconstructed sonograms to distinguish cirrhotic from non-cirrhotic livers by demonstrating hepatic surface characteristics. Materials and methods: A preliminary phantom study was performed to examine the potential resolution of 3D images, recognizing surface irregularities as a difference in height. In a prospective clinical study of 31 consecutive patients with ascites (21 cirrhosis, 10 non-cirrhosis), liver volume data were acquired by transabdominal mechanical scanning. The hepatic surface features of cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients were compared by 2 independent reviewers. Intra- and inter-operator/reviewer agreements were also examined. Results: The phantom study revealed that 0.4 mm was the minimum recognizable difference in height on the 3D sonograms. The hepatic surface image was successfully visualized in 74% patients (23/31). Success depended on the amount of ascites; visualization was 100% with ascites of 10 mm or more between the hepatic surface and abdominal wall. The images showed irregularity of the hepatic surface in all cirrhotic patients. The surface appearance was confirmed as being very similar in 3 patients who had both 3D sonogram and liver resection for transplantation. The ability to distinguish cirrhotic liver from non-cirrhotic liver improved with the use of combination of 2D- and 3D-imaging versus 2D-imaging alone (sensitivity, p = 0.02; accuracy, p = 0.02) or 3D-imaging alone (sensitivity, p = 0.03). Intra-/inter-operator and inter-reviewer agreement were excellent (κ = 1.0). Conclusion: 3D-based sonographic visualization of the hepatic surface showed high reliability and reproducibility, acting as a virtual laparoscopy method, and the technique has the potential to improve the diagnosis of cirrhosis

  9. Ascertaining Grain Scale Effects Of Seismic Or Aseismic Stimulation Upon Strength Of Near Surface Geological Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Hassan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Certain peculiarities of inelastic nonlinearity of unconsolidated near surface periodically stressed granular media contributed at micro- scale are investigated to ascertain possible anomalous time dependent strength behavior macro-effects with geotechnicalgeo-environmental implications. Comparative examination of ultrasonic P- and S-wave repeatable displacement response wave-forms in time records and spectra of pulse stimulated both confined dry and fully saturated ceramic grains analogue endorsable by pertinent theory is performed. Examination is primarily aimed at both understanding connectivity of louder response generated by seemingly unobtrusive quieter seismic and aseismic events in granular sediments. Secondarily results impart an enhanced conceptual substantiation of some previously disseminated andor published results. The results hint certain persistive time and frequency restricted occurrences vouching vital insights. It could be unambiguously clarified that subtle acoustic emission andor stick-slip type micro events in stimulated i.e. seismic or aseismic unconsolidated granular sediments do occur. When spread over time andor space their cumulated effect may be capable of altering granular material macro strength behavior. It is clearly deducible from resonant type spectral results that material fragmentation or force chain formation type phenomenon occurs possibly due to macro-scale friction mobilization by grain-scale events. It is further speculated that invisible high frequency events may irreversibly alter grain-scale surface properties andor intergranular friction as pseudo enhanced elasticity type effect more elusive with saturation. An assessment of an examined temporal distribution of grain-scale stick-slip type events when stimulated by P- and S-wave modes is posited to be non-identical. The former as if is retardation associated while the latter relaxation type in a characteristic sense. Presented result forms combined not

  10. Characterization of Near-Surface Geology and Possible Voids Using Resistivity and Electromagnetic Methods at the Gran Quivira Unit of Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument, Central New Mexico, June 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Land, Lewis A.; Teeple, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    At the Gran Quivira Unit of Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument in central New Mexico, a partially excavated pueblo known as Mound 7 has recently become architecturally unstable. Historical National Park Service records indicate both natural caves and artificial tunnels may be present in the area. Knowledge of the local near-surface geology and possible locations of voids would aid in preservation of the ruins. Time-domain and frequency-domain electromagnetic as well as direct-current resistivity methods were used to characterize the electrical structure of the near-surface geology and to identify discrete electrical features that may be associated with voids. Time-domain electromagnetic soundings indicate three major electrical layers; however, correlation of these layers to geologic units was difficult because of the variability of lithologic data from existing test holes. Although resistivity forward modeling was unable to conclusively determine the presence or absence of voids in most cases, the high-resistivity values (greater than 5,000 ohm-meters) in the direct-current resistivity data indicate that voids may exist in the upper 50 meters. Underneath Mound 7, there is a possibility of large voids below a depth of 20 meters, but there is no indication of substantial voids in the upper 20 meters. Gridded lines and profiled inversions of frequency-domain electromagnetic data showed excellent correlation to resistivity features in the upper 5 meters of the direct-current resistivity data. This technique showed potential as a reconnaissance tool for detecting voids in the very near surface.

  11. An algorithm for analytical solution of basic problems featuring elastostatic bodies with cavities and surface flaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkov, V. B.; Levina, L. V.; Novikova, O. S.; Shulmin, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    Herein we propose a methodology for structuring a full parametric analytical solution to problems featuring elastostatic media based on state-of-the-art computing facilities that support computerized algebra. The methodology includes: direct and reverse application of P-Theorem; methods of accounting for physical properties of media; accounting for variable geometrical parameters of bodies, parameters of boundary states, independent parameters of volume forces, and remote stress factors. An efficient tool to address the task is the sustainable method of boundary states originally designed for the purposes of computerized algebra and based on the isomorphism of Hilbertian spaces of internal states and boundary states of bodies. We performed full parametric solutions of basic problems featuring a ball with a nonconcentric spherical cavity, a ball with a near-surface flaw, and an unlimited medium with two spherical cavities.

  12. Surface Features and Cathodoluminescence (CL) Characteristics of Corundum Gems from Eastern of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsoong, A.

    2017-12-01

    Thailand has long been well known as a supplier of gemstones and also one of the world's color stone centers for decades. The principal gemstones are corundum, garnet and zircon. The corundum deposits of Chanthaburi-Trat Provinces form the most significant ruby-sapphire concentration in Thailand. Corundums are commonly found in secondary deposits (alluvium, elluvial, residual-soil and colluvium deposits as well as stream sediments) with the thickness of the gem-bearing layer varying from 10-100cm and the thickness of the overburden ranging up to 15m. A number of corundum samples were collected from each of the twenty-nine corundum deposits in the Chanthaburi-Trat gem fields, eastern of Thailand. Corundum varies in colour across the region with colours associated with three geographic zones; a western zone, characterized by blue, green and yellow sapphires; a middle zone with blue, green sapphires plus rubies; and an eastern zone yielding mainly rubies. This project has aim to study surface features and characterize the Cathodoluminescence (CL) of corundum gems in the Chanthaburi-Trat gem fields, Thailand. Surfaces of the corundums under a scanning electron microscope show triangular etch features and randomly oriented needle-like patterns. These reveal that the corundums have interacted with the magma during their ascent to the Earth's surface. Surface features attributable to transport and weathering processes are scratches, conchoidal fractures and a spongy surface appearance. Clay minerals and Fe-Ti oxide minerals deposited on the spongy surfaces of some corundums also indicate that these grains experienced chemical weathering or reacted with the soil solution while they were in the alluvium. Cathodoluminescence shows some blue sapphires to exhibit dull blue luminescence. The main cause of the CL appearance of sapphires is likely to be a quench centre, Fe2+ in their structure. The bright red luminescence in corundum reflects a high Cr3+ content and is always

  13. Results of Vertical Scanning Interferometry (VSI) of Dissolved Borosilicate Glass: Evidence for Variable Surface Features and Global Surface Retreat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Luttge, Andreas; McGrail, B. Peter; Beig, Mikhala S.; Arvidson, Rolf S.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Steele, Jackie L.; Baum, Steven R.

    2003-10-29

    Two disparate reaction mechanisms have been invoked to explain the reactivity of glass in contact with aqueous solution. One model is based on arguments from Transition State Theory (TST), which postulates that glass dissolution rates are surface reaction controlled. Alternatively, the second model argues that release of elements from glass to solution is governed by diffusion through an altered layer that forms on the surface of glass. Vertical Scanning Interferometry (VSI) is a new technique that allows one to observe surface features of specimens exposed to solution and may, potentially, be used to distinguish between competing models. We performed a series of dissolution experiments with a suite of glass compositions from chemically simple (sodium borosilicate) to complex (sixteen component borosilicate). Dissolution rates were determined using single-pass flow-through (SPFT) apparatus at 90ºC and pH = 9 and over a solution saturation interval. Upon termination of the experiments, glass coupons were examined by VSI techniques. Effluent chemistry and VSI measurements indicate a nearly constant rate of 2.2 to 3.4 g m-2 d-1 over the solution interval; rates calculated from both methods are identical within experimental uncertainty. We argue that this glass is phase separated, and propose a model for dissolution based on the relative rates of dissolution of the two glass compositions. The data are consistent with a modified version of TST and indicate the potency of VSI methods to elucidate glass reaction mechanisms.

  14. Lipase degradation of plasticized polyvinyl chloride endotracheal tube surfaces to create nanoscale features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado MC

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mary C Machado,1 Thomas J Webster2 1Center for Biomedical Engineering, Division of Engineering Brown University, Providence, RI, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Polyvinyl chloride (PVC endotracheal tubes (ETTs nanoetched with a fungal lipase have been shown to reduce bacterial growth and biofilm formation and could be an inexpensive solution to the complex problem of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP. Although bacterial growth and colonization on these nanoetched materials have been well characterized, little is known about the mechanism by which the fungal lipase degrades the PVC and, thus, alters its properties to minimize bacteria functions. This study used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR to better describe the surface chemistry of both unetched and lipase nanoetched PVC ETT. ATR-FTIR analysis of the unetched and treated surfaces showed a similar presence of a plasticizer. This was confirmed by XPS analysis, which showed an increase of carbon and the presence of oxygen on both unetched and nanoetched surfaces. A quantitative comparison of the FTIR spectra revealed significant correlations (Pearson’s correlation, R=0.997 [R2=0.994, P<0.001] between the unetched and nanomodified PVC ETT spectra, demonstrating similar surface chemistry. This analysis showed no shifting or widening of the bands in the spectra and no significant changes in the intensity of the infrared peaks due to the degradation of the plasticizer by the fungal lipase. In contrast, results from this study did demonstrate significantly increased nanoscale surface features on the lipase etched compared to non-etched PVC ETTs. This led to a change in surface energetics, which altered ion adsorption to the ETTs. Thus, these results showed that PVC surfaces nanoetched with a 0.1% lipase solution for 48 hours have no significant change

  15. Biomaterial design for specific cellular interactions: Role of surface functionalization and geometric features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolhar, Poornima

    The areas of drug delivery and tissue engineering have experienced extraordinary growth in recent years with the application of engineering principles and their potential to support and improve the field of medicine. The tremendous progress in nanotechnology and biotechnology has lead to this explosion of research and development in biomedical applications. Biomaterials can now be engineered at a nanoscale and their specific interactions with the biological tissues can be modulated. Various design parameters are being established and researched for design of drug-delivery carriers and scaffolds to be implanted into humans. Nanoparticles made from versatile biomaterial can deliver both small-molecule drugs and various classes of bio-macromolecules, such as proteins and oligonucleotides. Similarly in the field of tissue engineering, current approaches emphasize nanoscale control of cell behavior by mimicking the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) unlike, traditional scaffolds. Drug delivery and tissue engineering are closely connected fields and both of these applications require materials with exceptional physical, chemical, biological, and biomechanical properties to provide superior therapy. In the current study the surface functionalization and the geometric features of the biomaterials has been explored. In particular, a synthetic surface for culture of human embryonic stem cells has been developed, demonstrating the importance of surface functionalization in maintaining the pluripotency of hESCs. In the second study, the geometric features of the drug delivery carriers are investigated and the polymeric nanoneedles mediated cellular permeabilization and direct cytoplasmic delivery is reported. In the third study, the combined effect of surface functionalization and geometric modification of carriers for vascular targeting is enunciated. These studies illustrate how the biomaterials can be designed to achieve various cellular behaviors and control the

  16. HYDROLOGIC AND FEATURE-BASED SURFACE ANALYSIS FOR TOOL MARK INVESTIGATION ON ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kovács

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of detailed surface documentation methods provides unique tool mark-study opportunities in the field of archaeological researches. One of these data collection techniques is short-range laser scanning, which creates a digital copy of the object’s morphological characteristics from high-resolution datasets. The aim of our work was the accurate documentation of a Bronze Age sluice box from Mitterberg, Austria with a spatial resolution of 0.2 mm. Furthermore, the investigation of the entirely preserved tool marks on the surface of this archaeological find was also accomplished by these datasets. The methodology of this tool mark-study can be summarized in the following way: At first, a local hydrologic analysis has been applied to separate the various patterns of tools on the finds’ surface. As a result, the XYZ coordinates of the special points, which represent the edge lines of the sliding tool marks, were calculated by buffer operations in a GIS environment. During the second part of the workflow, these edge points were utilized to manually clip the triangle meshes of these patterns in reverse engineering software. Finally, circle features were generated and analysed to determine the different sections along these sliding tool marks. In conclusion, the movement of the hand tool could be reproduced by the spatial analysis of the created features, since the horizontal and vertical position of the defined circle centre points indicated the various phases of the movements. This research shows an exact workflow to determine the fine morphological structures on the surface of the archaeological find.

  17. Measurements of land surface features using an airborne laser altimeter: the HAPEX-Sahel experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.C.; Menenti, M.; Weltz, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    An airborne laser profiling altimeter was used to measure surface features and properties of the landscape during the HAPEX-Sahel Experiment in Niger, Africa in September 1992. The laser altimeter makes 4000 measurements per second with a vertical resolution of 5 cm. Airborne laser and detailed field measurements of vegetation heights had similar average heights and frequency distribution. Laser transects were used to estimate land surface topography, gully and channel morphology, and vegetation properties ( height, cover and distribution). Land surface changes related to soil erosion and channel development were measured. For 1 km laser transects over tiger bush communities, the maximum vegetation height was between 4-5 and 6-5 m, with an average height of 21 m. Distances between the centre of rows of tiger bush vegetation averaged 100 m. For two laser transects, ground cover for tiger bush was estimated to be 225 and 301 per cent for vegetation greater than 0-5m tall and 190 and 25-8 per cent for vegetation greater than 10m tall. These values are similar to published values for tiger bush. Vegetation cover for 14 and 18 km transects was estimated to be 4 per cent for vegetation greater than 0-5 m tall. These cover values agree within 1-2 per cent with published data for short transects (⩾ 100 m) for the area. The laser altimeter provided quick and accurate measurements for evaluating changes in land surface features. Such information provides a basis for understanding land degradation and a basis for management plans to rehabilitate the landscape. (author)

  18. Effective Detection of Sub-Surface Archeological Features from Laser Scanning Point Clouds and Imagery Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryskowska, A.; Kedzierski, M.; Walczykowski, P.; Wierzbicki, D.; Delis, P.; Lada, A.

    2017-08-01

    The archaeological heritage is non-renewable, and any invasive research or other actions leading to the intervention of mechanical or chemical into the ground lead to the destruction of the archaeological site in whole or in part. For this reason, modern archeology is looking for alternative methods of non-destructive and non-invasive methods of new objects identification. The concept of aerial archeology is relation between the presence of the archaeological site in the particular localization, and the phenomena that in the same place can be observed on the terrain surface form airborne platform. One of the most appreciated, moreover, extremely precise, methods of such measurements is airborne laser scanning. In research airborne laser scanning point cloud with a density of 5 points/sq. m was used. Additionally unmanned aerial vehicle imagery data was acquired. Test area is located in central Europe. The preliminary verification of potentially microstructures localization was the creation of digital terrain and surface models. These models gave an information about the differences in elevation, as well as regular shapes and sizes that can be related to the former settlement/sub-surface feature. The paper presents the results of the detection of potentially sub-surface microstructure fields in the forestry area.

  19. EFFECTIVE DETECTION OF SUB-SURFACE ARCHEOLOGICAL FEATURES FROM LASER SCANNING POINT CLOUDS AND IMAGERY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fryskowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The archaeological heritage is non-renewable, and any invasive research or other actions leading to the intervention of mechanical or chemical into the ground lead to the destruction of the archaeological site in whole or in part. For this reason, modern archeology is looking for alternative methods of non-destructive and non-invasive methods of new objects identification. The concept of aerial archeology is relation between the presence of the archaeological site in the particular localization, and the phenomena that in the same place can be observed on the terrain surface form airborne platform. One of the most appreciated, moreover, extremely precise, methods of such measurements is airborne laser scanning. In research airborne laser scanning point cloud with a density of 5 points/sq. m was used. Additionally unmanned aerial vehicle imagery data was acquired. Test area is located in central Europe. The preliminary verification of potentially microstructures localization was the creation of digital terrain and surface models. These models gave an information about the differences in elevation, as well as regular shapes and sizes that can be related to the former settlement/sub-surface feature. The paper presents the results of the detection of potentially sub-surface microstructure fields in the forestry area.

  20. A Novel Feature Optimization for Wearable Human-Computer Interfaces Using Surface Electromyography Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The novel human-computer interface (HCI using bioelectrical signals as input is a valuable tool to improve the lives of people with disabilities. In this paper, surface electromyography (sEMG signals induced by four classes of wrist movements were acquired from four sites on the lower arm with our designed system. Forty-two features were extracted from the time, frequency and time-frequency domains. Optimal channels were determined from single-channel classification performance rank. The optimal-feature selection was according to a modified entropy criteria (EC and Fisher discrimination (FD criteria. The feature selection results were evaluated by four different classifiers, and compared with other conventional feature subsets. In online tests, the wearable system acquired real-time sEMG signals. The selected features and trained classifier model were used to control a telecar through four different paradigms in a designed environment with simple obstacles. Performance was evaluated based on travel time (TT and recognition rate (RR. The results of hardware evaluation verified the feasibility of our acquisition systems, and ensured signal quality. Single-channel analysis results indicated that the channel located on the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU performed best with mean classification accuracy of 97.45% for all movement’s pairs. Channels placed on ECU and the extensor carpi radialis (ECR were selected according to the accuracy rank. Experimental results showed that the proposed FD method was better than other feature selection methods and single-type features. The combination of FD and random forest (RF performed best in offline analysis, with 96.77% multi-class RR. Online results illustrated that the state-machine paradigm with a 125 ms window had the highest maneuverability and was closest to real-life control. Subjects could accomplish online sessions by three sEMG-based paradigms, with average times of 46.02, 49.06 and 48.08 s

  1. Assessment of iris surface features and their relationship with iris thickness in Asian eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhartha, Elizabeth; Gupta, Preeti; Liao, Jiemin; Tham, Yih-Chung; Cheung, Carol Y; He, Mingguang; Wong, Tien Y; Aung, Tin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2014-05-01

    To assess iris surface features in Asian eyes and examine their associations with iris thickness measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS OCT). Cross-sectional study. We recruited 250 subjects from the Singapore Malay Eye Study. We obtained standardized slit-lamp photographs and developed a grading system assessing iris crypts (by number and size), furrows (by number and circumferential extent), and color (higher grade denoting darker iris). Vertical and horizontal cross-sections of the anterior chamber were imaged using AS OCT. Intragrader and intergrader agreements in the grading of iris surface were assessed by weighted κ (κ(w)) statistic. Associations of the average iris thickness with the grade of iris features were assessed using linear regression analysis. Frequency and size of iris crypts, furrows, and color; iris thickness at 750 μm (IT750) and 2000 μm (IT2000) from the scleral spur; and maximum iris thickness (ITM) averaged from the 4 quarters. Three hundred sixty-four eyes had complete and gradable data for crypts and color; 330 eyes were graded for furrows. The grading scheme showed good intragrader (crypt κ(w) = 0.919, furrow κ(w) =0.901, color κ(w) = 0.925) and intergrader (crypt κ(w) = 0.775, furrow κ(w) = 0.836, color κ(w) = 0.718) agreements. Higher crypt grade was associated independently with thinner IT750 (β [change in iris thickness per grade higher] = -0.007; P = 0.029), IT2000 (β = -0.018; P iris was also associated with thicker IT750 (β = 0.014; P = 0.001). Iris surface features, assessed and measured from slit-lamp photographs, correlate well with iris thickness. Irises with more crypts are thinner; irises with more extensive furrows and darker color are thicker peripherally. These findings may provide another means to assess angle closure risk based on iris features. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stream/Bounce Event Perception Reveals a Temporal Limit of Motion Correspondence Based on Surface Feature over Space and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuke Kawachi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined how stream/bounce event perception is affected by motion correspondence based on the surface features of moving objects passing behind an occlusion. In the stream/bounce display two identical objects moving across each other in a two-dimensional display can be perceived as either streaming through or bouncing off each other at coincidence. Here, surface features such as colour (Experiments 1 and 2 or luminance (Experiment 3 were switched between the two objects at coincidence. The moment of coincidence was invisible to observers due to an occluder. Additionally, the presentation of the moving objects was manipulated in duration after the feature switch at coincidence. The results revealed that a postcoincidence duration of approximately 200 ms was required for the visual system to stabilize judgments of stream/bounce events by determining motion correspondence between the objects across the occlusion on the basis of the surface feature. The critical duration was similar across motion speeds of objects and types of surface features. Moreover, controls (Experiments 4a–4c showed that cognitive bias based on feature (colour/luminance congruency across the occlusion could not fully account for the effects of surface features on the stream/bounce judgments. We discuss the roles of motion correspondence, visual feature processing, and attentive tracking in the stream/bounce judgments.

  3. Mining for diagnostic information in body surface potential maps: A comparison of feature selection techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCullagh Paul J

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In body surface potential mapping, increased spatial sampling is used to allow more accurate detection of a cardiac abnormality. Although diagnostically superior to more conventional electrocardiographic techniques, the perceived complexity of the Body Surface Potential Map (BSPM acquisition process has prohibited its acceptance in clinical practice. For this reason there is an interest in striking a compromise between the minimum number of electrocardiographic recording sites required to sample the maximum electrocardiographic information. Methods In the current study, several techniques widely used in the domains of data mining and knowledge discovery have been employed to mine for diagnostic information in 192 lead BSPMs. In particular, the Single Variable Classifier (SVC based filter and Sequential Forward Selection (SFS based wrapper approaches to feature selection have been implemented and evaluated. Using a set of recordings from 116 subjects, the diagnostic ability of subsets of 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 32 electrocardiographic recording sites have been evaluated based on their ability to correctly asses the presence or absence of Myocardial Infarction (MI. Results It was observed that the wrapper approach, using sequential forward selection and a 5 nearest neighbour classifier, was capable of choosing a set of 24 recording sites that could correctly classify 82.8% of BSPMs. Although the filter method performed slightly less favourably, the performance was comparable with a classification accuracy of 79.3%. In addition, experiments were conducted to show how (a features chosen using the wrapper approach were specific to the classifier used in the selection model, and (b lead subsets chosen were not necessarily unique. Conclusion It was concluded that both the filter and wrapper approaches adopted were suitable for guiding the choice of recording sites useful for determining the presence of MI. It should be noted however

  4. Planetary geology

    CERN Document Server

    Gasselt, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date interdisciplinary geoscience-focused overview of solid solar system bodies and their evolution, based on the comparative description of processes acting on them. Planetary research today is a strongly multidisciplinary endeavor with efforts coming from engineering and natural sciences. Key focal areas of study are the solid surfaces found in our Solar System. Some have a direct interaction with the interplanetary medium and others have dynamic atmospheres. In any of those cases, the geological records of those surfaces (and sub-surfaces) are key to understanding the Solar System as a whole: its evolution and the planetary perspective of our own planet. This book has a modular structure and is divided into 4 sections comprising 15 chapters in total. Each section builds upon the previous one but is also self-standing. The sections are:  Methods and tools Processes and Sources  Integration and Geological Syntheses Frontiers The latter covers the far-reaching broad topics of exo...

  5. Feature extraction and classifcation in surface grading application using multivariate statistical projection models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats-Montalbán, José M.; López, Fernando; Valiente, José M.; Ferrer, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an innovative way to simultaneously perform feature extraction and classification for the quality control issue of surface grading by applying two well known multivariate statistical projection tools (SIMCA and PLS-DA). These tools have been applied to compress the color texture data describing the visual appearance of surfaces (soft color texture descriptors) and to directly perform classification using statistics and predictions computed from the extracted projection models. Experiments have been carried out using an extensive image database of ceramic tiles (VxC TSG). This image database is comprised of 14 different models, 42 surface classes and 960 pieces. A factorial experimental design has been carried out to evaluate all the combinations of several factors affecting the accuracy rate. Factors include tile model, color representation scheme (CIE Lab, CIE Luv and RGB) and compression/classification approach (SIMCA and PLS-DA). In addition, a logistic regression model is fitted from the experiments to compute accuracy estimates and study the factors effect. The results show that PLS-DA performs better than SIMCA, achieving a mean accuracy rate of 98.95%. These results outperform those obtained in a previous work where the soft color texture descriptors in combination with the CIE Lab color space and the k-NN classi.er achieved a 97.36% of accuracy.

  6. Surface feature based classification of plant organs from 3D laserscanned point clouds for plant phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Stefan; Dupuis, Jan; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2013-07-27

    Laserscanning recently has become a powerful and common method for plant parameterization and plant growth observation on nearly every scale range. However, 3D measurements with high accuracy, spatial resolution and speed result in a multitude of points that require processing and analysis. The primary objective of this research has been to establish a reliable and fast technique for high throughput phenotyping using differentiation, segmentation and classification of single plants by a fully automated system. In this report, we introduce a technique for automated classification of point clouds of plants and present the applicability for plant parameterization. A surface feature histogram based approach from the field of robotics was adapted to close-up laserscans of plants. Local geometric point features describe class characteristics, which were used to distinguish among different plant organs. This approach has been proven and tested on several plant species. Grapevine stems and leaves were classified with an accuracy of up to 98%. The proposed method was successfully transferred to 3D-laserscans of wheat plants for yield estimation. Wheat ears were separated with an accuracy of 96% from other plant organs. Subsequently, the ear volume was calculated and correlated to the ear weight, the kernel weights and the number of kernels. Furthermore the impact of the data resolution was evaluated considering point to point distances between 0.3 and 4.0 mm with respect to the classification accuracy. We introduced an approach using surface feature histograms for automated plant organ parameterization. Highly reliable classification results of about 96% for the separation of grapevine and wheat organs have been obtained. This approach was found to be independent of the point to point distance and applicable to multiple plant species. Its reliability, flexibility and its high order of automation make this method well suited for the demands of high throughput phenotyping.

  7. A Review of the Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer as a Tool for Field Geologic Investigations on Earth and in Planetary Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kelsey E.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Hodges, Kip V.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Graff, Trevor G.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy is a well-established and commonly used technique in obtaining diagnostic compositional data on geological samples. Recently, developments in X-ray tube and detector technologies have resulted in miniaturized, field-portable instruments that enable new applications both in and out of standard laboratory settings. These applications, however, have not been extensively applied to geologic field campaigns. This study investigates the feasibility of using developing handheld XRF (hXRF) technology to enhance terrestrial field geology, with potential applications in planetary surface exploration missions. We demonstrate that the hXRF is quite stable, providing reliable and accurate data continuously over a several year period. Additionally, sample preparation is proved to have a marked effect on the strategy for collecting and assimilating hXRF data. While the hXRF is capable of obtaining data that are comparable to laboratory XRF analysis for several geologically-important elements (such as Si, Ca, Ti, and K), the instrument is unable to detect other elements (such as Mg and Na) reliably. While this limits the use of the hXRF, especially when compared to laboratory XRF techniques, the hXRF is still capable of providing the field user with significantly improved contextual awareness of a field site, and more work is needed to fully evaluate the potential of this instrument in more complex geologic environments.

  8. Morphological analysis of the left ventricular endocardial surface using a bag-of-features descriptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Qian, Zhen; Bhandarkar, Suchendra M; Liu, Tianming; Voros, Szilard; Rinehart, Sarah

    2015-07-01

    The limitations of conventional imaging techniques have hitherto precluded a thorough and formal investigation of the complex morphology of the left ventricular (LV) endocardial surface and its relation to the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, recent developments in high-resolution multirow-detector computed tomography (MDCT) scanner technology have enabled the imaging of the complex LV endocardial surface morphology in a single heartbeat. Analysis of high-resolution computed tomography images from a 320-MDCT scanner allows for the noninvasive study of the relationship between the percent diameter stenosis (DS) values of the major coronary arteries and localization of the cardiac segments affected by coronary arterial stenosis. In this paper, a novel approach for the analysis of the nonrigid LV endocardial surface from MDCT images, using a combination of rigid body transformation-invariant shape descriptors and a more generalized isometry-invariant Bag-of-Features descriptor, is proposed and implemented. The proposed approach is shown to be successful in identifying, localizing, and quantifying the incidence and extent of CAD and, thus, is seen to have a potentially significant clinical impact. Specifically, the association between the incidence and extent of CAD, determined via the percent DS measurements of the major coronary arteries, and the alterations in the endocardial surface morphology is formally quantified. The results of the proposed approach on 16 normal datasets and 16 abnormal datasets exhibiting CAD with varying levels of severity are presented. A multivariable regression test is employed to test the effectiveness of the proposed morphological analysis approach. Experiments performed on a strictly leave-one-out basis are shown to exhibit a distinct and interesting pattern in terms of the correlation coefficient values within the cardiac segments, where the incidence of coronary arterial stenosis is localized.

  9. Short term memory for single surface features and bindings in ageing: A replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isella, Valeria; Molteni, Federica; Mapelli, Cristina; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    In the present study we replicated a previous experiment investigating visuo-spatial short term memory binding in young and older healthy individuals, in the attempt to verify the pattern of impairment that can be observed in normal elderly for short term memory for single items vs short term memory for bindings. Assessing a larger sample size (25 young and 25 older subjects), using a more appropriate measure of accuracy for a change detection task (A'), and adding the evaluation of speed of performance, we confirmed that old normals show a decline in short term memory for bindings of shape and colour that is of comparable extent, and not major, to the decline in memory for single shapes and single colours. The absence of a specific deficit of short term memory for conjunctions of surface features seems to distinguish cognitive ageing from Alzheimer's Disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Surface Replication of Molded Products with Microneedle Features in Injection Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiumi, Kazuyasu; Takayama, Tetsuo; Ito, Hiroshi; Inou, Akinori

    Micro-molding of microneedle features was conducted using several injection-molding techniques. Injection compression molding and injection molding were performed with supercritical carbon dioxide fluid and with or without vacuum processing inside the mold cavity. Effects of process parameters on processability and surface replication of the molded parts were evaluated. The height replication ratio for microneedles was improved using injection compression molding. At a shorter compression stroke, the needle height was improved, and the influence of compression delay time was also small. Moreover, the effects of vacuum processing inside the mold cavity under the filling process were slight. The height replication ratio for microneedles showed the highest values using injection molding using supercritical carbon dioxide fluid with vacuum inside the mold cavity.

  11. Crystal surface analysis using matrix textural features classified by a Probabilistic Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, C.R.; Quach, V.T.; Nason, D.; van den Berg, L.

    1991-01-01

    A system is under development in which surface quality of a growing bulk mercuric iodide crystal is monitored by video camera at regular intervals for early detection of growth irregularities. Mercuric iodide single crystals are employed in radiation detectors. A microcomputer system is used for image capture and processing. The digitized image is divided into multiple overlappings subimage and features are extracted from each subimage based on statistical measures of the gray tone distribution, according to the method of Haralick [1]. Twenty parameters are derived from each subimage and presented to a Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) [2] for classification. This number of parameters was found to be optimal for the system. The PNN is a hierarchical, feed-forward network that can be rapidly reconfigured as additional training data become available. Training data is gathered by reviewing digital images of many crystals during their growth cycle and compiling two sets of images, those with and without irregularities. 6 refs., 4 figs

  12. High-precision geologic mapping to evaluate the potential for seismic surface rupture at TA-55, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, J.N.; Lavine, A.; Vaniman, D.; WoldeGabriel, G.

    1998-06-01

    In this report the authors document results of high-precision geologic mapping in the vicinity of TA-55 that has been done to identify parts of the southern portion of the Rendija Canyon Fault, or any other faults, with the potential for seismic surface rupture. To assess the potential for surface rupture at TA-55, an area of approximately 3 square miles that includes the Los Alamos County Landfill and Twomile, Mortandad, and Sandia Canyons has been mapped in detail. Map units are mostly cooling or flow units within the Tshirege Member (1.2 Ma) of the Bandelier Tuff. Stratigraphic markers that are useful for determining offsets in the map area include a distinct welding break at or near the cooling Unit 2-Unit 3 contact, and the Unit 3-Unit 4 contact. At the County Landfill the contact between the Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff and overlying Quaternary alluvium has also been mapped. The mapping indicates that there is no faulting in the near-surface directly below TA-55, and that the closest fault is about 1500 feet west of the Plutonium Facility. Faulting is more abundant on the western edge of the map area, west of TA-48 in uppermost Mortandad Canyon, upper Sandia Canyon, and at the County Landfill. Measured vertical offsets on the faults range from 1 to 8 feet on mapped Bandelier Tuff contacts. Faulting exposed at the Los Alamos County Landfill has deformed a zone over 1000 feet wide, and has a net vertical down-to-the-west displacement of at least 15 feet in the Bandelier Tuff. Individual faults at the landfill have from less than 1 foot to greater than 15 feet of vertical offset on the Bandelier Tuff. Most faults in the landfill trend N-S, N20W, or N45E. Results of the mapping indicate that the Rendija Canyon Fault does not continue directly south to TA-55. At present, the authors have insufficient data to connect faulting they have mapped to areas of known faulting to the north or south of the study area

  13. Geology of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderblom, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The geology of Mars and the results of the Mariner 4, 6/7, and 9 missions and the Viking mission are reviewed. The Mars chronology and geologic modification are examined, including chronological models for the inactive planet, the active planet, and crater flux. The importance of surface materials is discussed and a multispectral map of Mars is presented. Suggestions are given for further studies of the geology of Mars using the Viking data. 5 references

  14. Specific Features of Chip Making and Work-piece Surface Layer Formation in Machining Thermal Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Yaroslavtsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of unique engineering structural and performance properties inherent in metallic composites characterizes wear- and erosion-resistant high-temperature coatings made by thermal spraying methods. This allows their use both in manufacturing processes to enhance the wear strength of products, which have to operate under the cyclic loading, high contact pressures, corrosion and high temperatures and in product renewal.Thermal coatings contribute to the qualitative improvement of the technical level of production and product restoration using the ceramic composite materials. However, the possibility to have a significantly increased product performance, reduce their factory labour hours and materials/output ratio in manufacturing and restoration is largely dependent on the degree of the surface layer quality of products at their finishing stage, which is usually provided by different kinds of machining.When machining the plasma-sprayed thermal coatings, a removing process of the cut-off layer material is determined by its distinctive features such as a layered structure, high internal stresses, low ductility material, high tendency to the surface layer strengthening and rehardening, porosity, high abrasive properties, etc. When coatings are machined these coating properties result in specific characteristics of chip formation and conditions for formation of the billet surface layer.The chip formation of plasma-sprayed coatings was studied at micro-velocities using an experimental tool-setting microscope-based setup, created in BMSTU. The setup allowed simultaneous recording both the individual stages (phases of the chip formation process and the operating force factors.It is found that formation of individual chip elements comes with the multiple micro-cracks that cause chipping-off the small particles of material. The emerging main crack in the cut-off layer of material leads to separation of the largest chip element. Then all the stages

  15. Relating sub-surface ice features to physiological stress in a climate sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, Jennifer L; Ray, Chris; Varner, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The American pika (Ochotona princeps) is considered a sentinel species for detecting ecological effects of climate change. Pikas are declining within a large portion of their range, and ongoing research suggests loss of sub-surface ice as a mechanism. However, no studies have demonstrated physiological responses of pikas to sub-surface ice features. Here we present the first analysis of physiological stress in pikas living in and adjacent to habitats underlain by ice. Fresh fecal samples were collected non-invasively from two adjacent sites in the Rocky Mountains (one with sub-surface ice and one without) and analyzed for glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM). We also measured sub-surface microclimates in each habitat. Results indicate lower GCM concentration in sites with sub-surface ice, suggesting that pikas are less stressed in favorable microclimates resulting from sub-surface ice features. GCM response was well predicted by habitat characteristics associated with sub-surface ice features, such as lower mean summer temperatures. These results suggest that pikas inhabiting areas without sub-surface ice features are experiencing higher levels of physiological stress and may be more susceptible to changing climates. Although post-deposition environmental effects can confound analyses based on fecal GCM, we found no evidence for such effects in this study. Sub-surface ice features are key to water cycling and storage and will likely represent an increasingly important component of water resources in a warming climate. Fecal samples collected from additional watersheds as part of current pika monitoring programs could be used to further characterize relationships between pika stress and sub-surface ice features.

  16. Relating sub-surface ice features to physiological stress in a climate sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Wilkening

    Full Text Available The American pika (Ochotona princeps is considered a sentinel species for detecting ecological effects of climate change. Pikas are declining within a large portion of their range, and ongoing research suggests loss of sub-surface ice as a mechanism. However, no studies have demonstrated physiological responses of pikas to sub-surface ice features. Here we present the first analysis of physiological stress in pikas living in and adjacent to habitats underlain by ice. Fresh fecal samples were collected non-invasively from two adjacent sites in the Rocky Mountains (one with sub-surface ice and one without and analyzed for glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM. We also measured sub-surface microclimates in each habitat. Results indicate lower GCM concentration in sites with sub-surface ice, suggesting that pikas are less stressed in favorable microclimates resulting from sub-surface ice features. GCM response was well predicted by habitat characteristics associated with sub-surface ice features, such as lower mean summer temperatures. These results suggest that pikas inhabiting areas without sub-surface ice features are experiencing higher levels of physiological stress and may be more susceptible to changing climates. Although post-deposition environmental effects can confound analyses based on fecal GCM, we found no evidence for such effects in this study. Sub-surface ice features are key to water cycling and storage and will likely represent an increasingly important component of water resources in a warming climate. Fecal samples collected from additional watersheds as part of current pika monitoring programs could be used to further characterize relationships between pika stress and sub-surface ice features.

  17. Polarization controlled deep sub-wavelength periodic features written by femtosecond laser on nanodiamond thin film surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Kuntumalla, Mohan; Srikanth, Vadali V. S. S., E-mail: vvsssse@uohyd.ernet.in [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Rajamudili, Kuladeep; Rao Desai, Narayana [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2014-04-21

    Deep sub-wavelength (Λ/λ = ∼0.22) periodic features are induced uniformly on a nanodiamond (ND) thin film surface using femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation (pulse duration = ∼110 fs and central wavelength of ∼800 nm). The topography of the surface features is controlled by the laser polarization. Orientation of features is perpendicular to laser polarization. Periodicity (spatial periodicity of < λ/4) of the surface features is less than the laser wavelength. This work gives an experimental proof of polarization controlled surface plasmon-fs laser coupling mechanism prompting the interaction between fs laser and solid matter (here ND thin film) which in turn is resulting in the periodic surface features. Scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with micro Raman scattering, X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy are carried out to extract surface morphology and phase information of the laser irradiated regions. This work demonstrates an easy and efficient surface fabrication technique.

  18. Verification study on technology for preliminary investigation for HLW geological disposal. Part 2. Verification of surface geophysical prospecting through establishing site descriptive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Koichi; Hasegawa, Takuma; Goto, Keiichiro; Yoshimura, Kimitaka; Muramoto, Shigenori

    2012-01-01

    The Yokosuka demonstration and validation project using Yokosuka CRIEPI site has been conducted since FY 2006 as a cooperative research between NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) and CRIEPI. The objectives of this project are to examine and to refine the basic methodology of the investigation and assessment of properties of geological environment in the stage of Preliminary Investigation for HLW geological disposal. Within Preliminary Investigation technologies, surface geophysical prospecting is an important means of obtaining information from deep geological environment for planning borehole surveys. In FY 2010, both seismic prospecting (seismic reflection and vertical seismic profiling methods) for obtaining information about geological structure and electromagnetic prospecting (magneto-telluric and time domain electromagnetic methods) for obtaining information about resistivity structure reflecting the distribution of salt water/fresh water boundary to a depth of over several hundred meters were conducted in the Yokosuka CRIEPI site. Through these surveys, the contribution of geophysical prospecting methods in the surface survey stage to improving the reliability of site descriptive models was confirmed. (author)

  19. Glazed ceramic roof tiles: influence of surface features in the solar reflectance index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoli, Leitcia Silva de; Stapait, Camila Cristina; Marinoski, Deivis Luis; Fredel, Marcio Celso; Schabbach, Luciana M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study the influence of surface features of ceramic roof tiles in the solar reflectance index were evaluated. Two glazed ceramic roof tiles (type stoneware) with the same color (ivory) but with different appearance (matte and brilliant) were the focus of the analysis. The Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of the roofs tiles were determined by the solar reflectance values (UV-VIS-NIR) and emittance, measured in laboratory. The samples showed SRI> 39 in accordance with LEED certification criteria (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), contributing to minimizing the Heat Island Effects. Although the matte roof tile shows a slightly higher SRI value (82) than the brilliant one (78), the results for the variables that composes the SRI value (reflectance and emittance) were very similar. Analysis of XRD, SEM and EDS performed on the surfaces of the two roofs indicated for the matte glaze the presence of microcrystals (with barium and zinc) that can contribute to the slightly highest value of SRI. The roughness (optical interferometer white light) and the brightness (brightness meter) of the samples were also measured. (author)

  20. Field Geology/Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  1. Report on surface geology and groundwater investigations of Mortons and Green Valley Well Fields. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas Project, Converse County, Wyoming; site evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The general region of investigation of this report is in the southern part of the Powder River Basin near the Town of Douglas, Wyoming. Two specific areas within this region were investigated to determine the groundwater potential with drilling and testing programs during the years 1973 to 1975. One area of investigation is located approximately 12 miles west of Douglas in T32 and 33N, R73 and 74W, and is known as the Green Valley Well Field. This area is situated in the foothills of the north end of the Laramie Range and encompasses approximately 25 square miles. In this area the Madison Formation limestone and the Flathead Formation sandstone are the aquifers of interest for groundwater production. The second area is located approximately 13 miles north of Douglas in T34 and 35N, R70 and 71W, and is known as the Mortons Well Field. This area encompasses about 30 square miles. In this area, the Lance Formation and Fox Hills Formation sandstones are the aquifers of interest. Contained within the body of this report are two geologic studies prepared by consulting geologists, Dr. Peter Huntoon and Henry Richter. These studies define the pertinent structural and groundwater geologic features in and in the vicinities of the Mortons and Green Valley Well Fields. A relatively complex structural geology was encountered in the Green Valley area. The study of the Mortons area suggests that the geology of this area is relatively uniform. Inventories of the water users in the vicinities of the two study areas are included at the back of this report in Appendix B. These inventories are comprised of water appropriations as recognized by the Wyoming State Engineer's Office. Both groundwater and surface water appropriations are inventoried within the Green Valley study area. Only groundwater appropriations are inventoried within the Mortons study area.

  2. Geologic features of the sea bottom around a municipal sludge dumpsite near 39 degrees N., 73 degrees W., offshore New Jersey and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, James M.

    1994-01-01

    The sea-floor of a dumpsite area offshore New York and New Jersey (Deep-water dumpsite 106) was studied using detailed bathymetry, sidescan-sonar images, subbottom profiles, bottom photographs, and bottom-sediment samples. These data show that this continental rise area contains deposits of submarine landslides and pathways of sediment gravity flows. Images of the sea floor obtained with a deep-towed high-resolution sidescan sonar system show offshore-trending furrowed surfaces over parts of the area. If such furrows are old, one might expect them to have been obliterated by sediment resuspension and redeposition due to the mostly gentle contour-parallel bottom currents that are measured in the present day. While most of the sea-floor features were probably formed during Pleistocene or early Holocene (glacial or early post-glacial) times, our information suggests that vigorous present-day episodes of offshore-directed transport may continue to occur, at unknown intervals.

  3. Thermal measurements of dark and bright surface features on Vesta as derived from Dawn/VIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Federico; Capria, Maria Teresa; De Sanctis, M.C.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Zambon, F.; Nathues, A.; Schröder, S.E.; Li, J.-Y.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Blewett, D.T.; Denevi, B.W.; Palmer, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Ammannito, E.; Titus, Timothy N.; Mittlefehldt, D.W.; Sunshine, J.M.; Russell, C.T.; Raymond, C.A.; Dawn/VIR Team,

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing data acquired during Dawn’s orbital mission at Vesta showed several local concentrations of high-albedo (bright) and low-albedo (dark) material units, in addition to spectrally distinct meteorite impact ejecta. The thermal behavior of such areas seen at local scale (1-10 km) is related to physical properties that can provide information about the origin of those materials. We use Dawn’s Visible and InfraRed (VIR) mapping spectrometer hyperspectral data to retrieve surface temperatures and emissivities, with high accuracy as long as temperatures are greater than 220 K. Some of the dark and bright features were observed multiple times by VIR in the various mission phases at variable spatial resolution, illumination and observation angles, local solar time, and heliocentric distance. This work presents the first temperature maps and spectral emissivities of several kilometer-scale dark and bright material units on Vesta. Results retrieved from the infrared data acquired by VIR show that bright regions generally correspond to regions with lower temperature, while dark regions correspond to areas with higher temperature. During maximum daily insolation and in the range of heliocentric distances explored by Dawn, i.e. 2.23-2.54 AU, the warmest dark unit found on Vesta rises to a temperature of 273 K, while bright units observed under comparable conditions do not exceed 266 K. Similarly, dark units appear to have higher emissivity on average compared to bright units. Dark-material units show a weak anticorrelation between temperature and albedo, whereas the relation is stronger for bright material units observed under the same conditions. Individual features may show either evanescent or distinct margins in the thermal images, as a consequence of the cohesion of the surface material. Finally, for the two categories of dark and bright materials, we were able to highlight the influence of heliocentric distance on surface temperatures, and estimate an

  4. THE SORPTION EXTRACTION FEATURES OF KARMOAZONATE MERCURY(I COMPLE X BY ANION EXCHANGER AV-17-8 SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. M. Guzenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic and kinetic curves were analyzed, they were obtained by karmoazonate mercury(I complex extraction by anion exchanger AV-17-8 surface, and also calculated values of sorption process speed factor have allowed to establish the features of the adsorption layers formation on the resin surface.

  5. Texture-based segmentation with Gabor filters, wavelet and pyramid decompositions for extracting individual surface features from areal surface topography maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senin, Nicola; Leach, Richard K; Pini, Stefano; Blunt, Liam A

    2015-01-01

    Areal topography segmentation plays a fundamental role in those surface metrology applications concerned with the characterisation of individual topography features. Typical scenarios include the dimensional inspection and verification of micro-structured surface features, and the identification and characterisation of localised defects and other random singularities. While morphological segmentation into hills or dales is the only partitioning operation currently endorsed by the ISO specification standards on surface texture metrology, many other approaches are possible, in particular adapted from the literature on digital image segmentation. In this work an original segmentation approach is introduced and discussed, where topography partitioning is driven by information collected through the application of texture characterisation transforms popular in digital image processing. Gabor filters, wavelets and pyramid decompositions are investigated and applied to a selected set of test cases. The behaviour, performance and limitations of the proposed approach are discussed from the viewpoint of the identification and extraction of individual surface topography features. (paper)

  6. Uncontrolled methane emissions from a MSW landfill surface: influence of landfill features and side slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Trapani, Daniele; Di Bella, Gaetano; Viviani, Gaspare

    2013-10-01

    Sanitary landfills for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal have been identified as one of the most important anthropogenic sources of methane (CH4) emissions; in order to minimize its negative effects on the environment, landfill gas (LFG) recovery is a suitable tool to control CH4 emissions from a landfill site; further, the measurement of CH4 emissions can represent a good way to evaluate the effectiveness of LFG recovering systems. In general, LFG will escape through any faults in the landfill capping or in the LFG collection system. Indeed, some areas of the capping can be more permeable than others (e.g. portions of a side slope), especially when considering a temporarily capped zone (covered area that is not expected to receive any further waste for a period of at least 3 months, but for engineering reasons does not have a permanent cap yet). These areas, which are characterized by abnormal emissions, are usually defined as "features": in particular, a feature is a small, discrete area or an installation where CH4 emissions significantly differ from the surrounding zones. In the present study, the influence that specific features have on CH4 emissions has been investigated, based on direct measurements carried out in different seasons by means of a flux chamber to the case study of Palermo (IT) landfill (Bellolampo). The results showed that the flux chamber method is reliable and easy to perform, and the contoured flux maps, obtained by processing the measured data were found to be a suitable tool for identifying areas with abnormal (high) emissions. Further, it was found that a relationship between methane emission rates and landfill side slope can be established. Concerning the influence of the temporary HDPE cover system on CH4 recovery efficiency, it contributed to a significant decrease of the free surface area available for uncontrolled emissions; this aspect, coupled to the increase of the CH4 volumes collected by the LFG recovery system, led to a

  7. Documentation of the Surface-Water Routing (SWR1) Process for modeling surface-water flow with the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model (MODFLOW-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joseph D.; Langevin, Christian D.; Chartier, Kevin L.; White, Jeremy T.

    2012-01-01

    A flexible Surface-Water Routing (SWR1) Process that solves the continuity equation for one-dimensional and two-dimensional surface-water flow routing has been developed for the U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional groundwater model, MODFLOW-2005. Simple level- and tilted-pool reservoir routing and a diffusive-wave approximation of the Saint-Venant equations have been implemented. Both methods can be implemented in the same model and the solution method can be simplified to represent constant-stage elements that are functionally equivalent to the standard MODFLOW River or Drain Package boundary conditions. A generic approach has been used to represent surface-water features (reaches) and allows implementation of a variety of geometric forms. One-dimensional geometric forms include rectangular, trapezoidal, and irregular cross section reaches to simulate one-dimensional surface-water features, such as canals and streams. Two-dimensional geometric forms include reaches defined using specified stage-volume-area-perimeter (SVAP) tables and reaches covering entire finite-difference grid cells to simulate two-dimensional surface-water features, such as wetlands and lakes. Specified SVAP tables can be used to represent reaches that are smaller than the finite-difference grid cell (for example, isolated lakes), or reaches that cannot be represented accurately using the defined top of the model. Specified lateral flows (which can represent point and distributed flows) and stage-dependent rainfall and evaporation can be applied to each reach. The SWR1 Process can be used with the MODFLOW Unsaturated Zone Flow (UZF1) Package to permit dynamic simulation of runoff from the land surface to specified reaches. Surface-water/groundwater interactions in the SWR1 Process are mathematically defined to be a function of the difference between simulated stages and groundwater levels, and the specific form of the reach conductance equation used in each reach. Conductance can be

  8. Iowa Bedrock Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The bedrock geologic map portrays the current interpretation of the distribution of various bedrock stratigraphic units present at the bedrock surface. The bedrock...

  9. Geologic guide to the island of Hawaii: A field guide for comparative planetary geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    With geological data available for all inner planets except Venus, we are entering an era of true comparative planetary geology, when knowledge of the differences and similarities for classes of structures (e.g., shield volcanoes) will lead to a better understanding of general geological processes, regardless of planet. Thus, it is imperative that planetologists, particularly those involved in geological mapping and surface feature analysis for terrestrial planets, be familiar with volcanic terrain in terms of its origin, structure, and morphology. One means of gaining this experience is through field trips in volcanic terrains - hence, the Planetology Conference in Hawaii. In addition, discussions with volcanologists at the conference provide an important basis for establishing communications between the two fields that will facilitate comparative studies as more data become available.

  10. Features of protein-protein interactions that translate into potent inhibitors: topology, surface area and affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew C; Gestwicki, Jason E

    2012-07-26

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) control the assembly of multi-protein complexes and, thus, these contacts have enormous potential as drug targets. However, the field has produced a mix of both exciting success stories and frustrating challenges. Here, we review known examples and explore how the physical features of a PPI, such as its affinity, hotspots, off-rates, buried surface area and topology, might influence the chances of success in finding inhibitors. This analysis suggests that concise, tight binding PPIs are most amenable to inhibition. However, it is also clear that emerging technical methods are expanding the repertoire of 'druggable' protein contacts and increasing the odds against difficult targets. In particular, natural product-like compound libraries, high throughput screens specifically designed for PPIs and approaches that favour discovery of allosteric inhibitors appear to be attractive routes. The first group of PPI inhibitors has entered clinical trials, further motivating the need to understand the challenges and opportunities in pursuing these types of targets.

  11. Accessible surface area of proteins from purely sequence information and the importance of global features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraggi, Eshel; Zhou, Yaoqi; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    We present a new approach for predicting the accessible surface area of proteins. The novelty of this approach lies in not using residue mutation profiles generated by multiple sequence alignments as descriptive inputs. Rather, sequential window information and the global monomer and dimer compositions of the chain are used. We find that much of the lost accuracy due to the elimination of evolutionary information is recouped by the use of global features. Furthermore, this new predictor produces similar results for proteins with or without sequence homologs deposited in the Protein Data Bank, and hence shows generalizability. Finally, these predictions are obtained in a small fraction (1/1000) of the time required to run mutation profile based prediction. All these factors indicate the possible usability of this work in de-novo protein structure prediction and in de-novo protein design using iterative searches. Funded in part by the financial support of the National Institutes of Health through Grants R01GM072014 and R01GM073095, and the National Science Foundation through Grant NSF MCB 1071785.

  12. Field Geologic Observation and Sample Collection Strategies for Planetary Surface Exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS Geologist Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Jose M., Jr.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic field- work, the Desert RATS(Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crew members who participated in the 2010 field test.We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies relatedtoduplicationofsamplesandobservations;logisticalconstraintson the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to flexibly execute their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  13. Relating Sub-Surface Ice Features to Physiological Stress in a Climate Sensitive Mammal, the American Pika (Ochotona princeps)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkening, Jennifer L.; Ray, Chris; Varner, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The American pika (Ochotona princeps) is considered a sentinel species for detecting ecological effects of climate change. Pikas are declining within a large portion of their range, and ongoing research suggests loss of sub-surface ice as a mechanism. However, no studies have demonstrated physiological responses of pikas to sub-surface ice features. Here we present the first analysis of physiological stress in pikas living in and adjacent to habitats underlain by ice. Fresh fecal samples were...

  14. Geologic Mapping Results for Ceres from NASA's Dawn Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. A.; Mest, S. C.; Buczkowski, D.; Scully, J. E. C.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Dawn Mission included a geologic mapping campaign during its nominal mission at dwarf planet Ceres, including production of a global geologic map and a series of 15 quadrangle maps to determine the variety of process-related geologic materials and the geologic history of Ceres. Our mapping demonstrates that all major planetary geologic processes (impact cratering, volcanism, tectonism, and gradation (weathering-erosion-deposition)) have occurred on Ceres. Ceres crust, composed of altered and NH3-bearing silicates, carbonates, salts and 30-40% water ice, preserves impact craters and all sizes and degradation states, and may represent the remains of the bottom of an ancient ocean. Volcanism is manifested by cryovolcanic domes, such as Ahuna Mons and Cerealia Facula, and by explosive cryovolcanic plume deposits such as the Vinalia Faculae. Tectonism is represented by several catenae extending from Ceres impact basins Urvara and Yalode, terracing in many larger craters, and many localized fractures around smaller craters. Gradation is manifested in a variety of flow-like features caused by mass wasting (landslides), ground ice flows, as well as impact ejecta lobes and melts. We have constructed a chronostratigraphy and geologic timescale for Ceres that is centered around major impact events. Ceres geologic periods include Pre-Kerwanan, Kerwanan, Yalodean/Urvaran, and Azaccan (the time of rayed craters, similar to the lunar Copernican). The presence of geologically young cryovolcanic deposits on Ceres surface suggests that there could be warm melt pockets within Ceres shallow crust and the dwarf planet remain geologically active.

  15. Replication of micro and nano-features on iPP by injection molding with fast cavity surface temperature evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speranzaa, Vito; Liparotia, Sara; Calaon, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    The production of polymeric components with functional structures in the micrometer and sub-micrometer range is a complex challenge for the injection molding process, since it suffers the use of low cavity surface temperatures that induce the fast formation of a frozen layer, thus preventing...... was sufficient to obtain accurate replication, with adequate surface temperatures. In the case of nano-features, the replication accuracy was affected by the morphology developed on the molding surface, that is aligned along the flow direction with dimensions comparable with the dimension of the nano...

  16. How do features of dressage arenas influence training surface properties which are potentially associated with lameness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Rachel C; Walters, Juli; Snart, Hannah; Dyson, Sue; Parkin, Tim

    2010-11-01

    Results from a previous study indicated that there are specific arena surface characteristics that are associated with an increased likelihood of lameness in dressage horses. It is important to understand what modifiable arena factors lead to these detrimental surface characteristics. The aim of this study was to describe the use of training surfaces and arenas for United Kingdom dressage horses and to investigate any relationships between arena/surface variables and detrimental surface characteristics. Data from a questionnaire returned by 22.5% of all 11,363 registered members of British Dressage were used for the study. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were developed with each of the previously identified surface characteristics as dependent variables. Respondents reported that the majority of arenas were privately owned, sized 20 × 40 m and had a sand and rubber surface. The results indicated that wax-coated and sand and rubber surfaces were associated with less detrimental surface properties than sand, sand and PVC, woodchips or grass. Woodchips were most strongly associated with the detrimental characteristic of slipping, and sand with tripping. The findings indicated that any arena surface should have a base, with limestone the recommended surface, and that crushed concrete was best avoided. This information supported previous studies in racehorses that indicated that surface maintenance is essential, especially when many horses are using an arena daily. Problems were less likely if an arena was privately owned. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Scanning electron microscopy of surface features of hamster embryo cells transformed in vitro by x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.; Fenoglio, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope studies were carried out on Syrian hamster embryo cells transformed in vitro by x-irradiation (300 rads) (x-ray transformed) and on normal nonirradiated and irradiated nontransformed controls. Transformed cells appeared in scanning electron microscopy as pleomorphic, thick cells piling up over each other and exhibiting extensive surface features consisting of microvilli, blebs, and ruffles. These surface structures were seen on single as well as on densely cultured transformed cells during both interphase and mitosis. The complex surface was observed shortly after transformation (on cells of a 20-day-old clone) and seems a permanent feature of the x-ray transformed cells (present after 8 years in culture). All controls appeared by scanning electron microscopy as regular, flat, and smooth cells which grew in high-density cultures to seemingly contact-inhibited monolayers. During mitosis the normal cells (control, nontransformed) displayed surface excrescences similar to those of the transformed cells making the mitotic normal cells indistinguishable from transformed cells. The complex surface features in the normal cells were temporary and reversed back to characteristic smoothness upon reentrance into interphase

  18. Physiological and genomic features of a novel violacein-producing bacterium isolated from surface seawater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Hong Wu

    Full Text Available Strains JW1T and JW3, isolated from surface seawater of the Arabian Sea, were subjected to polyphasic taxonomic analysis. Cells of both strains were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, and rod-shaped. They formed violet pigment and produced violacein. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strains JW1T and JW3 showed high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Pseudoalteromonas byunsanensis JCM12483T (98.2%, P. shioyasakiensis SE3T (97.8%, P. arabiensis JCM 17292T (97.3%, and P. gelatinilytica NH153T (97.1%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between JW1T and JW3 was 100%. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that both strains fell within the cluster of the genus Pseudoalteromonas and represented an independent lineage. The average nucleotide identity and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values between JW1T and type strains of the closely related Pseudoalteromonas species were 70.9-83.3% and 20.0-26.4%, respectively. The sole respiratory quinone in both strains is ubiquinone 8 (Q-8. The principal fatty acids are summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2OH, C18:1ω7c, and C16:0. The major polar lipids are phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified glycolipid, one unidentified aminolipid, and one unidentified phospholipid. The DNA G+C content was 43.3 mol%. Differential phylogenetic distinctiveness, chemotaxonomic differences, and phenotypic properties indicated that strains JW1T and JW3 could be differentiated from the Pseudoalteromonas species with validly published names. Therefore, it is proposed that strains JW1T and JW3 represent a novel species of the genus Pseudoalteromonas, for which the name Pseudoalteromonas amylolytica sp. nov. (type strain, JW1T = CGMCC 1.15681T = KCTC 52406T = MCCC 1K02162T is proposed.

  19. CosmoQuest - Mapping Surface Features Across the Inner Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Jennifer A.; Richardson, Matthew; Gay, Pamela L.; Lehan, Cory; Owens, Ryan; Robbins, Stuart J.; DellaGiustina, Daniella; Bennett, Carina; Runco, Susan; Graff, Paige

    2017-10-01

    The CosmoQuest Virtual Research Facility allows research scientists to work together with citizen scientists in ‘big data’ investigations. Some research requires the examination of vast numbers of images - partnering with engaged and trained citizen scientists allows for that research to be completed in a thorough and timely manner. The techniques used by CosmoQuest to collect impact crater data have been validated to ensure robustness (Robbins et al., 2014), and include software tools that accurately identify crater clusters, and multiple crater identifications. CosmoQuest has current or up-and-coming projects that span much of the inner solar system. “Moon Mappers” gives the public a chance to learn about the importance of cratered surfaces, and investigate factors that effect the identification and measurement of impact craters such as incidence angle. In the “Mars Mappers” program citizens map small craters in valley networks. These will be used to estimate times of ancient water flow. In “Mercury Mappers” the public learns about other issues related to crater counting, such as secondaries. On Mercury, secondaries appear to dominate counts up to 10km. By mapping these craters, we will be able to better understand the maximum diameter of secondaries relative to the parent primary. The public encounters Vesta in “Vesta Mappers,” a project that contributes data to the overall crater counting efforts on that body. Asteroid investigations do not end there - the OSIRIS-REx team is collaborating with CosmoQuest to create a science campaign to generate boulder and crater counting datasets of the asteroid Bennu. This “Bennu Mappers” project will inform the final selection of the sample return site. The Earth is the target for the “Image Detective” project, which uses the 2 million images returned from crewed space flight. These images are rich in information about our changing Earth, as well as phenomena like aurora. Citizens tag these images

  20. Analysis of progression of fatigue conditions in biceps brachii muscles using surface electromyography signals and complexity based features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthick, P A; Makaram, Navaneethakrishna; Ramakrishnan, S

    2014-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a neuromuscular condition where muscle performance decreases due to sustained or intense contraction. It is experienced by both normal and abnormal subjects. In this work, an attempt has been made to analyze the progression of muscle fatigue in biceps brachii muscles using surface electromyography (sEMG) signals. The sEMG signals are recorded from fifty healthy volunteers during dynamic contractions under well defined protocol. The acquired signals are preprocessed and segmented in to six equal parts for further analysis. The features, such as activity, mobility, complexity, sample entropy and spectral entropy are extracted from all six zones. The results are found showing that the extracted features except complexity feature have significant variations in differentiating non-fatigue and fatigue zone respectively. Thus, it appears that, these features are useful in automated analysis of various neuromuscular activities in normal and pathological conditions.

  1. The Global Geology of Titan from Cassini RADAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Rosaly; Malaska, Michael J.

    The variety of geological processes on Titan is rivaled in our Solar System only on Earth. Results from the Cassini-Huygens mission obtained so far have revealed a wide range of geologic and climatological processes. We use data obtained by Cassini’s Titan Radar Mapper (13.78 GHz, lambda=2.17 cm) to analyze the distribution of different types of geologic processes occurring on Titan’s surface, both endogenic and exogenic, and to derive temporal relationships between these processes, at least at local scales. The distribution and interplay of geologic processes is important to provide constraints on models of the interior and of surface-atmosphere interactions. We mapped the SAR images in terms of characteristic morphology of geological features and their radar backscatter in order to determine possible emplacement sequences and the overall distribution of geologic processes. All the major planetary geologic processes - volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering and erosion - appear to have played a role in shaping Titan’s complex surface. This paper will review the distribution and relative ages of different geomorphologic units. While some units (craters, dunes, mountains, channels, lakes and seas) are well established in the literature, the presence of cryovolcanic features is still somewhat controversial, and the origin of undifferentiated plains (known as blandlands) is still mysterious. We now have over half of Titan’s surface imaged by SAR and the interpretation of these and other terrains is better constrained. The results from our latest analyses suggest that a sedimentary origin for the undifferentiated plains is the most likely. Cryovolcanism appears to have occurred on Titan, but it is not ubiquitous, and the major cryovolcanic area appears to be old, now partly covered by dunes. Titan’s surface shows a complex interaction between the surface and atmosphere, with erosional processes being driven by wind, liquids and dissolution.

  2. Use of the discriminant Fourier-derived cepstrum with feature-level post-processing for surface electromyographic signal classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xinpu; Zhu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Dingguo

    2009-01-01

    Myoelectrical pattern classification is a crucial part in multi-functional prosthesis control. This paper investigates a discriminant Fourier-derived cepstrum (DFC) and feature-level post-processing (FLPP) to discriminate hand and wrist motions using the surface electromyographic signal. The Fourier-derived cepstrum takes advantage of the Fourier magnitude or sub-band power energy of signals directly and provides flexible use of spectral information changing with different motions. Appropriate cepstral coefficients are selected by a proposed separability criterion to construct DFC features. For the post-processing, FLPP which combines features from several analysis windows is used to improve the feature performance further. In this work, two classifiers (a linear discriminant classifier and quadratic discriminant classifier) without hyper-parameter optimization are employed to simplify the training procedure and avoid the possible bias of feature evaluation. Experimental results of the 11-motion problem show that the proposed DFC feature outperforms traditional features such as time-domain statistics and autoregressive-derived cepstrum in terms of the classification accuracy, and it is a promising method for the multi-functionality and high-accuracy control of myoelectric prostheses

  3. U.S. Geological Survey: Surface-Water Historical Instantaneous Data for the Nation: Build Time Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The USGS historical data base contains historical surface water discharge volume data for all 16,658 surface water sites that have current conditions. This dataset...

  4. The geological history of deep-sea colonization by echinoids: roles of surface productivity and deep-water ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Andrew B; Stockley, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    The origins and geological history of the modern fauna of deep-sea echinoids is explored using a combination of palaeontological and molecular data. We demonstrate that, whereas generalist omnivores have migrated into the deep sea in low numbers over the past 200 Myr, there was a short time-interval between approximately 75 and 55 Myr when the majority of specialist detritivore clades independently migrated off-shelf. This coincides with a marked increase in seasonality, continental run-off a...

  5. Dynamics of Soil Deflation Features in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland Revealed by Variations in Lichen Diameters on Exposed Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, R. C.; Kelly, M. A.; Virginia, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about the pervasive soil deflation features in the Kangerlussuaq region, West Greenland, an area deglaciated between ~6,800 and 150 years ago. While the majority of the landscape is vegetated with low-lying shrubs and graminoids, wind erosion has removed loess and vegetation from distinct patches ranging in size from a few to tens of meters across, leaving the underlying glacial till or bedrock exposed. Although previous work has considered aeolian landforms and regional loess deposition along the Watson River Valley, these deflation features have not been investigated in detail. We aim to determine both the timing and mechanisms of formation of the deflation features and will examine whether these mechanisms were related to regional climatic conditions, such as increased aridity, to fluctuations in the Greenland Ice Sheet, or to other factors. Our ongoing research investigating these features includes geomorphic mapping using field observations and satellite imagery, lichenometry of the exposed surfaces, and cosmogenic nuclide dating of boulders and bedrock within and near the deflation features. Here we present initial results from our lichenometry studies. During the summer of 2013, we measured maximum lichen (Rhizocarpon sp.) diameters on boulder and bedrock surfaces in 15 soil deflation features located between Kangerlussuaq and the ice sheet margin. Lichen diameters vary from only a few millimeters at the outer margins of deflation features to multiple centimeters (maximum ~50 mm) in the centers of the unvegetated patches. This distinct pattern suggests that the outer margins of the soil deflation features are currently active. Based on a previously established lichen growth curve for Rhizocarpon sp. in West Greenland, our results indicate that the features are expanding at a rate of ~1.5 m per 100 yrs. In addition, the large lichen diameters (~40-50 mm) that occur in the centers of deflation features suggest that the formation mechanism has

  6. Investigation of Selected Surface Integrity Features of Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) after Turning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krolczyk, G.; Nieslony, P.; Legutko, S.; Hloch, Sergej; Samardžić, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2015), s. 91-94 ISSN 0543-5846 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : duplex stainless steel * machining * turning * surface integrity * surface roughness Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014 http://hrcak.srce.hr/126702

  7. Effective aerodynamic roughness estimated from airborne laser altimeter measurements of surface features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, AC; Kustas, WP; Ritchie, JC; Klaassen, W; Menenti, M; Rango, A; Prueger, JH

    2003-01-01

    Aerodynamic roughness length (z(0)) and displacement height (d(0)) are important surface parameters for estimating surface fluxes in numerical models. These parameters are generally determined from wind flow characteristics using logarithmic wind profiles measured at a meteorological tower or by

  8. Predicting internal white oak (Quercus alba) log defect features using surface defect indicator measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph E. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    As hardwood trees grow and develop, surface defects such as limb stubs and wounds are overgrown and encapsulated into the tree. Evidence of these defects can remain on the tree's surface for decades and in many instances for the life of the tree. The location and severity of internal defects dictate the quality and value of products that can be obtained from logs...

  9. Ultrastructural features of the internodes’ surface in horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myroslava Stakhiv

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of the outer surface of the common horsetail stem was studied. Through electron microscopic analysis we showed that silica plates on the surface of Equisetum arvense L. stem are distributed evenly, not tight, in thin layer. Thus, compact arrangement of particles on the internodes causes high mechanical strength and stiffness of the E. arvensestem and lateral branches.

  10. The Geology of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, Ralf

    Titan, the largest and most complex satellite in the solar system exhibits an organic dominated surface chemistry and shares surface features with other large icy satellites as well as the terrestrial planets. It is subject to tidal stresses, and its surface appears to have been modified tectonically. Cassini's global observations at infrared and radar wavelengths as well as local investigations by the instruments on the Huygens probe has revealed that Titan has the largest known abundance of organic material in the solar system apart from Earth, and that its active hydrological cycle is analogous to that of Earth, but with methane replacing water. The surface of Titan exhibits morphological features of different sizes and origins created by geological processes that span the entire dynamic range of aeolian, fluvial and tectonic activities, with likely evidence that cryovolcanism might exists where liquid water, perhaps in concert with ammonia, methane and carbon dioxide, makes its way to the surface from the interior [e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18]. Extended dune fields, lakes, mountainous terrain, dendritic erosion patterns and erosional remnants indicate dynamic surface processes. Valleys, small-scale gullies and rounded cobbles require erosion by extended energetic flow of liquids. There is strong evidence that liquid hydrocarbons are ponded on the surface in lakes, predominantly, but not exclusively, at high northern latitudes. A variety of features including extensive flows and caldera-like constructs are interpreted to be cryovolcanic in origin. Chains and isolated blocks of rugged terrain rising from smoother areas are best described as mountains and might be related to tectonic processes. Impact craters form on all solid bodies in the solar system, and have been detected on Titan. But very few have been observed so they must be rapidly destroyed or buried by other geologic processes The morphologies of the impact

  11. Glacial Features (Point) - Quad 168 (EPPING, NH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of New Hampshire — The Glacial Features (Point) layer describes point features associated with surficial geology. These glacial features include, but are not limited to, delta forsets,...

  12. An appraisal of the geologic structure beneath the Ikogosi warm spring in south-western Nigeria using integrated surface geophysical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S Ojo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated surface geophysical investigation involving resistivity and magnetic methods was carried out in the immediate vicinity of the Ikogosi warm spring situated in south-western Nigeria with a view to delineating its subsurface geological sequence and evaluating the structural setting beneath the warmspring. Total field magnetic measurements and vertical electrical sounding (VES data were acquired along five N-S traverses. Magnetic and VES data interpretation
    involved inverse modelling. The inverse magnetic models delineated fractured quartzite/faulted areas within fresh massive quartzite at varying depths and beneath all traverses. The geoelectrical sections developed from VESinterpretation results also delineated a subsurface sequence consisting of a topsoil/weathered layer, fresh quartzite, fractured/faulted quartzite and fresh quartzite bedrock. It was deduced that the fractured/faulted quartzite may have acted as conduit for the
    movement of warm groundwater from profound depths to the surface while the spring outlet was located on a geological interface  (lineament.

  13. Computation of fractal features based on the fractal analysis of surface electromyogram to estimate force of contraction of different muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poosapadi Arjunan, Sridhar; Kumar, Dinesh Kant

    2014-01-01

    This research study investigates the fractal properties of surface Electromyogram (sEMG) to estimate the force levels of contraction of three muscles with different cross-sectional areas (CSA): m. quadriceps--vastus lateralis, m. biceps brachii, andm. flexor digitorum superficialis. The fractal features were computed based on the fractal analysis of sEMG, signal recorded while performing sustained muscle contraction at different force levels. A comparison was performed between the fractal features and five other features reported in the literature. Linear regression analysis was carried out to determine the relationship between the force of contraction (20-100%) and features of sEMG. The results from the coefficients of regression r² show that the new fractal feature, maximum fractal length of the signal has highest correlation (range 0.88-0.90) when compared with other features which ranges from 0.34 to 0.74 for the three different muscles. This study suggests that the estimation of various levels of sustained contraction of muscles with varied CSA will provide a better insight into the biomechanics model that involves muscle properties and muscle activation.

  14. Surface-water data and statistics from U.S. Geological Survey data-collection networks in New Jersey on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Robert G.; Watson, Kara M.; Chang, Ming; Nieswand, Steven P.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with other Federal, State, and local agencies, operates and maintains a variety of surface-water data-collection networks throughout the State of New Jersey. The networks include streamflow-gaging stations, low-flow sites, crest-stage gages, tide gages, tidal creststage gages, and water-quality sampling sites. Both real-time and historical surface-water data for many of the sites in these networks are available at the USGS, New Jersey District, web site (http://nj.usgs.gov/), and water-quality data are available at the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) web site (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/). These data are an important source of information for water managers, engineers, environmentalists, and private citizens.

  15. An Investigation Into Time Domain Features of Surface Electromyography to Estimate the Elbow Joint Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwiyanto Triwiyanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In literature, it is well established that feature extraction and pattern classification algorithms play essential roles in accurate estimation of the elbow joint angle. The problem with these algorithms, however, is that they require a learning stage to recognize the pattern as well as capture the variability associated with every subject when estimating the elbow joint angle. As EMG signals can be used to represent motion, we developed a non-pattern recognition method to estimate the elbow joint angle based on twelve time-domain features extracted from EMG signals recorded from bicep muscles alone. The extracted features were smoothed using a second order Butterworth low pass filter to produce the estimation. The accuracy of the estimated angles was evaluated by using the Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient (PCC and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE.The regression parameters (Euclidean distance, R^2 and slope were calculated to observe the response of the features to the elbow-joint angle. From the investigation, we found, in the period of motion 10s, MYOP features have the best accuracy: 0.97±0.02 (Mean±SD and 11.37±3.04˚ (Mean±SD for correlation coefficient and RMSE respectively. MYOP features also showed the highest R^2 and slope value 0.986±0.0083 (Mean±SD and 0.746±0.17 (Mean±SD respectively for flexion and extension motion and all periods of motion.

  16. Features of Wear-Resistant Cast Iron Coating Formation During Plasma-Powder Surfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovin, K. N.; Emelyushin, A. N.; Nefed'ev, S. P.

    2017-09-01

    The structure of coatings deposited on steel 45 by plasma-powder surfacing of white wear-resistant cast iron is studied. The effects of surfacing regime and additional production effects on the welding bath during surfacing produced by current modulation, accelerated cooling of the deposited beads by blowing with air, and accelerated cooling of the substrate with running water on the structure, are determined. A new composition is suggested for powder material for depositing wear-resistant and corrosion-resistant coatings on a carbon steel by the plasma-powder process.

  17. Structural Geology and Map Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helper, Mark A.

    1998-06-01

    Geological maps lay flat the three-dimensional architecture of a region's rock record. In doing so, they reveal and document geometrical relationships and geological histories that would otherwise be difficult, if not impossible, to visualize. They are a primary data source for a wide range of practical applications, from civil engineering, mining, and energy resource exploration to urban planning and geologic hazard mitigation, and are literally the "ground truth" for understanding environments and processes of the Earth's past. Their utility resides not only in a plan-view portrayal of surface geology, but in the geometrical information they contain that allows projection of surface geology to the subsurface, or into regions where surface control is lacking. Understanding this predictive capacity and being able to read and truly appreciate a geological map's three-dimensional character are among the most unique and important skills a geologist masters. These same skills are unfortunately among the most difficult for students to learn.

  18. The geology of Ganymede

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, E. M.; Lucchitta, B. K.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Plescia, J. B.; Squyres, S. W.

    A broad outline of the geologic history of Ganymede is presented, obtained from a first attempt to map the geology on a global scale and to interpret the characteristics of the observed geologic units. Features of the ancient cratered terrain such as craters and palimpsests, furrows and troughs, are discussed. The grooved terrain is described, including its sulci and cells, and the age relation of these units is considered along with the structure and origin of this terrain. The Gilgamesh Basin and Western Equatorial Basin in the post grooved terrain are treated, as are the bright and dark ray craters and the regolith. The development of all these regions and features is discussed in context. For the regolith, this includes the effect of water migration, sputtering, and thermal annealing. The histories of the ancient cratered terrain, the grooved terrain, and the post grooved terrain are presented.

  19. Geologic Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William L.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…

  20. Off-Center Rotation of CuPc Molecular Rotor on a Bi(111) Surface and the Chiral Feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Tao, Min-Long; Tu, Yu-Bing; Wang, Jun-Zhong

    2017-05-04

    Molecular rotors with an off-center axis and the chiral feature of achiral CuPc molecules on a semi-metallic Bi(111) surface have been investigated by means of a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at liquid nitrogen (LN₂) temperature. The rotation axis of each CuPc molecular rotor is located at the end of a phthalocyanine group. As molecular coverage increases, the CuPc molecules are self-assembled into various nanoclusters and finally into two-dimensional (2D) domains, in which each CuPc molecule exhibits an apparent chiral feature. Such chiral features of the CuPc molecules can be attributed to the combined effect of asymmetric charge transfer between the CuPc and Bi(111) substrate, and the intermolecular van der Waals interactions.

  1. [Quantitative analysis of thiram by surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy combined with feature extraction Algorithms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao-hua; Jiang, Yong-cheng; Sha, Wen; Zhang, Xian-yi; Cui, Zhi-feng

    2015-02-01

    Three feature extraction algorithms, such as the principal component analysis (PCA), the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and the non-negative factorization (NMF), were used to extract the main information of the spectral data in order to weaken the influence of the spectral fluctuation on the subsequent quantitative analysis results based on the SERS spectra of the pesticide thiram. Then the extracted components were respectively combined with the linear regression algorithm--the partial least square regression (PLSR) and the non-linear regression algorithm--the support vector machine regression (SVR) to develop the quantitative analysis models. Finally, the effect of the different feature extraction algorithms on the different kinds of the regression algorithms was evaluated by using 5-fold cross-validation method. The experiments demonstrate that the analysis results of SVR are better than PLSR for the non-linear relationship between the intensity of the SERS spectrum and the concentration of the analyte. Further, the feature extraction algorithms can significantly improve the analysis results regardless of the regression algorithms which mainly due to extracting the main information of the source spectral data and eliminating the fluctuation. Additionally, PCA performs best on the linear regression model and NMF is best on the non-linear model, and the predictive error can be reduced nearly three times in the best case. The root mean square error of cross-validation of the best regression model (NMF+SVR) is 0.0455 micormol x L(-1) (10(-6) mol x L(-1)), and it attains the national detection limit of thiram, so the method in this study provides a novel method for the fast detection of thiram. In conclusion, the study provides the experimental references the selecting the feature extraction algorithms on the analysis of the SERS spectrum, and some common findings of feature extraction can also help processing of other kinds of spectroscopy.

  2. Trichodesmium blooms and warm-core ocean surface features in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothibabu, R; Karnan, C; Jagadeesan, L; Arunpandi, N; Pandiarajan, R S; Muraleedharan, K R; Balachandran, K K

    2017-08-15

    Trichodesmium is a bloom-forming, diazotrophic, non-heterocystous cyanobacteria widely distributed in the warmer oceans, and their bloom is considered a 'biological indication' of stratification and nitrogen limitation in the ocean surface layer. In the first part of this paper, based on the retrospective analyses of the ocean surface mesoscale features associated with 59 Trichodesmium bloom incidences recorded in the past, 32 from the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, and 27 from the rest of the world, we have showed that warm-core features have an inducing effect on bloom formation. In the second part, we have considered the environmental preferences of Trichodesmium bloom based on laboratory and field studies across the globe, and proposed a view about how warm-core features could provide an inducing pre-requisite condition for the bloom formation in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Proposed that the subsurface waters of warm-core features maintain more likely chances for the conducive nutrient and light conditions required for the triggering of the blooms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Building a viable decollement geometry for the Central Nepal Himalaya through integrating surface geology, thermochronology and data from the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, S.; McQuarrie, N.; Robinson, D. M.; Olree, E.; Valentino, C.; Olsen, J.

    2017-12-01

    Recent field mapping in the Central Himalaya revealed a marked change in the location and orientation of exposed Greater Himalayan rocks around the epicenter of the April 2015 Gorkha earthquake, arguing for a lateral structure in the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). The earthquake provided new insight into the geometry of the MHT, but left the position and depth of the mid-crustal ramp in dispute. Combining new field data with existing thermochronometric data from the region emphasizes that both the mapped geology and young cooling ages step abruptly southward from east to west, immediately adjacent to the earthquake epicenter. The distribution of cooling ages is strongly influenced by the location of ramps in the decollement surface, as the vertical component of uplift concentrates exhumation over the ramp, producing the youngest ages there. We propose that the existence and location of frontal and lateral ramps can be evaluated using the regional distribution of thermochronometric ages. Sequentially deformed cross-sections present a model of how structurally induced uplift varies in time and space, as well as a predicted geometry of the active, modern fault. We created new balanced cross-sections, constrained by surface geology and the proposed decollement geometries. For an accurate representation of the subsurface, the geometries must reproduce cooling ages measured at the surface. Each cross section was sequentially deformed, allowing for flexure and erosion. The resulting displacement field was used to predict cooling ages for muscovite 40Ar/39Ar, zircon (U-Th)/He, and apatite fission-track, using the thermokinematic model Pecube. The different closure temperatures for these systems allow them to represent different times and locations of exhumation driven by evolving fault geometries. The modeled cooling ages are the cumulative effect of the entire deformational sequence. However, the ages are particularly sensitive to the modern active decollement fault

  4. Geologic map of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Dohm, James M.; Irwin, Rossman P.; Kolb, Eric J.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory G.; Hare, Trent M.

    2014-01-01

    This global geologic map of Mars, which records the distribution of geologic units and landforms on the planet's surface through time, is based on unprecedented variety, quality, and quantity of remotely sensed data acquired since the Viking Orbiters. These data have provided morphologic, topographic, spectral, thermophysical, radar sounding, and other observations for integration, analysis, and interpretation in support of geologic mapping. In particular, the precise topographic mapping now available has enabled consistent morphologic portrayal of the surface for global mapping (whereas previously used visual-range image bases were less effective, because they combined morphologic and albedo information and, locally, atmospheric haze). Also, thermal infrared image bases used for this map tended to be less affected by atmospheric haze and thus are reliable for analysis of surface morphology and texture at even higher resolution than the topographic products.

  5. Developments in convective heat transfer models featuring seamless and selected detail surfaces, employing electroless plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmach, C. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Several model/instrument concepts employing electroless metallic skin were considered for improvement of surface condition, accuracy, and cost of contoured-geometry convective heat transfer models. A plated semi-infinite slab approach was chosen for development and evaluation in a hypersonic wind tunnel. The plated slab model consists of an epoxy casting containing fine constantan wires accurately placed at specified surface locations. An electroless alloy was deposited on the plastic surface that provides a hard, uniformly thick, seamless skin. The chosen alloy forms a high-output thermocouple junction with each exposed constantan wire, providing means of determining heat transfer during tunnel testing of the model. A selective electroless plating procedure was used to deposit scaled heatshield tiles on the lower surface of a 0.0175-scale shuttle orbiter model. Twenty-five percent of the tiles were randomly selected and plated to a height of 0.001-inch. The purpose was to assess the heating effects of surface roughness simulating misalignment of tiles that may occur during manufacture of the spacecraft.

  6. Geology of hydrothermal uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolev, K.G.; Belov, V.K.; Putilov, G.S.

    1983-01-01

    Geological characteristics of hydrothermal phosphorus-uranium deposits placed in sedimentary, igneous-sedimentary, metamorphic and intrusion formations are presented. Attention is paid to mineral composition, texture and structure of ores, their genesis, tectonics. Geochemical peculiarities of ores and age of molybdenum-uranium and uranium deposits are described. Geological criteria and prospecting features of uranium and uranium-molybdenum deposits are given

  7. Osteoblast maturation and new bone formation in response to titanium implant surface features are reduced with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Navarrete, Rene; Raines, Andrew L; Hyzy, Sharon L; Park, Jung Hwa; Hutton, Daphne L; Cochran, David L; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi

    2012-08-01

    The surface properties of materials contribute to host cellular response and play a significant role in determining the overall success or failure of an implanted biomaterial. Rough titanium (Ti) surface microtopography and high surface free energy have been shown to enhance osteoblast maturation in vitro and increase bone formation in vivo. Whereas the surface properties of Ti are known to affect osteoblast response, host bone quality also plays a significant role in determining successful osseointegration. One factor affecting host bone quality is patient age. We examined both in vitro and in vivo whether response to Ti surface features was affected by animal age. Calvarial osteoblasts isolated from 1-, 3-, and 11-month-old rats all displayed a reduction in cell number and increases in alkaline phosphatase-specific activity and osteocalcin in response to increasing Ti surface microtopography and surface energy. Further, osteoblasts from the three ages examined displayed increased production of osteocalcin and local factors osteoprotegerin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and active transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in response to increasing Ti surface roughness and surface energy. Latent TGF-β1 only increased in cultures of osteoblasts from 1- and 3-month-old rats. Treatment with the systemic osteotropic hormone 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) further enhanced the response of osteoblasts to Ti surface features for all three age groups. However, osteoblasts derived from 11-month-old animals had a reduced response to 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) compared to osteoblasts derived from 1- or 3-month-old animals. These results were confirmed in vivo. Ti implants placed in the femoral intramedullary canal of old (9-month-old) mice yielded lower bone-to-implant contact and neovascularization in response to Ti surface roughness and energy compared to younger (2-month-old) mice. These results show that rodent osteoblast maturation in vitro as well as new bone formation in vivo is

  8. Seasonal features of atmospheric surface-layer characteristics over a tropical coastal station in Southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Prasad, K.B.R.R.; Srinivas, C.V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    Dispersion of air-borne effluents occurs in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) where turbulence is the main physical processes. In the surface layer of ABL, the mechanical (shear) generation of turbulence exceeds the buoyant generation or consumption of turbulence. In this layer, under steady state and horizontally homogeneous conditions various forces in the governing equation can be neglected and one can apply Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) to estimate the turbulent fluxes and other surface layer variables. Understanding the turbulent characteristics of the surface layer is vital for modeling of turbulent diffusion in regional numerical weather and pollution dispersion models. The objective of this study is to verify the validity of the MOST at the coastal site Kalpakkam under various atmospheric stability conditions with respect to different seasons for modeling atmospheric dispersion of radioactive effluents

  9. Simulation study and guidelines to generate Laser-induced Surface Acoustic Waves for human skin feature detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Fu, Xing; Chen, Kun; Dorantes-Gonzalez, Dante J.; Li, Yanning; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaotang

    2015-12-01

    Despite the seriously increasing number of people contracting skin cancer every year, limited attention has been given to the investigation of human skin tissues. To this regard, Laser-induced Surface Acoustic Wave (LSAW) technology, with its accurate, non-invasive and rapid testing characteristics, has recently shown promising results in biological and biomedical tissues. In order to improve the measurement accuracy and efficiency of detecting important features in highly opaque and soft surfaces such as human skin, this paper identifies the most important parameters of a pulse laser source, as well as provides practical guidelines to recommended proper ranges to generate Surface Acoustic Waves (SAWs) for characterization purposes. Considering that melanoma is a serious type of skin cancer, we conducted a finite element simulation-based research on the generation and propagation of surface waves in human skin containing a melanoma-like feature, determine best pulse laser parameter ranges of variation, simulation mesh size and time step, working bandwidth, and minimal size of detectable melanoma.

  10. Modification of the iron mechanical- and corrosion features by ion implantation in surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumvol, I.J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The physical mechanisms responsable by the tin ion implantation in the iron surface at moderated doses are studied. Several techniques are used such as alpha-particle Rutherford backscattering, conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. (L.C.) [pt

  11. Outstanding Antibiofilm Features of Quanta-CuO Film on Glass Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Nirmalya; Ahmad, Rafiq; Bang, Seung Hyuck; Khang, Gilson; Min, Jiho; Hahn, Yoon-Bong

    2016-06-22

    Intelligently designed surface nanoarchitecture provides defined control over the behavior of cells and biomolecules at the solid-liquid interface. In this study, CuO quantum dots (quanta-CuO; ∼3-5 nm) were synthesized by a simple, low-temperature solution process and further formulated as paint to construct quanta-CuO thin film on glass. Surface morphological characterizations of the as-coated glass surface reveal a uniform film thickness (∼120 ± 10 nm) with homogeneous distribution of quanta-CuO. The antibiofilm assay showed a very high contact bacteria-killing capacity of as-coated quanta-CuO glass surfaces toward Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. This efficient antibacterial/antibiofilm activity was ascribed to the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the quanta-CuO attached to the bacterial cells, which leads to an oxidative assault and finally results in bacterial cell death. Although there is a significant debate regarding the CuO nanostructure's antibacterial mode of action, we propose both contact killing and/or copper ion release killing mechanisms for the antibiofilm activity of quanta-CuO paint. Moreover, synergism of quanta-CuO with conventional antibiotics was also found to further enhance the antibacterial efficacy of commonly used antibiotics. Collectively, this state-of-the-art design of quanta-CuO coated glass can be envisioned as promising candidates for various biomedical and environmental device coatings.

  12. A Three-Dimensional View of Titan's Surface Features from Cassini RADAR Stereogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, R. L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Redding, B. L.; Becker, T. L.; Lee, E. M.; Stiles, B. W.; Hensley, S.; Hayes, A.; Lopes, R. M.; Lorenz, R. D.; Mitchell, K. L.; Radebaugh, J.; Paganelli, F.; Soderblom, L. A.; Stofan, E. R.; Wood, C. A.; Wall, S. D.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2008-12-01

    As of the end of its four-year Prime Mission, Cassini has obtained 300-1500 m resolution synthetic aperture radar images of the surface of Titan during 19 flybys. The elongated image swaths overlap extensively, and ~2% of the surface has now been imaged two or more times. The majority of image pairs have different viewing directions, and thus contain stereo parallax that encodes information about Titan's surface relief over distances of ~1 km and greater. As we have previously reported, the first step toward extracting quantitative topographic information was the development of rigorous "sensor models" that allowed the stereo systems previously used at the USGS and JPL to map Venus with Magellan images to be used for Titan mapping. The second major step toward extensive topomapping of Titan has been the reprocessing of the RADAR images based on an improved model of the satellite's rotation. Whereas the original images (except for a few pairs obtained at similar orbital phase, some of which we have mapped previously) were offset by as much as 30 km, the new versions align much better. The remaining misalignments, typically carbono)logic" cycle of precipitation, evaporation, and surface and subsurface fluid flow?

  13. Influence of surface features on the adhesion of Staphyloccocus epidermidis to Ag–TiCN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Isabel; Almeida Alves, Cristiana Filipa; Carvalho, Sandra; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, João Carlos; Piedade, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as one of the major nosocomial pathogens associated with infections of implanted medical devices. The initial adhesion of these organisms to the surface of biomaterials is assumed to be an important stage in their colonization. The main objective of this work is to assess the influence of surface features on the adhesion of S. epidermidis to Ag–TiCN coatings deposited by dc reactive magnetron sputtering. The structural results obtained by x-ray diffraction show that the coatings crystallize in a B1-NaCl crystal structure typical of TiC 0.3 N 0.7 . The increase of Ag content promoted the formation of Ag crystalline phases. According to the results obtained with atomic force microscopy, a decrease on the surface roughness of the films from 39 to 7 nm is observed as the Ag content increases from 0 to 15 at.%. Surface energy results show that the increase of Ag promotes an increase in hydrophobicity. Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on coatings were assessed by the enumeration of the number of viable cells. The results showed that the surface with lower roughness and higher hydrophobicity leads to greater bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, highlighting that surface morphology and hydrophobicity rule the colonization of materials. (paper)

  14. Local changes of work function near rough features on Cu surfaces operated under high external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djurabekova, Flyura, E-mail: flyura.djurabekova@helsinki.fi; Ruzibaev, Avaz; Parviainen, Stefan [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Holmström, Eero [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences, UCL Earth Sciences, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hakala, Mikko [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-12-28

    Metal surfaces operated under high electric fields produce sparks even if they are held in ultra high vacuum. In spite of extensive research on the topic of vacuum arcs, the mystery of vacuum arc origin still remains unresolved. The indications that the sparking rates depend on the material motivate the research on surface response to extremely high external electric fields. In this work by means of density-functional theory calculations we analyze the redistribution of electron density on (100) Cu surfaces due to self-adatoms and in presence of high electric fields from −1 V/nm up to −2 V/nm (−1 to −2 GV/m, respectively). We also calculate the partial charge induced by the external field on a single adatom and a cluster of two adatoms in order to obtain reliable information on charge redistribution on surface atoms, which can serve as a benchmarking quantity for the assessment of the electric field effects on metal surfaces by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, we investigate the modifications of work function around rough surface features, such as step edges and self-adatoms.

  15. COMPUTER GRAPHICS MEETS IMAGE FUSION: THE POWER OF TEXTURE BAKING TO SIMULTANEOUSLY VISUALISE 3D SURFACE FEATURES AND COLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Verhoeven

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Since a few years, structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo pipelines have become omnipresent in the cultural heritage domain. The fact that such Image-Based Modelling (IBM approaches are capable of providing a photo-realistic texture along the threedimensional (3D digital surface geometry is often considered a unique selling point, certainly for those cases that aim for a visually pleasing result. However, this texture can very often also obscure the underlying geometrical details of the surface, making it very hard to assess the morphological features of the digitised artefact or scene. Instead of constantly switching between the textured and untextured version of the 3D surface model, this paper presents a new method to generate a morphology-enhanced colour texture for the 3D polymesh. The presented approach tries to overcome this switching between objects visualisations by fusing the original colour texture data with a specific depiction of the surface normals. Whether applied to the original 3D surface model or a lowresolution derivative, this newly generated texture does not solely convey the colours in a proper way but also enhances the smalland large-scale spatial and morphological features that are hard or impossible to perceive in the original textured model. In addition, the technique is very useful for low-end 3D viewers, since no additional memory and computing capacity are needed to convey relief details properly. Apart from simple visualisation purposes, the textured 3D models are now also better suited for on-surface interpretative mapping and the generation of line drawings.

  16. Computer Graphics Meets Image Fusion: the Power of Texture Baking to Simultaneously Visualise 3d Surface Features and Colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, G. J.

    2017-08-01

    Since a few years, structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo pipelines have become omnipresent in the cultural heritage domain. The fact that such Image-Based Modelling (IBM) approaches are capable of providing a photo-realistic texture along the threedimensional (3D) digital surface geometry is often considered a unique selling point, certainly for those cases that aim for a visually pleasing result. However, this texture can very often also obscure the underlying geometrical details of the surface, making it very hard to assess the morphological features of the digitised artefact or scene. Instead of constantly switching between the textured and untextured version of the 3D surface model, this paper presents a new method to generate a morphology-enhanced colour texture for the 3D polymesh. The presented approach tries to overcome this switching between objects visualisations by fusing the original colour texture data with a specific depiction of the surface normals. Whether applied to the original 3D surface model or a lowresolution derivative, this newly generated texture does not solely convey the colours in a proper way but also enhances the smalland large-scale spatial and morphological features that are hard or impossible to perceive in the original textured model. In addition, the technique is very useful for low-end 3D viewers, since no additional memory and computing capacity are needed to convey relief details properly. Apart from simple visualisation purposes, the textured 3D models are now also better suited for on-surface interpretative mapping and the generation of line drawings.

  17. Geologic evaluation of six nonwelded tuff sites in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada for a surface-based test facility for the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxton, D.E.; Chipera, S.J.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Rautman, C.A.

    1993-10-01

    Outcrops of nonwelded tuff at six locations in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, were examined to determine their suitability for hosting a surface-based test facility for the Yucca Mountain Project. Investigators will use this facility to test equipment and procedures for the Exploratory Studies Facility and to conduct site characterization field experiments. The outcrops investigated contain rocks that include or are similar to the tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills, an important geologic and hydrologic barrier between the potential repository and the water table. The tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills at the site of the potential repository consist of both vitric and zeolitic tuffs, thus three of the outcrops examined are vitric tuffs and three are zeolitic tuffs. New data were collected to determine the lithology, chemistry, mineralogy, and modal petrography of the outcrops. Some preliminary data on hydrologic properties are also presented. Evaluation of suitability of the six sites is based on a comparison of their geologic characteristics to those found in the tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills within the exploration block

  18. World resources and the development of the earth's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, A.; Ishihara, S.; Seki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    This text is an examination of economic (or ore) geology, and engineering geology. Using case studies of Japan and continental North America, this work presents a geological and geochemical summary of ore-forming processes along with discussions of basic principles and approaches to modern engineering geology. Emphasizes the relationship between fossil fuel resources and the evolution of the Earth's crust. Contents - WORLD RESOURCES. The Geochemistry of Metallogenesis. The Geochemistry of Fossil Fuel Deposit. Global Evolution and the Formation of Mineral Deposits. The Development of Continents and Island Arcs and the Formation of Mineral Deposits. DEVELOPMENT OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE. Development of the Earth's Surface and Engineering Geology. Engineering Geology Methods. Features of the Ground and Bedrock in Japan. Engineering Geology - A Case Study. Geology and the Environment - Case Studies. INDEX. Principal World-Wide Metal Deposits (inside front cover). Principal World-Wide Coal, Petroleum and Uranium Deposits (inside back cover)

  19. Visualization of three dimensional earth fissures in geological structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method for visualizing the earth fissures of geological structure in three dimensional (3-D domains on the basis of the seismic data and features information of earth fissures. The seismic data were interpreted for obtaining the stratagraphic data with various lithological information and the depth of the earth fissures. The spatial distribution of the ground fissures including the dip, strike and width were digitalized on an ArcGIS platform. Firstly, the 3-D geological structure was rebuilt using the Generalized Tri-Prism (GTP method which is a real solid method for displaying geological structures. The GTP method can reflect the inner material of the strata and can simulate complicated geological structures such as faults and stratagraphic pinch outs. The upper and lower surfaces of each stratum consist of Triangle Irregular Networks (TIN. The inner solid between the two surfaces are a series of triangular prisms. Secondly, since the width of the ground fissure gradually decreases with depth, multiple edge lines of the earth fissures on the bottom stratum surface are deduced on the basis of the fissure characteristics. Then, the model of the earth fissures consisting of a series of triangular pyramids can be constructed using these points and the edge lines. A cutting operation was carried out on the 3-D geological structure using this ground fissures model. If the surfaces of the ground fissures model intersects with the GTPs in the geological structure model, new GTPs were generated within the local regions. During this process, the topological relations between TIN, triangular prism and lines were reconstructed so that the visualization of ground fissures in the geological structure model is realized. This method can facilitate the mechanism for studying fissures and avoid the gaps between the fissure solid and the geological structure to accurately reflect their 3-D characteristics.

  20. Morphological features of the copper surface layer under sliding with high density electric current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadin, V. V., E-mail: fvv@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Aleutdinova, M. I., E-mail: aleut@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Seversk Technological Institute, Branch of State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education “National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Seversk, 636036 (Russian Federation); Rubtsov, V. Ye., E-mail: rvy@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Aleutdinova, V. A., E-mail: valery-aleut@yandex.ru [National Research St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, St. Petersburg, 195251 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    Conductivity and wear intensity of copper under the influence of dry friction and electric current with contact density higher 100 A/cm{sup 2} are presented. It is shown that an increase in hardness and heat outflow from a friction zone leads to the reduction of wear intensity and current contact density increase corresponding to the beginning of catastrophic wear. Structural changes, such as the formation of FeO oxide and α-Fe particles in the copper surface layer, have also been found. It is observed that a worn surface is deformed according to a viscous liquid mechanism. Such singularity is explained in terms of appearance of high-excited atomic states in deforming micro-volumes near contact spots that lead to easy stress relaxation by local plastic shears in the vicinity of stress concentrators. In common this effect allows to achieve high wear resistance.

  1. Structural features and activity of Brazzein and its mutants upon substitution of a surfaced exposed alanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanavatian, Parisa; Khalifeh, Khosrow; Jafarian, Vahab

    2016-12-01

    Brazzein (Brz) is a member of sweet-tasting protein containing four disulfide bonds. It was reported as a compact and heat-resistant protein. Here, we have used site-directed mutagenesis and replaced a surface-exposed alanine with aspartic acid (A19D mutant), lysine (A19K mutant) and glycine (A19G mutant). Activity comparisons of wild-type (WT) and mutants using taste panel test procedure showed that A19G variant has the same activity as WT protein. However, introduction of a positive charge in A19K mutant led to significant increase in Brz's sweetness, while A19D has reduced sweetness compared to WT protein. Docking studies showed that mutation at position 19 results in slight chain mobility of protein at the binding surface and changing the patterns of interactions toward more effective binding of E9K variant in the concave surface of sweet taste receptor. Far-UV CD data spectra have a characteristic shape of beta structure for all variants, however different magnitudes of spectra suggest that beta-sheet structure in WT and A19G is more stable than that of A19D and A19K. Equilibrium unfolding studies with fluorescence spectroscopy and using urea and dithiothritol (DTT) as chemical denaturants indicates that A19G mutant gains more stability against urea denaturation; while conformational stability of A19D and A19K decreases when compared with WT and A19G variants. We concluded that the positive charge at the surface of protein is important factor responsible for the interaction of protein with the human sweet receptor and Ala 19 can be considered as a key region for investigating the mechanism of the interaction of Brz with corresponding receptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  2. The mid-IR spectral effects of darkening agents and porosity on the silicate surface features of airless bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. L.; Wray, J. J.; Poston, M.; Hand, K. P.; Carlson, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    The surfaces of airless bodies present opportunities to investigate the physical processes acting on planetary systems over time, without the need to account for surface-atmosphere interactions. Silicate surfaces mixed with fine-grained optically dark material with varying degrees of porosity are ubiquitous on many airless bodies (e.g., Earth's Moon, Deimos, Phobos, asteroids, meteorites, and moons of the outer solar system). Although the mid-IR is rich in emissivity features of important minerals and molecular groups, including organics [e.g., 1], it is less studied for airless conditions and presents challenges in signal-to-noise ratio, especially for the colder outer solar system bodies with fined-grained surfaces [2, 3]. We systematically measured the mid-IR spectra of different mixtures of three silicates (antigorite, lizardite, and pure silica) with varying porosities and amounts of darkening agent (iron oxide and carbon). Serpentines, such as antigorite and lizardite, are common to airless surfaces, and their mid-IR spectra in the presence of darkening agents and different surface porosities would be typical for those measured by spacecraft. Although pure silica has only been measured in the plumes of Enceladus, it presents exciting possibilities for other Saturn-system surfaces due to long range transport [4], and it is therefore important to investigate how its spectral signature would be manifested in the mid-IR. Overall, this work provides a library of mineral mixtures to facilitate dealing with current and future mid-IR datasets of airless bodies. These results are also applicable to the development of future missions to airless bodies, and our continuing efforts will help determine if mid-IR spectrometry is worthwhile for surface compositional studies of icy bodies. The mixtures presented here could be useful for testing future mid-IR instruments by confirming detectability of spectral features for typical materials on the surfaces of interest. [1

  3. Wide-field surface plasmon microscopy of nano- and microparticles: features, benchmarking, limitations, and bioanalytical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamov, Shavkat; Scherbahn, Vitali; Mirsky, Vladimir M.

    2017-05-01

    Detection of nano- and micro-particles is an important task for chemical analytics, food industry, biotechnology, environmental monitoring and many other fields of science and industry. For this purpose, a method based on the detection and analysis of minute signals in surface plasmon resonance images due to adsorption of single nanopartciles was developed. This new technology allows one a real-time detection of interaction of single nano- and micro-particles with sensor surface. Adsorption of each nanoparticle leads to characteristic diffraction image whose intensity depends on the size and chemical composition of the particle. The adsorption rate characterizes volume concentration of nano- and micro-particles. Large monitored surface area of sensor enables a high dynamic range of counting and to a correspondingly high dynamic range in concentration scale. Depending on the type of particles and experimental conditions, the detection limit for aqueous samples can be below 1000 particles per microliter. For application of method in complex media, nanoparticle images are discriminated from image perturbations due to matrix components. First, the characteristic SPRM images of nanoparticles (templates) are collected in aqueous suspensions or spiked real samples. Then, the detection of nanoparticles in complex media using template matching is performed. The detection of various NPs in consumer products like cosmetics, mineral water, juices, and wines was shown at sub-ppb level. The method can be applied for ultrasensitive detection and analysis of nano- and micro-particles of biological (bacteria, viruses, endosomes), biotechnological (liposomes, protein nanoparticles for drug delivery) or technical origin.

  4. Preparation of porous polymer monoliths featuring enhanced surface coverage with gold nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Lv, Yongqin

    2012-10-01

    A new approach to the preparation of porous polymer monoliths with enhanced coverage of pore surface with gold nanoparticles has been developed. First, a generic poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith was reacted with cystamine followed by the cleavage of its disulfide bonds with tris(2-carboxylethyl)phosphine, which liberated the desired thiol groups. Dispersions of gold nanoparticles with sizes varying from 5 to 40. nm were then pumped through the functionalized monoliths. The materials were then analyzed using both energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. We found that the quantity of attached gold was dependent on the size of nanoparticles, with the maximum attachment of more than 60. wt% being achieved with 40. nm nanoparticles. Scanning electron micrographs of the cross sections of all the monoliths revealed the formation of a non-aggregated, homogenous monolayer of nanoparticles. The surface of the bound gold was functionalized with 1-octanethiol and 1-octadecanethiol, and these monolithic columns were used successfully for the separations of proteins in reversed phase mode. The best separations were obtained using monoliths modified with 15, 20, and 30. nm nanoparticles since these sizes produced the most dense coverage of pore surface with gold. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Coil response inversion for very early time modelling of helicopter-borne time-domain electromagnetic data and mapping of near-surface geological layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schamper, Cyril Noel Clarence; Auken, Esben; Sørensen, Kurt Ingvard K.I.

    2014-01-01

    current is abruptly turned off in a large transmitter loop causing a secondary electromagnetic field to be generated by the eddy currents induced in the ground. Often, however, there is still a residual primary field generated by remaining slowly decaying currents in the transmitter loop. The decay...... disturbs or biases the earth response data at the very early times. These biased data must be culled, or some specific processing must be applied in order to compensate or remove the residual primary field. As the bias response can be attributed to decaying currents with its time constantly controlled......Very early times in the order of 2-3 μs from the end of the turn-off ramp for time-domain electromagnetic systems are crucial for obtaining a detailed resolution of the near-surface geology in the depth interval 0-20 m. For transient electromagnetic systems working in the off time, an electric...

  6. Influence of the geologic and geomorphologic characteristics and of crab burrows on the interrelation between surface water and groundwater in an estuarine coastal wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol, Eleonora S.; Kruse, Eduardo E.; Pousa, Jorge L.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryThe interrelation between surface water and groundwater in intertidal flats is often studied through mathematical models. In many cases these models need to be supported by an integral analysis of the geologic, geomorphologic, hydrologic and biological characteristics of the environment that are to be obtained from field surveys. The marshy environment of the River Ajo in the Samborombon Bay wetland, Argentina, is a typical example of an estuarine coastal zone. Geologic and geomorphologic surveys were carried out, as well as measurements of surface water and groundwater level changes as a response of the aquifer to tidal forcing. The banks of the River Ajo are either scarped with storm flats, or mildly sloped with intertidal flats and numerous crab burrows. Sediments are mainly silty-clayey with low permeability, and lie over silty-sandy layers. At the erosion scarps the tidal wave enters the aquifer as a sub-horizontal flow through the pore space of the sediments. The tidal range in the aquifer depends on the lithological characteristics of the sediments and on the side changes of their hydraulic conductivity. The rise of the water table at high water and its subsequent fall are nearly sinusoidal, with a period similar to that of the tide at the river. At the intertidal flats, instead, the tidal wave enters the aquifer mainly as a sub-vertical flow through the crab burrows. As the crab burrows are not interconnected, they are not distinct pathways for preferential flow. Therefore, the groundwater flux into the river is very slow during low water, and the recovery of the water table takes a long time. The tidal influence upon the water table on both kinds of banks affects only a narrow strip of the aquifer. Not only are the characteristics of the marshy environment of the River Ajo representative of most of the Samborombon Bay wetland; they can also be extended to other similar coastal wetlands to help preserve these invaluable environments.

  7. Geologic investigations of Australian earthquakes: Paleoseismicity and the recurrence of surface faulting in the stable regions of continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machette, Michael; Crone, Anthony

    1993-01-01

    Earthquakes that occur in the stable regions of continents are very rare compared to those that occur along plate margins, such as the San Andreas fault system of western California. Worldwide, only 11 historic earthquakes in stable continental regions are known to have produced surface ruptures. Five of these have occurred in Australia since 1968 (see map, next page).

  8. Spectral and morphological properties of various geological types of Titan’s surface with Cassini VIMS and RADAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonidou, Anezina; Coustenis, Athena; Lopes, Rosaly M.; Hirtzig, Mathieu; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Malaska, Michael; Drossart, Pierre; Sotin, Christophe; Bratsolis, Emmanuel; Matsoukas, Chris; Brown, Robert; Maltagliati, Luca

    2015-08-01

    Cassini’s VIMS and the RADAR have been investigating Titan’s surface since 2004. Both instruments unveiled the dynamic and complex surface expressions of this Saturnian moon, suggesting exogenic and endogenic processes [1;2;3]. In order to evaluate the atmospheric contribution and thereafter extract surface information, a Radiative transfer code is used to analyse different regions and to monitor their spectral behaviour over time [4;5;7]. We furthermore use RADAR despeckled SAR images to infer information on the morphology [6]. We find that temporal variations of surface albedo occur for some areas, but that their origin may differ from one region to the other. Tui Regio and Sotra Patera change with time becoming darker and brighter respectively in terms of surface albedo. In contrast, we find that the undifferentiated plains and the suggested evaporitic areas in the equatorial regions do not present any significant change [5]. This observation supports the hypothesis that Titan is surface brightening of Sotra supports a possible internal rather than an exogenic origin. This observation supports the hypothesis that Titan is a cryovolcanic world due to the presence of local complex volcanic-like geomorphology [1] and indications of surface albedo changes [4,5]. Potential sources of the energy for cryovolcanism include tidal heating, possible internal convection, and ice tectonics, is believed to be a pre-requisite of a habitable planetary body as it allows the recycling of minerals and potential nutrients and provides localized energy sources. A recent study has shown that tidal forces are a constant and significant source of internal deformation on Titan and the interior liquid water ocean can be relatively warm for reasonable amounts of ammonia concentrations [8].[1] Lopes, R.M.C., et al. JGR, 118, 2013 [2] Solomonidou, A., et al. PSS, 70, 2013 [3] Moore, J.M. GRL, 37, 2010 [4] Solomonidou, A., et al. JGR, 119, 2014 [5] Solomonidou, A., et al. submitted [6

  9. Horizontal transport of the regolith, modification of features, and erosion rates on the lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R.; Drozd, R. J.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Morgan, C. J.; Poupeau, G.

    1975-01-01

    Impact-ejecta systematics are developed for the smaller cratering events which, with cumulative crater populations observed in young mare regions and on Copernicus ejecta fields, yield rates and a range distribution for the horizontal transport of material by impact processes. The deposition rate for material originating more than 1 m away is found to be about 8 mm per million years. Material from 10 km away accumulates at a rate of about 0.08 mm per million years, providing a steady influx of foreign material. From the degradation of boulder tracks, a rate of 5 plus or minus 3 cm per million years is computed for the filling of shallow lunar depressions on slopes. Mass wastage and downslope movement of bedrock outcroppings on Hadley Rille seem to be proceeding at a rate of about 8 mm per million years. The Camelot profile is suggestive of a secondary impact feature.

  10. Beam-hardening correction by a surface fitting and phase classification by a least square support vector machine approach for tomography images of geological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F.; Enzmann, F.; Kersten, M.

    2015-12-01

    In X-ray computed microtomography (μXCT) image processing is the most important operation prior to image analysis. Such processing mainly involves artefact reduction and image segmentation. We propose a new two-stage post-reconstruction procedure of an image of a geological rock core obtained by polychromatic cone-beam μXCT technology. In the first stage, the beam-hardening (BH) is removed applying a best-fit quadratic surface algorithm to a given image data set (reconstructed slice), which minimizes the BH offsets of the attenuation data points from that surface. The final BH-corrected image is extracted from the residual data, or the difference between the surface elevation values and the original grey-scale values. For the second stage, we propose using a least square support vector machine (a non-linear classifier algorithm) to segment the BH-corrected data as a pixel-based multi-classification task. A combination of the two approaches was used to classify a complex multi-mineral rock sample. The Matlab code for this approach is provided in the Appendix. A minor drawback is that the proposed segmentation algorithm may become computationally demanding in the case of a high dimensional training data set.

  11. Addition of nanoscaled bioinspired surface features: A revolution for bone related implants and scaffolds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinink, Arie; Bitar, Malak; Pleskova, Miriam; Wick, Peter; Krug, Harald F; Maniura-Weber, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Our expanding ability to handle the "literally invisible" building blocks of our world has started to provoke a seismic shift on the technology, environment and health sectors of our society. During the last two decades, it has become increasingly evident that the "nano-sized" subunits composing many materials—living, natural and synthetic—are becoming more and more accessible for predefined manipulations at the nanosize scale. The use of equally nanoscale sized or functionalised tools may, therefore, grant us unprecedented prospects to achieve many therapeutic aims. In the past decade it became clear that nano-scale surface topography significantly influences cell behaviour and may, potentially, be utilised as a powerful tool to enhance the bioactivity and/ or integration of implanted devices. In this review, we briefly outline the state of the art and some of the current approaches and concepts for the future utilisation of nanotechnology to create biomimetic implantable medical devices and scaffolds for in vivo and in vitro tissue engineering,with a focus on bone. Based on current knowledge it must be concluded that not the materials and surfaces themselves but the systematic biological evaluation of these new material concepts represent the bottleneck for new biomedical product development based on nanotechnological principles. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  12. A method and example of seismically imaging near‐surface fault zones in geologically complex areas using Vp, Vs, and their ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchings, Rufus D.; Rymer, Michael J.; Goldman, Mark R.; Sickler, Robert R.; Criley, Coyn J.

    2014-01-01

    The determination of near‐surface (vadose zone and slightly below) fault locations and geometries is important because assessment of ground rupture, strong shaking, geologic slip rates, and rupture histories occurs at shallow depths. However, seismic imaging of fault zones at shallow depths can be difficult due to near‐surface complexities, such as weathering, groundwater saturation, massive (nonlayered) rocks, and vertically layered strata. Combined P‐ and S‐wave seismic‐refraction tomography data can overcome many of the near‐surface, fault‐zone seismic‐imaging problems because of differences in the responses of elastic (bulk and shear) moduli of P and S waves to shallow‐depth, fault‐zone properties. We show that high‐resolution refraction tomography images of P‐ to S‐wave velocity ratios (VP/VS) can reliably identify near‐surface faults. We demonstrate this method using tomography images of the San Andreas fault (SAF) surface‐rupture zone associated with the 18 April 1906 ∼M 7.9 San Francisco earthquake on the San Francisco peninsula in California. There, the SAF cuts through Franciscan mélange, which consists of an incoherent assemblage of greywacke, chert, greenstone, and serpentinite. A near‐vertical zone (∼75° northeast dip) of high P‐wave velocities (up to 3000  m/s), low S‐wave velocities (∼150–600  m/s), high VP/VS ratios (4–8.8), and high Poisson’s ratios (0.44–0.49) characterizes the main surface‐rupture zone to a depth of about 20 m and is consistent with nearby trench observations. We suggest that the combined VP/VSimaging approach can reliably identify most near‐surface fault zones in locations where many other seismic methods cannot be applied.

  13. Surface optical properties of geological materials: a new look at the regolith of the Moon, Mercury and asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchon, Audrey; Pinet, Patrick; Chevrel, Serge; Daydou, Yves; Josset, Jean-Luc; Beauvivre, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    With the exception of the lunar samples brought back to Earth, the only way to study the surface of a planet so far remains the use of remote-sensing techniques. Among them photometry can be used to determine the physical properties of surface particles (e.g., grain size, roughness…). Laboratory measurements with the spectro-imaging instrument at the DTP laboratory (Toulouse, France) have been made to determine the photometric parameters of natural samples (e.g., basalts, pyroclastics and olivine grains). Each one has been sieved either into natural grain sizes or ground to get particles from 45 microns to 2 mm. Multiangular data spanning the phase range between 20 and 130° have been acquired and Hapke's photometric parameters b, c, theta and w have been determined by means of a dedicated genetic algorithm [Cord, Icarus, 2003]. The modelled phase functions match satisfactorily the observations, and the parameters show very different behaviours depending on the sample and grain size. For non glassy materials, such as fresh basalt or pyroclastics, surface roughness parameter theta ranges from 12° to 25° with an increase seemingly correlated with the grain size, while for glassy materials, such as olivine or Hawaiian basalt, this parameter is much lower (about 4 to 10°) and shows no increase with grain size. Phase parameters b and c estimates displayed on a double Henyey-Greenstein graph (c vs. b) [see McGuire & Hapke, Icarus, 1995] fall on the expected trend, with glassy materials becoming more and more forward-scattering when grain size increases. Non glassy samples display more variability when particle size increases, and generally show a more backward-scattering behaviour. These results show that a characterization of a surface state in terms of physical properties is possible from multiangular datasets using Hapke's photometric model. The combination of photometric results with spectroscopic analyses could thus lead to more thorough understanding of

  14. The Main Features of the Geological Modeling Process of a Shallow Deposit of Super-Viscous Oil in Aspect of Development Strategy Planning with the Use of Steam‑Assisted Gravity Drainage Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Novikova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of minerals, limited reserves of conventional hydrocarbon raw materials indicates the need to involve in the fuel and energy complex of other sources of hydrocarbons. Fields of super-viscous oil are one of the sources. This article is devoted to the study of sediments of the Permian sedimentary complex containing super-viscous oil deposits. The geological structure of the Lower Kazanian and Ufimian deposits is considered. A characteristic of the Sheshmian sandstone pack is given. The analysis of the set of geophysical studies is presented. Modeling of a shallow super-viscous oil deposit based on the lithologic-technological types of the productive formation was carried out, based on the results of drilling, core material and logging. The features of constructing the structural framework of a three-dimensional grid, and a lithological-technological model are highlighted. The distribution of porosity, permeability and oil saturation is described.

  15. Geology of Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basilevsky, A.T.; Head, J.W. III.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the emerging picture of the surface of Venus provided by high-resolution earth-based radar telescopes and orbital radar altimetry and imaging systems. The nature and significance of the geological processes operating there are considered. The types of information needed to complete the picture are addressed. 71 references

  16. Grain surface features and clay mineralogy of the quaternary sediments from Western Deccan Trap Region, India, and their palaeoclimatic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena U. Joshi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Quartz sand grains obtained from a deeply gullied topography along the banks of two tributaries of River Pravara in Maharashtra (India have been examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Quartz grains have been selected after a heavy mineral separation and micro-photographs of each grain were taken at various angles and magnifications. The sediments reveal features resulting from mechanical grinding as well as from chemical alteration. Conchoidal fractures, cleavage planes, grooves, v-shaped indentations etc. are the mechanical features documented on the grains whereas solution pits of varying sizes and intensity, precipitation surfaces, oriented v-pits, solution crevasses and etching are the features of chemical origin. Several evidences indicate that the samples have undergone digenetic changes. Few grains show the features of intense chemical breakdown. The overall assemblages of the grain surface features suggest that the samples have been subjected to subaqueous transport for a considerable period of time. The minor chemical features such as solution pits or semi circular arcuate steps found in abundance on these grains are due to the dissolution of the sediments in a low energy fluviatile environment. For clay mineralogy, fractions between <2 and <0.2 mm were separated out from the sediments. The clay fractions were then subjected to examination by X-ray diffraction (XRD of oriented K/Ca saturated samples using a Philips Diffractometer and Ni-filtered Cu Ka radiation with the scanning speed of 10 2Ө min -1. The main clay minerals for all the samples are identical and show the presence of hydroxy-interlayered smectites with minor quantities of mica, kaolinite, smectites, quartz and feldspar. The first weathering product of the Deccan Basalt (DB is the dioctahedral smectite. Since the present semi aridic climatic condition of the study area can not transform a smectite to HIS and either smectite to kaolin, it is quite likely that

  17. Multiscale feature based analysis of surface EMG signals under fatigue and non-fatigue conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneethakrishna, M; Ramakrishnan, S

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an attempt has been made to differentiate sEMG signals under muscle fatigue and non-fatigue conditions using multiscale features. Signals are recorded from biceps brachii muscle of 50 normal adults during repetitive dynamic contractions. After prescribed preprocessing, each signal is divided into six segments out of which first and last segments are considered in this analysis. Multiscale RMS (MSRMS) and Multiscale Permutation Entropy (MSPE) are computed for each subject in the time scales ranging from 1 to 50. The median values of the MSRMS and MSPE are calculated for further analysis. The results show an increase in amplitude for sEMG signals under fatigue condition. MSRMS values are found to be significantly higher in fatigue. An approximately constant difference in MSRMS value between fatigue and non-fatigue condition is observed over the entire time scale with a negative slope. Further, the median of MSRMS values for each subject is able to distinguish fatigue and non-fatigue conditions. Similar analysis on MSPE showed significant difference between fatigue and non-fatigue cases and lower values of MSPE is observed in fatigue. It is also observed that the median value of MSRMS and MSPE are able to distinguish these conditions. t-test for MSRMS, MSPE and their median value show high statistical significance. It appears that this method of analysis can be used for clinical evaluation of muscles.

  18. Some specific features of a surface-screw plasma instability in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavaev, G.F.; Tsipivka, Yu.I.

    1976-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the dispersion relation has been carried out, which enables to discover some new peculiarities in the behaviour of the surface helical instability (SHI) of a semiconductor plasma. To simplify the dispersion relation a semiconductor with nearly equal electron and hole mobilities has been considered. The dependences of threshold characteristics of SHI on a magnetic field H for different angular harmonics are represented graphically. A comparison of the formulas obtained shows that the approximation of truncated series yields an incorrect qualitative dependence of the wavelength on H, whereas asymptotic formulas in the range of strong magnetic fields yield not only a correct qualitative dependence of the threshold characteristics on H, but also a good quantitative agreement

  19. Visibility of lunar surface features - Apollo 14 orbital observations and lunar landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziedman, K.

    1972-01-01

    Description of an in-flight visibility test conducted during the Apollo 14 mission for the purpose of validating and extending the mathematical visibility models used previously in the course of the Apollo program to examine the constraints on descent operations imposed by lunar visibility limitations. Following a background review of the effects on mission planning of the visibility limitations due to downsun lunar surface detail 'washout' and a discussion of the visibility prediction techniques previously used for studying lunar visibility problems, the visibility test rationale and procedures are defined and the test results presented. The results appear to confirm the validity of the visibility prediction techniques employed in lunar visibility problem studies. These results provide also a basis for improving the accuracy of the prediction techniques by appropriate modifications.

  20. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper

  1. Application of Amniotic Membrane in Ocular Surface Diseases: Clinical Features and Treatment Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Cindarik

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To investigate the effectiveness of amniotic membrane transplantation in cases with corneal thinning, desmatocele and refractive corneal ulcer. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Fifty-four eyes of 54 patients who were applied amniotic membrane transplantation for various ocular surface disease between January 2004 and February 2009 in Çukurova University Ophthalmology Department were included in the study. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed. Corneal culture and corneal cytology samples were collected from the patients with the diagnosis of corneal ulcers. The patients were informed about the surgical procedure and the possible complications and informed consent was obtained. The amniotic membranes that were prepared under optimal conditions and protected in frozen forms were used in the operations. Follow-up examinations were done at postoperative 1st day, 1st week, 1st month, 3rd month, 6th month and then once in a year. Re sults: Of 54 patients, 26 (48.1% were men and 28 (51.8% were women. The mean age of patients was 52.53±19.75 (2-87 years. The cases were separated into 2 groups according to the etiology: group 1 - eyes with corneal ulcer (n:26 and group 2 - eyes with corneal stromal thinning, persistent epithelial defects and desmatocel (n:28. The transplantations were performed using cover technique in 17 eyes (31.4%, graft technique in 37 eyes (68.5% and graft technique with corneal patch in 2 eyes (3.7%. Partial penetrating keratoplasty was required in 38 of 54 eyes (70.3%. One eye was enucleated. Dis cus si on: The amniotic membrane transplantation has advantages like: it can be prepared easily and is cost-effective. It is a safe and effective procedure in ocular surface disease. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 177-82

  2. Destination: Geology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  3. Computer vision-based apple grading for golden delicious apples based on surface features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payman Moallem

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a computer vision-based algorithm for golden delicious apple grading is proposed which works in six steps. Non-apple pixels as background are firstly removed from input images. Then, stem end is detected by combination of morphological methods and Mahalanobis distant classifier. Calyx region is also detected by applying K-means clustering on the Cb component in YCbCr color space. After that, defects segmentation is achieved using Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP neural network. In the next step, stem end and calyx regions are removed from defected regions to refine and improve apple grading process. Then, statistical, textural and geometric features from refined defected regions are extracted. Finally, for apple grading, a comparison between performance of Support Vector Machine (SVM, MLP and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN classifiers is done. Classification is done in two manners which in the first one, an input apple is classified into two categories of healthy and defected. In the second manner, the input apple is classified into three categories of first rank, second rank and rejected ones. In both grading steps, SVM classifier works as the best one with recognition rate of 92.5% and 89.2% for two categories (healthy and defected and three quality categories (first rank, second rank and rejected ones, among 120 different golden delicious apple images, respectively, considering K-folding with K = 5. Moreover, the accuracy of the proposed segmentation algorithms including stem end detection and calyx detection are evaluated for two different apple image databases.

  4. Modeling of Geological Objects and Geophysical Fields Using Haar Wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Dolgal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a presentation of application of the fast wavelet transform with basic Haar functions for modeling the structural surfaces and geophysical fields, characterized by fractal features. The multiscale representation of experimental data allows reducing significantly a cost of the processing of large volume data and improving the interpretation quality. This paper presents the algorithms for sectionally prismatic approximation of geological objects, for preliminary estimation of the number of equivalent sources for the analytical approximation of fields, and for determination of the rock magnetization in the upper part of the geological section.

  5. Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, John; Frankel, Kurt L.

    2011-05-01

    Structural geology and continental tectonics were ushered in to the modern quantitative age of geosciences with the arrival of the global plate tectonics paradigm (circa 1968), derived using new data from the oceans' depths, and John Ramsay's 1967 seminal work, Folding and Fracturing of Rocks. Fossen is to be applauded for crafting a unique, high-caliber, and accessible undergraduate textbook on structural geology that faithfully reflects this advance and the subsequent evolution of the discipline. This well-written text draws on Fossen's wealth of professional experience, including his broad and diverse academic research and experience in the petroleum industry. This book is beautifully illustrated, with excellent original color diagrams and with impressive color field photographs that are all keyed to locations and placed into geologic context.

  6. Geology and physical properties of the near-surface rocks of Mesita de los Alamos, Los Alamos County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtymun, W.D.

    1967-01-01

    The surface of Mesita de los Alamos is formed by units 2b and 3 of the Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff. These units dip gently east-southeastward at 3 to 6 degrees. The units are faulted near the center of the mesa by a north-south trending normal strike slip fault, that is downthrown about 14 feet to the east. The units east of the fault have moved about 14 feet south relative to the units on the west side of the fault. Units 2b and 3 have bulk density values ranging from 80 to 120 pounds per cubic foot. The moisture content of the tuff below the soil zone and near surface tuff was less than 5 percent by volume in five of the 25 test holes drilled during a foundation investigation for the Meson Facility. The temperature of the tuff in the bottom of three test holes (depth 16 to 43 feet) varied from 50?F to 54?F. Temperature variations were a function of density and amount of solar radiation.

  7. The Word Composite Effect Depends on Abstract Lexical Representations But Not Surface Features Like Case and Font.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Paulo; Fernandes, Tânia; Leite, Isabel; Almeida, Vítor B; Casqueiro, Inês; Wong, Alan C-N

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that words show a composite effect: When readers perform a same-different matching task on a target-part of a word, performance is affected by the irrelevant part, whose influence is severely reduced when the two parts are misaligned. However, the locus of this word composite effect is largely unknown. To enlighten it, in two experiments, Portuguese readers performed the composite task on letter strings: in Experiment 1, in written words varying in surface features (between-participants: courier, notera, alternating-cAsE), and in Experiment 2 in pseudowords. The word composite effect, signaled by a significant interaction between alignment of the two word parts and congruence between parts was found in the three conditions of Experiment 1, being unaffected by NoVeLtY of the configuration or by handwritten form. This effect seems to have a lexical locus, given that in Experiment 2 only the main effect of congruence between parts was significant and was not modulated by alignment. Indeed, the cross-experiment analysis showed that words presented stronger congruence effects than pseudowords only in the aligned condition, because when misaligned the whole lexical item configuration was disrupted. Therefore, the word composite effect strongly depends on abstract lexical representations, as it is unaffected by surface features and is specific to lexical items.

  8. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students’ Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of two question prompts. We asked four versions of the question with different combinations of the two plant species and order of prompts in an introductory cell biology course. We found that there was not a significant difference in the content of student responses to versions of the question stem with different species or order of prompts, using both computerized lexical analysis and expert scoring. We conducted 20 face-to-face interviews with students to further probe the effects of question wording on student responses. During the interviews, we found that students thought that the plant species was neither relevant nor confusing when answering the question. Students identified the prompts as both relevant and confusing. However, this confusion was not specific to a single version. PMID:25999312

  9. Deconstructing geologic slip rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, R. D.

    2017-12-01

    Discrepancies between geologic and geodetic slip rates are recognized globally. However, understanding the significance of those discrepancies requires a complete inventory of the sources of uncertainty often deeply hidden or ignored in slip-rate estimates. In this presentation, I will examine underappreciated complexities associated with geologic estimates of fault slip rates along strike-slip faults. Slip-rate measurements are made from geomorphic features displaced by faulting and age constraints derived from chronologic or stratigraphic data. Sources of uncertainty associated with offset measurements include measurement errors, ambiguities in feature reconstructions, and distributed faulting and bulk off-fault deformation. Sources of uncertainty associated with age constraints include analytical uncertainties, inheritance in the sample material, post-depositional contamination, and often most critically, ambiguity in how to associate sample ages with the landforms or deposits from which they were collected. Additional sources of uncertainty associated with slip-rate measurements include the time interval over which geologic slip rates are determined (e.g., number of earthquake cycles) and the impact of secular variation in slip. I will use case studies from the San Andreas fault system, the Walker Lane, and Tibet to explore sources of uncertainty in geologic slip rates and highlight practices that can mitigate those uncertainties. I will emphasize the need for bracketing the age of faulted landforms using numerous geochronometers, documenting numerous offset landforms, and sampling a range of magnitudes of slip in a probabilistic framework.

  10. Terrestrial analogs, planetary geology, and the nature of geological reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Victor R.

    2014-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical to planetary geology, but its role can be misconstrued by those unfamiliar with the practice of that science. The methodological importance of analogy to geology lies in the formulation of genetic hypotheses, an absolutely essential component of geological reasoning that was either ignored or denigrated by most 20th century philosophers of science, who took the theoretical/ experimental methodology of physics to be the sole model for all of scientific inquiry. Following the seminal 19th century work of Grove Karl Gilbert, an early pioneer of planetary geology, it has long been recognized that broad experience with and understanding of terrestrial geological phenomena provide geologists with their most effective resource for the invention of potentially fruitful, working hypotheses. The actions of (1) forming such hypotheses, (2) following their consequences, and (3) testing those consequences comprise integral parts of effective geological practice in regard to the understanding of planetary surfaces. Nevertheless, the logical terminology and philosophical bases for such practice will be unfamiliar to most planetary scientists, both geologists and nongeologists. The invention of geological hypotheses involves both inductive inferences of the type Gilbert termed “empiric classification” and abductive inferences of a logical form made famous by the 19th century American logician Charles Sanders Peirce. The testing and corroboration of geological hypotheses relies less on the correspondence logic of theoretical/ experimental sciences, like physics, and more on the logic of consistency, coherence, and consilience that characterizes the investigative and historical sciences of interpretation exemplified by geology.

  11. Spatial features of dose-surface maps from deformably-registered plans correlate with late gastrointestinal complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Calyn R.; House, Michael J.; Lye, Victoria; Tang, Colin I.; Krawiec, Michele; Joseph, David J.; Denham, James W.; Ebert, Martin A.

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the associations between spatial distribution of dose to the rectal surface and observed gastrointestinal toxicities after deformably registering each phase of a combined external beam radiotherapy (EBRT)/high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRBT) prostate cancer treatment. The study contains data for 118 patients where the HDRBT CT was deformably-registered to the EBRT CT. The EBRT and registered HDRBT TG43 dose distributions in a reference 2 Gy/fraction were 3D-summed. Rectum dose-surface maps (DSMs) were obtained by virtually unfolding the rectum surface slice-by-slice. Associations with late peak gastrointestinal toxicities were investigated using voxel-wise DSM analysis as well as parameterised spatial patterns. The latter were obtained by thresholding DSMs from 1-80 Gy (increment  =  1) and extracting inferior-superior extent, left-right extent, area, perimeter, compactness, circularity and ellipse fit parameters. Logistic regressions and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to correlate features with toxicities. Rectal bleeding, stool frequency, diarrhoea and urgency/tenesmus were associated with greater lateral and/or longitudinal spread of the high doses near the anterior rectal surface. Rectal bleeding and stool frequency were also influenced by greater low-intermediate doses to the most inferior 20% of the rectum and greater low-intermediate-high doses to 40-80% of the rectum length respectively. Greater low-intermediate doses to the superior 20% and inferior 20% of the rectum length were associated with anorectal pain and urgency/tenesmus respectively. Diarrhoea, completeness of evacuation and proctitis were also related to greater low doses to the posterior side of the rectum. Spatial features for the intermediate-high dose regions such as area, perimeter, compactness, circularity, ellipse eccentricity and confinement to ellipse fits were strongly associated with toxicities other than anorectal pain. Consequently, toxicity is

  12. Surface analogue outcrops of deep fractured basement reservoirs in extensional geological settings. Examples within active rift system (Uganda) and proximal passive margin (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Bastien; Géraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc

    2014-05-01

    The important role of extensive brittle faults and related structures in the development of reservoirs has already been demonstrated, notably in initially low-porosity rocks such as basement rocks. Large varieties of deep-seated resources (e.g. water, hydrocarbons, geothermal energy) are recognized in fractured basement reservoirs. Brittle faults and fracture networks can develop sufficient volumes to allow storage and transfer of large amounts of fluids. Development of hydraulic model with dual-porosity implies the structural and petrophysical characterization of the basement. Drain porosity is located within the larger fault zones, which are the main fluid transfer channels. The storage porosity corresponds both to the matrix porosity and to the volume produced by the different fractures networks (e.g. tectonic, primary), which affect the whole reservoir rocks. Multi-scale genetic and geometric relationships between these deformation features support different orders of structural domains in a reservoir, from several tens of kilometers to few tens of meters. In subsurface, 3D seismic data in basement can be sufficient to characterize the largest first order of structural domains and bounding fault zones (thickness, main orientation, internal architecture, …). However, lower order structural blocks and fracture networks are harder to define. The only available data are 1D borehole electric imaging and are used to characterize the lowest order. Analog outcrop studies of basement rocks fill up this resolution gap and help the understanding of brittle deformation, definition of reservoir geometries and acquirement of reservoir properties. These geological outcrop studies give information about structural blocks of second and third order, getting close to the field scale. This allows to understand relationships between brittle structures geometry and factors controlling their development, such as the structural inheritance or the lithology (e.g. schistosity, primary

  13. Modeling of Geological Objects and Geophysical Fields Using Haar Wavelets

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Dolgal

    2014-01-01

    This article is a presentation of application of the fast wavelet transform with basic Haar functions for modeling the structural surfaces and geophysical fields, characterized by fractal features. The multiscale representation of experimental data allows reducing significantly a cost of the processing of large volume data and improving the interpretation quality. This paper presents the algorithms for sectionally prismatic approximation of geological objects, for preliminary estimation of th...

  14. Geology of National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2008-01-01

    This is a set of two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect. A search on the World Wide Web will yield many sites about anaglyphs and where to get 3D glasses. Red-blue glasses will do but red-cyan glasses are a little better. This publication features a photo quiz game: Name that park! where you can explore, interpret, and identify selected park landscapes. Can you identify landscape features in the images? Can you explain processes that may have helped form the landscape features? You can get the answers online.

  15. EFFECT OF TOPOGRAPHIC AND GEOLOGIC HETEROGENEITIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geologic heterogeneities and topographic variations in relation to aquifer distribution ad occurrence in Akwa Ibom State have been assessed based on geologic and geophysical studies sixty-six sounding points together with electric log responses of representative wells together with surface geologic data have been ...

  16. Geology Fulbrights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulbright grants in geology for 1988-89 remain open. Specific opportunities are available in Egypt, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Iraq, Kuwait, Morocco, Mozambique, Oman, Poland, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Turkey, U.S.S.R., West Bank, Yemen, and Zimbabwe. Other countries are also open to applications in any discipline, and geology is among their preferred fields.The grants are available until awarded and are open only to U.S. citizens. In Central and South America and French-speaking Africa, knowledge of host-country language is required. For more information, contact the Council for International Exchange of Scholars (CIES), 11 Dupont Circle N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036; tel. 202-939-5401.

  17. Synthesis of thirty years of surface water quality and aquatic biota data in Shenandoah National Park: Collaboration between the US Geological Survey and the National Park Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen C.; Jastram, John D.; Wofford, John E.B.; Schaberl, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The eastern United States has been the recipient of acidic atmospheric deposition (hereinafter, “acid rain”) for many decades. Deleterious effects of acid rain on natural resources have been well documented for surface water (e.g., Likens et al. 1996; Stoddard et al. 2001), soils (Bailey et al. 2005), forest health (Long et al. 2009), and habitat suitability for stream biota (Baker et al. 1993). Shenandoah National Park (SNP) is located in northern and central Virginia and consists of a long, narrow strip of land straddling the Blue Ridge Mountains (Figure 1). The park’s elevated topography and location downwind of the Ohio River valley, where many acidic emissions to the atmosphere are generated (NSTC 2005), have made it a target for acid rain. Characterizing the link between air quality and water quality as related to acid rain, contaminants, soil conditions, and forest health is a high priority for research and monitoring in SNP. The US Geological Survey (USGS) and SNP have had a long history of collaboration on documenting acid rain effects on the park’s natural resources, starting in 1985 and continuing to the present (Lynch and Dise 1985; Rice et al. 2001, 2004, 2005, 2007; Deviney et al. 2006, 2012; Jastram et al. 2013).

  18. Operation environment construction of geological information database for high level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Gao Min; Huang Shutao; Wang Shuhong; Zhao Yongan

    2014-01-01

    To fulfill the requirements of data storage and management in HLW geological disposal, a targeted construction method for data operation environment was proposed in this paper. The geological information database operation environment constructed by this method has its unique features. And it also will be the important support for HLW geological disposal project and management. (authors)

  19. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  20. A state geological survey commitment to environmental geology - the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wermund, E.G.

    1990-01-01

    In several Texas environmental laws, the Bureau of Economic Geology is designated as a planning participant and review agency in the process of fulfilling environmental laws. Two examples are legislation on reclamation of surface mines and regulation of processing low level radioactive wastes. Also, the Bureau is the principal geological reviewer of all Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements which the Office of the Governor circulates for state review on all major developmental activities in Texas. The BEG continues its strong interest in environmental geology. In February 1988, it recommitted its Land Resources Laboratory, initiated in 1974, toward fulfilling needs of state, county, and city governments for consultation and research on environmental geologic problems. An editorial from another state geological survey would resemble the about description of texas work in environmental geology. State geological surveys have led federal agencies into many developments of environmental geology, complemented federal efforts in their evolution, and continued a strong commitment to the maintenance of a quality environment through innovative geologic studies

  1. Geology of outer Horns Rev, Danish North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Joern B.; Gravesen, P.; Lomholt, S. (Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2008-07-15

    In 2006, Dong Energy initiated the development of the Horns Rev II offshore wind farm in the North Sea. In order to evaluate and map the characteristics of the surface features of the sea bed and to characterise the subsurface in the wind farm area, the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) conducted a geophysical survey of the area. The survey utilised a variety of instruments: sparker, side-scan sonar, marine caesium magnetometer and a multibeam echo-sounder. In addition, information on the subsurface sediments was obtained by cone penetration tests (CPT) and by drilling to 30-50 m below the sea bottom. Geological correlation of the CPT results with the other survey results was extremely complicated but was required in order to understand the architecture of the ice marginal glaciotectonic complex. Information on the geology is crucial for evaluation of the geotechnical problems of the region. (au)

  2. Mine layout, geological features and seismic hazard.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Aswegen, G

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available .4 Stable and Unstable System Response.................................................................... 28 Figure 4.5 Comparative degree of softening present within two systems.................................. 29 Figure 4.6 Stable asperity failure... with high loading stiffness of surrounding rock....................... 30 Figure 4.7 Unstable asperity failure resulting from low loading stiffness of the surrounding rock...

  3. Glacial Features (Point) - Quad 186 (HAMPTON, NH-MA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of New Hampshire — The Glacial Features (Point) layer describes point features associated with surficial geology. These glacial features include, but are not limited to, delta forsets,...

  4. Crossing the dividing surface of transition state theory. IV. Dynamical regularity and dimensionality reduction as key features of reactive trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorquet, J C

    2017-04-07

    higher energies, these characteristics persist, but to a lesser degree. Recrossings of the dividing surface then become much more frequent and the phase space volumes of initial conditions that generate recrossing-free trajectories decrease. Altogether, one ends up with an additional illustration of the concept of reactive cylinder (or conduit) in phase space that reactive trajectories must follow. Reactivity is associated with dynamical regularity and dimensionality reduction, whatever the shape of the potential energy surface, no matter how strong its anharmonicity, and whatever the curvature of its reaction path. Both simplifying features persist during the entire reactive process, up to complete separation of fragments. The ergodicity assumption commonly assumed in statistical theories is inappropriate for reactive trajectories.

  5. Crossing the dividing surface of transition state theory. IV. Dynamical regularity and dimensionality reduction as key features of reactive trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorquet, J. C.

    2017-04-01

    energies, these characteristics persist, but to a lesser degree. Recrossings of the dividing surface then become much more frequent and the phase space volumes of initial conditions that generate recrossing-free trajectories decrease. Altogether, one ends up with an additional illustration of the concept of reactive cylinder (or conduit) in phase space that reactive trajectories must follow. Reactivity is associated with dynamical regularity and dimensionality reduction, whatever the shape of the potential energy surface, no matter how strong its anharmonicity, and whatever the curvature of its reaction path. Both simplifying features persist during the entire reactive process, up to complete separation of fragments. The ergodicity assumption commonly assumed in statistical theories is inappropriate for reactive trajectories.

  6. Clinical and Immunological Features of Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome in the Era of Neuronal Cell Surface Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armangué, Thaís; Sabater, Lidia; Torres-Vega, Estefanía; Martínez-Hernández, Eugenia; Ariño, Helena; Petit-Pedrol, Mar; Planagumà, Jesús; Bataller, Luis; Dalmau, Josep; Graus, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    Most studies on opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) in adults are based on small case series before the era of neuronal cell surface antibody discovery. To report the clinical and immunological features of idiopathic OMS (I-OMS) and paraneoplastic OMS (P-OMS), the occurrence of antibodies to cell surface antigens, and the discovery of a novel cell surface epitope. Retrospective cohort study and laboratory investigations of 114 adult patients with OMS at a center for autoimmune neurological disorders done between January 2013 and September 2015. Review of clinical records. Immunohistochemistry on rat brain and cultured neurons as well as cell-based assays were used to identify known autoantibodies. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were used to characterize novel antigens. Of the 114 patients (62 [54%] female; median age, 45 years; interquartile range, 32-60 years), 45 (39%) had P-OMS and 69 (61%) had I-OMS. In patients with P-OMS, the associated tumors included lung cancer (n = 19), breast cancer (n = 10), other cancers (n = 5), and ovarian teratoma (n = 8); 3 additional patients without detectable cancer were considered to have P-OMS because they had positive results for onconeuronal antibodies. Patients with I-OMS, compared with those who had P-OMS, were younger (median age, 38 [interquartile range, 31-50] vs 54 [interquartile range, 45-65] years; P OMS with lung cancer (21% vs 5% in patients with OMS without lung cancer; P = .02); however, a similar frequency of glycine receptor antibodies was found in patients with lung cancer without OMS (13 of 65 patients [20%]). A novel cell surface epitope, human natural killer 1 (HNK-1), was the target of the antibodies in 3 patients with lung cancer and P-OMS. Patients with I-OMS responded better to treatment and had fewer relapses than those with P-OMS. Older age and encephalopathy, significantly associated with P-OMS, are clinical clues suggesting an underlying tumor. Glycine receptor antibodies occur

  7. Secondary shock features for large surface explosions: results from the Sayarim Military Range, Israel and other experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitterman, Y.

    2014-05-01

    A series of surface explosions was designed and conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel at the Sayarim Military Range in the Negev desert, including two large-scale explosions: approx. 82 tons of high explosives in 2009, and approx. 100 tons of low-grade ANFO explosives in 2011. The main goal of the explosions was to provide large controlled sources for calibration of global infrasound stations designated for monitoring nuclear tests; however, the geophysical experiment also provided valuable observations for shock wave research. High-pressure gauges were deployed at distances between 100 and 600 m to record air blast properties and to provide reliable estimation of the true charge yield compared to the design value. Secondary shock phenomena were clearly observed at all near-source gauges as characteristic shock wave shapes. Secondary shocks were also observed at numerous seismic and acoustic sensors deployed in the range 0.3-20 km as acoustic phases. Empirical relationships for standard air blast parameters (peak pressure and impulse) and for a new parameter called secondary shock time delay, as a function of distance, were established and analyzed. The standard parameters, scaled by the cubic root of the estimated TNT yield, were found to be consistent for all analyzed explosions. However, the scaled secondary shock delays were clearly separated for the 2009 and 2011 explosions, thus demonstrating dependence on the explosive type. Additionally, air blast records from other experiments were used to extend the charge and distance ranges for the secondary shock observation, and showed consistency with the Sayarim data. Analysis and interpretation of observed features of the secondary shock phenomenon are proposed and a new empirical relationship of scaled secondary shock delay versus scaled distance is established. The results suggest that the secondary shock delay can be used as a new additional waveform feature for simple and cost-effective explosive

  8. Unsupervised feature learning for autonomous rock image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Lei; McIsaac, Kenneth; Osinski, Gordon R.; Francis, Raymond

    2017-09-01

    Autonomous rock image classification can enhance the capability of robots for geological detection and enlarge the scientific returns, both in investigation on Earth and planetary surface exploration on Mars. Since rock textural images are usually inhomogeneous and manually hand-crafting features is not always reliable, we propose an unsupervised feature learning method to autonomously learn the feature representation for rock images. In our tests, rock image classification using the learned features shows that the learned features can outperform manually selected features. Self-taught learning is also proposed to learn the feature representation from a large database of unlabelled rock images of mixed class. The learned features can then be used repeatedly for classification of any subclass. This takes advantage of the large dataset of unlabelled rock images and learns a general feature representation for many kinds of rocks. We show experimental results supporting the feasibility of self-taught learning on rock images.

  9. Documentation of a restart option for the U.S. Geological Survey coupled Groundwater and Surface-Water Flow (GSFLOW) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, R. Steve; Niswonger, Richard G.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Barlow, Paul M.

    2015-10-02

    A new option to write and read antecedent conditions (also referred to as initial conditions) has been developed for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Groundwater and Surface-Water Flow (GSFLOW) numerical, hydrologic simulation code. GSFLOW is an integration of the USGS Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and USGS Modular Groundwater-Flow Model (MODFLOW), and provides three simulation modes: MODFLOW-only, PRMS-only, and GSFLOW (or coupled). The new capability, referred to as the restart option, can be used for all three simulation modes, such that the results from a pair (or set) of spin-up and restart simulations are nearly identical to results produced from a continuous simulation for the same time period. The restart option writes all results to files at the end of a spin-up simulation that are required to initialize a subsequent restart simulation. Previous versions of GSFLOW have had some capability to save model results for use as antecedent condiitions in subsequent simulations; however, the existing capabilities were not comprehensive or easy to use. The new restart option supersedes the previous methods. The restart option was developed in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service as part of the Integrated Water Resources Science and Services Partnership. The primary focus for the development of the restart option was to support medium-range (7- to 14-day) forecasts of low streamflow conditions made by the National Weather Service for critical water-supply basins in which groundwater plays an important role.

  10. Challenges related to flotation cleaning of oil shales. Issues due to compositional and surface features and post-grinding surface behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altun N. Emre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil shale is an important energy resource alternative. Despite its recognition as an unconventional oil source, oil shale is also considered as an important solid fossil fuel alternative to coal and lignites due to the solid form and remarkable extent of organic content. Utilization possibilites, similar to coal and lignites, have been considered in the past decades and direct use of oil shales in thermal power production has been possible in countries like Estonia and China. In the perspective of utilization of oil shales in a similar manner to coal and lignites, problems and restrictions related to the inorganic ash-making and potentially pollutant constituents are applied. In this respect, cleaning of this important energy source through mineral processing methods, particularly by flotation, is an outstanding option. However, on the basis of unique features and distinctive characteristics, treatment of oil shales like a type of coal is a big perception and may be highly misleading. This paper discusses specific challenges regarding flotation behavior of oil shales with reference to the surface characteristics and behavior of oil shale entities – probably the most important aspect that determines the efficiency and success of the flotation based cleaning process.

  11. Geology of Lofn Crater, Callisto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Ronald; Heiner, Sarah; Klemaszewski, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Lofn crater is a 180-km-diameter impact structure in the southern cratered plains of Callisto and is among the youngest features seen on the surface. The Lofn area was imaged by the Galileo spacecraft at regional-scale resolutions (875 m/pixel), which enable the general geology to be investigated. The morphology of Lofn crater suggests that (1) it is a class of impact structure intermediate between complex craters and palimpsests or (2) it formed by the impact of a projectile which fragmented before reaching the surface, resulting in a shallow crater (even for Callisto). The asymmetric pattern of the rim and ejecta deposits suggests that the impactor entered at a low angle from the northwest. The albedo and other characteristics of the ejecta deposits from Lofn also provide insight into the properties of the icy lithosphere and subsurface configuration at the time of impact. The "target" for the Lofn impact is inferred to have included layered materials associated with the Adlinda multiring structure northwest of Loh and ejecta deposits from the Heimdall crater area to the southeast. The Lofn impact might have penetrated through these materials into a viscous substrate of ductile ice or possibly liquid water. This interpretation is consistent with models of the current interior of Callisto based on geophysical information obtained from the Galileo spacecraft.

  12. Structure Crack Identification Based on Surface-mounted Active Sensor Network with Time-Domain Feature Extraction and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunling DU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work the condition of metallic structures are classified based on the acquired sensor data from a surface-mounted piezoelectric sensor/actuator network. The structures are aluminum plates with riveted holes and possible crack damage at these holes. A 400 kHz sine wave burst is used as diagnostic signals. The combination of time-domain S0 waves from received sensor signals is directly used as features and preprocessing is not needed for the dam age detection. Since the time sequence of the extracted S0 has a high dimension, principal component estimation is applied to reduce its dimension before entering NN (neural network training for classification. An LVQ (learning vector quantization NN is used to classify the conditions as healthy or damaged. A number of FEM (finite element modeling results are taken as inputs to the NN for training, since the simulated S0 waves agree well with the experimental results on real plates. The performance of the classification is then validated by using these testing results.

  13. Features, events, processes, and safety factor analysis applied to a near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, M.E.; Dolinar, G.M.; Lange, B.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An analysis of features, events, processes (FEPs) and other safety factors was applied to AECL`s proposed IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) near-surface LLRW disposal facility. The FEP analysis process which had been developed for and applied to high-level and transuranic disposal concepts was adapted for application to a low-level facility for which significant efforts in developing a safety case had already been made. The starting point for this process was a series of meetings of the project team to identify and briefly describe FEPs or safety factors which they thought should be considered. At this early stage participants were specifically asked not to screen ideas. This initial list was supplemented by selecting FEPs documented in other programs and comments received from an initial regulatory review. The entire list was then sorted by topic and common issues were grouped, and issues were classified in three priority categories and assigned to individuals for resolution. In this paper, the issue identification and resolution process will be described, from the initial description of an issue to its resolution and inclusion in the various levels of the safety case documentation.

  14. The geology of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, T. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Head, J. W., III; Jones, K. L.; Saunders, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    The book constitutes a topographic/geologic atlas of Mars compiled on the basis of data from the various Mariner missions. A large number of maps has been included which systematically describe the character and distribution of the principal landforms: craters, channels, volcanoes, and faults; also related properties such as albedo, elevation, and wind streaks. Pictures of all the important topographic features have been included. The discussion of the material is carried out with a minimum of technical detail, and Mars is examined within a context of interplanetary comparisons.

  15. The Geology of Callisto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    The geology of Callisto is not boring. Although cratered terrain dominates Callisto (a key end-member of the Jovian satellite system), a number of more interesting features are apparent. Cratered terrain is broken into irregular map-able bright and dark subunits that vary in albedo by a factor of 2, and several relatively smooth units are depleted of small craters. Some of these areas may have been volcanically resurfaced. Lineaments, including parallel and radial sets, may be evidence for early global tectonism. Frost deposition occurs in cold traps, and impact scars have formed from tidally disrupted comets. Geologic evidence suggests that Callisto does have a chemically differentiated crust. Central pit and central dome craters and palimpsests are common. The preferred interpretation is that a relatively ice-rich material, at depths of 5 km or more, has been mobilized during impact and exposed as domes or palimpsests. The close similarity in crater morphologies and dimensions indicates that the outermost 10 km or so of Callisto may be as differentiated as on Ganymede. The geology of cratered terrain on Callisto is simpler than that of cratered terrain on Ganymede, however. Orbital evolution and tidal heating may provide the answer to the riddle of why Callisto and Ganymede are so different (Malhotra, 1991). We should expect a few surprises and begins to answer some fundamental questions when Callisto is observed by Galileo in late 1996.

  16. Evolution features of the surface latent heat flux anomalies over the tropical Pacific associated with two types of ENSO events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Lian-Tong

    2017-09-01

    The present study investigates the features of the surface latent heat flux (LHF) anomalies and their related variables over the tropical Pacific during two types of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events and seeks a possible candidate for the main contributions to the LHF anomalies. During El Niño Modoki and canonical El Niño events, the LHFs show positive anomalies over the equatorial central Pacific and in the areas immediately south of the equatorial eastern Pacific. In addition, the largest magnitudes and widest ranges of positive LHF anomalies for both types of events occur during their mature stages rather than during their developing or decaying phases. Analyses show that the positive LHF anomalies associated with both events are largely affected by the positive sea-air humidity difference anomalies. However, the negative surface wind speed anomalies associated with the canonical El Niño events clearly contribute to the decreases in the positive LHF anomalies over the central Pacific and in the area immediately north of the equatorial eastern Pacific due to the presence of westerly and northerly anomalies, respectively. Moreover, over the equatorial central Pacific and in the area immediately south of the eastern Pacific, the LHF anomalies are mainly influenced by oceanic variables during both types of ENSO events, indicating an atmospheric response to oceanic forcing. In contrast, outside of the area spanning 10° north and south of the equator in the tropical Pacific and with the exception of the southeastern region, the LHF anomalies are greatly influenced by atmospheric variables, suggesting an oceanic response to atmospheric forcing. Distinct differences exist during the mature event phase, with oceanic forcing dominating the equatorial central Pacific during El Niño Modoki events and the area immediately south of the equatorial eastern Pacific during canonical El Niño events. In addition, both types of ENSO events suggest the increasing

  17. Northeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, ground-water resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crusal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented on the relationship between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  18. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, groundwater resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process. 43 figs., 15 tabs

  19. Geology and bedrock engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This book deals with geology of Korea which includes summary, geology in central part and southern part in Korea and characteristic of geology structure, limestone like geology property of limestone, engineered property of limestone, and design and construction case in limestone area. It also introduces engineered property of the cenozoic, clay rock and shale, geologic and engineered property of phyllite and stratum.

  20. Geologic mapping procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Geologic mapping will provide a baseline record of the subsurface geology in the shafts and drifts of the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF). This information will be essential in confirming the specific repository horizon, selecting representative locations for the in situ tests, providing information for construction and decommissioning seal designs, documenting the excavation effects, and in providing information for performance assessment, which relates to the ultimate suitability of the site as a nuclear waste repository. Geologic mapping will be undertaken on the walls and roof, and locally on the floor within the completed At-Depth Facility (ADF) and on the walls of the two access shafts. Periodic mapping of the exposed face may be conducted during construction of the ADF. The mapping will be oriented toward the collection and presentation of geologic information in an engineering format and the portrayal of detailed stratigraphic information which may be useful in confirmation of drillhole data collected as part of the surface-based testing program. Geologic mapping can be considered as a predictive tool as well as a means of checking design assumptions. This document provides a description of the required procedures for geologic mapping for the ESF. Included in this procedure is information that qualified technical personnel can use to collect the required types of geologic descriptions, at the appropriate level of detail. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. Application of radon survey to engineering geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xionghua; Wang Xiaoqun; Liu Huajun; Wei Yunjie

    2004-01-01

    Analyzing the principle and theoretical basis of radon survey and relations between radon anomalies and different geologic phenomena, this paper proposes criteria for determining radon anomaly and features of radon emanation anomaly. The important role of radon survey in engineering geology is discussed on specific by engineering examples

  2. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  3. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  4. Summary on several key techniques in 3D geological modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Several key techniques in 3D geological modeling including planar mesh generation, spatial interpolation, and surface intersection are summarized in this paper. Note that these techniques are generic and widely used in various applications but play a key role in 3D geological modeling. There are two essential procedures in 3D geological modeling: the first is the simulation of geological interfaces using geometric surfaces and the second is the building of geological objects by means of various geometric computations such as the intersection of surfaces. Discrete geometric surfaces that represent geological interfaces can be generated by creating planar meshes first and then spatially interpolating; those surfaces intersect and then form volumes that represent three-dimensional geological objects such as rock bodies. In this paper, the most commonly used algorithms of the key techniques in 3D geological modeling are summarized.

  5. Geoethics and Forensic Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Laurance

    2017-04-01

    The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), Initiative on Forensic Geology (IFG) was set up in 2011 to promote and develop the applications of geology to policing and law enforcement throughout the world. This includes the provision of crime scene examinations, searches to locate graves or items of interest that have been buried beneath the ground surface as part of a criminal act and geological trace analysis and evidence. Forensic geologists may assist the police and law enforcement in a range of ways including for example; homicide, sexual assaults, counter terrorism, kidnapping, humanitarian incidents, environmental crimes, precious minerals theft, fakes and fraudulent crimes. The objective of this paper is to consider the geoethical aspects of forensic geology. This includes both delivery to research and teaching, and contribution to the practical applications of forensic geology in case work. The case examples cited are based on the personal experiences of the authors. Often, the technical and scientific aspect of forensic geology investigation may be the most straightforward, after all, this is what the forensic geologist has been trained to do. The associated geoethical issues can be the most challenging and complex to manage. Generally, forensic geologists are driven to carry-out their research or case work with integrity, honesty and in a manner that is law abiding, professional, socially acceptable and highly responsible. This is necessary in advising law enforcement organisations, society and the scientific community that they represent. As the science of forensic geology begins to advance around the world it is desirable to establish a standard set of principles, values and to provide an agreed ethical a framework. But what are these core values? Who is responsible for producing these? How may these become enforced? What happens when geoethical standards are breached? This paper does not attempt to provide all of the answers, as further work

  6. Geology and geochemistry of the Atacama Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, J; González, R; Townley, B; Oliveros, V; Álvarez, F; Aguilar, G; Menzies, A; Calderón, M

    2018-02-14

    The Atacama Desert, the driest of its kind on Earth, hosts a number of unique geological and geochemical features that make it unlike any other environment on the planet. Considering its location on the western border of South America, between 17 and 28 °S, its climate has been characterized as arid to hyperarid for at least the past 10 million years. Notably dry climatic conditions of the Atacama Desert have been related to uplift of the Andes and are believed to have played an important role in the development of the most distinctive features of this desert, including: (i) nitrates and iodine deposits in the Central Depression, (ii) secondary enrichment in porphyry copper deposits in the Precordillera, (iii) Li enrichment in salt flats of the Altiplano, and (iv) life in extreme habitats. The geology and physiography of the Atacama Desert have been largely shaped by the convergent margin present since the Mesozoic era. The geochemistry of surface materials is related to rock geochemistry (Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, V, and Zn), salt flats, and evaporite compositions in endorheic basins (As, B, and Li), in addition to anthropogenic activities (Cu, Mo, and Pb). The composition of surface water is highly variable, nonetheless in general it presents a circumneutral pH with higher conductivity and total dissolved solids in brines. Major water constituents, with the exception of HCO 3 - , are generally related to the increase of salinity, and despite the fact that trace elements are not well-documented, surface waters of the Atacama Desert are enriched in As, B, and Li when compared to the average respective concentrations in rivers worldwide.

  7. CHUVARDINSKY’S ANTIGLACIAL (GENERALIZED GEOLOGICAL CONCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Skufyin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analytical study of V. G. Chuvardinsky’s monographs on the revision of the generally accepted glacial theory, the authors of the review concluded that there was convincing evidence of a fault-tectonic origin of ‘ice-exaration’ relief of the Baltic Shield. Developed by Chuvardinsky, a radically new methodology of boulder prospecting of ore deposits not only refuted the old glacial theory, but also led to the discovery of copper-nickel deposits, a new apatite alkaline massif, promising manifestation of copper-nickel ore, platinum group metals, native gold, chromite and other mineral resources. A thorough drilling of ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica for the international project determined the absence of boulder material over the entire thickness of the ice, only pulverulent and fine particles (mainly volcanic ash were found in the ice. Bottom ice layers are immobilised, their function is preservation of the geological surface. V. G. Chuvardinsky far outstripped western and Russian scientists in the field of Earth Sciences. His field studies on the Baltic Shield not only refuted the mighty glacial theory, but also created and substantiated a new geological concept instead. Professor V. Z. Negrutsa was quite right when he wrote in his review on Chuvardinsky’s work (journal Geomorfologiya, 2003, no. 1, ‘Evidence of Chuvardinsky about tectonic origin of geological and geomorphological features traditionally associated with the Quaternary glaciation is so obvious and reproducible both by field observations and by geological modeling that is presented irrefutable and undeniable in its essence’. In general, assessing the scientific significance of V. G. Chuvardinsky’s works, it can be stated that his work would have done honour to research institutes of geological and geographical orientation according to the level of study of the geological material and the value of his field studies. His books present the material for

  8. Geology - Background complementary studies. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Skagius, Kristina [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)] (eds.)

    2007-09-15

    borehole (VSP) reflection seismic data along profiles 2 and 5, Forsmark, Sweden. Christopher Juhlin. 3. Correlation of 2D surface seismic, vertical seismic profile (VSP), and geological and sonic data in boreholes KFM01A and KFM02A, Forsmark: Background analysis. Nicoleta Enescu and Calin Cosma. 4. Refraction seismic data and bedrock velocity distribution at Forsmark. Johan Nissen. 5. Correlation between refraction seismic data, low magnetic lineaments and deformation zones (model stage 2.2). Hans Isaksson. 6. Interpretation of tomography inversion models for seismic refraction data along profile LFM001017 in Forsmark. Haakan Mattsson. 7. Correlation of oriented radar reflectors with geological features in boreholes at Forsmark. Seje Carlsten.

  9. Bedrock geologic map of Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Nicholas M.; Stanley, Rolfe S.; Gale, Marjorie H.; Thompson, Peter J.; Walsh, Gregory J.; With contributions by Hatch, Norman L.; Rankin, Douglas W.; Doolan, Barry L.; Kim, Jonathan; Mehrtens, Charlotte J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; McHone, J. Gregory; Cartography by Masonic, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    The Bedrock Geologic Map of Vermont is the result of a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the State of Vermont. The State's complex geology spans 1.4 billion years of Earth's history. The new map comes 50 years after the most recent map of the State by Charles G. Doll and others in 1961 and a full 150 years since the publication of the first geologic map of Vermont by Edward Hitchcock and others in 1861. At a scale of 1:100,000, the map shows an uncommon level of detail for State geologic maps. Mapped rock units are primarily based on lithology, or rock type, to facilitate derivative studies in multiple disciplines. The 1961 map was compiled from 1:62,500-scale or smaller maps. The current map was created to integrate more detailed (1:12,000- to 1:24,000-scale) modern and older (1:62,500-scale) mapping with the theory of plate tectonics to provide a framework for geologic, tectonic, economic, hydrogeologic, and environmental characterization of the bedrock of Vermont. The printed map consists of three oversize sheets (52 x 76 inches). Sheets 1 and 2 show the southern and northern halves of Vermont, respectively, and can be trimmed and joined so that the entire State can be displayed as a single entity. These sheets also include 10 cross sections and a geologic structure map. Sheet 3 on the front consists of descriptions of 486 map units, a correlation of map units, and references cited. Sheet 3 on the back features a list of the 195 sources of geologic map data keyed to an index map of 7.5-minute quadrangles in Vermont, as well as a table identifying ages of rocks dated by uranium-lead zircon geochronology.

  10. Tsunami geology in paleoseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuichi Nishimura,; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku-oki disasters dramatically demonstrated the destructiveness and deadliness of tsunamis. For the assessment of future risk posed by tsunamis it is necessary to understand past tsunami events. Recent work on tsunami deposits has provided new information on paleotsunami events, including their recurrence interval and the size of the tsunamis (e.g. [187–189]). Tsunamis are observed not only on the margin of oceans but also in lakes. The majority of tsunamis are generated by earthquakes, but other events that displace water such as landslides and volcanic eruptions can also generate tsunamis. These non-earthquake tsunamis occur less frequently than earthquake tsunamis; it is, therefore, very important to find and study geologic evidence for past eruption and submarine landslide triggered tsunami events, as their rare occurrence may lead to risks being underestimated. Geologic investigations of tsunamis have historically relied on earthquake geology. Geophysicists estimate the parameters of vertical coseismic displacement that tsunami modelers use as a tsunami's initial condition. The modelers then let the simulated tsunami run ashore. This approach suffers from the relationship between the earthquake and seafloor displacement, the pertinent parameter in tsunami generation, being equivocal. In recent years, geologic investigations of tsunamis have added sedimentology and micropaleontology, which focus on identifying and interpreting depositional and erosional features of tsunamis. For example, coastal sediment may contain deposits that provide important information on past tsunami events [190, 191]. In some cases, a tsunami is recorded by a single sand layer. Elsewhere, tsunami deposits can consist of complex layers of mud, sand, and boulders, containing abundant stratigraphic evidence for sediment reworking and redeposition. These onshore sediments are geologic evidence for tsunamis and are called ‘tsunami deposits’ (Figs. 26

  11. Safeguards for geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattah, A.

    2000-01-01

    substantially large. Change in social, economic, environmental and other scenarios might demand recovery of nuclear and other material from the repository sometime in the future. To this end, the Department of Safeguards has developed a policy paper to guide the planner, designer and operator to incorporate safeguards related features, as appropriate. In parallel, a programme for the Development of Safeguards for Final Disposal of Spent Fuel in Geological Repositories (SAGOR) was launched to foster technological advancement. The mission of SAGOR has been to ensure that the safeguards systems developed for the final disposal of spent fuel effectively meet the objectives of IAEA safeguards, optimise IAEA resources, and make best use of existing technologies while still meeting the requirements for safety and environmental protection. (author)

  12. Terrestrial Analogs for Surface Properties Associated with Impact Cratering on the Moon - Self-secondary Impact Features at Kings Bowl, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiella Novak, M. A.; Zanetti, M.; Neish, C.; Kukko, A.; Fan, K.; Heldmann, J.; Hughes, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Kings Bowl (KB) eruptive fissure and lava field, located in the southern end of Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho, is an ideal location for planetary analogue field studies of surface properties related to volcanic and impact processes. Here we look at possible impact features present in the KB lava field near the main vent that resulted in squeeze-ups of molten lava from beneath a semi-solid lava lake crust. These may have been caused by the ejection of blocks during the phreatic eruption that formed the Kings Bowl pit, and their subsequent impact into a partially solidified lava pond. We compare and contrast these features with analogous self-secondary impact features, such as irregular, rimless secondary craters ("splash craters") observed in lunar impact melt deposits, to better understand how self-secondary impacts determine the surface properties of volcanic and impact crater terrains. We do this by analyzing field measurements of these features, as well as high-resolution DEM data collected through the Kinematic LiDAR System (KLS), both of which give us feature dimensions and distributions. We then compare these data with self-secondary impact features on the Moon and related surface roughness constrained through Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter observations (Mini-RF and LROC NACs). Possible self-secondary impact features can be found in association with many lunar impact craters. These are formed when ballistic ejecta from the crater falls onto the ejecta blanket and melt surrounding the newly formed crater. Self-secondary impact features involving impact melt deposits are particularly useful to study because the visibly smooth melt texture serves to highlight the impact points in spacecraft imagery. The unusual morphology of some of these features imply that they formed when the melt had not yet completely solidified, strongly suggesting a source of impactors from the primary crater itself. We will also discuss ongoing efforts to integrate field

  13. Fabrication of narrow surface relief features in a side-chain azobenzene polyester with a scanning near-field microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Holme, N. C. R.; Pedersen, M.

    2001-01-01

    We show that it is possible to fabricate topographic submicron features in a side-chain azobenzene polyester with a scanning near-field optical microscope, Through irradiation at a wavelength of 488 run at intensity levels of 12 W/cm(2), topographic features as narrow as 240 nm and as high as 6 nm...... in high-density optical storage and high-resolution lithography....

  14. Influence of Structural Features and Fracture Processes on Surface Roughness: A Case Study from the Krosno Sandstones of the Górka–Mucharz Quarry (Little Beskids, Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieczara Łukasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of analysis of surface roughness parameters in the Krosno Sandstones of Mucharz, southern Poland. It was aimed at determining whether these parameters are influenced by structural features (mainly the laminar distribution of mineral components and directional distribution of non-isometric grains and fracture processes. The tests applied in the analysis enabled us to determine and describe the primary statistical parameters used in the quantitative description of surface roughness, as well as specify the usefulness of contact profilometry as a method of visualizing spatial differentiation of fracture processes in rocks. These aims were achieved by selecting a model material (Krosno Sandstones from the Górka-Mucharz Quarry and an appropriate research methodology. The schedule of laboratory analyses included: identification analyses connected with non-destructive ultrasonic tests, aimed at the preliminary determination of rock anisotropy, strength point load tests (cleaved surfaces were obtained due to destruction of rock samples, microscopic analysis (observation of thin sections in order to determine the mechanism of inducing fracture processes and a test method of measuring surface roughness (two- and three-dimensional diagrams, topographic and contour maps, and statistical parameters of surface roughness. The highest values of roughness indicators were achieved for surfaces formed under the influence of intragranular fracture processes (cracks propagating directly through grains. This is related to the structural features of the Krosno Sandstones (distribution of lamination and bedding.

  15. Crystal structure and nanotopographical features on the surface of heat-treated and anodized porous titanium biomaterials produced using selective laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin Yavari, S., E-mail: s.aminyavari@tudelft.nl [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); FT Innovations BV, Braamsluiper 1, 5831 PW Boxmeer (Netherlands); Wauthle, R. [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Section Production Engineering, Machine Design and Automation (PMA), Celestijnenlaan 300B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); LayerWise NV, Kapeldreef 60, Leuven (Belgium); Böttger, A.J. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Schrooten, J. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44 PB 2450, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Weinans, H. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Department of Orthopedics and Department of Rheumatology, UMC Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Zadpoor, A.A. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-01-30

    Porous titanium biomaterials manufactured using additive manufacturing techniques such as selective laser melting are considered promising materials for orthopedic applications where the biomaterial needs to mimic the properties of bone. Despite their appropriate mechanical properties and the ample pore space they provide for bone ingrowth and osseointegration, porous titanium structures have an intrinsically bioinert surface and need to be subjected to surface bio-functionalizing procedures to enhance their in vivo performance. In this study, we used a specific anodizing process to build a hierarchical oxide layer on the surface of porous titanium structures made by selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V ELI powder. The hierarchical structure included both nanotopographical features (nanotubes) and micro-features (micropits). After anodizing, the biomaterial was heat treated in Argon at different temperatures ranging between 400 and 600 °C for either 1 or 2 h to improve its bioactivity. The effects of applied heat treatment on the crystal structure of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes and the nanotopographical features of the surface were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was shown that the transition from the initial crystal structure, i.e. anatase, to rutile occurs between 500 and 600 °C and that after 2 h of heat treatment at 600 °C the crystal structure is predominantly rutile. The nanotopographical features of the surface were found to be largely unchanged for heat treatments carried out at 500 °C or below, whereas they were partially or largely disrupted after heat treatment at 600 °C. The possible implications of these findings for the bioactivity of porous titanium structures are discussed.

  16. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces (e.g., Varnes, 1974). Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962 (Hackman, 1962). Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete

  17. Geology of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Chyba, C.; Head, J. W.; McCord, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Europa is a rocky object of radius 1565 km (slightly smaller than Earth s moon) and has an outer shell of water composition estimated to be of order 100 km thick, the surface of which is frozen. The total volume of water is about 3 x 10(exp 9) cubic kilometers, or twice the amount of water on Earth. Moreover, like its neighbor Io, Europa experiences internal heating generated from tidal flexing during its eccentric orbit around Jupiter. This raises the possibility that some of the water beneath the icy crust is liquid. The proportion of rock to ice, the generation of internal heat, and the possibility of liquid water make Europa unique in the Solar System. In this chapter, we outline the sources of data available for Europa (with a focus on the Galileo mission), review previous and on-going research on its surface geology, discuss the astrobiological potential of Europa, and consider plans for future exploration.

  18. Statistical characterization of surface features from tungsten-coated divertor inserts in the DIII-D Metal Rings Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jacob; Unterberg, Ezekial; Chrobak, Christopher; Stahl, Brian; Abrams, Tyler

    2017-10-01

    Continuing analysis of tungsten-coated inserts from the recent DIII-D Metal Rings Campaign utilizes a statistical approach to study carbon migration and deposition on W surfaces and to characterize the pre- versus post-exposure surface morphology. A TZM base was coated with W using both CVD and PVD and allowed for comparison between the two coating methods. The W inserts were positioned in the lower DIII-D divertor in both the upper (shelf) region and lower (floor) region and subjected to multiple plasma shots, primarily in H-mode. Currently, the post-exposure W inserts are being characterized using SEM/EDX to qualify the surface morphology and to quantify the surface chemical composition. In addition, profilometry is being used to measure the surface roughness of the inserts both before and after plasma exposure. Preliminary results suggest a correlation between the pre-exposure surface roughness and the level of carbon deposited on the surface. Furthermore, ongoing in-depth analysis may reveal insights into the formation mechanism of nanoscale bumps found in the carbon-rich regions of the W surfaces that have not yet been explained. Work supported in part by US DoE under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program and under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  19. Advances in planetary geology, volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This publication is a continuation of volume 1; it is a compilation of reports focusing on research into the origin and evolution of the solar system with emphasis on planetary geology. Specific reports include a multispectral and geomorphic investigation of the surface of Europa and a geologic interpretation of remote sensing data for the Martian volcano Ascreaus Mons

  20. Geologic and hydrologic records of observation wells, test holes, test wells, supply wells, springs, and surface water stations in the Los Alamos area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purtymun, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Hundreds of holes have been drilled into the Pajarito Plateau and surrounding test areas of the Los Alamos National Laboratory since the end of World War II. They range in depth from a few feet to more than 14,000 ft. The holes were drilled to provide geologic, hydrologic, and engineering information related to development of a water supply, to provide data on the likelihood or presence of subsurface contamination from hazardous and nuclear materials, and for engineering design for construction. The data contained in this report provide a basis for further investigations into the consequences of our past, present, and future interactions with the environment.

  1. Geologic and hydrologic records of observation wells, test holes, test wells, supply wells, springs, and surface water stations in the Los Alamos area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtymun, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Hundreds of holes have been drilled into the Pajarito Plateau and surrounding test areas of the Los Alamos National Laboratory since the end of World War II. They range in depth from a few feet to more than 14,000 ft. The holes were drilled to provide geologic, hydrologic, and engineering information related to development of a water supply, to provide data on the likelihood or presence of subsurface contamination from hazardous and nuclear materials, and for engineering design for construction. The data contained in this report provide a basis for further investigations into the consequences of our past, present, and future interactions with the environment

  2. Southeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the geological disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geological factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, ground-water resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on the age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies

  3. 3D Geological modelling of the Monfrague synform: a value added to the geologic heritage of the National Park; Modelo geologico 3D de la estructura en sinforme de Monfrague: un valor anadido al patrimonio geologico del Parque Nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumiel, P.; Arias, M.; Monteserin, V.; Segura, M.

    2010-07-01

    3D geological modelling of a tectonic structure called the Monfrague synform has been carried out to obtain a better insight into the geometry of this folding structure. It is a kilometric variscan WNW-ESE trending fold verging towards north and made up by a Palaeozoic sequence (Ordovician-Silurian).This structure with its lithology make up the morphology and the relief of the Park. The Monfrague synform is an asymmetrical folding structure showing southern limb dipping steeply to the south (reverse limb) what is well observed in the Armorican Quartzite at the Salto del Gitano. However, northern limb dips gently (less than 40 degree centigrade) to the south (normal limb). 3D geological modelling has been built on the basis of the geological knowledge and the structural interpretation, using 3D GeoModeller. (www.geomodeller.com). In this software, lithological units are described by a stratigraphic pile. A major original feature of this software is that the 3D description of the geological space is achieved through a potential field formulation in which geological boundaries are isopotential surfaces, and their dips are represented by gradients of the potential. Finally, it is emphasized the idea that a 3D geologic model of these characteristics, with its three-dimensional representation, together with suitable geological sections that clarify the structure in depth, represents a value added to the Geologic Heritage of the National Park and besides it supposes an interesting academic exercise which have a great didactic value. (Author)

  4. [Age-related characteristics of the surface bioelectrical potential of human, canine and rat teeth and features of its distribution over the surface of the crown].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donskiĭ, G I; Pavliuchenko, O N; Palamarchuk, Iu N; Makarova, N Ia

    1989-01-01

    Using a digital electron voltmeter, bioelectrical potentials (BEPs) of dental crowns have been recorded in 180 patients, 36 dogs, and 93 white non-inbred rats. It has been established that the surface BEP is a marker of dental enamel maturation and does not depend on the species of mammals. On the other hand maturation processes differ in their rate on the cutting edge, equator, and neck: with advancing age algebraic difference between the magnitudes of surface BEPs decreases in humans and increases in dogs and rats.

  5. Geologic map of Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David A.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Crown, David A.; Yff, Jessica A.; Jaeger, Windy L.; Schenk, Paul M.; Geissler, Paul E.; Becker, Tammy L.

    2011-01-01

    Io, discovered by Galileo Galilei on January 7–13, 1610, is the innermost of the four Galilean satellites of the planet Jupiter (Galilei, 1610). It is the most volcanically active object in the Solar System, as recognized by observations from six National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spacecraft: Voyager 1 (March 1979), Voyager 2 (July 1979), Hubble Space Telescope (1990–present), Galileo (1996–2001), Cassini (December 2000), and New Horizons (February 2007). The lack of impact craters on Io in any spacecraft images at any resolution attests to the high resurfacing rate (1 cm/yr) and the dominant role of active volcanism in shaping its surface. High-temperature hot spots detected by the Galileo Solid-State Imager (SSI), Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS), and Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR) usually correlate with darkest materials on the surface, suggesting active volcanism. The Voyager flybys obtained complete coverage of Io's subjovian hemisphere at 500 m/pixel to 2 km/pixel, and most of the rest of the satellite at 5–20 km/pixel. Repeated Galileo flybys obtained complementary coverage of Io's antijovian hemisphere at 5 m/pixel to 1.4 km/pixel. Thus, the Voyager and Galileo data sets were merged to enable the characterization of the whole surface of the satellite at a consistent resolution. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) produced a set of four global mosaics of Io in visible wavelengths at a spatial resolution of 1 km/pixel, released in February 2006, which we have used as base maps for this new global geologic map. Much has been learned about Io's volcanism, tectonics, degradation, and interior since the Voyager flybys, primarily during and following the Galileo Mission at Jupiter (December 1995–September 2003), and the results have been summarized in books published after the end of the Galileo Mission. Our mapping incorporates this new understanding to assist in map unit definition and to provide a global synthesis

  6. Significant Enhancement of the Chiral Correlation Length in Nematic Liquid Crystals by Gold Nanoparticle Surfaces Featuring Axially Chiral Binaphthyl Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Taizo; Sharma, Anshul; Hegmann, Torsten

    2016-01-26

    Chirality is a fundamental scientific concept best described by the absence of mirror symmetry and the inability to superimpose an object onto its mirror image by translation and rotation. Chirality is expressed at almost all molecular levels, from single molecules to supramolecular systems, and present virtually everywhere in nature. Here, to explore how chirality propagates from a chiral nanoscale surface, we study gold nanoparticles functionalized with axially chiral binaphthyl molecules. In particular, we synthesized three enantiomeric pairs of chiral ligand-capped gold nanoparticles differing in size, curvature, and ligand density to tune the chirality transfer from nanoscale solid surfaces to a bulk anisotropic liquid crystal medium. Ultimately, we are examining how far the chirality from a nanoparticle surface reaches into a bulk material. Circular dichroism spectra of the gold nanoparticles decorated with binaphthyl thiols confirmed that the binaphthyl moieties form a cisoid conformation in isotropic organic solvents. In the chiral nematic liquid crystal phase, induced by dispersing the gold nanoparticles into an achiral anisotropic nematic liquid crystal solvent, the binaphthyl moieties on the nanoparticle surface form a transoid conformation as determined by imaging the helical twist direction of the induced cholesteric phase. This suggests that the ligand density on the nanoscale metal surfaces provides a dynamic space to alter and adjust the helicity of binaphthyl derivatives in response to the ordering of the surrounding medium. The helical pitch values of the induced chiral nematic phase were determined, and the helical twisting power (HTP) of the chiral gold nanoparticles calculated to elucidate the chirality transfer efficiency of the binaphthyl ligand capped gold nanoparticles. Remarkably, the HTP increases with increasing diameter of the particles, that is, the efficiency of the chirality transfer of the binaphthyl units bound to the nanoparticle

  7. Carabelli's trait revisited: an examination of mesiolingual features at the enamel-dentine junction and enamel surface of Pan and Homo sapiens upper molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Alejandra; Skinner, Matthew M; Bailey, Shara E; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2012-10-01

    Carabelli's trait is a morphological feature that frequently occurs on the mesiolingual aspect of Homo sapiens upper molars. Similar structures also referred to as Carabelli's trait have been reported in apes and fossil hominins. However, the morphological development and homology of these mesiolingual structures among hominoids are poorly understood. In this study, we employ micro-computed tomography to image the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) and outer enamel surface (OES) of Pan (n = 48) and H. sapiens (n = 52) upper molars. We investigate the developmental origin of mesiolingual features in these taxa and establish the relative contribution of the EDJ and enamel cap to feature expression. Results demonstrate that mesiolingual features of H. sapiens molars develop at the EDJ and are similarly expressed at the OES. Morphological variation at both surfaces in this taxon can satisfactorily be assessed using standards for Carabelli's trait developed by the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System (ASUDAS). Relative to H. sapiens, Pan has an even greater degree of correspondence in feature expression between the EDJ and OES. Morphological manifestations in Pan molars are not necessarily limited to the protocone and are best characterized by a lingual cingulum that cannot be captured by the ASUDAS. Cusp-like structures, similar to those seen in marked Carabelli's trait expressions in H. sapiens, were not found in Pan. This study provides a foundation for further analyses on the evolutionary history of mesiolingual dental traits within the hominoid lineage. It also highlights the wealth of morphological data that can be obtained at the EDJ for understanding tooth development and for characterizing tooth crown variation in worn fossil teeth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fundamental problem of high-level radioactive waste disposal policy in Japan. Critical analysis responding to the publication of 'Nationwide Map of Scientific Features for Geological Disposal' by the Japanese government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juraku, Kohta

    2017-01-01

    The government explains that 'Scientific Characteristic Map' (hereinafter 'Map') shows the scientific characteristics of sites that are thought necessary to be taken into account when choosing the place to implement geological disposal and their geographical distribution on the Japanese map for the convenience to 'roughly overlook.' Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) as the implementing agency for geological disposal and the government (Agency for Natural Resources and Energy of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) stress that this Map does not indicate so-called 'optimum land,' but it is the 'first step of a long way to realize disposal' for high-level radioactive waste (HLW). However, there clearly lurks a debate about the acceptance of the location of geological disposal in the future. The author has pointed out that the essence of the HLW disposal problem is a problem of 'value selection' that should be decided prior to the location of disposal site. The author believes that it is the competence of society how to identify the path of countermeasures by reconciling in a high degree the justice of the policies supported by scientific and professional knowledge and the justice of social decision making through a democratic duty process. However, the government is trying to forward HLW disposal only from the viewpoint of location problems, while neglecting the problem of 'value selection.' (A.O.)

  9. Kinetics and thermodynamics studies on the BMP-2 adsorption onto hydroxyapatite surface with different multi-morphological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Zhiwei; Huangfu, Changxin; Wang, Yanying; Ge, Hongwei; Yao, Yao; Zou, Ping; Wang, Guangtu [College of Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya' an 625014 (China); He, Hua [Institute of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Sichuan 611130 (China); Rao, Hanbing, E-mail: rhbscu@gmail.com [College of Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya' an 625014 (China)

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the surface topography on protein adsorption process is of great significance for designing hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic material surfaces. In this work, three different topographies of HA materials HA-sheet, HA-rod, and HA-whisker were synthesized and testified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). We have systematically investigated the adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2) on the three different topography surfaces of HA, respectively. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacities of HA-sheet, HA-rod and HA-whisker were (219.96 ± 10.18), (247.13 ± 12.35), and (354.67 ± 17.73) μg · g{sup −1}, respectively. Kinetic parameters, rate constants, equilibrium adsorption capacities and related correlation coefficients, for each kinetic model were calculated as well as discussed. It demonstrated that the adsorption of BMP-2 onto HA could be described by the pseudo second-order equation. Adsorption of BMP-2 onto HA followed the Langmuir isotherm. It confirmed that compared with other samples HA-whisker had more adsorption sites for its high specific surface area which could provide more opportunities for protein molecules. The adsorption processes were endothermic (ΔH > 0), spontaneous (ΔG < 0) and entropy increasing (ΔS > 0). A possible adsorption mechanism has been proposed. In addition, the BMP-2 could be adsorbed to the surface which existed slight conformational changes by FT-IR. - Highlights: • A novel protein adsorption studies based on sheet, rod and whisker of HA were designed. • Kinetic and thermodynamics parameters of BMP-2 and HA bonded materials were evaluated. • Surface topographies of the HA effect BMP-2 adsorption • The HA-whisker material had excellent adsorption performance for protein enrichment. • The electrostatic interaction is responsible for the

  10. Kinetics and thermodynamics studies on the BMP-2 adsorption onto hydroxyapatite surface with different multi-morphological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zhiwei; Huangfu, Changxin; Wang, Yanying; Ge, Hongwei; Yao, Yao; Zou, Ping; Wang, Guangtu; He, Hua; Rao, Hanbing

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the surface topography on protein adsorption process is of great significance for designing hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic material surfaces. In this work, three different topographies of HA materials HA-sheet, HA-rod, and HA-whisker were synthesized and testified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). We have systematically investigated the adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2) on the three different topography surfaces of HA, respectively. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacities of HA-sheet, HA-rod and HA-whisker were (219.96 ± 10.18), (247.13 ± 12.35), and (354.67 ± 17.73) μg · g −1 , respectively. Kinetic parameters, rate constants, equilibrium adsorption capacities and related correlation coefficients, for each kinetic model were calculated as well as discussed. It demonstrated that the adsorption of BMP-2 onto HA could be described by the pseudo second-order equation. Adsorption of BMP-2 onto HA followed the Langmuir isotherm. It confirmed that compared with other samples HA-whisker had more adsorption sites for its high specific surface area which could provide more opportunities for protein molecules. The adsorption processes were endothermic (ΔH > 0), spontaneous (ΔG < 0) and entropy increasing (ΔS > 0). A possible adsorption mechanism has been proposed. In addition, the BMP-2 could be adsorbed to the surface which existed slight conformational changes by FT-IR. - Highlights: • A novel protein adsorption studies based on sheet, rod and whisker of HA were designed. • Kinetic and thermodynamics parameters of BMP-2 and HA bonded materials were evaluated. • Surface topographies of the HA effect BMP-2 adsorption • The HA-whisker material had excellent adsorption performance for protein enrichment. • The electrostatic interaction is responsible for the BMP-2

  11. Disribution and interplay of geologic processes on Titan from Cassini radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R.M.C.; Stofan, E.R.; Peckyno, R.; Radebaugh, J.; Mitchell, K.L.; Mitri, Giuseppe; Wood, C.A.; Kirk, R.L.; Wall, S.D.; Lunine, J.I.; Hayes, A.; Lorenz, R.; Farr, Tom; Wye, L.; Craig, J.; Ollerenshaw, R.J.; Janssen, M.; LeGall, A.; Paganelli, F.; West, R.; Stiles, B.; Callahan, P.; Anderson, Y.; Valora, P.; Soderblom, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper is providing an unprecedented view of Titan's surface geology. Here we use Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image swaths (Ta-T30) obtained from October 2004 to December 2007 to infer the geologic processes that have shaped Titan's surface. These SAR swaths cover about 20% of the surface, at a spatial resolution ranging from ~350 m to ~2 km. The SAR data are distributed over a wide latitudinal and longitudinal range, enabling some conclusions to be drawn about the global distribution of processes. They reveal a geologically complex surface that has been modified by all the major geologic processes seen on Earth - volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering, and erosion and deposition by fluvial and aeolian activity. In this paper, we map geomorphological units from SAR data and analyze their areal distribution and relative ages of modification in order to infer the geologic evolution of Titan's surface. We find that dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are more widespread than lakes, putative cryovolcanic features, mottled plains, and craters and crateriform structures that may be due to impact. Undifferentiated plains are the largest areal unit; their origin is uncertain. In terms of latitudinal distribution, dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are located mostly at low latitudes (less than 30 degrees), with no dunes being present above 60 degrees. Channels formed by fluvial activity are present at all latitudes, but lakes are at high latitudes only. Crateriform structures that may have been formed by impact appear to be uniformly distributed with latitude, but the well-preserved impact craters are all located at low latitudes, possibly indicating that more resurfacing has occurred at higher latitudes. Cryovolcanic features are not ubiquitous, and are mostly located between 30 degrees and 60 degrees north. We examine temporal relationships between units wherever possible, and conclude that aeolian and fluvial

  12. Distribution and interplay of geologic processes on Titan from Cassini radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R.M.C.; Stofan, E.R.; Peckyno, R.; Radebaugh, J.; Mitchell, K.L.; Mitri, Giuseppe; Wood, C.A.; Kirk, R.L.; Wall, S.D.; Lunine, J.I.; Hayes, A.; Lorenz, R.; Farr, Tom; Wye, L.; Craig, J.; Ollerenshaw, R.J.; Janssen, M.; LeGall, A.; Paganelli, F.; West, R.; Stiles, B.; Callahan, P.; Anderson, Y.; Valora, P.; Soderblom, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper is providing an unprecedented view of Titan's surface geology. Here we use Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image swaths (Ta-T30) obtained from October 2004 to December 2007 to infer the geologic processes that have shaped Titan's surface. These SAR swaths cover about 20% of the surface, at a spatial resolution ranging from ???350 m to ???2 km. The SAR data are distributed over a wide latitudinal and longitudinal range, enabling some conclusions to be drawn about the global distribution of processes. They reveal a geologically complex surface that has been modified by all the major geologic processes seen on Earth - volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering, and erosion and deposition by fluvial and aeolian activity. In this paper, we map geomorphological units from SAR data and analyze their areal distribution and relative ages of modification in order to infer the geologic evolution of Titan's surface. We find that dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are more widespread than lakes, putative cryovolcanic features, mottled plains, and craters and crateriform structures that may be due to impact. Undifferentiated plains are the largest areal unit; their origin is uncertain. In terms of latitudinal distribution, dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are located mostly at low latitudes (less than 30??), with no dunes being present above 60??. Channels formed by fluvial activity are present at all latitudes, but lakes are at high latitudes only. Crateriform structures that may have been formed by impact appear to be uniformly distributed with latitude, but the well-preserved impact craters are all located at low latitudes, possibly indicating that more resurfacing has occurred at higher latitudes. Cryovolcanic features are not ubiquitous, and are mostly located between 30?? and 60?? north. We examine temporal relationships between units wherever possible, and conclude that aeolian and fluvial/pluvial/lacustrine processes are the

  13. Earth Surface Processes and Environmental Changes in Lake-catchment Systems(<Featured Article>Earth Surface Processes, Natural Disasters and Historical Environmental Changes)

    OpenAIRE

    Kenji, KASHIWAYA; Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University

    2012-01-01

    Lake-catchment systems including continuous records of various climatic regimes are discussed for combining earth surface processes with temporal environmental changes. Three types of external forces (climatic, tectonic and anthropogenic), which are printed in lacustrine sediments and drainage landforms, are significant for understanding processes and changes. Present observations on small lake-catchment systems in Japan and past information on large lake-catchment systems in east Eurasia sho...

  14. Renal Epithelial Cell Injury Induced by Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Depends on their Structural Features: Size, Surface, and Crystalline Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin-Yuan; Ouyang, Jian-Ming; Gan, Qiong-Zhi; Liu, Ai-Jie

    2016-11-01

    Urinary crystals in normal and kidney stone patients often differ in crystal sizes and surface structures, but the effects of different crystal properties on renal tubular epithelial cells remain unclear. This study aimed to compare the cytotoxicity of micron/nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals with sizes of 50 nm, 200 nm, 1 μm, 3 μm, and 10 μm to African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells, to reveal the effect of crystal size and surface structure on cell injury, and to investigate the pathological mechanism of calcium oxalate kidney stones. Cell viability, cellular biochemical parameters, and internalized crystal amount in Vero cells were closely associated with the size of COM crystals. At the same concentration (200 μg/mL), COM-1 μm induced the most serious injury to Vero cells and caused the most significant change to cellular biochemical parameters, which were related to the specific porous structure and highest internalized amount in Vero cells. By contrast, COM-50 nm and COM-200 nm crystals lost their small size effect because of serious aggregation and weakened their toxicity to cells. COM-3 μm and COM-10 μm crystals were too large for cells to completely internalize; these crystals also exhibited a low specific surface area and thus weakened their toxicity. The excessive expression of intracellular ROS and reduction of the free-radical scavenger SOD were the main reasons for cell injury and eventually caused necrotic cell death. Crystal size, surface structure, aggregation, and internalization amount were closely related to the cytotoxicity of COM crystals.

  15. Structural features and seismotectonic implications of coseismic surface ruptures produced by the 2016 M w 7.1 Kumamoto earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Aiming

    2017-09-01

    Field investigations and analyses of satellite images and aerial photographs reveal that the 2016 M w 7.1 (Mj 7.3) Kumamoto earthquake produced a ˜40-km surface rupture zone striking NE-SW on central Kyushu Island, Japan. Coseismic surface ruptures were characterized by shear faults, extensional cracks, and mole tracks, which mostly occurred along the pre-existing NE-SW-striking Hinagu-Futagawa fault zone in the southwest and central segments, and newly identified faults in the northeast segment. This study shows that (i) the Hinagu-Futagawa fault zone triggered the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake and controlled the spatial distribution of coseismic surface ruptures; (ii) the southwest and central segments were dominated by right-lateral strike-slip movement with a maximum in-site measured displacement of up to 2.5 m, accompanied by a minor vertical component. In contrast, the northeast segment was dominated by normal faulting with a maximum vertical offset of up to 1.75 m with a minor horizontal component that formed graben structures inside Aso caldera; (iii) coseismic rupturing initiated at the jog area between the Hinagu and Futagawa faults, then propagated northeastward into Aso caldera, where it terminated. The 2016 M w 7.1 Kumamoto earthquake therefore offers a rare opportunity to study the relationships between coseismic rupture processes and pre-existing active faults, as well as the seismotectonics of Aso volcano.

  16. Geological Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers use computed tomography (CT) scanners at NETL’s Geological Services Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, to peer into geologic core samples to determine how...

  17. Geophysics & Geology Inspected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, E. R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

  18. Geology of Uruguay review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Rifas, C.

    2011-01-01

    This work is about the Uruguay geology review.This country has been a devoted to breeding cattle and agriculture.The evolution of geological knowledge begun with Dr. Karl Walther who published 53 papers between 1909 and 1948.

  19. Hyperspatial Thermal Imaging of Surface Hydrothermal Features at Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska using a small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselwimmer, C. E.; Wilson, R.; Upton, C.; Prakash, A.; Holdmann, G.; Walker, G.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal remote sensing provides a valuable tool for mapping and monitoring surface hydrothermal features associated with geothermal activity. The increasing availability of low-cost, small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) with integrated thermal imaging sensors offers a means to undertake very high spatial resolution (hyperspatial), quantitative thermal remote sensing of surface geothermal features in support of exploration and long-term monitoring efforts. Results from the deployment of a quadcopter sUAS equipped with a thermal camera over Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska for detailed mapping and heat flux estimation for hot springs, seeps, and thermal pools are presented. Hyperspatial thermal infrared imagery (4 cm pixels) was acquired over Pilgrim Hot Springs in July 2013 using a FLIR TAU 640 camera operating from an Aeryon Scout sUAS flying at an altitude of 40m. The registered and mosaicked thermal imagery is calibrated to surface temperature values using in-situ measurements of uniform blackbody tarps and the temperatures of geothermal and other surface pools acquired with a series of water temperature loggers. Interpretation of the pre-processed thermal imagery enables the delineation of hot springs, the extents of thermal pools, and the flow and mixing of individual geothermal outflow plumes with an unprecedented level of detail. Using the surface temperatures of thermal waters derived from the FLIR data and measured in-situ meteorological parameters the hot spring heat flux and outflow rate is calculated using a heat budget model for a subset of the thermal drainage. The heat flux/outflow rate estimates derived from the FLIR data are compared against in-situ measurements of the hot spring outflow rate recorded at the time of the thermal survey.

  20. The color enhancement and collimation features of the multi-colored LEDs with different periodic microstructure on the top surface of TIR lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Shang-Ping; Fu, Han-Kuei

    2017-09-01

    Due to the advantages, such as high efficiency, power consumption reduction, no mercury, pure saturated color, high reliability and long lifetime, the solid-state lighting based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has become very popular at this stage. In the lighting applications such as spot lighting, downlighting, architectural and show lighting, the colortunable properties with collimating beam of LEDs are highly demanded. The color-tunable lighting is easily achieved using multi-colored LEDs instead of inefficient color filters. However, the applications of multi-colored LEDs usually appear the undesirable light patterns such as color separation or color fringes. At the meantime, the use of TIR (total internal reflection) lens for multi-colored LEDs to collimate the light from the LEDs with different color will introduce seriously undesirable artifacts. Thus, a periodic microstructure surface on the top surface of the TIR lens would be used to reshape the light from the different colored LED chips in the multi-colored LEDs, and then decrease the color separation and color nonuniformity. In this study, the TIR lens with periodic microstructure surface on the top surface would be used to collimate the light from multi-colored LEDs with low color separation or color fringes. The analysis of color enhancement and collimation features of the multi-colored LEDs with different periodic microstructure on the top surface of the TIR lens is presented.

  1. Equipment for decontamination of inner vessel surfaces featuring sound or ultrasound transducer on float inside liquid-filled vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar, J.; Straka, M.

    1982-01-01

    The equipment for the decontamination of the inner surfaces of vessels consists of an immersion float which is provided with a screw, an electric motor, a rudder and at least one float chamber, and a remotely controlled valve. The float is provided with a power source, a high frequency a.c. current generator and a control panel outside the vessel. The float is connected to parts of the equipment outside the vessel by a multi-core cable. The immersion float may also be provided with a detector for measuring the quantity of ionizing radiation whose display is placed outside the vessel being decontaminated. (B.S.)

  2. Meteorite Impact "Earthquake" Features (Rock Liquefaction, Surface Wave Deformations, Seismites) from Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Geoelectric Complex Resistivity/Induced Polarization (IP) Measurements, Chiemgau (Alpine Foreland, Southeast Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstson, K.; Poßekel, J.

    2017-12-01

    Densely spaced GPR and complex resistivity measurements on a 30,000 square meters site in a region of enigmatic sinkhole occurrences in unconsolidated Quaternary sediments have featured unexpected and highlighting results from both a meteorite impact research and an engineering geology point of view. The GPR measurements and a complex resistivity/IP electrical imaging revealed extended subrosion depressions related with a uniformly but in various degrees of intensity deformed loamy and gravelly ground down to at least 10 m depth. Two principle observations could be made from both the GPR high-resolution measurements and the more integrating resistivity and IP soundings with both petrophysical evidences in good complement. Subrosion can be shown to be the result of prominent sandy-gravelly intrusions and extrusions typical of rock liquefaction processes well known to occur during strong earthquakes. Funnel-shaped structures with diameters up to 25 m near the surface and reaching down to the floating ground water level at 10 m depth were measured. GPR radargrams could trace prominent gravelly-material transport bottom-up within the funnels. Seen in both GPR tomography and resistivity/IP sections more or less the whole investigated area is overprinted by wavy deformations of the unconsolidated sediments with wavelengths of the order of 5 - 10 m and amplitudes up to half a meter, likewise down to 10 m depth. Substantial earthquakes are not known in this region. Hence, the observed heavy underground disorder is considered the result of the prominent earthquake shattering that must have occurred during the Holocene (Bronze Age/Celtic era) Chiemgau meteorite impact event that produced a 60 km x 30 km sized crater strewn field directly hosting the investigated site. Depending on depth and size of floating aquifers local concentrations of rock liquefaction and seismic surface waves (probably LOVE waves) to produce the wavy deformations could develop, when the big

  3. Geological, geochemical, and geophysical studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Big Bend National Park, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, W.R.; Turner, K.J.; Bohannon, R.G.; Berry, M.E.; Williams, V.S.; Miggins, D.P.; Ren, M.; Anthony, E.Y.; Morgan, L.A.; Shanks, P.W.C.; Gray, J. E.; Theodorakos, P.M.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Manning, A.H.; Gemery-Hill, P. A.; Hellgren, E.C.; Stricker, C.A.; Onorato, D.P.; Finn, C.A.; Anderson, E.; Gray, J. E.; Page, W.R.

    2008-01-01

    Big Bend National Park (BBNP), Tex., covers 801,163 acres (3,242 km2) and was established in 1944 through a transfer of land from the State of Texas to the United States. The park is located along a 118-mile (190-km) stretch of the Rio Grande at the United States-Mexico border. The park is in the Chihuahuan Desert, an ecosystem with high mountain ranges and basin environments containing a wide variety of native plants and animals, including more than 1,200 species of plants, more than 450 species of birds, 56 species of reptiles, and 75 species of mammals. In addition, the geology of BBNP, which varies widely from high mountains to broad open lowland basins, also enhances the beauty of the park. For example, the park contains the Chisos Mountains, which are dominantly composed of thick outcrops of Tertiary extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks that reach an altitude of 7,832 ft (2,387 m) and are considered the southernmost mountain range in the United States. Geologic features in BBNP provide opportunities to study the formation of mineral deposits and their environmental effects; the origin and formation of sedimentary and igneous rocks; Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic fossils; and surface and ground water resources. Mineral deposits in and around BBNP contain commodities such as mercury (Hg), uranium (U), and fluorine (F), but of these, the only significant mining has been for Hg. Because of the biological and geological diversity of BBNP, more than 350,000 tourists visit the park each year. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been investigating a number of broad and diverse geologic, geochemical, and geophysical topics in BBNP to provide fundamental information needed by the National Park Service (NPS) to address resource management goals in this park. Scientists from the USGS Mineral Resources and National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Programs have been working cooperatively with the NPS and several universities on several research studies within BBNP

  4. De novo synthesis of a metal-organic framework material featuring ultrahigh surface area and gas storage capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farha, Omar K; Yazaydın, A Özgür; Eryazici, Ibrahim; Malliakas, Christos D; Hauser, Brad G; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Nguyen, SonBinh T; Snurr, Randall Q; Hupp, Joseph T

    2010-11-01

    Metal-organic frameworks--a class of porous hybrid materials built from metal ions and organic bridges--have recently shown great promise for a wide variety of applications. The large choice of building blocks means that the structures and pore characteristics of the metal-organic frameworks can be tuned relatively easily. However, despite much research, it remains challenging to prepare frameworks specifically tailored for particular applications. Here, we have used computational modelling to design and predictively characterize a metal-organic framework (NU-100) with a particularly high surface area. Subsequent experimental synthesis yielded a material, matching the calculated structure, with a high BET surface area (6,143 m(2) g(-1)). Furthermore, sorption measurements revealed that the material had high storage capacities for hydrogen (164 mg g(-1)) and carbon dioxide (2,315 mg g(-1))--gases of high importance in the contexts of clean energy and climate alteration, respectively--in excellent agreement with predictions from modelling.

  5. Controlling Cell Functions and Fate with Surfaces and Hydrogels: The Role of Material Features in Cell Adhesion and Signal Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Ventre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In their natural environment, cells are constantly exposed to a cohort of biochemical and biophysical signals that govern their functions and fate. Therefore, materials for biomedical applications, either in vivo or in vitro, should provide a replica of the complex patterns of biological signals. Thus, the development of a novel class of biomaterials requires, on the one side, the understanding of the dynamic interactions occurring at the interface of cells and materials; on the other, it requires the development of technologies able to integrate multiple signals precisely organized in time and space. A large body of studies aimed at investigating the mechanisms underpinning cell-material interactions is mostly based on 2D systems. While these have been instrumental in shaping our understanding of the recognition of and reaction to material stimuli, they lack the ability to capture central features of the natural cellular environment, such as dimensionality, remodelling and degradability. In this work, we review the fundamental traits of material signal sensing and cell response. We then present relevant technologies and materials that enable fabricating systems able to control various aspects of cell behavior, and we highlight potential differences that arise from 2D and 3D settings.

  6. Detailed gravimetric geoid confirmation of short wavelength features of sea surface topography detected by the Skylab S-193 altimeter in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J. G.; Vincent, S.; Mcclinton, A. T.; Chang, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid was computed for the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea area in support of the calibration and evaluation of the GEOS-C altimeter. This geoid, computed on a 15 ft. x 15 ft. grid was based upon a combination of surface gravity data with the GSFC GEM-6 satellite derived gravity data. A comparison of this gravimetric geoid with 10 passes of SKYLAB altimeter data is presented. The agreement of the two data types is quite good with the differences generally less than 2 meters. Sea surface manifestations of numerous short wavelength (approximately 100 km) oceanographic features are now indicated in the gravimetric geoid and are also confirmed by the altimetry data.

  7. Geology Before Pluto: Pre-encounter Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Pluto, its large satellite Charon, and its four small known satellites represent the first trans-Neptunian Kuiper Belt objects populating the outer-most solar system beyond the gas giant planets to be studied in detail from a spacecraft (New Horizons). A complete picture of the solar nebula and solar system formation cannot be confidently formulated until representatives of this group of bodies at the edge of solar space have been examined. The Pluto system is composed of unique, lunar- and intermediate-sized objects that can tell us much about how objects with volatile icy compositions evolve. Modeling of the interior suggests that geologic activity may have been significant to some degree, and observations of frost on the surface could imply the need for a geologic reservoir for the replenishment of these phases. However, these putative indicators of Pluto's geologic history are inconclusive and unspecific. Detailed examination of Pluto's geologic record is the only plausible means of bridging the gap between theory and observation. In this talk I will examine the potential importance of these tentative indications of geologic activity and how specific spacecraft observations have been designed and used to constrain the Pluto system's geologic history. The cameras of New Horizons will provide robust data sets that should be immanently amenable to geological analysis of the Pluto system's landscapes. In this talk, we begin with a brief discussion of the planned observations by the New Horizons cameras that will bear most directly on geological interpretability. Then I will broadly review major geological processes that could potentially operate on the surfaces of Pluto and its moons. I will first survey exogenic processes (i.e., those for which energy for surface modification is supplied externally to the planetary surface): impact cratering, sedimentary processes (including volatile migration), and the work of wind. I will conclude with an assessment of the

  8. Geology Before Pluto: Pre-Encounter Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Pluto, its large satellite Charon, and its four known satellites represent the first trans-Neptunian Kuiper Belt objects populating the outer-most solar system beyond the gas giant planets to be studied in detail from a spacecraft (New Horizons). A complete picture of the solar nebula, and solar system formation cannot be confidently formulated until representatives of this group of bodies at the edge of solar space have been examined. The Pluto system is composed of unique lunar- and intermediate-sized objects that can tell us much about how objects with volatile icy compositions evolve. Modeling of the interior suggests that geologic activity may have been to some degree, and observations of frost on the surface could imply the need for a geologic reservoir for the replenishment of these phases. However, the putative indicators of Pluto's geologic history are inconclusive and unspecific. Detailed examination of Pluto's geologic record is the only plausible means of bridging the gap between theory and observations. In this talk I will examine the potential importance of these tentative indications of geologic activity and how specific spacecraft observations have been designed and used to constrain the Pluto system's geologic history. The cameras of New Horizons will provide robust data sets that should be immanently amenable to geological analysis of the Pluto System's landscapes. In this talk, we begin with a brief discussion of the planned observations by New Horizons' cameras that will bear most directly on geological interpretability. Then I will broadly review major geological processes that could potentially operate of the surfaces of Pluto and its moons. I will first survey exogenic processes (i.e., those for which energy for surface modification is supplied externally to the planetary surface): impact cratering, sedimentary processes (including volatile migration) and the work of wind. I will conclude with an assessment of prospects for endogenic activity

  9. The geological attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.G.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses geological activity which takes place mainly in response to industrial and social pressures. Past geological reaction to these pressures profoundly altered popular conceptions of time, the Church, man, and the balance of nature. The present-day circumstances of geology are not essentially different from those of the past. Petroleum geology in North American illustrates the role of technology in determining the style and scope of geological work. Peaks of activity cluster obviously on the introduction from time to time of new instrumental capabilities (geophysical apparatus, for example), although not infrequently such activity is testing concepts or relationships perceived long before. Organic metamorphism and continental drift provide two examples. The petroleum industry now faces the dilemma of satisfying predicted demands for fuel, without doing irreparable injury to its environment of operation. Awareness of man's place in nature, which is a fundamental perception of geology, governs the geological attitude

  10. Underground gas storage Lobodice geological model development based on 3D seismic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopal, L.

    2015-01-01

    Aquifer type underground gas storage (UGS) Lobodice was developed in the Central Moravian part of Carpathian foredeep in Czech Republic 50 years ago. In order to improve knowledge about UGS geological structure 3D seismic survey was performed in 2009. Reservoir is rather shallow (400 - 500 m below surface) it is located in complicated locality so limitations for field acquisition phase were abundant. This article describes process work flow from 3D seismic field data acquisition to geological model creation. The outcomes of this work flow define geometry of UGS reservoir, its tectonics, structure spill point, cap rock and sealing features of the structure. Improving of geological knowledge about the reservoir enables less risky new well localization for UGS withdrawal rate increasing. (authors)

  11. Environmental geology of Harrison Bay, northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.D.; Thrasher, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    The surficial and shallow subsurface geology of Harrison Bay on the Beaufort Sea coast was mapped as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's prelease evaluation for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 71. During the 1980 summer season, approximately 1600 km of multisensored, high-resolution geophysical profile data were collected along a rectangular grid with 4.8 km line spacing. Interpretation of these data is presented on five maps showing bathymetry, sea-floor microrelief, ice-gouge characteristics, Holocene sediment thickness, and geologic structure to depths of approximately 1000 m. On a broad scale, the seafloor is shallow and almost flat, although microrelief features produced by sediment transport and ice-gouge processes typically vary up to several meters in amplitude. Microrelief bedforms related to hydraulic processes are predominant in water depths less than 12 m. Microrelief caused by ice gouging generally increases with water depth, reaching a maximum of 2 m or more in water depths beyond the 20 m isobath. This intensely gouged area lies beneath the shear zone between the seasonal landfast ice and the mobile polar ice pack. The thickness of recent (Holocene) sediment increases offshore, from 2 m near the Colville River delta to 30 m or more on the outer shelf. The thin Holocene layer is underlain by a complex horizon interpreted to be the upper surface of a Pleistocene deposit similar in composition to the present Arctic Coastal Plain. The base of the inferred Pleistocene section is interpreted to be a low-angle unconformity 100 m below sea level. Beneath this Tertiary-Quaternary unconformity, strata are interpreted to be alluvial fan-delta plain deposits corresponding to the Colville Group and younger formations of Late Cretaceous to Tertiary age. Numerous high-angle faults downthrown to the north trend across the survey area. With few exceptions, these faults terminate at or below the 100 m unconformity, suggesting that most tectonism

  12. LDRD final report : on the development of hybrid level-set/particle methods for modeling surface evolution during feature-scale etching and deposition processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, Cory L.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Musson, Lawrence Cale

    2005-01-01

    Two methods for creating a hybrid level-set (LS)/particle method for modeling surface evolution during feature-scale etching and deposition processes are developed and tested. The first method supplements the LS method by introducing Lagrangian marker points in regions of high curvature. Once both the particle set and the LS function are advanced in time, minimization of certain objective functions adjusts the LS function so that its zero contour is in closer alignment with the particle locations. It was found that the objective-minimization problem was unexpectedly difficult to solve, and even when a solution could be found, the acquisition of it proved more costly than simply expanding the basis set of the LS function. The second method explored is a novel explicit marker-particle method that we have named the grid point particle (GPP) approach. Although not a LS method, the GPP approach has strong procedural similarities to certain aspects of the LS approach. A key aspect of the method is a surface rediscretization procedure--applied at each time step and based on a global background mesh--that maintains a representation of the surface while naturally adding and subtracting surface discretization points as the surface evolves in time. This method was coded in 2-D, and tested on a variety of surface evolution problems by using it in the ChISELS computer code. Results shown for 2-D problems illustrate the effectiveness of the method and highlight some notable advantages in accuracy over the LS method. Generalizing the method to 3D is discussed but not implemented

  13. Ultrastructural features of supraspinal muscles in rabbits after long-term transcutaneous lateral electrical surface stimulation (LESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Majewski

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Lateral electrical surface stimulation is one of methods used in the therapy of the progressive form of idiopathic scoliosis (IS in children and youth. However, there are data suggesting that this method may lead to serious adverse side effects, when used for a too long period of time per day. To clarify this issue, the present study was aimed at disclosing possible changes in the ultrastructural appearance of rabbit supraspinal muscles undergoing long-term stimulation (9 h per day, 3 months, an animal model successfully used to mimic the situation in humans. In comparison to the control animals, muscles of "overstimulated" rabbits exhibited clear signs of microscopical lesions, including depletion and disintegration of myofilaments, proliferation, dilatation and, sometimes, swelling of sarcoplasmic reticulum and/or mitochondria, as well as signs of destruction of the Z line. The above-mentioned abnormalities, especially the signs of degenerative processes associated with the Z line and the observed microlesions strongly suggest that the failure of the long-term LESS therapy of the IS may be attributable to these ultrastructural lesions.

  14. Documentation for the U.S. Geological Survey Public-Supply Database (PSDB): A database of permitted public-supply wells, surface-water intakes, and systems in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Curtis V.; Maupin, Molly A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a database containing information about wells, surface-water intakes, and distribution systems that are part of public water systems across the United States, its territories, and possessions. Programs of the USGS such as the National Water Census, the National Water Use Information Program, and the National Water-Quality Assessment Program all require a complete and current inventory of public water systems, the sources of water used by those systems, and the size of populations served by the systems across the Nation. Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) database already exists as the primary national Federal database for information on public water systems, the Public-Supply Database (PSDB) was developed to add value to SDWIS data with enhanced location and ancillary information, and to provide links to other databases, including the USGS’s National Water Information System (NWIS) database.

  15. Correlation between phonon anomaly along [211] and the Fermi surface nesting features with associated electron-phonon interactions in Ni2FeGa: A first principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabungbam, Satyananda; Sahariah, Munima B.

    2015-01-01

    First principles calculation reaffirms the presence of phonon anomaly along [211] direction in Ni 2 FeGa shape memory alloy supporting the experimental findings of J. Q. Li et al. Fermi surface scans have been performed in both austenite and martensite phase to see the possible Fermi nesting features in this alloy. The magnitude of observed Fermi surface nesting vectors in (211) plane exactly match the phonon anomaly wavevectors along [211] direction. Electron-phonon calculation in the austenite phase shows that there is significant electron-phonon coupling in this alloy which might arise out of the lattice coupling between lower acoustic modes and higher optical modes combined with the observed strong Fermi nesting features in the system. - Highlights: • Transverse acoustic (TA 2 ) modes show anomaly along [211] direction in Ni 2 FeGa. • The phonon anomaly wavevector has been correlated with the Fermi nesting vectors. • Electron-phonon coupling calculation shows significant coupling in this system. • Max. el-ph coupling occurs in transition frequencies from acoustic to optical modes

  16. Surface and sub-surface anatomy of the landscape: integrating Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Structure from Motion (UAV-SfM) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GRP) to investigate sedimentary features in the field. - an example from NW Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callow, Nik; Leopold, Matthias; May, Simon Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Geomorphology is confronted by the challenge of reconstructing landscape features at appropriate scales, resolution and accuracy, that allows meaningful analysis of environmental processes and their implications. Field geomorphology offers a discrete snapshot (i.e. one or two field campaigns) to reconstruct how features have changed, evolved or responded over time. We explore the application of an emerging photogrammetry technique called Structure-from-Motion (SfM), which uses multiple photographs of the same feature (but taken at different locations) to create high-accuracy three-dimensional models of surface of sedimentary fans formed by extreme wave events. This approach is complimented by investigation of the sub-surface morphology using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). Using an UAV "octocopter", we captured 1208 photos with a DSLR camera (Canon EoS-M) at the height of 50m with a ground pixel resolution of 9mm, above a cyclone wash-over fan in the Exmouth Gulf (Western Australia) that measured about 500m inland by 300m wide. Based on 38 ground control point targets (with between 4 and 45 individual photographs per target) the SfM surface had an absolute total (XYZ) accuracy of 51mm (39mm X, 29mm Y and 14mm Y), based on RTK-DGPS surveying from a local ground reference station (with an absolute AUSPOS accuracy of 57mm X, 6mm Y, 50mm Z to AHD) and an overall relative point accuracy of 7mm. A sparse point cloud of over 5.5 million data points was generated using only points with a reconstruction accuracy of Python. The output was then manually classified into ground and non-ground points, and the geostatistical analyst functionality of ArcGIS used to produce a final bare-earth DEM. This approach has allowed the study team to economically collect an unprecedented high-resolution and accuracy topographic model of this feature to compliment on-ground sediment, geophysics and dating work to analyse the complex evolution structure of the wash-over sequence and the

  17. Geologic processes on Venus: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masursky, H.

    Studies of Venera 15 and 16 radar image and altimetry data and reevaluation of Pioneer Venus and earlier Venera data have greatly expanded the perception of the variety and complexity of geologic processes on Venus. PV data have discriminated four highland regions (each different in geomorphic appearance), a large upland rolling plains region, and smaller areas of lowland plains. Two highland volcanic centers were identified that may be presently active, as suggested by their geomorphologic appearance combined with positive gravity anomalies, lightning strike clusters, and a change in SO2 content in the upper atmosphere. Geochemical data obtained by the Venera landers have indicated that one upland area and nearby rolling plains are composed of volcanic rocks, probably basalts or syenites. New Venera radar images of the Ishtar Terra region show folded and/or faulted linear terrain and associated volcanic features that may have been deformed by both compressional and extensional forces. Lowland surfaces resemble the mare basaltic lava flows that fill basins on the Moon, Mars and Earth. Ubiquitous crater like forms may be of either volcanic or impact origin; the origin of similar lunar features was determined by the character of their ejecta deposits.

  18. A Homology Model Reveals Novel Structural Features and an Immunodominant Surface Loop/Opsonic Target in the Treponema pallidum BamA Ortholog TP_0326.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Amit; Anand, Arvind; Hawley, Kelly L; LeDoyt, Morgan; La Vake, Carson J; Caimano, Melissa J; Cruz, Adriana R; Salazar, Juan C; Radolf, Justin D

    2015-06-01

    We recently demonstrated that TP_0326 is a bona fide rare outer membrane protein (OMP) in Treponema pallidum and that it possesses characteristic BamA bipartite topology. Herein, we used immunofluorescence analysis (IFA) to show that only the β-barrel domain of TP_0326 contains surface-exposed epitopes in intact T. pallidum. Using the solved structure of Neisseria gonorrhoeae BamA, we generated a homology model of full-length TP_0326. Although the model predicts a typical BamA fold, the β-barrel harbors features not described in other BamAs. Structural modeling predicted that a dome comprised of three large extracellular loops, loop 4 (L4), L6, and L7, covers the barrel's extracellular opening. L4, the dome's major surface-accessible loop, contains mainly charged residues, while L7 is largely neutral and contains a polyserine tract in a two-tiered conformation. L6 projects into the β-barrel but lacks the VRGF/Y motif that anchors L6 within other BamAs. IFA and opsonophagocytosis assay revealed that L4 is surface exposed and an opsonic target. Consistent with B cell epitope predictions, immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed that L4 is an immunodominant loop in T. pallidum-infected rabbits and humans with secondary syphilis. Antibody capture experiments using Escherichia coli expressing OM-localized TP_0326 as a T. pallidum surrogate further established the surface accessibility of L4. Lastly, we found that a naturally occurring substitution (Leu(593) → Gln(593)) in the L4 sequences of T. pallidum strains affects antibody binding in sera from syphilitic patients. Ours is the first study to employ a "structure-to-pathogenesis" approach to map the surface topology of a T. pallidum OMP within the context of syphilitic infection. Previously, we reported that TP_0326 is a bona fide rare outer membrane protein (OMP) in Treponema pallidum and that it possesses the bipartite topology characteristic of a BamA ortholog. Using a homology

  19. Fractals in geology and geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    The definition of a fractal distribution is that the number of objects N with a characteristic size greater than r scales with the relation N of about r exp -D. The frequency-size distributions for islands, earthquakes, fragments, ore deposits, and oil fields often satisfy this relation. This application illustrates a fundamental aspect of fractal distributions, scale invariance. The requirement of an object to define a scale in photograhs of many geological features is one indication of the wide applicability of scale invariance to geological problems; scale invariance can lead to fractal clustering. Geophysical spectra can also be related to fractals; these are self-affine fractals rather than self-similar fractals. Examples include the earth's topography and geoid.

  20. Effects of charge design features on parameters of acoustic and seismic waves and cratering, for SMR chemical surface explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitterman, Y.

    2012-04-01

    A series of experimental on-surface shots was designed and conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel at Sayarim Military Range (SMR) in Negev desert, including two large calibration explosions: about 82 tons of strong IMI explosives in August 2009, and about 100 tons of ANFO explosives in January 2011. It was a collaborative effort between Israel, CTBTO, USA and several European countries, with the main goal to provide fully controlled ground truth (GT0) infrasound sources in different weather/wind conditions, for calibration of IMS infrasound stations in Europe, Middle East and Asia. Strong boosters and the upward charge detonation scheme were applied to provide a reduced energy release to the ground and an enlarged energy radiation to the atmosphere, producing enhanced infrasound signals, for better observation at far-regional stations. The following observations and results indicate on the required explosives energy partition for this charge design: 1) crater size and local seismic (duration) magnitudes were found smaller than expected for these large surface explosions; 2) small test shots of the same charge (1 ton) conducted at SMR with different detonation directions showed clearly lower seismic amplitudes/energy and smaller crater size for the upward detonation; 3) many infrasound stations at local and regional distances showed higher than expected peak amplitudes, even after application of a wind-correction procedure. For the large-scale explosions, high-pressure gauges were deployed at 100-600 m to record air-blast properties, evaluate the efficiency of the charge design and energy generation, and provide a reliable estimation of the charge yield. Empirical relations for air-blast parameters - peak pressure, impulse and the Secondary Shock (SS) time delay - depending on distance, were developed and analyzed. The parameters, scaled by the cubic root of estimated TNT equivalent charges, were found consistent for all analyzed explosions, except of SS

  1. Nutrient and pesticide contamination bias estimated from field blanks collected at surface-water sites in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Quality Networks, 2002–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura; Martin, Jeffrey D.

    2017-08-14

    Potential contamination bias was estimated for 8 nutrient analytes and 40 pesticides in stream water collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at 147 stream sites from across the United States, and representing a variety of hydrologic conditions and site types, for water years 2002–12. This study updates previous U.S. Geological Survey evaluations of potential contamination bias for nutrients and pesticides. Contamination is potentially introduced to water samples by exposure to airborne gases and particulates, from inadequate cleaning of sampling or analytic equipment, and from inadvertent sources during sample collection, field processing, shipment, and laboratory analysis. Potential contamination bias, based on frequency and magnitude of detections in field blanks, is used to determine whether or under what conditions environmental data might need to be qualified for the interpretation of results in the context of comparisons with background levels, drinking-water standards, aquatic-life criteria or benchmarks, or human-health benchmarks. Environmental samples for which contamination bias as determined in this report applies are those from historical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality networks or programs that were collected during the same time frame and according to the same protocols and that were analyzed in the same laboratory as field blanks described in this report.Results from field blanks for ammonia, nitrite, nitrite plus nitrate, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus were partitioned by analytical method; results from the most commonly used analytical method for total phosphorus were further partitioned by date. Depending on the analytical method, 3.8, 9.2, or 26.9 percent of environmental samples, the last of these percentages pertaining to all results from 2007 through 2012, were potentially affected by ammonia contamination. Nitrite contamination potentially affected up to 2.6 percent of environmental samples collected between 2002 and 2006 and

  2. Environmental geology and hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakić, Zoran; Mileusnić, Marta; Pavlić, Krešimir; Kovač, Zoran

    2017-10-01

    Environmental geology is scientific discipline dealing with the interactions between humans and the geologic environment. Many natural hazards, which have great impact on humans and their environment, are caused by geological settings. On the other hand, human activities have great impact on the physical environment, especially in the last decades due to dramatic human population growth. Natural disasters often hit densely populated areas causing tremendous death toll and material damage. Demand for resources enhanced remarkably, as well as waste production. Exploitation of mineral resources deteriorate huge areas of land, produce enormous mine waste and pollute soil, water and air. Environmental geology is a broad discipline and only selected themes will be presented in the following subchapters: (1) floods as natural hazard, (2) water as geological resource and (3) the mining and mineral processing as types of human activities dealing with geological materials that affect the environment and human health.

  3. Geology of Pluto and Charon Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey Morgan

    2015-01-01

    Pluto's surface was found to be remarkably diverse in terms of its range of landforms, terrain ages, and inferred geological processes. There is a latitudinal zonation of albedo. The conspicuous bright albedo heart-shaped feature informally named Tombaugh Regio is comprised of several terrain types. Most striking is Texas-sized Sputnik Planum, which is apparently level, has no observable craters, and is divided by polygons and ovoids bounded by shallow troughs. Small smooth hills are seen in some of the polygon-bounding troughs. These hills could either be extruded or exposed by erosion. Sputnik Planum polygon/ovoid formation hypotheses range from convection to contraction, but convection is currently favored. There is evidence of flow of plains material around obstacles. Mountains, especially those seen south of Sputnik Planum, exhibit too much relief to be made of CH4, CO, or N2, and thus are probably composed of H2O-ice basement material. The north contact of Sputnik Planum abuts a scarp, above which is heavily modified cratered terrain. Pluto's large moon Charon is generally heavily to moderately cratered. There is a mysterious structure in the arctic. Charon's surface is crossed by an extensive system of rift faults and graben. Some regions are smoother and less cratered, reminiscent of lunar maria. On such a plain are large isolated block mountains surrounded by moats. At this conference we will present highlights of the latest observations and analysis. This work was supported by NASA's New Horizons project

  4. Study of geologic-structural situation around Semipalatinsk test site test - holes using space images automated decoding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunova, Eh.M.; Ivanchenko, G.N.

    2004-01-01

    Performance of underground nuclear explosions (UNE) leads to irreversible changes in geological environment around the boreholes. In natural environment it was detected inhomogeneity of rock massif condition changes, which depended on characteristics of the underground nuclear explosion, anisotropy of medium and presence of faulting. Application of automated selection and statistic analysis of unstretched lineaments in high resolution space images using special software pack LESSA allows specifying the geologic-structural features of Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), ranging selected fracture zones, outlining and analyzing post-explosion zone surface deformations. (author)

  5. ROCK-CAD - computer aided geological modelling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, P.

    1995-12-01

    The study discusses surface and solid modelling methods, their use and interfacing with geodata. Application software named ROCK-CAD suitable for geological bedrock modelling has been developed with support from Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). It has been utilized in the Finnish site characterization programme for spent nuclear fuel waste disposal during the 1980s and 1990s. The system is based on the solid modelling technique. It comprises also rich functionality for the particular geological modelling scheme. The ROCK-CAD system provides, among other things, varying graphical vertical and horizontal intersections and perspective illustrations. The specially developed features are the application of the boundary representation modelling method, parametric object generation language and the discipline approach. The ROCK-CAD system has been utilized in modelling spatial distribution of rock types and fracturing structures in TVO's site characterization. The Olkiluoto site at Eurajoki serves as an example case. The study comprises the description of the modelling process, models and illustration examples. The utilization of bedrock models in site characterization, in tentative repository siting as well as in groundwater flow simulation is depicted. The application software has improved the assessment of the sites studied, given a new basis for the documentation of interpretation and modelling work, substituted hand-drawing and enabled digital transfer to numerical analysis. Finally, aspects of presentation graphics in geological modelling are considered. (84 refs., 30 figs., 11 tabs.)

  6. Study on geological environment model using geostatistics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Makoto; Suzuki, Makoto; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Iwasa, Kengo; Matsui, Hiroya

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the geostatistical procedure for modeling geological environments and to evaluate the quantitative relationship between the amount of information and the reliability of the model using the data sets obtained in the surface-based investigation phase (Phase 1) of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project. This study lasts for three years from FY2004 to FY2006 and this report includes the research in FY2005 as the second year of three-year study. In FY2005 research, the hydrogeological model was built as well as FY2004 research using the data obtained from the deep boreholes (HDB-6, 7 and 8) and the ground magnetotelluric (AMT) survey which were executed in FY2004 in addition to the data sets used in the first year of study. Above all, the relationship between the amount of information and the reliability of the model was demonstrated through a comparison of the models at each step which corresponds to the investigation stage in each FY. Furthermore, the statistical test was applied for detecting the difference of basic statistics of various data due to geological features with a view to taking the geological information into the modeling procedures. (author)

  7. A Geospatial Information Grid Framework for Geological Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liang; Xue, Lei; Li, Chaoling; Lv, Xia; Chen, Zhanlong; Guo, Mingqiang; Xie, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital information in geological fields is becoming very important. Thus, informatization in geological surveys should not stagnate as a result of the level of data accumulation. The integration and sharing of distributed, multi-source, heterogeneous geological information is an open problem in geological domains. Applications and services use geological spatial data with many features, including being cross-region and cross-domain and requiring real-time updating. As a result of these features, desktop and web-based geographic information systems (GISs) experience difficulties in meeting the demand for geological spatial information. To facilitate the real-time sharing of data and services in distributed environments, a GIS platform that is open, integrative, reconfigurable, reusable and elastic would represent an indispensable tool. The purpose of this paper is to develop a geological cloud-computing platform for integrating and sharing geological information based on a cloud architecture. Thus, the geological cloud-computing platform defines geological ontology semantics; designs a standard geological information framework and a standard resource integration model; builds a peer-to-peer node management mechanism; achieves the description, organization, discovery, computing and integration of the distributed resources; and provides the distributed spatial meta service, the spatial information catalog service, the multi-mode geological data service and the spatial data interoperation service. The geological survey information cloud-computing platform has been implemented, and based on the platform, some geological data services and geological processing services were developed. Furthermore, an iron mine resource forecast and an evaluation service is introduced in this paper.

  8. Geology's Impact on Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most people consider geology boring, static and difficult. The fields of astronomy and physics have "rebranded" themselves with exciting programs formatted so as to be readily understandable to the general public. The same thing can be done for geology. My research on geology's influence on other disciplines has resulted in a book, Tweeting da Vinci, in which I was able to show how geology affected Italy's art, architecture, medicine, religion, literature, engineering and just about everything else. The reaction to the book and my lectures by both students and the general public has been very positive, including four gold medals, with reviews and comments indicating that they never knew geology could be so exciting. The book is very user friendly, packed with facts, full-color photos, paintings, sketches and illustrations. Complex aspects of geology are presented in an easily understandable style. Widely diverse topics—such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion—are stitched together using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. The book can be used in classes such as physics, chemistry, literature, art history, medicine, Classical Studies, Latin, Greek and Italian. By incorporating a "geologic perspective" in these courses, it can be perceived as a more "all encompassing" discipline and encourage more students to study it. The lectures I have given on college campuses have resulted in students seeing their own majors from a different perspective and some have even signed up for introductory geology courses. One college organized summer course to the Bay of Naples based on the book. We followed the geology as well as the culture of the area and the students were profoundly moved. To encourage dialog, the book is linked to Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. This has enabled followers from

  9. The geologic history of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelms, Don E.; with sections by McCauley, John F.; Trask, Newell J.

    1987-01-01

    More than two decades of study have established the major features of lunar geologic style and history. The most numerous and significant landforms belong to a size-morphology series of simple craters, complex craters, and ringed basins that were formed by impacts. Each crater and basin is the source of primary ejecta and secondary craters that, collectively, cover the entire terra. The largest impacts thinned, weakened, and redistributed feldspathic terracrustal material averaging about 75 km in thickness. Relatively small volumes of basalt, generated by partial remelting of mantle material, were erupted through the thin subbasin and subcrater crust to form the maria that cover 16 percent of the lunar surface. Tectonism has modified the various stratigraphic deposits relatively little; most structures are confined to basins and large craters. This general geologic style, basically simple though complex in detail, has persisted longer than 4 aeons (1 aeon = 109 yr). Impacts began to leave a visible record about 4.2 aeons ago, after the crust and mantle had differentiated and the crust had solidified. At least 30 basins and 100 times that many craters larger than 30 km in diameter were formed before a massive impact created the Nectaris basin about 3.92 aeons ago. Impacts continued during the ensuing Nectarian Period at a lesser rate, whereas volcanism left more traces than during pre-Nectarian time. The latest basin-forming impacts created the giant and still-conspicuous Imbrium and Orientale basins during the Early Imbrian Epoch, between 3.85 and 3.80 aeons ago. The rate of crater-forming impacts continued to decline during the Imbrian Period. Beginning in the Late Imbrian Epoch, mare-basalt flows remained exposed because they were no longer obscured by many large impacts. The Eratosthenian Period (3.2-1.1 aeons ago) and the Copernican Period (1.1 aeons ago to present) were times of lesser volcanism and a still lower, probably constant impact rate. Copernican

  10. Radon in geological medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hricko, J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a v has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km 2 . The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a v > 50 kBq/m 3 ). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs

  11. Preliminary Mariner 9 report on the geology of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccauley, J. F.; Carr, M. H.; Masursky, H.; Milton, D. J.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Cutts, J. A.; Hartmann, W. K.; Sharp, R. P.

    1972-01-01

    Mariner 9 results indicate that Mars is geologically far more heterogeneous than previously suspected from earlier flyby missions; the surface has been shaped by volcanic, tectonic, erosional, and depositional activity. The equatorial region between 30 deg N and 30 deg S latitude is depicted in four geologic sketch maps, and seventeen geologic units are defined on the basis of their textural characteristics. The maps and the brief descriptions of geological units portrayed are followed by a series of more interpretive discussions dealing with topical problems and a summary geologic history. Topics covered include cratering, circular basins, volcanism, canyons, chaotic terrain, channels, and eolian activity.

  12. Conduct of Geologic Field Work During Planetary Exploration: Why Geology Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    2010-01-01

    The science of field geology is the investigative process of determining the distribution of rock units and structures on a planet fs surface, and it is the first-order data set that informs all subsequent studies of a planet, such as geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics, or remote sensing. For future missions to the Moon and Mars, the surface systems deployed must support the conduct of field geology if these endeavors are to be scientifically useful. This lecture discussed what field geology is all about.why it is important, how it is done, how conducting field geology informs many other sciences, and how it affects the design of surface systems and the implementation of operations in the future.

  13. AEGIS geologic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The Geologic Simulation Model (GSM) is used by the AEGIS (Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems) program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to simulate the dynamic geology and hydrology of a geologic nuclear waste repository site over a million-year period following repository closure. The GSM helps to organize geologic/hydrologic data; to focus attention on active natural processes by requiring their simulation; and, through interactive simulation and calibration, to reduce subjective evaluations of the geologic system. During each computer run, the GSM produces a million-year geologic history that is possible for the region and the repository site. In addition, the GSM records in permanent history files everything that occurred during that time span. Statistical analyses of data in the history files of several hundred simulations are used to classify typical evolutionary paths, to establish the probabilities associated with deviations from the typical paths, and to determine which types of perturbations of the geologic/hydrologic system, if any, are most likely to occur. These simulations will be evaluated by geologists familiar with the repository region to determine validity of the results. Perturbed systems that are determined to be the most realistic, within whatever probability limits are established, will be used for the analyses that involve radionuclide transport and dose models. The GSM is designed to be continuously refined and updated. Simulation models are site specific, and, although the submodels may have limited general applicability, the input data equirements necessitate detailed characterization of each site before application

  14. Geology of the seashore

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    There are many different types of beaches around Ireland. By looking at the geology of the seashore, students can study its rocks, soil, and minerals and learn about its origins. The geology of the seashore also offers a natural environment for many species and plants to live.

  15. Bedrock geologic map of the central block area, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, W.C.; Potter, C.J.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Dickerson, R.P.; San Juan, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Bedrock geologic maps form the foundation for investigations that characterize and assess the viability of the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This study was funded by the US Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project to provide a detailed (1:6,000-scale) bedrock geologic map for the area within and adjacent to the potential repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to this study, the 1:12,000-scale map of Scott and Bon, (1984) was the primary source of bedrock geologic data for the Yucca Mountain Project. However, targeted detailed mapping within the central block at Yucca Mountain revealed structural complexities along some of the intrablock faults that were not evident at 1:12,000 (Scott and Bonk, 1984). As a result, this study was undertaken to define the character and extent of the dominant structural features in the vicinity of the potential repository. In addition to structural considerations, ongoing subsurface excavation and geologic mapping within the exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), development of a three-dimensional-framework geologic model, and borehole investigations required use of a constituent stratigraphic system to facilitate surface to underground comparisons. The map units depicted in this report correspond as closely as possible to the proposed stratigraphic nomenclature by Buesch and others (1996), as described here

  16. Lung injury induced by TiO2 nanoparticles depends on their structural features: size, shape, crystal phases, and surface coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangxue; Fan, Yubo

    2014-12-03

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology, a variety of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are being produced. Nanotoxicology has become a hot topic in many fields, as researchers attempt to elucidate the potential adverse health effects of NPs. The biological activity of NPs strongly depends on physicochemical parameters but these are not routinely considered in toxicity screening, such as dose metrics. In this work, nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO2), one of the most commonly produced and widely used NPs, is put forth as a representative. The correlation between the lung toxicity and pulmonary cell impairment related to TiO2 NPs and its unusual structural features, including size, shape, crystal phases, and surface coating, is reviewed in detail. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in pulmonary inflammation in response to the properties of TiO2 NPs is also briefly described. To fully understand the potential biological effects of NPs in toxicity screening, we highly recommend that the size, crystal phase, dispersion and agglomeration status, surface coating, and chemical composition should be most appropriately characterized.

  17. Glazed ceramic roof tiles: influence of surface features in the solar reflectance index; Influencia das caracteristicas da superficie no indice de refletancia solar de telhas ceramicas esmaltadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoli, Leitcia Silva de; Stapait, Camila Cristina; Marinoski, Deivis Luis; Fredel, Marcio Celso; Schabbach, Luciana M., E-mail: luciana.maccarini@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Blumenau, SC (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    In this study the influence of surface features of ceramic roof tiles in the solar reflectance index were evaluated. Two glazed ceramic roof tiles (type stoneware) with the same color (ivory) but with different appearance (matte and brilliant) were the focus of the analysis. The Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of the roofs tiles were determined by the solar reflectance values (UV-VIS-NIR) and emittance, measured in laboratory. The samples showed SRI> 39 in accordance with LEED certification criteria (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), contributing to minimizing the Heat Island Effects. Although the matte roof tile shows a slightly higher SRI value (82) than the brilliant one (78), the results for the variables that composes the SRI value (reflectance and emittance) were very similar. Analysis of XRD, SEM and EDS performed on the surfaces of the two roofs indicated for the matte glaze the presence of microcrystals (with barium and zinc) that can contribute to the slightly highest value of SRI. The roughness (optical interferometer white light) and the brightness (brightness meter) of the samples were also measured. (author)

  18. Global Journal of Geological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Geological Sciences is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Geological Sciences including geochemistry, geophysics, engineering geology, hydrogeology, petrology, mineralogy, geochronology, tectonics, mining, structural geology, marine geology, space science etc. Visit the Global Journal Series ...

  19. Towards a Convention on Geological Heritage (CGH) for the protection of Geological Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocx, Margaret; Semeniuk, Vic

    2017-04-01

    2 V & C Semeniuk Research Group; 21 Glenmere Rd., Warwick, WA, 6024 The history of the biological conservation essentially began with the IUCN and the global awakening following publication of "The Silent Spring". Since then the IUCN has been active in species conservation and later, when recognising the importance of biodiversity, in the development of a Convention on Biological Diversity. However, even in a framework of Convention on Biological Diversity, there are organisations, political systems/parties, and personnel that strive to subjugate and control nature and biology and use nature for profit or to benefit humankind (e.g., genetically modified foods, use of terrain for food production, use of forests as a resource, managed ecosystems, construction of luxury resorts and tourist resorts in wildernesses). This has been the same for geology, in that geological materials are fundamental to industrialisation in the use of metals, building materials, other commodities, and fossil fuels, and have been exploited often regardless of their geoheritage values. The history of geology and its conservation actually predates the focus on conservation of biology - Siccar Point, numerous palaeontologic sites, and other iconic geological sites serve as examples. But in spite of their recognition as iconic geological sites, areas such as Siccar Point, Cliefden Caves, Hallett Cove, and the Kimberley are still under threat. Given that firstly there is an importance to geological features of the Earth per se and, secondly, geological features as geodiversity underpin and sustain biological systems, there is a critical need to develop a convention, similar to the Convention on Biological Diversity, that recognises the importance of geology as a part of Nature. The scope of Geoheritage and the diversity of Geology is such that it involves all sub-disciplines of Geology (e.g., palaeontology, mineralogy, igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic geology, structural geology, hydrology

  20. Quaternary Geological Phenomena in Labuhan Area, Pandeglang Regency, Banten Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Lumban Batu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v7i4.148Geological features in Labuhan area were studied from the middle of October to the middle of November 2011 covering seventy days. Surface and subsurface data were obtained from interpretation of landsat images and shallow hand-auger boreholes. The geological features are distinctly associated with active tectonics. The stratigraphy clearly indicates at least three phases of tectonic activities since the Late Miocene until Holocene. Tectonics of phase one occurred in the Late Miocene; phase two took place in the period from Pliocene to Late Pleistocene, while tectonics phase three is ongoing in the Holocene. Volcanic activity has intensified since the Early Pleistocene. The landsat images show an irregular outline of the northern coast line. This penomenon is interpreted to be the result of tectonic uplift. On the other hand, the southern coast is linear in plan which is interpreted to correlate with tectonic subsidence. Furthermore, stratigraphic correlation shows that depositional environment changed vertically due to a local subsidence. The northern researched area is occupied by Pleistocene volcanic eruption centres, whilst the younger ones tend to shift southward. This fact tends to indicate that the subduction zone moved southward slowly.

  1. Geological and geophysical investigations at Sierra del Medio massif - Argentine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perucca, J.C.; Llambias, E.; Puigdomenech, H.H.; Cebrelli, E.; Castro, C.E.; Grassi, I.; Salinas, L.I.

    1987-01-01

    Geological investigations were performed at Sierra del Medio (Chubut Province), a mountainous massif of about 25 km by 8 km of migmatic origin, which emerges from a depressed tectonic trench or graben called Pampa de Gastre. The most ancient rocks belong to biotitic and anphibolic schist that passed almost entirely to tonalitoid migmatites with a second process producing granitic rocks. Boreholes were drilled on the basis of conclusions from Landsat satellites imagery and aerial photographic sets, folowed by field work on geological, petrographic, geophysical and hydrogeological features at surface, structural interpretation supported by geostatistical computations. Two sets of boreholes were drilled to investigate subsurface rock behaviour al 300 m depth and 800 m depth respectively, beginning at peripheral places and ending at the central part or selected site. Basic purposes of boreholes were to define structural and petrographic features of the rock massif by a good comprehension of master joints and faulting distribution with its belts of alteration mylonitization or brecciation, mechanical properties of samples, chemical composition and varitions, petrographic facies and mineralogy. Boreholes provided data to investigate joints, faults and dikes as general discontinuities for hydraulic research like permeability or effective hydraulic conductivity, and their geostatistical modelling. Boreholes are also being prepared for geophysical logging from which logthermal ones have already been completed. (Author) [es

  2. Geologic mapping of the Amirani-Gish Bar region of Io: Implications for the global geologic mapping of Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D.A.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Crown, D.A.; Jaeger, W.L.; Schenk, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    -Voyager global mosaics. To convey the complexity of ionian surface geology, we find that a new global geologic map of Io should include a map sheet displaying the global abundances and types of surface features as well as a complementary GIS database as a means to catalog the record of surface changes observed since the Voyager flybys and during the Galileo mission. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Surface Textures and Features Indicative of Endogenous Growth at the McCartys Flow Field, NM, as an Analog to Martian Volcanic Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Crumpler, L. S.; Garry, W. B.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Self, S.; Aubele, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Basaltic lavas typically form channels or tubes, which are recognized on the Earth and Mars. Although largely unrecognized in the planetary community, terrestrial inflated sheet flows also display morphologies that share many commonalities with lava plains on Mars. The McCartys lava flow field is among the youngest (approx.3000 yrs) basaltic flows in the continental United States. The southwest sections of the flow displays smooth, flat-topped plateaus with irregularly shaped pits and hummocky inter-plateau units that form a polygonal surface. Plateaus are typically elongate in map view, up to 20 m high and display lineations within the glassy crust. Lineated surfaces occasionally display small < 1m diameter lava coils. Lineations are generally straight and parallel each other, sometimes for over 100 meters. The boundaries between plateaus and depressions are also lineated and tilted to angles sometimes approaching vertical. Plateau-parallel cracks, sometimes containing squeeze-ups, mark the boundary between tilted crust and plateau. Some plateau depressions display level floors with hummocky surfaces, while some are bowl shaped with floors covered in broken lava slabs. The lower walls of pits sometimes display lateral, sagged lava wedges. Infrequently, pit floors display the upper portion of a tumulus from an older flow. In some places the surface crust has been disrupted forming a slabby texture. Slabs are typically on the scale of a meter or less across and no less than 7-10 cm thick. The slabs preserve the lineated textures of the undisturbed plateau crust. It appears that this style of terrain represents the emplacement of an extensive sheet that experiences inflation episodes within preferred regions where lateral spreading of the sheet is inhibited, thereby forming plateaus. Rough surfaces represent inflation-related disruption of pahoehoe lava and not a a lava. Depressions are often the result of non-inflation and can be clearly identified by lateral

  4. Cosmic ray exposure dating of geo-morphic surface features using in situ-produced 10Be: tectonic and climatic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siame, L.; Bellier, O.; Sebrier, M.; Braucher, R.; Bourles, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of continental landforms is mainly modulated by the impact of climatic and tectonic processes. Because of their distinctive morphology and the periodicity of their deposition, climatically induced landforms such as alluvial fans or terraces are well suited to infer rates of tectonic and continental climatic processes. Within tectonically active regions, an important step consists in dating displaced geomorphic features to calculate slip rates on active faults. Dating is probably the most critical tool because it is generally much more simpler to measure deformation resulting from tectonic activity than it is to accurately date when that deformation occurred. Recent advances in analytical chemistry and nuclear physics (accelerator mass spectrometry) now allow quantitative abundance measurements of the extremely rare isotopes produced by the interaction of cosmic rays with surface rocks and soils, the so-called in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides ( 3 He, 10 Be, 21 Ne, 26 Al, 36 Cl), and allow to directly date the duration that a landform has been exposed to cosmic rays at the Earth's surface (Lal, 1991; Nishiizumi et al., 1993; Cerling and Craig, 1994; Clark et al., 1995]. In fact, the abundance of these cosmo-nuclides is proportional to landscape stability and, under favorable circumstances, their abundance within surface rocks can be used as a proxy for erosion rate or exposure age. These cosmo-nuclides thus provide geomorphologists with the opportunity to constrain rates of landscape evolution. This paper presents a new approach that combines cosmic ray exposure (CRE) dating using in situ-produced 10 Be and geomorphic as well as structural analyse. This approach has been applied on two active strike-slip and reverse faults located in the Andean fore-land of western Argentina. These two case studies illustrate how CRE dating using in situ-produced 10 Be is particularly well suited for geomorphic studies that aim to estimate the respective control of

  5. Geology Museum-Based Learning in Soil Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, E. A.; Tennant, C. H.; Post, C. J.; Cicimurri, C.; Cicimurri, D.

    2013-01-01

    Museums provide unique learning opportunities in soil science. The Bob Campbell Geology Museum in Clemson, SC, features an exhibit of minerals and rocks common in the state and in its geologic history. We developed a hands-on laboratory exercise utilizing an exhibit that gives college students an opportunity to visualize regional minerals and…

  6. Global Journal of Geological Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Global Journal of Geological Sciences is aimed at promoting research in all areas of geological Sciences including Petrology, Mineralogy, geophysics, hydrogeology, Engineering geology, Petroleum geology, Palaeontology, environmental geology, Economic geology, etc.

  7. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.

    2005-09-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors

  8. Geological heritage of Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhadi, H.; Tahiri, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The soil and subsoil of Morocco are rich in geological phenomena that bear the imprint of a history that goes back in time more than 2000 million years. Very many sites geologically remarkable exposed in accessible outcrops, with good quality remain unknown to the general public and therefore deserve to be vulgarized. It is a memory to acquaint to the present generations but also to preserve for future generations. In total, a rich geological heritage in many ways: Varied landscapes, international stratotypes, various geological structures, varied rocks, mineral associations, a huge procession of fossiles, remnants of oceanic crust (ophiolites) among oldests ones in the world (800my), etc... For this geological heritage, an approach of an overall inventory is needed, both regionally and nationally, taking into account all the skills of the earth sciences. This will put the item on the natural (geological) potentialities as a lever for sustainable regional development. For this, it is necessary to implement a strategy of ''geoconservation'' for the preservation and assessment of the geological heritage.

  9. CONTRIBUTION OF SATELLITE ALTIMETRY DATA IN GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE RESEARCH IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Tran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study area is bordered on the East China Sea, the Philippine Sea, and the Australian-Indo plate in the Northeast, in the East and in the South, respectively. It is a large area with the diversely complicated conditions of geological structure. In spite of over the past many years of investigation, marine geological structure in many places have remained poorly understood because of a thick seawater layer as well as of the sensitive conflicts among the countries in the region. In recent years, the satellite altimeter technology allows of enhancement the marine investigation in any area. The ocean surface height is measured by a very accurate radar altimeter mounted on a satellite. Then, that surface can be converted into marine gravity anomaly or bathymetry by using the mathematical model. It is the only way to achieve the data with a uniform resolution in acceptable time and cost. The satellite altimetry data and its variants are essential for understanding marine geological structure. They provide a reliable opportunity to geologists and geophysicists for studying the geological features beneath the ocean floor. Also satellite altimeter data is perfect for planning the more detailed shipboard surveys. Especially, it is more meaningful in the remote or sparsely surveyed regions. In this paper, the authors have effectively used the satellite altimetry and shipboard data in combination. Many geological features, such as seafloor spreading ridges, fault systems, volcanic chains as well as distribution of sedimentary basins are revealed through the 2D, 3D model methods of interpretation of satellite-shipboard-derived data and the others. These results are improved by existing boreholes and seismic data in the study area.

  10. The Age of Lunar South Circumpolar Craters Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini, and Shackleton: Implications for Regional Geology, Surface Processes, and Volatile Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye, A. R.; Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Mazarico, E.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2015-01-01

    The interiors of the lunar south circumpolar craters Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini, and Shackleton contain permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and have been interpreted to contain sequestered volatiles including water ice. Altimetry data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter provide a new means of examining the permanently shadowed interiors of these craters in unprecedented detail. In this study, we used extremely high-resolution gridded LOLA data of Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini, and Shackleton to determine the size-frequency distributions and the spatial density of craters superposing their rims, inner slopes, and floors. Based on their population of superposed D greater than or equal to 2 km craters, Haworth, Shoemaker, and Faustini have pre-Nectarian formation ages. Shackleton is interpreted as having a Late Imbrian age on the basis of craters with diameter D greater than or equal to 0.5 km superposed on its rim. The local density of craters with sub-km diameters across our study area is strongly dependent on slope; because of its steep interior slopes, the lifetime of craters on the interior of Shackleton is limited. The slope-dependence of the small crater population implies that the population in this size range is controlled primarily by the rate at which craters are destroyed. This is consistent with the hypothesis that crater removal and resurfacing is a result of slopedependent processes such as diffusive mass wasting and seismic shaking, linked to micrometeorite and meteorite bombardment. Epithermal neutron flux data and UV albedo data show that these circumpolar PSRs, particularly Shoemaker, may have approximately 1-2% water ice by mass in their highly porous surface regolith, and that Shoemaker may have approximately 5% or more water ice by mass in the near subsurface. The ancient formation ages of Shoemaker, Faustini and Haworth, and the Late Imbrian (approximately 3.5 Ga) crater retention ages of their

  11. 3-D reconstruction and volume modelling of the grain fabric of geological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschallinger, R.

    This paper describes three-dimensional reconstruction and volume modelling of geological materials at the macroscopic and the microscopic scale. By means of a precision lapping device, samples are eroded in plan-parallel steps, erosion intervals being adapted to the size of minerals and fabric features of interest. For reconstruction of macroscopic features, each newly eroded sample surface is recorded by a high-resolution color flatbed scanner. Supervised image classification applied to the derived images yields color based mineral recognition. At the microscopic scale, scanning is done with a microanalyzer to portray mineral phases and microchemical variation. Minerals and fabric features are three dimensionally reconstructed by stacking and interpolating the acquired raster images of successive erosion levels in a voxel array. The voxel data structure features analyical flexibility, integration of both discrete and continuous spatial variation and versatile 3-D volume model visualization.

  12. Glossary of Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Julia A.

    The Glossary has expanded coverage particularly in such active fields as carbonate sedimentology, environmental geology and geophysics, GIS, GPS, hydrology and hydraulics, marine and coastal geology, organic geochemistry, paleoecology, seismology, stratigraphic nomenclature, speleology and karst, and structural geology and tectonics. Many definitions provide a syllabification guide and background information. Thus a reader will learn the difference between look-alike pairs, such as sylvanite (a mineral) and sylvinite (a rock); the origin of terms; the meaning of abbreviations and acronyms common in the geosciences vocabulary; the dates many terms were first used; the meaning of certain prefixes; and the preferred term of two or more synonyms.

  13. Geologic Map of the Hellas Region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Gregory J.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This geologic map of the Hellas region focuses on the stratigraphic, structural, and erosional histories associated with the largest well-preserved impact basin on Mars. Along with the uplifted rim and huge, partly infilled inner basin (Hellas Planitia) of the Hellas basin impact structure, the map region includes areas of ancient highland terrain, broad volcanic edifices and deposits, and extensive channels. Geologic activity recorded in the region spans all major epochs of martian chronology, from the early formation of the impact basin to ongoing resurfacing caused by eolian activity. The Hellas region, whose name refers to the classical term for Greece, has been known from telescopic observations as a prominent bright feature on the surface of Mars for more than a century (see Blunck, 1982). More recently, spacecraft imaging has greatly improved our visual perception of Mars and made possible its geologic interpretation. Here, our mapping at 1:5,000,000 scale is based on images obtained by the Viking Orbiters, which produced higher quality images than their predecessor, Mariner 9. Previous geologic maps of the region include those of the 1:5,000,000-scale global series based on Mariner 9 images (Potter, 1976; Peterson, 1977; King, 1978); the 1:15,000,000-scale global series based on Viking images (Greeley and Guest, 1987; Tanaka and Scott, 1987); and detailed 1:500,000-scale maps of Tyrrhena Patera (Gregg and others, 1998), Dao, Harmakhis, and Reull Valles (Price, 1998; Mest and Crown, in press), Hadriaca Patera (D.A. Crown and R. Greeley, map in preparation), and western Hellas Planitia (J.M. Moore and D.E. Wilhelms, map in preparation). We incorporated some of the previous work, but our map differs markedly in the identification and organization of map units. For example, we divide the Hellas assemblage of Greeley and Guest (1987) into the Hellas Planitia and Hellas rim assemblages and change the way units within these groupings are identified

  14. Geological workshop for primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Systematical teaching of geology is (yet not established in primary and secondary school in Slovenia. In primaryschool, geological topics are divided among numerous subjects and levels therefore they receive more attention onlyif alternative courses or geological circles are realized. With help of the Geological Survey of Slovenia we have beensuccessfully performing a geological workshop for primary school pupils aiming to popularize geology. With it pupilsare acquainted with methodologies for identification of rocks, minerals, fossils and properties of water.

  15. A Global Geologic Map of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janelle Leonard, Erin; Patthoff, Donald Alex; Senske, David A.; Collins, Geoffrey

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the global scale geology of Europa is paramount to gaining insight into the potential habitability of this icy world. To this end, work is ongoing to complete a global geological map at the scale of 1:15 million that incorporates data at all resolutions collected by the Voyager and Galileo missions. The results of this work will aid the Europa Clipper mission, now in formulation, by providing a framework for collaborative and synergistic science investigations.To understand global geologic and tectonic relations, a total of 10 geologic units have been defined. These include: Low Albedo Ridge Material (lam)—low albedo material that irregularly surrounds large (>20 km) ridge structures; Ridged plains (pr)—distributed over all latitudes and characterized by subparallel to cross-cutting ridges and troughs visible at high resolution (chh)—disrupted terrain with a relatively uniform low albedo, patchy/variegated albedo, and uniform high albedo appearance respectively; Knobby Chaos (chk) - disrupted terrain with rough and blocky texture occurring in the high latitudes.In addition to the geologic units, our mapping also includes structural features—Ridges, Cycloids, Undifferentiated Linea, Crater Rims, Depression Margins, Dome Margins and Troughs. We also introduce a point feature (at the global scale), Microchaos, to denote small (<10 km) patches of discontinuous chaos material. The completed map will constrain the distribution of different Europa terrains and provide a general stratigraphic framework to assess the geologic history of Europa from the regional to the global scale.

  16. OneGeology Web Services and Portal as a global geological SDI - latest standards and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Tim; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes

    2014-05-01

    The global coverage of OneGeology Web Services (www.onegeology.org and portal.onegeology.org) achieved since 2007 from the 120 participating geological surveys will be reviewed and issues arising discussed. Recent enhancements to the OneGeology Web Services capabilities will be covered including new up to 5 star service accreditation scheme utilising the ISO/OGC Web Mapping Service standard version 1.3, core ISO 19115 metadata additions and Version 2.0 Web Feature Services (WFS) serving the new IUGS-CGI GeoSciML V3.2 geological web data exchange language standard (http://www.geosciml.org/) with its associated 30+ IUGS-CGI available vocabularies (http://resource.geosciml.org/ and http://srvgeosciml.brgm.fr/eXist2010/brgm/client.html). Use of the CGI simpelithology and timescale dictionaries now allow those who wish to do so to offer data harmonisation to query their GeoSciML 3.2 based Web Feature Services and their GeoSciML_Portrayal V2.0.1 (http://www.geosciml.org/) Web Map Services in the OneGeology portal (http://portal.onegeology.org). Contributing to OneGeology involves offering to serve ideally 1:1000,000 scale geological data (in practice any scale now is warmly welcomed) as an OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standard based WMS (Web Mapping Service) service from an available WWW server. This may either be hosted within the Geological Survey or a neighbouring, regional or elsewhere institution that offers to serve that data for them i.e. offers to help technically by providing the web serving IT infrastructure as a 'buddy'. OneGeology is a standards focussed Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) and works to ensure that these standards work together and it is now possible for European Geological Surveys to register their INSPIRE web services within the OneGeology SDI (e.g. see http://www.geosciml.org/geosciml/3.2/documentation/cookbook/INSPIRE_GeoSciML_Cookbook%20_1.0.pdf). The Onegeology portal (http://portal.onegeology.org) is the first port of call for anyone

  17. Quaternary Geologic Map of Connecticut and Long Island Sound Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Janet Radway; Schafer, John P.; London, Elizabeth Haley; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.; Lewis, Ralph S.; Thompson, Woodrow B.

    2005-01-01

    The Quaternary geologic map (sheet 1) and explanatory figures and cross sections (sheet 2) portray the geologic features formed in Connecticut during the Quaternary Period, which includes the Pleistocene (glacial) and Holocene (postglacial) Epochs. The Quaternary Period has been a time of development of many details of the landscape and of all the surficial deposits. At least twice in the late Pleistocene, continental ice sheets swept across Connecticut. Their effects are of pervasive importance to the present occupants of the land. The Quaternary geologic map illustrates the geologic history and the distribution of depositional environments during the emplacement of glacial and postglacial surficial deposits and the landforms resulting from those events.

  18. Geologic and Seismologic Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    Utah, Embankment Criteria and Performance Report, August 1994 2. Caliente Creek Stream Group Investigation California, Draft Feasibility Report. June...trenching and soil-stratigraphic investigations east of Sacramento, north of the study area ( Tierra Engineering Consultants, 1983) at Folsom Dam showed...Geologic Map of California, Olaf P. Jenkins edition, Mariposa Sheet: California Division qf Mines and Geology, Scale 1:250,000. Tierra Entgineering

  19. Thermoluminescence studies in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.V.; Sunta, C.M.; Nambi, K.S.V.; Bapat, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    Even though the phenomenon of thermoluminescence is well studied, particularly over last 3 decades, its potentialities in the field of geology have not been adequately evaluated. In this report several useful applications of TL in mineralogy, petrogenesis, stratigraphy, tectonics, ore-prospecting and other branches have been identified with particular emphasis to the Indian scene. Important areas in the country that may provide the basic material for such studies are indicated at the end along with brief geological or mineralogical accounts. (auth.)

  20. The effect of graphene oxide on surface features, biological performance and bio-stability of calcium phosphate coating applied by pulse electrochemical deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathyunes, Leila; Khalil-Allafi, Jafar

    2018-04-01

    In the current study, the effect of second phase of graphene oxide (GO) on the surface features and biological behavior of calcium phosphate (CaP) coating was evaluated. To do so, the GO-CaP composite coating was applied on TiO2 nanotubular arrays using pulse electrochemical deposition. The SEM and AFM images showed that, the CaP-based coating with uniform and refined microstructure could be formed through its compositing with GO sheets. The biological assessment of the coatings was also conducted by cell culture test and MTT assay. Based on findings, the GO-CaP coating showed the better biocompatibility compared to the CaP coating. This could be owing to the fact that the composite coating provided the lower roughness, moderately wettable surface with a contact angle of 23.5° ± 2.6° and the higher stability in the biological environments because of being involved with only the stable phase of CHA. However, in the CaP coating, spreading of cells could be limited by the plate-like crystals with larger size. The higher solubility of the CaP coating in the cell culture medium possibly owing to the existence of some metastable CaP phases like OCP in addition to the dominant phase of CHA in this coating could be another reason for its less biocompatibility. At last, the CaP coating showed the higher apatite-forming ability in SBF solution after its compositing with GO.

  1. Survey of the geological characteristics on the Japanese Islands for disposal of RI and research institute waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Shigeru [Chuo Kaihatsu Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Takebe, Shinichi; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Nakayama, Shinichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    In the disposal of radioactive wastes arising from radioisotope utilization facilities and nuclear research facilities, it is necessary to establish the disposal system in proportion to half-lives of radionuclides and radioactivity concentrations in the wastes. According to this disposal system, the radioactive waste should be buried in the underground near the surface, shallow position and deep position. Therefore, it is important to grasp the features of the earth scientific phenomena and geological structure for the disposal system of radioactive waste. Then, for the purpose of the survey of the geological characteristics around the Japanese Islands whole neighborhood, the earth scientific phenomena at present, the geological structure and geotectonic history were summarized on the basis of the existing literatures. (author)

  2. A Geology Sampling System for Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naids, Adam J.; Hood, Anthony D.; Abell, Paul; Graff, Trevor; Buffington, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of microgravity bodies is being investigated as a precursor to a Mars surface mission. Asteroids, comets, dwarf planets, and the moons of Mars all fall into this microgravity category and some are being discussed as potential mission targets. Obtaining geological samples for return to Earth will be a major objective for any mission to a small body. Currently, the knowledge base for geology sampling in microgravity is in its infancy. Humans interacting with non-engineered surfaces in microgravity environment pose unique challenges. In preparation for such missions a team at the NASA Johnson Space Center has been working to gain experience on how to safely obtain numerous sample types in such an environment. This paper describes the type of samples the science community is interested in, highlights notable prototype work, and discusses an integrated geology sampling solution.

  3. A Geology Sampling System for Microgravity Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Anthony; Naids, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of microgravity bodies is being investigated as a precursor to a Mars surface mission. Asteroids, comets, dwarf planets, and the moons of Mars all fall into this microgravity category and some are been discussed as potential mission targets. Obtaining geological samples for return to Earth will be a major objective for any mission to a microgravity body. Currently the knowledge base for geology sampling in microgravity is in its infancy. Humans interacting with non-engineered surfaces in microgravity environment pose unique challenges. In preparation for such missions a team at the NASA Johnson Space Center has been working to gain experience on how to safely obtain numerous sample types in such an environment. This paper describes the type of samples the science community is interested in, highlights notable prototype work, and discusses an integrated geology sampling solution.

  4. Analysis of the Geometrical Evolution in On-the-Fly Surface-Hopping Nonadiabatic Dynamics with Machine Learning Dimensionality Reduction Approaches: Classical Multidimensional Scaling and Isometric Feature Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xusong; Xie, Yu; Hu, Deping; Lan, Zhenggang

    2017-10-10

    On-the-fly trajectory-based nonadiabatic dynamics simulation has become an important approach to study ultrafast photochemical and photophysical processes in recent years. Because a large number of trajectories are generated from the dynamics simulation of polyatomic molecular systems with many degrees of freedom, the analysis of simulation results often suffers from the large amount of high-dimensional data. It is very challenging but meaningful to find dominating active coordinates from very complicated molecular motions. Dimensionality reduction techniques provide ideal tools to realize this purpose. We apply two dimensionality reduction approaches (classical multidimensional scaling and isometric feature mapping) to analyze the results of the on-the-fly surface-hopping nonadiabatic dynamics simulation. Two representative model systems, CH 2 NH 2 + and the phytochromobilin chromophore model, are chosen to examine the performance of these dimensionality reduction approaches. The results show that these approaches are very promising, because they can extract the major molecular motion from complicated time-dependent molecular evolution without preknown knowledge.

  5. Geological and structural interpretation of Peninsular Malaysia by marine and aeromagnetic data: Some preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrudin, Nurul Fairuz Diyana Binti; Hamzah, Umar

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic data were processed to interpret the geology of Peninsular Malaysia especially in delineating the igneous bodies and structural lineament trends by potential field geophysical method. A total of about 32000 magnetic intensity data were obtained from Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid (EMAG2) covering an area of East Sumatra to part of South China Sea within 99° E to 105° E Longitude and 1° N to 7°N Latitude. These data were used in several processing stages in generating the total magnetic intensity (TMI), reduce to equator (RTE), total horizontal derivative (THD) and total vertical derivative (TVD). Values of the possible surface and subsurface magnetic sources associated to the geological features of the study area. The magnetic properties are normally corresponding to features like igneous bodies and faults structures. The anomalies obtained were then compared to the geological features of the area. In general, the high magnetic anomalies of the TMI-RTE are closely matched with major igneous intrusion of Peninsular Malaysia such as the Main Range, Eastern Belt and the Mersing-Johor Bahru stretch. More dense lineaments of magnetic structures were observed in the THD and TVD results indicating the presence of more deep and shallow magnetic rich geological features. The positions of Bukit Tinggi, Mersing and Lepar faults are perfectly matched with the magnetic highs while the presence of Lebir and Bok Bak faults are not clearly observed in the magnetic results. The high magnetic values of igneous bodies may have concealed and obscured the magnetic values representing these faults.

  6. Relative Path Impact Index (RPII): a morphometric approach to quantify the effect of anthropogenic features on surface flow processes in agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, P.; Prosdocimi, M.; Sofia, G.; Preti, F.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2014-12-01

    Soil erosion in cultivated land is one of the main critical issue because of its significant economic consequences, especially whether it occurs in hilly and mountainous environments. Among the cultivated lands, vineyards deserve a particular attention. In fact, they not only represent one of the most important crop in terms of income and employment, but they also constitute the form of agricultural land use that causes the highest soil loss. In these cultivated lands, the construction of terraces is one of the most widely used system for soil and water conservation measures. However, while favoring agricultural activities, terraces may cause local instabilities as well, if they are not properly maintained. Terraced fields are also served by agricultural roads and the construction of these anthropogenic features can have deep effects on water flows and instabilities. In fact, the plane surface of roads can intercept the overland and the subsurface flow and can modify the natural flow directions expanding the drainage network. The main objective of this work is to use high-resolution topography derived from lidar technology for a hydro-geomorphological analysis of terraced vineyards. We considered few case studies located in Italy. At first, the Relative Path Impact Index (RPII) is used to identify likely sections of terraces and agricultural roads subject to potential landsliding or erosion. Statistical thresholds of RPII are then defined to label the most critical areas. Afterwards, using the index and the defined thresholds, different scenarios of soil conservation measures are simulated, to establish the optimal solution for erosion reduction. The results prove the effectiveness of high-resolution topography in the analysis of surface erosion in terraced vineyards, when the surface water flow is the main factor triggering the instabilities. This preliminary analysis can help in scheduling a suitable planning to mitigate the consequences of the anthropogenic

  7. Surface Modification and Surface - Subsurface Exchange Processes on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C. B.; Molaro, J.; Hand, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    The surface of Jupiter's moon Europa is modified by exogenic processes such as sputtering, gardening, radiolysis, sulfur ion implantation, and thermal processing, as well as endogenic processes including tidal shaking, mass wasting, and the effects of subsurface tectonic and perhaps cryovolcanic activity. New materials are created or deposited on the surface (radiolysis, micrometeorite impacts, sulfur ion implantation, cryovolcanic plume deposits), modified in place (thermal segregation, sintering), transported either vertically or horizontally (sputtering, gardening, mass wasting, tectonic and cryovolcanic activity), or lost from Europa completely (sputtering, plumes, larger impacts). Some of these processes vary spatially, as visible in Europa's leading-trailing hemisphere brightness asymmetry. Endogenic geologic processes also vary spatially, depending on terrain type. The surface can be classified into general landform categories that include tectonic features (ridges, bands, cracks); disrupted "chaos-type" terrain (chaos blocks, matrix, domes, pits, spots); and impact craters (simple, complex, multi-ring). The spatial distribution of these terrain types is relatively random, with some differences in apex-antiapex cratering rates and latitudinal variation in chaos vs. tectonic features. In this work, we extrapolate surface processes and rates from the top meter of the surface in conjunction with global estimates of transport and resurfacing rates. We combine near-surface modification with an estimate of surface-subsurface (and vice versa) transport rates for various geologic terrains based on an average of proposed formation mechanisms, and a spatial distribution of each landform type over Europa's surface area. Understanding the rates and mass balance for each of these processes, as well as their spatial and temporal variability, allows us to estimate surface - subsurface exchange rates over the average surface age ( 50myr) of Europa. Quantifying the timescale

  8. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2010. Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces. Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962. Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete. Terrestrial geologic maps published by

  9. Geological aspects of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobera, P.

    1985-01-01

    Geological formations suitable for burying various types of radioactive wastes are characterized applying criteria for the evaluation and selection of geological formations for building disposal sites for radioactive wastes issued in IAEA technical recommendations. They are surface disposal sites, disposal sites in medium depths and deep disposal sites. Attention is focused on geological formations usable for injecting self-hardening mixtures into cracks prepared by hydraulic decomposition and for injecting liquid radioactive wastes into permeable rocks. Briefly outlined are current trends of the disposal of radioactive wastes in Czechoslovakia and the possibilities are assessed from the geological point of view of building disposal sites for radioactive wastes on the sites of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants at Jaslovske Bohunice, Mochovce, Dukovany, Temelin, Holice (eastern Bohemia), Blahoutovice (northern Moravia) and Zehna (eastern Slovakia). It is stated that in order to design an optimal method of the burial of radioactive waste it will be necessary to improve knowledge of geological conditions in the potential disposal sites at the said nuclear plants. There is usually no detailed knowledge of geological and hydrological conditions at greater depths than 100 m. (Z.M.)

  10. The Geology of Comet 19/P Borrelly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, D. T.; Boice, D. C; Buratti, B. J.; Hicks, M. D.; Nelson, R. M.; Oberst, J.; Sandel, B. R.; Soderblom, L. A.; Stern, S. A.; Thomas, N.

    2002-01-01

    The Deep Space One spacecraft flew by Comet 19P/Borrelly on September 22, 2001 and returned a rich array of imagery with resolutions of up to 48 m/pixel. These images provide a window into the surface structure, processes, and geological history of a comet. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. The geological characteristics during the quaternary period around Japan island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Shigeru [Chuo Kaihatsu Corp., Enterprises Promotion Bureau, Tokyo (Japan); Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Nakayama, Shinichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    Radioactive wastes arising from radioisotope facilities and nuclear research facilities should be disposed of in the surface of the earth, the shallow underground, the adequate depth and the deep underground according to radioactivity concentrations, and should be managed during several hundreds years. The earth scientific phenomena observed in Japan island at present occurred continuously from the past, and the same phenomena at the future should occur in the similar factor. Therefore, for the purpose to get the fundamental data for the selection of disposal site, this report reviewed on the genesis and classification of the sediments, earth scientific phenomena observed in Japan island and the feature of each place (10 districts) concerning to the Quaternary period in the newest geological time unit. (author)

  12. Prototype of Web-based Geological Data Sharing System using Free and Open Source Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, S.; Masumoto, S.; Nemoto, T.

    2017-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) geological data, such as geological maps and geological cross-sections, have been shared to the public on the Web, due to its importance in understanding subsurface geological conditions. However, ordinary people cannot figure out subsurface geological conditions only from these 2D data. The purpose of this study is to share various types of geological data to the public in easy-to-understand style on the Web. For this purpose, we developed a prototype of web-based geological data sharing system using free and open source software. As a result, the developed system allows the users (1) to map locations of borehole logs with a geological map, (2) to search database for borehole logs by keywords, (3) to browse a surface-based geological model within arbitrary range, and (4) to generate a geological cross-section along arbitrary lines. The geological map and surface-based geological model have been constructed based on borehole logs beforehand. The geological cross-section can be generated from the surface-based geological model on-demand. In this system, all functions can be performed through a Web browser. In addition, a distribution of borehole logs and the surface-based geological model can be visualized in three-dimension (3D). The 3D visualization of geological data on the Web assists users in understanding subsurface geological conditions quickly and correctly with or without previous knowledge of geology. In conclusion, the developed system contributes to create better environments for promoting utilization of geological data. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP16K21677.

  13. Geologic coal assessment: The interface with economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    2001-01-01

    Geologic resource assessments describe the location, general characteristics, and estimated volumes of resources, whether in situ or technically recoverable. Such compilations are only an initial step in economic resource evaluation. This paper identifies, by examples from the Illinois and Appalachian basins, the salient features of a geologic assessment that assure its usefulness to downstream economic analysis. Assessments should be in sufficient detail to allocate resources to production units (mines or wells). Coal assessments should include the spatial distribution of coal bed characteristics and the ability to allocate parts of the resource to specific mining technologies. For coal bed gas assessment, the production well recoveries and well deliverability characteristics must be preserved and the risk structure should be specified so dryholes and noncommercial well costs are recovered by commercially successful wells. ?? 2001 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  14. The Great Acceleration and the disappearing surficial geologic record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Jason A.; Springer, Kathleen; Pigati, Jeffrey S.

    2017-01-01

    The surficial geologic record is the relatively thin veneer of young (climatic changes, quantify natural and anthropogenic erosion rates, identify hazards, and calculate recurrence intervals associated with earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. Increasingly, however, humans are eradicating the surficial geologic record in many key areas through progressive modification of Earth’s surface.

  15. Geology and photometric variation of solar system bodies with minor atmospheres: implications for solid exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yuka; Kimura, Jun; Dohm, James; Ohtake, Makiko

    2014-09-01

    A reasonable basis for future astronomical investigations of exoplanets lies in our best knowledge of the planets and satellites in the Solar System. Solar System bodies exhibit a wide variety of surface environments, even including potential habitable conditions beyond Earth, and it is essential to know how they can be characterized from outside the Solar System. In this study, we provide an overview of geological features of major Solar System solid bodies with minor atmospheres (i.e., the terrestrial Moon, Mercury, the Galilean moons, and Mars) that affect surface albedo at local to global scale, and we survey how they influence point-source photometry in the UV/visible/near IR (i.e., the reflection-dominant range). We simulate them based on recent mapping products and also compile observed light curves where available. We show a 5-50% peak-to-trough variation amplitude in one spin rotation associated with various geological processes including heterogeneous surface compositions due to igneous activities, interaction with surrounding energetic particles, and distribution of grained materials. Some indications of these processes are provided by the amplitude and wavelength dependence of variation in combinations of the time-averaged spectra. We also estimate the photometric precision needed to detect their spin rotation rates through periodogram analysis. Our survey illustrates realistic possibilities for inferring the detailed properties of solid exoplanets with future direct imaging observations. Key Words: Planetary environments-Planetary geology-Solar System-Extrasolar terrestrial planets.

  16. Geology of Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Craddock, R. A.; Crown, D. A.; Leshin, L. A.; Schaber, G. G.

    1987-01-01

    Geologic mapping of the Jovian satellite Io has been completed at 1:15,000,000 scale for an area lying between +40 and -90 deg latitude and 230 and 45 deg longitude, which includes portions of the Ruwa Patera quadrangle (Ji2) and the Lerna Region (Ji4) and the westernmost section of the Colchis Region (Ji3). Image resolution in the mapped area is commonly 0.5 to 2 km/pxl. High resolution areas (less than .5 km/pxl) are located near the south pole (Lerna Region) and in eastern Ruwa Patera quadrangle. Geologic maps for the Ruwa Patera quadrangle (Ji2) and the Lerna Region (Ji4) have been produced at 1:5,000,000 scale. The present effort reexamines the previously mapped areas and synthesizes the geology of Io on a global scale.

  17. Geological fakes and frauds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffell, Alastair; Majury, Niall; Brooks, William E.

    2012-02-01

    Some geological fakes and frauds are carried out solely for financial gain (mining fraud), whereas others maybe have increasing aesthetic appeal (faked fossils) or academic advancement (fabricated data) as their motive. All types of geological fake or fraud can be ingenious and sophisticated, as demonstrated in this article. Fake gems, faked fossils and mining fraud are common examples where monetary profit is to blame: nonetheless these may impact both scientific theory and the reputation of geologists and Earth scientists. The substitution or fabrication of both physical and intellectual data also occurs for no direct financial gain, such as career advancement or establishment of belief (e.g. evolution vs. creationism). Knowledge of such fakes and frauds may assist in spotting undetected geological crimes: application of geoforensic techniques helps the scientific community to detect such activity, which ultimately undermines scientific integrity.

  18. A new karren feature: hummocky karren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plan Lukas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Karren are small-scale landforms on karst surfaces and many types have been described so far. Here we present an apparently new feature which was found on the Hochschwab karst massive in the Northern Calcareous Alps of Austria. So far only few outcrops each having less than 1 m² within a very restricted area have been found. Morphometric analysis reveals that the karren consist of a randomly distributed, dispersed assemblage of small hummocks and depressions in between. The mean distance between neighbouring hummocks is 4 to 5 cm and the mean height is 0.85 cm. Longitudinal sections are gently sinuous. The occurrences are delimited by thin soil cover with grassy vegetation and the karren continue below that vegetation cover. Therefore, it is clear that the features have formed subcutaneously. Corroded fissures where water could infiltrate into the epikarst are absent. The bedrock lithology is Middle Triassic limestone of the Wetterstein Formation in lagoonal facies. Geological structures do not govern the feature. The surface is not a bedding plane and small joints and fractures do not govern the arrangement of the hummocks. Thin section analysis regarding rock texture and dolomite components show that there is no compositional difference between hummocks and depressions. Geochemical analyses show that the limestone is very pure with a very low content of Magnesia. Slightly higher Magnesia contents at the hummock surfaces are significant. The data obtained so far only indicate that some dissolution mechanism but not any rock property governs the irregular array. As there exist no descriptions of comparable features in literature, the name “hummocky karren” is suggested for that type of karren landform.

  19. Global Bedrock Geology and River Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Miller, M. W.

    2002-12-01

    The lack of modern quantitative estimates of the Earth`s surface geology, one of the key parameters influencing river (and ocean) chemistry, is striking. Most published estimates of area-age relationships of sedimentary bedrock, for instance, were published before the 1980s, were based on less detailed geologic maps often decades older, and used techniques such as cutting and weighting age correlative map units or point counting at fairly coarse resolution (Higgs, 1949; Gilluly, 1969; Blatt and Jones, 1975; Ronov, 1980). Even more recent estimates (e.g., Berry and Wilkinson, 1994) are based on data predating the 1980s (Cook and Bally, 1975; Ronov, 1980). In an attempt to gain quantitative understanding of the link between surface geology (bedrock chemistry and weatherability) and river (and ocean) chemistry we have initiated a global assessment of the Earth`s surface geology that is based on the latest digital geologic maps using modern geographic information system technology (Environmental Systems Research Institute`s ArcInfo software). To date we have completed analysis of three digital data sets: 1) the geologic map of the conterminous United States of America by King and Beikman (1974; 1:2,500,000; spatial resolution ~600 km2 per polygon), made available in digital format by the USGS, 2) the geologic map of Alaska by Beikman (1980; 1:2,5000,000; ~300 km2 per polygon), also available in digital form through the USGS, and 3) the geologic map of Canada that is based on a revised and updated version of the geologic map by Douglas (1969; 1:5,000,000; ~780 km2 per polygon), made available in digital form by the Geologic Survey of Canada. The data reveal, among others, the area-age relationship of sedimentary, volcanic, intrusive and metamorphic rocks at unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution. The data also provide quantitative estimates of the abundance of major rock types: sedimentary rocks make up 83% (US; 69.7% stratified, mostly marine and 13

  20. Symmetries in geology and geophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, D L; Newman, W I

    1996-12-10

    Symmetries have played an important role in a variety of problems in geology and geophysics. A large fraction of studies in mineralogy are devoted to the symmetry properties of crystals. In this paper, however, the emphasis will be on scale-invariant (fractal) symmetries. The earth's topography is an example of both statistically self-similar and self-affine fractals. Landforms are also associated with drainage networks, which are statistical fractal trees. A universal feature of drainage networks and other growth networks is side branching. Deterministic space-filling networks with side-branching symmetries are illustrated. It is shown that naturally occurring drainage networks have symmetries similar to diffusion-limited aggregation clusters.

  1. Variable domain N-linked glycosylation and negative surface charge are key features of monoclonal ACPA: implications for B-cell selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Katy A; Steen, Johanna; Amara, Khaled; Titcombe, Philip J; Israelsson, Lena; Lundström, Susanna L; Zhou, Diana; Zubarev, Roman A; Reed, Evan; Piccoli, Luca; Gabay, Cem; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Baeten, Dominique; Lundberg, Karin; Mueller, Daniel L; Klareskog, Lars; Malmström, Vivianne; Grönwall, Caroline

    2018-03-07

    Autoreactive B cells have a central role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and recent findings have proposed that anti-citrullinated protein autoantibodies (ACPA) may be directly pathogenic. Herein, we demonstrate the frequency of variable-region glycosylation in single-cell cloned mAbs. A total of 14 ACPA mAbs were evaluated for predicted N-linked glycosylation motifs in silico, and compared to 452 highly-mutated mAbs from RA patients and controls. Variable region N-linked motifs (N-X-S/T) were strikingly prevalent within ACPA (100%) compared to somatically hypermutated (SHM) RA bone marrow plasma cells (21%), and synovial plasma cells from seropositive (39%) and seronegative RA (7%). When normalized for SHM, ACPA still had significantly higher frequency of N-linked motifs compared to all studied mAbs including highly-mutated HIV broadly-neutralizing and malaria-associated mAbs. The Fab glycans of ACPA-mAbs were highly sialylated, contributed to altered charge, but did not influence antigen binding. The analysis revealed evidence of unusual B-cell selection pressure and SHM-mediated decreased in surface charge and isoelectric point in ACPA. It is still unknown how these distinct features of anti-citrulline immunity may have an impact on pathogenesis. However, it is evident that they offer selective advantages for ACPA+ B cells, possibly also through non-antigen driven mechanisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Fibroblast activation protein-α, a stromal cell surface protease, shapes key features of cancer associated fibroblasts through proteome and degradome alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczorowska, M M; Tholen, S; Bucher, F; Lutz, L; Kizhakkedathu, J N; De Wever, O; Wellner, U F; Biniossek, M L; Stahl, A; Lassmann, S; Schilling, O

    2016-01-01

    Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) constitute an abundant stromal component of most solid tumors. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) α is a cell surface protease that is expressed by CAFs. We corroborate this expression profile by immunohistochemical analysis of colorectal cancer specimens. To better understand the tumor-contextual role of FAPα, we investigate how FAPα shapes functional and proteomic features of CAFs using loss- and gain-of function cellular model systems. FAPα activity has a strong impact on the secreted CAF proteome ("secretome"), including reduced levels of anti-angiogenic factors, elevated levels of transforming growth factor (TGF) β, and an impact on matrix processing enzymes. Functionally, FAPα mildly induces sprout formation by human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Moreover, loss of FAPα leads to a more epithelial cellular phenotype and this effect was rescued by exogenous application of TGFβ. In collagen contraction assays, FAPα induced a more contractile cellular phenotype. To characterize the proteolytic profile of FAPα, we investigated its specificity with proteome-derived peptide libraries and corroborated its preference for cleavage carboxy-terminal to proline residues. By "terminal amine labeling of substrates" (TAILS) we explored FAPα-dependent cleavage events. Although FAPα acts predominantly as an amino-dipeptidase, putative FAPα cleavage sites in collagens are present throughout the entire protein length. In contrast, putative FAPα cleavage sites in non-collagenous proteins cluster at the amino-terminus. The degradomic study highlights cell-contextual proteolysis by FAPα with distinct positional profiles. Generally, our findings link FAPα to key aspects of CAF biology and attribute an important role in tumor-stroma interaction to FAPα. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Genesis and preservation of a uranium-rich paleozoic epithermal system with a surface expression (Northern Flinders Ranges, South Australia): radiogenic heat driving regional hydrothermal circulation over geological timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Joël; Wülser, Pierre-Alain; Foden, John

    2011-01-01

    The surface expressions of hydrothermal systems are prime targets for astrobiological exploration, and fossil systems on Earth provide an analogue to guide this endeavor. The Paleozoic Mt. Gee-Mt. Painter system (MGPS) in the Northern Flinders Ranges of South Australia is exceptionally well preserved and displays both a subsurface quartz sinter (boiling horizon) and remnants of aerial sinter pools that lie in near-original position. The energy source for the MGPS is not related to volcanism but to radiogenic heat produced by U-Th-K-rich host rocks. This radiogenic heat source drove hydrothermal circulation over a long period of time (hundreds of millions of years, from Permian to present), with peaks in hydrothermal activity during periods of uplift and high water supply. This process is reflected by ongoing hot spring activity along a nearby fault. The exceptional preservation of the MGPS resulted from the lack of proximal volcanism, coupled with tectonics driven by an oscillating far-field stress that resulted in episodic basement uplift. Hydrothermal activity caused the remobilization of U and rare earth elements (REE) in host rocks into (sub)economic concentrations. Radiogenic-heat-driven systems are attractive analogues for environments that can sustain life over geological times; the MGPS preserves evidence of episodic fluid flow for the past ∼300 million years. During periods of reduced hydrothermal activity (e.g., limited water supply, quiet tectonics), radiolytic H(2) production has the potential to support an ecosystem indefinitely. Remote exploration for deposits similar to those at the MGPS systems can be achieved by combining hyperspectral and gamma-ray spectroscopy. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  4. Geologic map of the Ganiki Planitia quadrangle (V-14), Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosfils, Eric B.; Long, Sylvan M.; Venechuk, Elizabeth M.; Hurwitz, Debra M.; Richards, Joseph W.; Drury, Dorothy E.; Hardin, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    The Ganiki Planitia (V-14) quadrangle on Venus, which extends from 25° N. to 50° N. and from 180° E. to 210° E., derives its name from the extensive suite of plains that dominates the geology of the northern part of the region. With a surface area of nearly 6.5 x 106 km2 (roughly two-thirds that of the United States), the quadrangle is located northwest of the Beta-Atla-Themis volcanic zone and southeast of the Atalanta Planitia lowlands, areas proposed to be the result of large scale mantle upwelling and downwelling, respectively. The region immediately south of Ganiki Planitia is dominated by Atla Regio, a major volcanic rise beneath which localized upwelling appears to be ongoing, whereas the area just to the north is dominated by the orderly system of north-trending deformation belts that characterize Vinmara Planitia. The Ganiki Planitia quadrangle thus lies at the intersection between several physiographic regions where extensive mantle flow-induced tectonic and volcanic processes are thought to have occurred. The geology of the V-14 quadrangle is characterized by a complex array of volcanic, tectonic, and impact-derived features. There are eleven impact craters with diameters from 4 to 64 km, as well as four diffuse 'splotch' features interpreted to be the product of near-surface bolide explosions. Tectonic activity has produced heavily deformed tesserae, belts of complex deformation and rifts as well as a distributed system of fractures and wrinkle ridges. Volcanic activity has produced extensive regional plains deposits, and in the northwest corner of the quadrangle these plains host the initial (or terminal) 700 km of the Baltis Vallis canali, an enigmatic volcanic feature with a net length of ~7,000 km that is the longest channel on Venus. Major volcanic centers in V-14 include eight large volcanoes and eight coronae; all but one of these sixteen features was noted during a previous global survey. The V-14 quadrangle contains an abundance of minor

  5. Deterministic geologic processes and stochastic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.; Flint, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    Recent outcrop sampling at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has produced significant new information regarding the distribution of physical properties at the site of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. Consideration of the spatial distribution of measured values and geostatistical measures of spatial variability indicates that there are a number of widespread deterministic geologic features at the site that have important implications for numerical modeling of such performance aspects as ground water flow and radionuclide transport. These deterministic features have their origin in the complex, yet logical, interplay of a number of deterministic geologic processes, including magmatic evolution; volcanic eruption, transport, and emplacement; post-emplacement cooling and alteration; and late-stage (diagenetic) alteration. Because of geologic processes responsible for formation of Yucca Mountain are relatively well understood and operate on a more-or-less regional scale, understanding of these processes can be used in modeling the physical properties and performance of the site. Information reflecting these deterministic geologic processes may be incorporated into the modeling program explicitly, using geostatistical concepts such as soft information, or implicitly, through the adoption of a particular approach to modeling. It is unlikely that any single representation of physical properties at the site will be suitable for all modeling purposes. Instead, the same underlying physical reality will need to be described many times, each in a manner conducive to assessing specific performance issues

  6. Coseismic effects of the 2016 Amatrice seismic sequence: first geological results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMERGEO W.G. :

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the ongoing Amatrice seismic sequence on August 24, 2016, initiated by a Mw 6.0 normal faulting earthquake, the EMERGEO Working Group (an INGV team devoted to earthquake aftermath geological survey set off to investigate any coseismic effects on the natural environment. Up to now, we surveyed about 750 km2 and collected more than 3200 geological observations as differently oriented tectonic fractures together with intermediate- to small- sized landslides, that were mapped in the whole area. The most impressive coseismic evidence was found along the known active Mt. Vettore fault system, where surface ruptures with clear vertical/horizontal offset were observed for more than 5 km, while unclear and discontinuous coseismic features were recorded along the Laga Mts. Fault systems.

  7. Preserving Geological Samples and Metadata from Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, A.; Sjunneskog, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    description, collector, rock age, formation, section location, multimedia images as well structural data, field observations, logistics, surface features, etc. The metadata are entered into a commercial, museum based database called EMu. The AMGRF houses more than 25,000m of deep-sea cores and drill cores as well as nearly 3,000 meters of rotary cored geological material from Antarctica. Detailed information on the sediment cores including location, sediment composition are available in cruise reports posted on the AMGRF web-site. Researchers may access the sample collections through the online websites (http://www-bprc.mps.ohio-state.edu/emuwebusprr and http://www.arf.fsu.edu). Searches may be done using multiple search terms or by use of the mapping feature. The on-line databases provide an essential resource for proposal preparation, pilot studies and other sample based research that should make fieldwork more efficient.

  8. Investigating the Geological History of Asteroid 101955 Bennu Through Remote Sensing and Returned Sample Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Lauretta, D. S.; Bottke, W. F.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA New Frontiers Mission OSRIS-REx will return surface regolith samples from near-Earth asteroid 101955 Bennu in September 2023. This target is classified as a B-type asteroid and is spectrally similar to CI and CM chondrite meteorites [1]. The returned samples are thus expected to contain primitive ancient Solar System materials that formed in planetary, nebular, interstellar, and circumstellar environments. Laboratory studies of primitive astromaterials have yielded detailed constraints on the origins, properties, and evolutionary histories of a wide range of Solar System bodies. Yet, the parent bodies of meteorites and cosmic dust are generally unknown, genetic and evolutionary relationships among asteroids and comets are unsettled, and links between laboratory and remote observations remain tenuous. The OSIRIS-REx mission will offer the opportunity to coordinate detailed laboratory analyses of asteroidal materials with known and well characterized geological context from which the samples originated. A primary goal of the OSIRIS-REx mission will be to provide detailed constraints on the origin and geological and dynamical history of Bennu through coordinated analytical studies of the returned samples. These microanalytical studies will be placed in geological context through an extensive orbital remote sensing campaign that will characterize the global geological features and chemical diversity of Bennu. The first views of the asteroid surface and of the returned samples will undoubtedly bring remarkable surprises. However, a wealth of laboratory studies of meteorites and spacecraft encounters with primitive bodies provides a useful framework to formulate priority scientific questions and effective analytical approaches well before the samples are returned. Here we summarize our approach to unraveling the geological history of Bennu through returned sample analyses.

  9. Site characterizations around KURT area-Geologic model (Version 1)-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Kim, Geon Young

    2009-08-01

    To characterize the geologic elements around study area for high-level radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the several geological investigations such as geophysical surveys and borehole drillings were carried out since 1997. Especially, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to understand the deep geological environments in 2006. At recent, the deep boreholes, which have 500m depth at left research module inside the KURT and 1,000m depth outside the KURT, were drilled around the KURT area to confirm and validate the geological model. The objective of this research is to construct the first version of geological model around KURT area in the point of hydro-geological view. The data in this study are based on the surface geological investigation and borehole investigations drilled in until 2005. At results, total 4 geological elements are obtained from geological analysis, which are a subsurface weathered zone, log-angled fractures zone, fracture zones and bedrock. And, the geometries of these elements are also plotted by three-dimensional model. The first version of geological model which is built in this study will be supported to construct the hydrogeological model and geochemical model

  10. Revised draft: Southeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. For each of the states within the southeastern region, information is provided on the disqualifying factor and the screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These factors and variables include hydrologically significant natural resources, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, water resources, ground-water salinity, and state of stress. Information is presented on the age, areal extent, shape, thickness of overburden, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the subject rock bodies. A discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process is also presented

  11. Revised draft: North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the disqualifying factor and the screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These factors and variables include hydrologically significant natural resources, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, water resources, groundwater salinity, and state of stress. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, thickness of overburden, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the subject rock bodies. A discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process is also presented

  12. Dynamics at Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvia Ceyer, Nancy Ryan Gray

    2010-05-04

    The 2009 Gordon Conference on Dynamics at Surfaces is the 30th anniversary of a meeting held every two years that is attended by leading researchers in the area of experimental and theoretical dynamics at liquid and solid surfaces. The conference focuses on the dynamics of the interaction of molecules with either liquid or solid surfaces, the dynamics of the outermost layer of liquid and solid surfaces and the dynamics at the liquid-solid interface. Specific topics that are featured include state-to-state dynamics, non-adiabatic interactions in molecule-metal systems, photon induced desorption from semiconductor and metal surfaces, ultrafast x-ray and electron diffraction as probes of the dynamics of ablation, ultrafast vibrational spectroscopy of water surface dynamics, dynamics of a single adsorbate, growth at nano-scale mineral surfaces, dynamics of atom recombination on interstellar dust grains and the dynamics of the interaction of water with lipid bilayers. The conference brings together investigators from a variety of scientific disciplines including chemistry, physics, materials science, geology and biophysics.

  13. Geologic map of Big Bend National Park, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kenzie J.; Berry, Margaret E.; Page, William R.; Lehman, Thomas M.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Scott, Robert B.; Miggins, Daniel P.; Budahn, James R.; Cooper, Roger W.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Eric D.; Williams, Van S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this map is to provide the National Park Service and the public with an updated digital geologic map of Big Bend National Park (BBNP). The geologic map report of Maxwell and others (1967) provides a fully comprehensive account of the important volcanic, structural, geomorphological, and paleontological features that define BBNP. However, the map is on a geographically distorted planimetric base and lacks topography, which has caused difficulty in conducting GIS-based data analyses and georeferencing the many geologic features investigated and depicted on the map. In addition, the map is outdated, excluding significant data from numerous studies that have been carried out since its publication more than 40 years ago. This report includes a modern digital geologic map that can be utilized with standard GIS applications to aid BBNP researchers in geologic data analysis, natural resource and ecosystem management, monitoring, assessment, inventory activities, and educational and recreational uses. The digital map incorporates new data, many revisions, and greater detail than the original map. Although some geologic issues remain unresolved for BBNP, the updated map serves as a foundation for addressing those issues. Funding for the Big Bend National Park geologic map was provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program and the National Park Service. The Big Bend mapping project was administered by staff in the USGS Geology and Environmental Change Science Center, Denver, Colo. Members of the USGS Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center completed investigations in parallel with the geologic mapping project. Results of these investigations addressed some significant current issues in BBNP and the U.S.-Mexico border region, including contaminants and human health, ecosystems, and water resources. Funding for the high-resolution aeromagnetic survey in BBNP, and associated data analyses and

  14. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  15. Geological history of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niini, Heikki

    1989-01-01

    Uranium is widely distributed in continental geological environments. The order of magnitude of uranium abundance in felsitic igneous rocks is 2-15 ppm, whereas it is less than 1 ppm in mafic rocks. Sedimentary rocks show a large range: from less than 0.1 ppm U in certain evaporites to over 100 ppm in phosphate rocks and organogenic matter. The content of U in seawater varies from 0.0005 to 0.005 ppm. The isotopic ratio U-238/U-235 is presently 137.5+-0.5, having gradually increased during geological time. The third natural isotope is U-234. On the basis of three fundamental economic criteria for ore reserves assessment (geological assurance, technical feasibility, and the grade and quantity of the deposits), the author finally comes to the following conclusions: Although the global uranium ores are not geologically renewable but continuously mined, they still, due to exploration and technical development, will tend to progressively increase for centuries to come

  16. Palynology and environmental geology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manten, A.A.

    1967-01-01

    A brief survey of the possibilities and problems of palynology as a contributor to the progress of palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology and palaeoecology is presented. Also shown is how these fields and other branches of the earth sciences which contribute to environmental geology may, in their turn,

  17. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, Christopher; Christensen, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre Basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  18. The geology of Piz Pian Grand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, M.; Staeuble, J.

    1987-01-01

    Nagra has identified four potential sites for a repository for low- and intermediate-level waste. Exploration work is already underway at Oberbauenstock (UR) and Piz Pian Grand (GR). As part of the investigations in the Piz Pian Grand area, geological surface mapping was carried out between 1984 and 1987. Since the data obtained is still being evaluated, it would be premature to draw any interpretative conclusions at this stage. On the other hand, some of the most significant observations of this work can be summarised here. As a first step, the geological framework in which these investigations are to be seen should be defined. Observations will then be made on the rock content (lithology) and geometric structure (structural geology) of the area. (author) 6 figs

  19. Geologic study of Kettle dome, northeast Washington. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This geologic study of Kettle dome, northeast Washington, encompasses an area of approximately 800 square miles (2048 sq km). The evaluation of uranium occurrences associated with the igneous and metamorphic rocks of the dome and the determination of the relationship between uranium mineralization and stratigraphic, structural, and metamorphic features of the dome are the principal objectives. Evaluation of the validity of a gneiss dome model is a specific objective. The principal sources of data are detailed geologic mapping, surface radiometric surveys, and chemical analyses of rock samples. Uranium mineralization is directly related to the presence of pegmatite dikes and sills in biotite gneiss and amphibolite. Other characteristics of the uranium occurrences include the associated migmatization and high-grade metamorphism of wallrock adjacent to the pegmatite and the abrupt decrease in uranium mineralization at the pegmatite-gneiss contact. Subtle chemical characteristics found in mineralized pegmatites include: (1) U increase as K 2 O increases, (2) U decreases as Na 2 O increases, and (3) U increases as CaO increases at CaO values above 3.8%. The concentration of uranium occurrences in biotite gneiss and amphibolite units results from the preferential intrusion of pegmitites into these well-foliated rocks. Structural zones of weakness along dome margins permit intrusive and migmatitic activity to affect higher structural levels of the dome complex. As a result, uranium mineralization is localized along dome margins. The uranium occurrences in the Kettle dome area are classified as pegmatitic. Sufficient geologic similarities exist between Kettle dome and the Rossing uranium deposit to propose the existence of economic uranium targets within Kettle dome

  20. Geologic characterization of Cuvette Centrale petroleum systems Congo-DRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicentelli, Maria Gabriela C.; Barbosa, Mauro; Rezende, Nelio G.A.M. [HRT Petroleum, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Cuvette Centrale is an almost unexplored basin, which contains some petroleum system elements that indicate the presence of hydrocarbons. In this sense; this paper presents an exploratory alternative for this intracratonic basin. The interpretation of the limited gravimetric, magnetometric, geochemical and seismic available data allowed the identification of many huge structural features and also some areas with hydrocarbon potential for stratigraphic traps. The presence of several oil and gas seeps widespread around the Busira and Lokoro sub-basins indicate that at least one active petroleum system exist in the basin. Despite only four wells have been drilled in the basin, one of them presented oil shows during drilling. Geological correlations between Brazilian Paleozoic basins and Cuvette Centrale sedimentary sequences permitted to conclude that Cambro-Ordovician and Siluro-Devonian source rocks must be present and active in the Cuvette Centrale basin. The tectono-stratigraphic evolution history of the Cuvette Centrale from Neo proterozoic to Recent times shows extensional and compressional/transpressional alternating phases along the geological time. The most confident petroleum system expected in the Cuvette Centrale is characterized by the Cambrian Mamungi shale - source rock - and the Cambro-Ordovician. Upper Arenaceous Sequence - reservoirs, as observed in the MBandaka and Gilson wells and confirmed by surface geology in outcrops. Besides, other potential petroleum systems are expected to occur in the basin. One is characterized by the Neo proterozoic Itury Group source rock and reservoirs in the mature/over mature stage, the others are the Siluro-Devonian and Cretaceous source rocks and reservoirs, expected to occur with better maturity conditions only in the deeper parts of the basin. (author)

  1. Geology of the Tyrrhenus Mons Lava Flow Field, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, David A.; Mest, Scott C.

    2014-11-01

    The ancient, eroded Martian volcano Tyrrhenus Mons exhibits a central caldera complex, layered flank deposits dissected by radial valleys, and a 1000+ km-long flow field extending to the southwest toward Hellas Planitia. Past studies suggested an early phase of volcanism dominated by large explosive eruptions followed by subsequent effusive activity at the summit and to the southwest. As part of a new geologic mapping study of northeast Hellas, we are examining the volcanic landforms and geologic evolution of the Tyrrhenus Mons flow field, including the timing and nature of fluvial activity and effects on volcanic units. New digital geologic mapping incorporates THEMIS IR (100 m/pixel) and CTX (5 m/pixel) images as well as constraints from MOLA topography.Mapping results to-date include delineation of the boundaries of the flow field, identification and mapping of volcanic and erosional channels within the flow field, and mapping and analysis of lava flow lobes. THEMIS IR and CTX images allow improved discrimination of the numerous flow lobes that are observed in the flow field, including refinement of the margins of previously known flows and identification of additional and smaller lobes. A prominent sinuous rille extending from Tyrrhenus Mons’ summit caldera is a major feature that supplied lava to the flow field. Smaller volcanic channels are common throughout the flow field; some occur in segments along crests of local topographic highs and may delineate lava tubes. In addition to volcanic channels, the flow field surface is characterized by several types of erosional channels, including wide troughs with scour marks, elongate sinuous channels, and discontinuous chains of elongate pits and troughs. High-resolution images reveal the widespread and significant effects of fluvial activity in the region, and further mapping studies will examine spatial and temporal interactions between volcanism and fluvial processes.

  2. Geological events in submerged areas: attributes and standards in the EMODnet Geology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, A.; Battaglini, L.; D'Angelo, S.

    2017-12-01

    EMODnet Geology is a European Project which promotes the collection and harmonization of marine geological data mapped by various national and regional mapping projects and recovered in the literature, in order to make them freely available through a web portal. Among the several features considered within the Project, "Geological events and probabilities" include submarine landslides, earthquakes, volcanic centers, tsunamis, fluid emissions and Quaternary faults in European Seas. Due to the different geological settings of European sea areas it was necessary to elaborate a comprehensive and detailed pattern of Attributes for the different features in order to represent the diverse characteristics of each occurrence. Datasets consist of shapefiles representing each event at 1:250,000 scale. The elaboration of guidelines to compile the shapefiles and attribute tables was aimed at identifying parameters that should be used to characterize events and any additional relevant information. Particular attention has been devoted to the definition of the Attribute table in order to achieve the best degree of harmonization and standardization according to the European INSPIRE Directive. One of the main objectives is the interoperability of data, in order to offer more complete, error-free and reliable information and to facilitate exchange and re-use of data even between non-homogeneous systems. Metadata and available information collected during the Project is displayed on the Portal (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/) as polygons, lines and points layers according to their geometry. By combining all these data it might be possible to elaborate additional thematic maps which could support further research as well as land planning and management. A possible application is being experimented by the Geological Survey of Italy - ISPRA which, in cooperation with other Italian institutions contributing to EMODnet Geology, is working at the production of an update for submerged areas

  3. Geological data integration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    The objectives of this Technical Committee are to bring together current knowledge on geological data handling and analysis technologies as developed in the mineral and petroleum industries for geological, geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing data that can be applied to uranium exploration and resource appraisal. The recommendation for work on this topic was first made at the meeting of the NEA-IAEA Joint Group of Experts on R and D in Uranium Exploration Techniques (Paris, May 1984). In their report, processing of integrated data sets was considered to be extremely important in view of the very extensive data sets built up over the recent years by large uranium reconnaissance programmes. With the development of large, multidisciplinary data sets which includes geochemical, geophysical, geological and remote sensing data, the ability of the geologist to easily interpret large volumes of information has been largely the result of developments in the field of computer science in the past decade. Advances in data management systems, image processing software, the size and speed of computer systems and significantly reduced processing costs have made large data set integration and analysis practical and affordable. The combined signatures which can be obtained from the different types of data significantly enhance the geologists ability to interpret fundamental geological properties thereby improving the chances of finding a significant ore body. This volume is the product of one of a number of activities related to uranium geology and exploration during the past few years with the intent of bringing new technologies and exploration techniques to the IAEA Member States

  4. Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Crown, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic mapping studies at the 1:1M-scale are being used to assess geologic materials and processes that shape the highlands along the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary. In particular, this mapping will evaluate the distribution, stratigraphic position, and lateral continuity of compositionally distinct outcrops in Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae as identified by spectral instruments currently in orbit. Placing these landscapes, their material units, structural features, and unique compositional outcrops into spatial and temporal context with the remainder of the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary may provide constraints on: 1) origin of the dichotomy boundary, 2) paleo-environments and climate conditions, and 3) various fluvial-nival modification processes related to past and present volatile distribution and their putative reservoirs (aquifers, lakes and oceans, surface and ground ice) and the influences of nearby volcanic and tectonic features on hydrologic processes in these regions. The results of this work will include two 1:1M scale geologic maps of twelve MTM quadrangles (Mawrth Vallis - 20022, 20017, 20012, 25022, 25017, and 25012; and Nili Fossae - 20287, 20282, 25287, 25282, 30287, 30282).

  5. Geologic Resource Evaluation of Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Hawai'i: Geology and Coastal Landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Bruce M.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues that link the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO) was established in 1978 in order to preserve and protect traditional native Hawaiian culture and cultural sites. The park is the site of an ancient Hawaiian settlement, occupies 469 ha and is considered a locale of considerable cultural and historical

  6. Impact, and its implications for geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marvin, U.B.

    1988-01-01

    The publication of seminal texts on geology and on meteoritics in the 1790s, laid the groundwork for the emergence of each discipline as a modern branch of science. Within the past three decades, impact cratering has become universally accepted as a process that sculptures the surfaces of planets and satellites throughout the solar system. Nevertheless, one finds in-depth discussions of impact processes mainly in books on the Moon or in surveys of the Solar System. The historical source of the separation between meteoritics and geology is easy to identify. It began with Hutton. Meteorite impact is an extraordinary event acting instantaneously from outside the Earth. It violates Hutton's principles, which were enlarged upon and firmly established as fundamental to the geological sciences by Lyell. The split between meteoritics and geology surely would have healed as early as 1892 if the investigations conducted by Gilbert (1843-1918) at the crater in northern Arizona had yielded convincing evidence of meteorite impact. The 1950s and 1960s saw a burgeoning of interest in impact processes. The same period witnessed the so-called revolution in the Earth Sciences, when geologists yielded up the idea of fixed continents and began to view the Earth's lithosphere as a dynamic array of horizontally moving plates. Plate tectonics, however, is fully consistent with the geological concepts inherited from Hutton: the plates slowly split, slide, and suture, driven by forces intrinsic to the globe

  7. Geologic Field Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Hribernik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present the field data relational database, which was compiled from data, gathered during thirty years of fieldwork on the Basic Geologic Map of Slovenia in scale1:100.000. The database was created using MS Access software. The MS Access environment ensures its stability and effective operation despite changing, searching, and updating the data. It also enables faster and easier user-friendly access to the field data. Last but not least, in the long-term, with the data transferred into the GISenvironment, it will provide the basis for the sound geologic information system that will satisfy a broad spectrum of geologists’ needs.

  8. 77 FR 19032 - Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... No: 2012-7479] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Announcement of National Geospatial Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... Arista Maher at the U.S. Geological Survey (703-648-6283, [email protected] ). Registrations are due by...

  9. Understanding Legacy Features with Featureous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    Feature-centric comprehension of source code is essential during software evolution. However, such comprehension is oftentimes difficult to achieve due the discrepancies between structural and functional units of object-oriented programs. We present a tool for feature-centric analysis of legacy...

  10. The Geology of Somalia: A Selected Bibliography of Somalian Geology, Geography and Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Snails; Africa; Central America; Orinoco River ; South America; Tilapia; Fish; Somalia. Abstract: The characteristics of malaria, bilharzia, river ...from the Orinoco River area South America. The Somalian Earth Sciences Engineering Research and Development Center 205 large snail out competes the...Energy. Forests. Geology. Geography. Groundwater. Hydrology. Maps. Mining. Rivers . Soils. Surface-water. Terrain. Topography. Transportation

  11. Site Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of various site features from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times...

  12. Feature Extraction

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Feature selection and reduction are key to robust multivariate analyses. In this talk I will focus on pros and cons of various variable selection methods and focus on those that are most relevant in the context of HEP.

  13. Solar Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.

  14. Maps of geologically informative Pb isotope parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarede, F.; Delile, H.; Bouchet, R. A.; Blichert-Toft, J.

    2013-12-01

    regional consistency of model ages on the one hand and kappa values on the other hand is very strong and in particular highlights the existence of well-defined Pb isotope provinces. We also found some striking similarity between these provinces and prominent seismological features, such as Moho depth and VP/VS. The understanding of the nature, age, and dynamic role of the units identified by seismic tomography will clearly benefit from incorporating geochemical and geophysical spatial information into surface geology. [1] Albarede F. et al. (2012) Archaeom. 54, 853-867 [2] Stos-Gale, Z.A. and Gale, N. (2009) Archaeol. Anthropol. Sci. (2009) 1, 195-213. [3] Mamani M. et al. (2008) G-cubed 9, doi:10.1029/2007GC001925

  15. A study on site characterization of the deep geological environment around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kw; Kim, Gy; Koh, Yk; Kim, Ks; Choi, Jw

    2009-01-01

    KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) is a small scale research tunnel which was constructed from 2005 to 2006 at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). To understand the deep geological environment around KURT area, the surface geological surveys such as lineaments analysis and geophysical survey and borehole investigation were performed. For this study, a 3 dimensional geological model has been constructed using the surface and borehole geological data. The regional lineaments were determined using a topographical map and the surface geophysical survey data were collected for the geological model. In addition, statistical methods were applied to fracture data from borehole televiewer loggings to identify fracture zones in boreholes. For a hydro geological modeling, fixed interval hydraulic tests were carried out for all boreholes. The results of the hydraulic tests were analyzed and classified by the fracture zone data of geological model. At result, the hydrogeological elements were decided and the properties of each element were assessed around the KURT area

  16. Geological Map of the Fredegonde (V-57) Quadrangle, Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Head, J. W.

    2009-01-01

    The area of V-57, the Fredegonde quadrangle (50-75degS, 60-120degE, Fig.1), is located within the eastern portion of Lada Terra within the topographic province of midlands (0-2 km above MPR [1,2]). Midlands form the most abundant portion of the surface of Venus and are characterized by diverse sets of units and structures [3-11]. The area of the Fredegonde quadrangle is in contact with the elevated portion of Lada Terra to the W and with the lowland of Aino Planitia to the NE. The transitions of the mid-lands to the lowlands and highlands are, thus, one of the main themes of the geology within the V-57 quadrangle. The character of the transitions and distribution and sequence of units/structures in the midlands are crucially important in understanding the time and modes of formation of this topographic province. The most prominent features in the map area are linear deformational zones consisting of swarms of grooves and graben and large coronae. The zones characterize the central and NW portions of the map area and represent regionally important, broad (up to 100s km wide) ridges that are 100s m high. Relatively small (100s km across, 100s m deep) equidimensional basins occur between the corona-groove-chains in the west and border the central chain from the east. Here we describe units that make up the surface within the V-57 quadrangle and present a summary of our geological map that shows the areal distribution of the major groups of units.

  17. GIS Data Modeling of a Regional Geological Structure by Integrating Geometric and Semantic Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Handong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using GIS, data models of geology via geometric descriptions and expressions are being developed. However, the role played by these data models in terms of the description and expression of geological structure phenomenon is limited. To improve the semantic information in geological GIS data models, this study adopts an object-oriented method that describes and expresses the geometric and semantic features of the geological structure phenomenon using geological objects and designs a data model of regional geological structures by integrating geometry and semantics. Moreover, the study designs a semantic "vocabulary-explanation-graph" method for describing the geological phenomenon of structures. Based on the semantic features of regional geological structures and a linear classification method, it divides the regional geological structure phenomenon into 3 divisions, 10 groups, 33 classes and defines the element set and element class. Moreover, it builds the basic geometric network for geological elements based on the geometric and semantic relations among geological objects. Using the ArcGIS Diagrammer Geodatabase, it considers the regional geological structure of the Ning-Zhen Mountains to verify the data model, and the results indicate a high practicability.

  18. Impact of Geological Changes on Regional and Global Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatiana, Skufina; Peter, Skuf'in; Vera, Samarina; Taisiya, Shatalova; Baranov, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Periods of geological changes such as super continent cycle (300-500 million years), Wilson's cycles (300-900 million years), magmatic-tectonic cycle (150-200 million years), and cycles with smaller periods (22, 100, 1000 years) lead to a basic contradiction preventing forming methodology of the study of impact of geological changes on the global and regional economies. The reason of this contradiction is the differences of theoretical and methodological aspects of the Earth science and economics such as different time scales and accuracy of geological changes. At the present the geological models cannot provide accurate estimation of time and place where geological changes (strong earthquakes, volcanos) are expected. Places of feature (not next) catastrophic events are the only thing we have known. Thus, it is impossible to use the periodicity to estimate both geological changes and their consequences. Taking into accounts these factors we suggested a collection of concepts for estimating impact of possible geological changes on regional and global economies. We illustrated our approach by example of estimating impact of Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 on regional and global economies. Based on this example we concluded that globalization processes increase an impact of geological changes on regional and global levels. The research is supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Projects No. 16-06-00056, 16-32-00019, 16-05-00263A).

  19. Geologic map of MTM -40252 and -40257 quadrangles, Reull Vallis region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mest, Scott C.; Crown, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) quadrangles -40252 and -40257 cover a portion of the highlands of Promethei Terra northeast of the Hellas basin. The map area consists of heavily cratered ancient highland materials of moderate to high relief, isolated knobs and massifs of rugged mountainous materials, extensive tracts of smooth and channeled plains, and other surficial deposits. Reull Vallis, an approximately 1,500 km-long outflow channel system, cuts through the southeast corner of the map area. Regional slopes are to the southwest, toward the Hellas basin, as indicated by Martian topographic maps and the orientations of channels along the northeast rim of the Hellas basin. The Martian highlands cover more than 60 percent of the planet's surface and are primarily in the southern hemisphere. Most of the highlands consist of rugged, densely cratered terrains believed to represent the final phase of heavy bombardment in the inner solar system about 4.0 billion years ago. Parts of the Martian highlands show evidence of extensive degradation and modification. The map area shows landforms created by numerous geologic processes, including tectonism, fluvial activity, and mass wasting. The occurrence of fluvial features, such as outflow channels and valley networks, has significant implications for past Martian conditions. Determining the geology of the highlands northeast of the Hellas basin provides a better understanding of the role and timing of volatile-driven activity in the evolution of the highlands. Photogeologic mapping at 1:500,000 scale from analysis of Viking Orbiter images complements geomorphic studies of Reull Vallis and other highland outflow systems, of drainage networks, and of highland debris aprons and regional geologic mapping studies of the highlands at the 1:2,000,000 scale and 1:1,000,000 scale. Crater size-frequency distributions have been compiled to constrain the relative ages of geologic units and determine the timing and extents of the observed

  20. Geological study of Ujungwatu area as support for NPP planning in Muria Central Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srijono

    1995-01-01

    In accordance with growth of life in Java, the need for electricity is also growing accordingly. Efforts to provide electricity such as planning to build nuclear power plant (NPP) has been in the debate for a while. There are many factors to be considered in this planning, such as its environmental condition. Geological factor is one of the important one to be considered. Surface geological conditions around NPP area at Ujungwatu needed include stratigraphy, geological structure, geomorphology, and environmental geology. Geology in Ujungwatu at radius 5 km is quite interesting. This area is part of Genuk volcano group which is laid at south and Ujungwatu coast at north. Genuk mountain group is divided into mountain slope, mountain back, and mountain skeleton. Coastal area is composed of coast sand. Sand up to broken rock was present along river gullies. Others were volcanic rocks which was composed of lapili tuff, trachite, pyroxene andesite, tuff breccia, tephrite-andesitic tuff breccia, and basaltic tuff breccia. Volcanic structure is well reflected by morphological feature as lineaments and half circular form in mount Genuk. This structure was predominantly in NW-SE direction, and less dominant in NE-SW direction. Ujungwatu, from environmental view, is deserved to be developed because of its underground potency. Iron sand, fluvial tuff, kaolin, mud, riverstone, volcanic rock, tuff and marble were easily found underground. Those could be benefited to the people in the area so that it could change socio-economical condition of the people which in turn electricity is becoming a necessity. Last but not least, Portuguese fort as potential touristic object is also situated at Kartini beach near Ujungwatu. (author). 15 refs, 3 tabs, 5 figs

  1. Geologic map of the northern plains of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Hare, Trent M.

    2005-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars cover nearly a third of the planet and constitute the planet's broadest region of lowlands. Apparently formed early in Mars' history, the northern lowlands served as a repository both for sediments shed from the adjacent ancient highlands and for volcanic flows and deposits from sources within and near the lowlands. Geomorphic evidence for extensive tectonic deformation and reworking of surface materials through release of volatiles occurs throughout the northern plains. In the polar region, Planum Boreum contains evidence for the accumulation of ice and dust, and surrounding dune fields suggest widespread aeolian transport and erosion. The most recent regional- and global-scale maps describing the geology of the northern plains are largely based on Viking Orbiter image data (Dial, 1984; Witbeck and Underwood, 1984; Scott and Tanaka, 1986; Greeley and Guest, 1987; Tanaka and Scott, 1987; Tanaka and others, 1992a; Rotto and Tanaka, 1995; Crumpler and others, 2001; McGill, 2002). These maps reveal highland, plains, volcanic, and polar units based on morphologic character, albedo, and relative ages using local stratigraphic relations and crater counts. This geologic map of the northern plains is the first published map that covers a significant part of Mars using topography and image data from both the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey missions. The new data provide a fresh perspective on the geology of the region that reveals many previously unrecognizable units, features, and temporal relations. In addition, we adapted and instituted terrestrial mapping methods and stratigraphic conventions that we think result in a clearer and more objective map. We focus on mapping with the intent of reconstructing the history of geologic activity within the northern plains, including deposition, volcanism, erosion, tectonism, impact cratering, and other processes with the aid of comprehensive crater-density determinations. Mapped areas include all

  2. PECULIAR FEATURES OF MACHINING MARKS FORMATION ON SURFACE ОF TITANIUM SPECIMEN WITH SINGLE ELECTRO CONTACT ACTION OF WIRE ELECTRODE-TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Kiselev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an investigation of shape and geometry parameters of machining marks obtained on the surface of titanium specimen with a single electro contact action of a wire electrode-tool. A description of the developed unit and methodology for execution of experimental investigations has been given in the paper. The paper provides and analyzes experimentally obtained data showing the effect of conditions and modes of single electro contact action of wire tool-electrode on the shape and geometrical parameters of machining marks obtained on the surface of titanium specimen. It is shown that the formation of these traces occurs in the context of joint action of both the electrical erosion and mechanical action of the working part of the wire electrode-tool on the surface of the titanium specimen that expands technological capabilities of electro contact treatment while  solving problems associated with targeted modification of the original work-piece surfaces.

  3. Hypercrosslinked large surface area porous polymer monoliths for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography of small molecules featuring zwitterionic functionalities attached to gold nanoparticles held in layered structure

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Yongqin; Lin, Zhixing; Svec, Frantisek

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach to porous polymer monoliths hypercrosslinked to obtain large surface areas and modified with zwitterionic functionalities through the attachment of gold nanoparticles in a layered architecture has been developed. The capillary columns were used for the separation of small molecules in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mode. First, a monolith with a very large surface area of 430 m2/g was prepared by hypercrosslinking from a generic poly(4-methylstyrene-co-vinylben...

  4. Geologic environmental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Jhin Wung

    2000-05-01

    The geoscience research works are focused on the production of geologic basic data accompanying with the technical development of geology and hydrogeologic characterization. The lithology of the Korean peninsula consists of a complex structure of 29 rock types from Archean to Quaternary. The wide distribution of Mesozoic plutonic rock is an important consideration as a potential host rock allowing flexibility of siting. The recent tectonic activities are limited to localized particular area, which can be avoided by excluding in the early stage of siting. Three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the further study on HLW disposal system. This report contains grouping of regional faults, and on the distributional characteristics of faults and fractures(zones) in terms of lithological domain and tectonical provinces. The regional groundwater regime can be grouped into 3 regimes by tectonic setting and four groundwater regions based on an altitute. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rocks. The origin of groundwater was proposed by isotope ({sup 1}8O, {sup 2}H, {sup 1}3C, {sup 3}4S, {sup 8}7Sr, {sup 1}5N) studies and the residence time of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based on the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs.

  5. Toward digital geologic map standards: a progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrech, George E.; Reynolds, Mitchell W.; Taylor, Richard B.

    1992-01-01

    Establishing modern scientific and technical standards for geologic maps and their derivative map products is vital to both producers and users of such maps as we move into an age of digital cartography. Application of earth-science data in complex geographic information systems, acceleration of geologic map production, and reduction of population costs require that national standards be developed for digital geologic cartography and computer analysis. Since December 1988, under commission of the Chief Geologic of the U.S. Geological Survey and the mandate of the National Geologic Mapping Program (with added representation from the Association of American State Geologists), a committee has been designing a comprehensive set of scientific map standards. Three primary issues were: (1) selecting scientific symbology and its digital representation; (2) creating an appropriate digital coding system that characterizes geologic features with respect to their physical properties, stratigraphic and structural relations, spatial orientation, and interpreted mode of origin; and (3) developing mechanisms for reporting levels of certainty for descriptive as well as measured properties. Approximately 650 symbols for geoscience maps, including present usage of the U.S Geological Survey, state geological surveys, industry, and academia have been identified and tentatively adopted. A proposed coding system comprises four-character groupings of major and minor codes that can identify all attributes of a geologic feature. Such a coding system allows unique identification of as many as 105 geologic names and values on a given map. The new standard will track closely the latest developments of the Proposed Standard for Digital Cartographic Data soon to be submitted to the National Institute of Standards and Technology by the Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on Digital Cartography. This standard will adhere generally to the accepted definitions and specifications for spatial

  6. Historical Landsat data comparisons: illustrations of land surface change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Matthew D.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC) has archived two decades of Landsat data, providing a rich collection of information about the dynamics of the Earth's land surface. Major changes to the surface features of the planet can be detected, measured, and studied using Landsat data. The effects of desertification, deforestation, pollution, cataclysmic volcanic activity, and other natural and anthropogenic events can be examined by resource scientists using data acquired from the Landsat series of Earth-observing satellites. The availability of a nearly uninterrupted flow of information from the Landsats, in a consistent data format, gives researchers an important tool for studying surface changes over time.

  7. Synthetic Study on the Geological and Hydrogeological Model around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2011-01-01

    To characterize the site specific properties of a study area for high-level radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the several geological investigations such as surface