WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface geologic studies

  1. Geologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, T.E.; Rood, A.

    1983-01-01

    The modern Great Divide Basin is the end product of natural forces influenced by the Green River lake system, Laramide tectonism, and intermittent volcanic events. It ranks as one of the most complex structural and stratigtaphic features within the Tertiary basins of Wyoming. Portions of the Great Divide Basin and adjoining areas in Wyoming have been investigated by applying detailed and region exploration methods to known uranium deposits located within the Red Desert portions of the basin. Geologic field investigations conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporaton (Bendix) were restricted to reconnaissance observations made during infrequent visits to the project area by various Bendix personnel. Locations of the most comprehensive field activities are shown in Figure II-1. The principal source fo data for geologic studies of the Red Desert project area has been information and materials furnished by industry. Several hundred holes have been drilled by various groups to delineate the uranium deposits. Results from Bendix-drilled holes at selected locations within the project area are summarized in Table II-1. Additional details and gross subsurface characteristics are illustrated in cross sections; pertinent geologic features are illustrated in plan maps. Related details of continental sedimentation that pertain to the Wyoming Basins generally, and the project area specificially, are discussed in subsections of this Geologic Studies section

  2. Study on geological environment in the Tono area. An approach to surface-based investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    Mizunami Underground Research (MIU) Project has aimed at preparation of basis of investigation, analysis and evaluation of geology of deep underground and basis of engineering technologies of ultra deep underground. This report stated an approach and information of surface-based investigation for ground water flow system and MIU Project by the following contents, 1) objects and preconditions, 2) information of geological environment for analysis of material transition and design of borehole, 3) modeling, 4) tests and investigations and 5) concept of investigation. The reference data consists of results of studies such as the geological construction model, topography, geologic map, structural map, linear structure and estimated fault, permeability, underground stream characteristics, the quality of underground water and rock mechanics. (S.Y.)

  3. Thermoluminescence studies in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.V.; Sunta, C.M.; Nambi, K.S.V.; Bapat, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    Even though the phenomenon of thermoluminescence is well studied, particularly over last 3 decades, its potentialities in the field of geology have not been adequately evaluated. In this report several useful applications of TL in mineralogy, petrogenesis, stratigraphy, tectonics, ore-prospecting and other branches have been identified with particular emphasis to the Indian scene. Important areas in the country that may provide the basic material for such studies are indicated at the end along with brief geological or mineralogical accounts. (auth.)

  4. Geologic environmental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Jhin Wung

    2000-05-01

    The geoscience research works are focused on the production of geologic basic data accompanying with the technical development of geology and hydrogeologic characterization. The lithology of the Korean peninsula consists of a complex structure of 29 rock types from Archean to Quaternary. The wide distribution of Mesozoic plutonic rock is an important consideration as a potential host rock allowing flexibility of siting. The recent tectonic activities are limited to localized particular area, which can be avoided by excluding in the early stage of siting. Three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the further study on HLW disposal system. This report contains grouping of regional faults, and on the distributional characteristics of faults and fractures(zones) in terms of lithological domain and tectonical provinces. The regional groundwater regime can be grouped into 3 regimes by tectonic setting and four groundwater regions based on an altitute. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rocks. The origin of groundwater was proposed by isotope ({sup 1}8O, {sup 2}H, {sup 1}3C, {sup 3}4S, {sup 8}7Sr, {sup 1}5N) studies and the residence time of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based on the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs.

  5. Effects of mass transfer between Martian satellites on surface geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-21

    suspected. Published by Elsevier Inc.1. Introduction Several features about the surface geology on the moons of Mars remain poorly understood. The grooves on...Deimos may have an effect on Phobos’ geology ; we shall attempt to estimate the magnitude of that effect in Section 4. For impacts with Mars, Phobos or...global surface geology , particularly in the 100+ Ma since the last Voltaire-sized impact. Therefore we believe it unlikely that the red veneer of

  6. Verification study on technology for preliminary investigation for HLW geological disposal. Part 2. Verification of surface geophysical prospecting through establishing site descriptive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Koichi; Hasegawa, Takuma; Goto, Keiichiro; Yoshimura, Kimitaka; Muramoto, Shigenori

    2012-01-01

    The Yokosuka demonstration and validation project using Yokosuka CRIEPI site has been conducted since FY 2006 as a cooperative research between NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) and CRIEPI. The objectives of this project are to examine and to refine the basic methodology of the investigation and assessment of properties of geological environment in the stage of Preliminary Investigation for HLW geological disposal. Within Preliminary Investigation technologies, surface geophysical prospecting is an important means of obtaining information from deep geological environment for planning borehole surveys. In FY 2010, both seismic prospecting (seismic reflection and vertical seismic profiling methods) for obtaining information about geological structure and electromagnetic prospecting (magneto-telluric and time domain electromagnetic methods) for obtaining information about resistivity structure reflecting the distribution of salt water/fresh water boundary to a depth of over several hundred meters were conducted in the Yokosuka CRIEPI site. Through these surveys, the contribution of geophysical prospecting methods in the surface survey stage to improving the reliability of site descriptive models was confirmed. (author)

  7. Age determination and geological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.D.; Delabio, R.N.; Lachance, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    Two hundred and eight potassium-argon age determinations carried out on Canadian rocks and minerals are reported. Each age determination is accompanied by a description of the rock and mineral concentrate used; brief interpretative comments regarding the geological significance of each age are also provided where possible. The experimental procedures employed are described in brief outline and the constants used in the calculation of ages are listed. Two geological time-scales are reproduced in tabular form for ready reference and an index of all Geological Survey of Canada K-Ar age determinations published in this format has been prepared using NTS quadrangles as the primary reference

  8. The laboratories of geological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This educational document comprises 4 booklets in a folder devoted to the presentation of the ANDRA's activities in geological research laboratories. The first booklet gives a presentation of the missions of the ANDRA (the French agency for the management of radioactive wastes) in the management of long life radioactive wastes. The second booklet describes the approach of waste disposal facilities implantation. The third booklet gives a brief presentation of the scientific program concerning the underground geologic laboratories. The last booklet is a compilation of questions and answers about long-life radioactive wastes, the research and works carried out in geologic laboratories, the public information and the local socio-economic impact, and the storage of radioactive wastes in deep geological formations. (J.S.)

  9. Evaluation of geologic and geophysical techniques for surface-to-subsurface projections of geologic characteristics in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    Granitic and gneissic rock complexes are being considered for their potential to contain and permanently isolate high-level nuclear waste in a deep geologic repository. The use of surface geologic and geophysical techniques has several advantages over drilling and testing methods for geologic site characterization in that the techniques are typically less costly, provide data over a wider area, and do not jeopardize the physical integrity of a potential repository. For this reason, an extensive literature review was conducted to identify appropriate surface geologic and geophysical techniques that can be used to characterize geologic conditions in crystalline rock at proposed repository depths of 460 to 1,220 m. Characterization parameters such as rock quality; fracture orientation, spacing; and aperture; depths to anomalies; degree of saturation; rock body dimensions; and petrology are considered to be of primary importance. Techniques reviewed include remote sensing, geologic mapping, petrographic analysis, structural analysis, gravity and magnetic methods, electrical methods, and seismic methods. Each technique was reviewed with regard to its theoretical basis and field application; geologic parameters that can be evaluated; advantages and limitations, and, where available, case history applications in crystalline rock. Available information indicates that individual techniques provide reliable information on characteristics at the surface, but have limited success in projections to depths greater that approximately 100 m. A combination of integrated techniques combines with data from a limited number of boreholes would significantly improve the reliability and confidence of early characterization studies to provide qualitative rock body characteristics for region-to-area and area-to-site selection evaluations. 458 refs., 32 figs., 14 tabs

  10. The surface of Io - Geologic units, morphology, and tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, G. G.

    1980-09-01

    The geologic units, morphology and tectonics evident on a preliminary geological map obtained from best-resolution Voyager 1 images and a preliminary pictorial map of the surface of Io are discussed. Nine volcanic units are identified on the surface which are composed of mountain materials, intervent, layered and eroded layered plains, and wall and floor, pit crater flow, shield crater flow, fissure flow and crater cone units associated with volcanic vents, along with seven types of structural features. The cumulative volcanic crater size distribution of 170 Ionian vents with craters greater than 14 km is similar to that of impact craters on other solar system bodies, with a surplus of small craters and a preponderance of volcanic vents in the Io equatorial zone. The observed surface morphologies provide evidence for a mixture of silicates and sulfur as the dominant surface material. Lineaments and grabens are also apparent on the surface, in a common planetary grid pattern.

  11. Synthetic Study on the Geological and Hydrogeological Model around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2011-01-01

    To characterize the site specific properties of a study area for high-level radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the several geological investigations such as surface geological surveys and borehole drillings were carried out since 1997. Especially, KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to understand the further study of geological environments in 2006. As a result, the first geological model of a study area was constructed by using the results of geological investigation. The objective of this research is to construct a hydrogeological model around KURT area on the basis of the geological model. Hydrogeological data which were obtained from in-situ hydraulic tests in the 9 boreholes were estimated to accomplish the objective. And, the hydrogeological properties of the 4 geological elements in the geological model, which were the subsurface weathering zone, the log angle fracture zone, the fracture zones and the bedrock were suggested. The hydrogeological model suggested in this study will be used as input parameters to carry out the groundwater flow modeling as a next step of the site characterization around KURT area

  12. Geologic studies of the Columbia Plateau: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, C.W.; Price, S.M.

    1979-10-01

    The results of recent geologic studies of the Columbia Plateau, with emphasis on work completed under the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, Rockwell Hanford Operations, are summarized in this report. Geologic studies were performed mostly during the period from 1977 to 1979. The major objective of these studies was to examine the feasibility of using deep underground tunnels mined into Columbia River basalt beneath the Hanford Site for final storage of nuclear waste. The results are presented in four chapters: Introduction; Regional Geology; Pasco Basin Geology; and Seismicity and Tectonics. Results from surface mapping and remote sensing studies in the Washington State portion of the Columbia Plateau are presented in the Regional Geology chapter. Results from surface mapping, borehole studies, and geophysical surveys in the Pasco Basin are presented in the Pasco Basin Geology chapter. Results that relate to the tectonic stability of the Pasco Basin and Columbia Plateau and discussion of findings from earthquake monitoring in the region for the past ten years are summarized in the Seismicity and Tectonics chapter. A volume of Appendices is included. This volume contains a description of study tasks, a description of the methodology used in geophysical surveys the geophysical survey results, a summary of earthquake records in eastern Washington, a description of tectonic provinces, and a preliminary description of the regional tectonic setting of the Columbia Plateau

  13. Measuring the surface roughness of geological rock surfaces in SAR data using fractal geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafouri, Ali; Amini, Jalal; Dehmollaian, Mojtaba; Kavoosi, Mohammad Ali

    2017-05-01

    Determining surface morphology using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data requires accurate topographic and microtopographic models. To distinguish different surface geometric patterns and to differentiate the formation of geological rock surfaces, it is necessary to model the smoothness and roughness of surfaces based on radar signal backscattering. Euclidean geometry is less able than fractal geometry to describe natural phenomena; however, in application to radar backscattering models, fractal geometry has never fully replaced Euclidean geometry. Using fractal geometry only, this paper attempts to improve the backscattering simulation generated by an Integral Equation Model to improve the description of geological rock surfaces. As the application of radar signal backscattering is a rarity in the domain of geology, the paper also discusses the efficiency of the method in improving the results of conventional geological mapping methods. The proposed method is applied to the Anaran geological formation (between Dehloran and Ilam in IRAN) using TerraSAR-X SAR data and in situ roughness measurements on pure sites with rough, intermediate, and smooth morphologies. This implementation shows fractal and diffractal behavior of geological morphologies under various conditions.

  14. Application of VRML to dynamic display of three dimension geologic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rui, X.; Yu, Z.; Xu, Y. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Resource and Environment Technology

    2001-06-01

    The basic concept of Virtual Reality and VRML is introduced. According to the actual condition of the geologic surface, the virtual space to display dynamically the three-dimensional geologic surface is constructed by using GRID file and Elevation Grid node. The application of this method to coalfield geologic surface has achieved very good visual effect. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Studies in Martian Aeolian Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    This report gives the results from the investigation through March 15, 1999 for the first two years of the three year investigation (year 3 runs from March 1, 1999 to February 27, 2000). The investigation included three tasks, all involving windblown dust (particles a few micrometers in diameter) to simulate the aeolian regime on Mars. Experiments were conducted primarily in the Mars Surface Wind Tunnel (MARSWIT) at NASA-Ames Research Center.

  16. Geology - Background complementary studies. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Skagius, Kristina [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)] (eds.)

    2007-09-15

    During Forsmark model stage 2.2, seven complementary geophysical and geological studies were initiated by the geological modelling team, in direct connection with and as a background support to the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. One of these studies involved a field control on the character of two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trends inside the target volume. The interpretation of these lineaments formed one of the late deliveries to SKB that took place after the data freeze for model stage 2.2 and during the initial stage of the modelling work. Six studies involved a revised processing and analysis of reflection seismic, refraction seismic and selected oriented borehole radar data, all of which had been presented earlier in connection with the site investigation programme. A prime aim of all these studies was to provide a better understanding of the geological significance of indirect geophysical data to the geological modelling team. Such essential interpretative work was lacking in the material acquired in connection with the site investigation programme. The results of these background complementary studies are published together in this report. The titles and authors of the seven background complementary studies are presented below. Summaries of the results of each study, with a focus on the implications for the geological modelling of deformation zones, are presented in the master geological report, SKB-R--07-45. The sections in the master report, where reference is made to each background complementary study and where the summaries are placed, are also provided. The individual reports are listed in the order that they are referred to in the master geological report and as they appear in this report. 1. Scan line fracture mapping and magnetic susceptibility measurements across two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trend, Forsmark. Jesper Petersson, Ulf B. Andersson and Johan Berglund. 2. Integrated interpretation of surface and

  17. A study on site characterization of the deep geological environment around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kw; Kim, Gy; Koh, Yk; Kim, Ks; Choi, Jw

    2009-01-01

    KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) is a small scale research tunnel which was constructed from 2005 to 2006 at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). To understand the deep geological environment around KURT area, the surface geological surveys such as lineaments analysis and geophysical survey and borehole investigation were performed. For this study, a 3 dimensional geological model has been constructed using the surface and borehole geological data. The regional lineaments were determined using a topographical map and the surface geophysical survey data were collected for the geological model. In addition, statistical methods were applied to fracture data from borehole televiewer loggings to identify fracture zones in boreholes. For a hydro geological modeling, fixed interval hydraulic tests were carried out for all boreholes. The results of the hydraulic tests were analyzed and classified by the fracture zone data of geological model. At result, the hydrogeological elements were decided and the properties of each element were assessed around the KURT area

  18. A Study of the Education of Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglin, R. S.; Baldridge, A. M.; Buxner, S.; Crown, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    An Evaluation and Assessment Method for Workshops in Science Education and Resources While many professional development workshops train teachers with classroom activities for students, Workshops in Science Education and Resources (WISER): Planetary Perspectives is designed to give elementary and middle school teachers the deeper knowledge necessary to be confident teaching the earth and space science content in their classrooms. Two WISER workshops, Deserts of the Solar System and Volcanoes of the Solar System, place an emphasis on participants being able to use learned knowledge to describe or 'tell the story of' a given rock. In order to understand how participants' knowledge and ability to tell the story changes with instruction, we are investigating new ways of probing the understanding of geologic processes. The study will include results from both college level geology students and teachers, focusing on their understanding of geologic processes and the rock cycle. By studying how new students process geologic information, teachers may benefit by learning how to better teach similar information. This project will help to transfer geologic knowledge to new settings and assess education theories for how people learn. Participants in this study include teachers participating in the WISER program in AZ and introductory level college students at St. Mary's College of California. Participants will be videotaped drawing out their thought process on butcher paper as they describe a given rock. When they are done, they will be asked to describe what they have put on the paper and this interview will be recorded. These techniques will be initially performed with students at St. Mary's College of California to understand how to best gather information. An evaluation of their prior knowledge and previous experience will be determined, and a code of their thought process will be recorded. The same students will complete a semester of an introductory college level Physical

  19. Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  20. Martian sub-surface ionising radiation: biosignatures and geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Ward

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The surface of Mars, unshielded by thick atmosphere or global magnetic field, is exposed to high levels of cosmic radiation. This ionising radiation field is deleterious to the survival of dormant cells or spores and the persistence of molecular biomarkers in the subsurface, and so its characterisation is of prime astrobiological interest. Here, we present modelling results of the absorbed radiation dose as a function of depth through the Martian subsurface, suitable for calculation of biomarker persistence. A second major implementation of this dose accumulation rate data is in application of the optically stimulated luminescence technique for dating Martian sediments.

    We present calculations of the dose-depth profile in the Martian subsurface for various scenarios: variations of surface composition (dry regolith, ice, layered permafrost, solar minimum and maximum conditions, locations of different elevation (Olympus Mons, Hellas basin, datum altitude, and increasing atmospheric thickness over geological history. We also model the changing composition of the subsurface radiation field with depth compared between Martian locations with different shielding material, determine the relative dose contributions from primaries of different energies, and discuss particle deflection by the crustal magnetic fields.

  1. A quantitative geologic study of heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.; Phillips, F.M.

    1990-01-01

    Spatial variation of hydraulic conductivity has been generally recognized as the dominant medium-dependent control on the transport and dispersion of contaminants in ground water. An empirical study focusing on the relationship between patters of sedimentology and patterns of permeability is being conducted at an outcrop of the Pliocene/Pleistocene Sierra Ladrones formation, central New Mexico. Methods of geostatistics and sedimentary basin analysis are employed to study the problem of aquifer heterogeneity. An air permeameter provides a means of obtaining extensive field measurements of air-flow rates through the sediments. These flow rates are subsequently used to characterize the permeability distribution of the outcrop. Both the geologic information and the air-flow rate data provide the basis for analysis of aquifer heterogeneity. Preliminary geologic mapping indicates that the sediments in the study area are the products of an arid fluvial/interfluvial depositional environment. Probability distribution analysis of the air-flow rate data suggests that the permeability of these sediments is log-normally distributed. The air permeability data are used to estimate variograms and correlation lengths in both the horizontal and vertical directions. At the scale of 10's of centimeters, the horizontal variograms exhibit exponential variogram behaviour . When two distinct lithologies are present, the correlation structure appears to be a nested exponential. Variogram analysis of estimated mean permeability at the scale of meters also shows evidence of a nested correlation structure in the horizontal direction and a periodic correlation structure in the vertical direction. Results of this study suggest that there is a direct connection between observable geologic structure and permeability statistics. (Author) (35 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.)

  2. Data Qualification Report: Precipitation and Surface Geology Data for Use on the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Wilson

    2000-01-01

    The unqualified data addressed in this qualification report have been cited in an Analysis Model Report (AMR) to support the Site Recommendation in determining the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository for high-level radioactive waste. The unqualified data include precipitation volumes and surface geology maps The precipitation data consist of daily precipitation volumes measured at Yucca Mountain. The surface geology data include identification of the types and surface expressions of geologic units and associated structural features such as faults. These data were directly used in AMR U0010, Simulation of Net Infiltration for Modern and Potential Future Climates, ANL-NBS-HS-000032 (Hevesi et al. 2000), to estimate net infiltration into Yucca Mountain. This report evaluates the unqualified data within the context of supporting studies of this type for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The purpose of this report is to identify data that can be cited as qualified for use in technical products to support the YMP Site Recommendation and that may also be used to support the License Application. The qualified data may either be retained in the original Data Tracking Number (DTN) or placed in new DTNs generated as a result of the evaluation. The appropriateness and limitations (if any) of the data with respect to intended use are addressed in this report. In accordance with Attachment 1 of procedure AP-3.15Q, Rev. 02, Managing Technical Product Inputs, it has been determined that the unqualified precipitation and surface geology data are not used in the direct calculation of Principal Factors for postclosure safety or disruptive events. References to tables, figures, and sections from Hevesi et al. (2000) are based on Rev. 00 of that document

  3. Studies of natural analogues and geological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandberg, F.; Grundfelt, B.; Hoeglund, L.; Skagius K.; Karlsson, F.; Smellie, J.

    1993-04-01

    This review has involved studies of natural analogues and natural geological systems leading to the identification and quantification of processes and features of importance to the performance and safety of repositories for radioactive waste. The features and processes selected for the study comprise general geochemical issues related to the performance of the near- and far-field, the performance and durability of construction materials and the effects of glaciation. For each of these areas a number of potentially important processes for repository performance have been described, and evidence for their existence, as well as quantification of parameters of models describing the processes have been sought from major natural analogue studies and site investigations. The review has aimed at covering a relatively broad range of issues at the expense of in-depth analysis. The quantitative data presented are in most cases compilations of data from the literature; in a few cases results of evaluations made within the current project are included

  4. Study on geological environment model using geostatistics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Makoto; Suzuki, Makoto; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Iwasa, Kengo; Matsui, Hiroya

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the geostatistical procedure for modeling geological environments and to evaluate the quantitative relationship between the amount of information and the reliability of the model using the data sets obtained in the surface-based investigation phase (Phase 1) of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project. This study lasts for three years from FY2004 to FY2006 and this report includes the research in FY2005 as the second year of three-year study. In FY2005 research, the hydrogeological model was built as well as FY2004 research using the data obtained from the deep boreholes (HDB-6, 7 and 8) and the ground magnetotelluric (AMT) survey which were executed in FY2004 in addition to the data sets used in the first year of study. Above all, the relationship between the amount of information and the reliability of the model was demonstrated through a comparison of the models at each step which corresponds to the investigation stage in each FY. Furthermore, the statistical test was applied for detecting the difference of basic statistics of various data due to geological features with a view to taking the geological information into the modeling procedures. (author)

  5. Quantitative roughness characterization of geological surfaces and implications for radar signature analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierking, Wolfgang

    1999-01-01

    Stochastic surface models are useful for analyzing in situ roughness profiles and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of geological terrain. In this paper, two different surface models are discussed: surfaces with a stationary random roughness (conventional model) and surfaces with a power...

  6. Geological studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Larry P.; Wilson, Frederic H.

    2001-01-01

    The collection of nine papers that follow continue the series of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigative reports in Alaska under the broad umbrella of the geologic sciences. The series presents new and sometimes preliminary findings that are of interest to earth scientists in academia, government, and industry; to land and resource managers; and to the general public. Reports presented in Geologic Studies in Alaska cover a broad spectrum of topics from various parts of the State (fig. 1), serving to emphasize the diversity of USGS efforts to meet the Nation's needs for earth-science information in Alaska.

  7. Investigation of silicate surface chemistry and reaction mechanisms associated with mass transport in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.F.; Perry, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    The concentration and rate of transport of radionuclides through geologic media can be strongly influenced by the extent of sorption on aquifer surfaces. Over time intervals relevant to such transport processes, rock and mineral surfaces cannot be considered as inert, unreactive substrates but rather as groundwater/solidphase interfaces which are commonly in a state of natural or artificially induced disequilibrium. The goal of the present research is to define experimentally the type of water/rock interactions that will influence surface chemistry and hence sorption characteristics and capacities of natural aquifers. As wide a range of silicate minerals as possible was selected for study to represent rock-forming minerals in basalt, tuff, and granite. The minerals include K-feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, olivine, hornblende, biotite, and volcanic glass

  8. Influence of geology on arsenic concentrations in ground and surface water in central Lesvos, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloupi, Maria; Angelidis, Michael O; Gavriil, Apostolos M; Koulousaris, Michael; Varnavas, Soterios P

    2009-04-01

    The occurrence of As was studied in groundwater used for human consumption and irrigation, in stream water and sediments and in water from thermal springs in the drainage basin of Kalloni Gulf, island of Lesvos, Greece, in order to investigate the potential influence of the geothermal field of Polichnitos-Lisvori on the ground and surface water systems of the area. Total dissolved As varied in the range geology exerts a determinant influence on As geochemical behaviour. On the other hand, the geothermal activity manifested in the area of Polichnitos-Lisvori does not affect the presence of As in groundwater and streams.

  9. Geological, geochemical, and geophysical studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Big Bend National Park, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, W.R.; Turner, K.J.; Bohannon, R.G.; Berry, M.E.; Williams, V.S.; Miggins, D.P.; Ren, M.; Anthony, E.Y.; Morgan, L.A.; Shanks, P.W.C.; Gray, J. E.; Theodorakos, P.M.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Manning, A.H.; Gemery-Hill, P. A.; Hellgren, E.C.; Stricker, C.A.; Onorato, D.P.; Finn, C.A.; Anderson, E.; Gray, J. E.; Page, W.R.

    2008-01-01

    Big Bend National Park (BBNP), Tex., covers 801,163 acres (3,242 km2) and was established in 1944 through a transfer of land from the State of Texas to the United States. The park is located along a 118-mile (190-km) stretch of the Rio Grande at the United States-Mexico border. The park is in the Chihuahuan Desert, an ecosystem with high mountain ranges and basin environments containing a wide variety of native plants and animals, including more than 1,200 species of plants, more than 450 species of birds, 56 species of reptiles, and 75 species of mammals. In addition, the geology of BBNP, which varies widely from high mountains to broad open lowland basins, also enhances the beauty of the park. For example, the park contains the Chisos Mountains, which are dominantly composed of thick outcrops of Tertiary extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks that reach an altitude of 7,832 ft (2,387 m) and are considered the southernmost mountain range in the United States. Geologic features in BBNP provide opportunities to study the formation of mineral deposits and their environmental effects; the origin and formation of sedimentary and igneous rocks; Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic fossils; and surface and ground water resources. Mineral deposits in and around BBNP contain commodities such as mercury (Hg), uranium (U), and fluorine (F), but of these, the only significant mining has been for Hg. Because of the biological and geological diversity of BBNP, more than 350,000 tourists visit the park each year. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been investigating a number of broad and diverse geologic, geochemical, and geophysical topics in BBNP to provide fundamental information needed by the National Park Service (NPS) to address resource management goals in this park. Scientists from the USGS Mineral Resources and National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Programs have been working cooperatively with the NPS and several universities on several research studies within BBNP

  10. Section-constrained local geological interface dynamic updating method based on the HRBF surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiateng; Wu, Lixin; Zhou, Wenhui; Li, Chaoling; Li, Fengdan

    2018-02-01

    Boundaries, attitudes and sections are the most common data acquired from regional field geological surveys, and they are used for three-dimensional (3D) geological modelling. However, constructing topologically consistent 3D geological models from rapid and automatic regional modelling with convenient local modifications remains unresolved. In previous works, the Hermite radial basis function (HRBF) surface was introduced for the simulation of geological interfaces from geological boundaries and attitudes, which allows 3D geological models to be automatically extracted from the modelling area by the interfaces. However, the reasonability and accuracy of non-supervised subsurface modelling is limited without further modifications generated through explanations and analyses performed by geology experts. In this paper, we provide flexible and convenient manual interactive manipulation tools for geologists to sketch constraint lines, and these tools may help geologists transform and apply their expert knowledge to the models. In the modified modelling workflow, the geological sections were treated as auxiliary constraints to construct more reasonable 3D geological models. The geometric characteristics of section lines were abstracted to coordinates and normal vectors, and along with the transformed coordinates and vectors from boundaries and attitudes, these characteristics were adopted to co-calculate the implicit geological surface function parameters of the HRBF equations and form constrained geological interfaces from topographic (boundaries and attitudes) and subsurface data (sketched sections). Based on this new modelling method, a prototype system was developed, in which the section lines could be imported from databases or interactively sketched, and the models could be immediately updated after the new constraints were added. Experimental comparisons showed that all boundary, attitude and section data are well represented in the constrained models, which are

  11. Reflection seismology systems for planetary geology : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, P.A.W.; Gill, E.K.A.; Drijkoningen, G.G.; Foing, B.H.; Toxopeus, G.

    2009-01-01

    A feasibility study is conducted to determine whether reflection seismology systems can be used for planetary geology research. The focus is on systems with up to 20,000 seismic detectors, such as used today in Earth geological research and energy companies. The study follows a top-down systems

  12. Geologic Interpretation of Data Sets Collected by Planetary Analog Geology Traverses and by Standard Geologic Field Mapping. Part 1; A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Bleacher, Jacob F.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Feng, Wanda; Gruener, John; Hurwitz, Debra M.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Whitson, Peggy; Janoiko, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Geologic maps integrate the distributions, contacts, and compositions of rock and sediment bodies as a means to interpret local to regional formative histories. Applying terrestrial mapping techniques to other planets is challenging because data is collected primarily by orbiting instruments, with infrequent, spatiallylimited in situ human and robotic exploration. Although geologic maps developed using remote data sets and limited "Apollo-style" field access likely contain inaccuracies, the magnitude, type, and occurrence of these are only marginally understood. This project evaluates the interpretative and cartographic accuracy of both field- and remote-based mapping approaches by comparing two 1:24,000 scale geologic maps of the San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF), north-central Arizona. The first map is based on traditional field mapping techniques, while the second is based on remote data sets, augmented with limited field observations collected during NASA Desert Research & Technology Studies (RATS) 2010 exercises. The RATS mission used Apollo-style methods not only for pre-mission traverse planning but also to conduct geologic sampling as part of science operation tests. Cross-comparison demonstrates that the Apollo-style map identifies many of the same rock units and determines a similar broad history as the field-based map. However, field mapping techniques allow markedly improved discrimination of map units, particularly unconsolidated surficial deposits, and recognize a more complex eruptive history than was possible using Apollo-style data. Further, the distribution of unconsolidated surface units was more obvious in the remote sensing data to the field team after conducting the fieldwork. The study raises questions about the most effective approach to balancing mission costs with the rate of knowledge capture, suggesting that there is an inflection point in the "knowledge capture curve" beyond which additional resource investment yields progressively

  13. Evaluating Boy Scout Geology Education, A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, R. S.; Thomson, B.

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated geology knowledge acquisition by Boy Scouts through use of the Boy Scout Geology Merit Handbook. In this study, boys engaged in hands-on interactive learning following the requirements set forth in the Geology Merit Badge Handbook. The purposes of this study were to determine the amount of geology content knowledge engendered in adolescent males through the use of the Geology Merit Badge Handbook published by the Boy Scouts of America; to determine if single sex, activity oriented, free-choice learning programs can be effective in promoting knowledge development in young males; and to determine if boys participating in the Scouting program believed their participation helped them succeed in school. Members of a local Boy Scout Troop between the ages of 11 and 18 were invited to participate in a Geology Merit Badge program. Boys who did not already possess the badge were allowed to self-select participation. The boys' content knowledge of geology, rocks, and minerals was pre- and post-tested. Boys were interviewed about their school and Scouting experiences; whether they believed their Scouting experiences and work in Merit Badges contributed to their success in school. Contributing educational theories included single-sex education, informal education with free-choice learning, learning styles, hands-on activities, and the social cognitive theory concept of self-efficacy. Boys who completed this study seemed to possess a greater knowledge of geology than they obtained in school. If boys who complete the Boy Scout Geology Merit Badge receive additional geological training, their field experiences and knowledge acquired through this learning experience will be beneficial, and a basis for continued scaffolding of geologic knowledge.

  14. Mathematical geology studies of deposit prospect types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guangping

    1998-08-01

    Exact certainty prospect type of uranium deposit, not only can assure the quality of deposit prospects, but also increase economic benefits. Based on the standard of geological prospect of uranium deposit, the author introduces a method of Fuzzy Synthetical Comment for dividing prospect type of uranium deposit. The practical applications demonstrate that the regression accuracy, discriminated by Zadeh operator, of 15 known deposits is 100%

  15. Improving surface stability of elevated spoil landforms using natural landform analogy and geological information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, Bevan; Burgess, Jon; Esterle, Joan; Erskine, Peter; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale open cut mining in the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia has undergone an evolutionary process over the period of a few decades, transitioning from shallow mining depths, limited spoil elevation and pasture based rehabilitation to increased mining depths, escalating pre-stripping, elevated mesa-like landforms and native woody species rehabilitation. As a consequence of this development, the stabilisation of recent constructed landforms has to be assured through means other than the establishment of vegetative cover. Recent developments are the specific selection and partitioning of resilient fragmental spoil types for the construction of final landform surface. They can also be used as cladding resources for stabilizing steep erosive batters and this has been identified as a practical methodology that has the potential to significantly improve rehabilitation outcomes. Examples of improvements are an increase of the surface rock cover, roughness and infiltration and reducing inherent erodibility and runoff and velocity of surface flow. However, a thorough understanding of the properties and behavior of individual spoil materials disturbed during mining is required. Relevant information from published literature on the geological origins, lithology and weathering characteristics of individual strata within the Bowen Basin Coal Measures located in Queensland, Australia (and younger overlying weathered strata) has been studied, and related both to natural landforms and to the surface stability of major strata types when disturbed by mining. The resulting spoil classification developed from this study is based primarily on inherent geological characteristics and weathering behaviour of identifiable lithologic components, and as such describes the expected fragmental resilience likely within disturbed materials at Bowen Basin coal mines. The proposed classification system allows the allocation of spoil types to use categories which have application in pre

  16. Geologic study of Kettle dome, northeast Washington. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This geologic study of Kettle dome, northeast Washington, encompasses an area of approximately 800 square miles (2048 sq km). The evaluation of uranium occurrences associated with the igneous and metamorphic rocks of the dome and the determination of the relationship between uranium mineralization and stratigraphic, structural, and metamorphic features of the dome are the principal objectives. Evaluation of the validity of a gneiss dome model is a specific objective. The principal sources of data are detailed geologic mapping, surface radiometric surveys, and chemical analyses of rock samples. Uranium mineralization is directly related to the presence of pegmatite dikes and sills in biotite gneiss and amphibolite. Other characteristics of the uranium occurrences include the associated migmatization and high-grade metamorphism of wallrock adjacent to the pegmatite and the abrupt decrease in uranium mineralization at the pegmatite-gneiss contact. Subtle chemical characteristics found in mineralized pegmatites include: (1) U increase as K 2 O increases, (2) U decreases as Na 2 O increases, and (3) U increases as CaO increases at CaO values above 3.8%. The concentration of uranium occurrences in biotite gneiss and amphibolite units results from the preferential intrusion of pegmitites into these well-foliated rocks. Structural zones of weakness along dome margins permit intrusive and migmatitic activity to affect higher structural levels of the dome complex. As a result, uranium mineralization is localized along dome margins. The uranium occurrences in the Kettle dome area are classified as pegmatitic. Sufficient geologic similarities exist between Kettle dome and the Rossing uranium deposit to propose the existence of economic uranium targets within Kettle dome

  17. Impact of caprock permeability on vertical ground surface displacements in geological underground utilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempka, Thomas; Tillner, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Geological underground utilisation inducing pore pressure changes in underground reservoirs is generally accompanied by hydro-mechanical processes. Thereby, pore pressure increase due to fluid injection may trigger ground surface uplift, while a decrease in pore pressure due to reservoir fluid production is known to induce ground subsidence. Different coupled hydro-mechanical simulation studies (e.g. Klimkowski et al., 2015, Kempka et al., 2014, Tillner et al., 2014) indicate that ground surface displacements can achieve a magnitude of several decimetres, if storage or production operations are being carried out at an industrial scale. Consequently, detailed knowledge on the parameters impacting ground surface uplift or subsidence is of major interest for the success of any geological underground utilisation in order to avoid surface infrastructure damage by spatially varying deformations. Furthermore, ground subsidence may result increased groundwater levels as experienced in different underground coal mining districts. In the present study, we carried out coupled hydro-mechanical simulations to account for the impact of caprock permeability on ground surface displacements resulting from geological underground utilisation. Thereto, different simulation scenarios were investigated using a synthetic 3D coupled numerical simulation model with varying caprock permeability and vertical location of the open well section in the target reservoir. Material property ranges were derived from available literature, while a normal faulting stress state was applied in all simulation scenarios. Our simulation results demonstrate that caprock permeability has a significant impact on the pressure development, and thus on vertical displacements at the ground surface as well as at the reservoir top. An increase in caprock permeability from 1 x 10-20 m2 by two orders of magnitude doubles vertical displacements at the ground surface, whereas vertical displacements at the reservoir top

  18. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Description of the bedrock geological map at the ground surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Bergman, Torbjoern (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Isaksson, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Petersson, Jesper (SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    A description of the bedrock geological map of the ground surface at the Forsmark site is presented here. This map is essentially a 2D model for the distribution of different types of rock unit on this surface. Besides showing the distribution of these rock units, the bedrock geological map also displays the distribution of some deformation zones that intersect the ground surface. It also presents information bearing on the position and form of outcrops, the location and projection of boreholes drilled during the site investigation programme, subordinate rock types, the occurrence of abandoned mines or exploration prospects, measurements of ductile structures in outcrops, inferred form lines, key minerals, and the occurrence of mylonite and cataclastic rock. Bedrock data from outcrops and excavations, airborne and ground magnetic data and information from the uppermost part of boreholes have all been used in the construction of the geological map. The description has also made use of complementary analytical data bearing on the composition and age of the rocks as well gamma-ray spectrometry and gravity data. Uncertainty in the position of the boundaries between rock units over the mapped area are addressed in a qualitative manner. Four model versions of the bedrock geological map have been delivered to SKB's GIS database (bedrock geological map, Forsmark, versions 1.1, 1.2, 2.2 and 2.3) at different times during the site investigation programme. The Forsmark area is situated along the coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Uppland, Sweden, in a region where the overall level of ductile strain in the bedrock is high. This high-strain region extends several tens of kilometres across the WNW-ENE to NW-SE strike of the rocks in this part of the Fennoscandian Shield. At Forsmark, the coastal region is composed partly of high-strain belts, which formed under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions, and partly of tectonic lenses, where the bedrock is also affected by

  19. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Description of the bedrock geological map at the ground surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Bergman, Torbjoern; Isaksson, Hans; Petersson, Jesper

    2008-12-01

    A description of the bedrock geological map of the ground surface at the Forsmark site is presented here. This map is essentially a 2D model for the distribution of different types of rock unit on this surface. Besides showing the distribution of these rock units, the bedrock geological map also displays the distribution of some deformation zones that intersect the ground surface. It also presents information bearing on the position and form of outcrops, the location and projection of boreholes drilled during the site investigation programme, subordinate rock types, the occurrence of abandoned mines or exploration prospects, measurements of ductile structures in outcrops, inferred form lines, key minerals, and the occurrence of mylonite and cataclastic rock. Bedrock data from outcrops and excavations, airborne and ground magnetic data and information from the uppermost part of boreholes have all been used in the construction of the geological map. The description has also made use of complementary analytical data bearing on the composition and age of the rocks as well gamma-ray spectrometry and gravity data. Uncertainty in the position of the boundaries between rock units over the mapped area are addressed in a qualitative manner. Four model versions of the bedrock geological map have been delivered to SKB's GIS database (bedrock geological map, Forsmark, versions 1.1, 1.2, 2.2 and 2.3) at different times during the site investigation programme. The Forsmark area is situated along the coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Uppland, Sweden, in a region where the overall level of ductile strain in the bedrock is high. This high-strain region extends several tens of kilometres across the WNW-ENE to NW-SE strike of the rocks in this part of the Fennoscandian Shield. At Forsmark, the coastal region is composed partly of high-strain belts, which formed under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions, and partly of tectonic lenses, where the bedrock is also affected by

  20. Thermal impact of waste emplacement and surface cooling associated with geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Mangold, D.C.; Spencer, R.K.; Tsang, C.F.

    1982-08-01

    The thermal effects associated with the emplacement of aged radioactive wastes in a geologic repository were studied, with emphasis on the following subjects: the waste characteristics, repository structure, and rock properties controlling the thermally induced effects; the current knowledge of the thermal, thermomechanical, and thermohydrologic impacts, determined mainly on the basis of previous studies that assume 10-year-old wastes; the thermal criteria used to determine the repository waste loading densities; and the technical advantages and disadvantages of surface cooling of the wastes prior to disposal as a means of mitigating the thermal impacts. The waste loading densities determined by repository designs for 10-year-old wastes are extended to older wastes using the near-field thermomechanical criteria based on room stability considerations. Also discussed are the effects of long surface cooling periods determined on the basis of far-field thermomechanical and thermohydrologic considerations. The extension of the surface cooling period from 10 years to longer periods can lower the near-field thermal impact but have only modest long-term effects for spent fuel. More significant long-term effects can be achieved by surface cooling of reprocessed high-level waste.

  1. Understanding wetland sub-surface hydrology using geologic and isotopic signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sahu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to utilize hydrogeology and isotope composition of groundwater to understand the present hydrological processes prevalent in a freshwater wetland, source of wetland groundwater, surface water/groundwater interaction and mixing of groundwater of various depth zones in the aquifer. This study considers East Calcutta Wetlands (ECW – a freshwater peri-urban inland wetland ecosystem located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal Basin and east of Kolkata city. This wetland is well known over the world for its resource recovery systems, developed by local people through ages, using wastewater of the city. Geological investigations reveal that the sub-surface geology is completely blanketed by the Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of silty clay, sand of various grades and sand mixed with occasional gravels and thin intercalations of silty clay. At few places the top silty clay layer is absent due to scouring action of past channels. In these areas sand is present throughout the geological column and the areas are vulnerable to groundwater pollution. Groundwater mainly flows from east to west and is being over-extracted to the tune of 65×103 m3/day. δ18O and δD values of shallow and deep groundwater are similar indicating resemblance in hydrostratigraphy and climate of the recharge areas. Groundwater originates mainly from monsoonal rain with some evaporation prior to or during infiltration and partly from bottom of ponds, canals and infiltration of groundwater withdrawn for irrigation. Relatively high tritium content of the shallow groundwater indicates local recharge, while the deep groundwater with very low tritium is recharged mainly from distant areas. At places the deep aquifer has relatively high tritium, indicating mixing of groundwater of shallow and deep aquifers. Metals such as copper, lead, arsenic, cadmium, aluminium, nickel and chromium are also

  2. Understanding wetland sub-surface hydrology using geologic and isotopic signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, P. K.; Sahu, P.

    2009-07-01

    This paper attempts to utilize hydrogeology and isotope composition of groundwater to understand the present hydrological processes prevalent in a freshwater wetland, source of wetland groundwater, surface water/groundwater interaction and mixing of groundwater of various depth zones in the aquifer. This study considers East Calcutta Wetlands (ECW) - a freshwater peri-urban inland wetland ecosystem located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal Basin and east of Kolkata city. This wetland is well known over the world for its resource recovery systems, developed by local people through ages, using wastewater of the city. Geological investigations reveal that the sub-surface geology is completely blanketed by the Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of silty clay, sand of various grades and sand mixed with occasional gravels and thin intercalations of silty clay. At few places the top silty clay layer is absent due to scouring action of past channels. In these areas sand is present throughout the geological column and the areas are vulnerable to groundwater pollution. Groundwater mainly flows from east to west and is being over-extracted to the tune of 65×103 m3/day. δ18O and δD values of shallow and deep groundwater are similar indicating resemblance in hydrostratigraphy and climate of the recharge areas. Groundwater originates mainly from monsoonal rain with some evaporation prior to or during infiltration and partly from bottom of ponds, canals and infiltration of groundwater withdrawn for irrigation. Relatively high tritium content of the shallow groundwater indicates local recharge, while the deep groundwater with very low tritium is recharged mainly from distant areas. At places the deep aquifer has relatively high tritium, indicating mixing of groundwater of shallow and deep aquifers. Metals such as copper, lead, arsenic, cadmium, aluminium, nickel and chromium are also present in groundwater of various depths. Therefore

  3. Geological Study of Monica Pintado mine. Florida town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, E.; Carrion, R.

    1988-01-01

    This work is about the geological study carried in Monica Pintado mine in Florida town by photointepretation - scale 1.20.000. In the area were found rocks granites, deep metamorfites and black granite

  4. Astronaut Neil Armstrong studies rock samples during geological field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, studies rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  5. Sectoral Plan 'Deep Geological Disposal', Stage 2. Proposed site areas for the surface facilities of the deep geological repositories as well as for their access infrastructure. Annexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    In line with the provisions of the nuclear energy legislation, the sites for deep geological disposal of Swiss radioactive waste are selected in a three-stage Sectoral Plan process (Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal). The disposal sites are specified in Stage 3 of the selection process with the granting of a general licence in accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act. The first stage of the process was completed on 30 th November 2011, with the decision of the Federal Council to incorporate the six geological siting regions proposed by the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) into the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal, for further evaluation in Stage 2. The decision also specifies the planning perimeters within which the surface facilities and shaft locations for the repositories will be constructed. In the second stage of the process, at least two geological siting regions each will be specified for the repository for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and for the high-level waste (HLW) repository and these will undergo detailed geological investigation in Stage 3. For each of these potential siting regions, at least one location for the surface facility and a corridor for the access infrastructure will also be specified. NAGRA is responsible, at the beginning of Stage 2, for submitting proposals for potential locations for the surface facilities and their access infrastructure to the Federal Office of Energy (SFOE); these are then considered by the regional participation bodies in the siting regions. The general report and the present annexes volume document these proposals. In Stage 2, under the lead of the SFOE, socio-economic-ecological studies will also be carried out to investigate the impact of a repository project on the environment, economy and society. The present reports also contain the input data to be provided by NAGRA for the generic (site-independent) part of these impact studies. A meaningful

  6. Study of hydrogeological and engineering-geological conditions of deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Methods for hydrogeological and engineering-geological studies are considered as a part of the complex works dUring eXploration of hydrogenic uranium deposits to develop them by Underground ieaching (UL). Problems are enumerated and peculiarities Of hydrogeologic and engipeering-geological works at different stages are outlined (prospeccing - evaluating works, preliminary and detailed survey). Attention is paid to boring and equipment for hydrogeological and engineering - geological boreholes. Testing-filtering works are described, the latter includes: evacuations, fulnesses ( forcings), and tests of fulness-evacuation. The problem on steady-state observations in boreholes and laboratory studies of rocks and underground waters is discussed. Geological and geophysical methods for evaluation of rock and ore filtering properties are presented. Necessity of hydrogeological zonation of deposits as applied to UL is marked

  7. Integrating GPR and RIP Methods for Water Surface Detection of Geological Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Hou Yang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical surveying in water-covered and swampy areas is particularly challenging. This paper presents a new survey strategy for such surveying that integrates ground penetrating radar (GPR and resistivity image profiling (RIP methods at the water surface to investigate geologic structures beneath rivers, ponds, and swamps.

  8. Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Till, Alison B.

    1993-01-01

    This collection of 19 papers continues the annual series of U.S. Geological Survey reports on the geology of Alaska. The contributions, which include full-length Articles and shorter Geologic Notes, cover a broad range of topics including dune formation, stratigraphy, paleontology, isotopic dating, mineral resources, and tectonics. Articles, grouped under four regional headings, span nearly the entire State from the North Slope to southwestern, south-central, and southeastern Alaska (fig. 1).In the section on northern Alaska, Galloway and Carter use new data on dune morphology and radiocarbon ages from the western Arctic Coastal Plain to develop a late Holocene chronology of multiple episodes of dune stabilization and reactivation for the region. Their study has important implications for climatic changes in northern Alaska during the past 4,000 years. In two papers, Dumoulin and her coauthors describe lithofacies and conodont faunas of Carboniferous strata in the western Brooks Range, discuss depositional environments, and propose possible correlations and source areas for some of the strata. Schenk and Bird propose a preliminary division of the Lower Cretaceous stratigraphic section in the central part of the North Slope into depositional sequences. Aleinikoff and others present new U-Pb data for zircons from metaigneous rocks from the central Brooks Range. Karl and Mull, reacting to a proposal regarding terrane nomenclature for northern Alaska that was published in last year's Alaskan Studies Bulletin, provide a historical perspective of the evolution of terminology for tectonic units in the Brooks Range and present their own recommendations.

  9. Towards understanding how surface life can affect interior geological processes: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Dyke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Life has significantly altered the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and crust. To what extent has it also affected interior geological processes? To address this question, three models of geological processes are formulated: mantle convection, continental crust uplift and erosion and oceanic crust recycling. These processes are characterised as non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems. Their states of disequilibrium are maintained by the power generated from the dissipation of energy from the interior of the Earth. Altering the thickness of continental crust via weathering and erosion affects the upper mantle temperature which leads to changes in rates of oceanic crust recycling and consequently rates of outgassing of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Estimates for the power generated by various elements in the Earth system are shown. This includes, inter alia, surface life generation of 264 TW of power, much greater than those of geological processes such as mantle convection at 12 TW. This high power results from life's ability to harvest energy directly from the sun. Life need only utilise a small fraction of the generated free chemical energy for geochemical transformations at the surface, such as affecting rates of weathering and erosion of continental rocks, in order to affect interior, geological processes. Consequently when assessing the effects of life on Earth, and potentially any planet with a significant biosphere, dynamical models may be required that better capture the coupled nature of biologically-mediated surface and interior processes.

  10. Natural analogues: studies of geological processes relevant to radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, A.W.; Reijonen, H.M.; McKinley, I.G.

    2015-01-01

    The geological disposal of radioactive wastes is generally accepted to be the most practicable approach to handling the waste inventory built up from over 70 years accumulation of power production, research-medical-industrial and military wastes. Here, a brief overview of the approach to geological disposal is presented along with some information on repository design and the assessment of repository post-closure safety. One of the significant challenges for repository safety assessment is how to extrapolate the likely long-term (i.e. ten thousand to a million years) behaviour of the repository from the necessarily short term data from analytical laboratories and underground rock laboratories currently available. One approach, common to all fields of the geosciences, but also in such diverse fields as philosophy, biology, linguistics, law, etc., is to utilise the analogue argumentation methodology. For the specific case of radioactive waste management, the term 'natural analogue' has taken on a particular meaning associated with providing supporting arguments for a repository safety assessment. This approach is discussed here with a brief overview of how the study of natural (and, in particular, geological) systems can provide supporting information on the likely long-term evolution of a deep geological waste repository. The overall approach is discussed and some relevant examples are presented, including the use of uranium ore bodies to assess waste form stability, the investigation of native metals to define the longevity of waste containers and how natural clays can provide information on the stability of waste tunnel backfill material. (authors)

  11. Natural analogues: studies of geological processes relevant to radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russel, A.W. [Bedrock Geosciences, Auenstein (Switzerland); Reijonen, H.M. [Saanio and Rickkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); McKinley, I.G. [MCM Consulting, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    The geological disposal of radioactive wastes is generally accepted to be the most practicable approach to handling the waste inventory built up from over 70 years accumulation of power production, research-medical-industrial and military wastes. Here, a brief overview of the approach to geological disposal is presented along with some information on repository design and the assessment of repository post-closure safety. One of the significant challenges for repository safety assessment is how to extrapolate the likely long-term (i.e. ten thousand to a million years) behaviour of the repository from the necessarily short term data from analytical laboratories and underground rock laboratories currently available. One approach, common to all fields of the geosciences, but also in such diverse fields as philosophy, biology, linguistics, law, etc., is to utilise the analogue argumentation methodology. For the specific case of radioactive waste management, the term 'natural analogue' has taken on a particular meaning associated with providing supporting arguments for a repository safety assessment. This approach is discussed here with a brief overview of how the study of natural (and, in particular, geological) systems can provide supporting information on the likely long-term evolution of a deep geological waste repository. The overall approach is discussed and some relevant examples are presented, including the use of uranium ore bodies to assess waste form stability, the investigation of native metals to define the longevity of waste containers and how natural clays can provide information on the stability of waste tunnel backfill material. (authors)

  12. Geologic studies in the Sierra de Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Cortes, Ignacio Alfonso

    grade of the rock units; and the possible paths of potential leachate through the geologic media. The last part of the work relates to the natural analog of the Yucca Mountain, the Nopal I orebody, which is compared and found similar in its geologic frame work, in the lithologic units and their weathering, in the stratigraphic relationships with the vitrophyres and tuff horizons, in the climatic dryness, in the regional water table depth and the hydrologic features, in the ignimbritic units mineralogy, and in the radioactive waste fuel compared to the ore mineralogy of the Nopal I. There are mineralogic determinations of the fracture fill material in the orebody and host rock; detailed mapping of the fractures and surface alterations; and gamma ray grid measurements and electromagnetic soundings. All these studies indicate a support criteria to take the Nopal I as a natural analogue of the Yucca Mountain repository. The total evolution of the Nopal I orebody is exposed in the walls and floors of the +00 and +10 levels, which are ready to perform final safety tests in order to compare it with the future Yucca Mountain repository behavior. The Nopal in orebody has been there for several hundred of thousands and may be millions of years in an natural equilibrium with the surrounding environment. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  13. Thermal impact of waste emplacement and surface cooling associated with geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Mangold, D.C.; Spencer, R.K.; Tsang, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    The age of nuclear waste - the length of time between its removal from the reactor cores and its emplacement in a repository - is a significant factor in determining the thermal loading of a repository. The surface cooling period as well as the density and sequence of waste emplacement affects both the near-field repository structure and the far-field geologic environment. To investigate these issues, a comprehensive review was made of the available literature pertaining to thermal effects and thermal properties of mined geologic repositories. This included a careful evaluation of the effects of different surface cooling periods of the wastes, which is important for understanding the optimal thermal loading of a repository. The results led to a clearer understanding of the importance of surface cooling in evaluating the overall thermal effects of a radioactive waste repository. The principal findings from these investigations are summarized in this paper

  14. Near-surface test facility. Phase I. Geologic site characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moak, D.J.; Wintczak, T.M.

    1980-08-01

    The report is a description of the geology and characterization of the rock mass of the area in which the Phase I qualification tests at the Near-Surface Test Facility (NSTF) are being performed. The NSTF is located on Gable Mountain within the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. It is located in the entablature of the Pomona Member, an upper flow in the Columbia River Basalt Group, and is approximately 150 feet (47.5 meters) below the surface. Core logging from the instrument boreholes coupled with joint mapping, statistics, and other test data provided the basis for a detailed characterization of the 16-foot x 20-foot x 28-foot (5-meter x 6-meter x 9-meter) rock masses surrounding Full-Scale Heater Tests No. 1 and No. 2. The Pomona entablature contains three joint sets delineated by their degree of dip, each with apertures averaging 0.25 millimeter and having no preferred strike orientation. Although joint frequencies in the study area exceed 4 joints per foot (13 per meter), the rock-mass classification rating is good.

  15. Sorption studies of radioelements on geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, John A.; Yui, Mikazu; Kitamura, Akira

    2007-11-01

    Batch sorption experiments have been carried out to study the sorption of uranium, technetium, curium, neptunium, actinium, protactinium, polonium, americium and plutonium onto bentonite, granodiorite and tuff. Mathematical modelling using the HARPHRQ program and the HATCHES database was carried out to predict the speciation of uranium and technetium in the equilibrated seawater, and neptunium, americium and plutonium in the rock equilibrated water. Review of the literature for thermodynamic data for curium, actinium, protactinium and polonium was carried out. Where sufficient data were available, predictions of the speciation and solubility were made. This report is a summary report of the experimental work conducted by AEA Technology during April 1991-March 1998, and the main results have been presented at Material Research Society Symposium Proceedings and published as proceedings of them. (author)

  16. Preliminary study on geology, mineral potential and characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary study on geology, mineral potential and characteristics of hot springs from Dallol area, Afar rift, northeastern Ethiopia: Implications for natural ... Although low, the up to 902 ppm TOC concentrations in the hydrothermal fluids could suggest the presence of hydrocarbon containing rocks at depth and/or fluid mixing ...

  17. Final Report: Optimal Model Complexity in Geological Carbon Sequestration: A Response Surface Uncertainty Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ye [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2018-01-17

    The critical component of a risk assessment study in evaluating GCS is an analysis of uncertainty in CO2 modeling. In such analyses, direct numerical simulation of CO2 flow and leakage requires many time-consuming model runs. Alternatively, analytical methods have been developed which allow fast and efficient estimation of CO2 storage and leakage, although restrictive assumptions on formation rock and fluid properties are employed. In this study, an intermediate approach is proposed based on the Design of Experiment and Response Surface methodology, which consists of using a limited number of numerical simulations to estimate a prediction outcome as a combination of the most influential uncertain site properties. The methodology can be implemented within a Monte Carlo framework to efficiently assess parameter and prediction uncertainty while honoring the accuracy of numerical simulations. The choice of the uncertain properties is flexible and can include geologic parameters that influence reservoir heterogeneity, engineering parameters that influence gas trapping and migration, and reactive parameters that influence the extent of fluid/rock reactions. The method was tested and verified on modeling long-term CO2 flow, non-isothermal heat transport, and CO2 dissolution storage by coupling two-phase flow with explicit miscibility calculation using an accurate equation of state that gives rise to convective mixing of formation brine variably saturated with CO2. All simulations were performed using three-dimensional high-resolution models including a target deep saline aquifer, overlying caprock, and a shallow aquifer. To evaluate the uncertainty in representing reservoir permeability, sediment hierarchy of a heterogeneous digital stratigraphy was mapped to create multiple irregularly shape stratigraphic models of decreasing geologic resolutions: heterogeneous (reference), lithofacies, depositional environment, and a (homogeneous) geologic formation. To ensure model

  18. Global geologic context for rock types and surface alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, M.B.; McSween, H.Y.; Tanaka, K.L.; Head, J. W.

    2004-01-01

    Petrologic interpretations of thermal emission spectra from Mars orbiting spacecraft indicate the widespread occurrence of surfaces having basaltic and either andesitic or partly altered basalt compositions. Global concentration of ice-rich mantle deposits and near-surface ice at middle to high latitudes and their spatial correlation with andesitic or partly altered basalt materials favor the alteration hypothesis. We propose the formation of these units through limited chemical weathering from basalt interactions with icy mantles deposited during periods of high obliquity. Alteration of sediments in the northern lowlands depocenter may have been enhanced by temporary standing bodies of water and ice. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  19. Geologic and radiometric study in the Picacho, Arizpe's Municipality, Sorora (Mexico) area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia y Barragan, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    This research work was aimed chiefly at studying the geology and radiometry of the El Picacho area in order to establish its uranium mineralization potential. Another purpose was to ascertain the factors favouring deposition of radioactive material in areas bordering on the Sierra del Manzanal, where the work was carried out. Detailed geological-radiometric surveys were made, both inside the El Picacho mine and at the surface. The geological surveys were carried out by means of compass bearings and stadia, while scintillometers and spectrometers were used for the radiometric studies. The work was supported by a general geological exploration of the central part of the Serra del Manzanal. To ascertain the radiometric anomalies, the distribution of the population of values was determined by statistical methods, the frequency, cumulative frequency and frequency percentage being evaluated for that purpose. The geological survey at the El Picacho mine revealed a group of fractures enclosing the following minerals: torbernite, iriginite and autunite. These fractures are no thicker than 5 cm and tend to wedge out after 3 meters. Primary uraniferous ore is likely to be found in this zone, so surveys based on (a) radon gas emanometry and (b) sediment geochemistry in the Siera del Manzanal are recommended. The basic data relating to this area could be supplemented by mineragraphic and X-ray studies, which would provide a fuller picture of the class of mineralogical species and of the paragenesis of radioactive material presnent in the zone. (author)

  20. The JABE project: geological studies with a backpack drilling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Alban; van Vynckt, Delphine; de Crombrugghe, Guerric; Denies, Jonathan; Le Maire, Victor; Reydams, Marc

    Besides those geological surveys, we will also study how this drilling system could be used to fix some installations on the ground. As part of the JUMP mission we are also developing a cosmic ray detector and a radio telescope. Those experiments have to be securely fixed and this is what we will try to do using the backpack drilling system and EVA's suits. We shall report on the science and technical results, and implications for Earth-Mars compar-ative studies.

  1. Engineering geology studies in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachadoorian, Reuben; Crory, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    Engineering geology studies were conducted in direct support of the exploration program in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska. The studies included laboratory and field tests and observations to address design and construction problems of airfields, roads, drill pads and foundations, and to evaluate their actual performance. Permafrost containing large amounts of near surface ground ice as wedges, masses, and intergranular ice, required that all construction activity not disturb the thermal regime of the ground surface, which could lead to thaw of permafrost and ground subsidence. Summer activity, therefore was not allowable, yet the winter climate was so harsh that winter work was slow and inefficient. To allow summer operations at well sites planned for all year activity, it was necessary to adapt existing techniques for arctic construction and to devise new ones. The design and construction of facilities at the deep exploration wells at Inigok, Tunalik, and Lisburne posed the greatest challenge. These sites, requiring a year or more to drill, could only be attempted if continuous access to drilling and logistic supplies could be assured throughout the year, including the possibility of bringing in another drill rig, in the event of a blowout. Thus all-seasons airstrips were required at these wells. Sufficient quantities of local gravel were not readily available at the Inigok and Tunalik sites to construct the airstrips with the required 6 feet or more of gravel to prevent the underlying permafrost from thawing. Therefore, insulation was used to maintain the subbase of local sands in a continuously frozen state, which in turn was overlain by 15 inches of gravel or sandy gravel. Tests at the U.S. Army Waterways Experimental Station defined the minimum thickness of gravel required above the insulation to provide the desired bearing capacity for the C-130 type aircraft without crushing the insulation. Field testing also included the evaluation of another design

  2. Geology of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderblom, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The geology of Mars and the results of the Mariner 4, 6/7, and 9 missions and the Viking mission are reviewed. The Mars chronology and geologic modification are examined, including chronological models for the inactive planet, the active planet, and crater flux. The importance of surface materials is discussed and a multispectral map of Mars is presented. Suggestions are given for further studies of the geology of Mars using the Viking data. 5 references

  3. Application of Remote Sensing in Geological Mapping, Case Study al Maghrabah Area - Hajjah Region, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahmi, F.; Saddiqi, O.; Hilali, A.; Rhinane, H.; Baidder, L.; El arabi, H.; Khanbari, K.

    2017-11-01

    Remote sensing technology plays an important role today in the geological survey, mapping, analysis and interpretation, which provides a unique opportunity to investigate the geological characteristics of the remote areas of the earth's surface without the need to gain access to an area on the ground. The aim of this study is achievement a geological map of the study area. The data utilizes is Sentinel-2 imagery, the processes used in this study, the OIF Optimum Index Factor is a statistic value that can be used to select the optimum combination of three bands in a satellite image. It's based on the total variance within bands and correlation coefficient between bands, ICA Independent component analysis (3, 4, 6) is a statistical and computational technique for revealing hidden factors that underlie sets of random variables, measurements, or signals, MNF Minimum Noise Fraction (1, 2, 3) is used to determine the inherent dimensionality of image data to segregate noise in the data and to reduce the computational requirements for subsequent processing, Optimum Index Factor is a good method for choosing the best band for lithological mapping. ICA, MNF, also a practical way to extract the structural geology maps. The results in this paper indicate that, the studied area can be divided into four main geological units: Basement rocks (Meta volcanic, Meta sediments), Sedimentary rocks, Intrusive rocks, volcanic rocks. The method used in this study offers great potential for lithological mapping, by using Sentinel-2 imagery, the results were compared with existing geologic maps and were superior and could be used to update the existing maps.

  4. Relationship Between the Surface Area to Volume Ratio and Temperature across Geologic Time in Ostracods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C.; Zaroff, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2014-12-01

    In 1877 Joseph Allen proposed that endothermic terrestrial organisms would have lower surface area to volume ratios (SAVR) in colder climates and higher SAVRs in warmer climates. With a smaller surface area compared to volume, organisms can retain more heat in cold climates. We tested to see if this principle applied to ostracods, a type of ectothermic marine invertebrate. We hypothesised that Allen's rule applies to ostracods, as Allen's rule has been demonstrated in frogs (Alho 2011), which are also ectotherms . We used the linear dimensions of the three major carapace axes of ostracod holotypes to estimate the SAVR. We compared ostracod SAVRs with paleotemperatures from Royer et al. (2004). We found that there was a correlation between surface area and temperature; it is a small, but statistically significant correlation (adj. R2=0.0167). This means that as temperature increased, the SAVR also increased. We also found a negative correlation between ostracod SAVR to geologic time(adj. R2=0.0114), which shows us that as time has gone on, ostracod SAVR has decreased. We then plotted the correlation coefficient of SAVR to temperature over geologic time to explore trends in the strength of Allen's rule. For most of time there was no relationship but during the Devonian, Allen's Rule did explain the trend. In short, temperature does explain some of the correlation between the SAVR and temperature, but it is likely there were other environmental factors affecting this relationship.

  5. Mirror reactor surface study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A. L.; Damm, C. C.; Futch, A. H.; Hiskes, J. R.; Meisenheimer, R. G.; Moir, R. W.; Simonen, T. C.; Stallard, B. W.; Taylor, C. E.

    1976-09-01

    A general survey is presented of surface-related phenomena associated with the following mirror reactor elements: plasma first wall, ion sources, neutral beams, director converters, vacuum systems, and plasma diagnostics. A discussion of surface phenomena in possible abnormal reactor operation is included. Several studies which appear to merit immediate attention and which are essential to the development of mirror reactors are abstracted from the list of recommended areas for surface work. The appendix contains a discussion of the fundamentals of particle/surface interactions. The interactions surveyed are backscattering, thermal desorption, sputtering, diffusion, particle ranges in solids, and surface spectroscopic methods. A bibliography lists references in a number of categories pertinent to mirror reactors. Several complete published and unpublished reports on surface aspects of current mirror plasma experiments and reactor developments are also included.

  6. Mirror reactor surface study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, A.L.; Damm, C.C.; Futch, A.H.; Hiskes, J.R.; Meisenheimer, R.G.; Moir, R.W.; Simonen, T.C.; Stallard, B.W.; Taylor, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    A general survey is presented of surface-related phenomena associated with the following mirror reactor elements: plasma first wall, ion sources, neutral beams, director converters, vacuum systems, and plasma diagnostics. A discussion of surface phenomena in possible abnormal reactor operation is included. Several studies which appear to merit immediate attention and which are essential to the development of mirror reactors are abstracted from the list of recommended areas for surface work. The appendix contains a discussion of the fundamentals of particle/surface interactions. The interactions surveyed are backscattering, thermal desorption, sputtering, diffusion, particle ranges in solids, and surface spectroscopic methods. A bibliography lists references in a number of categories pertinent to mirror reactors. Several complete published and unpublished reports on surface aspects of current mirror plasma experiments and reactor developments are also included

  7. Adhesion of CO2 on hydrated mineral surfaces and its implications to geologic carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Clarens, A. F.; Tao, Z.; Persily, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Most mineral surfaces are water wetting, which has important implications for the transport of non-aqueous phase liquids, such as CO2, through porous media. In this work, contact angle experiments were carried out wherein unusual wetting behavior was observed between mineral surfaces and liquid or supercritical CO2 under certain geochemical conditions. This behavior can be understood in the context of adhesion between the CO2 and the mineral surface. When adhesion occurs, the wettability characteristics of the surfaces are significantly altered. More importantly, the CO2 exhibits a strong affinity for the surface and is highly resistant to shear forces in the aqueous phase. A static pendant drop method was used on a variety of polished mineral surfaces to measure contact angles. The composition of the aqueous phase (e.g., pH, ionic strength) and the characteristics of the mineral surface (e.g., composition, roughness), were evaluated to understand their impact on the prevalence of adhesion. Pressure and temperature conditions were selected to represent those that would be prevalent in geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) or during leakage from target repositories. Adhesion was widely observed on phlogopite mica, silica, and calcite surfaces with roughness on the order of ~10 nanometers. CO2 exhibited no adhesion on mineral surfaces with higher roughness (e.g., quartz). On smoother surfaces, the CO2 is thought to have more effective contact area with the mineral, enabling the weak van der Waals forces that drive most adhesion processes. Brine chemistry also had an important role in controlling CO2 adhesion. Increases in CO2 partial pressure and ionic strength both increased the incidence of adhesion. The addition of strong acid or strong base permanently inhibited the development of adhesion. These results suggest that the development of adhesion between the CO2 and the mineral surface is dependent on the integrity and thickness of the hydration layer between the CO2

  8. Study on high-level waste geological disposal metadata model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xiaobin; Wang Changhong; Zhu Hehua; Li Xiaojun

    2008-01-01

    This paper expatiated the concept of metadata and its researches within china and abroad, then explain why start the study on the metadata model of high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project. As reference to GML, the author first set up DML under the framework of digital underground space engineering. Based on DML, a standardized metadata employed in high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project is presented. Then, a Metadata Model with the utilization of internet is put forward. With the standardized data and CSW services, this model may solve the problem in the data sharing and exchanging of different data form A metadata editor is build up in order to search and maintain metadata based on this model. (authors)

  9. Near-surface monitoring strategies for geologic carbon dioxide storage verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Hepple, Robert P.

    2003-10-31

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and its storage in deep geologic formations. Geologic CO{sub 2} storage verification will be needed to ensure that CO{sub 2} is not leaking from the intended storage formation and seeping out of the ground. Because the ultimate failure of geologic CO{sub 2} storage occurs when CO{sub 2} seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, and because elevated concentrations of CO{sub 2} near the ground surface can cause health, safety, and environmental risks, monitoring will need to be carried out in the near-surface environment. The detection of a CO{sub 2} leakage or seepage signal (LOSS) in the near-surface environment is challenging because there are large natural variations in CO{sub 2} concentrations and fluxes arising from soil, plant, and subsurface processes. The term leakage refers to CO{sub 2} migration away from the intended storage site, while seepage is defined as CO{sub 2} passing from one medium to another, for example across the ground surface. The flow and transport of CO{sub 2} at high concentrations in the near-surface environment will be controlled by its high density, low viscosity, and high solubility in water relative to air. Numerical simulations of leakage and seepage show that CO{sub 2} concentrations can reach very high levels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively modest CO{sub 2} leakage fluxes. However, once CO{sub 2} seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, surface winds are effective at dispersing CO{sub 2} seepage. In natural ecological systems with no CO{sub 2} LOSS, near-surface CO{sub 2} fluxes and concentrations are controlled by CO{sub 2} uptake by photosynthesis, and production by root respiration, organic carbon biodegradation in soil, deep outgassing of CO{sub 2}, and by exchange of CO{sub 2} with the atmosphere. Existing technologies available for monitoring CO{sub 2} in the near-surface environment

  10. The African upper mantle and its relationship to tectonics and surface geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Keith; McKenzie, Dan; Debayle, Eric; Pilidou, Sylvana

    2008-12-01

    This paper focuses on the upper-mantle velocity structure of the African continent and its relationship to the surface geology. The distribution of seismographs and earthquakes providing seismograms for this study results in good fundamental and higher mode path coverage by a large number of relatively short propagation paths, allowing us to image the SV-wave speed structure, with a horizontal resolution of several hundred kilometres and a vertical resolution of ~50 km, to a depth of about 400 km. The difference in mantle structure between the Archean and Pan-African terranes is apparent in our African upper-mantle shear wave model. High-velocity (4-7 per cent) roots exist beneath the cratons. Below the West African, Congo and Tanzanian Cratons, these extend to 225-250 km depth, but beneath the Kalahari Craton, the high wave speed root extends to only ~170 km. With the exception of the Damara Belt that separates the Congo and Kalahari Cratons, any high-speed upper-mantle lid below the Pan-African terranes is too thin to be resolved by our long-period surface wave technique. The Damara Belt is underlain by higher wave speeds, similar to those observed beneath the Kalahari Craton. Extremely low SV-wave speeds occur to the bottom of our model beneath the Afar region. The temperature of the African upper mantle is determined from the SV-wave speed model. Large temperature variations occur at 125 km depth with low temperatures beneath west Africa and all of southern Africa and warm mantle beneath the Pan-African terrane of northern Africa. At 175 km depth, cool upper mantle occurs below the West African, Congo, Tanzanian and Kalahari Cratons and anomalously warm mantle occurs below a zone in northcentral Africa and beneath the region surrounding the Red Sea. All of the African volcanic centres are located above regions of warm upper mantle. The temperature profiles were fit to a geotherm to determine the thickness of the African lithosphere. Thick lithosphere exists

  11. Hydrochemical characteristic of surface and groundwater Lisichansk and Almazno-Marevske geological and industrial districts Nnorth-Eastern Donbas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udalov Y.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Incorporates a complex of problems accompanying the operation of coal deposits of Donbass. See hydrochemical characteristics of surface and groundwater Lisichansk and Almazno-Maryevskogo geological and industrial areas of the North-Eastern Donbass. Identified the main hydrochemical features of the waste mine waters of the enterprises of the coal industry on the territory of the studies. It is established that the surface waters of the study area exposed to intensive anthropogenic influence. Set content of basic elements-pollutants in surface waters. It is revealed that this pollution is of a complex nature. Identifies key elements contained in the effluent of industrial enterprises. Analyzed that a change of the chemical composition of groundwater has led to increased hardness and mineralization of water in the main water intakes of the research area. Identifies key elements-contaminants in groundwater. It was found that as a result of mine dewatering groundwater level fell over an area of 200km2, far exceeding the area of coal mining. This operational reserves fresh underground waters in the groundwater runoff module 1.2 dm3 / sec. km2 decreased by 200 - 300 m3 / day. Within funnel depression hydraulic connection is created not only a few confined aquifers, but also located near the mine fields. For example, in the area of Stakhanov the Luhansk region in general depression funnel width of about 25 km and a depth of 600-800m were 8 mine ("Central Irmino", "Maximovska" Ilyich, named after I.V. Chesnokov, "Krivoy Rog", 11-RAD "Brjankovsky" and "Dzerzhinsk". The purpose of research is general hydrochemical characteristics and identification of key elements polluting surface and groundwater Lisichanskiy and diamond-Marevskogo geological and industrial areas of the North-East Donbas.

  12. Leakage and Seepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and its storage in deep geologic formations. One of the concerns of geologic carbon sequestration is that injected CO 2 may leak out of the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment, and seep out of the ground or into surface water. In this research, we investigate the process of CO 2 leakage and seepage into saturated sediments and overlying surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes, wetlands, and continental shelf marine environments. Natural CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes are well studied and provide insight into the expected transport mechanisms and fate of seepage fluxes of similar magnitude. Also, natural CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes are pervasive in surface water environments at levels that may mask low-level carbon sequestration leakage and seepage. Extreme examples are the well known volcanic lakes in Cameroon where lake water supersaturated with respect to CO 2 overturned and degassed with lethal effects. Standard bubble formation and hydrostatics are applicable to CO 2 bubbles in surface water. Bubble-rise velocity in surface water is a function of bubble size and reaches a maximum of approximately 30 cm s -1 at a bubble radius of 0.7 mm. Bubble rise in saturated porous media below surface water is affected by surface tension and buoyancy forces, along with the solid matrix pore structure. For medium and fine grain sizes, surface tension forces dominate and gas transport tends to occur as channel flow rather than bubble flow. For coarse porous media such as gravels and coarse sand, buoyancy dominates and the maximum bubble rise velocity is predicted to be approximately 18 cm s -1 . Liquid CO 2 bubbles rise slower in water than gaseous CO 2 bubbles due to the smaller density contrast. A comparison of ebullition (i.e., bubble formation) and resulting bubble flow versus dispersive gas transport for CO 2 and CH 4 at three different seepage rates reveals that

  13. The Effects of Realistic Geological Heterogeneity on Seismic Modeling: Applications in Shear Wave Generation and Near-Surface Tunnel Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Christopher Scott

    Naturally occurring geologic heterogeneity is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of seismic wave propagation. This dissertation presents a strategy for modeling the effects of heterogeneity using a combination of geostatistics and Finite Difference simulation. In the first chapter, I discuss my motivations for studying geologic heterogeneity and seis- mic wave propagation. Models based upon fractal statistics are powerful tools in geophysics for modeling heterogeneity. The important features of these fractal models are illustrated using borehole log data from an oil well and geomorphological observations from a site in Death Valley, California. A large part of the computational work presented in this disserta- tion was completed using the Finite Difference Code E3D. I discuss the Python-based user interface for E3D and the computational strategies for working with heterogeneous models developed over the course of this research. The second chapter explores a phenomenon observed for wave propagation in heteroge- neous media - the generation of unexpected shear wave phases in the near-source region. In spite of their popularity amongst seismic researchers, approximate methods for modeling wave propagation in these media, such as the Born and Rytov methods or Radiative Trans- fer Theory, are incapable of explaining these shear waves. This is primarily due to these method's assumptions regarding the coupling of near-source terms with the heterogeneities and mode conversion. To determine the source of these shear waves, I generate a suite of 3D synthetic heterogeneous fractal geologic models and use E3D to simulate the wave propaga- tion for a vertical point force on the surface of the models. I also present a methodology for calculating the effective source radiation patterns from the models. The numerical results show that, due to a combination of mode conversion and coupling with near-source hetero- geneity, shear wave energy on the order of 10% of the

  14. Geologic mapping of near-surface sediments in the northern Mississippi Embayment, McCracken County, KY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexton, Joshua L [JL Sexton and Son; Fryar, Alan E [Dept of Earth and Geoligical Sciences, Univ of KY,; Greb, s F [Univ of KY, KY Geological Survey

    2006-04-01

    POSTER: The Jackson Purchase region of western Kentucky consists of Coastal Plain sediments near the northern margin of the Mississippi Embayment. Within this region is the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), a uranium enrichment facility operated by the US Department of Energy. At PGDP, a Superfund site, soil and groundwater studies have provided subsurface lithologic data from hundreds of monitoring wells and borings. Despite preliminary efforts by various contractors, these data have not been utilized to develop detailed stratigraphic correlations of sedimentary units across the study area. In addition, sedimentary exposures along streams in the vicinityof PGDP have not been systematically described beyond the relatively simple geologic quadrangle maps published by the US Geological Survey in 1966-67. This study integrates lithologic logs, other previous site investigation data, and outcrop mapping to provide a compilation of near-surface lithologic and stratigraphic data for the PGDP area. A database of borehole data compiled during this study has been provided to PGDP for future research and archival.

  15. Parametric study of geohydrologic performance characteristics for geologic waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, C.E.; Marine, I.W.

    1980-11-01

    One of the major objectives of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program is to identify potential geologic sites for storage and isolation of radioactive waste (and possibly irradiated fuel). Potential sites for the storage and isolation of radioactive waste or spent fuel in a geologic rock unit are being carefully evaluated to ensure that radionuclides from the stored waste or fuel will never appear in the biosphere in amounts that would constitute a hazard to the health and safety of the public. The objective of this report is to quantify and present in graphical form the effects of significant geohydrologic and other performance characteristics that would influence the movement of radionuclides from a storage site in a rock unit to the biosphere. The effort in this study was focused on transport by groundwater because that is the most likely method of radionuclide escape. Graphs of the major performance characteristics that influence the transport of radionuclides from a repository to the biosphere by groundwater are presented. The major characteristics addressed are radioactive decay, leach rate, hydraulic conductivity, porosity, groundwater gradient, hydrodynamic dispersion, ion exchange, and distance to the biosphere. These major performance characteristics are combind with each other and with the results of certain other combinations and presented in graphical form to provide the interrelationships of values measured during field studies. The graphical form of presentation should be useful in the screening process of site selection. An appendix illustrates the use of these graphs to assess the suitability of a site

  16. Quaternary Geology and Surface Faulting Hazard: Active and Capable Faults in Central Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcucci, E.; Gori, S.

    2015-12-01

    The 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.1), in central Italy, raised the issue of surface faulting hazard in Italy, since large urban areas were affected by surface displacement along the causative structure, the Paganica fault. Since then, guidelines for microzonation were drew up that take into consideration the problem of surface faulting in Italy, and laying the bases for future regulations about related hazard, similarly to other countries (e.g. USA). More specific guidelines on the management of areas affected by active and capable faults (i.e. able to produce surface faulting) are going to be released by National Department of Civil Protection; these would define zonation of areas affected by active and capable faults, with prescriptions for land use planning. As such, the guidelines arise the problem of the time interval and general operational criteria to asses fault capability for the Italian territory. As for the chronology, the review of the international literature and regulatory allowed Galadini et al. (2012) to propose different time intervals depending on the ongoing tectonic regime - compressive or extensional - which encompass the Quaternary. As for the operational criteria, the detailed analysis of the large amount of works dealing with active faulting in Italy shows that investigations exclusively based on surface morphological features (e.g. fault planes exposition) or on indirect investigations (geophysical data), are not sufficient or even unreliable to define the presence of an active and capable fault; instead, more accurate geological information on the Quaternary space-time evolution of the areas affected by such tectonic structures is needed. A test area for which active and capable faults can be first mapped based on such a classical but still effective methodological approach can be the central Apennines. Reference Galadini F., Falcucci E., Galli P., Giaccio B., Gori S., Messina P., Moro M., Saroli M., Scardia G., Sposato A. (2012). Time

  17. A geological reconnaissance study of the Lac du Bonnet batholith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammemagi, H.Y.; Kerford, P.S.; Requeima, J.C.; Temple, C.A.

    1980-02-01

    A geological reconnaissance survey was carried out of the Lac du Bonnet batholith, southeastern Manitoba, as part of the concept verification phase of the nuclear fuel waste disposal program for Canada. This report summarizes available geological information, presents the results of field mapping and discusses the geochemical analyses of rock samples. The geological and structural aspects of the batholith are described as well as its regional setting and possible genesis. (auth)

  18. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The present report lists the technical reviews and comments made during the fiscal year 1988 and summarizes the technical progress of the topical studies. In the area of technical assistance, there were numerous activities detailed in the next section. These included 24 geotechnical support activities, including reviews of 6 Study Plans (SP) and participation in 6 SP Review Workshops, review of one whole document Site Characterization Plan (SCP) and participation in the Assembled Document SCP Review Workshops by 6 LBL reviewers; the hosting of a DOE program review, the rewriting of the project statement of work, 2 trips to technical and planning meetings; preparation of proposed work statements for two new topics for DOE, and 5 instances of technical assistance to DOE. These activities are described in a Table in the following section entitled ''Geoscience Technical Support for Nuclear Waste Geologic Repositories.''

  19. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The present report lists the technical reviews and comments made during the fiscal year 1988 and summarizes the technical progress of the topical studies. In the area of technical assistance, there were numerous activities detailed in the next section. These included 24 geotechnical support activities, including reviews of 6 Study Plans (SP) and participation in 6 SP Review Workshops, review of one whole document Site Characterization Plan (SCP) and participation in the Assembled Document SCP Review Workshops by 6 LBL reviewers; the hosting of a DOE program review, the rewriting of the project statement of work, 2 trips to technical and planning meetings; preparation of proposed work statements for two new topics for DOE, and 5 instances of technical assistance to DOE. These activities are described in a Table in the following section entitled Geoscience Technical Support for Nuclear Waste Geologic Repositories.''

  20. Geological Geophysical and structural studies in Mina Ratones (Pluton de Albala)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Estaun, A.; Carbonell, R.; Marti, D.; Flecha, I.; Escuder Viruete, J.

    2002-01-01

    Mina Ratones environmental restoration project included petrological, structural,geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical studies. The main objective of the geologic-structural and geophysical studies was the Albala granite structural characterization around the Mina Ratones uranium mine. The location of facies, fault zones (faults and dykes) as well as the distribution of some physical properties inside the rock massif was obtained for a granitic black of 900, 500, and 500 m. The geologic-structural and geophysical techniques applied to Mina Ratones provided a multidisciplinary approach for high resolution characterization of rock massif, and the structures potentially containing fluids,able to be applied to the hydrogeological modelling to a particular area. Geological studies included a detailed structural mapping of the area surrounding the mine (1:5,000 scale), the geometric, kinematics, and dynamics analysis of fractures of all scales, the petrology and geochemistry of fault rocks and altered areas surrounding fractures, and the microstructural studies of samples from surface and core lags. The construction of geostatistical models in two and three dimensions had helped to characterize the Mina Ratones rock massif showing the spatial distribution of fault zones, fracture intensity, granite composition heterogeneities, fluid-rock interaction zones, and physical properties. (Author)

  1. Boundary|Time|Surface: Art and Geology Meet in Gros Morne National Park, NL, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Sydney; Waldron, John

    2015-04-01

    Environmental Art works range in scope from major permanent interventions in the landscape to less intrusive, more ephemeral site-specific installations constructed of materials from the local environment. Despite this range of intervention, however, these works all share in a tradition of art making that situates the artwork in direct response to the surrounding landscape. Andy Goldsworthy and Richard Long, for example, both favour methods that combine elements of both sculpture and performance in the creation of non-permanent interventions in the landscape, and both rely upon photographic, text-based, or video documentation as the only lasting indication of the works' existence. Similarly, Earth Scientists are responsible for interventions in the landscape, both physical and conceptual. For example, in Earth science, the periods of the geologic timescale - Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, etc. - were established by 19th century pioneers of geology at a time when they were believed to represent natural chapters in Earth history. Since the mid-20th century, stratigraphers have attempted to resolve ambiguities in the original definitions by defining stratotypes: sections of continuously deposited strata where a single horizon is chosen as a boundary. One such international stratotype, marking the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary, is defined at Green Point in Gros Morne National Park, Newfoundland. Boundary|Time|Surface was an ephemeral sculptural installation work constructed in June 2014. The main installation work was a fence of 52 vertical driftwood poles, 2-3 m tall, positioned precisely along the boundary stratotype horizon at Green Point in Newfoundland. The fence extended across a 150 m wave-cut platform from sea cliffs to the low-water mark, separating Ordovician from Cambrian strata. The installation was constructed by hand (with volunteer assistance) on June 22, as the wave-cut platform was exposed by the falling tide. During the remainder of the tidal cycle

  2. Geological Study Collection of the Mercury Mine in Idrija

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Car, J.; Rezun, B.

    2004-01-01

    The collection and classification of various geological samples has a long tradition in the Idrija Mercury Mine. In the second half of the 19th century geological collection was prepared and arranged by M.V. Lipold. In 1956, a rich petrographic-palaeontological collection was created at the

  3. Influence Of Geology On Pavement Performance: A Case Study Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Shagamu-Benin city Road, a major link highway to the commercial capital of Nigeria in southwestern Nigeria is oriented approximately east-west and traverse geologic formations with extremely variable engineering properties. Field and laboratory investigations which involved geologic mapping, auger boring, ...

  4. Geologic and remote sensing studies of Rima Mozart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Hawke, B. Ray; Wilson, Lionel

    1988-01-01

    Geologic, photographic, and remote sensing data on Rima Mozart are analyzed to study the processes responsible for the formation of lunar sinuous rilles. The results show that it is unlikely that a complete lava tube could have existed along the Rima Mozart rille. A total eruptive volume of 6372 cu km has been determined for an open channel or tube with an eruption rate of about 80,000 cu m/s and a duration of 947 days. Near-infrared spectral reflectance data and 2.8-cm and 70-cm radar observations indicate that volcanic activity was responsible for the formation of the rille and that pyroclastic deposits are present around Kathleen and Ann as well as at the base of the Apennines.

  5. Geological reconnaissance and chronologic studies. Technical report No. 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.

    1983-03-01

    There are several possible scenarios by which a radioactive waste storage facility in the unsaturated zone could be compromised; among them erosion, water table rise, or downward percolation of water. In order to assess these risks, the geologic and climatic events of the past few million years can be used to project the future of the unsaturated deposits. Geologic reconnaissance on and around the NTS was undertaken to identify specific evidence of depositional, erosional, and hydrologic events, as well as to develop an understanding of the timing of these events. Several kinds of evidence were noted and studied: layers or volcanic ash in the basin-fill sediments were discovered and dated at 11 to 5 m.y. old, showing the modern valleys and ranges are at least 11 m.y. old. Exposure of these ash layers by erosion has taken 5 m.y., implying that additional millions of years must pass before modern closed basins on the NTS are eroded. Detailed study of young sediments in Las Vegas Valley suggest that water tables stood at 926 m as recently as 14,000 y ago. To the northeast or the NTS, sediments in basin bottoms also reflect high water tables until about 7000 y ago, but sediments on the NTS proper do not show this effect during the last 700,000 y. The observed relation between erosion due to downwearing or mountain ranges and infilling of valleys suggests that these processes continue, only the uppermost parts of present alluvial fans will be eroded

  6. GIS-technologies as a mechanism to study geological structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapatov, Abish

    2014-05-01

    Specialized GIS-technologies allow creating multi-parameter models, completing multi-criteria optimisation tasks, and issues of geological profile forecasts using miscellaneous data. Pictorial and attributive geological and geophysical information collected to create GIS database is supplemented by the ERS (Earth's Remote Sensing) data, air spectrometry, space images, and topographic data. Among the important tasks are as follows: a unification of initial geological, geophysical and other types of information on a tectonic position, rock classification and stratigraphic scale; topographic bases (various projectures, scales); the levels of detail and exhaustibility; colors and symbols of legends; data structures and their correlation; units of measurement of physical quantities, and attribute systems of descriptions. Methods of the geological environment investigation using GIS-technology are based on a principle of the research target analogy with a standard. A similarity ratio is quantitative estimate. A geological forecast model is formed by structuring of geological information based on detailed analysis and aggregation of geological and formal knowledge bases on standard targets. Development of a bank of models of the analyzed geological structures of various range, ore-bearing features described by numerous prospecting indicators is the way to aggregate geological knowledge. The south terrain of the Valerianovskaya structure-facies zone (SFZ) of the Torgai paleo-rift structure covered with thick Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks up to 2,000m is considered a so-called training ground for the development of GIS-technology. Parameters of known magnetite deposits located in the north of the SFZ (Sarybaiskoye, Sokolovskoye, etc.) are used to create the standard model. A meaning of the job implemented involves the following: - A goal-seeking nature of the research being performed and integration of the geological, geo-physical and other data (in many cases, efforts of the

  7. Study on the Geological Structure around KURT Using a Deep Borehole Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2010-01-01

    To characterize geological features in study area for high-level radioactive waste disposal research, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been performing the several geological investigations such as geophysical surveys and borehole drilling since 1997. Especially, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) constructed to understand the deep geological environments in 2006. Recently, the deep borehole of 500 m depths was drilled to confirm and validate the geological model at the left research module of the KURT. The objective of this research was to identify the geological structures around KURT using the data obtained from the deep borehole investigation. To achieve the purpose, several geological investigations such as geophysical and borehole fracture surveys were carried out simultaneously. As a result, 7 fracture zones were identified in deep borehole located in the KURT. As one of important parts of site characterization on KURT area, the results will be used to revise the geological model of the study area

  8. From the repository to the deep geological repository - and back to the Terrain surface?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahodynsky, R.

    2011-01-01

    How deep is 'safe'? How long is long-term? How and for how long will something be isolated? Which rock, which formation and which location are suitable? A repository constructed for the safekeeping of radioactive or highly toxic wastes can be erected either on the surface, near the surface or underground. Radioactive waste is currently often stored at near-surface locations. The storage usually takes place nearby of a nuclear power plant in pits or concrete tombs (vaults). However, repositories can also be found in restricted areas, e.g. near nuclear weapon production or reprocessing plants (WAA) or nuclear weapons test sites (including Tomsk, Russia, Hanford and Nevada desert, USA), or in extremely low rainfall regions (South Africa). In addition there are disused mines which are now used as underground repositories. Low-level and medium-active (SMA) but also high-level waste (HAA) are stored at these types of sites (NPP, WAA, test areas, former mines). In Russia (Tomsk, Siberia) liquid radioactive waste has been injected into deep geological formations for some time (Minatom, 2001). However, all these locations are not the result of a systematic, scientific search or a holistic process for finding a location, but the result of political decisions, sometimes ignoring scientific findings. Why underground storage is given preference over high-security landfill sites (HSD) often has economic reasons. While a low safety standard can significantly reduce the cost of an above-ground high-security landfill as a waste disposal depot, spending remains high, especially due to the need for capital formation to cover operating expenses after filling the HSD. In the case of underground storage, on the other hand, no additional expenses are required for the period after backfilling. The assumption of lower costs for a deep repository runs through the past decades and coincides with the assumption that the desired ideal underground conditions actually exist and will

  9. A Review of the Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer as a Tool for Field Geologic Investigations on Earth and in Planetary Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kelsey E.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Hodges, Kip V.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Graff, Trevor G.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy is a well-established and commonly used technique in obtaining diagnostic compositional data on geological samples. Recently, developments in X-ray tube and detector technologies have resulted in miniaturized, field-portable instruments that enable new applications both in and out of standard laboratory settings. These applications, however, have not been extensively applied to geologic field campaigns. This study investigates the feasibility of using developing handheld XRF (hXRF) technology to enhance terrestrial field geology, with potential applications in planetary surface exploration missions. We demonstrate that the hXRF is quite stable, providing reliable and accurate data continuously over a several year period. Additionally, sample preparation is proved to have a marked effect on the strategy for collecting and assimilating hXRF data. While the hXRF is capable of obtaining data that are comparable to laboratory XRF analysis for several geologically-important elements (such as Si, Ca, Ti, and K), the instrument is unable to detect other elements (such as Mg and Na) reliably. While this limits the use of the hXRF, especially when compared to laboratory XRF techniques, the hXRF is still capable of providing the field user with significantly improved contextual awareness of a field site, and more work is needed to fully evaluate the potential of this instrument in more complex geologic environments.

  10. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This multidisciplinary project was initiated in fiscal year 1986. It comprises two major interrelated tasks, technical assistance and topical studies. The present report lists the technical reviews and comments made during the fiscal year 1989 and summarizes the technical progress of the topical studies. The major task was a study of the mechanical, hydraulic, geophysical and geochemical properties of fractures in geologic rock masses. In the area of technical assistance, there were a total of 30 geotechnical support activities, including reviews of 15 study plans (SP) and participation in 5 SP Review Workshops; in-depth multidisciplinary review of 5 Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) Study Plans and presentation of results to DOE; preparation and revision of a white paper and proposed work statement on preclosure monitoring and performance confirmation as an outgrowth of a request made by DOE to LBL; the hosting of a DOE program review; with DOE's encouragement, preparation of 8 papers for the International High-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference to be held in April, 1990 in Las Vegas, Nevada; and 5 instances of general technical assistance to DOE

  11. Underground geotechnical and geological investigations at Ekati Mine-Koala North: case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubec, Jaroslav; Long, Larry; Nowicki, Tom; Dyck, Darren

    2004-09-01

    Since 1998, BHP Billiton has mined diamonds at the Ekati Diamond Mine™ near Lac de Gras in the Northwest Territories of Canada. Current operations are based on mining multiple pipes by the open-pit method, but as some pits deepen, converting to underground mining is being considered. As a test of underground mining methods and to provide access to the lower elevations of the Panda and Koala pipes, the Koala North pipe is being developed for underground mining. Initially, the top 40 m of the pipe were mined as an open pit to provide grade information and a prepared surface for the transition to underground mining. Currently, Koala North is being developed as an open-benching, mechanized, trackless operation. Although the method was successfully used at several De Beers diamond operations in South Africa, it has never been tested in an Arctic environment. This case study describes basic geology, mining method layout and ongoing geological and geotechnical investigation. From the beginning of underground development, geotechnical daily routines have been fully integrated within the technical services department, which supports the operation. Geotechnical, geological and structural information obtained from underground mapping and core logging is compiled, processed, reviewed and analyzed on site by the geotechnical staff. Conclusions and recommendations are implemented as part of the operations in a timely manner. This ongoing ;live; process enables the operators to make the most efficient use of resources both for ground support and excavations as well as to address safety issues, which are the top priority.

  12. Study of microorganisms present in deep geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camus, H.; Lion, R.; Bianchi, A.; Garcin, J.

    1987-01-01

    This work has been executed in the scope of the studies on high activity radioactive wastes storage in deep geological environments. The authors make reference to an as complete as possible literature on the existence of microorganisms in those environments or under similar conditions. Then they describe the equipment and methods they have implemented to perform their study of the populations present in three deep-reaching drill-holes in Auriat (France), Mol (Belgique) and Troon (Great Britain). The results of the study exhibit the presence of a certain biological activity, well adapted to that particular life environment. Strains appear to be very varied from the taxonomic point of view and seemingly show an important potential of mineral alteration when provided with an adequate source of energy. Complementary studies, using advanced techniques such as those employed during the work forming the basis of this paper, seem necessary for a more accurate evaluation of long-term risks of perturbation of a deep storage site [fr

  13. New approaches in geological studies of tsunami deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczucinski, Witold

    2017-04-01

    During the last dozen of years tsunamis have appeared to be the most disastrous natural process worldwide. The dramatic, large tsunamis on Boxing Day, 2004 in the Indian Ocean and on March 11, 2011 offshore Japan caused catastrophes listed as the worst in terms of the number of victims and the economic losses, respectively. In the aftermath, they have become a topic of high public and scientific interest. The record of past tsunamis, mainly in form of tsunami deposits, is often the only way to identify tsunami risk at a particular coast due to relatively low frequency of their occurrence. The identification of paleotsunami deposits is often difficult mainly because the tsunami deposits are represented by various sediment types, may be similar to storm deposits or altered by post-depositional processes. There is no simple universal diagnostic set of criteria that can be applied to interpret tsunami deposits with certainty. Thus, there is a need to develop new methods, which would enhance 'classical', mainly sedimentological and stratigraphic approach. The objective of the present contribution is to show recent progress and application of new approaches including geochemistry (Chagué-Goff et al. 2017) and paleogenetics (Szczuciński et al. 2016) in studies of geological impacts of recent tsunamis from various geographical regions, namely in monsoonal-tropical, temperate and polar zones. It is mainly based on own studies of coastal zones affected by 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Thailand, 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami and older paleotsunamis in Japan, catastrophic saltwater inundations at the coasts of Baltic Sea and 2000 landslide-generated tsunami in Vaigat Strait (west Greenland). The study was partly funded by Polish National Science Centre grant No. 2011/01/B/ST10/01553. Chagué-Goff C., Szczuciński W., Shinozaki T., 2017. Applications of geochemistry in tsunami research: A review. Earth-Science Reviews 165: 203-244. Szczuciński W., Pawłowska J., Lejzerowicz F

  14. Hydrologic studies of the U.S. Geological Survey related to coal development on Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1976-01-01

    This report summarizes the hydrologic studies related to coal development being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the State of Colorado. The objective of the hydrologic data-acquisition program is to collect surface-water quality and quantity data and ground-water level records. These data are needed to define predevelopment conditions and to monitor the effects of construction and operation of coal mines and waste-disposal areas. Data-acquisition activities related to coal development in Colorado have concentrated on the Yampa River basin. A description of the hydrologic data-acquisition activities, including parameters collected and frequency of collection, precedes the summaries of the three interpretive studies currently in progress. Each study summary consists of the project title, definition of the problem being studied, objective of the study, approach of the study, and when known, the schedule for completion of the study and proposed report products resulting from the study. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. The study of fracture mineralization and relationship with high level radioactive waste of deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Cristina N.

    2003-01-01

    Extensive investigations of the Ordovician, Dinantian and Permo-Triassic rocks of the Sellafield area of northwest England were undertaken by United Kingdom Nirex Ltd. as a possible national site for geological disposal of intermediate and low-level radioactive waste. Very detailed studies of fracture mineralisation at Sellafield were thus put in hand by Nirex Ltd. and the results summarised by the British Geological Survey. Deep (up to 2 km) boreholes were put down with excellent core recovery. It is generally agreed that the most significant pathway for the escape of all but a very few radionuclides is by solution in and advection of groundwater. In this context, rock fracture systems are particularly important because they offer a potentially rapid pathway to the surface and the biosphere. One striking aspect of this work is that the fracture mineralisation seemingly records major and rapid fluctuations in redox conditions -sometimes during apparently continuous precipitation of cements (ferroan and non-ferroan calcites, dolomite). Carbonate cements record variations in Fe 2+ availability. Fe(III) precipitates also as oxide (hematite) and Fe(II) as sulphide (pyrite). This study focuses on these elements and valence states and also on Mn; another element susceptible to redox controls but known to respond differently from Fe. Shallow sub-surface stores or repositories would be more likely to have oxidising or fluctuating redox conditions. The mineralisation sequences documented at Sellafield are potentially promising in this context. Ferroan carbonate cements are sensitive indicators of later movement of oxidising ground waters. (author)

  16. Planetary geology

    CERN Document Server

    Gasselt, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date interdisciplinary geoscience-focused overview of solid solar system bodies and their evolution, based on the comparative description of processes acting on them. Planetary research today is a strongly multidisciplinary endeavor with efforts coming from engineering and natural sciences. Key focal areas of study are the solid surfaces found in our Solar System. Some have a direct interaction with the interplanetary medium and others have dynamic atmospheres. In any of those cases, the geological records of those surfaces (and sub-surfaces) are key to understanding the Solar System as a whole: its evolution and the planetary perspective of our own planet. This book has a modular structure and is divided into 4 sections comprising 15 chapters in total. Each section builds upon the previous one but is also self-standing. The sections are:  Methods and tools Processes and Sources  Integration and Geological Syntheses Frontiers The latter covers the far-reaching broad topics of exo...

  17. EFFECT OF TOPOGRAPHIC AND GEOLOGIC HETEROGENEITIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geologic heterogeneities and topographic variations in relation to aquifer distribution ad occurrence in Akwa Ibom State have been assessed based on geologic and geophysical studies sixty-six sounding points together with electric log responses of representative wells together with surface geologic data have been ...

  18. Surface tritium contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sienkiewicz, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    Glovebox wipe surveys were conducted to correlate surface tritium contamination with atmospheric tritium levels. Surface contamination was examined as a function of tritium concentration and limited to the HT/T 2 form. The previously predicted relationship between atmospheric HTO concentration and cleanup times was examined in order to predict a model for atmospheric detritiation of stainless steel enclosures. 2 figures, 2 tables

  19. Leakage and Sepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon SequestrationSites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2005-06-17

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and its storage in deep geologic formations. One of the concerns of geologic carbon sequestration is that injected CO{sub 2} may leak out of the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment, and seep out of the ground or into surface water. In this research, we investigate the process of CO{sub 2} leakage and seepage into saturated sediments and overlying surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes, wetlands, and continental shelf marine environments. Natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are well studied and provide insight into the expected transport mechanisms and fate of seepage fluxes of similar magnitude. Also, natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are pervasive in surface water environments at levels that may mask low-level carbon sequestration leakage and seepage. Extreme examples are the well known volcanic lakes in Cameroon where lake water supersaturated with respect to CO{sub 2} overturned and degassed with lethal effects. Standard bubble formation and hydrostatics are applicable to CO{sub 2} bubbles in surface water. Bubble-rise velocity in surface water is a function of bubble size and reaches a maximum of approximately 30 cm s{sup -1} at a bubble radius of 0.7 mm. Bubble rise in saturated porous media below surface water is affected by surface tension and buoyancy forces, along with the solid matrix pore structure. For medium and fine grain sizes, surface tension forces dominate and gas transport tends to occur as channel flow rather than bubble flow. For coarse porous media such as gravels and coarse sand, buoyancy dominates and the maximum bubble rise velocity is predicted to be approximately 18 cm s{sup -1}. Liquid CO{sub 2} bubbles rise slower in water than gaseous CO{sub 2} bubbles due to the smaller density contrast. A comparison of ebullition (i.e., bubble formation) and resulting bubble flow versus dispersive gas transport for CO

  20. Habitat geology studies on and near Georges Bank, off New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Marine habitat geology is the study of the distribution of geologic materials that form the seabed, the geologic processes (such as sediment movement and deposition) that affect the seabed, and the interplay of geologic factors and species behavior that gives rise to biological habitats in general and to specific habitats deemed essential to the success of a particular species (essential fish habitats, EFH's). Georges Bank was once the premier East Coast fishing ground for groundfish and scallops. The decline of groundfish species due to overfishing contributed to the increasingly restrictive management of fish stocks and a need to identify and protect EFH's.

  1. Study of uranium oxidation states in geological material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidchenko, I; Salminen-Paatero, S; Rothe, J; Suksi, J

    2013-10-01

    A wet chemical method to determine uranium (U) oxidation states in geological material has been developed and tested. The problem faced in oxidation state determinations with wet chemical methods is that U redox state may change when extracted from the sample material, thereby leading to erroneous results. In order to quantify and monitor U redox behavior during the acidic extraction in the procedure, an analysis of added isotopic redox tracers, (236)U(VI) and (232)U(IV), and of variations in natural uranium isotope ratio ((234)U/(238)U) of indigenous U(IV) and U(VI) fractions was performed. Two sample materials with varying redox activity, U bearing rock and U-rich clayey lignite sediment, were used for the tests. The Fe(II)/Fe(III) redox-pair of the mineral phases was postulated as a potentially disturbing redox agent. The impact of Fe(III) on U was studied by reducing Fe(III) with ascorbic acid, which was added to the extraction solution. We observed that ascorbic acid protected most of the U from oxidation. The measured (234)U/(238)U ratio in U(IV) and U(VI) fractions in the sediment samples provided a unique tool to quantify U oxidation caused by Fe(III). Annealing (sample heating) to temperatures above 500 °C was supposed to heal ionizing radiation induced defects in the material that can disturb U redox state during extraction. Good agreement between two independent methods was obtained for DL-1a material: an average 38% of U(IV) determined by redox tracer corrected wet chemistry and 45% for XANES. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. U.S. Geological Survey Rewarding Environment Culture Study, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Janis C.; Paradise-Tornow, Carol A.; Gray, Vicki K.; Griffin-Bemis, Sarah P.; Agnew, Pamela R.; Bouchet, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    In its 2001 review of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Research Council (NRC, p. 126) cautioned that ?high-quality personnel are essential for developing high-quality science information? and urged the USGS to ?devote substantial efforts to recruiting and retaining excellent staff.? Recognizing the importance of the NRC recommendation, the USGS has committed time and resources to create a rewarding work environment with the goal of achieving the following valued outcomes: ? USGS science vitality ? Customer satisfaction with USGS products and services ? Employee perceptions of the USGS as a rewarding place to work ? Heightened employee morale and commitment ? The ability to recruit and retain employees with critical skills To determine whether this investment of time and resources was proving to be successful, the USGS Human Resources Office conducted a Rewarding Environment Culture Study to answer the following four questions. ? Question 1: Does a rewarding work environment lead to the valued outcomes (identified above) that the USGS is seeking? ? Question 2: Which management, supervisory, and leadership behaviors contribute most to creating a rewarding work environment and to achieving the valued outcomes that the USGS is seeking? ? Question 3: Do USGS employees perceive that the USGS is a rewarding place to work? ? Question 4: What actions can and should be taken to enhance the USGS work environment? To begin the study, a conceptual model of a rewarding USGS environment was developed to test assumptions about a rewarding work environment. The Rewarding Environment model identifies the key components that are thought to contribute to a rewarding work environment and the valued outcomes that are thought to result from having a rewarding work environment. The 2002 Organizational Assessment Survey (OAS) was used as the primary data source for the study because it provided the most readily available data. Additional survey data were included as they

  3. Geological and Geophysical Study of the Hidalgo´s Scenic View South Hillside in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dena-Ornelas O.S.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Geologic risks are associated to the different processes inherited by the dynamic condition of the natural environment. Often, these processes have reached a natural state of equilibrium or stability. Nevertheless, in some instances human activity interferes with the natural order, modifying the existing equilibrium or balance state. Such is the example of some geologic rock outcrops, originally generated under pressure and temperature conditions, different from the ones found at the surface of the earth. These outcrops, when subjected to surface atmospheric conditions experience a sudden release of large forces associated to the potential energy accumulated over long periods of time (thousands to millions of years. The goal of this study is to focus on the anthropogenic disequilibrium induced over a segment of the Sierra de Juarez, consequence of the removal of large rock masses in the construction of a scenic point (Mirador Hidalgo and a traversing highway (Camino Real. The applied methodology consisted in the integration through a Geographic Information System (GIS of high-resolution topographic maps, terrain analysis, geologic mapping, electric resistivity tomography and time domain electromagnetic soundings as a mean to evaluate the potential hazard that the Mirador Hidalgo represents in terms of an arbitrary Geologic Susceptibility Index (GSI. Based on the obtained results, a series of immediate actions are proposed, which are to be considered in order to avoid continuing damage to the highway infrastructure as well as the potential loss of human lives.

  4. Study on systematic integration technology of design and safety assessment for HLW geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Yoshinao; Fukui, Hiroshi; Sagawa, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Kenichi; Ito, Takaya; Kohanawa, Osamu; Kuwayama, Yuki

    2002-03-01

    The present study was carried out relating to basic design of the Geological Disposal Technology Integration System' that will be systematized as knowledge base for analysis and assessment of geological disposal by integrating organically and hierarchically analysis and evaluation method in three study field. The key conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) The examination to construct the virtual geological disposal system which contained the geological environment on the computer was executed aiming at the development of integration and the analysis systems which became working common basic to execute the design and the performance assessment of the geological disposal system. (2) Technological information (I/O information) which became the base was associated with work (evaluation) item of 'Disposal technology (design)' and 'Performance assessment' in the Second Progress Report by JNC, and the evaluation flow by which a series of work concerning the design and the safety assessment of the geological disposal system was brought together was made. (3) The subject concerning the detailed model development in the R and D activity of the geological disposal system in the future was extracted aiming at the systematization of the performance and safety assessment, and was arranged as information to take these detailed models into the 'Geological Disposal Technology Integration System'. (author)

  5. Surface-water quality-assurance plan for the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.

    2016-02-19

    This Surface-Water Quality-Assurance Plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center (WAWSC) for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of surface-water data. This plan serves as a guide to all WAWSC personnel involved in surface-water data activities, and changes as the needs and requirements of the WAWSC change. Regular updates to this plan represent an integral part of the quality-assurance process. In the WAWSC, direct oversight and responsibility by the hydrographer(s) assigned to a surface-water station, combined with team approaches in all work efforts, assure highquality data, analyses, reviews, and reports for cooperating agencies and the public.

  6. Gas geochemistry of natural analogues for the studies of geological CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voltattorni, N.; Sciarra, A.; Caramanna, G.; Cinti, D.; Pizzino, L.; Quattrocchi, F.

    2009-01-01

    Geological sequestration of anthropogenic CO 2 appears to be a promising method for reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere. Geochemical modelling of the storage capacity for CO 2 in saline aquifers, sandstones and/or carbonates should be based on natural analogues both in situ and in the laboratory. The main focus of this paper has been to study natural gas emissions representing extremely attractive surrogates for the study and prediction of the possible consequences of leakage from geological sequestration sites of anthropogenic CO 2 (i.e., the return to surface, potentially causing localised environmental problems). These include a comparison among three different Italian case histories: (i) the Solfatara crater (Phlegraean Fields caldera, southern Italy) is an ancient Roman spa. The area is characterised by intense and diffuse hydrothermal activity, testified by hot acidic mud pools, thermal springs and a large fumarolic field. Soil gas flux measurements show that the entire area discharges between 1200 and 1500 tons of CO 2 per day; (ii) the Panarea Island (Aeolian Islands, southern Italy) where a huge submarine volcanic-hydrothermal gas burst occurred in November, 2002. The submarine gas emissions chemically modified seawater causing a strong modification of the marine ecosystem. All of the collected gases are CO 2 -dominant (maximum value: 98.43 vol.%); (iii) the Tor Caldara area (Central Italy), located in a peripheral sector of the quiescent Alban Hills volcano, along the faults of the Ardea Basin transfer structure. The area is characterised by huge CO 2 degassing both from water and soil. Although the above mentioned areas do not represent a storage scenario, these sites do provide many opportunities to study near-surface processes and to test monitoring methodologies.

  7. Geological and radiometric study of the anomaly ''San Martin'' municipality of Sierra Mojada, Coahuila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra Mora, P.

    1975-01-01

    When it first became known that there were uranium ores at the mine known as San Martin (72 hectares, Mining Agency, Sabinas, Mexico), exploration work was started with the sinking of two wells at the sites of maximum radiometric intensity. A short while afterwards, however, this work was suspended. In 1974, the work required for evaluation of the locality was begun. Geological and radiometric studies carried out both at the surface and underground pointed to the conclusion that the San Martin anomaly, down to the depth explored (40 metres), is a stockwork-type deposit or a tabular seam of the fissure type. It was concluded that in view of the grades obtained (0.0227%U 3 O 6 ) down to 40 metres, the deposit cannot be considered of econimic importance at the present time. (author)

  8. 2009 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Lidar: Umpqua River Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Umpqua River study site in collaboration with the...

  9. Regional geology, tectonic, geomorphology and seismology studies to interest to nuclear power plants at Itaorna beach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasui, Y.; Almeida, F.F.M. de; Mioto, J.A.; Melo, M.S. de.

    1982-01-01

    The study prepared for the nuclear power plants to be located at Itaorna comprised, the analysis and integration of Geologic, tectonic, geomorphologic and seismologic information and satisfactory results of regional stability were obtained. (L.H.L.L.) [pt

  10. Studies from the history of soil science and geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Edward R.; Cohen, Benjamin R.

    2010-01-01

    The United Nations proclaimed the year 2008 as the official International Year of Planet Earth (IYPE), with science and outreach activities spanning 2007–2009. IYPE-sponsored outreach helped focus the attention of the general public on topics such as human health and the environment; ocean and natural resources sustainability; mitigating natural hazards and community resilience; and the effects of climate change. Within the earth science community, the IYPE was a stimulus for retrospection, and for efforts aimed at bridging divides within the community. One such effort was the first joint meeting of the Geological Society of America (GSA) and the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA), held in Houston, Texas, 5–9 October 2008.

  11. Field Geologic Observation and Sample Collection Strategies for Planetary Surface Exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS Geologist Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Jose M., Jr.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic field- work, the Desert RATS(Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crew members who participated in the 2010 field test.We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies relatedtoduplicationofsamplesandobservations;logisticalconstraintson the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to flexibly execute their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  12. High-precision geologic mapping to evaluate the potential for seismic surface rupture at TA-55, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, J.N.; Lavine, A.; Vaniman, D.; WoldeGabriel, G.

    1998-06-01

    In this report the authors document results of high-precision geologic mapping in the vicinity of TA-55 that has been done to identify parts of the southern portion of the Rendija Canyon Fault, or any other faults, with the potential for seismic surface rupture. To assess the potential for surface rupture at TA-55, an area of approximately 3 square miles that includes the Los Alamos County Landfill and Twomile, Mortandad, and Sandia Canyons has been mapped in detail. Map units are mostly cooling or flow units within the Tshirege Member (1.2 Ma) of the Bandelier Tuff. Stratigraphic markers that are useful for determining offsets in the map area include a distinct welding break at or near the cooling Unit 2-Unit 3 contact, and the Unit 3-Unit 4 contact. At the County Landfill the contact between the Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff and overlying Quaternary alluvium has also been mapped. The mapping indicates that there is no faulting in the near-surface directly below TA-55, and that the closest fault is about 1500 feet west of the Plutonium Facility. Faulting is more abundant on the western edge of the map area, west of TA-48 in uppermost Mortandad Canyon, upper Sandia Canyon, and at the County Landfill. Measured vertical offsets on the faults range from 1 to 8 feet on mapped Bandelier Tuff contacts. Faulting exposed at the Los Alamos County Landfill has deformed a zone over 1000 feet wide, and has a net vertical down-to-the-west displacement of at least 15 feet in the Bandelier Tuff. Individual faults at the landfill have from less than 1 foot to greater than 15 feet of vertical offset on the Bandelier Tuff. Most faults in the landfill trend N-S, N20W, or N45E. Results of the mapping indicate that the Rendija Canyon Fault does not continue directly south to TA-55. At present, the authors have insufficient data to connect faulting they have mapped to areas of known faulting to the north or south of the study area

  13. Sand resources, regional geology, and coastal processes for shoreline restoration: case study of Barataria shoreline, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindinger, Jack G.; Flocks, James G.; Kulp, Mark; Penland, Shea; Britsch, Louis D.

    2002-01-01

    The Louisiana barrier shoreline of Barataria Basin, which lies within the western Mississippi River delta, has undergone significant retreat during the past 100 years. The most practical restoration method to rebuild these shorelines is sand nourishment. Seismic and sonar interpretations verified with geologic samples (vibracores and borings) indicate that there are nine sand targets within the Barataria study area that meet or exceed the minimum criteria for potential resource sites. However, the near surface lithology in the basin is typically silts and clays. Locating suitable sand resources for shoreline restoration is challenging. The sand units are associated with geologic depositional systems such as ebb-tidal deltas, distributary mouth bars, and channel fill (undifferentiated fluvial or tidal inlet channels). The nine potential sand targets consist primarily of fine sand and can be delineated into three surficial and six buried features. The surficial features contain approximately 10% of the total sand resources identified. At least 90% of the sand resources need overburden sediment removed prior to use; almost 570 million yd3 (438.5 mil m3) of overburden will need to be removed if the entire resource is mined. In this study, we identified 396 to 532 mil yd3 (305.8 to 410.8 mil m3) of potential sand deposits for shoreline restoration. Previous studies using less dense survey methods greatly over-estimated sand resources available in this area. Many fluvial channels reported previously as sand-filled are mud-filled. Contrary to these previous studies, few fluvial subsystems in this region have abundant sand resources.

  14. Geological History of the Tyre Region of Europa: A Regional Perspective on Europan Surface Features and Ice Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadel, Steven D.; Chuang, Frank C.; Greeley, Ronald; Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2000-01-01

    Galileo images of the Tyre Macula region of Europa at regional (170 m/pixel) and local (approx. 40 m/pixel) scales allow mapping and understanding of surface processes and landforms. Ridged plains, doublet and complex ridges, shallow pits, domes, "chaos" areas. impact structures, tilted blocks and massifs, and young fracture systems indicate a complex history of surface deformation on Europa. Regional and local morphologies of the Tyre region of Europa suggest that an impactor penetrated through several kilometers of water ice tc a mobile layer below. The surface morphology was initially dominated by formation of ridged plains, followed by development of ridge bands and doublet ridges, with chaos and fracture formation dominating the latter part of the geologic history of the Tyre region. Two distinct types of chaos have been identified which, along with upwarped dome materials, appear to represent a continuum of features (domes-play chaos-knobby chaos) resulting from increasing degree of surface disruption associated with local lithospheric heating and thinning. Local and regional stratigraphic relationships, block heights, and the morphology of the Tyre impact structure suggest the presence of low-viscosity ice or liquid water beneath a thin (severa1 kilometers) surface ice shell at the time of the impact. The very low impact crater density on the surface of Europa suggests that this thin shell has either formed or been thoroughly resurfaced in the very recent past.

  15. Groundwater Flow Modeling in the KURT site for a Case Study about a Hypothetical Geological Disposal Facility of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Nak Youl; Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Su; Choi, Jong Won

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater flow simulations were performed to obtain data of groundwater flow used in a safety assessment for a hypothetical geological disposal facility assumed to be located in the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) site. A regional scale modeling of the groundwater flow system was carried out to make boundary conditions for a local scale modeling. And, fracture zones identified at the study site were involved in the local scale groundwater flow model. From the results of the local scale modeling, a hydraulic head distribution was indicated and it was used in a particle tracking simulation for searching pathway of groundwater from the location of the hypothetical disposal facility to the surface where the groundwater reached. The flow distance and discharge rate of the groundwater in the KURT site were calculated. It was thought that the modeling methods used in this study was available to prepare the data of groundwater flow in a safety assessment for a geological disposal facility of radioactive wastes.

  16. Application of remote sensing to the geological study of the alkaline complex region of Itatiaia. [Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Rodrigues, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The methodology of remote sensing applied to geological study in a complex area was evaluated. Itatiaia was selected as a test area, which covers the alkaline massives and its precambrian basement. LANDSAT-MSS and radar mosaic of the RADAMBRASIL Project were used for photointerpretation. Previous geological works were consulted and many discrepancies in the distribution of stratigraphic units were found. Moreover, structural lineaments and talus deposits were clearly delineated.

  17. Hydro-geological studies at the PINSTECH quadrangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, K.; Qureshi, A.A.; Khattak, N.; Akram, M.; Farooq, M.

    2000-05-01

    In order to save the huge amount of water bill and to overcome the shortage of water supply during summer, a resistivity survey was carried out to locate some suitable water bearing horizons within the PINSTECH Quadrangle. Eight shallow bore holes yielding limited amount of water supply were also drilled on trial basis. The work so far done indicates the existence of two water-bearing horizons in this area. a. A shallow water bearing horizon present at the contact of recent alluvium with bedrock at a depth between 7-20 meters. b. A deep water bearing horizon present erratically in the sandstone of Kamlial Formation at a depth between 85-180 meters. On the basis of resistivity measurements, thirteen sites have been earmarked which may contain water bearing zones in the deep horizon. Out of these, nine sites have been classified as the favorable and four as semi-favorable sites. A geological survey of the area was also carried out. The Kamlial sandstone, indicated by the resistivity survey to contain water bearing zones, is less porous with low permeability. Therefore it is not a favorable lithology to contain an aquifer to produce a good water discharge. However, the hole/s penetrating through a faulted/fractured zone being charged through a stream in the vicinity may yield water. (author)

  18. Geotourism, Medical Geology and local development: Cape Verde case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, F.; Ferreira da Silva, E.

    2014-11-01

    Geotourism and Geoparks in particular are real opportunities to rural developments promoting the rate decline of unemployment and emigration through engaging the local communities in geopark activities and tourism marketing in the form of adventure tourism, ecotourism, rural tourism and health geotourism. Geotourism is closely linked with Medical Geology. The intake of minerals and chemical elements for food, water, soil (through geophagy) or dust can be accomplished by ingestion, inhalation or dermal absorption. Pelotherapy or “Mudtherapy” is the use of mud/clay for therapeutic applications, internal or external. Cape Verde archipelago is located in Atlantic ocean, 400 km westwards of Senegal coast. Geotourism is being developed, mainly focused on the development of a geopark in Fogo island huge caldera, but also trying to take advantage of their potentialities for Geomedecine. A cooperative program established between Cape Verde University (UCV) and Aveiro University (UA, Portugal) is under way, aiming, on a first stage, to identify Geotouristic potentialities and, on a second stage, to develop products. Geotourism is being developed, mainly focused on the development of a geopark in Fogo isl. huge caldera, but also trying to take advantage of their potentialities for Geomedecine.

  19. The part played by applied geology in nuclear power plant site studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giafferi, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Site-related geological problems are one of the constraints affecting the environment of nuclear power plants. The natural features (soil and subsoil) at the nuclear power plant site affect numerous factors in the design, construction and operation of the civil engineering structures. The site geological criteria are not solely restricted to the soil as a static support for the structures. Earth tremors in France are of moderate intensity but the likelihood of their occurrence must nevertheless be taken into account for each site. Studies must concern the geological and seismic features of the region as well as the soil and subsoil configurations and composition in the immediate vicinity of the site in order to determine the physical characteristics of the earthquakes so that the safety of the plant can be guaranteed; in many cases, water tables have also to be taken into consideration. Geologic survey techniques are discussed. 13 figs., 7 refs

  20. A Geological and Geophysical Study of the Geothermal Energy Potential of Pilgrim Springs, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Donald L.; Forbes, Robert B. [eds.

    1980-01-01

    The Pilgrim Springs geothermal area, located about 75 km north of Nome, was the subject of an intensive, reconnaissance-level geophysical and geological study during a 90-day period in the summer of 1979. The thermal springs are located in a northeast-oriented, oval area of thawed ground approximately 1.5 km{sup 2} in size, bordered on the north by the Pilgrim River. A second, much smaller, thermal anomaly was discovered about 3 km northeast of the main thawed area. Continuous permafrost in the surrounding region is on the order of 100 m thick. Present surface thermal spring discharge is {approx} 4.2 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 3} s{sup -1} (67 gallons/minute) of alkali-chloride-type water at a temperature of 81 C. The reason for its high salinity is not yet understood because of conflicting evidence for seawater vs. other possible water sources. Preliminary Na-K-Ca geothermometry suggests deep reservoir temperatures approaching 150 C, but interpretation of these results is difficult because of their dependence on an unknown water mixing history. Based on these estimates, and present surface and drill hole water temperatures, Pilgrim Springs would be classified as an intermediate-temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal system.

  1. Summary and evaluation of existing geological and geophysical data near prospective surface facilities in Midway Valley, Yucca Mountain Project, Nye County, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Bullard, T.F.; Perman, R.C.; Angell, M.M.; DiSilvestro, L.A. [Geomatrix Consultants, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Midway Valley, located at the eastern base of the Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada, is the preferred location of the surface facilities for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. One goal in siting these surface facilities is to avoid faults that could produce relative displacements in excess of 5 cm in the foundations of the waste-handling buildings. This study reviews existing geologic and geophysical data that can be used to assess the potential for surface fault rupture within Midway Valley. Dominant tectonic features in Midway Valley are north-trending, westward-dipping normal faults along the margins of the valley: the Bow Ridge fault to the west and the Paintbrush Canyon fault to the east. Published estimates of average Quaternary slip rates for these faults are very low but the age of most recent displacement and the amount of displacement per event are largely unknown. Surface mapping and interpretive cross sections, based on limited drillhole and geophysical data, suggest that additional normal faults, including the postulated Midway Valley fault, may exist beneath the Quaternary/Tertiary fill within the valley. Existing data, however, are inadequate to determine the location, recency, and geometry of this faulting. To confidently assess the potential for significant Quaternary faulting in Midway Valley, additional data are needed that define the stratigraphy and structure of the strata beneath the valley, characterize the Quaternary soils and surfaces, and establish the age of faulting. The use of new and improved geophysical techniques, combined with a drilling program, offers the greatest potential for resolving subsurface structure in the valley. Mapping of surficial geologic units and logging of soil pits and trenches within these units must be completed, using accepted state-of-the-art practices supported by multiple quantitative numerical and relative age-dating techniques.

  2. Summary and evaluation of existing geological and geophysical data near prospective surface facilities in Midway Valley, Yucca Mountain Project, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.D.; Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Bullard, T.F.; Perman, R.C.; Angell, M.M.; DiSilvestro, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    Midway Valley, located at the eastern base of the Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada, is the preferred location of the surface facilities for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. One goal in siting these surface facilities is to avoid faults that could produce relative displacements in excess of 5 cm in the foundations of the waste-handling buildings. This study reviews existing geologic and geophysical data that can be used to assess the potential for surface fault rupture within Midway Valley. Dominant tectonic features in Midway Valley are north-trending, westward-dipping normal faults along the margins of the valley: the Bow Ridge fault to the west and the Paintbrush Canyon fault to the east. Published estimates of average Quaternary slip rates for these faults are very low but the age of most recent displacement and the amount of displacement per event are largely unknown. Surface mapping and interpretive cross sections, based on limited drillhole and geophysical data, suggest that additional normal faults, including the postulated Midway Valley fault, may exist beneath the Quaternary/Tertiary fill within the valley. Existing data, however, are inadequate to determine the location, recency, and geometry of this faulting. To confidently assess the potential for significant Quaternary faulting in Midway Valley, additional data are needed that define the stratigraphy and structure of the strata beneath the valley, characterize the Quaternary soils and surfaces, and establish the age of faulting. The use of new and improved geophysical techniques, combined with a drilling program, offers the greatest potential for resolving subsurface structure in the valley. Mapping of surficial geologic units and logging of soil pits and trenches within these units must be completed, using accepted state-of-the-art practices supported by multiple quantitative numerical and relative age-dating techniques

  3. The application of structure from motion (SfM) to identify the geological structure and outcrop studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Aditya; Rahardianto, Trias; Gomez, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Adequate knowledge of geological structure is an essential for most studies in geoscience, mineral exploration, geo-hazard and disaster management. The geological map is still one the datasets the most commonly used to obtain information about the geological structure such as fault, joint, fold, and unconformities, however in rural areas such as Central Java data is still sparse. Recent progress in data acquisition technologies and computing have increased the interest in how to capture the high-resolution geological data effectively and for a relatively low cost. Some methods such as Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS), Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been widely used to obtain this information, however, these methods need a significant investment in hardware, software, and time. Resolving some of those issues, the photogrammetric method structure from motion (SfM) is an image-based method, which can provide solutions equivalent to laser technologies for a relatively low-cost with minimal time, specialization and financial investment. Using SfM photogrammetry, it is possible to generate high resolution 3D images rock surfaces and outcrops, in order to improve the geological understanding of Indonesia. In the present contribution, it is shown that the information about fault and joint can be obtained at high-resolution and in a shorter time than with the conventional grid mapping and remotely sensed topographic surveying. The SfM method produces a point-cloud through image matching and computing. This task can be run with open- source or commercial image processing and 3D reconstruction software. As the point cloud has 3D information as well as RGB values, it allows for further analysis such as DEM extraction and image orthorectification processes. The present paper describes some examples of SfM to identify the fault in the outcrops and also highlight the future possibilities in terms of earthquake hazard assessment, based on

  4. Generalizing geological maps with the GeoScaler software: The case study approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnoff, Alex; Huot-Vézina, Gabriel; Paradis, Serge J.; Boivin, Ruth

    2012-03-01

    Map generalization is rapidly becoming an important task in surficial and bedrock geology as broader regional and cross-boundary compilations are made from maps originally describing more specific areas. However, the entire process is still not defined in sufficient detail and relatively few automated tools are available. Moreover, the existing tools are primarily designed for generalization of topographic maps and do not address the needs specific to geology. Here we present two case studies describing our approach to the generalization of surficial and bedrock geology maps, respectively. To accomplish the task, we employed the GeoScaler software developed at the Laboratoire de cartographie numérique et de photogrammétrie (LCNP) of the Quebec division of the Geological Survey of Canada (Version 2009). The software is free over the Internet but requires an ArcGIS (ArcInfo) license. Four surficial geology maps at 1:250,000 scale were produced from 14 maps scaled at 1:100,000, while a single compilation of six bedrock maps was generalized from 1:125,000 to 1:500,000 scale. We describe the general considerations required to approach any generalization exercise, applied software, objectives, input data, major generalization steps, and the final results. All generalized maps were favorably evaluated by experts in geological mapping and the surficial maps have been published.

  5. A state geological survey commitment to environmental geology - the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wermund, E.G.

    1990-01-01

    In several Texas environmental laws, the Bureau of Economic Geology is designated as a planning participant and review agency in the process of fulfilling environmental laws. Two examples are legislation on reclamation of surface mines and regulation of processing low level radioactive wastes. Also, the Bureau is the principal geological reviewer of all Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements which the Office of the Governor circulates for state review on all major developmental activities in Texas. The BEG continues its strong interest in environmental geology. In February 1988, it recommitted its Land Resources Laboratory, initiated in 1974, toward fulfilling needs of state, county, and city governments for consultation and research on environmental geologic problems. An editorial from another state geological survey would resemble the about description of texas work in environmental geology. State geological surveys have led federal agencies into many developments of environmental geology, complemented federal efforts in their evolution, and continued a strong commitment to the maintenance of a quality environment through innovative geologic studies

  6. Calcrete and near-surface geology of Kuwait City and suburbs, Kuwait, Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sulaimi, Jawad S.

    1988-01-01

    Near-surface accumulation of pedogenic carbonate (calcrete) is a common and characteristic feature of the landscape of Kuwait City and its suburbs. The principal host material for these calcretes is a thick sequence of unconsolidated quartzose sand. A typical fully developed soil profile can be divided into five zones: in descending order these are (1) a top calcareous aeolian soil; (2) a zone of friable sand with powdery or tightly cemented calcrete lumps (nodules); (3) a massive calcrete zone; (4) a mottled calcrete zone; and (5) unaltered parent material. Episodic formation of calcrete is indicated by the occurrence of multiple profiles in which zones are repeated. Calcrete ooids and pseudo-ooids of accretionary origin are characteristic of the upper calcrete zone. The carbonate fraction in the upper calcrete zone consists dominantly of low-Mg calcite with minor amounts of dolomite. Replacement was a major process in formation of the massive calcrete and the dominant cementing material is largely low-Mg calcite and/or microcrystalline dolomite. Aeolian dust is considered to be the major source of ions for calcrete formation in Kuwait City and suburbs. An earlier-introduced model* is applied to explain the mechanisms of formation and precipitation of low-Mg calcite and dolomite. The calcrete thickness in the study area is explained by episodic deposition of fluviatile sand and calcrete formation during the Oligocene through Lower Miocene period.

  7. A hybrid 3D SEM reconstruction method optimized for complex geologic material surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shang; Adegbule, Aderonke; Kibbey, Tohren C G

    2017-08-01

    Reconstruction methods are widely used to extract three-dimensional information from scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. This paper presents a new hybrid reconstruction method that combines stereoscopic reconstruction with shape-from-shading calculations to generate highly-detailed elevation maps from SEM image pairs. The method makes use of an imaged glass sphere to determine the quantitative relationship between observed intensity and angles between the beam and surface normal, and the detector and surface normal. Two specific equations are derived to make use of image intensity information in creating the final elevation map. The equations are used together, one making use of intensities in the two images, the other making use of intensities within a single image. The method is specifically designed for SEM images captured with a single secondary electron detector, and is optimized to capture maximum detail from complex natural surfaces. The method is illustrated with a complex structured abrasive material, and a rough natural sand grain. Results show that the method is capable of capturing details such as angular surface features, varying surface roughness, and surface striations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of geological details towards feasibility of uranium project: Indian case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarangi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate technical evaluation of geological details at early stage of exploration is the key to minimising the lead-time between discovery and production. This has a major influence on economic viability of the deposits. Indian uranium deposits are of medium-tonnage and low-grade occurring in dissimilar geological provinces. Detailed studies of geological characteristics of these deposits are very vital to the proper selection of technology and subsequent successful operation. The method of mining (underground/open pit/in-situ recovery) is influenced by the ore body depth, size, grade, configuration, hostrock and adjoining strata characteristics, hydrological condition etc. The ore processing technology is also subjective to mineralogical characteristics of the ore. In order to draw the flowsheet, determine process parameters and selection of reagents, a comprehensive study on identification of minerals and their probable metallurgical characteristics, general physical relationship between various minerals, mineral liberation size etc is of great significance. The technology for disposal of tailings is also influenced by geological/geo-hydrological characteristics. The key to successful operation of Indian uranium deposits lies in outlining a pre-development strategy as the exploration advances to different stages. This phase called ''exploratory mining'' - which starts with detailed exploration and ends with approval of the project is very critical for early commissioning of the project. The activities during this period include collection of representative drill core samples during exploration, laboratory studies, geo-technical studies and determination of geomechanical properties of ore and waste rock etc. Later, the ore lenses are accessed through limited entry(ies). Developments along the ore body helps in better understanding of the configuration of the lenses. Studies for strata control in case of underground mining are carried out

  9. Satellite-based measurements of surface deformation reveal fluid flow associated with the geological storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D.W.; Rucci, A.; Ferretti, A.; Novali, F.; Bissell, R.; Ringrose, P.; Mathieson, A.; Wright, I.

    2009-10-15

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), gathered over the In Salah CO{sub 2} storage project in Algeria, provides an early indication that satellite-based geodetic methods can be effective in monitoring the geological storage of carbon dioxide. An injected volume of 3 million tons of carbon dioxide, from one of the first large-scale carbon sequestration efforts, produces a measurable surface displacement of approximately 5 mm/year. Using geophysical inverse techniques we are able to infer flow within the reservoir layer and within a seismically detected fracture/ fault zone intersecting the reservoir. We find that, if we use the best available elastic Earth model, the fluid flow need only occur in the vicinity of the reservoir layer. However, flow associated with the injection of the carbon dioxide does appear to extend several kilometers laterally within the reservoir, following the fracture/fault zone.

  10. Geological Fieldwork: A Study Carried out with Portuguese Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Helena; Ferreira, Paulo; Vasconcelos, Clara; Fernandes, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing the relevance that fieldwork and field trips have in the teaching of geosciences and related learning processes, this study presents two geological fieldwork studies that were established with Portuguese secondary school students. Both studies were focused on geoscience content knowledge, and attempted to increase environmental…

  11. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 8. Repository preconceptual design studies: salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Volume 8 ''Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Salt,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in salt. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area, and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/9, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Salt.''

  12. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 10. Repository preconceptual design studies: granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Volume 10 ''Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Granite,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in granite. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area, and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/11, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Granite.''

  13. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 12. Repository preconceptual design studies: shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in shale. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area, and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/13, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Shale.''

  14. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 14. Repository preconceptual design studies: basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in basalt. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/15, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Basalt.''

  15. Modeling of Oblique Penetration into Geologic Targets Using Cavity Expansion Penetrator Loading with Target free-Surface Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joe; Longcope, Donald B.; Tabbara, Mazen R.

    1999-06-01

    A procedure has been developed to represent the loading on a penetrator and its motion during oblique penetration into geologic media. The penetrator is modeled with the explicit dynamics, finite element computer program PRONTO 3D and the coupled pressure on the penetrator is given in a new loading option based on a separate cavity expansion (CE) solution that accounts for the pressure reduction from a nearby target free surface. The free-surface influence distance is selected in a predictive manner by considering the pressure to expand a spherical cavity in a finite radius sphere of the target material. The CE/PRONTO 3D procedure allows a detailed description of the penetrator for predicting shock environments or structural failure during the entire penetra- tion event and is sufficiently rapid to be used in design optimization. It has been evaluated by comparing its results with data from two field tests of a full-scale penetrator into frozen soil at an impact angles of 49.6 and 52.5 degrees from the horizontal. The measured penetrator rotations were 24 and 22 degrees, respectively. In the simulation, the rotation was 21 degrees and predom- inately resulted from the pressure reduction of the free surface. Good agreement was also found for the penetration depth and axial and lateral acceleration at two locations in the penetrator.

  16. Modeling of Oblique Penetration into Geologic Targets Using Cavity Expansion Penetrator Loading with Target free-Surface Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joe; Longcope, Donald B.; Tabbara, Mazen R.

    1999-05-03

    A procedure has been developed to represent the loading on a penetrator and its motion during oblique penetration into geologic media. The penetrator is modeled with the explicit dynamics, finite element computer program PRONTO 3D and the coupled pressure on the penetrator is given in a new loading option based on a separate cavity expansion (CE) solution that accounts for the pressure-reduction from a nearby target free surface. The free-surface influ- ence distance is selected in a predictive manner by considering the pressure to expand a spherical cavity in a finite radius sphere of the target material. The CE/PRONTO 3D procedure allows a detailed description of the penetrator for predicting shock environments or structural failure dur- ing the entire penetration event and is sufficiently rapid to be used in design optimization. It has been evaluated by comparing its results with data from two field tests of a full-scale penetrator into frozen soil at an impact angles of 49.6 and 52.5 degrees from the horizontal. The measured penetrator rotations were 24 and 22 degrees, respectively. In the simulation, the rotation was21 degrees and predominately resulted from the pressure reduction of the free surface. Good agree- ment was also found for the penetration depth and axial and lateral acceleration at two locations in the penetrator.

  17. Study on the background information for the R and D of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Hirusawa, Shigenobu; Komoto, Harumi

    2001-02-01

    It is quite important for Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) to analyze the R and D items after 'H12 report' and also provide their results of R and D activities to general public effectively. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal, relating background informations were to be picked up. In this fiscal year, following two main topics were selected and studied. 1. Research and analysis on the options for the geological disposal concept. The major nuclear power-generating countries have almost all chosen deep geological disposal as preferred method for HLW disposal. Since 1990's, to make the geological disposal flexible, the alternative concepts for the disposal of HLW have been discussed promoting the social acceptance. In this context, recent optional discussions and international evaluations on the following topics were studied and summarized. (1) Reversibility of waste disposal/Retrievability of waste/Waste monitoring, (2) Long-term storage concept and its effectiveness, (3) Present position and role of international disposal. 2. Research and analysis on some educational materials collected from foreign countries. Although geological disposals is scheduled to start still in future, it is quite important to study the procedures to attract younger generation and get their proper perceptions on the nuclear energy and waste problems. As the supporting analysis to implement strategically the public relational activities for JNC's geological disposal R and D, particular attention was focused on the educational materials obtained in the last year's survey. Representative educational materials were selected and following items were studied and summarized. (1) Basic approach, positioning and characteristics of the educational materials, (2) Detailed analysis of the representatively selected educational materials, (3) Comparison of the analyzed characteristics and study on its feedback to Japanese materials. (author)

  18. Site characterization field manual for near surface geologic disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCray, J.G.; Nowatzki, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    This field manual has been developed to aid states and regions to do a detailed characterization of a proposed near-surface low-level waste disposal site. The field manual is directed at planners, staff personnel and experts in one discipline to acquaint them with the requirements of other disciplines involved in site characterization. While it can provide a good review, it is not designed to tell experts how to do their job within their own discipline

  19. VERITAS: a Discovery-Class Venus Surface Geology and Geophysics Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony; Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Hensley, Scott; Wallace, Mark; Sotin, Christophe; Darrach, Murray; Xaypraseuth, Peter; Helbert, Joern; Mazarico, Erwan

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of solar system evolution is limited by a great unanswered question: How Earthlike is Venus? We know that these "twin" planets formed with similar bulk composition and size. Yet the evolutionary path Venus followed has diverged from Earth's, in losing its surface water and becoming hotter than Mercury. What led to this? The answer has profound implications for how terrestrial planets become habitable and the potential for life in the universe.

  20. Study on advanced systematic function of the JNC geological disposal technical information integration system. Research document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Yoshinao; Fukui, Hiroshi; Sagawa, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Kenichi; Ito Takaya

    2004-02-01

    In this study, while attaining systematization about the technical know-how mutually utilized between geology environmental field, disposal technology (design) field and safety assessment field, the share function of general information in which the formation of an information share and the use promotion between the technical information management databases built for every field were aimed at as an advancement of the function of JNC Geological Disposal Technical Information Integration System considered, and the system function for realizing considered in integration of technical information. (1) Since the concrete information about geology environment which is gradually updated with progress of stratum disposal research, or increases in reflected suitable for research of design and safety assessment. After arranging the form suitable for systematizing technical information, while arranging the technical information in both the fields of design and safety assessment with the form of two classes based on tasks/works, it systematized planning adjustment about delivery of technical information with geology environmental field. (2) In order to aim at integration of 3-fields technical information of geological disposal, based on the examination result of systematization of technical information, the function of mutual use of the information managed in two or more databases was considered. Moreover, while considering system functions, such as management of the use history of technical information, connection of information use, and a notice of common information, the system operation windows in consideration of the ease of operation was examined. (author)

  1. Geological study of Ujungwatu area as support for NPP planning in Muria Central Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srijono

    1995-01-01

    In accordance with growth of life in Java, the need for electricity is also growing accordingly. Efforts to provide electricity such as planning to build nuclear power plant (NPP) has been in the debate for a while. There are many factors to be considered in this planning, such as its environmental condition. Geological factor is one of the important one to be considered. Surface geological conditions around NPP area at Ujungwatu needed include stratigraphy, geological structure, geomorphology, and environmental geology. Geology in Ujungwatu at radius 5 km is quite interesting. This area is part of Genuk volcano group which is laid at south and Ujungwatu coast at north. Genuk mountain group is divided into mountain slope, mountain back, and mountain skeleton. Coastal area is composed of coast sand. Sand up to broken rock was present along river gullies. Others were volcanic rocks which was composed of lapili tuff, trachite, pyroxene andesite, tuff breccia, tephrite-andesitic tuff breccia, and basaltic tuff breccia. Volcanic structure is well reflected by morphological feature as lineaments and half circular form in mount Genuk. This structure was predominantly in NW-SE direction, and less dominant in NE-SW direction. Ujungwatu, from environmental view, is deserved to be developed because of its underground potency. Iron sand, fluvial tuff, kaolin, mud, riverstone, volcanic rock, tuff and marble were easily found underground. Those could be benefited to the people in the area so that it could change socio-economical condition of the people which in turn electricity is becoming a necessity. Last but not least, Portuguese fort as potential touristic object is also situated at Kartini beach near Ujungwatu. (author). 15 refs, 3 tabs, 5 figs

  2. Study of delayed behaviour of clays in deep geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, G.; Bazargan, B.; Ouvry, J.F.; Bouilleau, M.

    1993-01-01

    This study is a cost-sharing contract with the European Atomic Energy Community within the framework of Research and Development Program on Management, Storage and Radioactive Waste Disposal. The aim of the work presented in this report is to study the time-dependent behaviour of deep clays in Laboratory or in situ, by means of tests of similar geometry, in order to get easy comparisons and to study scale effect. The cylindrical geometry has been chosen as it resembles in situ works (tunnels, galleries) more closely. The first part of the study concerns a new test on hollow-cylinder. The experimental system, set up specially for this study, has allowed to conduct experiments in which 3 loading parameters may be controlled independently. Different types of experiments can therefore be conducted to study various aspects of mechanical behavior of rocks. A comprehensive experimental program was conducted in the particular case of Boom clay. In the second part of the report devoted to in situ creep or relaxation dilatometer tests, by using new techniques or loading paths, it was shown that time-dependent convergence of boreholes can reach significant values, and is dependent on the direction of the borehole. The anisotropy of the initial state of stress was also put in evidence. The proposed constitutive model (part III) appears to be very suitable to explain the behavior of the Boom clay, in view of the experimental results. In particular, the scale effect is low for Boom clay. 15 refs., 58 figs., 10 tabs

  3. Geologic and geochemical studies of the New Albany Shale Group (Devonian-Mississippian) in Illinois. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstrom, R.E.; Shimp, N.F.

    1980-06-30

    The Illinois State Geological Survey is conducting geological and geochemical investigations to evaluate the potential of New Albany Group shales as a source of hydrocarbons, particularly natural gas. Geological studies include stratigraphy and structure, mineralogic and petrographic characterization; analyses of physical properties; and development of a computer-based resources evaluation system. Geochemical studies include organic carbon content and trace elements; hydrocarbon content and composition; and adsorption/desorption studies of gas through shales. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each task reported.

  4. The study of the national context in support of planning geological disposal in Romania - 15232

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Prisecary, I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a risk management process was studied to assess the Romanian national context concerning the setting of a geological disposal of radioactive waste. A PESTEL analysis involving political, economical, social, technical, environmental and legal issues, has been performed to identify factors that could endanger the project. The analysis of a pessimistic scenario indicates the national context could delay the schedule of the siting and site licensing process by 17.5 years. The estimation of a maximum time of 38 years for this process was considered realistic since this value was met in the countries which were confronted with suspensions/reconsiderations of the siting process of a geological disposal facility

  5. What Motivates Introductory Geology Students to Study for an Exam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, Laura A.; McConnell, David A.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to understand why some students succeed and persist in STEM fields and others do not. While numerous studies have focused on the positive results of using empirically validated teaching methods in introductory science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) courses, little data has been collected about the student experience in…

  6. Introduction to thematic collection "Historical and geological studies of earthquakes"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Kenji; Wang, Jian; Hammerl, Christa; Malik, Javed N.

    2017-12-01

    This thematic collection contains eight papers mostly presented at the 2016 AOGS meeting in Beijing. Four papers describe historical earthquake studies in Europe, Japan, and China; one paper uses modern instrumental data to examine the effect of giant earthquakes on the seismicity rate; and three papers describe paleoseismological studies using tsunami deposit in Japan, marine terraces in Philippines, and active faults in Himalayas. Hammerl (Geosci Lett 4:7, 2017) introduced historical seismological studies in Austria, starting from methodology which is state of the art in most European countries, followed by a case study for an earthquake of July 17, 1670 in Tyrol. Albini and Rovida (Geosci Lett 3:30, 2016) examined 114 historical records for the earthquake on April 6, 1667 on the east coast of the Adriatic Sea, compiled 37 Macroseismic Data Points, and estimated the epicenter and the size of the earthquake. Matsu'ura (Geosci Lett 4:3, 2017) summarized historical earthquake studies in Japan which resulted in about 8700 Intensity Data Points, assigned epicenters for 214 earthquakes between AD 599 and 1872, and estimated focal depth and magnitudes for 134 events. Wang et al. (Geosci Lett 4:4, 2017) introduced historical seismology in China, where historical earthquake archives include about 15,000 sources, and parametric catalogs include about 1000 historical earthquakes between 2300 BC and AD 1911. Ishibe et al. (Geosci Lett 4:5, 2017) tested the Coulomb stress triggering hypothesis for three giant (M 9) earthquakes that occurred in recent years, and found that at least the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes caused the seismicity rate change. Ishimura (2017) re-estimated the ages of 11 tsunami deposits in the last 4000 years along the Sanriku coast of northern Japan and found that the average recurrence interval of those tsunamis as 350-390 years. Ramos et al. (2017) studied 1000-year-old marine terraces on the west coast of Luzon Island, Philippines

  7. Study on the migration of radionuclide through geological media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hun Hwee; Han, Kyung Won; Han, Pil Soo; Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owan; Park, Chung Kyun; Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Youn Myoung; Yang, Ho Yeon

    1987-05-01

    In Korea, Two disposal alternatives such as shallow land burial and rock cavern disposal of low- and intermediate- level waste are most applaudable options currently receiving attention. For each disposal method, Safety assessment is necessary to estimate the performance of a disposal system and to predict probable radiological consequences. In the present study, rock cavern disposal method is proposed as a most favorable alternative in view of Korean situation

  8. Pore-scale studies of multiphase flow and reaction involving CO2 sequestration in geologic formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Q.; Wang, M.; Lichtner, P. C.

    2008-12-01

    In geologic CO2 sequestration, pore-scale interfacial phenomena ultimately govern the key processes of fluid mobility, chemical transport, adsorption, and reaction. However, spatial heterogeneity at the pore scale cannot be resolved at the continuum scale, where averaging occurs over length scales much larger than typical pore sizes. Natural porous media, such as sedimentary rocks and other geological media encountered in subsurface formations, are inherently heterogeneous. This pore-scale heterogeneity can produce variabilities in flow, transport, and reaction processes that take place within a porous medium, and can result in spatial variations in fluid velocity, aqueous concentrations, and reaction rates. Consequently, the unresolved spatial heterogeneity at the pore scale may be important for reactive transport modeling at the larger scale. In addition, current continuum models of surface complexation reactions ignore a fundamental property of physical systems, namely conservation of charge. Therefore, to better understand multiphase flow and reaction involving CO2 sequestration in geologic formations, it is necessary to quantitatively investigate the influence of the pore-scale heterogeneity on the emergent behavior at the field scale. We have applied the lattice Boltzmann method to simulating the injection of CO2 saturated brine or supercritical CO2 into geological formations at the pore scale. Multiple pore-scale processes, including advection, diffusion, homogeneous reactions among multiple aqueous species, heterogeneous reactions between the aqueous solution and minerals, ion exchange and surface complexation, as well as changes in solid and pore geometry are all taken into account. The rich pore scale information will provide a basis for upscaling to the continuum scale.

  9. Loading technique for dynamic response studies of geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, R.I.; Forrestal, M.J.

    1979-04-01

    A loading technique to study the dynamic response of tuff was explored. Loading is provided by electrically exploding etched copper mesh patterns with current from a capacitor discharge. Pressure pulses with peak pressures up to 1.25 kbar and 0.10 to 0.20 ms durations were measured with a pressure bar. The upper value of peak pressure was limited by the strength of the experimental apparatus, and higher pressure generation is possible with a redesign of test hardware. 6 figures, 2 tables

  10. Geologic evaluation of six nonwelded tuff sites in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada for a surface-based test facility for the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxton, D.E.; Chipera, S.J.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Rautman, C.A.

    1993-10-01

    Outcrops of nonwelded tuff at six locations in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, were examined to determine their suitability for hosting a surface-based test facility for the Yucca Mountain Project. Investigators will use this facility to test equipment and procedures for the Exploratory Studies Facility and to conduct site characterization field experiments. The outcrops investigated contain rocks that include or are similar to the tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills, an important geologic and hydrologic barrier between the potential repository and the water table. The tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills at the site of the potential repository consist of both vitric and zeolitic tuffs, thus three of the outcrops examined are vitric tuffs and three are zeolitic tuffs. New data were collected to determine the lithology, chemistry, mineralogy, and modal petrography of the outcrops. Some preliminary data on hydrologic properties are also presented. Evaluation of suitability of the six sites is based on a comparison of their geologic characteristics to those found in the tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills within the exploration block

  11. Geological Study and Regional Development of Mamberamo Raya Disctrict of Papua Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonggiroh, Adi; Asri Jaya, HS; Ria Irfan, Ulva

    2018-02-01

    The goverment of Mamberamo Raya district was established through Act No. 19 of 2007 dated 15 March 2007 as part of the administrative area of Papua Province. The administrative age of this district is relatively young requires hard work of all components in facing development challenges so that necessary strategic steps of vision and mission of regional development to achieve ideal conditions of spatial which as direction of the desired embodiment in the future. Regional development covers all technical aspects including the geological aspect that the area is located on the morphology of the mountains and Mamberamo watershed. Strategic steps require policy as an action to achieve the goal with the elaboration of operational steps to realize the welfare of peoples equally and sustainably according to the potential physiogeography of Mamberamo watershed. The geological aspect as the consideration of technical that this region belongs to the regional tectonic which is divided into the difference of fault in the north there is Yapen fault and in the south is Mamberamo-Gauttier Fault and also a consideration on the stratigraphic structure of various rock types including the dominance of sedimentary rocks. This study examines geological aspects as an element of earth science in spatial planning in Mamberamo district, especially Kasonaweja and Burmeso. The analysis is presented based on field data, in the form of geographical map data of geological structure, geological map, and earthquake data described by cluster pattern indicating regional motion relationship and rock characteristics that make up Mamberamo watershed. It finds land characteristics controlled by geological structures, rock arrangements and landforms in response to landslide, flood and seismic changes.

  12. Ascertaining Grain Scale Effects Of Seismic Or Aseismic Stimulation Upon Strength Of Near Surface Geological Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Hassan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Certain peculiarities of inelastic nonlinearity of unconsolidated near surface periodically stressed granular media contributed at micro- scale are investigated to ascertain possible anomalous time dependent strength behavior macro-effects with geotechnicalgeo-environmental implications. Comparative examination of ultrasonic P- and S-wave repeatable displacement response wave-forms in time records and spectra of pulse stimulated both confined dry and fully saturated ceramic grains analogue endorsable by pertinent theory is performed. Examination is primarily aimed at both understanding connectivity of louder response generated by seemingly unobtrusive quieter seismic and aseismic events in granular sediments. Secondarily results impart an enhanced conceptual substantiation of some previously disseminated andor published results. The results hint certain persistive time and frequency restricted occurrences vouching vital insights. It could be unambiguously clarified that subtle acoustic emission andor stick-slip type micro events in stimulated i.e. seismic or aseismic unconsolidated granular sediments do occur. When spread over time andor space their cumulated effect may be capable of altering granular material macro strength behavior. It is clearly deducible from resonant type spectral results that material fragmentation or force chain formation type phenomenon occurs possibly due to macro-scale friction mobilization by grain-scale events. It is further speculated that invisible high frequency events may irreversibly alter grain-scale surface properties andor intergranular friction as pseudo enhanced elasticity type effect more elusive with saturation. An assessment of an examined temporal distribution of grain-scale stick-slip type events when stimulated by P- and S-wave modes is posited to be non-identical. The former as if is retardation associated while the latter relaxation type in a characteristic sense. Presented result forms combined not

  13. Ion beam studies in the field of arts, archaeology and geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elekes, Z.; Uzonyi, I.; Rajta, I.; Kiss, A.Z.; Gratuze, B.; Bugoi, R.; Constantinescu, B.; Sasianu, A.; Torbagyi, M.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Obsidian [1]. The natural volcanic glass material means a great interest both in archaeometry and in geology. It was important trade item for prehistoric people as a raw material of many kind of artefact. From the geological point of view different type of obsidian melts are sensitive geochemical indictors for Earth processes. The accurate determination of elemental constituents of obsidians in both research fields is important. Based on the light element concentration data measured by Proton Induced Gamma-Ray-Emission (PIGE) method a distinction among samples resulted via various magmatic processes with diverse provenances is achieved. This was made possible by exploiting the excellent characteristics of our Clover-Ge-BGO detector system [2]. Using this instrument the determination of the concentration of lithium, an important trace element, became available. A comparison with the analysis of heavier elements carried out by Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) technique is done. Dyrrhachium Silver Coins [3]. Analytical characterization of ancient silver coins (drachmas) issued by the Greek city Dyrrhachium 68-43 years BC was carried out by micro-PIXE method. Out of a 153 pieces Dyrrhachium drachma collection of the Coin Cabinet of the Hungarian National Museum 27 ones were analysed including four ancient imitations. The aim of this investigation was to involve the Hungarian artefacts into a comprehensive and systematic study of the coin-hoards discovered in the neighbourhood of Hungary (e.g. in Romania) in the framework of an international collaboration (COST G1). For the Hungarian and Romanian coins the same extent of degradation of the fineness of silver was observed (Ag = 92%) comparing to the ones minted in the second century BC. Sn proved to be a characteristic element for imitations (Sn = 1%). Another new result is that iron x-ray peaks are localized into <20 μm regions, i.e. iron is

  14. Destination: Geology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  15. Geological Hazards analysis in Urban Tunneling by EPB Machine (Case study: Tehran subway line 7 tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Bakhshandeh Amnieh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Technological progress in tunneling has led to modern and efficient tunneling methods in vast underground spaces even under inappropriate geological conditions. Identification and access to appropriate and sufficient geological hazard data are key elements to successful construction of underground structures. Choice of the method, excavation machine, and prediction of suitable solutions to overcome undesirable conditions depend on geological studies and hazard analysis. Identifying and investigating the ground hazards in excavating urban tunnels by an EPB machine could augment the strategy for improving soil conditions during excavation operations. In this paper, challenges such as geological hazards, abrasion of the machine cutting tools, clogging around these tools and inside the chamber, diverse work front, severe water level fluctuations, existence of water, and fine-grained particles in the route were recognized in a study of Tehran subway line 7, for which solutions such as low speed boring, regular cutter head checks, application of soil improving agents, and appropriate grouting were presented and discussed. Due to the presence of fine particles in the route, foam employment was suggested as the optimum strategy where no filler is needed.

  16. Influence of the geologic and geomorphologic characteristics and of crab burrows on the interrelation between surface water and groundwater in an estuarine coastal wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol, Eleonora S.; Kruse, Eduardo E.; Pousa, Jorge L.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryThe interrelation between surface water and groundwater in intertidal flats is often studied through mathematical models. In many cases these models need to be supported by an integral analysis of the geologic, geomorphologic, hydrologic and biological characteristics of the environment that are to be obtained from field surveys. The marshy environment of the River Ajo in the Samborombon Bay wetland, Argentina, is a typical example of an estuarine coastal zone. Geologic and geomorphologic surveys were carried out, as well as measurements of surface water and groundwater level changes as a response of the aquifer to tidal forcing. The banks of the River Ajo are either scarped with storm flats, or mildly sloped with intertidal flats and numerous crab burrows. Sediments are mainly silty-clayey with low permeability, and lie over silty-sandy layers. At the erosion scarps the tidal wave enters the aquifer as a sub-horizontal flow through the pore space of the sediments. The tidal range in the aquifer depends on the lithological characteristics of the sediments and on the side changes of their hydraulic conductivity. The rise of the water table at high water and its subsequent fall are nearly sinusoidal, with a period similar to that of the tide at the river. At the intertidal flats, instead, the tidal wave enters the aquifer mainly as a sub-vertical flow through the crab burrows. As the crab burrows are not interconnected, they are not distinct pathways for preferential flow. Therefore, the groundwater flux into the river is very slow during low water, and the recovery of the water table takes a long time. The tidal influence upon the water table on both kinds of banks affects only a narrow strip of the aquifer. Not only are the characteristics of the marshy environment of the River Ajo representative of most of the Samborombon Bay wetland; they can also be extended to other similar coastal wetlands to help preserve these invaluable environments.

  17. Study geology and uranium mineralization of ririt-amir engkala - tiga dara sector West Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang Soetopo

    2009-01-01

    The results of previous research from Ririt, Amir Engkala, Tiga Dara sector which consist of geology, geophysics and drilling data show that all of the areas has similar in geology and Uranium mineralization. The purpose of this study is to know the relationship between geological condition and Uranium mineralization in Ririt, Amir Engkala and Tiga Dara sector. In general the geology of Ririt and Amir Engkala is similar with Tiga Dara sector. Those areas consist of tourmaline quartzite, muscovite quartzite, meta ignimbrite, biotite quartz schist, muscovite quartz schist, and micro diorite. The direction of the stratification is NE - SW and dipping to SE and the direction of the stochasticity is W - E and dipping to N. The dextral faults have WNW-ESE and NNE - SSW trends, while the sinistral one is WSW - ENE direction. There are also a thrust fault and a normal fault with WSW-ESE and NW-SE striking respectively. Uranium mineralization as a uraninite fill in the stochasticity and fracture N2600-30° E37°-59° in orientation which associated with magnetite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite,. rutile, ilmenite, tourmaline and quartz. Radiometric value of Uranium mineralization is in the range of 500-15.000 c/s. The mineral association and the present of calcite, gypsum and quartz veins suggest that Uranium mineralization was resulted by hydrothermal magmatic processes. (author)

  18. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  19. Hydrography, Surface Geology and Geomorphology of the Deep Water Sedimentary Basins to the West of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, N. J.

    1997-01-01

    This desk study involved the assembly, review and analysis of public domain and available data from an extensive deep water area offshore to the west of Ireland. All major bathymetric and sedimentary basins, in addition to associated shallow plateau and bank areas, were considered. Particular emphasis was placed on the Porcupine Seabight and Rockall Trough as these were considered to be the main areas of interest for the proposed 1996 AIRS (Atlantic Irish Regional Survey) project. Only relati...

  20. Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey on sources, transport, and fate of agricultural chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, Paul D.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Erwin, Martha L.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program is assessing the sources, transport, and fate of chemicals applied to crops in agricultural basins across the Nation (referred to as "study units," see map). Chemicals selected for study include nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and about 50 commonly used pesticides and their transformation products, including triazine and acetanilide herbicides such as atrazine and metolachlor, and organophosphorus insecticides such as chlorpyrifos and diazinon.

  1. Bibliography of U.S. Geological Survey studies of lakes and reservoirs; the first 100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Thomas C.

    1982-01-01

    For more than 100 years, the U.S. Geological Survey has pursued its mission of assessing and mapping the earth resources of the United States, including assessment of the Nation's water resources. Although the Survey has never been a water-management or development agency, it has assisted agencies that are responsible for such developments, and commonly provides data and information for such purposes. Because reservoirs are an intergral part of most water-development projects, the Survey has been involved in reservoir-related studies since the 1880's. The largest and longest involvement has centered on providing information on streamflows and sediment transport related to existing and proposed reservoirs. During the late 1940's, the Survey greatly expanded its activities in evaporation research. More recently, ground water, including bank storage, has gained increased attention. Most of these studies were related primarily to questions of water quantity, and the Survey continues to be involved in studies of physical hydrology. In addition, in response to the increased concern with environmental quality during the past 20 years, the number of Survey studies of the chemical and biological aspects of lakes and reservoirs have increased considerably. Prompted by the recent Centennial (1879-1979) of the U.S. Geological Survey, it is appropriate to assess the Survey's contributions to the hydrology of lakes and reservoirs. Both natural lakes and manmade reservoirs are included in this report. 1 This report includes studies in which lakes or reservoirs are the principal topics. It does not include reports of general water resources of an area in which lakes are discussed as part of that area. This report also does not include data reports in which the data are merely tabulated. The types of reports listed herein include studies of existing or proposed water bodies and associated fluxes of water to and from these water bodies. This report does not include geological or

  2. Surficial geology of Mars: A study in support of a penetrator mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spudis, P.; Greeley, R.

    1976-01-01

    Physiographic and surficial cover information were combined into unified surficial geology maps (30 quadrangles and 1 synoptic map). The surface of Mars is heterogeneous and is modified by wind, water, volcanism, tectonism, mass wasting and other processes. Surficial mapping identifies areas modified by these processes on a regional basis. Viking I mission results indicate that, at least in the landing site area, the surficial mapping based on Mariner data is fairly accurate. This area was mapped as a lightly cratered plain with thin or discontinuous eolian sediment. Analysis of lander images indicates that this interpretation is very close to actual surface conditions. These initial results do not imply that all surficial units are mapped correctly, but they do increase confidence in estimates based on photogeologic interpretations of orbital pictures.

  3. Study concerning the geological storage of radioactive waste in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    This report presents an intermediate state of affairs in the execution of the first stage of the program of research concerning the geological storage of nuclear waste in the Netherlands (OPLA-program). This first stage consists of desk studies and laboratory investigations in view of the judgement of the desirability of continuation of this program in eventual next steps with field research. 19 refs.; 11 figs.; 1 table

  4. Geologic and radiometric study of the Santa Rosalia area, Arizpe Department, Sonora Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez M, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of the radiometrical anomaly, discovered in the Santa Rosalia area, Arizpe Department, Sonota, is defined in this study through topographical and geological surveying of the area by the outline and systematical survey of rocks for sampling and registration of the radioactivity. Two radioactive anomalies were defined and called IIIA and IIIB, identifying the existence of secondary uranium minerals (Torbernite) in the IIIB anomaly. According to the results of the work which was carried out we can't deduce that both localities present signs of the existence of important uranium concentrations. We can conclude that the presence of uranium minerals obliges us to realize a more detailed exploration, suggesting the opening of little excavations and ditches and stretching out of the geochemical, geological and radiometrical exploration to adjacent areas. (author)

  5. Field Geology/Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  6. Experimental methodology to study radionuclide sorption and migration in geological formations and engineered barriers of waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo Sanz, H.

    2010-01-01

    In Spain, the waste management options include either the possibility of a final storage in a deep geological repository (DGR) or the centralized temporal surface disposal (CTS). DGRs are based in a multi-barrier concept with the geological barrier and including the vitrified waste, the metal containers and engineered barriers such as compacted bentonite and cement-based materials. On the other hand, CTS mainly considers concrete and cement to confine the metal canisters containing the waste. Radionuclide migration will mainly take place by the existence of chemical concentration gradients being thus diffusion the main transport mechanism or by the existence of hydraulic gradients due to the existence of water-conductive fractures. Radionuclide sorption/retention on the materials composing the natural and engineered barriers is the fundamental process controlling contaminant migration. The evaluation of sorption parameters and the understanding of the different mechanisms leading to radionuclide retention are very important issues. The study of diffusion processes is very relevant as well. This paper describes the main experimental methodologies applied to analyse radionuclide transport in the different barriers of radioactive repositories. Particularly we focused on obtaining of retention parameters as distribution coefficients, kd, or retardation factors, Rf, and diffusion coefficients of radionuclides. (Author) 6 refs.

  7. Integrated geophysical survey for the geological structural and hydrogeothermal study of the North-western Gargano promontory (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schiavone

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A multimethodological geophysical survey was performed in the north-western part of the Gargano promontory to study the geological structural setting and the underground fluid flow characteristics. The area has a complex tectonics with some magmatic outcrops and shallow low-enthalpy waters. Electrical, seismic reflection, gravimetric and magnetic surveys were carried out to reconstruct the geological structures; and in order to delineate the hydrogeothermal characteristics of the area, the self-potential survey was mainly used. Moreover magnetic and self-potential measurements were also performed in the Lesina lake. The joint three-dimensional interpretation of the geophysical data disclosed a large horst and graben structure covering a large part of the area. In the central part of the horst a large ramified volcanic body was modelled. The models show some intrusions rising from it to or near to the surface. The main structures are well deep-seated in the Crust and along them deep warm fluids rise as the SP data interpretation indicates.

  8. Study of (U,Pu)O2 spent fuel matrix alteration under geological disposal conditions: Experimental approach and geochemical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odorowski, Melina

    2015-01-01

    To assess the performance of direct disposal of spent fuel in a nuclear waste repository, researches are performed on the long-term behavior of spent fuel (UO x and MO x ) under environmental conditions close to those of the French disposal site. The objective of this study is to determine whether the geochemistry of the Callovian-Oxfordian (CO x ) clay geological formation and the steel overpack corrosion (producing iron and hydrogen) have an impact on the oxidative dissolution of the (U,Pu)O 2 matrix under alpha radiolysis of water. Leaching experiments have been performed with UO 2 pellets doped with alpha emitters (Pu) and MIMAS MO x fuel (un-irradiated or spent fuel) to study the effect of the CO x groundwater and of the presence of metallic iron upon the oxidative dissolution of these materials induced by the radiolysis of water. Results indicate an inhibiting effect of the CO x water on the oxidative dissolution. In the presence of iron, two different behaviors are observed. Under alpha irradiation as the one expected in the geological disposal, the alteration of UO 2 matrix and MO x fuel is very strongly inhibited because of the consumption of radiolytic oxidative species by iron in solution leading to the precipitation of Fe(III)-hydroxides on the pellets surface. On the contrary, under a strong beta/gamma irradiation field, alteration tracers indicate that the oxidative dissolution goes on and that uranium concentration in solution is controlled by the solubility of UO 2 (am,hyd). This is explained by the shifting of the redox front from the fuel surface to the bulk solution not protecting the fuel anymore. The developed geochemical (CHESS) and reactive transport (HYTEC) models correctly represent the main results and occurring mechanisms. (author) [fr

  9. Final inform of the studies carried out by the Geological Institute of Uruguay in the zone of Paso Severino of Santa Lucia small river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    This inform is about the geological conditions study carried out in Paso Severino zone of the Santa Lucia small river to make a dam to provide water to Montevideo. The techniques used were photo interpretation and general geological studies.

  10. Active fault and other geological studies for seismic assessment: present state and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakimi, Toshihiro [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Evaluation system of earthquakes from an active fault is, in Japan, based on the characteristic earthquake model of a wide sense that postulates essentially the same (nearly the maximum) magnitude and recurrence interval during the recent geological times. Earthquake magnitude M is estimated by empirical relations among M, surface rupture length L, and surface fault displacement D per event of the earthquake faults on land in Japan. Recurrence interval R of faulting/earthquake is calculated from D and the long-term slip rate S of a fault as R=D/S. Grouping or segmentation of complicatedly distributed faults is an important, but difficult problem in order to distinguish a seismogenic fault unit corresponding to an individual characteristic earthquake. If the time t of the latest event is obtained, the `cautiousness` of a fault can be judged from R-t or t/R. According to this idea, several faults whose t/R exceed 0.5 have been designated as the `precaution faults` having higher probability of earthquake occurrence than the others. A part of above evaluation has been introduced at first into the seismic-safety examination system of NPPs in 1978. According to the progress of research on active faults, the weight of interest in respect to the seismic hazard assessment shifted gradually from the historic data to the fault data. Most of recent seismic hazard maps have been prepared in consideration with active faults on land in Japan. Since the occurrence of the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, social attention has been concentrated upon the seismic hazard due to active faults, because this event was generated from a well-known active fault zone that had been warned as a `precaution fault`. In this paper, a few recent topics on other geological and geotechnical researches aiming at improving the seismic safety of NPPs in Japan were also introduced. (J.P.N.)

  11. Study of heat diffusion in a granitic geologic formation of high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, S.; Juignet, N.

    1980-06-01

    Thermal study of granitic underground storage of vitrified high level radioactive wastes in a regular network of shafts and galleries. The aim is to show influence on temperature rise of the geologic formation of main parameters to define the storage zone and to determine the network dimension in function of the rock properties. Two models were studied allowing a rapid variation of geometrical and physical parameters. A numerical method using finite element method or Green functions were used for calculations. Temperatures are determined either for the whole storage site or a unit cell of the lattice [fr

  12. Prototype of Web-based Geological Data Sharing System using Free and Open Source Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, S.; Masumoto, S.; Nemoto, T.

    2017-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) geological data, such as geological maps and geological cross-sections, have been shared to the public on the Web, due to its importance in understanding subsurface geological conditions. However, ordinary people cannot figure out subsurface geological conditions only from these 2D data. The purpose of this study is to share various types of geological data to the public in easy-to-understand style on the Web. For this purpose, we developed a prototype of web-based geological data sharing system using free and open source software. As a result, the developed system allows the users (1) to map locations of borehole logs with a geological map, (2) to search database for borehole logs by keywords, (3) to browse a surface-based geological model within arbitrary range, and (4) to generate a geological cross-section along arbitrary lines. The geological map and surface-based geological model have been constructed based on borehole logs beforehand. The geological cross-section can be generated from the surface-based geological model on-demand. In this system, all functions can be performed through a Web browser. In addition, a distribution of borehole logs and the surface-based geological model can be visualized in three-dimension (3D). The 3D visualization of geological data on the Web assists users in understanding subsurface geological conditions quickly and correctly with or without previous knowledge of geology. In conclusion, the developed system contributes to create better environments for promoting utilization of geological data. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP16K21677.

  13. Iowa Bedrock Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The bedrock geologic map portrays the current interpretation of the distribution of various bedrock stratigraphic units present at the bedrock surface. The bedrock...

  14. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories: Annual report, fiscal year 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This multidisciplinary project was initiated in fiscal year 1986. It comprises 11 reports in two major interrelated tasks: The technical assistance part of the project includes reviewing the progress of the major projects in the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive waste Management (OCRWM) Program and advising the Engineering and Geotechnology Division on significant technical issues facing each project; analyzing geotechnical data, reports, tests, surveys and plans for the different projects; reviewing and commenting on major technical reports and other program documents such as Site Characterization Plans (SCP) and Study Plans; and providing scientific and technical input at technical meetings. The topical studies activity comprises studies on scientific and technical ions and issues of significance to in-situ testing, test analysis methods, and site characterization of nuclear waste geologic repositories. The subjects of study were selected based on discussions with DOE staff. One minor topic is a preliminary consideration and planning exercise for postclosure monitoring studies. The major task, with subtasks involving various geoscience disciplines, is a study of the mechanical, hydraulic, geophysical and geochemical properties of fractures in geologic rock masses

  15. Feasibility studies for alpha waste disposal on geological formations in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaouen, C.; Boulanger, A.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1977, SGN has been involved in many feasibility studies and consultant works in the fields of HLW storages. Starting as nuclear consultant company in the KBS review of the long term storage of HLW, SGN and GEOSTOCK were entrusted in 1978 by the EEC for the basic design and evaluation of the deep storage into granite rock of HLW, followed by a participation in the thermal sensitivity study of such a storage. The cooperation with GEOSTOCK was first extended in 1981 to a preliminary study of HLW storage conditions in granite for a Japanese company, and then in France for several feasibility studies of HLW and TRU waste geological disposal. Three kinds of scenarios have been forecasted and evaluated in the case of vitrified HLW storage, allowing the thermal power to be decreased and the whole management scheme to be optimized. More recently, SGN participation to French engineering studies has been extended by ANDRA to the TRU waste repository evaluation. All these works for French authorities have been performed in a close connection with several specialized departments in the CEA group, and with the help of geological specialists, under the leadership of ANDRA [fr

  16. Feasibility studies for alpha waste disposal on geological formations in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaouen, C.; Boulanger, A.

    1985-01-01

    Since 1977, SGN has been involved in many feasibility studies and consultant works in the fields of HLW storages. Starting as nuclear consultant company in the KBS review of the long term storage of HLW, SGN and Geostock were entrusted in 1978 by the EEC for the basic design and evaluation of the deep storage into granite rock of HLW, followed by a participation in the thermal sensitivity study of such a storage. The cooperation with Geostock was first extended in 1981 to a preliminary study of HLW storage conditions in granite for a Japanese company, and then in France for several feasibility studies of HLW and TRU waste geological disposal. Three kinds of scenarios have been forecasted and evaluated in the case of vitrified HLW storage, allowing the thermal power to be decreased and the whole management scheme to be optimized. More recently, SGN participation to French engineering studies has been extended by ANDRA to the TRU waste repository evaluation. All these works for French authorities have been performed in a close connection with several specialized departments in the CEA group, and with the help of geological specialists, under the leadership of ANDRA [fr

  17. Data base dictionary for the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study Groundwater Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, B.K.

    1993-04-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study (ORRHAGS) Groundwater Data Base has been compiled to consolidate groundwater data from the three US Department of Energy facilities located on the Oak Ridge Reservation: the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Each of these facilities maintains its own groundwater and well construction data bases. Data were extracted from the existing data bases, converted to a consistent format, and integrated into the ORRHAGS Groundwater Data Base structures. This data base dictionary describes the data contained in the ORRHAGS Groundwater Data Base and contains information on data base structure, conventions, contents, and use.

  18. Intercomparison NaI(Tl) and HPGe spectrometry to studies of natural radioactivity on geological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen Quoc; Chuong, Huynh Dinh; Vuong, Le Quang; Thanh, Tran Thien; Tao, Chau Van

    2016-11-01

    In this study, in situ gamma spectra using NaI(Tl) detector have been compared with the laboratory measurements by using HPGe detector on geological samples. The results for measuring naturally occurring terrestrial gamma radiation of 4 0 K and the decay series of 232 Th and, 238 U respectively of both detectors show a maximum deviation about 5%. The mass activities series from both detectors were checked for coherence using proficiency test procedure from the International Atomic Energy Agency. The reliability and precision pass for final scores for all the analytical determinations of are received "acceptable" for all radionuclides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of geologic-structural situation around Semipalatinsk test site test - holes using space images automated decoding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunova, Eh.M.; Ivanchenko, G.N.

    2004-01-01

    Performance of underground nuclear explosions (UNE) leads to irreversible changes in geological environment around the boreholes. In natural environment it was detected inhomogeneity of rock massif condition changes, which depended on characteristics of the underground nuclear explosion, anisotropy of medium and presence of faulting. Application of automated selection and statistic analysis of unstretched lineaments in high resolution space images using special software pack LESSA allows specifying the geologic-structural features of Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), ranging selected fracture zones, outlining and analyzing post-explosion zone surface deformations. (author)

  20. Geology Before Pluto: Pre-encounter Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Pluto, its large satellite Charon, and its four small known satellites represent the first trans-Neptunian Kuiper Belt objects populating the outer-most solar system beyond the gas giant planets to be studied in detail from a spacecraft (New Horizons). A complete picture of the solar nebula and solar system formation cannot be confidently formulated until representatives of this group of bodies at the edge of solar space have been examined. The Pluto system is composed of unique, lunar- and intermediate-sized objects that can tell us much about how objects with volatile icy compositions evolve. Modeling of the interior suggests that geologic activity may have been significant to some degree, and observations of frost on the surface could imply the need for a geologic reservoir for the replenishment of these phases. However, these putative indicators of Pluto's geologic history are inconclusive and unspecific. Detailed examination of Pluto's geologic record is the only plausible means of bridging the gap between theory and observation. In this talk I will examine the potential importance of these tentative indications of geologic activity and how specific spacecraft observations have been designed and used to constrain the Pluto system's geologic history. The cameras of New Horizons will provide robust data sets that should be immanently amenable to geological analysis of the Pluto system's landscapes. In this talk, we begin with a brief discussion of the planned observations by the New Horizons cameras that will bear most directly on geological interpretability. Then I will broadly review major geological processes that could potentially operate on the surfaces of Pluto and its moons. I will first survey exogenic processes (i.e., those for which energy for surface modification is supplied externally to the planetary surface): impact cratering, sedimentary processes (including volatile migration), and the work of wind. I will conclude with an assessment of the

  1. Geology Before Pluto: Pre-Encounter Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Pluto, its large satellite Charon, and its four known satellites represent the first trans-Neptunian Kuiper Belt objects populating the outer-most solar system beyond the gas giant planets to be studied in detail from a spacecraft (New Horizons). A complete picture of the solar nebula, and solar system formation cannot be confidently formulated until representatives of this group of bodies at the edge of solar space have been examined. The Pluto system is composed of unique lunar- and intermediate-sized objects that can tell us much about how objects with volatile icy compositions evolve. Modeling of the interior suggests that geologic activity may have been to some degree, and observations of frost on the surface could imply the need for a geologic reservoir for the replenishment of these phases. However, the putative indicators of Pluto's geologic history are inconclusive and unspecific. Detailed examination of Pluto's geologic record is the only plausible means of bridging the gap between theory and observations. In this talk I will examine the potential importance of these tentative indications of geologic activity and how specific spacecraft observations have been designed and used to constrain the Pluto system's geologic history. The cameras of New Horizons will provide robust data sets that should be immanently amenable to geological analysis of the Pluto System's landscapes. In this talk, we begin with a brief discussion of the planned observations by New Horizons' cameras that will bear most directly on geological interpretability. Then I will broadly review major geological processes that could potentially operate of the surfaces of Pluto and its moons. I will first survey exogenic processes (i.e., those for which energy for surface modification is supplied externally to the planetary surface): impact cratering, sedimentary processes (including volatile migration) and the work of wind. I will conclude with an assessment of prospects for endogenic activity

  2. Using improved technology for widespread application of a geological carbon sequestration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Kansas Geological Survey is part of an ongoing collaboration between DOE-NETL, academia, and the petroleum industry to investigate the feasibility of carbon utilization and storage in Kansas. Latest findings in the 25,000 mi2 study area in southern Kansas estimate CO2 storage capacity ranges from 8.8 to 75.5 billion metric tons in a deep Lower Orodovican-age Arbuckle saline aquifer. In addition, an estimated 100 million tonnes of CO2 could be used for extracting additional oil from Kansas' fields, making transitions to carbon management economic. This partnership has a rare opportunity to synchronize abundant, yet previously disseminated knowledge into a cohesive scientific process to optimize sequestration site selection and implementation strategies. Following a thorough characterization, a small-scale CO2 injection of 70,000 tonnes will be implemented in Wellington Field in Sumner County, including a five-plot miscible CO2-EOR flood of a Mississippian reservoir followed by the underlying Arbuckle saline aquifer. Best practices and lessons learned from the field study will improve estimates on CO2 storage capacity, plume migration models, and identify potential leakage pathways to pursue safe and effective geological carbon sequestration at commercial scales. A highly accessible and multifunctional online database is being developed throughout the study that integrates all acquired geological, physical, chemical, and hydrogeologic knowledge. This public database incorporates tens of thousands of data points into easily viewable formats for user downloads. An Interactive Project Map Viewer is a key mechanism to present the scientific research, and will delineate compartment candidates and reservoirs matching reference criteria or user defined attributes. This tool uses a familiar pan and zoom interface to filter regional project data or scale down to detailed digitized information from over 3,300 carefully selected preexisting Kansas wells. A Java-based log

  3. Geological remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Charlotte; Rivard, Benoit; de Souza Filho, Carlos; van der Meer, Freek

    2018-02-01

    Geology is defined as the 'study of the planet Earth - the materials of which it is made, the processes that act on these materials, the products formed, and the history of the planet and its life forms since its origin' (Bates and Jackson, 1976). Remote sensing has seen a number of variable definitions such as those by Sabins and Lillesand and Kiefer in their respective textbooks (Sabins, 1996; Lillesand and Kiefer, 2000). Floyd Sabins (Sabins, 1996) defined it as 'the science of acquiring, processing and interpreting images that record the interaction between electromagnetic energy and matter' while Lillesand and Kiefer (Lillesand and Kiefer, 2000) defined it as 'the science and art of obtaining information about an object, area, or phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired by a device that is not in contact with the object, area, or phenomenon under investigation'. Thus Geological Remote Sensing can be considered the study of, not just Earth given the breadth of work undertaken in planetary science, geological features and surfaces and their interaction with the electromagnetic spectrum using technology that is not in direct contact with the features of interest.

  4. Hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell: Application to studies of geologic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming

    2003-01-01

    The hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC) was designed to simulate the geologic conditions of crustal processes in the presence of water or other fluids. The HDAC has been used to apply external pressure to both synthetic and natural fluid inclusions in quartz to minimize problems caused by stretching or decrepitation of inclusions during microthermometric analysis. When the HDAC is loaded with a fluid sample, it can be considered as a large synthetic fluid inclusion and therefore, can be used to study the PVTX properties as well as phase relations of the sample fluid. Because the HDAC has a wide measurement pressure-temperature range and also allows in-situ optical observations, it has been used to study critical phenomena of various chemical systems, such as the geologically important hydrous silicate melts. It is possible, when the HDAC is combined with synchrotron X-ray sources, to obtain basic information on speciation and structure of metal including rare-earth elements (REE) complexes in hydrothermal solutions as revealed by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra. Recent modifications of the HDAC minimize the loss of intensity of X-rays due to scattering and absorption by the diamonds. These modifications are especially important for studying elements with absorption edges below 10 keV and therefore particularly valuable for our understanding of transport and deposition of first-row transition elements and REE in hydrothermal environments.

  5. Geology and geohydrology of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle. Report on the progress of nuclear waste isolation feasibility studies, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, S.P.; Finley, R.J.; Galloway, W.E.; Gustavson, T.C.; Handford, C.R.; Presley, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    Early in 1977 the Bureau of Economic Geology was invited to assemble and evaluate geologic data on several salt-bearing basins within the State of Texas as a contribution to the national nuclear repository program. In response to this request, the Bureau, acting as a technical research unit of the University of Texas at Austin and the State of Texas, initiated a long-term program to assemble and interpret all geologic and hydrologic information necessary for delineation, description, and evaluation of salt-bearing strata in the Panhandle area. The technical program can be subdivided into three broad research tasks, which are addressed by a basin analysis group, a surface studies group, and a basin geohydrology group. The basin analysis group has assembled the regional stratigraphic and structural framework of the total basin fill, initiated evaluation of natural resources, and selected stratigraphic core sites for sampling the salt and associated beds. Two drilling sites have provided nearly 8000 feet (2400 m) of core material for analysis and testing of the various lithologies overlying and interbedded with salt units. Concurrently, the surface studies group has collected ground and remotely-sensed data to describe surficial processes, including carbonate and evaporate solution, geomorphic evolution, and fracture system development. The newly formed basin geohydrology group will evaluate both shallow and deep circulation of fluids within the basins. This paper, a summary report of progress, reviews principal conclusions and illustrates the methodologies used and the types of data and displays generated

  6. Spectral and morphological properties of various geological types of Titan’s surface with Cassini VIMS and RADAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonidou, Anezina; Coustenis, Athena; Lopes, Rosaly M.; Hirtzig, Mathieu; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Malaska, Michael; Drossart, Pierre; Sotin, Christophe; Bratsolis, Emmanuel; Matsoukas, Chris; Brown, Robert; Maltagliati, Luca

    2015-08-01

    Cassini’s VIMS and the RADAR have been investigating Titan’s surface since 2004. Both instruments unveiled the dynamic and complex surface expressions of this Saturnian moon, suggesting exogenic and endogenic processes [1;2;3]. In order to evaluate the atmospheric contribution and thereafter extract surface information, a Radiative transfer code is used to analyse different regions and to monitor their spectral behaviour over time [4;5;7]. We furthermore use RADAR despeckled SAR images to infer information on the morphology [6]. We find that temporal variations of surface albedo occur for some areas, but that their origin may differ from one region to the other. Tui Regio and Sotra Patera change with time becoming darker and brighter respectively in terms of surface albedo. In contrast, we find that the undifferentiated plains and the suggested evaporitic areas in the equatorial regions do not present any significant change [5]. This observation supports the hypothesis that Titan is surface brightening of Sotra supports a possible internal rather than an exogenic origin. This observation supports the hypothesis that Titan is a cryovolcanic world due to the presence of local complex volcanic-like geomorphology [1] and indications of surface albedo changes [4,5]. Potential sources of the energy for cryovolcanism include tidal heating, possible internal convection, and ice tectonics, is believed to be a pre-requisite of a habitable planetary body as it allows the recycling of minerals and potential nutrients and provides localized energy sources. A recent study has shown that tidal forces are a constant and significant source of internal deformation on Titan and the interior liquid water ocean can be relatively warm for reasonable amounts of ammonia concentrations [8].[1] Lopes, R.M.C., et al. JGR, 118, 2013 [2] Solomonidou, A., et al. PSS, 70, 2013 [3] Moore, J.M. GRL, 37, 2010 [4] Solomonidou, A., et al. JGR, 119, 2014 [5] Solomonidou, A., et al. submitted [6

  7. High-level waste canister corrosion studies pertinent to geologic isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braithwaite, J.W.; Molecke, M.A.

    1978-12-01

    The compatibility of candidate high-level waste (HLW) canister materials with deep geologic isolation environments is addressed. Results are presented which are applicable to the following repositories or test facilities: bedded and domed salt, sub-seabed sediment, and various types of hardrock. Such studies are an essential portion of the technological basis for terminal waste management. These studies will identify HLW canister or overpack materials satisfying appropriate requirements for barrier lifetime. Mechanical properties, as well as constraints on cost and consumption of critically limited materials, are also selection criteria. Lifetime objectives range from a minimum of several years for retrievability constraints up to several hundred years for retardation of near-field interactions (e.g., waste form leaching with potential radionuclide release to the geosphere) during the period of greatest HLW thermal output. A review of present and prior applicable corrosion results is presented. However, emphasis is on the results obtained from current laboratory and in situ HLW canister/corrosion programs at Sandia Laboratories. The effects of multiple variables on corrosion susceptibility and rates are briefly discussed and some applicable data given. It is possible to provide a canister/overpack barrier which can survive geologic isolation environments for periods of several hundred years

  8. An integrated approach to the study of catastrophic debris-flows: geological hazard and human influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Ventisette, C.; Garfagnoli, F.; Ciampalini, A.; Battistini, A.; Gigli, G.; Moretti, S.; Casagli, N.

    2012-09-01

    On 1 October 2009, a prolonged and intense rainstorm triggered hundreds of landslides (predominantly debris flows) in an area of about 50 km2 in the north-eastern sector of Sicily (Italy). Debris flows swept the highest parts of many villages and passed over the SS114 state highway and the Messina-Catania railway, causing more than 30 fatalities. This region has a high relief, due to recent uplift. The peculiar geological and geomorphological framework represents one of the most common predisposing causes of rainstorm-triggered debris flows. This paper deals with the geological and hydro-geomorphological studies performed as a part of the post-disaster activities operated in collaboration with Civil Protection Authority, with the aim at examining landslides effects and mechanisms. The data were elaborated into a GIS platform, to evaluate the influence of urbanisation on the drainage pattern, and were correlated with the lithological and structural framework of the area. Our study points at the evaluation of the volume involved, the detection of triggering mechanisms and the precise reconstruction of the influence of urbanisation as fundamental tools for understanding the dynamics of catastrophic landslides. This kind of analysis, including all the desirable approaches for the correct management of debris flow should be the starting point for robust urban planning.

  9. Study on establishing database system for marine geological and geophysical data 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyun Chul; Bahng, Hyo Ky; Lee, Chi Won; Kang, Jung Seock; Chang, Se Won; Lee, Ho Young [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo Chul [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Most marine geological and geophysical data collected from the institutes of Korea are an analogue type, and stored in several data acquisition institutes according to their own data management systems and input formats. Thus, if someone wants to use the data, he must visit institute(s) to collect the data. It is also necessary to manipulate the collected data based on the user`s own data management system because data input formats differ from each institute. Consequently, it requires lots of time to do searching, managing and analyzing the data. The purpose of the study, therefore, is to establish database system for the standardization of the data input formats and to develop the data output conversion software for the commonly used database management system. Marine geological and geophysical data input formats are set up through the detailed analyses for the input formats used in the domestic as well as foreign countries. PC-based output conversion software for the bathymetry, gravity and magnetic data is also developed. Thus, if all institutes use the data input formats introduced in this study, it is possible to minimize the redundancy, to keep the consistency, and to make a standardization of data. (author). 6 refs., 22 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Prediction of hidden Au and Cu-Ni ores from depleted mines in Northwestern China: four case studies of integrated geological and geophysical investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Shen, Yuanchao; Liu, Tiebing; Li, Guangming; Zeng, Qingdong

    2008-07-01

    Integrated geological and geophysical investigations were carried out in 26 active mines in Northwestern China during the period 2001-2006 to explore for hidden extensions of known ore bodies and to search for new mineralization. This paper presents four case studies from northwest China: the Kuoerzhenkuoa volcanogenic hydrothermal gold deposit, the Nanjinshan breccia-associated gold deposit, the Duolanasayi deposit, associated with a ductile-shear zone, and the Hulu magmatic Cu-Ni sulfide deposit. In these studies, detailed mine-scale geological studies were carried out to determine the location and controls on ore formation. Based on these investigations and a review of previous exploration data, genetic models for the deposits were evaluated, and specific new targets were generated. These target areas were tested with surface geophysical surveys using the Stratagem EH4 system, a hybrid-source magnetotellurics (MT) method. Analysis of the data obtained in the surveys identified geophysical target anomalies that were subsequently drilled. Many of these test holes demonstrate the presence of Au and Cu-Ni mineralization. Evaluation of the geological models was crucial in developing conceptual targets as a basis for surface geophysical surveys. These models established the most likely target areas where Au and Cu-Ni mineralization could occur, but they did not define the limits or the geometries of the mineralized zones. Hybrid MT surveys played an important role in defining the location of buried mineralized systems and in testing the validity of the conceptual targets. The resistivity cross-sections obtained by imaging the MT data established the boundaries and geometries of the host rocks, including the distribution of lithology, structures, alteration, and mineralization. The four case studies in this paper show how this integrated geological and geophysical approach was used successfully to discover hidden mineral deposits.

  11. Report on surface geology and groundwater investigations of Mortons and Green Valley Well Fields. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas Project, Converse County, Wyoming; site evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The general region of investigation of this report is in the southern part of the Powder River Basin near the Town of Douglas, Wyoming. Two specific areas within this region were investigated to determine the groundwater potential with drilling and testing programs during the years 1973 to 1975. One area of investigation is located approximately 12 miles west of Douglas in T32 and 33N, R73 and 74W, and is known as the Green Valley Well Field. This area is situated in the foothills of the north end of the Laramie Range and encompasses approximately 25 square miles. In this area the Madison Formation limestone and the Flathead Formation sandstone are the aquifers of interest for groundwater production. The second area is located approximately 13 miles north of Douglas in T34 and 35N, R70 and 71W, and is known as the Mortons Well Field. This area encompasses about 30 square miles. In this area, the Lance Formation and Fox Hills Formation sandstones are the aquifers of interest. Contained within the body of this report are two geologic studies prepared by consulting geologists, Dr. Peter Huntoon and Henry Richter. These studies define the pertinent structural and groundwater geologic features in and in the vicinities of the Mortons and Green Valley Well Fields. A relatively complex structural geology was encountered in the Green Valley area. The study of the Mortons area suggests that the geology of this area is relatively uniform. Inventories of the water users in the vicinities of the two study areas are included at the back of this report in Appendix B. These inventories are comprised of water appropriations as recognized by the Wyoming State Engineer's Office. Both groundwater and surface water appropriations are inventoried within the Green Valley study area. Only groundwater appropriations are inventoried within the Mortons study area.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey geohydrologic studies and monitoring at the Idaho National Laboratory, southeastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2017-09-14

    BackgroundThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) geohydrologic studies and monitoring at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is an ongoing, long-term program. This program, which began in 1949, includes hydrologic monitoring networks and investigative studies that describe the effects of waste disposal on water contained in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer and the availability of water for long-term consumptive and industrial use. Interpretive reports documenting study findings are available to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors; other Federal, State, and local agencies; private firms; and the public at https://id.water.usgs.gov/INL/Pubs/index.html. Information contained within these reports is crucial to the management and use of the aquifer by the INL and the State of Idaho. USGS geohydrologic studies and monitoring are done in cooperation with the DOE Idaho Operations Office.

  13. Inference of a seismic gap from geological data: Thessaly ( Central Greece as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Caputo

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of neotectonic, morphotectonic and seismotectonic research it is now possible to draw detailed maps of the major active faults affecting Thessaly, a large region of continental Greece. For many of these faults, where specific studies have been carried out, the degree of fault activity (i.e. the long-term slip-rate has been also assigned ranging from 0.05 to 4 mm/yr-l. In the present work, the main morphotectonic features and seismotectonic characteristics of the more important faults are recalled from previous works, while the recent tectonic activity is compared with the seismic activity of the area. The occuuence of both large (M ?x2264; 6.0 and moderate (M ?x2265; 6.0 earthquakes during the present century is concentrated in the southern sector. Earthquakes have been virtually absent in the northern part of the region during the same period. In contrast, according to geological and geomorphological criteria, the recent (Late Quaternary tectonic evolution of the region and the overall extensional rate do not seem to djffer significantly in the two sectors. Although palaeosejsmological trenches, geodetic surveying and the record of the microseismic activity may enhance our knowledge of this problem, on the basis of available geological (structural and morphological data, it is likely that the northern sector of Thessaly represents a large seismic gap. The implications on seismic hazard in one of the more populated regions of Greece are also discussed.

  14. Non-destructive spectrometry methods to study the distribution of archaeological and geological chert samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Maitane; Tarriño, Andoni; Murelaga, Xabier; Baceta, Juan Ignacio; Castro, Kepa; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2009-08-01

    The study of lithic raw materials recovered from archaeological sites offers relevant data on source catchment areas. Additionally, it can provide first hand information on artefact displacement, interchange networks and it can reflect the way in which the artefacts were employed. In order to characterize geological and archaeological chert samples and with the aim of finding an analytical fingerprint infrared and Raman spectroscopies were used for molecular analysis and X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry for elemental analysis. In this work, different chert samples coming from several localities with geological and archaeological importance from the Basque Country have been collected and analysed. As a consequence, Raman spectroscopy allowed to distinguish between alpha-quartz and moganite in chert samples without organic matter and it is suggested that the ratio of those two components is related to the source of the chert. In addition, the impurities that appear in the samples (CaCO(3), iron oxides and organic matter) can open new features to distinguish the samples and in this way, it would be possible to discuss the use and transport of the lithic artifacts from the sources to the final settlements.

  15. Conduct of Geologic Field Work During Planetary Exploration: Why Geology Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    2010-01-01

    The science of field geology is the investigative process of determining the distribution of rock units and structures on a planet fs surface, and it is the first-order data set that informs all subsequent studies of a planet, such as geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics, or remote sensing. For future missions to the Moon and Mars, the surface systems deployed must support the conduct of field geology if these endeavors are to be scientifically useful. This lecture discussed what field geology is all about.why it is important, how it is done, how conducting field geology informs many other sciences, and how it affects the design of surface systems and the implementation of operations in the future.

  16. Surface optical properties of geological materials: a new look at the regolith of the Moon, Mercury and asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchon, Audrey; Pinet, Patrick; Chevrel, Serge; Daydou, Yves; Josset, Jean-Luc; Beauvivre, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    With the exception of the lunar samples brought back to Earth, the only way to study the surface of a planet so far remains the use of remote-sensing techniques. Among them photometry can be used to determine the physical properties of surface particles (e.g., grain size, roughness…). Laboratory measurements with the spectro-imaging instrument at the DTP laboratory (Toulouse, France) have been made to determine the photometric parameters of natural samples (e.g., basalts, pyroclastics and olivine grains). Each one has been sieved either into natural grain sizes or ground to get particles from 45 microns to 2 mm. Multiangular data spanning the phase range between 20 and 130° have been acquired and Hapke's photometric parameters b, c, theta and w have been determined by means of a dedicated genetic algorithm [Cord, Icarus, 2003]. The modelled phase functions match satisfactorily the observations, and the parameters show very different behaviours depending on the sample and grain size. For non glassy materials, such as fresh basalt or pyroclastics, surface roughness parameter theta ranges from 12° to 25° with an increase seemingly correlated with the grain size, while for glassy materials, such as olivine or Hawaiian basalt, this parameter is much lower (about 4 to 10°) and shows no increase with grain size. Phase parameters b and c estimates displayed on a double Henyey-Greenstein graph (c vs. b) [see McGuire & Hapke, Icarus, 1995] fall on the expected trend, with glassy materials becoming more and more forward-scattering when grain size increases. Non glassy samples display more variability when particle size increases, and generally show a more backward-scattering behaviour. These results show that a characterization of a surface state in terms of physical properties is possible from multiangular datasets using Hapke's photometric model. The combination of photometric results with spectroscopic analyses could thus lead to more thorough understanding of

  17. Studies of natural analogues and geological systems. Their importance to performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandberg, F.; Grundfelt, B.; Hoeglund, L.O.; Skagius, K.; Karlsson, Fred; Smellie, J.

    1992-04-01

    This review has involved studies of natural analogues and natural geological systems leading to the identification and quantification of processes and features of importance to the performance and safety of repositories for radioactive waste. The features and processes selected for the study comprise general geochemical issues related to the performance of the near- and of the far-field, the performance and durability of construction materials and the effects of glaciation. For each of these areas a number of potentially important processes for repository performance have been described, and evidence for their existence, as well as quantification of parameters of models describing the processes, have been sought from major natural analogue studies and site investigations. The review has aimed at covering a relatively broad range of issues at the expense of in-depth analysis. The quantitative data presented are in most cases compilations of data from the literature; in a few cases results of evaluations made within the current project are included. The results of the study show that studies of natural analogues and natural geological systems have provided significant information regarding many issues of importance to repository performance. In several cases the evidence from natural analogues has demonstrated that processes assumed to take place in repositories actually occur in natural systems or under conditions similar to those predicted to prevail in a future repository. One example of such a process is coprecipitation of fission products and ferric oxyhydroxides as an analogue to corrosion products from a steel canister. In addition, the study of concentration gradients of uranium and other trace substances in the rock surrounding groundwater conduits confirm that matrix diffusion occurs in nature and that the diffusivities in the rock matrix measured in the laboratory are consistent with the observations in nature

  18. Nonlinear optical techniques for surface studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y.R.

    1981-09-01

    Recent effort in developing nonlinear optical techniques for surface studies is reviewed. Emphasis is on monolayer detection of adsorbed molecules on surfaces. It is shown that surface coherent antiStokes Raman scattering (CARS) with picosecond pulses has the sensitivity of detecting submonolayer of molecules. On the other hand, second harmonic or sum-frequency generation is also sensitive enough to detect molecular monolayers. Surface-enhanced nonlinear optical effects on some rough metal surfaces have been observed. This facilitates the detection of molecular monolayers on such surfaces, and makes the study of molecular adsorption at a liquid-metal interface feasible. Advantages and disadvantages of the nonlinear optical techniques for surface studies are discussed

  19. Surface Acoustic Wave Transducer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    ment. — ISO Lir — ~.1 L ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ L~~~I&jr ~~ —- — — —--- - - - - t - s’ rlr ~~T I O , 4 ) F ~ H I ’ ~~,! ~WI.ft ?).s. ~~~~MEPORT DOCUMENTAT I...multiplying the norma l stress components thus ensuring that the normal stress is zero at x 2 = 0. For the present , an open-circuit elec trical...boundary condition is assumed so that the norma l D-uield is zero at the surface. This is taken .5 into account in a similar manner with a step-function

  20. Current status of regional hydrogeological studies and numerical simulations on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Shinsuke; Kikuchi, Tsuneo; Ishido, Tsuneo

    2004-01-01

    Current status of regional hydrogeological studies on geological disposal including hydrogeological modeling using numerical simulators is reviewed in this report. A regional scale and boundary conditions of numerical models are summarized mainly from the results of the RHS (regional hydrogeological study) project conducted by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) in the Tono area. We also refer to the current conceptual modes of hydrology and numerical models of unsaturated zone flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is the arid site proposed for consideration as the United States' first underground high-level radioactive waste repository. Understanding behavior of a freshwater-saltwater transition zone seems to play a key role in the hydrogeological modeling in a coastal region. Technical features of a numerical simulator as a tool for geothermal reservoir modeling is also briefly described. (author)

  1. Structural mapping from MSS-LANDSAT imagery: A proposed methodology for international geological correlation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Crepani, E.; Martini, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology is proposed for international geological correlation studies based on LANDSAT-MSS imagery, Bullard's model of continental fit and compatible structural trends between Northeast Brazil and the West African counterpart. Six extensive lineaments in the Brazilian study area are mapped and discussed according to their regional behavior and in relation to the adjacent continental margin. Among the first conclusions, correlations were found between the Sobral Pedro II Lineament and the megafaults that surround the West African craton; and the Pernambuco Lineament with the Ngaurandere Linemanet in Cameroon. Ongoing research to complete the methodological stages includes the mapping of the West African structural framework, reconstruction of the pre-drift puzzle, and an analysis of the counterpart correlations.

  2. Hydrological and geological preliminary studies in the scope of the RMB project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Barreto, Alberto A.; Aleixo, Bruna L.

    2011-01-01

    The RMB - Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor is a project that will contribute decisively in order to develop the science and the technology of the country. However, the licensing process of this facility is not a simple task, since it involves nuclear and environmental questions. The utilization of geoprocessing tools became in the last years an important technique to aid the development of several studies, and will be necessary also in this project. The objective of this work is to present the first hydrological and geological geoprocessing studies done in order to support the future environmental licensing process of the facility. The results show that further efforts should be done since there is a lack of many data needed for the next steps. (author)

  3. Surface study of liquid 3He using surface state electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirahama, K.; Ito, S.; Suto, H.; Kono, K.

    1995-01-01

    We have measured the mobility of surface state electrons (SSE) on liquid 3 He, μ 3 , aiming to study the elementary surface excitations of the Fermi liquid. A gradual increase of μ 3 below 300 mK is attributed to the scattering of electrons by ripplons. Ripplons do exist in 3 He down to 100 mK. We observe an abrupt decrease of μ 3 , due to the transition to the Wigner solid (WS). The dependences of the WS conductivity and mobility on temperature and magnetic field differ from the SSE behavior on liquid 4 He

  4. Geological Geophysical and structural studies in Mina Ratones (Pluton de Albala); Estudios geologico-estructurales y geofisicos en Mina Ratones (Pluton de Albala)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Estaun, A.; Carbonell, R.; Marti, D.; Flecha, I. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra Jaume Almera. Barcelona (Spain); Escuder Viruete, J. [Universidad complutense de Madrid. Madrid (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Mina Ratones environmental restoration project included petrological, structural,geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical studies. The main objective of the geologic-structural and geophysical studies was the Albala granite structural characterization around the Mina Ratones uranium mine. The location of facies, fault zones (faults and dykes) as well as the distribution of some physical properties inside the rock massif was obtained for a granitic black of 900, 500, and 500 m. The geologic-structural and geophysical techniques applied to Mina Ratones provided a multidisciplinary approach for high resolution characterization of rock massif, and the structures potentially containing fluids,able to be applied to the hydrogeological modelling to a particular area. Geological studies included a detailed structural mapping of the area surrounding the mine (1:5,000 scale), the geometric, kinematics, and dynamics analysis of fractures of all scales, the petrology and geochemistry of fault rocks and altered areas surrounding fractures, and the microstructural studies of samples from surface and core lags. The construction of geostatistical models in two and three dimensions had helped to characterize the Mina Ratones rock massif showing the spatial distribution of fault zones, fracture intensity, granite composition heterogeneities, fluid-rock interaction zones, and physical properties. (Author)

  5. Surface studies of plasma processed Nb samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Puneet V.; Doleans, Marc; Hannah, Brian S.; Afanador, Ralph; Stewart, Stephen; Mammosser, John; Howell, Matthew P; Saunders, Jeffrey W; Degraff, Brian D; Kim, Sang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Contaminants present at top surface of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities can act as field emitters and restrict the cavity accelerating gradient. A room temperature in-situ plasma processing technology for SRF cavities aiming to clean hydrocarbons from inner surface of cavities has been recently developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Surface studies of the plasma-processed Nb samples by Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) showed that the NeO 2 plasma processing is very effective to remove carbonaceous contaminants from top surface and improves the surface work function by 0.5 to 1.0 eV.

  6. Surface studies of plasma processed Nb samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Puneet V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Doleans, Marc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Hannah, Brian S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Afanador, Ralph [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Stewart, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Mammosser, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Howell, Matthew P [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Saunders, Jeffrey W [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Degraff, Brian D [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Kim, Sang-Ho [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    2015-01-01

    Contaminants present at top surface of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities can act as field emitters and restrict the cavity accelerating gradient. A room temperature in-situ plasma processing technology for SRF cavities aiming to clean hydrocarbons from inner surface of cavities has been recently developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Surface studies of the plasma-processed Nb samples by Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) showed that the NeO2 plasma processing is very effective to remove carbonaceous contaminants from top surface and improves the surface work function by 0.5 to 1.0 eV.

  7. CO2-Brine Displacement in Geological CO2 Sequestration: Microfluidic Flow Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, S. C.; Jung, J.

    2014-12-01

    Geological CO2 sequestration is a promising method to reduce atmospheric CO2 and deep saline aquifers is one of the most important options due to their capacity for CO2 storage. Thus, a better understanding of two immiscible brine-CO2 mobility and its saturation, including invading patterns in deep saline aquifers as CO2 storage sites is required. Lenormand (1990) explored the invading patterns of two immiscible fluids in porous media with a transition region and three dominant regions: capillary fingering, viscous fingering, and stable displacement. These are determined by two main aspect ratios Nm and Nc through experimental studies using micromodel. Micromodel provides the opportunity to discover unrecognized processes, and test existing theories and assumptions in fluid flow through porous media. In this study, the micromodel was used to explore the effects of the scCO2 injecting velocity and ionic strength on invading patterns in geological CO2 sequestration. When scCO2 was injected into the micromodel that has already saturated with brine, the brine in the micromodel was displaced by injected scCO2. Continuous scCO2 injection into the micromodel leaded the scCO2 to pass through the micromodel. And the scCO2-brine displacement distribution in the micromodel remained constant during additional 100 PV scCO2 injection after injecting scCO2 passed through micromodel. When scCO2 passed through the porous media, the scCO2-brine displacement distribution represented the maximum displacement ratio. Results showed that scCO2-brine displacement ratios increased with: elevated pressures in the range of 3MPa~8MPa, decreased ionic strength from 5M to 1M NaCl, and increased scCO2 injecting velocity up to 40 μL/min. Also, Nm and Nc obtained in this study are located in transition region of the invading patterns suggested by Lenormand (1990).

  8. U.S. Geological Survey: Surface-Water Historical Instantaneous Data for the Nation: Build Time Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The USGS historical data base contains historical surface water discharge volume data for all 16,658 surface water sites that have current conditions. This dataset...

  9. Effect of local geology on indoor radon levels: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the results of radon monitoring in 40 East Tennessee homes that were a component of a larger study to evaluate indoor air quality. Measurements were conducted during two 3-month time periods with passive integrating track etch monitors in each of the forty homes. In a subset of homes, measurements were also conducted with a real-time monitor that provided readings on an hourly basis. The results of the monitoring indicate that about 30% of the homes had radon levels were associated with local variations in geology; most of the homes having higher levels were located on the porous dolomite ridge partially surrounding Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 7 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Effect of local geology on indoor radon levels: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the results of radon monitoring in 40 East Tennessee homes that were a component of a larger study to evaluate indoor air quality. Measurements were conducted during two 3-month time periods with passive integrating track etch monitors in each of the forty homes. In a subset of homes, measurements were also conducted with a real-time monitor that provided readings on an hourly basis. The results of the monitoring indicate that about 30% of the homes had radon levels were associated with local variations in geology; most of the homes having higher levels were located on the porous dolomite ridge partially surrounding Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 7 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  11. The use of lidar images in Costa Rica : case studies applied in geology, engineering, and archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Paulo; Garro, Jose F.; Soto, Gerardo J.

    2014-01-01

    A historical review is made about evolution of technology Lidar (Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging). The improvements of this technology and additions from other technologies are annotated in the last 15 years. The information of the aerial and terrestrial lidar operation, technical parameters for data acquisition and resolutions are presented. The results from four studies are presented in Costa Rica: 1) The discovery of pre-Columbian trails in the area of Volcan Arenal, 2) A case of geological mapping and discovery of new volcanic structures in the North area of the Volcan Poas, 3) The characterization of a landslide near Palmares that represents a hazard for the road network, 4) A detail survey of a pre-Columbian sphere. The results from new Lidar will become more frequent in the following years because its cost will be more affordable. The transference of data between institutions will generate new applications in different fields. (author) [es

  12. Effect of local geology on indoor radon levels: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the results of radon monitoring in 40 East Tennessee homes that were a component of a larger study to evaluate indoor air quality. Measurements were conducted during two 3-month time periods with passive integrating track etch monitors in each of the forty homes. In a subset of homes, measurements were also conducted with a real-time monitor that provided readings on an hourly basis. The results of the monitoring indicate that about 30% of the homes had radon levels greater that 4 pCi/L in the living space. Homes with elevated radon levels were associated with local variations in geology; most of the homes having higher levels were located on the porous dolomite ridge partially surrounding Oad Ridge, Tennessee. (Author)

  13. Study of gases in six geologic faults in the Narino Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran Rodriguez, C; Chica Sanchez, A; Garzon Valencia, G

    2001-01-01

    Radon-222 and Carbon Dioxide emissions on the Manchabajoy, Pasto, Buesaco, Guaitara, Ancuya and Magdalena geological faults in the Narino Department were studied. As example of environmental influences like rainfall on the gas emissions in the San Francisco station, located in the Manchabajoy, Ancuya and Guaitara faults intersection was presented. Another environmental perturbations, like air temperature and atmospheric pressure no varies too much and minimum influence gas emissions from soils. In the first semester of the 2000, several radon anomalies in six stations of the volcanological and seismological observatory of Pasto were registered. After cited Radon anomalies inhabitants of Pasto city filled a seismic swarm in July months, and probably a correlation between radon anomalies and detected seismic signals have to be taken into account

  14. Study of gases in six geologic faults in the Department of Narino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran Rodriguez, C; Chica Sanchez, A; Garzon Valencia, G

    2001-01-01

    Radon-222 and carbon dioxide emissions on the Manchabajoy, Pasto, Buesaco, Guaitara, Ancuya and Magdalena geological faults in the Narino Department were studied. As example of environmental influences like rainfall on the gas emissions in the San Francisco Station, located in the Manchabajoy, Ancuya and Guaitara faults intersection was presented. Another environmental perturbations, like air temperature and atmospheric pressure no varies too much and minimum influence gas emissions from soils. In the first semester of the 2000, several radon anomalies in six stations of the volcanological and seismological observatory of Pasto were registered. After cited radon anomalies a seismic swarm were filled by inhabitants of Pasto City in July months, and probably a correlation between radon anomalies and detected seismic signals have to be taken into account

  15. Preliminary geologic studies of Sierra El Aguajito (Baja California, Mexico): a resurgent-type caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduño-Monroy, V. H.; Vargas-Ledezma, H.; Campos-Enriquez, J. O.

    1993-12-01

    Geologic field studies conducted in the Quaternary volcanic field of Tres Virgenes (State of Baja California Sur, Mexico) revealed the existence of a resurgent caldera. The caldera's eruptive products, the Aguajito sequence, overlie the products of the nearby Reforma caldera (Reforma sequence) whose youngest products have already been dated as Quaternary. The rim of the Aguajito caldera is inferred by the existence of an arcuate alignment of rhyolitic domes. The mean diameter of this subcircular feature is 10 km. The volume of its mapped acidic products is a minimum of 10 km 3. Several horizons within the sequence contain shells. K/Ar dates of the ignimbrites and domes of El Aguajito formation confirm that the unit are Pleistocene. The detailed stratigraphy also shows the evolution of a marine regression partly related to the caldera.

  16. Old Geology and New Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 28 May 2003Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. The geological history of deep-sea colonization by echinoids: roles of surface productivity and deep-water ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Andrew B; Stockley, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    The origins and geological history of the modern fauna of deep-sea echinoids is explored using a combination of palaeontological and molecular data. We demonstrate that, whereas generalist omnivores have migrated into the deep sea in low numbers over the past 200 Myr, there was a short time-interval between approximately 75 and 55 Myr when the majority of specialist detritivore clades independently migrated off-shelf. This coincides with a marked increase in seasonality, continental run-off a...

  18. Studies of nuclear-waste migration in geologic media. Annual report, November 1976--October 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.; Rickert, P.G.; Fried, S.M.; Friedman, A.M.; Steindler, M.J.

    1978-03-01

    The confinement of nuclear wastes in geologic formations is being considered as a method of permanently disposing of the waste. Laboratory experiments (column infiltration, static absorption, and batch partitioning experiments) were performed with nuclides of Cs, Pu, Np, and Am to examine the migratory characteristics of long-lived radionuclides that could be mobilized by groundwaters infiltrating a nuclear waste repository and the surrounding geologic body. In column infiltration experiments, the positions of peak concentrations of Cs in chalk or shale columns; Pu in limestone; Am in limestone, sandstone, or tuff; and Np in a limestone column did not move when the columns were infiltrated with water. However, fractions of each of the nuclides were seen downstream from the peaks, indicating that there was a large dispersion in the relative migration rates of each of the trace elements in the lithic materials studied. The results of static absorption experiments indicate that Pu and Am are strongly absorbed from solution by the common rocks studied and that their migration relative to ground-water flow is thereby retarded. In addition, the reaction rates of dissolved nuclides with rocks were found to vary considerably in different rock-element systems. Batch partitioning experiments were performed to test whether absorption processes are reversible. After granulated basalt and americium-bearing water were contacted in an absorption step, part of the water was replaced with water free of Am and the Am repartitioned between rock and solution. The distribution of Am after desorption was comparable to its distribution after absorption. In cntrast, when tablets of various rocks were allowed to dry between absorption and desorption tests, Pu and Am were not generally desorbed from the tablets. This suggests that reversible reactions of nuclides, between waters and rocks may be upset by treatments such as drying

  19. Marapi an active West-Central Sumatra Volcano: a geological and petrological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Marmol, M.; Budianto, A.; Fournelle, J.; Jacobs, P.; Elburg, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Marapi volcano (West - Central Sumatra), Sumatra’s most active volcano (not to be confused with Merapi on Java), located in a densely populated area and where more than 50 explosive eruptions have been recorded in the last 200 years has been studied in detail in the field to gain fundamental understanding of the volcano's activity in terms of its basic geology, petrology and geochemistry. Marapi is one of a few active volcanoes among many dormant volcanoes of this island. Large deposits of the nearby Maninjau caldera, dated 50 ka (n=3), associated with very silica-rich volcanic products is another reason for concern, since caldera formation is linked with severe explosive activity. Those deposits are found at the base of the volcano and largely in the deeply incised valley which follows the Sumatra fault extending parallel to the Sumatra volcanic front. A possible landslide parallel to the Sumatra fault is recognized on the LANDSAT image. Landslides on the external old external side have allowed the collection of the oldest part of the volcano as most of it is covered with a thick primary forest. These landslides occurring on old volcanic terrain are a threat to the surrounding population living nearby the rivers especially during the heavy rainy seasons. A 20 m high stratigraphic column has been studied, with the volcano’s explosive nature seen in the collected samples (i.e. bombs and pumices). A new sketch map of the area of the craters (6 over 2km) replaces the one made in 1921 at the Dutch colonial time. A geological and hazard map have been created showing the extension of the various deposits.

  20. Geological setting of silica in Dehnow-Abid region (Eshghabad northeast using fluid inclusions studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Yazdanpanah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dehnow-Abid area is a part of the geological map of Eshghabad with scale 1:100000 (Aghanabati, 1994 that is located about 20 kilometers northeast of Eshghabad and in the coordinates of 57° 6´ 0" to 57° 10´ 0" eastern longitude and 34° 28´ 0" to 34 21´ 0" northern latitude. The Dehnow-Abid area is located in Tabas block and east of central Iran structural zone. The small continent east central Iran (Takin, 1972 includes blocks: Loot, Tabas and Yazd that constitute Iran's eastern part (Davoudzadeh and Schmidt, 1982. In geology, we can acquire more information about temperature forming minerals and rocks, pressure, density of the fluid and the chemical composition of the ore bearing fluids by fluid inclusions studies. Properties as well as their role in our understanding of the sources and evolution of ore bearing hydrothermal fluids and genesis of mineral deposits are very important (Rodder, 1979. In this study, we tried to use both field and laboratory studies, including petrography and thermometry studies of fluid inclusions, environment formation of quartz in the specified Dehno-Abid. Materials and methods At first, in order to identify the area, the 1:100000 map of Eshghabad was used. Then, for a complete cognition of mentioned area, after a few field visits and sampling of outcrops of quartz, we prepared 16 double polishing sections from some crystalline and milky quartz. Then, 10 thin sections of sandstones of that area were prepared for identification the host rock. Microscopic examinations on fluid inclusions were done by a LEICA DMLSP polarizing light microscope. Fluid inclusion micro-thermometry studies were done by using a Linkam THM S600 heating and freezing stage and with a TMS94 controller. Also, a cooling LNP which is mounted on an Olympus BX-41 microscope in Laboratory Fluid inclusion of Earth Sciences, Damghan University was used. Discussion and results Lithology of the Dehnow-Abid area included dark shale

  1. Study on fine geological modelling of the fluvial sandstone reservoir in Daqing oilfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhoa Han-Qing [Daqing Research Institute, Helongjiang (China)

    1997-08-01

    These paper aims at developing a method for fine reservoir description in maturing oilfields by using close spaced well logging data. The main productive reservoirs in Daqing oilfield is a set of large fluvial-deltaic deposits in the Songliao Lake Basin, characterized by multi-layers and serious heterogeneities. Various fluvial channel sandstone reservoirs cover a fairly important proportion of reserves. After a long period of water flooding, most of them have turned into high water cut layers, but there are considerable residual reserves within them, which are difficult to find and tap. Making fine reservoir description and developing sound a geological model is essential for tapping residual oil and enhancing oil recovery. The principal reason for relative lower precision of predicting model developed by using geostatistics is incomplete recognition of complex distribution of fluvial reservoirs and their internal architecture`s. Tasking advantage of limited outcrop data from other regions (suppose no outcrop data available in oilfield) can only provide the knowledge of subtle changing of reservoir parameters and internal architecture. For the specific geometry distribution and internal architecture of subsurface reservoirs (such as in produced regions) can be gained only from continuous infilling logging well data available from studied areas. For developing a geological model, we think the first important thing is to characterize sandbodies geometries and their general architecture`s, which are the framework of models, and then the slight changing of interwell parameters and internal architecture`s, which are the contents and cells of the model. An excellent model should possess both of them, but the geometry is the key to model, because it controls the contents and cells distribution within a model.

  2. Study on the Seepage and Stability of Carbon Dioxide Geological Storage in Scrap Metal Mine: A Finite Difference Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The carbon dioxide geological storage is one of the most effective ways to slow down the earth's climate warming. The ideal location for storage is in the deep scrap mines. Because of the characteristics of the deep underground condition, the long-term mechanical stability must have close relationship with the geostress fields and permeability, whose development can determine and reflect the mechanical behaviors of carbon dioxide geological storage. The permeability of host rock is affected by existing joints and discontinuity surfaces. Furthermore, as the liquid carbon dioxide is injected into the geological storage, the injection pressure and buoyancy force will change the state of geostress obviously. In this paper, based on mechanical properties of the host rock (granite, coupled brittle shear constitutive model was adopted and the analysis module was implemented in software FLAC3D. Then, with the in situ survey of joints in the host rock and the monitoring of in situ geostress, the permeability characteristics and geostress inverse analysis were input in FLAC3D. At last, fluid-solid coupled model was used to analyze the seepage characteristics of each phase after the injection and long-term storage of liquid carbon dioxide. Therefore, the systematic analysis of the storage stability of carbon dioxide geological could be carried out.

  3. A Study on Using Hands-On Science Inquiries to Promote the Geology Learning of Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-San

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the geology learning performance of preservice teachers. A total of 31 sophomores (including 11 preservice teachers) from an educational university in Taiwan participated in this study. The course arrangements include class teaching and hands-on science inquiry activities. The study searches both quantitative and…

  4. An appraisal of the geologic structure beneath the Ikogosi warm spring in south-western Nigeria using integrated surface geophysical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S Ojo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated surface geophysical investigation involving resistivity and magnetic methods was carried out in the immediate vicinity of the Ikogosi warm spring situated in south-western Nigeria with a view to delineating its subsurface geological sequence and evaluating the structural setting beneath the warmspring. Total field magnetic measurements and vertical electrical sounding (VES data were acquired along five N-S traverses. Magnetic and VES data interpretation
    involved inverse modelling. The inverse magnetic models delineated fractured quartzite/faulted areas within fresh massive quartzite at varying depths and beneath all traverses. The geoelectrical sections developed from VESinterpretation results also delineated a subsurface sequence consisting of a topsoil/weathered layer, fresh quartzite, fractured/faulted quartzite and fresh quartzite bedrock. It was deduced that the fractured/faulted quartzite may have acted as conduit for the
    movement of warm groundwater from profound depths to the surface while the spring outlet was located on a geological interface  (lineament.

  5. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 16. Repository preconceptual design studies: BPNL waste forms in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Volume 16, ''Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: BPNL Waste Forms in Salt,'' is one of a 23 volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provide a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in salt. The waste forms assumed to arrive at the repository were supplied by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BPNL). The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/17, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: BPNL Waste Forms in Salt.''

  6. Surface-water data and statistics from U.S. Geological Survey data-collection networks in New Jersey on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Robert G.; Watson, Kara M.; Chang, Ming; Nieswand, Steven P.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with other Federal, State, and local agencies, operates and maintains a variety of surface-water data-collection networks throughout the State of New Jersey. The networks include streamflow-gaging stations, low-flow sites, crest-stage gages, tide gages, tidal creststage gages, and water-quality sampling sites. Both real-time and historical surface-water data for many of the sites in these networks are available at the USGS, New Jersey District, web site (http://nj.usgs.gov/), and water-quality data are available at the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) web site (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/). These data are an important source of information for water managers, engineers, environmentalists, and private citizens.

  7. Reactive transport at the pore-scale: Geological Labs on Chip studies (GLoCs) for CO2 storage in saline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaroual, M. M.; Lassin, A., Sr.; André, L., Sr.; Devau, N., Sr.; Leroy, P., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    The near well bore of CO2 injection in saline aquifer is the main sensitive part of the targeted carbone storage reservoirs. The recent development of microfluidics tools mimicking porous media of geological reservoirs allowed studying physical, physico-chemical and thermodynamic mechanisms. We used the GLoCs "Geological Labs on Chip" to study dynamic and reactive transport processes at the pore scale induced by the CO2 geological storage. The present work is a first attempt to reproduce, by reactive transport modeling, an experiment of calcium carbonate precipitation during the co-injection of two aqueous solutions in a GLoC device. For that purpose, a new kinetics model, based on the transition-state-theory and on surface complexation modeling, was developed to describe the co-precipitation of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) and calcite. ACC precipitates and creates surface complexation sites from which calcite can nucleate and create new surface complexation sites. When the kinetics of calcite precipitation are fast enough, the consumption of matter leads to the dissolution of ACC. The modeling results were first compared to batch experiments (from the literature) and then applied with success to dynamic experiment observations carried out on a GLoC device (from the literature). On the other hand, we evaluated the solubility of CO2 in capillary waters that increases between 5 to 10 folds for reservoir conditions (200 bar and 100°C) compared to the bulk water. The GLoCs tools started to address an excellent and much finer degree of processes control (reactive transport processes, mixing effects, minerals precipitation and dissolution kinetics, etc.) thanks to in situ analysis and characterization techniques, allowing access in real time to relevant properties. Current investigations focus on key parameters influencing the flowing dynamics and trapping mechanisms (relative permeability, capillary conditions, kinetics of dissolution and precipitation of minerals).

  8. Lunar Surface Reactor Shielding Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Shawn; McAlpine, William; Lipinski, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    A nuclear reactor system could provide power to support long term human exploration of the moon. Such a system would require shielding to protect astronauts from its emitted radiations. Shielding studies have been performed for a Gas Cooled Reactor system because it is considered to be the most suitable nuclear reactor system available for lunar exploration, based on its tolerance of oxidizing lunar regolith and its good conversion efficiency. The goals of the shielding studies were to determine a material shielding configuration that reduces the dose (rem) to the required level in order to protect astronauts, and to estimate the mass of regolith that would provide an equivalent protective effect if it were used as the shielding material. All calculations were performed using MCNPX, a Monte Carlo transport code. Lithium hydride must be kept between 600 K and 700 K to prevent excessive swelling from large amounts of gamma or neutron irradiation. The issue is that radiation damage causes separation of the lithium and the hydrogen, resulting in lithium metal and hydrogen gas. The proposed design uses a layer of B4C to reduce the combined neutron and gamma dose to below 0.5Grads before the LiH is introduced. Below 0.5Grads the swelling in LiH is small (less than about 1%) for all temperatures. This approach causes the shield to be heavier than if the B4C were replaced by LiH, but it makes the shield much more robust and reliable

  9. Uranium series radioactive disequilibria study using gamma spectrometry with low energy and application to the dating in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoukhi, T. El.

    1992-01-01

    In this work, the gamma spectrometry with low energy has been used with the help of Ge high purity planar detector, and the means and limits of this spectrometry in the applications to the dating in geology has been studied. A geological sample taken from the moroccan phosphatic deposit of Gantour, having a secondary mineralization wealth of uranium has principally been studied in application. In addition, physical models of uranium genesis have been elaborated in the course of this work in order to interpret the achieved results. 60 figs., 18 tabs., 53 refs. (F.M.)

  10. Structural Geology and Map Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helper, Mark A.

    1998-06-01

    Geological maps lay flat the three-dimensional architecture of a region's rock record. In doing so, they reveal and document geometrical relationships and geological histories that would otherwise be difficult, if not impossible, to visualize. They are a primary data source for a wide range of practical applications, from civil engineering, mining, and energy resource exploration to urban planning and geologic hazard mitigation, and are literally the "ground truth" for understanding environments and processes of the Earth's past. Their utility resides not only in a plan-view portrayal of surface geology, but in the geometrical information they contain that allows projection of surface geology to the subsurface, or into regions where surface control is lacking. Understanding this predictive capacity and being able to read and truly appreciate a geological map's three-dimensional character are among the most unique and important skills a geologist masters. These same skills are unfortunately among the most difficult for students to learn.

  11. Site characterizations around KURT area-Geologic model (Version 1)-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Kim, Geon Young

    2009-08-01

    To characterize the geologic elements around study area for high-level radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the several geological investigations such as geophysical surveys and borehole drillings were carried out since 1997. Especially, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to understand the deep geological environments in 2006. At recent, the deep boreholes, which have 500m depth at left research module inside the KURT and 1,000m depth outside the KURT, were drilled around the KURT area to confirm and validate the geological model. The objective of this research is to construct the first version of geological model around KURT area in the point of hydro-geological view. The data in this study are based on the surface geological investigation and borehole investigations drilled in until 2005. At results, total 4 geological elements are obtained from geological analysis, which are a subsurface weathered zone, log-angled fractures zone, fracture zones and bedrock. And, the geometries of these elements are also plotted by three-dimensional model. The first version of geological model which is built in this study will be supported to construct the hydrogeological model and geochemical model

  12. Using Significant Geologic Hazards and Disasters to Focus Geoethics Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, V. S.

    2015-12-01

    Ethics education since classical times has involved the consideration of stories, parables, myths, fables, allegories and histories. These are the ancient equivalents of case studies. Modern case studies are used in applied-ethics courses in law, engineering, business, and science. When used in a geoscience course, geoethical case studies can enrich a student's understanding of the relationships between issues of geoscience, engineering, sociology, business, public policy and law - all with an ethical dimension. Perhaps more importantly, real cases affected real people. Students develop a strong empathetic connection to the people involved, enhancing students' drive to understand the interconnected layers of the cases. Students might begin to appreciate that geoscientists can help to avoid or alleviate human suffering -- that their careers can have meaning and purpose beyond simply earning a paycheck. Geologic disasters in which losses could have been predicted, avoided or minimized are quite effective as cases. Coupling a "disaster" case with a comparable "hazard" case is particularly effective. For example, there are many places along the San Andreas Fault in California where [1] significant coseismic displacement has occurred during historical times, [2] structures that are still inhabited were built along or across active traces prior to the Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zoning Act in 1971, and [3] inhabited structures have been built legally since 1971 within a few tens of feet of active traces. The question students confront is whether society ought to allow habitable structures to be built very near to a major active fault. This topic allows students to work with issues of law, history, seismology, seismic site response, crustal deformation adjacent to active faults, building codes and, ultimately, ethics. Similar progressions can be developed for other major geologic hazards, both natural and man-made, such as floods, landslides, erosion along rivers and

  13. Geologic Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William L.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…

  14. Building a viable decollement geometry for the Central Nepal Himalaya through integrating surface geology, thermochronology and data from the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, S.; McQuarrie, N.; Robinson, D. M.; Olree, E.; Valentino, C.; Olsen, J.

    2017-12-01

    Recent field mapping in the Central Himalaya revealed a marked change in the location and orientation of exposed Greater Himalayan rocks around the epicenter of the April 2015 Gorkha earthquake, arguing for a lateral structure in the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). The earthquake provided new insight into the geometry of the MHT, but left the position and depth of the mid-crustal ramp in dispute. Combining new field data with existing thermochronometric data from the region emphasizes that both the mapped geology and young cooling ages step abruptly southward from east to west, immediately adjacent to the earthquake epicenter. The distribution of cooling ages is strongly influenced by the location of ramps in the decollement surface, as the vertical component of uplift concentrates exhumation over the ramp, producing the youngest ages there. We propose that the existence and location of frontal and lateral ramps can be evaluated using the regional distribution of thermochronometric ages. Sequentially deformed cross-sections present a model of how structurally induced uplift varies in time and space, as well as a predicted geometry of the active, modern fault. We created new balanced cross-sections, constrained by surface geology and the proposed decollement geometries. For an accurate representation of the subsurface, the geometries must reproduce cooling ages measured at the surface. Each cross section was sequentially deformed, allowing for flexure and erosion. The resulting displacement field was used to predict cooling ages for muscovite 40Ar/39Ar, zircon (U-Th)/He, and apatite fission-track, using the thermokinematic model Pecube. The different closure temperatures for these systems allow them to represent different times and locations of exhumation driven by evolving fault geometries. The modeled cooling ages are the cumulative effect of the entire deformational sequence. However, the ages are particularly sensitive to the modern active decollement fault

  15. Geologic map of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Dohm, James M.; Irwin, Rossman P.; Kolb, Eric J.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory G.; Hare, Trent M.

    2014-01-01

    This global geologic map of Mars, which records the distribution of geologic units and landforms on the planet's surface through time, is based on unprecedented variety, quality, and quantity of remotely sensed data acquired since the Viking Orbiters. These data have provided morphologic, topographic, spectral, thermophysical, radar sounding, and other observations for integration, analysis, and interpretation in support of geologic mapping. In particular, the precise topographic mapping now available has enabled consistent morphologic portrayal of the surface for global mapping (whereas previously used visual-range image bases were less effective, because they combined morphologic and albedo information and, locally, atmospheric haze). Also, thermal infrared image bases used for this map tended to be less affected by atmospheric haze and thus are reliable for analysis of surface morphology and texture at even higher resolution than the topographic products.

  16. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bayou Choctaw salt dome, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Magorian, T.R. [Magorian (Thomas R.), Amherst, NY (United States); Byrne, K.O.; Denzler, S. [Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (United States)

    1993-09-01

    This report revises and updates the geologic site characterization report that was published in 1980. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major east-west trending shear zone, not mapped in the 1980 report. Excessive gas influx in Caverns 18 and 20 may be associated with this shear zone. Subsidence values at Bayou Choctaw are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging only about 10 mm/yr but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values often approximate measurement accuracy. Periodic, temporary flooding is a continuing concern because of the low site elevation (less than 10 ft), and this may intensify as future subsidence lowers the surface even further. Cavern 4 was re-sonared in 1992 and the profiles suggest that significant change has not occurred since 1980, thereby reducing the uncertainty of possible overburden collapse -- as occurred at Cavern 7 in 1954. Other potential integrity issues persist, such as the proximity of Cavern 20 to the dome edge, and the narrow web separating Caverns 15 and 17. Injection wells have been used for the disposal of brine but have been only marginally effective thus far; recompletions into more permeable lower Pleistocene gravels may be a practical way of increasing injection capacity and brinefield efficiency. Cavern storage space is limited on this already crowded dome, but 15 MMBBL could be gained by enlarging Cavern 19 and by constructing a new cavern beneath and slightly north of abandoned Cavern 13. Environmental issues center on the low site elevation: the backswamp environment combined with the potential for periodic flooding create conditions that will require continuing surveillance.

  17. The laboratories of geological studies; Les laboratoires d`etudes geologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-01

    This educational document comprises 4 booklets in a folder devoted to the presentation of the ANDRA`s activities in geological research laboratories. The first booklet gives a presentation of the missions of the ANDRA (the French agency for the management of radioactive wastes) in the management of long life radioactive wastes. The second booklet describes the approach of waste disposal facilities implantation. The third booklet gives a brief presentation of the scientific program concerning the underground geologic laboratories. The last booklet is a compilation of questions and answers about long-life radioactive wastes, the research and works carried out in geologic laboratories, the public information and the local socio-economic impact, and the storage of radioactive wastes in deep geological formations. (J.S.)

  18. 2010 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Lidar: Eagle Point Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oregon Department of Geology & Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) contracted with Watershed Sciences, Inc. to collect high resolution topographic LiDAR data for...

  19. 2010 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Lidar: Klamath Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oregon Department of Geology & Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) contracted with Watershed Sciences, Inc. to collect high resolution topographic LiDAR data for...

  20. 2011 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Lidar: Pine Creek Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oregon Department of Geology & Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) contracted with Watershed Sciences, Inc. to collect high resolution topographic LiDAR data for...

  1. Geology of the seashore

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    There are many different types of beaches around Ireland. By looking at the geology of the seashore, students can study its rocks, soil, and minerals and learn about its origins. The geology of the seashore also offers a natural environment for many species and plants to live.

  2. [Comperative study of implant surface characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Bernadett; Daróczi, Lajos; Jenei, Attila; Bakó, József; Hegedus, Csaba

    2013-12-01

    The osseointegration between the implant and its' bone environment is very important. The implants shall meet the following requirements: biocompatibility, rigidity, resistance against corrosion and technical producibility. In our present study surface morphology and material characteristics of different implants (Denti Bone Level, Denti Zirconium C, Bionika CorticaL, Straumann SLA, Straumann SLA Active, Dentsply Ankylos and Biotech Kontact implant) were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The possible surface alterations caused by the manufacturing technology were also investigated. During grit-blasting the implants' surface is blasted with hard ceramic particles (titanium oxide, alumina, calcium phosphate). Properties of blasting material are critical because the osseointegration of dental implants should not be hampered. The physical and chemical features of blasting particles could importantly affect the produced surfaces of implants. Titanium surfaces with micro pits are created after immersion in mixtures of strong acids. On surfaces after dual acid-etching procedures the crosslinking between fibrin and osteogenetic cells could be enhanced therefore bone formation could be directly facilitated on the surface of the implant. Nowadays there are a number of surface modification techniques available. These can be used as a single method or in combination with each other. The effect of the two most commonly used surface modifications (acid-etching and grit-blasting) on different implants are demonstrated in our investigation.

  3. Micro-CT in situ study of carbonate rock microstructural evolution for geologic CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Yang, Y.; Rogowska, M.; Gundlach, C.

    2017-09-01

    To achieve the 2°C target made in the 2016 Paris Agreement, it is essential to reduce the emission of CO2 into the atmosphere. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) has been given increasing importance over the last decade. One of the suggested methods for CCS is to inject CO2 into geologic settings such as the carbonate reservoirs in the North Sea. The final aim of our project is to find out how to control the evolution of petrophysical parameters during CO2 injection using an optimal combination of flow rate, injection pressure and chemical composition of the influent. The first step to achieve this is to find a suitable condition to create a stable 3D space in carbonate rock by injecting liquid to prepare space for the later CO2 injection. Micro-CT imaging is a non-destructive 3D method that can be used to study the property changes of carbonate rocks during and after CO2 injection. The advance in lab source based micro-CT has made it capable of in situ experiments. We used a commercial bench top micro-CT (Zeiss Versa XRM410) to study the microstructure changes of chalk during liquid injection. Flexible temporal CT resolution is essential in this study because that the time scales of coupled physical and chemical processes can be very different. The results validated the feasibility of using a bench top CT system with a pressure cell to monitor the mesoscale multiphase interactions in chalk.

  4. Geology's Impact on Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most people consider geology boring, static and difficult. The fields of astronomy and physics have "rebranded" themselves with exciting programs formatted so as to be readily understandable to the general public. The same thing can be done for geology. My research on geology's influence on other disciplines has resulted in a book, Tweeting da Vinci, in which I was able to show how geology affected Italy's art, architecture, medicine, religion, literature, engineering and just about everything else. The reaction to the book and my lectures by both students and the general public has been very positive, including four gold medals, with reviews and comments indicating that they never knew geology could be so exciting. The book is very user friendly, packed with facts, full-color photos, paintings, sketches and illustrations. Complex aspects of geology are presented in an easily understandable style. Widely diverse topics—such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion—are stitched together using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. The book can be used in classes such as physics, chemistry, literature, art history, medicine, Classical Studies, Latin, Greek and Italian. By incorporating a "geologic perspective" in these courses, it can be perceived as a more "all encompassing" discipline and encourage more students to study it. The lectures I have given on college campuses have resulted in students seeing their own majors from a different perspective and some have even signed up for introductory geology courses. One college organized summer course to the Bay of Naples based on the book. We followed the geology as well as the culture of the area and the students were profoundly moved. To encourage dialog, the book is linked to Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. This has enabled followers from

  5. Electrochemical, surface analytical and quantum chemical studies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present study describes the inhibition of aluminium in 1N HNO3 with different concentrations of 1,2,4-triazole precursors ATD, BATD and DBATD using gravimetric method, potentiodynamic polarization studies (Tafel), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), adsorption studies, surface morphological studies and ...

  6. Pilot Study Using the Augmented Reality Sandbox to Teach Topographic Maps and Surficial Processes in Introductory Geology Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Terri L.; Reed, Sarah; Hsi, Sherry; Woods, John A.; Woods, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial thinking is often challenging for introductory geology students. A pilot study using the Augmented Reality sandbox (AR sandbox) suggests it can be a powerful tool for bridging the gap between two-dimensional (2D) representations and real landscapes, as well as enhancing the spatial thinking and modeling abilities of students. The AR…

  7. Outlier detection by robust Mahalanobis distance in geological data obtained by INAA to provenance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose O. dos, E-mail: osmansantos@ig.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sergipe (IFS), Lagarto, SE (Brazil); Munita, Casimiro S., E-mail: camunita@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Soares, Emilio A.A., E-mail: easoares@ufan.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias

    2013-07-01

    The detection of outlier in geochemical studies is one of the main difficulties in the interpretation of dataset because they can disturb the statistical method. The search for outliers in geochemical studies is usually based in the Mahalanobis distance (MD), since points in multivariate space that are a distance larger the some predetermined values from center of the data are considered outliers. However, the MD is very sensitive to the presence of discrepant samples. Many robust estimators for location and covariance have been introduced in the literature, such as Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD) estimator. When MCD estimators are used to calculate the MD leads to the so-called Robust Mahalanobis Distance (RD). In this context, in this work RD was used to detect outliers in geological study of samples collected from confluence of Negro and Solimoes rivers. The purpose of this study was to study the contributions of the sediments deposited by the Solimoes and Negro rivers in the filling of the tectonic depressions at Parana do Ariau. For that 113 samples were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in which were determined the concentration of As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, U, Yb, Ta, Tb, Th and Zn. In the dataset was possible to construct the ellipse corresponding to robust Mahalanobis distance for each group of samples. The samples found outside of the tolerance ellipse were considered an outlier. The results showed that Robust Mahalanobis Distance was more appropriate for the identification of the outliers, once it is a more restrictive method. (author)

  8. Outlier detection by robust Mahalanobis distance in geological data obtained by INAA to provenance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Jose O. dos; Munita, Casimiro S.; Soares, Emilio A.A.

    2013-01-01

    The detection of outlier in geochemical studies is one of the main difficulties in the interpretation of dataset because they can disturb the statistical method. The search for outliers in geochemical studies is usually based in the Mahalanobis distance (MD), since points in multivariate space that are a distance larger the some predetermined values from center of the data are considered outliers. However, the MD is very sensitive to the presence of discrepant samples. Many robust estimators for location and covariance have been introduced in the literature, such as Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD) estimator. When MCD estimators are used to calculate the MD leads to the so-called Robust Mahalanobis Distance (RD). In this context, in this work RD was used to detect outliers in geological study of samples collected from confluence of Negro and Solimoes rivers. The purpose of this study was to study the contributions of the sediments deposited by the Solimoes and Negro rivers in the filling of the tectonic depressions at Parana do Ariau. For that 113 samples were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in which were determined the concentration of As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, U, Yb, Ta, Tb, Th and Zn. In the dataset was possible to construct the ellipse corresponding to robust Mahalanobis distance for each group of samples. The samples found outside of the tolerance ellipse were considered an outlier. The results showed that Robust Mahalanobis Distance was more appropriate for the identification of the outliers, once it is a more restrictive method. (author)

  9. Gulf Coast Salt Domes geologic Area Characterization Report, East Texas Study Area. Volume II. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The East Texas Area Characterization Report (ACR) is a compilation of data gathered during the Area Characterization phase of the Department of Energy's National Waste Terminal Storage program in salt. The characterization of Gulf Coast Salt Domes as a potential site for storage of nuclear waste is an ongoing process. This report summarizes investigations covering an area of approximately 2590 km 2 (1000 mi 2 ). Data on Oakwood, Keechi, and Palestine Domes are given. Subsequent phases of the program will focus on smaller land areas and fewer specific salt domes, with progressively more detailed investigations, possibly culminating with a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The data in this report are a result of drilling and sampling, geophysical and geologic field work, and intensive literature review. The ACR contains text discussing data usage, interpretations, results and conclusions based on available geologic and hydrologic data, and figures including diagrams showing data point locations, geologic and hydrologic maps, geologic cross sections, and other geologic and hydrologic information. An appendix contains raw data gathered during this phase of the project and used in the preparation of these reports

  10. Surface studies of titania related nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Anthoula Chrysa

    In this thesis, surface sensitive techniques have been employed to investigate the surface chemistry of TiC>2. A bottom-up approach was used to grow ultra-thin films of rutile TiO2(110) on Ni(110). The surface structure of this system was probed using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED), whereas the electronic structure was characterised with soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SXPS). SXPS was also used to investigate the reactivity of this system towards water. While optimising the conditions for the growth of the desired titania phase, the growth of other structures commonly found in reduced native TiC>2 crystals were apparent from STM and LEED observations. The formation of 1x2 reconstructed TiO2(110) and crystallographic shear planes are reported. These phases are assigned by comparison with previous studies of analogous phases on the native rutile TiC>2(110) surface. STM was also used to monitor chemical reactions on native TiO2(110) surfaces. The reaction of surface bridging hydroxyl groups with molecular oxygen at room temperature was imaged directly. After exposure to O2, nearly all bridging hydroxyl groups are consumed, and new, mobile adsorbates appear with a range of apparent heights. With the support of calculations performed by Hofer's group in the University of Liverpool and Fisher's group in UCL, the adsorbates left on the surface after the reaction are assigned to neutral and charged oxygen adatoms as well as terminal hydroxyls. Finally, the surface local density of states of TiO2(110) were measured using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. Energetically localised states are found at sample biases of +0.2 V, 0.7 V and 1.9 V. Additionally, a surface state at 1.9 V is localised spatially at two adjacent titanium five-fold atoms near to the positions of surface oxygen vacancies.

  11. Coil response inversion for very early time modelling of helicopter-borne time-domain electromagnetic data and mapping of near-surface geological layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schamper, Cyril Noel Clarence; Auken, Esben; Sørensen, Kurt Ingvard K.I.

    2014-01-01

    current is abruptly turned off in a large transmitter loop causing a secondary electromagnetic field to be generated by the eddy currents induced in the ground. Often, however, there is still a residual primary field generated by remaining slowly decaying currents in the transmitter loop. The decay...... disturbs or biases the earth response data at the very early times. These biased data must be culled, or some specific processing must be applied in order to compensate or remove the residual primary field. As the bias response can be attributed to decaying currents with its time constantly controlled......Very early times in the order of 2-3 μs from the end of the turn-off ramp for time-domain electromagnetic systems are crucial for obtaining a detailed resolution of the near-surface geology in the depth interval 0-20 m. For transient electromagnetic systems working in the off time, an electric...

  12. The growth of the continent through geological time studied by Nd isotope analysis of shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegre, C.J.; Rousseau, D.; Paris-7 Univ., 75

    1984-01-01

    We determined the Nd isotopic composition and the Sm/Nd ratios in a series of Australian shales ranging from 0.2 Gy to 3.3 Gy. The first result of this study is the constancy of the Sm/Nd ratio in these shales, as in granitoids. Secondly, the initial ( 143 Nd/ 144 Nd) ratio gives a regular curve decreasing through geological time. Both results confirm that shales are representative samples of the continental crust, when insoluble elements, like REE, are studied. We calculated their Nd model ages of crustal differentiation. The model ages regularly decrease with the stratigraphic ages and after 2 Gy, the curve flattens and tends to an asymptotic value at around 1.8 Gy. The significance of the shales is that they represent a mixture of continental materials and we consider the model age of such a mixture directly linked with the mean age of the continental portion feeding the sedimentary basin. From these results, we deduce a quantitative model of the growth curve of the continental source of the shales taking into account the effects of erosion which selectively sample recent mountains relative to shield areas. We propose that the results obtained here are representative of the whole Gondwana continent. Having studied the case of the Australian shales, we try to extend our study. First we applied our quantitative approach to the recent results obtained by O'Nions et al. on North Atlantic provinces. The continental growth curves obtained by our inversion procedure are quite distinct from the Australian shales showing the regional character of shales. (orig./WB)

  13. Bibliography of geologic studies: Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt) and adjacent areas in Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strowd, W.

    1978-11-01

    The objective of this compilation is to present a comprehensive listing of published, unpublished, and open-file references pertaining to the geology of the Columbia Plateau and adjacent areas in the State of Idaho. The bibliography was compiled in support of Rockwell's Basalt Waste Isolation Program that is evaluating the feasibility of nuclear waste storage in the Columbia River Basalt Group. The emphasis is on stratigraphy, structural geology, seismicity, and tectonics, although the nature of Columbia River Basalt distribution in Idaho has necessitated the inclusion of a sizeable collection of references on geology marginal to the Columbia Plateau and associated mineral resources. The bibliography is divided into two major sections, the alphabetical listing of all references and the subject index. The subject index is divided into 19 categories to facilitate locating a specific reference in the user's field of interest

  14. Geologic investigations of Australian earthquakes: Paleoseismicity and the recurrence of surface faulting in the stable regions of continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machette, Michael; Crone, Anthony

    1993-01-01

    Earthquakes that occur in the stable regions of continents are very rare compared to those that occur along plate margins, such as the San Andreas fault system of western California. Worldwide, only 11 historic earthquakes in stable continental regions are known to have produced surface ruptures. Five of these have occurred in Australia since 1968 (see map, next page).

  15. The Geology of the Marcia Quadrangle of Asteroid 4Vesta: An Integrated Mapping Study Using Dawn Spacecraft Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David A.; Denevi, B. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Mest, S. C.; Schenk, P. M.; Jaumann, R.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Ammannito, E.; Prettyman, T. H.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We used geologic mapping applied to Dawn data as a tool to understand the geologic history of the Marcia quadrangle of Vesta. This region hosts a set of relatively fresh craters and surrounding ejecta field, an unusual dark hill named Arisia Tholus, and a orange (false color) diffuse material surrounding the crater Octavia. Stratigraphically, from oldest to youngest, three increasingly larger impact craters named Minucia, Calpurnia, and Marcia make up a snowmanlike feature, which is surrounded by a zone of dark material interpreted to consist of impact ejecta and possibly impact melts. The floor of Marcia contains a pitted terrain thought to be related to release of volatiles (1). The dark ejecta field has an enhanced signature of H, possibly derived from carbonaceous chondritic material that accumulated in Vesta s crust (2,3). The dark ejecta has a spectrally distinctive behavior with shallow pyroxenes band depths. Outside the ejecta field this quadrangle contains various cratered terrains, with increasing crater abundance moving south to north away from the Rheasilvia basin. Arisia Tholus, originally suggested as an ancient volcano, appears to be an impact-sculpted basin rim fragment with a superposed darkrayed impact crater. There remains no unequivocal evidence of volcanic features on Vesta s surface, likely because basaltic material of the HED meteorite suite demonstrates magmatism ended very early on Vesta (4). Ongoing work includes application of crater statistical techniques to obtain model ages of surface units, and more detailed estimates of the compositional variations among the surface units.

  16. A preliminary study on the suitability of host rocks for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yun; Koh, Young Kown

    2000-02-01

    It is expected that the key issues are listed as the disposal concept, reference disposal system and other relevant technical development for the deep geological disposal of HLW in each country. First above all, however, the preferred host rocks should be suggested prior execution of these activities. And, it is desirable to be reviewed and proposed some host rocks representative its country. For the reviewing of host rocks in Korean peninsula, several issues were considered such as the long-term geological stability, fracture system, surface and groundwater system and geochemical characteristics in peninsula. The three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the R and D of HLW disposal based on the upper stated information. In the following stages, it is suggested that these preferred host rocks would be made an object of all relevant R and D activities for HLW disposal. And, many references for these geologic medium should be characterized and constructed various technical development for the Korean reference disposal system.

  17. Surface textures of heavy-mineral grains: a new contribution to provenance studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral Cardona, J. P.; Gutiérrez Mas, J. M.; Sánchez Bellón, A.; Domínguez-Bella, S.; Martínez López, J.

    2005-02-01

    The study zone is geologically very complex and corresponds to the western limits of the Betic Cordilleras (SW Spain); materials from the Triassic to Holocene are found here. This study demonstrates that most of the surface textures seen on quartz are present on the seven selected heavy minerals. SEM analysis of heavy-mineral grains reveals that certain morphologies are, in part, associated with particular surface textures. This textural analysis enables the source areas to be differentiated more clearly. Equally, it contributes to a deeper knowledge of the various stages of the grains provenance. A good example is the study of the heavy minerals of the Guadalete River terraces.

  18. Capability Study For Using the Impulse Graphite Reactor For Activation Analysis of Geological Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarov, V.A.; Silaev, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    The IGR reactor facility available in the Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK is mainly used for testing the going and newly developed fuel compositions and reactor materials. In connection with a decrease of the demand in investigations like that there was considered the capability to use the reactor for solving another research and, particularly, applied problems. A mineral exploration is one of the urgent objectives in the Republic of Kazakstan, and in Semipalatinsk region in particular. To perform the exploration like that it's required, in addition to rough field investigations, the methods of analysis for element composition of geological materials, the difference of which is in their effectiveness, quality and low first cost. Activation methods of analysis allow to provide with a high analysis quality and effectiveness. Therefore, there was proposed to study the capability to use the IGR reactor for the activation analysis of geological materials. To solve this goal the following activity in three basic trends is required: 1. To create the needed theoretical and, on its basis, the methodical base for performing the analytical activity; 2. To create the experimental and technical and organizational infrastructure for the investigations, providing with a high productivity and low prime cost of work; 3. To conduct works on marketing and to use the going methodical and technical base on the market of services. Major objectives for the creation of the theoretical and methodical base for analysis are: a) the study of neutron and physical IGR reactor characteristics under various operation modes; b) the study of the radiation effect on the results of activation analysis; c) the simulation of the temperature mode for irradiation of samples in the reactor and experimental model survey; d) the study of the capability to use non-traditional elements and materials as neutron reactor flux monitors; e) the development of the technique for the experimental and computational

  19. Beam-hardening correction by a surface fitting and phase classification by a least square support vector machine approach for tomography images of geological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F.; Enzmann, F.; Kersten, M.

    2015-12-01

    In X-ray computed microtomography (μXCT) image processing is the most important operation prior to image analysis. Such processing mainly involves artefact reduction and image segmentation. We propose a new two-stage post-reconstruction procedure of an image of a geological rock core obtained by polychromatic cone-beam μXCT technology. In the first stage, the beam-hardening (BH) is removed applying a best-fit quadratic surface algorithm to a given image data set (reconstructed slice), which minimizes the BH offsets of the attenuation data points from that surface. The final BH-corrected image is extracted from the residual data, or the difference between the surface elevation values and the original grey-scale values. For the second stage, we propose using a least square support vector machine (a non-linear classifier algorithm) to segment the BH-corrected data as a pixel-based multi-classification task. A combination of the two approaches was used to classify a complex multi-mineral rock sample. The Matlab code for this approach is provided in the Appendix. A minor drawback is that the proposed segmentation algorithm may become computationally demanding in the case of a high dimensional training data set.

  20. A method and example of seismically imaging near‐surface fault zones in geologically complex areas using Vp, Vs, and their ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchings, Rufus D.; Rymer, Michael J.; Goldman, Mark R.; Sickler, Robert R.; Criley, Coyn J.

    2014-01-01

    The determination of near‐surface (vadose zone and slightly below) fault locations and geometries is important because assessment of ground rupture, strong shaking, geologic slip rates, and rupture histories occurs at shallow depths. However, seismic imaging of fault zones at shallow depths can be difficult due to near‐surface complexities, such as weathering, groundwater saturation, massive (nonlayered) rocks, and vertically layered strata. Combined P‐ and S‐wave seismic‐refraction tomography data can overcome many of the near‐surface, fault‐zone seismic‐imaging problems because of differences in the responses of elastic (bulk and shear) moduli of P and S waves to shallow‐depth, fault‐zone properties. We show that high‐resolution refraction tomography images of P‐ to S‐wave velocity ratios (VP/VS) can reliably identify near‐surface faults. We demonstrate this method using tomography images of the San Andreas fault (SAF) surface‐rupture zone associated with the 18 April 1906 ∼M 7.9 San Francisco earthquake on the San Francisco peninsula in California. There, the SAF cuts through Franciscan mélange, which consists of an incoherent assemblage of greywacke, chert, greenstone, and serpentinite. A near‐vertical zone (∼75° northeast dip) of high P‐wave velocities (up to 3000  m/s), low S‐wave velocities (∼150–600  m/s), high VP/VS ratios (4–8.8), and high Poisson’s ratios (0.44–0.49) characterizes the main surface‐rupture zone to a depth of about 20 m and is consistent with nearby trench observations. We suggest that the combined VP/VSimaging approach can reliably identify most near‐surface fault zones in locations where many other seismic methods cannot be applied.

  1. Geology of Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basilevsky, A.T.; Head, J.W. III.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the emerging picture of the surface of Venus provided by high-resolution earth-based radar telescopes and orbital radar altimetry and imaging systems. The nature and significance of the geological processes operating there are considered. The types of information needed to complete the picture are addressed. 71 references

  2. The potential of near-surface geophysical methods in a hierarchical monitoring approach for the detection of shallow CO2 seeps at geological storage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, U.; Schuetze, C.; Dietrich, P.

    2013-12-01

    The MONACO project (Monitoring approach for geological CO2 storage sites using a hierarchic observation concept) aims to find reliable monitoring tools that work on different spatial and temporal scales at geological CO2 storage sites. This integrative hierarchical monitoring approach based on different levels of coverage and resolutions is proposed as a means of reliably detecting CO2 degassing areas at ground surface level and for identifying CO2 leakages from storage formations into the shallow subsurface, as well as CO2 releases into the atmosphere. As part of this integrative hierarchical monitoring concept, several methods and technologies from ground-based remote sensing (Open-path Fourier-transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy), regional measurements (near-surface geophysics, chamber-based soil CO2 flux measurement) and local in-situ measurements (using shallow boreholes) will either be combined or used complementary to one another. The proposed combination is a suitable concept for investigating CO2 release sites. This also presents the possibility of adopting a modular monitoring concept whereby our monitoring approach can be expanded to incorporate other methods in various coverage scales at any temporal resolution. The link between information obtained from large-scale surveys and local in-situ monitoring can be realized by sufficient geophysical techniques for meso-scale monitoring, such as geoelectrical and self-potential (SP) surveys. These methods are useful for characterizing fluid flow and transport processes in permeable near-surface sedimentary layers and can yield important information concerning CO2-affected subsurface structures. Results of measurements carried out a natural analogue site in the Czech Republic indicate that the hierarchical monitoring approach represents a successful multidisciplinary modular concept that can be used to monitor both physical and chemical processes taking place during CO2 migration and seepage. The

  3. 2009 - 2010 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Lidar: Deschutes Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oregon Department of Geology June 14, 2010 30,161 31,969 10 Oct 12 - 17, 2009; May 29 - June 17, 2010 48,746 50,833 11 Oct 16 - Nov 5, 2009; May 28 - July 3,...

  4. Uncertainty studies and risk assessment for CO2 storage in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, Lena Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) in deep geological formations is one possible option to mitigate the greenhouse gas effect by reducing CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere. The assessment of the risks related to CO 2 storage is an important task. Events such as CO 2 leakage and brine displacement could result in hazards for human health and the environment. In this thesis, a systematic and comprehensive risk assessment concept is presented to investigate various levels of uncertainties and to assess risks using numerical simulations. Depending on the risk and the processes, which should be assessed, very complex models, large model domains, large time scales, and many simulations runs for estimating probabilities are required. To reduce the resulting high computational costs, a model reduction technique (the arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion) and a method for model coupling in space are applied. The different levels of uncertainties are: statistical uncertainty in parameter distributions, scenario uncertainty, e.g. different geological features, and recognized ignorance due to assumptions in the conceptual model set-up. Recognized ignorance and scenario uncertainty are investigated by simulating well defined model set-ups and scenarios. According to damage values, which are defined as a model output, the set-ups and scenarios can be compared and ranked. For statistical uncertainty probabilities can be determined by running Monte Carlo simulations with the reduced model. The results are presented in various ways: e.g., mean damage, probability density function, cumulative distribution function, or an overall risk value by multiplying the damage with the probability. If the model output (damage) cannot be compared to provided criteria (e.g. water quality criteria), analytical approximations are presented to translate the damage into comparable values. The overall concept is applied for the risks related to brine displacement and infiltration into drinking water

  5. Surface diffusion studies by optical diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, X.D.

    1992-11-01

    The newly developed optical techniques have been combined with either second harmonic (SH) diffraction or linear diffraction off a monolayer adsorbate grating for surface diffusion measurement. Anisotropy of surface diffusion of CO on Ni(l10) was used as a demonstration for the second harmonic dim reaction method. The linear diffraction method, which possesses a much higher sensitivity than the SH diffraction method, was employed to study the effect of adsorbate-adsorbate interaction on CO diffusion on Ni(l10) surface. Results showed that only the short range direct CO-CO orbital overlapping interaction influences CO diffusion but not the long range dipole-dipole and CO-NI-CO interactions. Effects of impurities and defects on surface diffusion were further explored by using linear diffraction method on CO/Ni(110) system. It was found that a few percent S impurity can alter the CO diffusion barrier height to a much higher value through changing the Ni(110) surface. The point defects of Ni(l10) surface seem to speed up CO diffusion significantly. A mechanism with long jumps over multiple lattice distance initiated by CO filled vacancy is proposed to explain the observed defect effect

  6. Recovery of total Hg from geological matrices: a methodological intercomparison study (W6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, N.S.; Vondergeest, E.J.; Preus, E.M.; Horvat, M.; Prosenc, N.; Kingston, S.; Apte, S.; Pobbs, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Aqua regia is commonly used for the extraction of Hg from soils prior to cold vapor spectrometry, but mass balance studies suggested it is not sufficiently robust to recover all Hg from more recalcitrant materials such as crystalline ores. As a result, an intercomparison exercise was undertaken between the following methods: (a) aqua regia digestion (EPA 7471) followed by SnCl 2 reduction, gold trapping and CVAFS detection, (b) Teflon bomb digestion at 110 o C with a 10:5:2 HNO 3 + HF + HCl mixture followed by SnCl 2 reduction, gold trapping and CVAFS, (c) 800 o C pyrolysis with gold trapping and CVAAS detection (EPA 7473), and (d) NAA followed by radiochemical separations using oxidative combustion and gold trapping. All methods gave quantitative recoveries from soil and sediment CRMs, but only the HF/HCI/HNO 3 digestion gave quantitative recoveries in all media. Pyrolysis resulted in approximately 88 ± 10 % recovery, while aqua regia digestion resulted in only about 61 ± 24 % recovery in bauxite ores and residues. RNAA generally gave the best agreement with the HF based digestion, although in a significant number of samples, particularly bauxite ores, recoveries were as low as 50 %. Based on these findings, we recommend that bomb digestions which include the use HF be applied to the analysis of Hg in geological solids, unless the matrix is documented to be fully extractable by a less rigorous procedure. We suggest a reference value for Hg in bauxite reference material (NIST-600) of 79.0 ± 2.0 ng/g, based on the pooled results of three laboratories. (author)

  7. Study on Regional Geology and Uranium Mineralization of Schwaner Mountains West and Central Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soepradto-Tjokrokardono; Djoko-Soetarno; MS; Liliek-Subiantoro; Retno-Witjahyati

    2004-01-01

    Uranium occurrences indication in Kalimantan has been discovered at metamorphic and granites rocks of Schwaner Mountains as the radioactivity and geochemical anomalies. A regional geology of Schwaner Mountains show a watershed of West and East Kalimantan consist of Pinoh metamorphic rocks that was intruded by tonalitic and granitic batholite. The goal of this study is to observe the mechanism of the Uranium occurrences related to the regional tectonic, metamorphic rocks, tonalite and granitic batholite. Permokarbonaferrous metamorphic rocks as the big masses of roof pendant within tonalite mass. The metamorphic rocks originally as the big masses of roof pendant within tonalite mass. The metamorphic rocks originally derived from sedimentary process that produce a high content of uranium as well as a fine grained volcanic material. This uranium is deposited within neritic facies. Those sediments have been metamorphosed by low grade Abukuma regional metamorphism at the condition about 540 o C and 2000 bar. In early Cretaceous Tonalite of Sep auk intruded the rock and both metamorphics and tonalites. Those rocks were intruded by Late Cretaceous alkalin granite of Sukadana. Those crystalline rocks overlaid by an unconformity-related Kampari and Tebidah Formations that including within Melawi Group of Tertiary age. Uranium mineralization as the centimetric-metric veins related to tectonic N 100 o -110 o E and N 50 o E lineaments. Uranium was interpreted as a volcanic sedimentary origin, than it re mobilized by low grade regional metamorphism process. This enuchment process was carried out by fluor, boron and other metalliferous mineral within hydrothermal solutions of Sukadana granite. (author)

  8. Preliminary results of geologic and remote sensing studies of Rima Mozart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombs, C.R.; Hawke, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    In order to better understand the processes responsible for the formation of lunar sinuous rilles, a study of Rima Mozart was conducted using a variety of geologic, photographic, and remote sensing data. The apparent source of this rille is located in a highlands unit of known composition and it is hypothesized that thermal and mechanical erosion played an important role in the formation of Rima Mozart. Excellent photographic, topographic, multispectral, and radar data exist for this rille. The preliminary results of an analysis of this data are presented. Photographic data indicates the presence of two volcanic source vents for Rima Mozart: Kathleen and Ann. It is suggested that Rima Mozart, like many other lunar sinuous rilles, was most likely formed by a combination of events. Rima Mozart does follow a pre-existing, dominant NW/SE structural trend suggesting the influence of structural features on the rille, however, the tectonic influence is not the sole source for the formation of the rille, as suggested by the presence of the two source vents and the spatter around Ann. It is suggested that the rille formation began with an explosive eruption at Kathleen which later calmed down to a pulsating, high volume, low-viscosity lava flow. The rapid effusion rate of the magma as well as its high temperature and turbid nature helped carve the sinuous rille into the fractured and structurally weak Apennine Bench Formation underneath. Similar eruptions and subsequent flows were also created at Ann and joined to the main channel by a NE-trending secondary rille

  9. Preliminary results of geologic and remote sensing studies of Rima Mozart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, C. R.; Hawke, B. R.

    1987-01-01

    In order to better understand the processes responsible for the formation of lunar sinuous rilles, a study of Rima Mozart was conducted using a variety of geologic, photographic, and remote sensing data. The apparent source of this rille is located in a highlands unit of known composition and it is hypothesized that thermal and mechanical erosion played an important role in the formation of Rima Mozart. Excellent photographic, topographic, multispectral, and radar data exist for this rille. The preliminary results of an analysis of this data are presented. Photographic data indicates the presence of two volcanic source vents for Rima Mozart: Kathleen and Ann. It is suggested that Rima Mozart, like many other lunar sinuous rilles, was most likely formed by a combination of events. Rima Mozart does follow a pre-existing, dominant NW/SE structural trend suggesting the influence of structural features on the rille, however, the tectonic influence is not the sole source for the formation of the rille, as suggested by the presence of the two source vents and the spatter around Ann. It is suggested that the rille formation began with an explosive eruption at Kathleen which later calmed down to a pulsating, high volume, low-viscosity lava flow. The rapid effusion rate of the magma as well as its high temperature and turbid nature helped carve the sinuous rille into the fractured and structurally weak Apennine Bench Formation underneath. Similar eruptions and subsequent flows were also created at Ann and joined to the main channel by a NE-trending secondary rille.

  10. Geologic characterization report for the Paradox Basin Study Region, Utah Study Areas. Volume 6. Salt Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    Surface landforms in the Salt Valley Area are generally a function of the Salt Valley anticline and are characterized by parallel and subparallel cuestaform ridges and hogbacks and flat valley floors. The most prominent structure in the Area is the Salt Valley anticline. Erosion resulting from the Tertiary uplift of the Colorado Plateau led to salt dissolution and subsequent collapse along the crest of the anticline. Continued erosion removed the collapse material, forming an axial valley along the crest of the anticline. Paleozoic rocks beneath the salt bearing Paradox Formation consist of limestone, dolomite, sandstone, siltstone and shale. The salt beds of the Paradox Formation occur in distinct cycles separated by an interbed sequence of anhydrite, carbonate, and clastic rocks. The Paradox Formation is overlain by Pennsylvanian limestone; Permian sandstone; and Mesozoic sandstone, mudstone, conglomerate and shale. No earthquakes have been reported in the Area during the period of the historic record and contemporary seismicity appears to be diffusely distributed, of low level and small magnitude. The upper unit includes the Permian strata and upper Honaker Trail Formation. The current data base is insufficient to estimate ground-water flow rates and directions in this unit. The middle unit includes the evaporites in the Paradox Formation and no laterally extensive flow systems are apparent. The lower unit consists of the rocks below the Paradox Formation where permeabilities vary widely, and the apparent flow direction is toward the west. 108 refs., 39 figs., 9 tabs

  11. Status of geological studies undertaken in France on the Oklo deposit since the Libreville Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, F.

    1978-01-01

    The questions posed since the Libreville symposium can be grouped under four headings: origin of the deposits and the over-concentrations; degree of burial reached by the series; temperatures attained during the reactions, and effects of the reactions; perturbations subsequent to the reactions. These questions have been the subject of multidisciplinary investigations, including conventional petrographic and mineralogical investigations (Cogema, Fontenay-aux-Roses and the Centre for Sedimentology and Geochemistry of the Surface, Strasbourg), a study of fluid inclusions (Centre for Petrographic and Geochemical Research, Nancy), studies of organic material (French Institute of Petroleum, Rueil, and Cerchar, Verneuil-en-Halatte) and a study of fission traces (Rene Barnas Laboratory, Orsay). (author)

  12. FY12 ARRA-NRAP Report – Studies to Support Risk Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Shao, Hongbo; Thompson, C. J.; Zhong, Lirong; Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong

    2011-09-27

    This report summarizes results of research conducted during FY2012 to support the assessment of environmental risks associated with geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and storage. Several research focus areas are ongoing as part of this project. This includes the quantification of the leachability of metals and organic compounds from representative CO2 storage reservoir and caprock materials, the fate of metals and organic compounds after release, and the development of a method to measure pH in situ under supercritical CO2 (scCO2) conditions. Metal leachability experiments were completed on 6 different rock samples in brine in equilibrium with scCO2 at representative geologic reservoir conditions. In general, the leaching of RCRA metals and other metals of concern was found to be limited and not likely to be a significant issue (at least, for the rocks tested). Metals leaching experiments were also completed on 1 rock sample with scCO2 containing oxygen at concentrations of 0, 1, 5, and 10% to simulate injection of CO2 originating from the oxy-fuel combustion process. Significant differences in the leaching behavior of certain metals were observed when oxygen is present in the CO2. These differences resulted from oxidation of sulfides, release of sulfate, ferric iron and other metals, and subsequent precipitation of iron oxides and some sulfates such as barite. Experiments to evaluate the potential for mobilization of organic compounds from representative reservoir materials and cap rock and their fate in porous media (quartz sand) have been conducted. Results with Fruitland coal and Gothic shale indicate that lighter organic compounds were more susceptible to mobilization by scCO2 compared to heavier compounds. Alkanes demonstrated very low extractability by scCO2. No significant differences were observed between the extractability of organic compounds by dry or water saturated scCO2. Reaction equilibrium appears to have been reached by 96 hours. When

  13. Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, John; Frankel, Kurt L.

    2011-05-01

    Structural geology and continental tectonics were ushered in to the modern quantitative age of geosciences with the arrival of the global plate tectonics paradigm (circa 1968), derived using new data from the oceans' depths, and John Ramsay's 1967 seminal work, Folding and Fracturing of Rocks. Fossen is to be applauded for crafting a unique, high-caliber, and accessible undergraduate textbook on structural geology that faithfully reflects this advance and the subsequent evolution of the discipline. This well-written text draws on Fossen's wealth of professional experience, including his broad and diverse academic research and experience in the petroleum industry. This book is beautifully illustrated, with excellent original color diagrams and with impressive color field photographs that are all keyed to locations and placed into geologic context.

  14. Geology and physical properties of the near-surface rocks of Mesita de los Alamos, Los Alamos County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtymun, W.D.

    1967-01-01

    The surface of Mesita de los Alamos is formed by units 2b and 3 of the Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff. These units dip gently east-southeastward at 3 to 6 degrees. The units are faulted near the center of the mesa by a north-south trending normal strike slip fault, that is downthrown about 14 feet to the east. The units east of the fault have moved about 14 feet south relative to the units on the west side of the fault. Units 2b and 3 have bulk density values ranging from 80 to 120 pounds per cubic foot. The moisture content of the tuff below the soil zone and near surface tuff was less than 5 percent by volume in five of the 25 test holes drilled during a foundation investigation for the Meson Facility. The temperature of the tuff in the bottom of three test holes (depth 16 to 43 feet) varied from 50?F to 54?F. Temperature variations were a function of density and amount of solar radiation.

  15. Quantification of rock heterogeneities by structural geological field studies combined with laboratory analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyer, Dorothea; Afsar, Filiz; Philipp, Sonja

    2013-04-01

    Heterogeneous rock properties in terms of layering and complex infrastructure of fault zones are typical in sedimentary successions. The knowledge of in-situ mechanical rock properties is crucial for a better understanding of processes such as fracturing and fluid transport in fractured reservoirs. To estimate in situ rock properties at different depths it is important to understand how rocks from outcrops differ from rocks at depth, for example due to alteration and removal of the overburden load. We aim at quantifying these properties by performing structural geological field studies in outcrop analogues combined with laboratory analyses of outcrop samples and drill-cores. The field studies focus on 1) fault zone infrastructure and 2) host rock fracture systems in two different study areas with different lithologies, the North German and the Bristol Channel Basin. We analyse quantitatively the dimension, geometry, persistence and connectivity of fracture systems. The field studies are complemented by systematic sampling to obtain the parameters Young's modulus, compressive and tensile strengths and elastic strain energy (also referred to as destruction work) from which we estimate rock and fracture toughnesses. The results show that in rocks with distinctive layering fractures are often restricted to individual layers, that is, stratabound. The probability of arrest seems to depend on the stiffness contrast between two single layers as well as on the thickness of the softer layer. The results also show that there are clear differences between fault zones in the different lithologies in terms of damage zone thicknesses and fracture system parameters. The results of laboratory analyses show that the mechanical properties vary considerably and for many samples there are clear directional differences. That is, samples taken perpendicular to layering commonly have higher stiffnesses and strengths than those taken parallel to layering. We combine the results of

  16. SMART-1 highlights and relevant studies on early bombardment and geological processes on rocky planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foing, B H; Koschny, D; Frew, D; Almeida, M; Zender, J; Heather, D; Peters, S; Racca, G D; Marini, A; Stagnaro, L; Josset, J L; Beauvivre, S; Grande, M; Kellett, B; Huovelin, J; Nathues, A; Mall, U; Ehrenfreund, P; McCannon, P

    2008-01-01

    present here SMART-1 results relevant to the study of the early bombardment and geological processes on rocky planets. Further information and updates on the SMART-1 mission can be found on the ESA Science and Technology web pages, at: http://sci.esa.int/smart-1/

  17. Geologic guide to the island of Hawaii: A field guide for comparative planetary geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    With geological data available for all inner planets except Venus, we are entering an era of true comparative planetary geology, when knowledge of the differences and similarities for classes of structures (e.g., shield volcanoes) will lead to a better understanding of general geological processes, regardless of planet. Thus, it is imperative that planetologists, particularly those involved in geological mapping and surface feature analysis for terrestrial planets, be familiar with volcanic terrain in terms of its origin, structure, and morphology. One means of gaining this experience is through field trips in volcanic terrains - hence, the Planetology Conference in Hawaii. In addition, discussions with volcanologists at the conference provide an important basis for establishing communications between the two fields that will facilitate comparative studies as more data become available.

  18. Study Paths, Riemann Surfaces, and Strebel Differentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buser, Peter; Semmler, Klaus-Dieter

    2017-01-01

    These pages aim to explain and interpret why the late Mika Seppälä, a conformal geometer, proposed to model student study behaviour using concepts from conformal geometry, such as Riemann surfaces and Strebel differentials. Over many years Mika Seppälä taught online calculus courses to students at Florida State University in the United States, as…

  19. Effects of local geology on ground motion in the San Francisco Bay region, California—A continued study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, James F.; Borcherdt, Roger D.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements of ground motion generated by nuclear explosions in Nevada have been completed for 99 locations in the San Francisco Bay region, California. The seismograms, Fourier amplitude spectra, spectral amplification curves for the signal, and the Fourier amplitude spectra of the seismic noise are presented for 60 locations. Analog amplifications, based on the maximum signal amplitude, are computed for an additional 39 locations. The recordings of the nuclear explosions show marked amplitude variations which are consistently related to the local geologic conditions of the recording site. The average spectral amplifications observed for vertical and horizontal ground motions are, respectively: (1, 1) for granite, (1.5, 1.6) for the Franciscan Formation, (2.3, 2.3), for other pre-Tertiary and Tertiary rocks, (3.0, 2.7) for the Santa Clara Formation, (3.3, 4.4) for older bay sediments, and (3.7, 11.3) for younger bay mud. Spectral amplification curves define predominant ground frequencies for younger bay mud sites and for some older bay sediment sites. The predominant frequencies for most sites were not clearly defined by the amplitude spectra computed from the seismic background noise. The intensities ascribed to various sites in the San Francisco Bay region for the California earthquake of April 18, 1906, are strongly dependent on distance from the zone of surface faulting and the geological character of the ground. Considering only those sites (approximately one square city block in size) for which there is good evidence for the degree of ascribed intensity, the intensities for 917 sites on Franciscan rocks generally decrease with the logarithm of distance as Intensity = 2.69 - 1.90 log (Distance Km). For sites on other geologic units, intensity increments, derived from this empirical rela.tion, correlate strongly with the Average Horizontal Spectral Amplifications (MISA) according to the empirical relation Intensity Increment= 0.27 + 2.70 log(AHSA). Average

  20. Studies of cesium and strontium migration in unconsolidated Canadian geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillham, R.W.; Lindsay, L.E.; Reynolds, W.D.; Kewen, T.J.; Cherry, J.A.; Reddy, M.R.

    1981-06-01

    Distribution coefficients (Ksub(d)) were measured for cesium and strontium in 16 samples of Canadian unconsolidated geological materials. The samples were collected to cover a wide range of grain size, clay-mineral composition, cation exchange capacity and carbonate mineral content. Distribution coefficients ranged between 10 2 and 2.0 x 10 4 ml/g for cesium and between 2.5 and 10 2 ml/g for strontium, indicating that most unconsolidated geological materials have a substantial ability to retard the migration of cesium, while strontium could generally be expected to be somewhat more mobile. The measured K values were not significantly correlated with the measured soil properties, but appeared to be significantly affected by the background concentration of stable isotopes of the respective radionuclides

  1. What does hydraulic tomography tell us about fractured geological media? A field study and synthetic experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Yuanyuan; Yeh, Tian-Chyi J.; Illman, Walter A.; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Bruines, Patrick; Onoe, Hironori; Saegusa, Hiromitsu

    2015-12-01

    Between 2005 and 2010, Japan Atomic Energy Agency conducted four long-term, independent pumping tests in a fractured granite formation at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) site in Mizunami city, central Japan. During these tests, drawdowns were monitored at different depths along several deep boreholes. These tests become one of the few, if not the only, hydraulic tomographic survey conducted in the world over thousands of meters in a fractured geologic medium with several fault zones. We analyzed the drawdown-time data set associated with each pumping test independently, and then the data sets from all pumping tests jointly to derive the spatial distributions of hydraulic conductivity (K) and specific storage (Ss) of the medium. These estimated distributions revealed some large-scale high K and low K zones. While the low K zones corroborated well with known low permeable layers and fault based on geological investigations, there were no clear geological features that can be related to the large-scale high K zones. In order to understand and substantiate these high and low K zones, we simulated a hydraulic tomographic survey in a synthetic fractured aquifer, which bears similar geologic features (i.e., formations, fractures, and faults) at the MIU site, with exception that the hydraulic properties, fracture and fault distributions were known exactly. Results of the simulation show that not only are the identified high K zones related to fracture networks connected with pumping and observation locations of each pumping test but also their values reflect the degree of connectivity of the network. Afterward, we investigated the extent of the improvement of characterization of the fault and fractures through the use of deploying dense monitoring intervals and late-time flux measurements.

  2. Outline of performance assessment study on geological isolation system in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, S.; Umeki, H.; Ishiguro, K.; Suzuki, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the goals of current R and D activities which are to ensure the feasibility of geological isolation of HLW in japan and then to establish the social acceptance. The strategic plan for overall performance assessment is examined. The plan includes scenario development by systematic approach and consequence analysis in which the emphasis of developing simulation models are mainly placed on near-field phenomena. Recent developments in performance assessment have been summarized

  3. Regional Geology of the Southern Lake Erie (Ohio) Bottom: A Seismic Reflection and Vibracore Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    vibratory coring apparatus used to collect sediment cores is shown being lifted off the platform for deployment on the lake floor. A 36-meter-long scow from...the U.S. Army Engineer District, Buffalo, was used as the platform for phase II coring. The scow was transported by the Corps tugboat Washington (Fig...on the geologic history of the lake, and of use. II. PHYSICAL SETTING 1. Introduction. The Lake Erie basin is underlain by middle Paleozoic sedimentary

  4. Study on improvement in reliability of inventory assessment in vitrified waste for long-term safety of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masumi; Kaneko, Satoru; Kitayama, Kazumi; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Ueda, Hiroyoshi; Wakasugi, Keiichiro; Shinohara, Nobuo; Okumura, Keisuke; Chino, Masamichi; Moriya, Noriyasu

    2009-01-01

    Since quality control issues for vitrified waste are defined mainly with the focus on the transport and interim storage of the waste rather than the long-term safety of geological disposal, they do not cover inventories of long-lived nuclides that are of most interest in the safety assessment of geological disposal. Therefore, we suggest a flow chart for the assessment of inventories of long-lived nuclides in the vitrified waste focusing on the measured values. This includes an indirect assessment with indicative nuclides that have been already measured in the returned vitrified wastes from abroad. In order to apply this flow chart for commercial operation, its applicability should be examined for cases with a variation in burn-up history and with an uncertainty associated with carry-over fraction at reprocessing. We started an R and D program to examine the applicability as well as to improve the reliability of the nuclide generation/decay code and the nuclear data library using liquid waste from spent fuel with a clear irradiation history. To solve the issue of quality control for vitrified waste, a comprehensive study is needed in aspects not only of geological disposal field but also of operation of a nuclear power plant, reprocessing of spent fuel and vitrification of liquid waste. This study is a pioneering study conducted to integrate them. (author)

  5. Geologic and Seismologic Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    Utah, Embankment Criteria and Performance Report, August 1994 2. Caliente Creek Stream Group Investigation California, Draft Feasibility Report. June...trenching and soil-stratigraphic investigations east of Sacramento, north of the study area ( Tierra Engineering Consultants, 1983) at Folsom Dam showed...Geologic Map of California, Olaf P. Jenkins edition, Mariposa Sheet: California Division qf Mines and Geology, Scale 1:250,000. Tierra Entgineering

  6. Surface and Interface Studies with Radioactive Ions

    CERN Multimedia

    Weber, A

    2002-01-01

    Investigations on the atomic scale of magnetic surfaces and magnetic multilayers were performed by Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. The unique combination of the Booster ISOLDE facility equipped with a UHV beamline and the UHV chamber ASPIC (Apparatus for Surface Physics and Interfaces at CERN) is ideally suited for such microscopic studies. Main advantages are the choice of problem-oriented radioactive probes and the purity of mass-separated beams. The following results were obtained: $\\,$i) Magnetic hyperfine fields (B$_{hf}$) of Se on Fe, Co, Ni surfaces were determined. The results prompted a theoretical study on the B$_{hf}$ values of the 4sp-elements in adatom position on Ni and Fe, confirming our results and predicting unexpected behaviour for the other elements. $\\,$ii) Exemplarily we have determined B$_{hf}$ values of $^{111}$Cd at many different adsorption sites on Ni surfaces. We found a strong dependence on the coordination number of the probes. With decreasing coordination nu...

  7. Geology and geohydrology of the east Texas Basin. Report on the progress of nuclear waste isolation feasibility studies (1979)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitler, C.W.; Agagu, O.K.; Basciano, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The program to investigate the suitability of salt domes in the east Texas Basin for long-term nuclear waste repositories addresses the stability of specific domes for potential repositories and evaluates generically the geologic and hydrogeologic stability of all the domes in the region. Analysis during the second year was highlighted by a historical characterization of East Texas Basin infilling, the development of a model to explain the growth history of the domes, the continued studies of the Quaternary in East Texas, and a better understanding of the near-dome and regional hydrology of the basin. Each advancement represents a part of the larger integrated program addressing the critical problems of geologic and hydrologic stabilities of salt domes in the East Texas Basin

  8. Geologic studies on the Rio Una region (Iguape - Sao Paulo County), Brazil, for the construction of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassano, S.; Mueller, M.; Stein, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The main objective of the project was the geological and seismological characterization of 230 Km 2 along the coastal region between the Barro Branco and Jureia massifs in order to pinpoint one or more local areas showing adequate geological, morphological and geotechnical conditions suitable for construction of nuclear power plants. Results of the investigations, as well as the methodology used for determination of main interesting areas are presented. The best areas for construction are believed to be situated along the coast where Precambrian basement rocks crop out close to the shoreline. The Tertiary-Quaternary sedimentary cover reaches a thickness of 50 or more meters and the character of the sediments does not allow direct emplacement of foundations for heavy-weight constructions. Historical analysis of seismic activity of the region, as well as the study of faults and fracture zones identified in the area demonstrate the absence of active faults such as defined by internationally accepted safety criteria. (Author) [pt

  9. Geological mapping by geobotanical and geophysical means: a case study from the Bükk Mountains (NE Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Norbert; Petho, Gabor

    2009-03-01

    Geological mapping of an unexposed area can be supported by indirect methods. Among these, the use of mushrooms as geobotanical indicators and the shallow-penetration electromagnetic VLF method proved to be useful in the Bükk Mountains. Mushrooms have not been applied to geological mapping before. Common species like Boletus edulis and Leccinum aurantiacum are correlated with siliciclastic and magmatic formations while Calocybe gambosa is correlated with limestone. The validity of this correlation observed in the eastern part of the Bükk Mts. was controlled on a site where there was an indicated (by the mushrooms only) but unexposed occurrence of siliciclastic rocks not mapped before. The extent and structure of this occurrence were explored with the VLF survey and a trial-and-error method was applied for the interpretation. This case study presented here demonstrates the effectiveness of the combination of these relatively simple and inexpensive methods.

  10. Three-dimensional Subsurface Geological Modeling of the Western Osaka Plane based on Borehole Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, S.; Masumoto, S.; Nemoto, T.

    2012-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) geological model of subsurface structure plays an important role in developing infrastructures. In particular, the 3D geological model in urban area is quite helpful to solve social problems such as underground utilization, environmental preservation, and disaster assessment. Over the past few years, many studies have been made on algorithms for 3D geological modeling. However, most of them have given little attention to objectivity of the model and traceability of modeling procedures. The purpose of this study is to develop an algorithm for constructing a 3D geological model objectively and for maintaining high-traceability of modeling procedures. For the purpose of our work, we proposed a new algorithm for 3D geological modeling using gridded geological boundary surfaces and the "logical model of geologic structure". The geological boundary surface is given by a form of Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The DEM is generated based on geological information such as elevation, strike and dip by using a unique spline-fitting method. The logical model of geological structure is a mathematical model that defines a positional relation between geological boundary surfaces and geological units. The model is objectively given by recurrence formula derived from a sequence of geological events arranged in chronological order. We applied the proposed algorithm into constructing a 3D subsurface geological model of the western Osaka Plane, southwest Japan. The data used for 3D geological modeling is a set of borehole data provided by Osaka City and Kansai Geoinformatics Agency. As a result, we constructed a 3D model consistent with the subjective model reported in other studies. In addition, all information necessary for modeling, such as the used geological information, the parameters of surface fitting, and the logical model, was stored in text files. In conclusion, we can not only construct 3D geological model objectively but also maintain high

  11. Additions and corrections to the bibliography of geologic studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Besalt) and adjacent Areas, in Idaho, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strowd, W.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography is an update to Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 78-6, Bibliography of Geological Studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt Group) and adjacent areas in Idaho (also known as Rockwell Hanford Operations' contractor report RHO-BWI-C-44). To keep the original document current, this additions and corrections report was prepared for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project of Rockwell Hanford Operations. This update is supplementary; therefore, references cited in the original document have not been included here. What is included are materials that have become available since the original publication and pertinent literature that had originally been overlooked. Accompany this updated bubliography are index maps that show locations of geologic studies and geochemical petrographic, remanent paleomagnetic, and radiometric age-dated sites within the Columbia River Basalt Group field within Idaho; also identified are archeological sites, test wells, mines, quarries, and other types of excavations. References on the index maps are keyed to the bibliography and cover the Spokane, Pullman, Hamilton, Grangeville, Elk City, Baker, Boise, and Jordan Valley Army Map Service two-degree quadrangles

  12. Ground penetrating radar geologic field studies of the ejecta of Barringer Meteorite Crater, Arizona, as a planetary analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Patrick S.; Grant, John A.; Williams, Kevin K.; Carter, Lynn M.; Brent Garry, W.; Daubar, Ingrid J.

    2013-09-01

    penetrating radar (GPR) has been a useful geophysical tool in investigating a variety of shallow subsurface geological environments on Earth. Here we investigate the capabilities of GPR to provide useful geologic information in one of the most common geologic settings of planetary surfaces, impact crater ejecta. Three types of ejecta are surveyed with GPR at two wavelengths (400 MHz, 200 MHz) at Meteor Crater, Arizona, with the goal of capturing the GPR signature of the subsurface rock population. In order to "ground truth" the GPR characterization, subsurface rocks are visually counted and measured in preexisting subsurface exposures immediately adjacent to and below the GPR transect. The rock size-frequency distribution from 10 to 50 cm based on visual counts is well described by both power law and exponential functions, the former slightly better, reflecting the control of fragmentation processes during the impact-ejection event. GPR counts are found to overestimate the number of subsurface rocks in the upper meter (by a factor of 2-3x) and underestimate in the second meter of depth (0.6-1.0x), results attributable to the highly scattering nature of blocky ejecta. Overturned ejecta that is fractured yet in which fragments are minimally displaced from their complement fragments produces fewer GPR returns than well-mixed ejecta. The use of two wavelengths and division of results into multiple depth zones provides multiple aspects by which to characterize the ejecta block population. Remote GPR measurement of subsurface ejecta in future planetary situations with no subsurface exposure can be used to characterize those rock populations relative to that of Meteor Crater.

  13. Geologic and Geophysicsal Studies of Natural Hazards and Risks in the Gulf of Peter the Great, Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhin, Vladimir; Shcherbakov, Viktor; Motychko, Viktor; Slinchenkov, Vladimir; Sokolov, Georgy; Kotov, Sergey; Kartashov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    The area of the Gulf of Peter the Great is socially, economically and culturally one of the most important regions for the Russian Far East. At the same time, there have been reported palpable natural hazards, which pose a real threat to local infrastructure. Complex field team of the Gramaberg VNIIOkeangeologia institute carried out geological and geophysical studies of natural hazards in the water area and coastal zone of the gulf in the summer and autumn of 2012. The research program included - geodetic deformation monitoring of the coastal zone by the HDS 3000 Leica tachometer; - echo sounding of the underwater part of the coastal slope by the LCX-37C depth sounder equipped with active external 12-channel GPS Lowrance antenna LGC-3000; - high-frequency acoustic profiling by GeoPulse Subbotom Profilier with oscillator frequency of 12.2 kHz for the study of bottom sediments to a depth of 40 m; - hydromagnetic measurements by SeaSPY Marine Magnetics magnetometer for investigation of deep geological structure; - sonar measurements by GEO SM C-MAX, 325 kHz frequency emitters for studying seafloor features; - studies of the water column (sensing and sampling); - bottom sediment sampling. Analytic work was performed by mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, gamma spectrometry and included the following. For water - the content of Fe, Mn, Cd, As, Pb, Cu, Co, Ni, Cr, Zn, Hg in solution and in suspension, polycyclic aromatic compounds, organochlorine pesticides, oil, methane. For sediments - grade analysis, mineralogical analysis of sand, determination of Fe, Mn, Cd, As, Pb, Cu, Co, Ni, Cr, Zn, Hg content; identification of petroleum products, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, the specific activity of Cs-137. As a result, a set of geological maps was composed: maps of pre-Quaternary and Quaternary rocks and deposits, lithological map, geomorphological map, map of engineering

  14. Terrestrial analogs, planetary geology, and the nature of geological reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Victor R.

    2014-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical to planetary geology, but its role can be misconstrued by those unfamiliar with the practice of that science. The methodological importance of analogy to geology lies in the formulation of genetic hypotheses, an absolutely essential component of geological reasoning that was either ignored or denigrated by most 20th century philosophers of science, who took the theoretical/ experimental methodology of physics to be the sole model for all of scientific inquiry. Following the seminal 19th century work of Grove Karl Gilbert, an early pioneer of planetary geology, it has long been recognized that broad experience with and understanding of terrestrial geological phenomena provide geologists with their most effective resource for the invention of potentially fruitful, working hypotheses. The actions of (1) forming such hypotheses, (2) following their consequences, and (3) testing those consequences comprise integral parts of effective geological practice in regard to the understanding of planetary surfaces. Nevertheless, the logical terminology and philosophical bases for such practice will be unfamiliar to most planetary scientists, both geologists and nongeologists. The invention of geological hypotheses involves both inductive inferences of the type Gilbert termed “empiric classification” and abductive inferences of a logical form made famous by the 19th century American logician Charles Sanders Peirce. The testing and corroboration of geological hypotheses relies less on the correspondence logic of theoretical/ experimental sciences, like physics, and more on the logic of consistency, coherence, and consilience that characterizes the investigative and historical sciences of interpretation exemplified by geology.

  15. Massive sulfide exploration models of the Iberian Pyrite Belt Neves Corvo mine region, based in a 3D geological, geophysical and geochemical ProMine study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inverno, Carlos; Matos, João Xavier; Rosa, Carlos; Mário Castelo-Branco, José; Granado, Isabel; Carvalho, João; João Baptista, Maria; Represas, Patrícia; Pereira, Zélia; Oliveira, Tomás; Araujo, Vitor

    2013-04-01

    superficial directional derivatives to obtain the various directions of the late-Variscan faults, the main overthrusts and lithological structures. iv) - Detailed palynological sediment dating; v) - A seismic survey was conducted in the vicinities of the Neves Corvo mine totalling 82 km of profiles with target depth of over 10 km. A 3D regional model has been constructed for the selected IPB area using GoCAD, integrating the most critical information of the follow geological units: the lower unit BAFG Mértola Formation, the VSC, the Neves Corvo ores and the PQG. It incorporated surface regional geological maps, 168 drill-hole geological logs throughout the area, structural and tectonic data, former seismic sections, where available, and a digital terrain model. Chemical data from 42 selected drill-holes in order to outline in 3D the Cu distribution in the area. The results have already indicated new important guidelines for VHMS exploration and new regional correlations with the Neves Corvo mining area. The 3D modelling study was essential to the detail understanding of the complex IPB geological structures observed in the south of Portugal.

  16. Geo-Chemo-Mechanical Studies for Permanent CO{sub 2} Storage in Geologic Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelemen, Peter; Park, Ah-hyung; Matter, Jurg; Gadikota, Greeshma; Lisabeth, Harrison; Zhu, Wenlu

    2013-09-30

    This two-pronged study investigated the rates and mechanisms of formation of Ca and Mg carbonate minerals via reaction of aqueous fluids with silicate minerals and rocks, and the geomechanical effects of such reactions. The kinetic studies focused on the separation of variables, following from previous studies demonstrating rapid formation of carbonates via reaction of the mineral olivine with aqueous fluids rich in NaHCO{sub 3} (plus KHCO{sub 3} and RbHCO{sub 3}) and NaCl at a high partial pressure of CO{sub 2}. We wished to separate and quantify the effects of NaHCO{sub 3} and NaCl, and to investigate whether bicarbonate-rich, aqueous fluids would also cause rapid formation of carbonates via reaction with other minerals and rocks. Further, we wished to improve upon previous work by adding precise characterization of grain size distributions and surface area, and their changes as a result of reaction. We confirmed previous reports of very rapid olivine carbonation. We found that at a given temperature and CO{sub 2} partial pressure the previously observed rate enhancement in olivine carbonation is due mainly to NaHCO{sub 3}, and not to dissolved NaCl. Further, though reaction of the mineral plagioclase, and two rock compositions, were all faster in the presence of NaHCO{sub 3}-rich fluids, compared with saline and de-ionized water, they were all much slower than reaction of olivine. In the experiments showing the fastest reaction rate, average grain size tended to increase during experiments, presumably due to dissolution of small reactant grains plus growth of product phases on reactant surfaces. Porosity/surface area of grains tended to change with reaction progress, due to the formation of dissolution pits and irregular growth of product phases on reactant grain surfaces. Development of a passivating phase (e.g., a layer of silica) due to incongruent dissolution of solid reactants and/or precipitation of solid products was detected, but was relatively minor and

  17. A SKOS-based multilingual thesaurus of geological time scale for interopability of online geological maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, X.; Carranza, E.J.M.; Wu, C.; Meer, F.D. van der; Liu, G.

    2011-01-01

    The usefulness of online geological maps is hindered by linguistic barriers. Multilingual geoscience thesauri alleviate linguistic barriers of geological maps. However, the benefits of multilingual geoscience thesauri for online geological maps are less studied. In this regard, we developed a

  18. Building The Bigger Picture - Using a field study geology programme to link and contextualise classroom topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lesley

    2013-04-01

    Cornwall, UK, has been designated a World Heritage Site for industrial heritage, based on the extensive mining history built around hydrothermal deposits of tin and copper suite deposits. These deposits are found in a very varied and complex geological setting. The tectonic activity which emplaced the deposits also produced intense folding and faulting of Carboniferous and Devonian marine sediments, major and minor igneous intrusions, regional and contact metamorphism, and the emplacement of an ophiolite sequence on the Lizard peninsula. The region is targeted by college and university geology student groups from across the UK. It is also the home of the world famous Camborne School of Mines, part of the University of Exeter. We have developed a comprehensive series of field visits to cover all these geological aspects. We also use the history of mining as a context within which to teach the social, environmental and economic aspects of the geology curriculum at A Level. By this means we can reveal how disparate geological topics link together through 3 physical dimensions plus time. Field visits motivate students; they enthuse and excite them and help them to understand the large-scale and 3D visualisation aspects of geology, the timescales involved, and also assist students in developing observational and practical field and mapping skills. The series of visits also helps to bring many aspects of the curriculum together into a more complete picture. Site 1 - Bude. Intense folding of marine sediments with tectonic and sedimentary structures in cyclical sands and shales and some turbidites. Competent and incompetent rocks, axial planar cleavage, etc. Site 2 - Praa Sands. Minor porphyritic intrusion with baked & chilled margins and flow aligned feldspars. (Also incidental raised beach due to post-glacial isostatic rebound.) Site 3 - Rinsey Cove. Contact zone where 'roof' of major granitic intrusion intrudes slates. Pegmatites, classic marginal features, xenoliths

  19. Geology and geohydrology of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle. Report on the progress of nuclear waste isolation feasibility studies, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, T.C.; Presley, M.W.; Handford, C.R.; Finley, R.J.; Dutton, S.P.; Baumgardner, R.W. Jr.; McGillis, K.A.; Simpkins, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    Since early 1977, the Bureau of Economic Geology has been evaluating several salt-bearing basins within the State of Texas as part of the national nuclear repository program. The Bureau, a research unit of The University of Texas at Austin and the State of Texas, is carrying out a long-term program to gather and interpret all geologic and hydrologic information necessary for description, delineation, and evaluation of salt-bearing strata in the Palo Duro and Dalhart Basins of the Texas Panhandle. The program in FY 79 has been subdivided into four broad research tasks, which are addressed by a basin analysis group, a surface studies group, a geohydrology group, and a host-rock analysis group. The basin analysis group has delineated the structural and stratigraphic framework of the basins, initiated natural resource assessment, and integrated data from 8000 ft (2400 m) of core material into salt-stratigraphy models. Salt depth and thickness have been delineated for seven salt-bearing stratigraphic units. Concurrently, the surface studies group has collected ground and remotely sensed data to describe surficial processes, including salt solution, slope retreat/erosion mechanisms, geomorphic evolution, and fracture system development. The basin geohydrology group has begun evaluating both shallow and deep fluid circulation within the basins. The newly formed host-rock analysis group has initiated study of cores from two drilling sites for analysis of salt and the various lithologies overlying and interbedded with salt units. This paper, a summary report of progress in FY 79, presents principal conclusions and reviews methods used and types of data and maps generated

  20. Geology Fulbrights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulbright grants in geology for 1988-89 remain open. Specific opportunities are available in Egypt, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Iraq, Kuwait, Morocco, Mozambique, Oman, Poland, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Turkey, U.S.S.R., West Bank, Yemen, and Zimbabwe. Other countries are also open to applications in any discipline, and geology is among their preferred fields.The grants are available until awarded and are open only to U.S. citizens. In Central and South America and French-speaking Africa, knowledge of host-country language is required. For more information, contact the Council for International Exchange of Scholars (CIES), 11 Dupont Circle N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036; tel. 202-939-5401.

  1. A Study of the Relationship of Geological Formation to the NORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursh, Talmage P.; Chriss, Derald

    1999-01-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) is a common and costly contaminant of produced waters associated with natural gas production and exploration. One way of combating this problem is by identifying the problem beforehand. Our approach to this problem involves development of NORM prediction capabilities based on the geological environment. During the tenth quarter of this project, emphasis again remained on two major tasks; identifying new sampling sites and seeking approval for final project revisions. In light of the delays experienced, the project has been granted a one year extension, and a revision is currently under review

  2. A study on nuclide migration in buffer materials and rocks for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Haruo

    1998-01-01

    This thesis summarizes the results investigated in order to establish a basic theory on the predictive method of diffusion coefficients of nuclides in compacted sodium bentonite which is a candidate buffer material and in representative rocks for the geological disposal of radioactive waste by measuring the pore structural factors of the compacted bentonite and rocks such as porosity and tortuosity, measuring diffusion coefficients of nuclides in the bentonite and rocks, acquiring basic data on diffusion and developing diffusion models which can quantitatively predict nuclide migration in long-term. (J.P.N.). 117 refs

  3. A Study of the Relationship of Geological Formation to the NORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursh, Talmage P.; Chriss, Derald

    1999-01-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) is a common and costly contaminant of produced waters associated with natural gas production and exploration. One way of combating this problem is by identifying the problem beforehand. Our approach to this problem involves development of NORM prediction capabilities based on the geological environment. During quarter fifteen of this project, work has continued under the recently approved revisions. We have selected sampling sites and are awaiting samples for analysis. In addition, the QA/QC plans are in the final stages in anticipation of sample acquisition

  4. Global Bedrock Geology and River Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Miller, M. W.

    2002-12-01

    .5% continental), 73% (Alaska; 66.5% stratified, mostly marine and 6.3% continental), and ~52% (Canada; 43% mostly marine, 9% continental) of the bedrock. Volcanic rocks cover 9% (US), 11.6% (Alaska), and ~6% (Canada) of the surface, whereas intrusive rocks make up 5% (US), 6.6% (Alaska), and 24.5% (Canada) of the bedrock. Metamorphic rocks comprise 2.6% (US), 3.4% (Alaska), and 16.4% (Canada) of the bedrock. The maps also reveal the areal extent of minor lithologies such as ultramafic rocks that make up 0.15% (US), 0.20% (Alaska), and 0.08% (Canada) of the bedrock. In the next project phase we will combine information on the spatial distribution of bedrock in North America with digital maps of major river basins to investigate correlations between the abundance of rock types in drainage basins with river chemistry, specifically radiogenic isotope systems and macronutrients. Depending on the availability of additional digital geologic maps we will expand the assessment to other continents. Combining digital information on bedrock geology with digital maps of precipitation may allow us to use precipitation-weighted bedrock geology rather than simple area-lithology relationships. Extending this analysis to pre-Quaternary periods is beyond the current focus of our study. However, we feel such a historic perspective is necessary to fully understand and utilize reconstructions of ocean paleochemistry (e.g., the marine Os-, Hf-, Nd-, and Sr -isotope records) in models of global biogeochemical cycles (e.g., Bluth and Kump, 1991).

  5. Synthesis of thirty years of surface water quality and aquatic biota data in Shenandoah National Park: Collaboration between the US Geological Survey and the National Park Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen C.; Jastram, John D.; Wofford, John E.B.; Schaberl, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The eastern United States has been the recipient of acidic atmospheric deposition (hereinafter, “acid rain”) for many decades. Deleterious effects of acid rain on natural resources have been well documented for surface water (e.g., Likens et al. 1996; Stoddard et al. 2001), soils (Bailey et al. 2005), forest health (Long et al. 2009), and habitat suitability for stream biota (Baker et al. 1993). Shenandoah National Park (SNP) is located in northern and central Virginia and consists of a long, narrow strip of land straddling the Blue Ridge Mountains (Figure 1). The park’s elevated topography and location downwind of the Ohio River valley, where many acidic emissions to the atmosphere are generated (NSTC 2005), have made it a target for acid rain. Characterizing the link between air quality and water quality as related to acid rain, contaminants, soil conditions, and forest health is a high priority for research and monitoring in SNP. The US Geological Survey (USGS) and SNP have had a long history of collaboration on documenting acid rain effects on the park’s natural resources, starting in 1985 and continuing to the present (Lynch and Dise 1985; Rice et al. 2001, 2004, 2005, 2007; Deviney et al. 2006, 2012; Jastram et al. 2013).

  6. Creation of a full color geologic map by computer: A case history from the Port Moller project resource assessment, Alaska Peninsula: A section in Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.

    1989-01-01

    Graphics programs on computers can facilitate the compilation and production of geologic maps, including full color maps of publication quality. This paper describes the application of two different programs, GSMAP and ARC/INFO, to the production of a geologic map of the Port Meller and adjacent 1:250,000-scale quadrangles on the Alaska Peninsula. GSMAP was used at first because of easy digitizing on inexpensive computer hardware. Limitations in its editing capability led to transfer of the digital data to ARC/INFO, a Geographic Information System, which has better editing and also added data analysis capability. Although these improved capabilities are accompanied by increased complexity, the availability of ARC/INFO's data analysis capability provides unanticipated advantages. It allows digital map data to be processed as one of multiple data layers for mineral resource assessment. As a result of development of both software packages, it is now easier to apply both software packages to geologic map production. Both systems accelerate the drafting and revision of maps and enhance the compilation process. Additionally, ARC/ INFO's analysis capability enhances the geologist's ability to develop answers to questions of interest that were previously difficult or impossible to obtain.

  7. Experimental study of the time of dissolution of the RN 222 in water and some implications in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Vindas, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The study of radon like a tracer in Geology involves the study of radon's dissolution in water. The objective of this work is to study the time required to dissolve a volume of radon in water and to expel it from water. For this purpose a device has been built that allows dissolving or expelling a volume of radon in water. The results show that it is possible to dissolve or expel, in a short time, a volume of radon from water. (Author) [es

  8. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, Christopher; Christensen, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre Basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  9. Study to optimize a disposal tunnel layout taking into account heterogeneous characteristics of the geological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Yasuhiro; Toida, Masaru; Yanagizawa, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    The geological environment has spatially heterogeneous characteristics with varied host rock types, fractures and so on. In this case the generic disposal tunnel layout, which has been designed by JNC, is not the most suitable for HLW disposal in Japan. The existence of spatially heterogeneous characteristics means that in the repository region there exist sub-regions that are more favorable from the perspective of long-term safety and ones that are less favorable. In order that the spatially heterogeneous environment itself may be utilized most effectively as an NBS, an alternative design of disposal tunnel layout is required. Focusing on the geological environment with spatially heterogeneous characteristics, the authors have developed an alternative design of disposal tunnel layout. The alternative design adopts an optimization approach using a 'variable disposal tunnel layout'. The optimization approach minimizes the number of locations where major water conducting fractures are intersected, and maximizes the number of emplacement locations for waste packages. This paper will outline the variable disposal tunnel layout and its applicability. (author)

  10. Multidisciplinary study of Wyoming test sites. [hydrology, biology, geology, lithology, geothermal, and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, R. S. (Principal Investigator); Marrs, R. W.; Agard, S. S.; Downing, K. G.; Earle, J. L.; Froman, N. L.; Gordon, R.; Kolm, K. E.; Tomes, B.; Vietti, J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Investigation of a variety of applications of EREP photographic data demonstrated that EREP S-190 data offer a unique combination of synoptic coverage and image detail. The broad coverage is ideal for regional geologic mapping and tectonic analysis while the detail is adequate for mapping of crops, mines, urban areas, and other relatively small features. The investigative team at the University of Wyoming has applied the EREP S-190 data to: (1) analysis of photolinear elements of the Powder River Basin, southern Montana, and the Wind River Mountains; (2) drainage analysis of the Powder River Basin and Beartooth Mountains; (3) lithologic and geologic mapping in the Powder River Basin, Black Hills, Green River Basin, Bighorn Basin and Southern Bighorn Mountains; (4) location of possible mineralization in the Absaroka Range; and (5) land use mapping near Riverton and Gillette. All of these applications were successful to some degree. Image enhancement procedures were useful in some efforts requiring distinction of small objects or subtle contrasts.

  11. Potential uses of stable isotope ratios of Sr, Nd, and Pb in geological materials for environmental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    The ratios of stable isotopes of certain elements in rocks and minerals have strong regional characteristics that are reflected in atmospheric components, in water, and in the living organisms that form Earth's surface environment as well as in agricultural and fishery products. Geologically derived stable isotope ratios can be used as a tracer for the source of many kinds of substances, with current geochemical techniques allowing the precise determination of numerous stable isotope ratios in both natural and manmade objects. This review presents examples of the use of stable isotopes as tracers within diverse dynamic ecosystems, focusing on Sr isotopes but also including examples of Nd and Pb isotopic analysis, and reviewing the potential of this technique for a wide range of environmental research, including determining the geographic origin of food and archeological materials.

  12. Potential uses of stable isotope ratios of Sr, Nd, and Pb in geological materials for environmental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAKANO, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    The ratios of stable isotopes of certain elements in rocks and minerals have strong regional characteristics that are reflected in atmospheric components, in water, and in the living organisms that form Earth’s surface environment as well as in agricultural and fishery products. Geologically derived stable isotope ratios can be used as a tracer for the source of many kinds of substances, with current geochemical techniques allowing the precise determination of numerous stable isotope ratios in both natural and manmade objects. This review presents examples of the use of stable isotopes as tracers within diverse dynamic ecosystems, focusing on Sr isotopes but also including examples of Nd and Pb isotopic analysis, and reviewing the potential of this technique for a wide range of environmental research, including determining the geographic origin of food and archeological materials. PMID:27302069

  13. Great Meteor East (distal Madeira Abyssal Plain): geological studies of its suitability for disposal of heat-emitting radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, R.C.; Schultheiss, P.J.; Weaver, P.P.E.; Noel, M.; Kidd, R.B.; Jacobs, C.L.; Huggett, Q.J.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarises geological and geophysical studies carried out by the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences up to December 1983 in an area of the Madeira Abyssal Plain in order to assess its suitability for the disposal of heat-emitting radioactive waste. The results of work carried out in the same area by the Rijks Geologische Dienst of the Netherlands are also reviewed in the report. Other oceanographic studies in the area in the fields of geochemistry, biology and oceanography are briefly touched upon. (author)

  14. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Vogt

    2004-08-26

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M&O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in the

  15. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Vogt

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M and O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in

  16. Vesta: A Geological Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, R.

    2012-04-01

    Observations from the Dawn spacecraft [1] enable the derivation of the asteroid 4Vesta's shape, facilitate mapping of the surface geology, and provide the first evidence for interpreting Vesta's geological evolution. Science data were acquired during the approach to Vesta, a circular polar (Survey) orbit at an altitude of 2700 km providing ~ 230 m/pix camera scale, and during a circular high-altitude mapping orbit (HAMO) at 700 km altitude with a camera scale of ~ 65 m/pixel. Currently Dawn is orbiting Vesta in a low-altitude mapping orbit (LAMO) at 210 km altitude, yielding a global image coverage of ~20 m/pixel at the time of EGU [2,3,4,5]. Geomorphology and distribution of surface features provide evidence for impact cratering, tectonic activity, and regolith and probable volcanic processes. Craters with dark rays, bright rays, and dark rim streaks have been observed, suggesting buried stratigraphy. The largest fresh craters retain a simple bowl-shaped morphology, with depth/diameter ratios roughly comparable to lunar values. The largest crater Rheasilvia, an ~500 km diameter depression at the south pole, includes an incomplete inward facing cuspate scarp and a large central mound surrounded by unusual complex arcuate ridge and groove patterns, and overlies an older ~400 km wide basin. A set of large equatorial troughs is related to these south polar structures. Vesta exhibits rugged topography ranging from -22 km to +19 km relative to a best fit ellipsoidal shape. Vesta's topography has a much greater range in elevation relative to its radius (15%) than do the Moon and Mars (1%) or the Earth (0.3%), but less than highly battered smaller asteroids like Lutetia (40%). This also identifies Vesta as a transitional body between asteroids and planets. The surface of Vesta exhibits very steep topographic slopes that are near the angle of repose. Impacts onto these steep surfaces, followed by slope failure, make resurfacing - due to impacts and their associated

  17. Study Paths, Riemann Surfaces And Strebel Differentials

    OpenAIRE

    Buser, Peter; Semmler, Klaus-Dieter

    2017-01-01

    These pages aim to explain and interpret why the late Mika Seppälä, a conformal geometer, proposed to model student study behaviour using concepts from conformal geometry, such as Riemann surfaces and Strebel differentials. Over many years Mika Seppälä taught online calculus courses to students at Florida State University in the United States, as well as students at the University of Helsinki in Finland. Based on the click log data of his students in both populations, he monitored this course...

  18. Paleocorrosion studies in deep sea sediments and the geological disposal of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrenbach, L.; Maurette, M.; Guichard, F.; Havette, A.; Monaco, A.

    1984-01-01

    Uncertainties still surround assessment of the safety of disposal of nuclear wastes incorporated into 'radwaste' matrices. This is mostly due to the long time required for radioactive decay of 237 Np. The present work explores the usefulness of an experimental approach in 'paleocorrosion', which should help in minimizing such uncertainties. In this approach, polished sections of sediments containing high concentrations of natural analogues of radwaste matrices are subjected to element micromapping. Thus it is possible to characterize the long-term interactions of such analogues in their geological repositories, and to identify which generate reaction aureoles and protective and/or unprotective coatings. These analogues include grains incorporated in deep sea sediments (uraninite and quartz from the Oklo uranium ore deposit; volcanic ash particles; magnetic cosmic spherules). The present results indicate that uraninite should be a much more durable radwaste matrix than any type of glass in deep sea sediments. (orig./TWO)

  19. Study of gamma ray analysis software's. Application to activation analysis of geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luiz Roberto Nogueira da

    1998-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the gamma-ray analysis software VISPECT, in relation to two commercial gamma-ray analysis software packages, OMNIGAM (EG and G Ortec) and SAMPO 90 (Canberra) was performed. For this evaluation, artificial gamma ray spectra were created, presenting peaks of different intensities and located at four different regions of the spectrum. Multiplet peaks with equal and different intensities, but with different channel separations, were also created. The results obtained showed a good performance of VISPECT in detecting and analysing single and multiplet peaks of different intensities in the gamma-ray spectrum. Neutron activation analysis of the geological reference material GS-N (IWG-GIT) and of the granite G-94, used in a Proficiency Testing Trial of Analytical Geochemistry Laboratories, was also performed , in order to evaluate the VISEPCT software in the analysis of real samples. The results obtained by using VISPECT were as good or better than the ones obtained using the other programs. (author)

  20. Contribution on the Northeastern Minas Gerais geologic-geochronologic study, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siga Junior, O.; Cordani, U.G.; Basei, M.A.S.; Teixeira, W.; Kawashita, K.

    1987-01-01

    This work demonstrates the potential of integrated Rb-Sr, K-Ar, and U-Pb determinations, when applied to basic regional geology. The different interpretative values of these methodologies contribute to the understanding of the tectonic processes developed in the south-eastern border of the Sao Francisco Craton (northeastern Minas Gerais). The Brazilian Orogenic Cycle is characterized in the area by the Salinas metasediments and the gneissic-migmatitic rocks of the eastern sector. Rb-Sr and U-Pb data indicate the generation of most or even all of these rocks in the 660-570 Ma, interval. No indications of ancient terrains were obtained, and previous ideas of a pervasive reworking of an Archean or Lower Proterozoic crust must be discarded. The K-Ar analyses indicate a crustal level in which temperature remained above 250 O C until at least 480 Ma. (author)

  1. Assembling of a low energy ion beam analysis facility and use of Nuclear Microprobe techniques in geological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utui, R.

    1996-11-01

    In this work, both PIXE and ion beam induced luminescence, or just Ionoluminescence (IL) were used for geochemical studies. The possibility of rapid absolute quantification of elements in the ppm level by PIXE combined with the yet higher sensitivity of IL to transition metals and Rare Earth Elements (REE) activators, in the absence of quenching phenomena, allow for a synergic use of the two methods in geological applications with enhanced sensitivity. IL and PIXE were combined for studying REE distribution in apatite minerals and ion beam induced damage in inorganic material in general with emphasis to synthetically grown zircon crystals doped with REE. Due to the sensitivity of IL to changes in chemical bonding in the material, beam damage effects can be studied even at low integrated doses, through wavelength shift or fading of the induced light. Micro PIXE technique was used for studying profile concentrations of trace elements in pyrite grains and of elements used as geothermometers. Geothermometry allowed to assess the cooling rates in iron meteorites and the mineralization conditions in metamorphic rocks, attempting to describe the tectonic history of the terranes, with application in petrologic studies and geological prospecting. 148 refs

  2. Assembling of a low energy ion beam analysis facility and use of Nuclear Microprobe techniques in geological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utui, R.

    1996-11-01

    In this work, both PIXE and ion beam induced luminescence, or just Ionoluminescence (IL) were used for geochemical studies. The possibility of rapid absolute quantification of elements in the ppm level by PIXE combined with the yet higher sensitivity of IL to transition metals and Rare Earth Elements (REE) activators, in the absence of quenching phenomena, allow for a synergic use of the two methods in geological applications with enhanced sensitivity. IL and PIXE were combined for studying REE distribution in apatite minerals and ion beam induced damage in inorganic material in general with emphasis to synthetically grown zircon crystals doped with REE. Due to the sensitivity of IL to changes in chemical bonding in the material, beam damage effects can be studied even at low integrated doses, through wavelength shift or fading of the induced light. Micro PIXE technique was used for studying profile concentrations of trace elements in pyrite grains and of elements used as geothermometers. Geothermometry allowed to assess the cooling rates in iron meteorites and the mineralization conditions in metamorphic rocks, attempting to describe the tectonic history of the terranes, with application in petrologic studies and geological prospecting. 148 refs.

  3. Radiation damage studies on natural rock salt from various geological localities of interest to the radioactive waste disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    As part of a program to investigate radiation damage in geological materials of interest to the radioactive waste disposal program, radiation damage, particularly radiation induced sodium metal colloid formation, has been studied in 14 natural rock salt samples. All measurements were made with equipment for making optical absorption and other measurements on samples, in a temperature controlled irradiation chamber, during and after 0.5 to 3.0 MeV electron irradiation. Samples were chosen for practical and scientific purposes, from localities that are potential repository sites and from different horizons at certain localities

  4. Data base dictionary for the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study Groundwater Data Base. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, B.K.

    1993-04-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study (ORRHAGS) Groundwater Data Base has been compiled to consolidate groundwater data from the three US Department of Energy facilities located on the Oak Ridge Reservation: the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Each of these facilities maintains its own groundwater and well construction data bases. Data were extracted from the existing data bases, converted to a consistent format, and integrated into the ORRHAGS Groundwater Data Base structures. This data base dictionary describes the data contained in the ORRHAGS Groundwater Data Base and contains information on data base structure, conventions, contents, and use.

  5. Visualization of three dimensional earth fissures in geological structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method for visualizing the earth fissures of geological structure in three dimensional (3-D domains on the basis of the seismic data and features information of earth fissures. The seismic data were interpreted for obtaining the stratagraphic data with various lithological information and the depth of the earth fissures. The spatial distribution of the ground fissures including the dip, strike and width were digitalized on an ArcGIS platform. Firstly, the 3-D geological structure was rebuilt using the Generalized Tri-Prism (GTP method which is a real solid method for displaying geological structures. The GTP method can reflect the inner material of the strata and can simulate complicated geological structures such as faults and stratagraphic pinch outs. The upper and lower surfaces of each stratum consist of Triangle Irregular Networks (TIN. The inner solid between the two surfaces are a series of triangular prisms. Secondly, since the width of the ground fissure gradually decreases with depth, multiple edge lines of the earth fissures on the bottom stratum surface are deduced on the basis of the fissure characteristics. Then, the model of the earth fissures consisting of a series of triangular pyramids can be constructed using these points and the edge lines. A cutting operation was carried out on the 3-D geological structure using this ground fissures model. If the surfaces of the ground fissures model intersects with the GTPs in the geological structure model, new GTPs were generated within the local regions. During this process, the topological relations between TIN, triangular prism and lines were reconstructed so that the visualization of ground fissures in the geological structure model is realized. This method can facilitate the mechanism for studying fissures and avoid the gaps between the fissure solid and the geological structure to accurately reflect their 3-D characteristics.

  6. Study of Planar Surface Wave Excited Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Caizhong

    2008-10-01

    The need for plasma processing has increased as miniaturization in semiconductor manufacturing goes ahead. In these processes, a large-diameter plasma source is required with respect to 300mm wafer size. A Radial Line Slot Antenna (RLSA) driven surface-wave-sustained plasma is a potential best candidate to various applications with respect to damage free process. Many researches focus on the control of plasma density and electron temperature in RLSA technique. However, the plasma stability and uniformity control are less implemented in the practice. In recent years, we study sheath formation and plasma behavior at the interface, where the surface wave propagate, by using electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation techniques. The simulations include the effects of ionization, and allow us to study the buildup of plasma density associated with ionization in the presence of the large fields of the RF-enhanced sheath. Our results show both the mechanism of plasma generation and heating at the plasma dielectric interface and the strong effect on geometric design of dielectric. Various scenarios are of interest, and help us to design an optimal RLSA driven plasma source, where the plasma stability and uniformity are firmly sustained under the various process conditions. Plasma diagnosis is carried out to reveal the more essential difference in plasma behavior between our RLSA and a custom inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source.

  7. A KINEMATIC STUDY OF FINSWIMMING AT SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier-Giorgio Zanone

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Finswimming is a sport of speed practiced on the surface or underwater, in which performance is based on whole-body oscillations. The present study investigated the undulatory motion performed by finswimmers at the surface. This study aiming to analyze the influence of the interaction of gender, practice level, and race distance on selected kinematic parameters. Six elite and six novices finswimmers equipped with joints markers (wrist, elbow, shoulder, hip, knee, and ankle were recorded in the sagittal plane. The position of these anatomical marks was digitized at 50 Hz. An automated motion analysis software yielded velocity, vertical amplitude, frequency, and angular position. Results showed that stroke frequency decreased whereas the mean amplitude of all joints increased with increasing race distance (p < 0.01. Mean joint amplitude for the upper limbs (wrist, elbow and shoulder was smaller for experts than for novices. Whereas that of the ankle was larger, so that the oscillation amplitude increased from shoulder to ankle. Elite male finswimmers were pitching more acutely than female. Moreover, elite male finswimmers showed a smaller knee bending than novices and than elite females (p < 0.01. This indicated that elite male finswimmers attempt to reduce drag forces thanks to a weak knee bending and a low upper limbs pitch. To sum up, gender, expertise, and race distance affect the performance and its kinematics in terms frontal drag. Expertise in finswimming requires taking advantage of the mechanical constraints pertaining to hydrodynamic constraints in order to optimize performance

  8. Documentation of a restart option for the U.S. Geological Survey coupled Groundwater and Surface-Water Flow (GSFLOW) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, R. Steve; Niswonger, Richard G.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Barlow, Paul M.

    2015-10-02

    A new option to write and read antecedent conditions (also referred to as initial conditions) has been developed for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Groundwater and Surface-Water Flow (GSFLOW) numerical, hydrologic simulation code. GSFLOW is an integration of the USGS Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and USGS Modular Groundwater-Flow Model (MODFLOW), and provides three simulation modes: MODFLOW-only, PRMS-only, and GSFLOW (or coupled). The new capability, referred to as the restart option, can be used for all three simulation modes, such that the results from a pair (or set) of spin-up and restart simulations are nearly identical to results produced from a continuous simulation for the same time period. The restart option writes all results to files at the end of a spin-up simulation that are required to initialize a subsequent restart simulation. Previous versions of GSFLOW have had some capability to save model results for use as antecedent condiitions in subsequent simulations; however, the existing capabilities were not comprehensive or easy to use. The new restart option supersedes the previous methods. The restart option was developed in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service as part of the Integrated Water Resources Science and Services Partnership. The primary focus for the development of the restart option was to support medium-range (7- to 14-day) forecasts of low streamflow conditions made by the National Weather Service for critical water-supply basins in which groundwater plays an important role.

  9. Study of crustal structure and geological implications of southwestern margin of Northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Sowrav; Baruah, Santanu; Chopra, Sumer; Singh, Upendra K.; Gogoi, Bibhuti; Gohain, Himanata B.

    2018-01-01

    It is noticed that few geophysical studies have been carried out to decipher the crustal structure of southwestern part of the Northeast India comprising of Tripura fold belt and Bengal basin as compared to the Shillong plateau and the Brahmaputra basin. This region has a long history of seismicity that is still continuing. We have determined first-order crustal features in terms of Moho depths ( H) and average VP/VS ratios ( κ) using H- κ stacking technique. The inversion of receiver functions data yields near surface thick sedimentary layer in the Bengal basin, which is nearly absent in the Shillong plateau and Tripura fold belt. Our result suggests that the crust is thicker (38-45 km) in the Tripura fold belt region with higher shear-wave velocity in the lower crust than the Shillong plateau. The distribution of VP/VS ratio indicates heterogeneity throughout the whole region. While low to medium value of Poisson's ratio (1.69-1.75) indicates the presence of felsic crust in the Shillong plateau of the extended Indian Archean crust. The medium to high values of VP/VS ratio (> 1.780) in the Bengal basin and the Tripura fold belt region represent mafic crust during the formation of the Bengal delta and the Tripura fold belt creation in the Precambrian to the Permian age. The depth of the sediments in the Bengal basin is up to 8 km on its eastern margin, which get shallower toward its northeastern and southeastern margins.

  10. A study on the radionuclide transport by bacteria in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Byoung Sub

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodology to develop a predictive model based on a conceptual three phase system and to investigate the influence of bacteria and their generation on the transport of radionuclide in porous and fractured media. The mass balance for bacteria, substrate and radionuclide were formulated. To illustrate the model simply, an equilibrium condition was assumed to partition the substrate, bacteria and radionuclide concentrations between the solid soil matrix, aqueous phase, rock matrix and bacterial surface. From the numerical calculation of the radionuclide transport in the presence of bacteria, it was found that the growth of bacteria and supplied primary substrate as limiting or stimulating growth factor of bacteria are the most important factors of the radionuclide transport. We also found that, depend on the transport of bacteria the temporal and spatial distribution of radionuclide concentration was significantly altered. The model proposed in this study will improve the evaluation of the role of the bacteria in the transport of radionuclide in groundwater systems. Furthermore, this model would be usefully utilized in analyzing the important role of colloidal particulate on the overall performance of radioactive waste safety

  11. A Data mining and Meta-Analysis of Geodiversity and Geological Preservation Studies: Pedodiversity, the Other Side of the Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Juanjo; Brevik, Eric C.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation processes are complex and diverse (Yan and Cai, 2015; Álvarez-Martínez et al., 2016; Zhang et al., 2016). To understand the processes of degradation there is the need to understand a wide range of factors, including the sociological, biological, hydrological and geological components of the ecosystems (de Araujo et al., 2015; Li et al., 2016; Muñoz Rojas et al., 2016; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2016). Although the most widely accepted definitions of geodiversity include geology, landforms and soils, in practice published studies on the preservation of geodiversity typically ignore the soil resource and pay more attention to other items, while many others do not include soils in such definitions. Soils are a key component of the Earth system as they regulate the hydrological, erosional, biological and geochemical Earth cycles (Keesstra et al., 2012; Brevik et al., 2015), offer resources, goods and services to human societies (Mol and Keesstra, 2012), and are a key issue in the United Nations goals to achieve sustainability (Keesstra et al., 2016). The preservation of pedodiversity is practically ignored by governments. The same can be said in the acceptance of geoparks by UNESCO, when soils are ignored. A few researchers have paid attention to geodiversity (Ibáñez et al., 2016; Stavi et al., 2016). In this study a data mining and metanalysis of this topic has been carried out using four different sources; Google, Google Scholar, Scopus, and the contents of Geoheritage journal. The results obtained show the same trends in all four studied sources. Soil resources are neglected in geodiversity studies as well as in the preservation of geological heritage against the scientific rationality inherent in the definition of geodiversity. Furthermore, pedodiversity studies have been carried out by a small set of interested pedologists following the same conceptual frames and mathematical tools reaching interesting universal patterns and a common language

  12. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Arkoma Basin, Kansas Basins, and Midcontinent Rift Basin study areas: Chapter F in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buursink, Marc L.; Craddock, William H.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Phillip A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2013-01-01

    2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used by the USGS for the national CO2 assessment follows that of previous USGS work. This methodology is non-economic and intended to be used at regional to subbasinal scales. This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of three storage assessment units (SAUs) in Upper Cambrian to Mississippian sedimentary rocks within the Arkoma Basin study area, and two SAUs in Upper Cambrian to Mississippian sedimentary rocks within the Kansas Basins study area. The Arkoma Basin and Kansas Basins are adjacent with very similar geologic units; although the Kansas Basins area is larger, the Arkoma Basin is more structurally complex. The report focuses on the characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in the SAUs. Specific descriptions of the SAU boundaries as well as their sealing and reservoir units are included. Properties for each SAU, such as depth to top, gross thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps, are usually provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information herein was employed, as specified in the USGS methodology, to calculate a probabilistic distribution of potential storage resources in each SAU. The Midcontinent Rift Basin study area was not assessed, because no suitable storage formations meeting our size, depth, reservoir quality, and regional seal guidelines were found. Figures in this report show study area boundaries along with the SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through sealing units into the top of the storage formations. The cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one-square mile and are

  13. Study of Geological Analogues for Understanding the Radar Sounder Response of the RIME Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, S.; Bruzzone, L.

    2017-12-01

    Radar for Icy Moon Exploration (RIME), the radar sounder onboard the Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE), is aimed at characterizing the ice shells of the Jovian moons - Ganymede, Europa and Callisto. RIME is optimized to operate at 9 MHz central frequency with bandwidth of 1 MHz and 2.7 MHz to achieve a penetration depth up to 9 km through ice. We have developed an approach to the definition of a database of simulated RIME radargrams by leveraging the data available from airborne and orbital radar sounder acquisitions over geological analogues of the expected icy moon features. These simulated radargrams are obtained by merging real radar sounder data with models of the subsurface of the Jupiter icy moons. They will be useful for geological interpretation of the RIME radargrams and for better predicting the performance of RIME. The database will also be useful in developing pre-processing and automatic feature extraction algorithms to support data analysis during the mission phase of RIME. Prior to the JUICE mission exploring the Jovian satellites with RIME, there exist radar sounders such as SHARAD (onboard MRO) and MARSIS (onboard MEX) probing Mars, the LRS (onboard SELENE) probing the Moon, and many airborne sounders probing the polar regions of Earth. Analogues have been identified in these places based on similarity in geo-morphological expression. Moreover, other analogues have been identified on the Earth for possible dedicated acquisition campaigns before the RIME operations. By assuming that the subsurface structure of the RIME targets is approximately represented in the analogue radargrams, the difference in composition is accounted for by imposing different dielectric and subsurface attenuation models. The RIME radargrams are simulated from the analogue radargrams using the radar equation and the RIME processing chain and accounting for different possible scenarios in terms of subsurface structure, dielectric properties and instrument parameters. For

  14. World resources and the development of the earth's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, A.; Ishihara, S.; Seki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    This text is an examination of economic (or ore) geology, and engineering geology. Using case studies of Japan and continental North America, this work presents a geological and geochemical summary of ore-forming processes along with discussions of basic principles and approaches to modern engineering geology. Emphasizes the relationship between fossil fuel resources and the evolution of the Earth's crust. Contents - WORLD RESOURCES. The Geochemistry of Metallogenesis. The Geochemistry of Fossil Fuel Deposit. Global Evolution and the Formation of Mineral Deposits. The Development of Continents and Island Arcs and the Formation of Mineral Deposits. DEVELOPMENT OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE. Development of the Earth's Surface and Engineering Geology. Engineering Geology Methods. Features of the Ground and Bedrock in Japan. Engineering Geology - A Case Study. Geology and the Environment - Case Studies. INDEX. Principal World-Wide Metal Deposits (inside front cover). Principal World-Wide Coal, Petroleum and Uranium Deposits (inside back cover)

  15. Preliminary geological study in kabupaten Pamekasan area to support the selection of candidate site of nuclear desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin; Lilik Subiantoro; Kurnia Setiawan Widana

    2014-01-01

    The area around the southern coast Pamekasan is one of the candidates for the alternatives location of nuclear desalination plant site. In 1949 around Sampang Madura ever tectonic earthquake measuring 5 on the Richter scale with its epicenter on land. Tectonic earthquake with epicenter on land is likely related to the presence of active faults on the Madura island. Location prospective nuclear desalination plant site should be away or free of active faults. The study aimed to obtain geological information and find out the characteristics of tectonics including active fault to support site studies of nuclear desalination plant on the island of Madura. The method used is the geological mapping scale, 1 : 50,000. Lithology in the area along the south coast district Pamekasan is alluvium Holocene age and conglomerate units of Pleistocene age. There were no indications of active faults in the region. Candidates site at this location is less attractive in terms of geotechnical foundation as can be ascertained bedrock will be found sufficient in that building construction will require expensive. (author)

  16. Numerical Verification Of Geotechnical Structure In Unfavourable Geological Conditions – Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drusa Marián

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerical modelling represents a powerful tool not only for special geotechnical calculations in cases of complicated and difficult structure design or their foundation conditions, but also for regular tasks of structure foundation. Finite element method is the most utilized method of numerical modelling. This method was used for calculations of the retaining wall monitored during 5 years after construction. Retaining wall of the parking lot with the facing from gabion blocks was chosen for numerical model. Besides the unfavourable geological conditions, a soft nature of the facing was also a difficult part of the modelling. This paper presents the results of the modelling when exact geometry, material characteristics and construction stages were simulated. The results capture the trend of displacements even though the basic material models were utilized. The modelling proved the ability of the finite element method to model the retaining structure with sufficient accuracy as well as reasonable demand on quality and quantity of input data. This method can then be used as a regular design tool during project preparation.

  17. Consolidation of geologic studies of geopressured-geothermal resources in Texas. 1990 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raney, J.A.; Seni, S.J.; DuBar, J.R.; Walter, T.G.

    1991-03-01

    In a five-county area of South Texas, geopressured-geothermal reservoirs in the upper Wilcox Group colocated with heavy-oil reservoirs in the overlying Jackson Group. In 1990, research at the Bureau of Economic Geology concentrated on evaluating the potential of using geopressured-geothermal water for hot-water flooding of heavy-oil reservoirs. Favorable geothermal reservoirs are defined by thick deltaic sandstones and growth-fault-bounded compartments. Potential geothermal reservoirs are present at a depth of 11,000 ft (3,350 m) to 15,000 ft (4,570 m) and contain water at temperatures of 350 F (177 C) to 383 F (195 C) in Fandango field, Zapata County. One potential geothermal reservoir sandstone in the upper Wilcox (R sandstone) is composed of a continuous sand body 100 ft (30 m) to greater than 200 ft (>61 m) thick. Fault blocks average 2 to 4 mi{sup 2} (5.2 to 10.4 km{sup 2}) in area.

  18. The polar layered deposits on Mars: Inference from thermal inertia modeling and geologic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkenhoff, K. E.

    1992-01-01

    It is widely believed that the Martian polar layered deposits record climate variations over at least the last 10 to 100 m.y., but the details of the processes involved and their relative roles in layer formation and evolution remain obscure. Weathering of the Martian layered deposits by sublimation of water ice can account for the thermal inertias, water vapor abundances, and geologic relationships observed in the Martian polar regions. The nonvolatile components of the layered deposits appears to consist mainly of bright red dust, with small amounts of dark dust. Dark dust, perhaps similar to the magnetic material found at the Viking Lander sites, may preferentially form filamentary residue particles upon weathering of the deposits. Once eroded, these particles may saltate to form the dark dunes found in both polar regions. This scenario for the origin and evolution of the dark material within the polar layered deposits is consistent with the available imaging and thermal data. Further experimental measurements of the thermophysical properties of magnetite and maghemite under Martian conditions are needed to better test this hypothesis.

  19. A geological reconnaissance study of the Dyfi Valley region, Gwynedd/Powys, Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.A.; Howells, M.F.; Reedman, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    A collation of existing maps and data backed up by localised checking, reinterpretation and modification, employing sampling, structural measurements and aerial photograph interpretation, have updated the geological information available on the Dyfi Valley region. The region comprises an argillaceous-dominated Ordovician and Silurian sedimentary pile of approximately 4 km thickness. Thick formations of mudstones and silty mudstones with thin intercalations of silty sandstone and fine-grained sandstone predominate and exhibit fewer variations in thickness and extent than the subordinate formations with a higher proportion of sand-grade material. Three periods of deformation (D 1 -D 3 ) are distinguished, with the D 1 phase dominating the structure of the region by forming upright, asymmetrical, large (km) scale folds (F 1 ) of a NNE-SSW to NE-SW trend and producing an almost ubiquitous slaty cleavage (S 1 ). The succeeding deformations produced localised crenulation cleavages, kink bands and box folds. Data on the faulting and jointing associated with this deformation history are also presented. (author)

  20. Prediction Study of Tunnel Collapse Risk in Advance based on Efficacy Coefficient Method and Geological Forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIU Daohong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Collapse is one of the most common accidents in underground constructions. Risk evaluation is the method of measuring the risk of chamber collapse. To ensure the safety of construction, a risk evaluation model of tunnel collapse based on an efficacy coefficient method and geological prediction was put forward. Based on the comprehensive analysis of collapse factors, five main factors including rock uniaxial compressive strength, surrounding rock integrated coefficient, state of discontinuous structural planes, the angle between tunnel axis and major structural plane and underground water were chosen as the risk evaluation indices of tunnel collapse. The evaluation indices were quantitatively described by using TSP203 system and core-drilling to establish the risk early warning model of tunnel collapse based on the basic principle of the efficacy coefficient method. The model established in this research was applied in the collapse risk recognition of Kiaochow Bay subsea tunnel in Qingdao, China. The results showed that the collapse risk recognition method presents higher prediction accuracy and provided a new idea for the risk prediction of tunnel collapse.

  1. Surface analogue outcrops of deep fractured basement reservoirs in extensional geological settings. Examples within active rift system (Uganda) and proximal passive margin (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Bastien; Géraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc

    2014-05-01

    The important role of extensive brittle faults and related structures in the development of reservoirs has already been demonstrated, notably in initially low-porosity rocks such as basement rocks. Large varieties of deep-seated resources (e.g. water, hydrocarbons, geothermal energy) are recognized in fractured basement reservoirs. Brittle faults and fracture networks can develop sufficient volumes to allow storage and transfer of large amounts of fluids. Development of hydraulic model with dual-porosity implies the structural and petrophysical characterization of the basement. Drain porosity is located within the larger fault zones, which are the main fluid transfer channels. The storage porosity corresponds both to the matrix porosity and to the volume produced by the different fractures networks (e.g. tectonic, primary), which affect the whole reservoir rocks. Multi-scale genetic and geometric relationships between these deformation features support different orders of structural domains in a reservoir, from several tens of kilometers to few tens of meters. In subsurface, 3D seismic data in basement can be sufficient to characterize the largest first order of structural domains and bounding fault zones (thickness, main orientation, internal architecture, …). However, lower order structural blocks and fracture networks are harder to define. The only available data are 1D borehole electric imaging and are used to characterize the lowest order. Analog outcrop studies of basement rocks fill up this resolution gap and help the understanding of brittle deformation, definition of reservoir geometries and acquirement of reservoir properties. These geological outcrop studies give information about structural blocks of second and third order, getting close to the field scale. This allows to understand relationships between brittle structures geometry and factors controlling their development, such as the structural inheritance or the lithology (e.g. schistosity, primary

  2. A preliminary study on the geochemical environment for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Park, Byoung Yun

    2000-03-01

    Geochemical study on the groundwater from crystalline rocks (granite and gneiss) for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste was carried out in order to elucidate the hydrogeochemical and isotope characteristics and geochemical evolution of the groundwater. Study areas are Jungwon, Chojeong, Youngcheon and Yusung for granite region, Cheongyang for gneiss region, and Yeosu for volcanic region. Groundwaters of each study areas weree sampled and analysed systematically. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rock. Origin of the groundwater was proposed by isotope ({sup 18}O, {sup 2}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 34}S, {sup 87}Sr, {sup 15}N) studies and the age of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based ont the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs.

  3. A desk study of surface diffusion and mass transport in clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Research into the properties of clays as barrier materials for nuclear waste disposal has led to the realization that they have important transport properties which are relatively insignificant in most other geological materials. Sorption has always been regarded as a purely retarding mechanism, but laboratory experiments over the past decade have indicated that surface diffusion of sorbed cations is a potentially significant transport mechanism in both compacted montmorillonite, and biotite gneiss. The present desk study about these issues was part of the CEC coordinated project Mirage-Second phase, research area Natural analogues

  4. Subsurface geology of the Lusi region: preliminary results from a comprehensive seismic-stratigraphic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscariello, Andrea; Do Couto, Damien; Lupi, Matteo; Mazzini, Adriano

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the subsurface data of a large sector in the Sidoarjo district (East Java, Indonesia) where the sudden catastrophic Lusi eruption started the 26th May 2006. Our goal is to understand the stratigraphic and structural features which can be genetically related to the surface manifestations of deep hydrothermal fluids and thus allow us to predict possible future similar phenomena in the region. In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126) we examined a series of densely spaced 2D reflection commercial seismic lines This allowed the reconstruction of the lateral variability of key stratigraphic horizons as well as the main tectonic features. In particular, we shed light on the deep structure of the Watukosek fault system and the associated fracture corridors crossing the entire stratigraphic successions. To the South-West, when approaching the volcanic complex, we could identify a clear contrast in seismic facies between chaotic volcanoclastic wedges and clastic-prone sedimentary successions as well as between the deeper stratigraphic units consisting of carbonates and lateral shales units. The latter show possible ductile deformation associated to fault-controlled diapirism which control in turns deformation of overlying stratigraphic units and deep geo-fluids circulation. Large collapse structures recognized in the study area (e.g. well PRG-1) are interpreted as the results of shale movement at depth. Similarly to Lusi, vertical deformation zones ("pipes"), likely associated with deeply rooted strike-slip systems seem to be often located at the interface between harder carbonate rocks forming isolated build ups and the laterally nearby clastic (shale-prone)-units. The mechanisms of deformation of structural features (strike vs dip slip systems) which may affect either the basement rock or the overlying deeper stratigraphic rocks is also being investigated to understand the relationship between deep and shallower (i.e. meteoric) fluid

  5. Comparing Geologic Data Sets Collected by Planetary Analog Traverses and by Standard Geologic Field Mapping: Desert Rats Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wanda; Evans, Cynthia; Gruener, John; Eppler, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Geologic mapping involves interpreting relationships between identifiable units and landforms to understand the formative history of a region. Traditional field techniques are used to accomplish this on Earth. Mapping proves more challenging for other planets, which are studied primarily by orbital remote sensing and, less frequently, by robotic and human surface exploration. Systematic comparative assessments of geologic maps created by traditional mapping versus photogeology together with data from planned traverses are limited. The objective of this project is to produce a geologic map from data collected on the Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) 2010 analog mission using Apollo-style traverses in conjunction with remote sensing data. This map is compared with a geologic map produced using standard field techniques.

  6. Hydrogeological Properties of Geological Elements in Geological Model around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2012-01-01

    To develop site characterization technologies for a radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the geological and hydrogeological investigations have been carried out since 1997. In 2006, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to study a solute migration, a microbiology and an engineered barrier system as well as deeply to understand geological environments in in-situ condition. This study is performed as one of the site characterization works around KURT. Several investigations such as a lineament analysis, a borehole/tunnel survey, a geophyscial survey and logging in borehole, were used to construct the geological model. As a result, the geological model is constructed, which includes the lithological model and geo-structural model in this study. Moreover, from the results of the in-situ hydraulic tests, the hydrogeological properties of elements in geological model were evaluated.

  7. Study on the interaction mechanism between the special geological environment and their extreme geo-microbes in Dagang Oilfield by combined methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun

    2010-05-01

    Geo-microbes and their function were widespread ever since life appeared on the earth. Geo-microbiological process has left a rich and colorful material record in the geological body of earth, the most critical record of which is all sorts of organic hieroglyph and various forms of organic matter derived from bio-organisms, and oil field is the most ideal geological location to preserve these organic matters. It have already produced or might produce petroleum and natural gas sedimentary rocks under natural conditions, also known as olefiant (gas) rock or the parent rock, which is the product of the interaction between the life-system and earth environmental system in the specific geological conditions and integrate the whole microbial ecosystem in the geological time. The microbial community under extreme geological environment of Dagang Oilfield is relatively simple, therefore it is quite easy to investigate the special relationship between geo-microbes and biogeochemistry. We have mastered a large number of information related with the geological condition and biological species of Dagang Oilfield; what's more we also have isolated a number of archimycetes strains with different extremophiles capacity from the core samples collected in the Dagang oil field. At present, we are to proceed with the cooperative research at Environment School of Yale University and Institute of the Earth's biosphere using these strains. In the future, we will work together to carry out geological surveys in the field using international first-class equipment and methods and study the geological environment of Dagang Oilfield utilizing isotope techniques and mineral phase analysis method. Meanwhile we are going to undertake the on-line monitoring of the overall microbial activity of these collected geological samples, the specific metabolic activity of these extreme strains of microorganisms and the biomarkers produced during their metabolic processes under laboratory conditions

  8. A preliminary study on the long-term geologic stability for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byoung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    Geology of the Korean peninsula could be grouped by 7 rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses, metasedimentary rocks, Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, porous and massive volcanic rocks. The plutonic rock type is the largest rock groups occupying about 35.2% over the peninsula. Tectonic movement could be classified as four great stages as Precambrian, Songnim, Daebo and Bulkuksa even though the ambiguous of prior Songnim. It would be supposed to deep relationship between tectonic movement, orogeny and magmatism. And also, the magmatism within the peninsula could be divided into 5 stages such as 1st stage of Precambrian(>570Ma), 2nd stage of late Paleozoic(>250Ma), 3rd stage of early to mid Mesozoic(200-300Ma), 4th stage of late Mesozoic(135-60Ma) and 5th stage of post early Tertiary(50Ma>). In the seismicities, the peninsula has some characteristics that of the intra-plate seismic characteristics located at south eastern part of the Eurasian plate apart from the boundary of the Pacific and Philippine plate. Eurasian plate is under the two stress direction acting eastward stresses induced the collision of Indo- Australlian plate and westward stresses due to the subduction of due the Pacific and Philippine plate. For the purpose of the quantitative analysis for the safety assessment of HLW disposal, it would be desired to have the long range approach concept for the characterization of FEPs such as upper stated including climate, sae level change, uplift and subsidence, erosion and sedimentation. 38 refs., 18 figs., 25 tabs. (Author)

  9. R and D program concerning radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic formation (Study of an argilaceous formation in Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In 1974 it was decided to start up research with a view to safe disposal of conditioned waste in geological formations in Belgium. A first R and D programme was set up for study of the Boom clay in the Mol region. Multiple research projects have been undertaken; both experimental research in the field and in the laboratory and theoretical studies. Different exploratory drillings for geohydrological and geotechnical research were performed at the potential site. Teledetection and seismic prospection campaigns have provided data on the dimensions of the argillaceous layer and on the absence of major faults. Clay samples collected during drilling campaigns have been submitted to a number of analyses in laboratory as well as analyses of possible interactions between the clay and the conditioned waste to be stored. Some of these laboratory analyses, in particular, those concerning heat transfer and corrosion have been completed by more representative experiments in a clay pit. Various mathematical models have been developed and adapted with a view to better understanding of physical and physico-chemical phenomena like heat transfer, migration and retardation of radionuclides. A feasibility study was performed. Concerning safety analyses, a probabilistic study was undertaken on the behaviour of the geological barrier. The fault tree analysis technique was applied and the study was carried out in close collaboration with the Joint Rsearch Centre in Ispra. The underground experimental room at about 220 m depth was not yet relised but the technico-economical dossier has made such progress that the excavation can start in the very beginning of the next five-year programme

  10. Geology and bedrock engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This book deals with geology of Korea which includes summary, geology in central part and southern part in Korea and characteristic of geology structure, limestone like geology property of limestone, engineered property of limestone, and design and construction case in limestone area. It also introduces engineered property of the cenozoic, clay rock and shale, geologic and engineered property of phyllite and stratum.

  11. Geologic mapping procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Geologic mapping will provide a baseline record of the subsurface geology in the shafts and drifts of the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF). This information will be essential in confirming the specific repository horizon, selecting representative locations for the in situ tests, providing information for construction and decommissioning seal designs, documenting the excavation effects, and in providing information for performance assessment, which relates to the ultimate suitability of the site as a nuclear waste repository. Geologic mapping will be undertaken on the walls and roof, and locally on the floor within the completed At-Depth Facility (ADF) and on the walls of the two access shafts. Periodic mapping of the exposed face may be conducted during construction of the ADF. The mapping will be oriented toward the collection and presentation of geologic information in an engineering format and the portrayal of detailed stratigraphic information which may be useful in confirmation of drillhole data collected as part of the surface-based testing program. Geologic mapping can be considered as a predictive tool as well as a means of checking design assumptions. This document provides a description of the required procedures for geologic mapping for the ESF. Included in this procedure is information that qualified technical personnel can use to collect the required types of geologic descriptions, at the appropriate level of detail. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. Impact of geological model uncertainty on integrated catchment hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Jørgensen, Flemming; Refsgaard, Jens Christian

    2014-05-01

    Various types of uncertainty can influence hydrological model performance. Among them, uncertainty originated from geological model may play an important role in process-based integrated hydrological modeling, if the model is used outside the calibration base. In the present study, we try to assess the hydrological model predictive uncertainty caused by uncertainty of the geology using an ensemble of geological models with equal plausibility. The study is carried out in the 101 km2 Norsminde catchment in western Denmark. Geostatistical software TProGS is used to generate 20 stochastic geological realizations for the west side the of study area. This process is done while incorporating the borehole log data from 108 wells and high resolution airborne transient electromagnetic (AEM) data for conditioning. As a result, 10 geological models are generated based solely on borehole data, and another 10 geological models are based on both borehole and AEM data. Distributed surface water - groundwater models are developed using MIKE SHE code for each of the 20 geological models. The models are then calibrated using field data collected from stream discharge and groundwater head observations. The model simulation results are evaluated based on the same two types of field data. The results show that the differences between simulated discharge flows caused by using different geological models are relatively small. The model calibration is shown to be able to account for the systematic bias in different geological realizations and hence varies the calibrated model parameters. This results in an increase in the variance between the hydrological realizations compared to the uncalibrated models that uses the same parameter values in all 20 models. Furthermore, borehole based hydrological models in general show more variance between simulations than the AEM based models; however, the combined total uncertainty, bias plus variance, is not necessarily higher.

  13. Documentation of the Surface-Water Routing (SWR1) Process for modeling surface-water flow with the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model (MODFLOW-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joseph D.; Langevin, Christian D.; Chartier, Kevin L.; White, Jeremy T.

    2012-01-01

    A flexible Surface-Water Routing (SWR1) Process that solves the continuity equation for one-dimensional and two-dimensional surface-water flow routing has been developed for the U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional groundwater model, MODFLOW-2005. Simple level- and tilted-pool reservoir routing and a diffusive-wave approximation of the Saint-Venant equations have been implemented. Both methods can be implemented in the same model and the solution method can be simplified to represent constant-stage elements that are functionally equivalent to the standard MODFLOW River or Drain Package boundary conditions. A generic approach has been used to represent surface-water features (reaches) and allows implementation of a variety of geometric forms. One-dimensional geometric forms include rectangular, trapezoidal, and irregular cross section reaches to simulate one-dimensional surface-water features, such as canals and streams. Two-dimensional geometric forms include reaches defined using specified stage-volume-area-perimeter (SVAP) tables and reaches covering entire finite-difference grid cells to simulate two-dimensional surface-water features, such as wetlands and lakes. Specified SVAP tables can be used to represent reaches that are smaller than the finite-difference grid cell (for example, isolated lakes), or reaches that cannot be represented accurately using the defined top of the model. Specified lateral flows (which can represent point and distributed flows) and stage-dependent rainfall and evaporation can be applied to each reach. The SWR1 Process can be used with the MODFLOW Unsaturated Zone Flow (UZF1) Package to permit dynamic simulation of runoff from the land surface to specified reaches. Surface-water/groundwater interactions in the SWR1 Process are mathematically defined to be a function of the difference between simulated stages and groundwater levels, and the specific form of the reach conductance equation used in each reach. Conductance can be

  14. Crosscutting Development- EVA Tools and Geology Sample Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Exploration to all destinations has at one time or another involved the acquisition and return of samples and context data. Gathered at the summit of the highest mountain, the floor of the deepest sea, or the ice of a polar surface, samples and their value (both scientific and symbolic) have been a mainstay of Earthly exploration. In manned spaceflight exploration, the gathering of samples and their contextual information has continued. With the extension of collecting activities to spaceflight destinations comes the need for geology tools and equipment uniquely designed for use by suited crew members in radically different environments from conventional field geology. Beginning with the first Apollo Lunar Surface Extravehicular Activity (EVA), EVA Geology Tools were successfully used to enable the exploration and scientific sample gathering objectives of the lunar crew members. These early designs were a step in the evolution of Field Geology equipment, and the evolution continues today. Contemporary efforts seek to build upon and extend the knowledge gained in not only the Apollo program but a wealth of terrestrial field geology methods and hardware that have continued to evolve since the last lunar surface EVA. This paper is presented with intentional focus on documenting the continuing evolution and growing body of knowledge for both engineering and science team members seeking to further the development of EVA Geology. Recent engineering development and field testing efforts of EVA Geology equipment for surface EVA applications are presented, including the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATs) field trial. An executive summary of findings will also be presented, detailing efforts recommended for exotic sample acquisition and pre-return curation development regardless of planetary or microgravity destination.

  15. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  16. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  17. Summary on several key techniques in 3D geological modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Several key techniques in 3D geological modeling including planar mesh generation, spatial interpolation, and surface intersection are summarized in this paper. Note that these techniques are generic and widely used in various applications but play a key role in 3D geological modeling. There are two essential procedures in 3D geological modeling: the first is the simulation of geological interfaces using geometric surfaces and the second is the building of geological objects by means of various geometric computations such as the intersection of surfaces. Discrete geometric surfaces that represent geological interfaces can be generated by creating planar meshes first and then spatially interpolating; those surfaces intersect and then form volumes that represent three-dimensional geological objects such as rock bodies. In this paper, the most commonly used algorithms of the key techniques in 3D geological modeling are summarized.

  18. MIT Project Apophis: Surface Evaulation & Tomography (SET) Mission Study for the April 2029 Earth Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binzel, R. P.; Earle, A. M.; Vanatta, M.; Miller, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    Nature is providing a once-per-thousand year opportunity to study the geophysical outcome induced on an unprecedentedly large (350 meter) asteroid making an extremely close passage by the Earth (inside the distance of geosynchronous satellites) on Friday April 13, 2029. The aircraft carrier-sized (estimated 20 million metric ton) asteroid is named Apophis. While many previous spacecraft missions have studied asteroids, none has ever had the opportunity to study "live" the outcome of planetary tidal forces on their shapes, spin states, surface geology, and internal structure. Beyond the science interest directly observing this planetary process, the Apophis encounter provides an invaluable opportunity to gain knowledge for any eventuality of a known asteroid found to be on a certain impact trajectory. MIT's Project Apophis [1] is our response to nature's generous opportunity by developing a detailed mission concept for sending a spacecraft to orbit Apophis with the objectives of surveying its surface and interior structure before, during, and after its 2029 near-Earth encounter. The Surface Evaluation & Tomography (SET) mission concept we present is designed toward accomplishing three key science objectives: (1) bulk physical characterization, (2) internal structure, and (3) long-term orbit tracking. For its first mission objective, SET will study Apophis' bulk properties, including: shape, size, mass, volume, bulk density, surface geology, and composition, rotation rate, and spin state. The second mission objective is to characterize Apophis' internal structure before and after the encounter to determine its strength and cohesion - including tidally induced changes. Finally, the third objective studies the process of thermal re-radiation and consequential Yarkovsky drift, whose results will improve orbit predictions for Apophis as well as other potentially hazardous asteroids. [1] https://eapsweb.mit.edu/mit-project-apophis

  19. New developments in measurement technology relevant to the studies of deep geological repositories in domed salt and basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Mao, N.H.

    1980-01-01

    This report briefly describes recent geophysical and geotechnical instrumentation developments relevant to the studies of deep geologic repositories. Special emphasis has been placed on techniques that appear to minimize measurement problems associated with repositories constructed in basalt or domed salt. Included in the listing are existing measurement capabilities and deficiencies that have been identified by a few authors and instrumentation workshops that have assessed the capabilities of existing instrumentation with respect to repository applications. These deficiencies have been compared with the reported advantages and limitations of the new developments described. Based on these comparisons, areas that merit further research and development have been identified. The report is based on a thorough literature review and on discussions with several instrumentation specialists involved in instrumentation development

  20. A geological-acoustical framework for an integrated environmental evaluation in Mediterranean marine protected areas. Marettimo Island, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agate, M.; Catalano, R.; Chemello, R.; Lo Iacono, C.; Riggio, S.

    2003-04-01

    A GEOLOGICAL-ACOUSTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR AN INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION IN MEDITERRANEAN MARINE PROTECTED AREAS. MARETTIMO ISLAND, A CASE STUDY. M. Agate (1), R. Catalano (1), R. Chemello (2), C. Lo Iacono (1) &S. Riggio (2) (1)Dipartimento di Geologia e Geodesia dell'Università di Palermo, via Archirafi 26, 90123 Palermo, clageo@katamail.com, rcatal@unipa.it (2)Dipartimento di Biologia animale dell'Università di Palermo, via Archirafi 18, 90123 Palermo,rchemello@unipa.it New analytical methods have been designed to support an objective quantitative evaluation of geological components whose results dictate the lines for a sustainable use of the natural resources. We tried to adopt the fundaments of the seascape concept, based on the thematic elements of landscape ecology and translated into terms fitting with the principles of coastal ecology. The seascape concept is central to our view of the environment and is referred to as an integrated unit (Environmental Unit) resulting from a long multidisciplinary approach, carried out in both the field and the laboratory by an interdisciplinary team of experts. Side Scan Sonar and Multi Beam acoustical data collected in the Marettimo and Ustica Islands (south-western Tyrrhenian Sea))inner shelves, make possible to sketch geomorphological and sedimentological maps, whose details have been tested as deep as 45 m in diving surveys. On the basis of the collected data sets, the inner shelf (0-60 m) has been subdivided into different portions, following the concept of the Environmental Unit (E.U). Every E.U. presents constant morphological and sedimentological features that, probably, can be associated to specified biological communities. In order to find the relationships between physical settings and communities, geological thematic maps are eventually overlaid and fitted to macrobenthic and fishery spatial distribution maps. The result, based on the rule of the Environmental Impact Assessment, puts into evidence the

  1. Geoethics and Forensic Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Laurance

    2017-04-01

    The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), Initiative on Forensic Geology (IFG) was set up in 2011 to promote and develop the applications of geology to policing and law enforcement throughout the world. This includes the provision of crime scene examinations, searches to locate graves or items of interest that have been buried beneath the ground surface as part of a criminal act and geological trace analysis and evidence. Forensic geologists may assist the police and law enforcement in a range of ways including for example; homicide, sexual assaults, counter terrorism, kidnapping, humanitarian incidents, environmental crimes, precious minerals theft, fakes and fraudulent crimes. The objective of this paper is to consider the geoethical aspects of forensic geology. This includes both delivery to research and teaching, and contribution to the practical applications of forensic geology in case work. The case examples cited are based on the personal experiences of the authors. Often, the technical and scientific aspect of forensic geology investigation may be the most straightforward, after all, this is what the forensic geologist has been trained to do. The associated geoethical issues can be the most challenging and complex to manage. Generally, forensic geologists are driven to carry-out their research or case work with integrity, honesty and in a manner that is law abiding, professional, socially acceptable and highly responsible. This is necessary in advising law enforcement organisations, society and the scientific community that they represent. As the science of forensic geology begins to advance around the world it is desirable to establish a standard set of principles, values and to provide an agreed ethical a framework. But what are these core values? Who is responsible for producing these? How may these become enforced? What happens when geoethical standards are breached? This paper does not attempt to provide all of the answers, as further work

  2. Deconstructing geologic slip rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, R. D.

    2017-12-01

    Discrepancies between geologic and geodetic slip rates are recognized globally. However, understanding the significance of those discrepancies requires a complete inventory of the sources of uncertainty often deeply hidden or ignored in slip-rate estimates. In this presentation, I will examine underappreciated complexities associated with geologic estimates of fault slip rates along strike-slip faults. Slip-rate measurements are made from geomorphic features displaced by faulting and age constraints derived from chronologic or stratigraphic data. Sources of uncertainty associated with offset measurements include measurement errors, ambiguities in feature reconstructions, and distributed faulting and bulk off-fault deformation. Sources of uncertainty associated with age constraints include analytical uncertainties, inheritance in the sample material, post-depositional contamination, and often most critically, ambiguity in how to associate sample ages with the landforms or deposits from which they were collected. Additional sources of uncertainty associated with slip-rate measurements include the time interval over which geologic slip rates are determined (e.g., number of earthquake cycles) and the impact of secular variation in slip. I will use case studies from the San Andreas fault system, the Walker Lane, and Tibet to explore sources of uncertainty in geologic slip rates and highlight practices that can mitigate those uncertainties. I will emphasize the need for bracketing the age of faulted landforms using numerous geochronometers, documenting numerous offset landforms, and sampling a range of magnitudes of slip in a probabilistic framework.

  3. Electromagnetic characterization of fractured rock for geological disposal studies of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eloranta, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Ermutlu, M. [Nokia Research Center, Helsinki (Finland); Flykt, M.; Lindell, I.; Nikoskinen, K.; Sihvola, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Electromagnetics Lab.

    1998-04-01

    In the report, the results of a joint research project carried out in 1991-1997 by the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) and the Electromagnetics Laboratory of the Helsinki University of Technology are presented. The main purpose was to create computational models for electric potential responses when the medium is anisotropic and is bounded by a perfect magnetic conductor, a perfect electric conductor, and an anisotropic impedance surface. Furthermore, the geometry of two anisotropic half spaces and a layered medium were considered. The solutions of the problems were made using image theory. For modeling the electric potential in anisotropic medium with inhomogeneities, an integral equation was formulated. Also a wedge structure was treated as an extension to the traditional two parallel plate model of fracture geometry. The equivalentization of fracturing with anisotropy is a research area that still continues that still continues 46 refs. The publication contains also fourteen previous publications by authors

  4. Electromagnetic characterization of fractured rock for geological disposal studies of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eloranta, E.; Ermutlu, M.; Flykt, M.; Lindell, I.; Nikoskinen, K.; Sihvola, A.

    1998-04-01

    In the report, the results of a joint research project carried out in 1991-1997 by the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) and the Electromagnetics Laboratory of the Helsinki University of Technology are presented. The main purpose was to create computational models for electric potential responses when the medium is anisotropic and is bounded by a perfect magnetic conductor, a perfect electric conductor, and an anisotropic impedance surface. Furthermore, the geometry of two anisotropic half spaces and a layered medium were considered. The solutions of the problems were made using image theory. For modeling the electric potential in anisotropic medium with inhomogeneities, an integral equation was formulated. Also a wedge structure was treated as an extension to the traditional two parallel plate model of fracture geometry. The equivalentization of fracturing with anisotropy is a research area that still continues that still continues

  5. A preliminary assessment of geologic framework and sediment thickness studies relevant to prospective US submission on extended continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Childs, Jonathan R.; Hammar-Klose, Erika; Dadisman, Shawn; Edgar, N. Terrence; Barth, Ginger A.

    2004-01-01

    Under the provisions of Articles 76 and 77 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), coastal States have sovereign rights over the continental shelf territory beyond 200-nautical mile (nm) from the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured if certain conditions are met regarding the geologic and physiographic character of the legal continental shelf as defined in those articles. These claims to an extended continental shelf must be supported by relevant bathymetric, geophysical and geological data according to guidelines established by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS, 1999). In anticipation of the United States becoming party to UNCLOS, Congress in 2001 directed the Joint Hydrographic Center/Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping at the University of New Hampshire to conduct a study to evaluate data relevant to establishing the outer limit of the juridical continental shelf beyond 200 nm and to recommend what additional data might be needed to substantiate such an outer limit (Mayer and others, 2002). The resulting report produced an impressive and sophisticated GIS database of data sources. Because of the short time allowed to complete the report, all seismic reflection data were classified together; the authors therefore recommended that USGS perform additional analysis on seismic and related data holdings. The results of this additional analysis are the substance of this report, including the status of geologic framework, sediment isopach research, and resource potential in the eight regions1 identified by Mayer and others (2002) where analysis of seismic data might be crucial for establishing an outer limit . Seismic reflection and refraction data are essential in determining sediment thickness, one of the criteria used in establishing the outer limits of the juridical continental shelf. Accordingly, the initial task has been to inventory public-domain seismic data sources, primarily those regionally

  6. Explaining the current geodetic field with geological models: A case study of the Haiyuan fault system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daout, S.; Jolivet, R.; Lasserre, C.; Doin, M. P.; Barbot, S.; Peltzer, G.; Tapponnier, P.

    2015-12-01

    Oblique convergence across Tibet leads to slip partitioning with the co-existence of strike-slip, normal and thrust motion in major fault systems. While such complexity has been shown at the surface, the question is to understand how faults interact and accumulate strain at depth. Here, we process InSAR data across the central Haiyuan restraining bend, at the north-eastern boundary of the Tibetan plateau and show that the surface complexity can be explained by partitioning of a uniform deep-seated convergence rate. We construct a time series of ground deformation, from Envisat radar data spanning from 2001-2011 period, across a challenging area because of the high jump in topography between the desert environment and the plateau. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio, we used the latest Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry methodology, such as Global Atmospheric Models (ERA Interim) and Digital Elevation Model errors corrections before unwrapping. We then developed a new Bayesian approach, jointly inverting our InSAR time series together with published GPS displacements. We explore fault system geometry at depth and associated slip rates and determine a uniform N86±7E° convergence rate of 8.45±1.4 mm/yr across the whole fault system with a variable partitioning west and east of a major extensional fault-jog. Our 2D model gives a quantitative understanding of how crustal deformation is accumulated by the various branches of this thrust/strike-slip fault system and demonstrate the importance of the geometry of the Haiyuan Fault, controlling the partitioning or the extrusion of the block motion. The approach we have developed would allow constraining the low strain accumulation along deep faults, like for example for the blind thrust faults or possible detachment in the San Andreas "big bend", which are often associated to a poorly understood seismic hazard.

  7. Indoor Radon in Micro-geological Setting of an Indigenous Community in Canada: A Pilot Study for Hazard Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Atanu; Wilton, Derek Hc; Fitzgerald, Erica

    2017-04-01

    Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. In Canada, the health authorities have no access to comprehensive profile of the communities built over uranium-rich micro-geological settings. The present indoor radon monitoring guideline is unable to provide an accurate identification of health hazards due to discounting several parameters of housing characteristics. To explore indoor radon levels in a micro-geological setting known for high uranium in bedrock and to develop a theoretical model for a revised radon testing protocol. We surveyed a remote Inuit community in Labrador, located in the midst of uranium belt. We selected 25 houses by convenience sampling and placed electret-ion-chamber radon monitoring devices in the lowest levels of the house (basement/crawl space). The standard radon study questionnaire developed and used by Health Canada was used. 7 (28%) houses had radon levels above the guideline value (range 249 to 574 Bq/m 3 ). Housing characteristics, such as floors, sump holes, ventilation, and heating systems were suspected for high indoor radon levels and health consequences. There is a possibility of the existence of high-risk community in a low-risk region. The regional and provincial health authorities would be benefited by consulting geologists to identify potentially high-risk communities across the country. Placing testing devices in the lowest levels provides more accurate assessment of indoor radon level. The proposed protocol, based on synchronized testing of radon (at the lowest level of houses and in rooms of normal occupancy) and thorough inspection of the houses will be a more effective lung cancer prevention strategy.

  8. Effects of geological structures on groundwater flow and quality in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geological and structural influences on groundwater flow and quality were evaluated in the present study in the hardrock regions of Tirunelveli District, southern India. Groundwater is a major source of freshwater in this region to cater to the requirements of domestic and agricultural activity, as there are no surface water ...

  9. Geological exploration for a high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) system: a case study from Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterleitner, Gerd; Schütz, Felina; Huenges, Ernst

    2017-04-01

    A collaborative research programme between the German Research Centre for Geoscience, Potsdam (GFZ) and The Research Council of Oman (TRC) is underway, which aims to develop and implement an innovative concept of a sustainable thermally driven cooling system in combination with a HT-ATES in northern Oman. The system will use an absorption chiller for cold supply, which nominally requires water of around 100°C as energy source. Solar collectors will provide this thermal energy and energy surpluses during daytimes will be stored to ensure a continuous operation of the cooling system. An integral part of this project is, therefore, the development of an efficient HT-ATES (100°C), which is based on temporary storage and recovery of thermal energy through hot water injection in subsurface aquifer horizons. Thus, an accurate thermal and fluid flow characterisation of potential reservoir horizons is essential to ensure optimal efficiency of the cooling system. The study area is located in the Al Khwad area, approximately 40 km to the west of Muscat. The area is characterised by a thick Cenozoic mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentary succession, containing at least 3 aquifer horizons. We use a multidisciplinary approach for the initial ATES exploration and development phase, including traditional geological fieldwork dovetailed with virtual outcrop geology, thin-section analyses, geological modelling and reservoir fluid flow forecasting analyses. Our first results indicate two potential storage horizons: (1) a Miocene-aged clastic-dominated alluvial fan system and (2) an Eocene carbonate-dominated sequence. The alluvial fan system is characterised by a more than 300 m thick, coarse-clastic succession of coalesced individual fans. Thermal and hydraulic parameters are favourable for gravel and sandstone intervals but reservoir architecture is complex due to multiple generations of interconnecting fans with highly heterogeneous facies distributions. The Eocene carbonates

  10. Study the Postbuckling of Hexagonal Piezoelectric Nanowires with Surface Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Rahmani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric nanobeams having circular, rectangular and hexagonal cross-sections are synthesized and used in various Nano structures; however, piezoelectric nanobeams with hexagonal cross-sections have not been studied in detail. In particular, the physical mechanisms of the surface effect and the role of surface stress, surface elasticity and surface piezoelectricity have not been discussed thoroughly. The present study investigated post-buckling behavior of piezoelectric nanobeams by examining surface effects. The energy method was applied to post-buckling of hexagonal nanobeams and the critical buckling voltage and amplitude are derived analytically from bulk and surface material properties and geometric factors.

  11. Nutrient and pesticide contamination bias estimated from field blanks collected at surface-water sites in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Quality Networks, 2002–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura; Martin, Jeffrey D.

    2017-08-14

    Potential contamination bias was estimated for 8 nutrient analytes and 40 pesticides in stream water collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at 147 stream sites from across the United States, and representing a variety of hydrologic conditions and site types, for water years 2002–12. This study updates previous U.S. Geological Survey evaluations of potential contamination bias for nutrients and pesticides. Contamination is potentially introduced to water samples by exposure to airborne gases and particulates, from inadequate cleaning of sampling or analytic equipment, and from inadvertent sources during sample collection, field processing, shipment, and laboratory analysis. Potential contamination bias, based on frequency and magnitude of detections in field blanks, is used to determine whether or under what conditions environmental data might need to be qualified for the interpretation of results in the context of comparisons with background levels, drinking-water standards, aquatic-life criteria or benchmarks, or human-health benchmarks. Environmental samples for which contamination bias as determined in this report applies are those from historical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality networks or programs that were collected during the same time frame and according to the same protocols and that were analyzed in the same laboratory as field blanks described in this report.Results from field blanks for ammonia, nitrite, nitrite plus nitrate, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus were partitioned by analytical method; results from the most commonly used analytical method for total phosphorus were further partitioned by date. Depending on the analytical method, 3.8, 9.2, or 26.9 percent of environmental samples, the last of these percentages pertaining to all results from 2007 through 2012, were potentially affected by ammonia contamination. Nitrite contamination potentially affected up to 2.6 percent of environmental samples collected between 2002 and 2006 and

  12. Design studies on the engineered barrier system and on the in-situ experiments under the conditions of geological environment in Horonobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Yuji; Yui, Mikazu; Tanai, Kenji

    2004-04-01

    Following studies have been done in this papers in order to apply the technologies based on H12 report to the actual geological conditions of Horonobe underground research laboratory. 1) Reconsidering the process of repository design, the design process charts of a repository were presented. In the H12 report, the design process of the engineering barrier system was followed by the facility design process. In this paper, the both processes were placed in parallel position. 2) The relation between geological conditions and the performance of engineering barrier systems and the specifications of engineering barrier systems was arranged and the geological information needed for design of engineering barrier were selected. 3) The appropriate form of geological information as input-data for design were showed and the procedure for setting input-data was presented. 4) Based on the state of geological investigations at Horonobe, mechanical input-data were arranged for the design of the in-situ experiments on engineered barrier system at HORONOBE. 5) The stability of the hall for the in-situ experiments was studied by numerical analysis and the results indicated that there are difference in stability between the depth of 500 m and 570 m. (author)

  13. Target studies for surface muon production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Berg

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Meson factories are powerful drivers of diverse physics programs. With beam powers already in the MW-regime attention has to be turned to target and beam line design to further significantly increase surface muon rates available for experiments. For this reason we have explored the possibility of using a neutron spallation target as a source of surface muons by performing detailed Geant4 simulations with pion production cross sections based on a parametrization of existing data. While the spallation target outperforms standard targets in the backward direction by more than a factor 7 it is not more efficient than standard targets viewed under 90°. Not surprisingly, the geometry of the target plays a large role in the generation of surface muons. Through careful optimization, a gain in surface muon rate of between 30% and 60% over the standard “box-like” target used at the Paul Scherrer Institute could be achieved by employing a rotated slab target. An additional 10% gain could also be possible by utilizing novel target materials such as, e.g., boron carbide.

  14. Geology XXI century: the key of the natural resources development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    The 6th Uruguayan geological congress - Geology X XI century natural resources development key it was organized by the Uruguayan Society of geology and took place in Lavalleja - Uruguay in May - 2010. The lectures were given by national and foreign professionals including the following topics : Watershed analysis as a tool for the elucidation of the mineral resources surface cycle; Isotope methods for studies of precambian land crustal evolution; Hydrogeology in traditional and new hydrocarbons mining; The environmental protection at the Verdun mine site at open sky; Tectonic map of Uruguay; Petroleum Exploitation in intracratonic basins or marine platforms; Geo economical deposits; Drilling and catheterisation techniques of wells; Sequential stratigraphy; Transport behavior of pollutants in clay barriers; Urban Geology, basaltic rocks, mineral resources; Geomagnetic field and their impact in the River Plate region; Gravimetric Studies in the western edge of the Rio de la Plata craton; Implications of the geological and geo morphological evolution of the Uruguayan continental margin; Paleontology, Fossil remains of vertebrates in Tricamba and Mercedes formation; Textural and mineralogical study of Mesozoic basic dikes in San Gregorio de Polanco; Caolin clay deposit Zone in Patagonia Argentina; Cretaceous volcanics and geochemical distribution of trace elements in Cordoba and San Jose in Argentina; Environmental Geology; Geomorphology; Sedimentology and stratigraphy; Energetic resources; Exploitation of uranium and aquifer system in Uruguay; Tracer test and camera inspection; Treatment of groundwater; petrology; Oligocene, Miocene, Neo proterozoic in different formations

  15. Thermoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of calcite and MgO: surface defects and heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeksu, H.Y.; Brown, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the problems which preclude accurate thermoluminescence (TL) dating of geologically formed calcite stem from different sample pre-treatment procedures, such as grinding, drilling or pre-heating. It has long been known that grinding can introduce spurious TL in calcite, but there have been wide differences of opinion as to the magnitude of the influence and its importance. Therefore, various grinding and acid-washing procedures have been suggested to avoid spurious thermoluminescence. Various models have been developed to explain the mechanism. We have studied the changes in thermoluminescence (TL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) properties as well as in the spectral composition of the glow from calcite and MgO due to surface defects and heat treatment. It is found that both laboratory heat treatment and surface indents give rise to changes in TL efficiency. (author)

  16. Geologic mapping of Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

    2014-11-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were

  17. Geologic Mapping of Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High- Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were

  18. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of liquid surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Pershan, P.S.

    1983-01-01

    A spectrometer for X-ray diffraction and refraction studies of horizontal, free surfaces of liquids is described. As an illustration smetic-A layering at the surface of a liquid crystal is presented.......A spectrometer for X-ray diffraction and refraction studies of horizontal, free surfaces of liquids is described. As an illustration smetic-A layering at the surface of a liquid crystal is presented....

  19. A study of P-band SAR applicability and performance for Mars exploration: Imaging subsurface geology and detecting shallow moisture

    OpenAIRE

    Paillou, Philippe; Lasne, Y.; Heggy, Essam; Malézieux, J.-M.; Ruffie, G.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade, orbital images of the Martian surface revealed key evidences about the history of the planet environment (craters, faults, paleo-lakes and rivers), partially hidden under a widespread layer of aeolian deposits. Furthermore, several recent observations and studies support the hypothesis that water could be found in the shallow sub-surface of Mars. Low frequency SAR – Synthetic Aperture Radar – has demonstrated its subsurface imaging capabilities on Earth, especially in ar...

  20. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bryan Mound Salt Dome, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Magorian, T.R.; Ahmad, S. [Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (United States)

    1994-11-01

    This report revises the original report that was published in 1980. Some of the topics covered in the earlier report were provisional and it is now practicable to reexamine them using new or revised geotechnical data and that obtained from SPR cavern operations, which involves 16 new caverns. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences as compared with the 1980 report and more definition in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major southeast-northwest trending anomalous zone. The original interpretation was of westward tilt of the dome, this revision shows a tilt to the southeast, consistent with other gravity and seismic data. This interpretation refines the evaluation of additional cavern space, by adding more salt buffer and allowing several more caverns. Additional storage space is constrained on this nearly full dome because of low-lying peripheral wetlands, but 60 MMBBL or more of additional volume could be gained in six or more new caverns. Subsidence values at Bryan Mound are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging about 11 mm/yr (0.4 in/yr), but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values are about the same as survey measurement accuracy. Periodic flooding is a continuing threat because of the coastal proximity and because peripheral portions of the site are at elevations less than 15 ft. This threat may increase slightly as future subsidence lowers the surface, but the amount is apt to be small. Caprock integrity may be affected by structural features, especially the faulting associated with anomalous zones. Injection wells have not been used extensively at Bryan Mound, but could be a practicable solution to future brine disposal needs. Environmental issues center on the areas of low elevation that are below 15 feet above mean sea level: the coastal proximity and lowland environment combined with the potential for flooding create conditions that require continuing surveillance.

  1. A geologic and geophysic study of the Sierra de Pena Blanca, in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez S, F.A.

    1976-01-01

    Within the sistematic aerial exploration program realized by the Instituto Nacional de Energia Nuclear, an aeroradiometric study was carried out in the zone which includes Sierra de Pena Blanca. This study took into consideration the former and present geological investigations and compromised the sierra together with the bordering valleys. The main objective consists in the localization of areas presenting favorable conditions for the existence of uranium isotopes minerlization, in order to determine a mineralized body or ore deposit. For that purpose the area was explored with an airplane to which a differential gamma rays spectrometer was adapted, this spectrometer will show us clearly the integration of the number of radiations which fall into the detectors obtaining this way a valuable information about the radiometric anomalous sites of the studied zone and also about the existence of bismuth, thallium and the abundant potassium of the igneous rocks. These anomalies are under the stage of ground verification, this stage includes a superficial study and the study of the underlying rocks through drilling, radiometric logs and chemical analysis of the samples. In fact, through this method we can obtain very truthful data. (author)

  2. Evaluation of geological conditions for coalbed methane occurrence based on 3D seismic information: a case study in Fowa region, Xinjing coal mine, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juanjuan; Li, Fanjia; Hu, Mingshun; Zhang, Wei; Pan, Dongming

    2017-04-01

    The research on geological conditions of coalbed methane (CBM) occurrence is of great significance for predicting the high abundance CBM rich region and gas outburst risk area pre-warning. The No. 3 coal seam, in Yangquan coalfield of Qinshui basin, is the research target studied by 3D seismic exploration technique. The geological factors which affect CBM occurrence are interpreted based on the 3D seismic information. First, the geological structure (faults, folds, and collapse columns) is found out by the 3D seismic structural interpretation and the information of buried depth and thickness of the coal seam is calculated by the seismic horizons. Second, 3D elastic impedance (EI) and natural gamma attribute volumes are generated by prestack EI inversion and multi-attribute probabilistic neural network (PNN) inversion techniques which reflect the information of coal structure types and lithology of the roof and floor. Then, the information of metamorphic degree of seam and hydrogeology conditions can be obtained by the geological data. Consequently, geological conditions of CBM occurrence in No. 3 coal seam are evaluated which will provide scientific reference for high abundance CBM rich region prediction and gas outburst risk area pre-warning.

  3. A statistical method for estimating rates of soil development and ages of geologic deposits: A design for soil-chronosequence studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, P.; Harden, J.W.; Mark, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    A statistical method for estimating rates of soil development in a given region based on calibration from a series of dated soils is used to estimate ages of soils in the same region that are not dated directly. The method is designed specifically to account for sampling procedures and uncertainties that are inherent in soil studies. Soil variation and measurement error, uncertainties in calibration dates and their relation to the age of the soil, and the limited number of dated soils are all considered. Maximum likelihood (ML) is employed to estimate a parametric linear calibration curve, relating soil development to time or age on suitably transformed scales. Soil variation on a geomorphic surface of a certain age is characterized by replicate sampling of soils on each surface; such variation is assumed to have a Gaussian distribution. The age of a geomorphic surface is described by older and younger bounds. This technique allows age uncertainty to be characterized by either a Gaussian distribution or by a triangular distribution using minimum, best-estimate, and maximum ages. The calibration curve is taken to be linear after suitable (in certain cases logarithmic) transformations, if required, of the soil parameter and age variables. Soil variability, measurement error, and departures from linearity are described in a combined fashion using Gaussian distributions with variances particular to each sampled geomorphic surface and the number of sample replicates. Uncertainty in age of a geomorphic surface used for calibration is described using three parameters by one of two methods. In the first method, upper and lower ages are specified together with a coverage probability; this specification is converted to a Gaussian distribution with the appropriate mean and variance. In the second method, "absolute" older and younger ages are specified together with a most probable age; this specification is converted to an asymmetric triangular distribution with mode at the

  4. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces (e.g., Varnes, 1974). Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962 (Hackman, 1962). Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete

  5. Geology of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Chyba, C.; Head, J. W.; McCord, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Europa is a rocky object of radius 1565 km (slightly smaller than Earth s moon) and has an outer shell of water composition estimated to be of order 100 km thick, the surface of which is frozen. The total volume of water is about 3 x 10(exp 9) cubic kilometers, or twice the amount of water on Earth. Moreover, like its neighbor Io, Europa experiences internal heating generated from tidal flexing during its eccentric orbit around Jupiter. This raises the possibility that some of the water beneath the icy crust is liquid. The proportion of rock to ice, the generation of internal heat, and the possibility of liquid water make Europa unique in the Solar System. In this chapter, we outline the sources of data available for Europa (with a focus on the Galileo mission), review previous and on-going research on its surface geology, discuss the astrobiological potential of Europa, and consider plans for future exploration.

  6. 2011 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Lidar: Cascade Volcano Observatory (CVO) Newberry Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oregon Department of Geology & Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) contracted with Watershed Sciences, Inc. to collect high resolution topographic LiDAR data for...

  7. Experimental study of chemical-mechanical coupling during percolation of reactive fluid through rocks under stress, in the context of the CO2 geological sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guen, Y.

    2006-10-01

    CO 2 injection into geological repositories will induce chemical and mechanical instabilities. The study of these instabilities is based on experimental deformation of natural rock samples under stress, in the presence of fluids containing, or not, dissolved CO 2 . Triaxial cells used for the experiments permitted an independent control and measurement of stress, temperature, fluid pressure and composition. Vertical strains were measured during several months, with a resolution of 1.10 -12 s -1 on the strain rate. Simultaneously, fluids were analysed in order to quantify fluid-rock interactions. For limestone samples, percolation of CO 2 -rich fluids increases strain rate by a factor 1.7 up to 5; on the other hand, sandstone deformation remained almost the same. Increase in strain rate with limestone samples was explained by injected water acidification by the CO 2 which increases rock solubility and reaction kinetics. On the opposite, small effect of CO 2 on quartz explains the absence of deformation. X-ray observations confirmed the importance of rock composition and structure on the porosity evolution. Numerical simulations of rock elastic properties showed increasing shear stress into the sample. Measured deformation showed an evolution of reservoir rocks mechanical properties. It was interpreted as the consequence of pressure solution mechanisms both at grains contacts and on grain free surfaces. (author)

  8. Characterization of Near-Surface Geology and Possible Voids Using Resistivity and Electromagnetic Methods at the Gran Quivira Unit of Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument, Central New Mexico, June 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Land, Lewis A.; Teeple, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    At the Gran Quivira Unit of Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument in central New Mexico, a partially excavated pueblo known as Mound 7 has recently become architecturally unstable. Historical National Park Service records indicate both natural caves and artificial tunnels may be present in the area. Knowledge of the local near-surface geology and possible locations of voids would aid in preservation of the ruins. Time-domain and frequency-domain electromagnetic as well as direct-current resistivity methods were used to characterize the electrical structure of the near-surface geology and to identify discrete electrical features that may be associated with voids. Time-domain electromagnetic soundings indicate three major electrical layers; however, correlation of these layers to geologic units was difficult because of the variability of lithologic data from existing test holes. Although resistivity forward modeling was unable to conclusively determine the presence or absence of voids in most cases, the high-resistivity values (greater than 5,000 ohm-meters) in the direct-current resistivity data indicate that voids may exist in the upper 50 meters. Underneath Mound 7, there is a possibility of large voids below a depth of 20 meters, but there is no indication of substantial voids in the upper 20 meters. Gridded lines and profiled inversions of frequency-domain electromagnetic data showed excellent correlation to resistivity features in the upper 5 meters of the direct-current resistivity data. This technique showed potential as a reconnaissance tool for detecting voids in the very near surface.

  9. A slingram survey on the Nevada Test Site: part of an integrated geologic geophysical study of site evaluation for nuclear waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Vincent J.

    1979-01-01

    A slingram geophysical survey was made in early 1978 as part of the integrated geologlcal-geophysical study aimed at evaluating the Eleana Formation as a possible repository for nuclear waste. The slingram data were taken over an alluvial fan and pediments along the eastern flank of Syncline Ridge about 45 km north of Mercury, Nevada, on the Nevada Test Site. The data show that the more conductive argillaceous Eleana Formation varies in depth from 40 to 85 m from west to east along traverse lines. Northeast-trending linear anomalies suggest rather abrupt changes in subsurface geology that may be associated with faults and fractures. The results of the slingram survey will, when interpreted in the light of other geologic and geophysical evidence, assist in understanding the shallow parts of the geologic setting of the Eleana Formation.

  10. Advances in planetary geology, volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This publication is a continuation of volume 1; it is a compilation of reports focusing on research into the origin and evolution of the solar system with emphasis on planetary geology. Specific reports include a multispectral and geomorphic investigation of the surface of Europa and a geologic interpretation of remote sensing data for the Martian volcano Ascreaus Mons

  11. DETERMINATION OF IMPORTANCE EVALUATION FOR THE SURFACE EXPLORATORY STUDIES FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Byrne

    2000-07-25

    This DIE applies to the surface facilities component of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (W) ESF. The ESF complex-including surface and subsurface accommodations--encompasses an area that is approximately six miles wide and nine miles long (approximately 30,000 acres total) (United States Department of Energy [DOE] 1997, p. 9.04). It is located on federally withdrawn lands, near the southwest border of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in southern Nevada (DOE 1997, p. 9.04). Site characterization activities are conducted within the subsurface ESF to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Most ESF surface facilities are located within the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB) (DOE 1997, p. 9.04), with the exception of the southeastern most portions of the H-Road and the Water Supply System. Various SBT activities are also conducted throughout the Yucca Mountain region as a part of the overall site-characterization effort. In general, the DIE for SBT Activities (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System [CRWMS] Management and Operating Contractor [M&O] 1998a) evaluates activities associated with SBT. Potential test-to-test interference and waste isolation impacts associated with SBT activities are also evaluated in CRWMS M&O (1998a).

  12. DETERMINATION OF IMPORTANCE EVALUATION FOR THE SURFACE EXPLORATORY STUDIES FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.J. Byrne

    2000-01-01

    This DIE applies to the surface facilities component of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (W) ESF. The ESF complex-including surface and subsurface accommodations--encompasses an area that is approximately six miles wide and nine miles long (approximately 30,000 acres total) (United States Department of Energy [DOE] 1997, p. 9.04). It is located on federally withdrawn lands, near the southwest border of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in southern Nevada (DOE 1997, p. 9.04). Site characterization activities are conducted within the subsurface ESF to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Most ESF surface facilities are located within the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB) (DOE 1997, p. 9.04), with the exception of the southeastern most portions of the H-Road and the Water Supply System. Various SBT activities are also conducted throughout the Yucca Mountain region as a part of the overall site-characterization effort. In general, the DIE for SBT Activities (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System [CRWMS] Management and Operating Contractor [M andO] 1998a) evaluates activities associated with SBT. Potential test-to-test interference and waste isolation impacts associated with SBT activities are also evaluated in CRWMS M andO (1998a)

  13. Magnetic surveying as an aid to geological mapping: a case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A magnetic map of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU) Campus, in Ile-Ife, was produced from ground magnetic measurements on all the roads and footpaths. The study was aimed at improving our knowledge of the structural disposition of the lithologies within the area. The magnetic data obtained were subjected to ...

  14. NChina16: A stable geodetic reference frame for geological hazard studies in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoquan; Bao, Yan; Gan, Weijun; Geng, Jianghui; Xiao, Gengru; Shen, Jack S.

    2018-04-01

    We have developed a stable North China Reference Frame 2016 (NChina16) using five years of continuous GPS observations (2011.8-2016.8) from 12 continuously operating reference stations (CORS) fixed to the North China Craton. Applications of NChina16 in landslide and subsidence studies are illustrated in this article. A method for realizing a regional geodetic reference frame is introduced. The primary result of this study is the seven parameters for transforming Cartesian ECEF (Earth-Centered, Earth-Fixed) coordinates X, Y, and Z from the International GNSS Service Reference Frame 2008 (IGS08) to NChina16. The seven parameters include the epoch that is used to align the regional reference frame to IGS08 and the time derivatives of three translations and three rotations. The GIPSY-OASIS (V6.4) software package was used to obtain the precise point positioning (PPP) daily solutions with respect to IGS08. The frame stability of NChina16 is approximately 0.5 mm/year in both horizontal and vertical directions. This study also developed a regional model for correcting seasonal motions superimposed into the vertical component of the GPS-derived displacement time series. Long-term GPS observations (1999-2016) from five CORS in North China were used to develop the seasonal model. According to this study, the PPP daily solutions with respect to NChina16 could achieve 2-3 mm horizontal accuracy and 4-5 mm vertical accuracy after being modified by the regional model. NChina16 will be critical to study geodynamic problems in North China, such as earthquakes, faulting, subsidence, and landslides. The regional reference frame will be periodically updated every few years to mitigate degradation of the frame with time and be synchronized with the update of IGS reference frame.

  15. Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, L.B. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to calculate accurate potential energy surfaces (PES) for both reactive and nonreactive systems. To do this the electronic Schrodinger equation must be solved. Our approach to this problem starts with multiconfiguration self-consistent field (MCSCF) reference wavefunctions. These reference wavefunctions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to accurately describe changes in electronic structure over a broad range of geometries. Electron correlation effects are included via multireference, singles and doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) calculations. With this approach, the authors are able to provide useful predictions of the energetics for a broad range of systems.

  16. Introduction to thematic collection “Historical and geological studies of earthquakes”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Satake

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This thematic collection contains eight papers mostly presented at the 2016 AOGS meeting in Beijing. Four papers describe historical earthquake studies in Europe, Japan, and China; one paper uses modern instrumental data to examine the effect of giant earthquakes on the seismicity rate; and three papers describe paleoseismological studies using tsunami deposit in Japan, marine terraces in Philippines, and active faults in Himalayas. Hammerl (Geosci Lett 4:7, 2017 introduced historical seismological studies in Austria, starting from methodology which is state of the art in most European countries, followed by a case study for an earthquake of July 17, 1670 in Tyrol. Albini and Rovida (Geosci Lett 3:30, 2016 examined 114 historical records for the earthquake on April 6, 1667 on the east coast of the Adriatic Sea, compiled 37 Macroseismic Data Points, and estimated the epicenter and the size of the earthquake. Matsu’ura (Geosci Lett 4:3, 2017 summarized historical earthquake studies in Japan which resulted in about 8700 Intensity Data Points, assigned epicenters for 214 earthquakes between AD 599 and 1872, and estimated focal depth and magnitudes for 134 events. Wang et al. (Geosci Lett 4:4, 2017 introduced historical seismology in China, where historical earthquake archives include about 15,000 sources, and parametric catalogs include about 1000 historical earthquakes between 2300 BC and AD 1911. Ishibe et al. (Geosci Lett 4:5, 2017 tested the Coulomb stress triggering hypothesis for three giant (M~9 earthquakes that occurred in recent years, and found that at least the 2004 Sumatra–Andaman and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes caused the seismicity rate change. Ishimura (2017 re-estimated the ages of 11 tsunami deposits in the last 4000 years along the Sanriku coast of northern Japan and found that the average recurrence interval of those tsunamis as 350–390 years. Ramos et al. (2017 studied ~ 1000-year-old marine terraces on the west

  17. Surface areas of fractally rough particles studied by scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurd, A.J.; Schaefer, D.W.; Smith, D.M.; Ross, S.B.; Le Mehaute, A.; Spooner, S.

    1989-01-01

    The small-angle scattering from fractally rough surfaces has the potential to give information on the surface area at a given resolution. By use of quantitative neutron and x-ray scattering, a direct comparison of surface areas of fractally rough powders was made between scattering and adsorption techniques. This study supports a recently proposed correction to the theory for scattering from fractal surfaces. In addition, the scattering data provide an independent calibration of molecular adsorbate areas

  18. Mining geologic study in black san stones in Aguas Dulces, Rocha Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    On September of the 2002 black san stones deposit were considered Uruguay mining reservation which it last 6 months. They were selected the best deposits areas which were carried out 37 drillings in 727.046 hectare as. The mineralogical composition and uses of Black san stones sampling were analyzed.. Field and laboratory studies were given as methodology. As conclusion they were found 933.000 tons of mineral like ilmenite, zircon, rut ilo, monazite and titanite equivalent to 65% all heavy metals.

  19. Design study on containers for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This study has considered the feasibility of three designs for containers which would isolate the waste from the environment for a minimum period of 500 to 1000 years. The candidate container designs were taken from the results of a previous study by Ove Arup and Partners (1985) and were developed as the study progressed. Their major features can be summarized as follows: Type A: A thin-walled corrosion-resistant metal shell filled with lead or cement grout. Type B: An unfilled thick-walled carbon steel shell. Type C: an unfilled carbon steel shell plated externally with corrosion-resistant metal. Reference repository conditions in clay, granite and salt, reference disposal operations and metals corrosion data have been taken from various European Community radioactive waste management research and engineering projects. The study concludes that design types A and B are feasible in manufacturing terms but design Type C is not. Furthermore, a titanium-palladium alloy is considered the most suitable metal for Type A container shells and lead is the preferred filler. The analysis shows that design Types A and B both have adequate resistance to pressure and temperature loadings and both would resist accidental impact damage when upright. A reduction in waste heat output at disposal would lower the stress levels in Type A containers but would have virtually no effect on Type B. There is insufficient data to compare the relative costs and benefits of design Types A and B. In conclusion design Types A and B are both considered feasible but Type A would require more development than Type B. In both cases further research is needed to confirm the long-term corrosion performance of the candidate materials. It is recommended that model containers should be produced to demonstrate the proposed methods of manufacture and that they should be tested to validate the analytical techniques used

  20. Design study on containers for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arup, O.

    1985-01-01

    A study has been made of the requirements and design features for containers to isolate vitrified high-level radioactive waste from the environment for a period of 500 to 1000 years. The requirements for handling, storing and transporting containers have been identified following a study of disposal operations, and the pressures and temperatures which may possibly be experienced in clay, granite and salt formations have been estimated. A range of possible container designs have been proposed to satisfy the requirements of each of the disposal environments. Alternative design concepts in corrosion resistant or corrosion allowance material have been suggested. Some resist pressure by using a structural shell leaving the contents unstressed whereas others transmit loads to their contents. Potentially suitable container shell materials have been selected following a review of corrosion studies and although metals have not been specified in detail, titanium alloys and low carbon steels are thought to be appropriate for corrosion resistant and corrosion allowance designs respectively. Performance requirements for container filler materials have been identified and candidate materials assessed. However, no entirely suitable materials have been found and further research is required in this area. A preliminary container stress analysis has shown the importance of thermal modelling and that if lead is used as a filler it dominates the stress response of the container. Possible methods of manufacturing disposal containers have been assessed and found to be generally feasible although filling operations and container closure could be difficult

  1. Study on detailed geological modelling for fluvial sandstone reservoir in Daqing oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Hanqing; Fu Zhiguo; Lu Xiaoguang [Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Daqing (China)

    1997-08-01

    Guided by the sedimentation theory and knowledge of modern and ancient fluvial deposition and utilizing the abundant information of sedimentary series, microfacies type and petrophysical parameters from well logging curves of close spaced thousands of wells located in a large area. A new method for establishing detailed sedimentation and permeability distribution models for fluvial reservoirs have been developed successfully. This study aimed at the geometry and internal architecture of sandbodies, in accordance to their hierarchical levels of heterogeneity and building up sedimentation and permeability distribution models of fluvial reservoirs, describing the reservoir heterogeneity on the light of the river sedimentary rules. The results and methods obtained in outcrop and modem sedimentation studies have successfully supported the study. Taking advantage of this method, the major producing layers (PI{sub 1-2}), which have been considered as heterogeneous and thick fluvial reservoirs extending widely in lateral are researched in detail. These layers are subdivided into single sedimentary units vertically and the microfacies are identified horizontally. Furthermore, a complex system is recognized according to their hierarchical levels from large to small, meander belt, single channel sandbody, meander scroll, point bar, and lateral accretion bodies of point bar. The achieved results improved the description of areal distribution of point bar sandbodies, provide an accurate and detailed framework model for establishing high resolution predicting model. By using geostatistic technique, it also plays an important role in searching for enriched zone of residual oil distribution.

  2. Study of environmental degradation of silver surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguas, H.; Silva, R.J.C.; Viegas, M.; Pereira, L.; Fortunato, E.; Martins, R. [Materials Science Department, CENIMAT/I3N, FCT-UNL, Campus de Caparica (Portugal)

    2008-05-15

    To evaluate the evolution of a dark film formation on silver surface objects, several coupons were catalogued and place inside a museum, located in an urban area. The changes on these samples were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry, in periods of months. This technique allows the reduction of the coupons exposure time, in several months, due to its high sensitivity to surface modifications, with acceptable results for the evaluation of its degradation. The thicknesses of the degradation layers and the optical properties of silver oxide, chloride and sulphide reference samples were determined using a mixture of Tauc-Lorentz and Drude models. The composition of the silver corrosion layer was determined by fitting the layer using a Bruggeman Effective Medium Approximation (BEMA) of the three products plus voids. It was found that the thickness of the layer depends in the placement of the coupons, namely, inside or outside displayers. The average film thickness after 6 months was of 180 Aa and 280 Aa, inside and outside the displayers, respectively. The main compounds found in the layers were the silver chlorides and sulphides, which composition changed with the thickness of the layer, and the exposition time. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Mars geologic mapping program: Review and highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David H.

    1991-06-01

    The Mars Geologic Mapping (MGM) Program was introduced by NASA in 1987 as a new initiative in the Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) Program. The overall purpose of the program is to support research on topical science problems that address specific questions. Among the objectives of the project are: (1) to produce highly detailed geologic maps that will greatly increase the knowledge of the materials and processes that have contributed to the evolutionary history of Mars; (2) to define areas of special interest for possible future investigation by planned missions (Mars Observer, Mars Sample Return); and (3) to maintain the interest of the planetary community in the development of new concepts and the re-evaluation of Martian geology as new data in usable form become available. Some interesting highlights of the geologic mapping indicate that multiple flood episodes occurred at different times during the Hesperian Period in both Kasei and Maja Valles. Studies of small channels in the Memnonia, Mangala, and Tharsis regions show that fluvial events appear to have occurred during the Amazonian Period at equatorial latitudes. Flood waters occurred during the Amazonian Period at equatorial latitudes. Flood waters from Mangala Valles may have seeped into surficial materials with the subsequent development of numerous sapping channels and debris flows; this suggests that the ancient highland terrain consists of relatively unconsolidated materials. Multiple layers were observed for the first time in the ridged plains lava flows covering large areas of Lunae Planum; some wrinkle ridges in this area are associated with grabens and collapse volcanic units at Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae indicates that the units may have been emplaced by gravity-driven pyroclastic flows. Unlike the north polar layered deposits, those in the south polar region show no angular unconformities or evidence of faulting and folding. Water ice in the south polar layered deposits may be protected

  4. Status Report on the Geology of the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, R.D., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This report provides an introduction to the present state of knowledge of the geology of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and a cursory introduction to the hydrogeology. A detailed reported on hydrogeology is being produced in parallel to this one. An important element of this work is the construction of a modern detailed geologic map of the ORR containing subdivisions of all mappable rock units and displaying mesoscopic structural data. Understanding the geologic framework of the ORR is essential to many current and proposed activities related to land-use planning, waste management, environmental restoration, and waste remediation. This interim report is the result of cooperation between geologists in two Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) divisions, Environmental Sciences and Energy, and is a major part of one doctoral dissertation in the Department of Geological Sciences at The University of Tennessee--Knoxville. Major long-term goals of geologic investigations in the ORR are to determine what interrelationships exist between fractures systems in individual rock or tectonic units and the fluid flow regimes, to understand how regional and local geology can be used to help predict groundwater movement, and to formulate a structural-hydrologic model that for the first time would enable prediction of the movement of groundwater and other subsurface fluids in the ORR. Understanding the stratigraphic and structural framework and how it controls fluid flow at depth should be the first step in developing a model for groundwater movement. Development of a state-of-the-art geologic and geophysical framework for the ORR is therefore essential for formulating an integrated structural-hydrologic model. This report is also intended to convey the present state of knowledge of the geologic and geohydrologic framework of the ORR and vicinity and to present some of the data that establish the need for additional geologic mapping and geohydrologic studies. An additional intended

  5. Micro-CT in situ study of carbonate rock microstructural evolution for geologic CO2 storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yi; Yang, Yan; Rogowska, M.

    2017-01-01

    settings such as the carbonate reservoirs in the North Sea. The final aim of our project is to find out how to control the evolution of petrophysical parameters during CO2 injection using an optimal combination of flow rate, injection pressure and chemical composition of the influent. The first step...... to achieve this is to find a suitable condition to create a stable 3D space in carbonate rock by injecting liquid to prepare space for the later CO2 injection. Micro-CT imaging is a non-destructive 3D method that can be used to study the property changes of carbonate rocks during and after CO2 injection...

  6. Studies of nuclear-waste migration in geologic media. Annual report, October 1977-September 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.; Rickert, P.G.; Fried, S.M.; Friedman, A.M.; Steindler, M.J.

    1979-07-01

    The first phenomenon studied is incomplete water-nuclide-rock reaction because of slow reaction kinetics. A kinetic factor derived from the experimental results for strontium migration through glauconite (a hydrous silicate) was expressed in terms of the linear flow rate of solution and can be used to predict migration due to solution flow at rates of 0 to about 12 cm/min (60 km/y). Continuous-flow infiltration experiments with americium in fissures gave results that are predicted by a migration model that includes kinetic factors measured in experiments with static fluids. The results suggest that kinetic factors are as important as equilibrium adsorption parameters in predicting nuclide migration. The second phenomenon studied was the amount of adsorbed nuclide not being proportional to the nuclide concentration in solution (nonlinear adsorption isotherm). For cesium adsorption on limestone, a nonlinear isotherm was found to occur in the range of initial cesium concentrations from about 10 -3 to 10 -9 M. This adsorption property was confirmed by results of column-infiltration experiments in which cesium migration through oolitic limestone was found to be sensitive to the amount of cesium in solution. The existence of a nonlinear isotherm precludes the use of a single partition value (K/sub D/) to describe cesium migration in limestone at cesium concentrations above about 10 -9 M. Therefore, the effects of nonlinear isotherms are germane to nuclide migration. 24 figures, 6 tables

  7. Results and synthesis of integrated geologic studies of the carboniferous Lisburne Group of Northeastern Alaska. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, K.F.

    1995-05-01

    The primary objective of this project was to develop an integrated database to characterize reservoir heterogeneities resulting from numerous small-scale shallowing-upward cycles (parasequences) comprising the Pennsylvanian Wahoo 1imestone. The Wahoo Limestone is the upper part of an extensive carbonate platform sequence of the Carboniferous Lisburne Group which is widely exposed in the Brooks Range and is a widespread hydrocarbon reservoir unit in the subsurface of the North Slope of Alaska. A leading goal is to determine lateral and vertical variations in the complex mosaic of carbonate facies comprising the Wahoo. Aspects of rock units adjacent to the Wahoo, the underlying Endicott Group and Alapah Limestone and overlying Echooka Formation are also discussed. This report includes an overview of the regional geological framework; a discussion of biostratigraphic results; a summary of diagenetic studies; and preliminary results of comparative studies of a cored well in the Lisburne oil field. A computerized database system (the Wahoo database) was developed and is explained in a users manual. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. US Geological Survey studies of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites - a summary of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The US Geological Survey has completed geohydrologic investigations of five commercial low-level, radioactive-waste disposal sites. Final reports on two of the sites have been released and the remaining three will be published this year. A highly permeable glacial sand, originally thought to be discontinuous, has proven to be continuous in narrow channel deposits at the site near Sheffield, Illinois. These deposits have provided pathways for tritium-contaminated ground water to move off site. At another site, near West Valley, New York, the distribution and geohydrologic characteristics of the fine-grained glacial sediments have been studied and documented. Contaminants have not been detected in ground water away from the site. Studies at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky site, indicated that only 0.1 inches of precipitation percolates through bedrock from the site to the valley floor annually. Investigations at the arid Beatty, Nevada site, have been directed toward the geohydrologic characterization of unaturated sediments at the site. A significant finding of geohydrologic investigation of the Barnwell, South Carolina site, was that cobalt 60 in ground water percolating through the bottom of one trench diminished to undetectable levels of concentration within 6 feet of the trench bottom. This fact suggests that soil characteristisc at the site are effective in impending transport of that, and perhaps other, radionuclides. 6 references

  9. Environmental flow studies of the Fort Collins Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey-Cherry Creek, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddle, Terry J.; Bovee, Ken D.

    2010-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Forest Service, an instream flow assessment was conducted at Cherry Creek, Ariz., to investigate habitat for native and introduced fish species and to describe the beneficial use of a possible instream flow water right. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fort Collins Science Center performed an intensive field study of two sections of Cherry Creek in September 2008 to provide base data for hydrodynamic simulation of the flow conditions in the stream. The USGS Arizona Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, at the University of Arizona School of Natural Resources, conducted a survey of the habitat requirements of the resident fish species in Cherry Creek and provided the habitat suitability criteria used in this study. The habitat suitability criteria were combined with hydrodynamic simulation results to quantify fish habitat for the full range of daily flow experienced in the creek and to produce maps of habitat occurrence for those flows. The flow record at the Cherry Creek stream gage was used to generate habitat response values over time. The long-term habitat response was incorporated into an Excel (Registered) spreadsheet to allow evaluation of habitat occurrence with and without an instream water right under different hypothetical water withdrawal scenarios. The spreadsheet displays information about the time sequence of habitat events, the duration of critical events, and habitat retention.

  10. Hydrologic monitoring and selected hydrologic and environmental studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Georgia, 2011–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John S.; Dalton, Melinda J.

    2013-01-01

    This compendium of papers describes results of hydrologic monitoring and hydrologic and environmental studies completed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Georgia during 2011–2013. The USGS addresses a wide variety of water issues in the State of Georgia working with local, State, and Federal partners. As the primary Federal science agency for water resource information, the USGS monitors the quantity and quality of water in the Nation’s rivers and aquifers, assesses the sources and fate of contaminants in aquatic systems, collects and analyzes data on aquatic ecosystems, develops tools to improve the application of hydrologic information, and ensures that its information and tools are available to all potential users. During 2011–2013, the USGS continued a long-term program of monitoring stream and groundwater resources, including flow, water quality, and water use. In addition, a variety of hydrologic and environmental studies were completed to assess water availability, hydrologic hazards, and the impact of development on water resources. Information on USGS activities in Georgia is available online at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/.

  11. STUDY OF THE PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE AND HYDROCOMPACTION AT CONFINED AQUIFER CAUSED THE LAND SUBSIDENCE IN SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrudin Fahrudin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Semarang city has experienced of the land subsidence that be caused by intake groundwater in confined aquiferabundant. The land subsidence happened during range of time 20 years, it’s critical boundary so that result theenvironmental damage. Hence needed a study of cause of the land subsidence. This study aim to know theposition of piezometric surface and also explain the mechanism hydrogeology when happened the landsubsidence. The study of spreading aquifer has been done by the analysis of secondary data which is in the formof drilling log data, piezometric surface and soil mechanics test obtained from PLG (Environmental Center ofGeology Bandung. Later then, between the land subsidence and piezometric surface be overlay becamezonation. From the data made a analysis of cause of the land subsidence. This aquifer has the land subsidence.The land subsidence explainable with the experienced phenomenon fact for example degradation of piezometricsurface at confined aquifer and process of hydrocompaction. That process influenced by two factors that areassess the pore number (e and specific gravity (Gs. The degradation of piezometric surface formed the trapezeof water table until 20 m from sea level with the mean 0.7 - 1.1 m/year. Hydrocompaction cause the degradationof number of mean pore 0.145 - 0.5 and specific gravity 0.009 - 0.073 . The degradation of piezometric surfaceand process the hydrocompaction cause the fast of land subsidence around 0.5 - 1.75 cm/year.

  12. Natural background radioactivity of the earth's surface -- essential information for environmental impact studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauchid, M.; Grasty, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    An environmental impact study is basically a study of change. This change is compared to the preexisting conditions that are usually perceived to be the original one or the 'pristine' stage. Unfortunately reliable information on the 'so called' pristine stage is far from adequate. One of the essential parts of this information is a good knowledge of the earth's chemical make up, or its geochemistry. Presently available data on the geochemistry of the earth's surface, including those related to radioactive elements, are incomplete and inconsistent. The main reason why a number of regulations are judged to be too strict and disproportional to the risks that might be caused by some human activities, is the lack of reliable information on the natural global geochemical background on which environmental regulations should be based. The main objective of this paper is to present a view on the need for complete baseline information on the earth's surface environment and in particular its geochemical character. It is only through the availability of complete information, including reliable baseline information on the natural radioactivity, that an appropriate study on the potential effect of the various naturally occurring elements on human health be carried out. Presented here are a number of examples where the natural radioactivity of an entire country has been mapped, or is in progress. Also described are the ways these undertakings were accomplished. There is a general misconception that elevated radioactivity can be found only around uranium mines, nuclear power reactors and similar nuclear installations. As can be seen from some of these maps, the natural background radioactivity of the earth's surface closely reflects the underlying geological formations and their alteration products. In reality, properly regulated and managed facilities, the levels of radioactivity associated with many of these facilities are generally quite low relative to those associated with

  13. Coastal submarine springs in Lebanon and Syria: Geological, Geochemical, and Radio-isotopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Charideh, A.

    2005-01-01

    The coastal karst aquifer system (Upper Cretaceous) and the submarine springs in the Syrian coast have been studied using chemical and isotopic methods in order to determine the hydraulic connections between the groundwater and the submarine springs. Results show that the groundwater and submarine springs are having the same slope on the δ 18 O/δ 2 H plot indicate the same hydrological origin for both. In addition this relation is very close to the Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL) reflecting a rapid infiltration of rainfall to recharge coastal aquifer. The calculated percentage of freshwater in the two locations (Bassieh and Tartous) range from 20 to 96%. The estimation rate of the permanent submarines springs (BS1, BS2 and TS2, TS3) is 11m 3 /s or 350 million m 3 /y. The maximum residence time of the groundwater in the Cenomanian/Turonian aquifer was estimated at around 8 years, using the piston-flow model. (Author)

  14. U.S. Geological Survey - Virginia Department of Transportation: Bridge scour pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Samuel H.

    2018-02-27

    BackgroundCost effective and safe highway bridge designs are required to ensure the long-term sustainability of Virginia’s road systems. The streamflows that, over time, scour streambed sediments from bridge piers inherently affect bridge safety and design costs. To ensure safety, bridge design must anticipate streambed scour at bridge piers over the lifespan of a bridge. Until recently Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) guidance provided only for scour estimates of granular, noncohesive, highly erosive material yielding overestimates of scour potential in instances when streambed materials offer some resistance to scour. This study seeks to estimate stream power and streambed scour for these more resistive sites, with bridge piers potentially established in cohesive soil or erodible rock. This new knowledge may provide significant construction cost savings while ensuring design and construction of safe highway bridges.

  15. Drilling techniques presently in use by the Geothermal Studies Project, US Geological Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, T.H. Jr.; Sass, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The heat-flow studies program has evolved from one in which holes drilled for other purposes (mining and oil exploration, nuclear tests, hydrologic studies, etc.) provided the bulk of the data to a program in which the free holes, while still providing cost-effective and useful data, are being supplemented increasingly by holes drilled specifically for heat-flow determinations at locations where thermal data of high quality are needed, and where nobody else is interested in drilling. Ideally, heat-flow holes should be located in areas with moderate local relief and should be completed so that vertical water movement is inhibited. The most satisfactory test media for heat-flow determinations are crystalline rocks (particularly granites) and unconsolidated sediments; carbonate rocks and volcanic terranes can provide useful heat-flow data, but they present greater challenges both in drilling and interpretation. Drilling techniques have evolved from that of the continuously cored diamond-drilled hole (adapted from mining exploration) to adaptations of the shot-hole and blast-hole techniques used in petroleum exploration, water-well construction, and quarry operations. Spot cores are obtained where necessary to provide specific petrologic, geochemical, and physical data, but primary reliance is placed on ditch samples from rotary or percussion drilling for routine measurements of thermal conductivity and heat production. In shallow (50 to 100 m) holes in low temperature environments, plastic casing is used to maintain access for later temperature measurements. For deeper holes, steel casing is preferred. The annulus between casing and borehole wall in the lowermost 50 to 80 meters of heat-flow holes is routinely grouted off with a specially designed mixture of cement, bentonite, salt, and water to prevent vertical water movement.

  16. Potential for geological sequestration of CO{sub 2} in Switzerland - Final report; Studie zur Abschaetzung des Potenzials fuer CO{sub 2}-Sequestrierung in der Schweiz - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, L. W.; Chevalier, G. [Institut fuer Geologie, Universitaet Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Leu, W. [Geoform AG, Geologische Beratungen und Studien, Villeneuve (former Minusio) (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    One approach to dispose of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} is to inject it into deep, porous geological formations, where is remains safely trapped over periods of many millennia. This report evaluates the potential for this option within Switzerland, based on a literature review. Only geological criteria for CO{sub 2} sequestration are taken into account, following international best-practice principles for reservoir safety. Simultaneous consideration of nine geological attributes (including faulting and natural seismicity) allows the sequestration potential to be mapped at a resolution of a few km{sup 2}, using a scale between 0 (negligible potential) and 1 (high potential). It is concluded that the crystalline rocks of the Alps and the sediments underlying the valleys of Valais, Ticino and Grisons are unsuitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. However, the sedimentary rocks below the Central Plateau (and to lesser extent below the Jura Chain), locally show moderate to very good potential. At least four formations of porous sandstones and limestones (saline aquifers) underlie large areas of the Plateau within the technically favoured depth interval of 800-2500 m. Approximately 5000 km{sup 2} of the Plateau (mostly in the sector Fribourg-Olten-Lucerne) exhibits sequestration potentials above 0.6, offering a theoretical (unproven) storage capacity for approximately 2680 million tonnes of CO{sub 2}. From a purely geological point of view these results are promising. Although the high potentials do not guarantee the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration, they serve as guides to areas that warrant detailed investigation. If this CO{sub 2} storage option is pursued in Switzerland, then more detailed geological investigations and a pilot study would be necessary to prove its feasibility. The assessed risks, leakage-monitoring procedures and non-geological criteria (proximity to CO{sub 2} point-sources, economics, conflicts of use of the subsurface, etc.) would have to be

  17. Two-step web-mining approach to study geology/geophysics-related open-source software projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, Knut; Conze, Ronald

    2013-04-01

    Geology/geophysics is a highly interdisciplinary science, overlapping with, for instance, physics, biology and chemistry. In today's software-intensive work environments, geoscientists often encounter new open-source software from scientific fields that are only remotely related to the own field of expertise. We show how web-mining techniques can help to carry out systematic discovery and evaluation of such software. In a first step, we downloaded ~500 abstracts (each consisting of ~1 kb UTF-8 text) from agu-fm12.abstractcentral.com. This web site hosts the abstracts of all publications presented at AGU Fall Meeting 2012, the world's largest annual geology/geophysics conference. All abstracts belonged to the category "Earth and Space Science Informatics", an interdisciplinary label cross-cutting many disciplines such as "deep biosphere", "atmospheric research", and "mineral physics". Each publication was represented by a highly structured record with ~20 short data attributes, the largest authorship-record being the unstructured "abstract" field. We processed texts of the abstracts with the statistics software "R" to calculate a corpus and a term-document matrix. Using R package "tm", we applied text-mining techniques to filter data and develop hypotheses about software-development activities happening in various geology/geophysics fields. Analyzing the term-document matrix with basic techniques (e.g., word frequencies, co-occurences, weighting) as well as more complex methods (clustering, classification) several key pieces of information were extracted. For example, text-mining can be used to identify scientists who are also developers of open-source scientific software, and the names of their programming projects and codes can also be identified. In a second step, based on the intermediate results found by processing the conference-abstracts, any new hypotheses can be tested in another webmining subproject: by merging the dataset with open data from github

  18. Surface studies of oil-seal degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. C.; Park, D.; Titchener, K. J.; Davies, R. E.; West, R. H.

    1995-11-01

    Fluoroelastomers are frequently used as engine oil-seal materials. Under certain test conditions specific fluoroelastomers may show degradation of mechanical properties. A range of fluoroelastomers of different chemical composition have been aged in simple oil/additive blends and in oil formulations equivalent to commercial blends. These were then examined using XPS, SEM/EPMA and XRD to elucidate the physical and chemical changes associated with degradation. The interaction is shown to proceed through amine catalysed post-curing of the constituent polymers. These reactions promote defluorination, embrittlement and cracking of elastomers with a consequent decline in tensile properties as fracture failure mechanisms dominate performance. Degradation of these materials was found, even in the most extreme case, to be limited to the near-surface region of the samples, to a depth of less than approximately 50 μm. Degradation was reduced in elastomers with a higher fluorine level, higher terpolymer content, and a greater extent of cross-linking.

  19. Lunar surface structural concepts and construction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulas, Martin

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: lunar surface structures construction research areas; lunar crane related disciplines; shortcomings of typical mobile crane in lunar base applications; candidate crane cable suspension systems; NIST six-cable suspension crane; numerical example of natural frequency; the incorporation of two new features for improved performance of the counter-balanced actively-controlled lunar crane; lunar crane pendulum mechanics; simulation results; 1/6 scale lunar crane testbed using GE robot for global manipulation; basic deployable truss approaches; bi-pantograph elevator platform; comparison of elevator platforms; perspective of bi-pantograph beam; bi-pantograph synchronously deployable tower/beam; lunar module off-loading concept; module off-loader concept packaged; starburst deployable precision reflector; 3-ring reflector deployment scheme; cross-section of packaged starburst reflector; and focal point and thickness packaging considerations.

  20. Consolidation of geologic studies of geopressured geothermal resources in Texas. 1982 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, R.A.; Ewing, T.E.; Kaiser, W.R.; Finley, R.J.

    1983-03-01

    Detailed structural mapping at several horizons in selected study areas within the Frio growth-fault trend demonstrates a pronounced variability in structural style. At Sarita in South Texas, shale mobilization produced one or more shale ridges, one of which localized a low-angle growth fault trapping a wedge of deltaic sediments. At Corpus Christi, shale mobilization produced a series of large growth faults, shale-cored domed anticlines, and shale-withdrawal basins, which become progressively younger basinward. At Blessing, major growth faults trapped sands of the Greta/Carancahua barrier system with little progradation. At Pleasant Bayou, a major early growth-fault pattern was overprinted by later salt tectonics - the intrusion of Danbury Dome and the development of a salt-withdrawal basin. At Port Arthur, low-displacement, long-lived faults formed on a sand-poor shelf margin contemporaneously with broad salt uplifts and basins. Variability in styles is related to the nature and extent of Frio sedimentation and shelf-margin progradation and to the presence or absence of salt. Structural styles that are conducive to the development of large geothermal reservoirs include blocks between widely spaced growth faults having dip reversal, salt-withdrawal basins, and shale-withdrawal basins. These styles are widespread on the Texas Gulf Coast. However, actually finding a large reservoir depends on demonstrating the existence of sufficient sandstone with adequate quality to support geopressured geothermal energy production.

  1. Feasibility study for automation of the Central Laboratories, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, W.F.; Peck, E.S.; Fisher, E.R.; Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This study of the feasibility of further automating the Central Laboratories deals specifically with the combined laboratory operations in Salt Lake City, Utah, and Denver, Colorado and is prepared with the understanding that such a system will also be implemented at the Central Laboratories in Atlanta, Georgia, and Albany, New York. The goals of automation are defined in terms of the mission of a water analysis laboratory, propose alternative computer systems for meeting such goals, and evaluate these alternatives in terms of cost effectiveness and other specified criteria. It is found that further automation will be beneficial and an in-house system that incorporates dual minicomputers is recommended: one for time-shared data acquisition, processing, and control; the second for data management. High-use analytical instruments are placed on-line to the time-shared minicomputer, with a terminal at each instrument and backup data storage on magnetic tape. A third, standby computer is switched in manually should the time-shared computer go down. Field-proven, modular hardware and software are chosen. Also recommended is the incorporation of the highly developed, computer-integrated instruments that are commercially available for determining petrochemicals and other organic substances, and are essential to the Laboratories' mission

  2. Geologic and hydrologic records of observation wells, test holes, test wells, supply wells, springs, and surface water stations in the Los Alamos area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purtymun, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Hundreds of holes have been drilled into the Pajarito Plateau and surrounding test areas of the Los Alamos National Laboratory since the end of World War II. They range in depth from a few feet to more than 14,000 ft. The holes were drilled to provide geologic, hydrologic, and engineering information related to development of a water supply, to provide data on the likelihood or presence of subsurface contamination from hazardous and nuclear materials, and for engineering design for construction. The data contained in this report provide a basis for further investigations into the consequences of our past, present, and future interactions with the environment.

  3. Geologic and hydrologic records of observation wells, test holes, test wells, supply wells, springs, and surface water stations in the Los Alamos area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtymun, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Hundreds of holes have been drilled into the Pajarito Plateau and surrounding test areas of the Los Alamos National Laboratory since the end of World War II. They range in depth from a few feet to more than 14,000 ft. The holes were drilled to provide geologic, hydrologic, and engineering information related to development of a water supply, to provide data on the likelihood or presence of subsurface contamination from hazardous and nuclear materials, and for engineering design for construction. The data contained in this report provide a basis for further investigations into the consequences of our past, present, and future interactions with the environment

  4. Studies of nuclear waste migration in geologic media. Annual report, October 1978-September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.; Rickert, P.G.; Couture, R.A.; Williams, J.; Meldgin, N.; Fried, S.M.; Friedman, A.M.; Steindler, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental results obtained this year confirm the results obtained in previous years - that nuclides migrating by fluid flow in rock often exhibit complex behavior not predicted by simple chromatographic-type models. A phenomenon found previously to lead to complex behavior for leached radionuclides is that the amount of adsorbed nuclide was not proportional to the nuclide concentration in solution (nonlinear adsorption isotherm). For cesium adsorption on limestone and on basalt, nonlinear isotherms were found this year to occur in the range of cesium concentrations in the groundwater of about 10 -3 to 10 -9 M. Because cesium concentrations in this range can readily be attained by the leaching of solid waste by groundwater, the effects of nonlinear isotherms are germane to nuclide migration. This dependence of cesium migration on the leached concentration of cesium emphasizes the importance of treating the leaching and migration processes simultaneously such as is done in the leach-migration experiments performed in this work. The existence of nonlinear isotherms precludes the use of a single partition coefficient (K/sub d/) to describe cesium migration at an arbitrary cesium concentration above 10 -9 M. Nonetheless, nonlinear isotherms can be studied experimentally (e.g., to give K/sub d/ as a function of concentration) and effects of nonlinear adsorption can be predicted quantitatively. Comparison of results from column and batch tests indicate that, in addition to nonlinear adsorption, kinetic effects need to be considered in predicting nuclide migration from the partition coefficients measured in batch tests. Results of batch experiments of 2 weeks or longer duration pertained to migration expected only at the very lowest (< 50 m/y) groundwater flow rates of interest

  5. Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: index maps of included studies: Chapter B.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter B.1 of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Professional Paper 1708 provides index maps for many of the studies described in other chapters of the report. Scientists of the USGS and State geological surveys studied coal and petroleum resources in the central and southern Appalachian structural basins. In the southern Appalachian basin, studies focused on the coal-bearing parts of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. The scientists used new and existing geologic data sets to create a common spatial geologic framework for the fossil-fuel-bearing strata of the central Appalachian basin and the Black Warrior basin in Alabama.

  6. CSAMT exploration over rock deep geology structure for preselected site in Beishan of Gansu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Qingyun; An Zhiguo; Fu Changmin; Li Diquan; Cheng Hui

    2010-01-01

    The focus on Beishan preselected site is to study rock deep geology structure. In geophysical exploration work on deep geology structure Controlled source audio frequency magnetotellurics method (CSAMT) is fairly effective one. The CSAMT method has been applied for target profiles and area exploration, and obtained data is very good. In comparison with boreholes and other known geologic information, the CSAMT result has been analyzed and interpreted. It is discovered preliminarily that how the rock mass extends and distributes, and delicate geology structure of rock mass can be indicated from surface to 500-1000 meter deep, so the interrelationship between target rock mass and surrounding has been analysed to show out their shapes. Therefore the conclusion can provide scientific references for intact and stable evaluation study of deep geologic body, and give an instructive guide for comprehensive assessment of preselected site. (authors)

  7. Off-platform Silurian sequences in the Ambler River quadrangle: A section in Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Harris, Anita G.

    1988-01-01

    Lithofacies changes in coeval upper Paleozoic rocks have been used to unravel the tectonic history of northern Alaska (for example, Mayfield and others, 1983). Conodont biostratigraphy and detailed petrologic studies are now revealing facies differences in lower Paleozoic rocks that can also be used to constrain their tectono-sedimentary framework (Dumoulin and Harris, 1987). A basic element of basin analysis is the discrimination of shallow-water shelf and platform sequences from deeper water slope and basinal deposits. This report documents several new localities of deeper water, off-platform Silurian deposits in the Ambler River quadrangle and briefly outlines some of their paleogeographic implications.

  8. Using Accretionary Hard Parts to Study Changes in Seasonality over Geologic Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivany, L. C.; Judd, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonality has been an enigma for deep-time research. Proxies for mean annual temperature (MAT) are the mainstay of paleoclimate studies, and while these are tremendously informative, seasonal extremes are the variables that matter most for many paleoclimatic, paleoceanographic, and physiologic processes. Seasonality has been difficult to constrain in the rock record, however, because of the need for subannual resolution - very few such archives exist. One of the most promising comes in the form of the mineralized hard parts of organisms that grow by accretion, e.g., mollusks, corals, fish otoliths. Such materials carry a chemical signature of temperature at the time of precipitation, allowing for assessment of the seasonal temperature extremes experienced by the organism. Interpretation of these records in the context of climate, however, are complicated by the overprint of biology - organisms don't necessarily grow all year long, resulting in a truncation of the seasonal cycle regardless of sampling resolution. Furthermore, unrecognized differences in depositional environment or taxon ecology among samples can make comparisons over time even more tenuous. Even with internally consistent datasets, assessment of pattern is rarely based on more than visual inspection. An iterative computational procedure predicated on the assumption of sinusoidal variation in temperature and growth rate can circumvent these concerns. Deviations in the shape of oxygen isotope profiles from the predicted sinusoid allow recovery of the mean and amplitude of temperature variation as well as the timing and duration of growth within years. Estimates of such parameters from multiple specimens allow for meaningful comparisons over time, both for seasonality and the growth response of organisms. We apply this approach to datasets of seasonal variation through the Paleogene of the US Gulf Coastal Plain and the Eocene of Antarctica derived largely from marine bivalve mollusks. In the

  9. Geological study on the metal flux and ore deposit formation in the ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Se-Won; Lee, Sung-Rock; Choi, Hun-Soo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    The resource potential of the Mn-crusts is increasing by the growth of the world cobalt demand. Platinum and phosphate are also assumed to be recovered as well as cobalt, nickel, copper, and ferromanganese. The behaviour of the platinum group elements and the rare earth elements in the Mn-crust were reported in the previous studies, but the characteristics of the other rare elements were still not known in detail. Major, minor, and trace elements of the characteristic and representative 40 Mn-crust samples in the Pacific, Atlantic. and Indian Ocean were analyzed. Mn-crusts can be divided into three genetic types, such as, hydrogenetic type, hydrothermal type, and hydrothermal-hydrogenetic type. Te, Mo, Tl, Sb, Bi and etc. were enriched in general. And it is considered that such elements could be by-products in die Mn-crusts as well as economically important elements, such as Co, Ni, Mn, and Pt. The variation according to the genetic types and locations was observed. The chemical compositions of the each genetic type were also analyzed by the method of the Q-mode factor analysis. One objective of the Research voyage SAA3 (TAN 9909) was to conduct sea floor sampling and camera towing along the transacts across the known flow path of the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) perpendicular to the lowermost margin of the Campbell Plateau and Bollons Seamount, primarily to collect Mn nodules. During the cruise, two successful camera and dredge transacts were completed. The first transect was located at the southern end of Leg 1 traversing the abyssal plain from the flank of Campbell Plateau through flow associated with the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the overlying Subantarctic Front (SAF). The second was located at the northern end of Leg 2 traversing towards Bounty Platform through flow associated with the DWBC and the overlying SAF. As a result, from the 12 successful dredges, over 4000 manganese nodules, ranging in size from <2-40 cm, and cumulatively weighing

  10. Geological studies of the COST GE-1 well, United States South Atlantic outer continental shelf area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholle, Peter A.

    1979-01-01

    The COST No. GE-1 well is the first deep stratigraphic test to be drilled in the southern part of the U.S. Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (AOCS) area. The well was drilled within the Southeast Georgia Embayment to a total depth of 13,254 ft (4,040 m). It penetrated a section composed largely of chalky limestones to a depth of about 3,300 ft (1,000 m) below the drill platform. Limestones and calcareous shales with some dolomite predominate between 3,300 and 7,200 ft (1,000 and 2,200 m), whereas interbedded sandstones and shales are dominant from 7,200 to 11,000 ft (2,200 to 3,350 m). From 11,000 ft (3,350 m) to the bottom, the section consists of highly indurated to weakly metamorphosed pelitic sedimentary rocks and meta-igneous flows or intrusives. Biostratigraphic examination has shown that the section down to approximately 3,500 ft (1,060 m) is Tertiary, the interval from 3,500 to 5,900 ft (1,060 to 1,800 m) is Upper Cretaceous, and the section from 5,900 to 11,000 ft (1,800 to 3,350 m) is apparently Lower Cretaceous. The indurated to weakly metamorphosed section below 11,000 ft (3,350 m) is barren of fauna or flora but is presumed to be Paleozoic based on radiometric age determinations. Rocks deposited at upper-slope water depths were encountered in the Upper Cretaceous, Oligocene, and Miocene parts of the section. All other units were deposited in outer-shelf to terrestrial environments. Examination of cores, well cuttings, and electric logs shows that potential hydrocarbon-reservoir units are present within the chalks in the uppermost part of the section as well as in sandstone beds to a depth of at least 10,000 ft (3,000 m). Sandstones below that depth, and the metamorphic section between 11,000 and 13.250 ft (3,350 and 4,040 m) have extremely low permeabilities and are unlikely to contain potential reservoir rock. Studies of organic geochemistry, vitrinite reflectance, and color alteration of visible organic matter indicate that the chalk section down to

  11. Preliminary study on the three-dimensional geoscience information system of high-level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peinan; Zhu Hehua; Li Xiaojun; Wang Ju; Zhong Xia

    2010-01-01

    The 3D geosciences information system of high-level radioactive waste geological disposal is an important research direction in the current high-level radioactive waste disposal project and a platform of information integration and publishing can be used for the relevant research direction based on the provided data and models interface. Firstly, this paper introduces the basic features about the disposal project of HLW and the function and requirement of the system, which includes the input module, the database management module, the function module, the maintenance module and the output module. Then, the framework system of the high-level waste disposal project information system has been studied, and the overall system architecture has been proposed. Finally, based on the summary and analysis of the database management, the 3D modeling, spatial analysis, digital numerical integration and visualization of underground project, the implementations of key functional modules and the platform have been expounded completely, and the conclusion has been drawn that the component-based software development method should be utilized in system development. (authors)

  12. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Mixed-Valence Compounds : Theory and Applications in Chemistry, Physics, Geology, and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    1980-01-01

    It has been a decade since two seminal reviews demonstrated that mixed-valence compounds share many unique and fascinating features. The insight pro­ vided by those early works has promoted a great deal of both experimental and theoretical study. As a result of extensive efforts, our understanding of the bonding and properties of mixed-valence compounds has advanced substantially. There has been no compre­ hensive treatment of mixed-valence compounds since 1967, and the meeting convened at Oxford in September, 1979, provided a unique opportunity to examine the subject and its many ramifications. Mixed-valence compounds play an important role in many fields. Although the major impact of the subject has been in chemistry, its importance has become increasingly clear in solid state physics, geology, and biology. Extensive interest and effort in the field of molecular metals has demonstrated that mixed-valency is a prerequisite for high elec­ trical conductivity. The intense colors of many minerals have been s...

  13. Bibliography of reports on studies of the geology, hydrogeology and hydrology at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, from 1951--1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaber, P.R.; Stowers, E.D.; Pearl, R.H.

    1997-04-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) was established in 1951 as a proving ground for nuclear weapons. The site had formerly been part of an Air Force bombing and gunnery range during World War II. Sponsor-directed studies of the geology, hydrogeology, and hydrology of the NTS began about 1956 and were broad based in nature, but were related mainly to the effects of the detonation of nuclear weapons. These effects included recommending acceptable media and areas for underground tests, the possibility of off-site contamination of groundwater, air blast and surface contamination in the event of venting, ground-shock damage that could result from underground blasts, and studies in support of drilling and emplacement. The studies were both of a pure scientific nature and of a practical applied nature. The NTS was the site of 828 underground nuclear tests and 100 above-ground tests conducted between 1951 and 1992 (U.S. Department of Energy, 1994a). After July 1962, all nuclear tests conducted in the United States were underground, most of them at the NTS. The first contained underground nuclear explosion was detonated on September 19, 1957, following extensive study of the underground effect of chemical explosives. The tests were performed by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the Energy Research and Development Administration. As part of a nationwide complex for nuclear weapons design, testing and manufacturing, the NTS was the location for continental testing of new and stockpiled nuclear devices. Other tests, including Project {open_quotes}Plowshare{close_quotes} experiments to test the peaceful application of nuclear explosives, were conducted on several parts of the site. In addition, the Defense Nuclear Agency tested the effect of nuclear detonations on military hardware.

  14. Geology, Petrography, Geochemistry and Radioactivity Studies on The Dyke Swarms of Gabal Al Aglab area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldabe, M.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Gabal Al Aglab area is located in the North Eastern Desert of Egypt bounded by lat. 27° 14'-27° 19' N and long. 33° 00'-33° 05' E. It is covered by pan African basement rocks. The present study concern with the geology, petrography, geochemistry and radioactivity of various types of the dyke swarms in Gabal Al Aglab area. The field studies revealed that the area comprises the following litho-tectonic units ; Dokhan volcanic (oldest) and Hamammat sedimentary rocks and younger granites are represented by both Gabal Um Twier and Gabal Al Aglab syenogranites (youngest). Many dykes of acidic, intermediate and basic composition have a large extension and dissect all the mentioned rock units. The dyke swarms intruding Gabal Al Aglab area include the acidic (felsite and granite porphyry) dykes, while the intermediate comprise andesite and andesite porphyry and the basic dykes show basalt and dolerites. The chronologic relations of these dykes indicate the following sequence of emplacement beginning with the oldest acidic, followed by intermediate and then basic ones. The geochemical studies indicate that the acidic dykes were derived from a highly differentiated calc- alkaline magma, while the basic and intermediate dykes were developed from magma of subalkaline nature. The dykes were derived from separate magmas and not by magmatic differentiation of single mother magma. The radioactivity of the studied dyke rocks revealed that the high levels of radioactivity mainly linked to the acidity, differentiation and alkalinity characters. Radioactive granitic spot was observed along the contact with some basic dykes due to their thermal effect during its emplacement on the granite, at the northern part of the studied area. This radioactive spot display anomalies with higher values in U and Th contents, than the normal background value of the younger granite.

  15. Marine geology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Shankar, R.

    -bearing and gas hydrates) sediments along the Indian continental margins, by using geophysical methods, is a significant achievement in this decade. Authigenic green clay facies, phosphorites have been studied in detail in order to reconstruct the paleogeography...

  16. Oxidation of clean silicon surfaces studied by four-point probe surface conductance measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Leth; Grey, Francois; Aono, M.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated how the conductance of Si(100)-(2 x 1) and Si(111)-(7 x 7) surfaces change during exposure to molecular oxygen. A monotonic decrease in conductance is seen as the (100) surfaces oxidizes. In contract to a prior study, we propose that this change is caused by a decrease in sur...

  17. Self-organization of decaying surface corrugations: a numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito, Andrea; Nochetto, Ricardo H; Quah, John; Margetis, Dionisios

    2009-05-01

    We study numerically the interplay of surface topography and kinetics in the relaxation of crystal surface corrugations below roughening in two independent space dimensions. The kinetic processes are isotropic diffusion of adatoms across terraces and attachment-detachment of atoms at steps. We simulate the corresponding anisotropic partial differential equation for the surface height via the finite element method. The numerical results show a sharp transition from initially biperiodic surface profiles to one-dimensional surface morphologies. This transition is found to be enhanced by an applied electric field. Our predictions demonstrate the dramatic influence on morphological relaxation of geometry-induced asymmetries in the adatom fluxes transverse and parallel to step edges.

  18. Geologic map of Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David A.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Crown, David A.; Yff, Jessica A.; Jaeger, Windy L.; Schenk, Paul M.; Geissler, Paul E.; Becker, Tammy L.

    2011-01-01

    Io, discovered by Galileo Galilei on January 7–13, 1610, is the innermost of the four Galilean satellites of the planet Jupiter (Galilei, 1610). It is the most volcanically active object in the Solar System, as recognized by observations from six National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spacecraft: Voyager 1 (March 1979), Voyager 2 (July 1979), Hubble Space Telescope (1990–present), Galileo (1996–2001), Cassini (December 2000), and New Horizons (February 2007). The lack of impact craters on Io in any spacecraft images at any resolution attests to the high resurfacing rate (1 cm/yr) and the dominant role of active volcanism in shaping its surface. High-temperature hot spots detected by the Galileo Solid-State Imager (SSI), Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS), and Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR) usually correlate with darkest materials on the surface, suggesting active volcanism. The Voyager flybys obtained complete coverage of Io's subjovian hemisphere at 500 m/pixel to 2 km/pixel, and most of the rest of the satellite at 5–20 km/pixel. Repeated Galileo flybys obtained complementary coverage of Io's antijovian hemisphere at 5 m/pixel to 1.4 km/pixel. Thus, the Voyager and Galileo data sets were merged to enable the characterization of the whole surface of the satellite at a consistent resolution. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) produced a set of four global mosaics of Io in visible wavelengths at a spatial resolution of 1 km/pixel, released in February 2006, which we have used as base maps for this new global geologic map. Much has been learned about Io's volcanism, tectonics, degradation, and interior since the Voyager flybys, primarily during and following the Galileo Mission at Jupiter (December 1995–September 2003), and the results have been summarized in books published after the end of the Galileo Mission. Our mapping incorporates this new understanding to assist in map unit definition and to provide a global synthesis

  19. Surface study of fusion research in universities linkage organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Akira.

    1980-04-01

    The surface studies for nuclear fusion research consist of the studies on the surface process and the surface damage. The problems with the surface study are different at different research stages. The plasma-wall interaction in the ignition stage is mainly concerned with heating. The impurity control becomes important in the breakeven stage. In the longer burn experiment, the problems of plasma contamination and ash accumulation are serious, and the blistering is also a problem. From the reactor aspect, the reduction of life of wall due to the irradiation of high fluence must be considered. The surface damage due to plasma disruption is a very big problem. The activities concerning the surface studies in university-linked organizations are the surface characterization for fusion reactor materials by low energy ion scattering spectroscopy, the high power ion irradiation test for CTR first wall, data compilation on plasma-wall interaction, the studies of sputtering process and surface coating, and the study on hydrogen isotope permeation through metals for fusion reactors. Other activities such as the sample characterization at many universities using the SUS 304 samples from the same lot, and the collaboration works on JIPP-T-2 plasma wall experiments are introduced. Concerning the surface study, US-Japan or international collaboration are strongly expected. (Kato, T.)

  20. Lower Paleozoic deep-water facies of the Medfra area, central Alaska: A section in Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Harris, Anita G.; Repetski, John E.

    1999-01-01

    Deep-water facies, chiefly hemipelagic deposits and turbidites, of Cambrian through Devonian age are widely exposed in the Medfra and Mt. McKinley quadrangles. These strata include the upper part of the Telsitna Formation (Middle-Upper Ordovician) and the Paradise Fork Formation (Lower Silurian-Lower Devonian) in the Nixon Fork terrane, the East Fork Hills Formation (Upper Cambrian-Lower Devonian) in the East Fork subterrane of the Minchumina terrane, and the chert and argillite unit (Ordovician) and the argillite and quartzite unit (Silurian- Devonian? and possibly older) in the Telida subterrane of the Minchumina terrane.In the western part of the study area (Medfra quadrangle), both hemipelagic deposits and turbidites are largely calcareous and were derived from the Nixon Fork carbonate platform. East- ern exposures (Mt. McKinley quadrangle; eastern part of the Telida subterrane) contain much less carbonate; hemipelagic strata are mostly chert, and turbidites contain abundant rounded quartz and lesser plagioclase and potassium feldspar. Deep-water facies in the Medfra quadrangle correlate well with rocks of the Dillinger terrane exposed to the south (McGrath quadrangle), but coeval strata in the Mt. McKinley quadrangle are compositionally similar to rocks to the northeast (Livengood quadrangle). Petrographic data thus suggest that the Telida subterranes presently defined is an artificial construct made up of two distinct sequences of disparate provenance.Restoration of 90 and 150 km of dextral strike-slip on the Iditarod and Farewell faults, respectively, aligns the deep-water strata of the Minchumina and Dillinger terranes in a position east of the Nixon Fork carbonate platform. This restoration supports the interpretation that lower Paleozoic rocks in the Nixon Fork and Dillinger terranes, and in the western part of the Minchumina terrane (East Fork subterrane and western part of the Telida subterrane), formed along a single continental margin. Rocks in the

  1. Kinderhookian (Lower Mississippian) calcareous rocks of the Howard Pass quadrangle, western Brooks Range: A section in Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Harris, Anita G.

    1997-01-01

    Calcareous rocks of Kinderhookian (early Early Mississippian) age are widely distributed across the Howard Pass quadrangle in the western Brooks Range. Most occur in the lower part of the Lisburne Group (herein called the Rough Mountain Creek unit) and the upper part of the Endicott Group (Kayak Shale) in two sequences (Key Creek and Aniuk River) of the Endicott Mountains allochthon. Kinderhookian strata are also found in the Kelly River allochthon (Utukok Formation?) and in sections of uncertain stratigraphic affinity and structural level spatially associated with mafic volcanic rocks.Predominant Kinderhookian lithologies in the Lisburne Group are skeletal supportstone (rich in pelmatozoans, bryozoans, and brachiopods) and lesser spiculite; skeletal supportstone and calcarenite are the chief calcareous rock types in the Kayak Shale. Conodont and brachiopod faunas indicate that all of the Rough Mountain Creek unit and much of the Kayak Shale in the study area are of late Kinderhookian age. Lithologic and paleontologic data suggest that Kinderhookian strata in the Howard Pass quadrangle were deposited largely in inner- and middle-shelf settings with normal marine salinity and locally high energy. Overall, calcareous beds in the Rough Mountain Creek unit accumulated in a wider range of environments, less subject to siliciclastic input, than did calcareous beds in the Kayak, and Kinderhookian beds of both units in the Key Creek sequence formed in less diverse, somewhat shallower environments than correlative rocks in the Aniuk River sequence. Lithofacies patterns and contact relations imply that decreased siliciclastic influx, perhaps accompanied by relative sea-level rise, initiated deposition of the Rough Mountain Creek unit; relative sea-level rise and concurrent circulatory restriction most likely ended its deposition.Kinderhookian calcareous rocks in the Howard Pass quadrangle have several implications for middle Paleozoic paleogeography of the western Brooks

  2. Combined Use of Remote Sensing Data, Mineralogical Analyses, Microstructure Studies and Geographic Information System for Geological Mapping of Antiparos Island (Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos G. Nikolakopoulos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the combined use of field mapping, remote sensing data analysis, mineralogy, spectroscopy and GIS techniques for the geological mapping of Antiparos Island. Antiparos is part of the Cyclades Blueschist Belt located in central Aegean, where gneisses, schists and Pliocene volcanic rocks occurred. During the extended field work, a number of volcanic rock samples were collected from the southern part of Antiparos. The sampling strategy was to collect samples from the primary as well as the altered rocks in specific areas in which they were previously located from the remote sensing data processing. In this study, high resolution satellite images have been carried out in order to detect, allocate and separate the different geological formations. Furthermore, the existing geological map was georeferenced and all the tectonic lines and boundaries were digitized. All these features were implemented in a Mobile Mapper CE GPS using Arcpad GIS and checked in situ. The collected samples were analyzed in the laboratory using various techniques including XRD, Petrographic Microscopy and SEM. The qualitative mineralogical analyses were conducted by using XRD. The study was supplemented by the petrographic observations providing a detailed characterization of rock textures. In addition, SEM study and SEM-EDS analyses of the samples were emphasized on the genetic relations of the minerals. The laboratory results revealed that specific corrections should be made in the previous geological map of Antiparos concerning the volcanic rocks, especially at the southern part of the island. A significant conclusion is that the rock described as volcanic in the previous map proved to be a fossiliferous limestone which includes micritic matrix of calcite with an insignificant amount of fossils. All the analogical and digital data and the results of the petrographic analysis were imported in a geodatabase specially designed for geological data. After the

  3. The Pilot Lunar Geologic Mapping Project: Summary Results and Recommendations from the Copernicus Quadrangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Gaddis, L. R.; Hagerty, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    The first systematic lunar geologic maps were completed at 1:1M scale for the lunar near side during the 1960s using telescopic and Lunar Orbiter (LO) photographs [1-3]. The program under which these maps were completed established precedents for map base, scale, projection, and boundaries in order to avoid widely discrepant products. A variety of geologic maps were subsequently produced for various purposes, including 1:5M scale global maps [4-9] and large scale maps of high scientific interest (including the Apollo landing sites) [10]. Since that time, lunar science has benefitted from an abundance of surface information, including high resolution images and diverse compositional data sets, which have yielded a host of topical planetary investigations. The existing suite of lunar geologic maps and topical studies provide exceptional context in which to unravel the geologic history of the Moon. However, there has been no systematic approach to lunar geologic mapping since the flight of post-Apollo scientific orbiters. Geologic maps provide a spatial and temporal framework wherein observations can be reliably benchmarked and compared. As such, a lack of a systematic mapping program means that modern (post- Apollo) data sets, their scientific ramifications, and the lunar scientists who investigate these data, are all marginalized in regard to geologic mapping. Marginalization weakens the overall understanding of the geologic evolution of the Moon and unnecessarily partitions lunar research. To bridge these deficiencies, we began a pilot geologic mapping project in 2005 as a means to assess the interest, relevance, and technical methods required for a renewed lunar geologic mapping program [11]. Herein, we provide a summary of the pilot geologic mapping project, which focused on the geologic materials and stratigraphic relationships within the Copernicus quadrangle (0-30degN, 0-45degW).

  4. Studies on environmental geology of the northwest disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoqing; Jin Yuanxin; Wang Ju; Li Sen; Xiao Xiangping

    1998-01-01

    The Northwest Disposal Site is used for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes in China. There are no poor geological phenomena in the site. The site has favorable engineering geological conditions. There is no phreatic water in the Quaternary sediments. The depth of confined water level in the Tertiary sediments is relatively deep. The groundwater recharge, runoff and discharge conditions are ascertained. Actual flow rate, direction, dispersity and dispersion coefficients of groundwater are achieved by the dispersion tests. The coefficient of unsaturated permeability of the rocks and soils of the site are obtained by research of the aerated zone. Rocks and soils of the site have higher exchangeable Ca 2+ . They with effectually adsorb and retard the 63 Ni and 239 Pu. There are many favourable environmental geological conditions at the Northwest Disposal Site. The site will provide effective natural barriers for low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes

  5. On the Geological History of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.

    2008-09-01

    mostly based on the analysis of data acquired by the Magellan mission: SAR images with 100-200 m resolution and the maps of topography, surface radar reflectivity, emissivity, roughness and gravity anomalies [1]. After initial analysis of the data summarized in [2, 3] several groups of researchers continued to study the geology and geophysics of the planet, resulting in numerous publications, some of which are referenced below. Very important for the studies emphasizing the geologic history of Venus was, and still is, a program of 1:5,000,000 geologic mapping coordinated by the US Geological Survey [4]. A recent summary of these studies can be found in [5]. Observations and analysis: All researchers in this study area analyze the same data sets and follow the same guidelines [4, 6] so geologic units identified by them and their time sequences are generally similar, although different researchers may name the same units differently and may interpret differently some details of local time sequences. Figure 1 shows a time sequence of geologic units suggested by [7, 8]: materials of tessera terrain (tt), densely fractured plains (pdf), fractured and ridged plains (pfr), shield plains (psh), plains with wrinkle ridges (pwr), lobate (pl) and smooth (ps) plains as well as materials of radar-dark craterassociated parabolas (cdp). These are material units. In addition, some researchers identify and map structural units. In Figure 1 examples of these are fracture belts (fb) and rifted terrain (rt). synchronous on a global scale. The first option can be visualized with Figure 1, suggesting that it is applicable for Venus globally. This option was suggested by Basilevsky and Head [e.g., 7, 8] as well as by Ivanov and Head [e.g., 9]. The second option, first clearly formulated by [10], can be visualized by the upper part of Figure 2 showing the situation in three different hypothetical geologic provinces on Venus. In these provinces the unit time sequences are the same: tt

  6. Drone photogrammetry for geological research: field digital stratigraphic logs for turbiditic reservoir analog studies in Calabria, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillois, Maxime; Brocheray, Sandra; Paron, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Drone technology combined with new algorithms like Structure from Motion (SfM) has revived and expanded the uses of photogrammetry bringing new flexibility and the capacity to carry on close range photogrammetry to inaccessible areas. This characteristics are particularly appealing in field geology offering the option to reconstruct continuous digital outcrop models of vertical or difficult to reach outcrops. In this light we present the results of a digital outcrop modelling of a Miocene turbiditic system (mainly sandstone) in Calabria (Southern Italy) generated through field data collected by means of a light-weight commercial drone, a detailed geological field survey and cloud point photogrammetric analyses comparing different software for this purpose (Agisoft Photoscan, Drone deploy, Arc3D). The geological model has been used as an input for preliminary reservoir modelling. We generated digital geological sections (stratigraphic logs) of 1,200 m of sections using expert digital image and terrain model interprepation from the DTM generated with drone data, with the goal to reconstruct the real thickness of each layer. We then compared the results with previously created detailed field geological cross sections. The comparison between drone-derived sections and field-survey sections shows a global accuracy of the thickness ranging between 1% to 10%. Although this new methodology still has to be validated in other morpho-lithological context it already demonstrating its usefulness for preliminary geological outcrop investigation and modelling in remote areas. We also compared the different softwares used and we made recommendations for future deployment. This research has been made possible thanks to a collaboration between UNESCO-IHE, The Netherlands, and UniLaSalle Beauvais, France.

  7. CHUVARDINSKY’S ANTIGLACIAL (GENERALIZED GEOLOGICAL CONCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Skufyin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analytical study of V. G. Chuvardinsky’s monographs on the revision of the generally accepted glacial theory, the authors of the review concluded that there was convincing evidence of a fault-tectonic origin of ‘ice-exaration’ relief of the Baltic Shield. Developed by Chuvardinsky, a radically new methodology of boulder prospecting of ore deposits not only refuted the old glacial theory, but also led to the discovery of copper-nickel deposits, a new apatite alkaline massif, promising manifestation of copper-nickel ore, platinum group metals, native gold, chromite and other mineral resources. A thorough drilling of ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica for the international project determined the absence of boulder material over the entire thickness of the ice, only pulverulent and fine particles (mainly volcanic ash were found in the ice. Bottom ice layers are immobilised, their function is preservation of the geological surface. V. G. Chuvardinsky far outstripped western and Russian scientists in the field of Earth Sciences. His field studies on the Baltic Shield not only refuted the mighty glacial theory, but also created and substantiated a new geological concept instead. Professor V. Z. Negrutsa was quite right when he wrote in his review on Chuvardinsky’s work (journal Geomorfologiya, 2003, no. 1, ‘Evidence of Chuvardinsky about tectonic origin of geological and geomorphological features traditionally associated with the Quaternary glaciation is so obvious and reproducible both by field observations and by geological modeling that is presented irrefutable and undeniable in its essence’. In general, assessing the scientific significance of V. G. Chuvardinsky’s works, it can be stated that his work would have done honour to research institutes of geological and geographical orientation according to the level of study of the geological material and the value of his field studies. His books present the material for

  8. Methodology of the interpretation of remote sensing data and applications in geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Veneziani, P.; Dosanjos, C. E.

    1981-01-01

    Methods used for interpreting orbital (LANDSAT) data for regional geological mapping in Brazil are examined. Particular attention is given to the levels of analysis used for studying geomorphology, structural geology, lithology, stratigraphy, surface geology, and dynamic processes. Examples of regional mapping described include: (1) rock intrusions in SE Sao Paulo, the southern parts of Minas Gerais, and the states of Rio de Janeiro, and Espiritu Santo; (2) a preliminary survey of Pre-Cambrian geology in the State of Piaui; and (3) the Gondwana Project - surveying Jaguaribe plants. Mineral exploration in Rio Grande do Sul, and the geology of the Alcalino complex of Itatiaia are discussed as well as the use of automatic classifications of rock intrusions and of ilmenite deposits in the Floresta Region. Aerial photography, side looking radar, and thermal infrared scanning are other types of remote sensors also used in prospecting for geothermal anomalies in the city of Caldas Novas-Goias.

  9. A new method for studying the transport of gamma photons in various geological materials by combining the SSNTD technique with Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misdaq, M.A.; Merzouki, A.; Bourzik, W.; Sfairi, T.

    2000-01-01

    The gamma dose rate due to the uranium and thorium series as well as the potassium 40 nuclei represents a large fraction of the total dose rate from the natural background. Natural gamma-activities of rock and soil samples collected from volcanic areas have been determined using gamma-ray spectrometry. The corresponding gamma dose rates in air have been measured by means of thermoluminescence (TL) dosimeters. Annual absorbed gamma dose rates have been evaluated in different soil samples belonging to an archaeological site by using experimental and calculational methods. Uranium and thorium contents in different geological samples have been determined by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and calculating the probabilities for alpha particles emitted by the uranium and thorium series to reach and be registered on the SSNTD films. A new method has been developed based on calculating the self-absorption and transmission coefficients of the gamma photons emitted by the uranium and thorium families as well as the potassium 40 isotope for evaluating the gamma dose rate in the considered geological samples. Transport of gamma-photons across parallelepipedic blocks of the geological materials studied has been investigated. Gamma dose rates have been evaluated in the atmosphere of different geological deposits. (author)

  10. How do geological sampling biases affect studies of morphological evolution in deep time? A case study of pterosaur (Reptilia: Archosauria) disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Richard J; Brusatte, Stephen L; Andres, Brian; Benson, Roger B J

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental contribution of paleobiology to macroevolutionary theory has been the illumination of deep time patterns of diversification. However, recent work has suggested that taxonomic diversity counts taken from the fossil record may be strongly biased by uneven spatiotemporal sampling. Although morphological diversity (disparity) is also frequently used to examine evolutionary radiations, no empirical work has yet addressed how disparity might be affected by uneven fossil record sampling. Here, we use pterosaurs (Mesozoic flying reptiles) as an exemplar group to address this problem. We calculate multiple disparity metrics based upon a comprehensive anatomical dataset including a novel phylogenetic correction for missing data, statistically compare these metrics to four geological sampling proxies, and use multiple regression modeling to assess the importance of uneven sampling and exceptional fossil deposits (Lagerstätten). We find that range-based disparity metrics are strongly affected by uneven fossil record sampling, and should therefore be interpreted cautiously. The robustness of variance-based metrics to sample size and geological sampling suggests that they can be more confidently interpreted as reflecting true biological signals. In addition, our results highlight the problem of high levels of missing data for disparity analyses, indicating a pressing need for more theoretical and empirical work. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution © 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Tsunami geology in paleoseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuichi Nishimura,; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku-oki disasters dramatically demonstrated the destructiveness and deadliness of tsunamis. For the assessment of future risk posed by tsunamis it is necessary to understand past tsunami events. Recent work on tsunami deposits has provided new information on paleotsunami events, including their recurrence interval and the size of the tsunamis (e.g. [187–189]). Tsunamis are observed not only on the margin of oceans but also in lakes. The majority of tsunamis are generated by earthquakes, but other events that displace water such as landslides and volcanic eruptions can also generate tsunamis. These non-earthquake tsunamis occur less frequently than earthquake tsunamis; it is, therefore, very important to find and study geologic evidence for past eruption and submarine landslide triggered tsunami events, as their rare occurrence may lead to risks being underestimated. Geologic investigations of tsunamis have historically relied on earthquake geology. Geophysicists estimate the parameters of vertical coseismic displacement that tsunami modelers use as a tsunami's initial condition. The modelers then let the simulated tsunami run ashore. This approach suffers from the relationship between the earthquake and seafloor displacement, the pertinent parameter in tsunami generation, being equivocal. In recent years, geologic investigations of tsunamis have added sedimentology and micropaleontology, which focus on identifying and interpreting depositional and erosional features of tsunamis. For example, coastal sediment may contain deposits that provide important information on past tsunami events [190, 191]. In some cases, a tsunami is recorded by a single sand layer. Elsewhere, tsunami deposits can consist of complex layers of mud, sand, and boulders, containing abundant stratigraphic evidence for sediment reworking and redeposition. These onshore sediments are geologic evidence for tsunamis and are called ‘tsunami deposits’ (Figs. 26

  12. Geological Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers use computed tomography (CT) scanners at NETL’s Geological Services Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, to peer into geologic core samples to determine how...

  13. Geophysics & Geology Inspected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, E. R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

  14. Geology of Uruguay review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Rifas, C.

    2011-01-01

    This work is about the Uruguay geology review.This country has been a devoted to breeding cattle and agriculture.The evolution of geological knowledge begun with Dr. Karl Walther who published 53 papers between 1909 and 1948.

  15. Study on Surface Permeability of Concrete under Immersion

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jun; Xing, Feng; Dong, Biqin; Ma, Hongyan; Pan, Dong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, concrete specimens are immersed in ultrapure water, to study the evolutions of surface permeability, pore structure and paste microstructure following the prolonging of immersion period. According to the results, after 30-day immersion, the surface permeability of concrete becomes higher as compared with the value before immersion. However, further immersion makes the surface permeability decrease, so that the value measured after 150-day immersion is only half that measured af...

  16. Technical summary of geological, hydrological, and engineering studies at the Slick Rock Uranium Mill Tailings sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the Colorado Department of Health (CDH) with a summary of the technical aspects of the proposed remedial action for the Slick Rock tailings near Slick Rock, Colorado. The technical issues summarized in this document are the geology and groundwater at the Burro Canyon disposal site and preliminary engineering considerations for the disposal cell

  17. Caprock and overburden processes in geological CO2 storage: An experimental study on sealing efficiency and mineral alterations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wollenweber, J.; Alles, S.a.; Kronimus, A.; Busch, A.; Stanjek, H.; Krooss, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive set of experimental and analytical methods has been used to characterise the sealing and fluid -transport properties of fine-grained (pelitic) sedimentary rocks under the pressure and temperature conditions of geological CO2 storage. The flow experiments were carried out on

  18. Regolith-geology mapping with support vector machine: A case study over weathered Ni-bearing peridotites, New Caledonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boissieu, Florian; Sevin, Brice; Cudahy, Thomas; Mangeas, Morgan; Chevrel, Stéphane; Ong, Cindy; Rodger, Andrew; Maurizot, Pierre; Laukamp, Carsten; Lau, Ian; Touraivane, Touraivane; Cluzel, Dominique; Despinoy, Marc

    2018-02-01

    Accurate maps of Earth's geology, especially its regolith, are required for managing the sustainable exploration and development of mineral resources. This paper shows how airborne imaging hyperspectral data collected over weathered peridotite rocks in vegetated, mountainous terrane in New Caledonia were processed using a combination of methods to generate a regolith-geology map that could be used for more efficiently targeting Ni exploration. The image processing combined two usual methods, which are spectral feature extraction and support vector machine (SVM). This rationale being the spectral features extraction can rapidly reduce data complexity by both targeting only the diagnostic mineral absorptions and masking those pixels complicated by vegetation, cloud and deep shade. SVM is a supervised classification method able to generate an optimal non-linear classifier with these features that generalises well even with limited training data. Key minerals targeted are serpentine, which is considered as an indicator for hydrolysed peridotitic rock, and iron oxy-hydroxides (hematite and goethite), which are considered as diagnostic of laterite development. The final classified regolith map was assessed against interpreted regolith field sites, which yielded approximately 70% similarity for all unit types, as well as against a regolith-geology map interpreted using traditional datasets (not hyperspectral imagery). Importantly, the hyperspectral derived mineral map provided much greater detail enabling a more precise understanding of the regolith-geological architecture where there are exposed soils and rocks.

  19. Conceptual design studies for surface infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufkin, Ann L.; Jones, William R., II

    1986-01-01

    The utimate design of a manned Mars base will be the result of considerable engineering analysis and many trade studies to optimize the configuration. Many options and scenarios are available and all need to be considered at this time. Initial base elements, two base configuration concepts, internal space architectural concerns, and two base set-up scenarios are discussed. There are many variables as well as many unknowns to be reckoned with before people set foot on the red planet.

  20. Geologic and geochemical studies of the New Albany Group in Illinois (Devonian black shale) to evaluate its characteristics as a source of hydrocarbons. Annual report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstrom, R.E.; Shimp, N.F.

    1977-01-01

    The Illinois State Geological Survey is conducting geological and geochemical investigations to evaluate the potential of New Albany Group shales as sources of hydrocarbons. Geological studies include stratigraphy and structure; mineralogic and petrographic characterization; analyses of physical properties; and development of a computer-based resources evaluation system. Studies include quantitative determination of 49 major, minor, and trace elements; trace element distribution between inorganic and organic phases; hydrocaron characterization; and adsorption/desorption studies of gas through shales. Six cores (five from Illinois and one from western Kentucky) provide the principal data base for these investigations.Using subsurface stratigraphic techniques, twenty-two cross-sections and a preliminary New Albany Group thickness map have been prepared. Isopach maps are in preparation for each of the formations within the New Albany. Black shales predominate in the center of the Illinois Basin, whereas gray shales predominate around the margins of the Basin. A computer data base of over 5000 wells penetrating the New Albany Group has been compiled. Tectonic origins are not postulated for any of the linears, and caution is advised when interpreting linear features in glaciated terrains. Mineralogic and petrographic studies have concentrated on two cores. A preliminary classification of four shales lithofacies based on primary depositional characteristics has been established and related to oxygenation of the bottom environment. Preliminary results of physical index properties; major, minor, and trace elements; and gas compositions have been obtained for three cores. Internal surface area measurements reveal that gray shales have higher ultramicroporosity than do black shales. The gray shales also have high gas diffusion rates and are better reservoir rocks.

  1. Bedrock geologic map of Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Nicholas M.; Stanley, Rolfe S.; Gale, Marjorie H.; Thompson, Peter J.; Walsh, Gregory J.; With contributions by Hatch, Norman L.; Rankin, Douglas W.; Doolan, Barry L.; Kim, Jonathan; Mehrtens, Charlotte J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; McHone, J. Gregory; Cartography by Masonic, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    The Bedrock Geologic Map of Vermont is the result of a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the State of Vermont. The State's complex geology spans 1.4 billion years of Earth's history. The new map comes 50 years after the most recent map of the State by Charles G. Doll and others in 1961 and a full 150 years since the publication of the first geologic map of Vermont by Edward Hitchcock and others in 1861. At a scale of 1:100,000, the map shows an uncommon level of detail for State geologic maps. Mapped rock units are primarily based on lithology, or rock type, to facilitate derivative studies in multiple disciplines. The 1961 map was compiled from 1:62,500-scale or smaller maps. The current map was created to integrate more detailed (1:12,000- to 1:24,000-scale) modern and older (1:62,500-scale) mapping with the theory of plate tectonics to provide a framework for geologic, tectonic, economic, hydrogeologic, and environmental characterization of the bedrock of Vermont. The printed map consists of three oversize sheets (52 x 76 inches). Sheets 1 and 2 show the southern and northern halves of Vermont, respectively, and can be trimmed and joined so that the entire State can be displayed as a single entity. These sheets also include 10 cross sections and a geologic structure map. Sheet 3 on the front consists of descriptions of 486 map units, a correlation of map units, and references cited. Sheet 3 on the back features a list of the 195 sources of geologic map data keyed to an index map of 7.5-minute quadrangles in Vermont, as well as a table identifying ages of rocks dated by uranium-lead zircon geochronology.

  2. Seismic and geologic investigations of the Sandia Livermore Laboratory site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes results of a seismic and geologic investigation in the vicinity of Sandia Laboratories property and Sandia's Tritium Building at Livermore, California. The investigation was done to define any seismically capable faults in the immediate area and to obtain necessary information to support estimates of future possible or probable ground motions. The work included a variety of geophysical measurements, trenching, seismologic studies, geologic examination, and evaluation of possible ground surface rupture at the site. Ground motions due to the maximum potential earthquake are estimated, and probability of exceedance for various levels of peak ground acceleration is calculated. Descriptions of the various calculations and investigative techniques used and the data obtained are presented. Information obtained from other sources relevant to subsurface geology and faulting is also given. Correlation and evaluation of the various lines of evidence and conclusions regarding the seismic hazard to the Tritium Building are included

  3. Shallow geology, sea-floor texture, and physiographic zones of Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Wayne E.; Foster, David S.; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Schwab, William C.; Andrews, Brian D.; Ackerman, Seth D.

    2016-09-02

    Geologic, sediment texture, and physiographic zone maps characterize the sea floor of Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts. These maps were derived from interpretations of seismic-reflection profiles, high-resolution bathymetry, acoustic-backscatter intensity, bottom photographs/video, and surficial sediment samples collected within the 494-square-kilometer study area. Interpretations of seismic stratigraphy and mapping of glacial and Holocene marine units provided a foundation on which the surficial maps were created. This mapping is a result of a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management to characterize the surface and subsurface geologic framework offshore of Massachusetts.

  4. Study on hydrophilicity of polymer surfaces improved by plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Jiangnan; Sunderland, Bob; Xue Jianming; Yan, Sha; Zhao Weijiang; Folkard, Melvyn; Michael, Barry D.; Wang Yugang

    2006-01-01

    Surface properties of polycarbonate (PC), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) samples treated by microwave-induced argon plasma have been studied with contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanned electron microscopy (SEM). It is found that plasma treatment modified the surfaces both in composition and roughness. Modification of composition makes polymer surfaces tend to be highly hydrophilic, which mainly depended on the increase of ratio of oxygen-containing group as same as other papers reported. And this experiment further revealed that C=O bond is Key factor to the improvement of the hydrophilicity of polymer surfaces. Our SEM observation on PET shown that the roughness of the surface has also been improved in micron scale and it has influence on the surface hydrophilicity

  5. Geology and geohydrology of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle. A report on the progress of nuclear isolation feasibility studies, 1980. Annual report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, T.C.; Bassett, R.L.; Finley, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Since early 1977, the Bureau of Economic Geology has been evaluating several salt-bearing basins within the State of Texas as part of the national nuclear repository program. The Bureau, a research unit of the University of Texas and the State of Texas, is conducting a long-term program to gather and interpret all geologic and hydrologic information necessary for description, delineation, and evaluation of salt-bearing and related strata in the Palo Duro and Dalhart Basins of the Texas Panhandle. The program in FY 1980 was divided into five broad research tasks, which were addressed by a surficial analysis and shallow stratigraphy group, a hydrology and geochemistry group, a basin analysis group, a host-rock analysis group, and a seismicity and tectonic environment group. The surficial analysis and shallow stratigraphy group has collected remotely sensed, surface and subsurface data to describe land resources, surface processes, and rates and styles of geomorphic development. The hydrology and geochemistry group has continued analysis of shallow and deep fluid circulation within the basins and has initiated studies of rock and fluid geochemistry within the salt-bearing units. The basin analysis group has characterized the major salt-bearing stratigraphic units within the basins and has assessed the potential for generating and trapping hydrocarbons within the basins. Concurrently, the host-rock analysis group has continued a study of cores from two drilling sites for analysis of salt and other lithologic units within the cores. The newly formed seismicity and tectonic environment group has initiated studies of deep-basement structure and tetonic development of the basin and has made an analysis of surface fracture systems. This paper, a summary of progress during FY 1980, presents principal conclusions and reviews methods used and types of data and maps generated

  6. CF3+ etching silicon surface: A molecular dynamics study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, C.; Lu, X.; He, P.; Zhang, P.; Sun, W.; Zhang, Jingwei; Chen, F.; Gou, F.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a molecular dynamics simulation method has been employed to investigate CF3 + ions, bombarding Si surface with the energy of 100, 200, 300 and 400 eV and an incident angle of 45 degrees with respect to the normal. The simulation results show that when CF3+ ions approach the Si surface

  7. Surface oxidation of cobalt nanoparticles studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen; Charles, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    The surface oxide formed on cobalt nanoparticles has been studied by Mossbauer emission spectroscopy. Exposure of the cobalt particles to oxygen at room temperature was found to result in the formation of a relatively well-ordered surface oxide with Mossbauer parameters similar to those of CoO....

  8. Transboundary study of the Milk River aquifer (Canada, USA): geological, conceptual and numerical models for the sound management of the regional groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétré, Marie-Amélie; Rivera, Alfonso; Lefebvre, René

    2016-04-01

    The Milk River transboundary aquifer straddles southern Alberta (Canada) and northern Montana (United States), a semi-arid and water-short region. The extensive use of this regional sandstone aquifer over the 20th century has led to a major drop in water levels locally, and concerns about the durability of the resources have been raised since the mid-1950. Even though the Milk River Aquifer (MRA) has been studied for decades, most of the previous studies were limited by the international border, preventing a sound understanding of the aquifer dynamics. Yet, a complete portrait of the aquifer is required for proper management of this shared resource. The transboundary study of the MRA aims to overcome transboundary limitations by providing a comprehensive characterization of the groundwater resource at the aquifer scale, following a three-stage approach: 1) The development of a 3D unified geological model of the MRA (50,000 km2). The stratigraphic framework on both sides of the border was harmonized and various sources of geological data were unified to build the transboundary geological model. The delineation of the aquifer and the geometry and thicknesses of the geological units were defined continuously across the border. 2) Elaboration of a conceptual hydrogeological model by linking hydrogeological and geochemical data with the 3D unified geological model. This stage is based on a thorough literature review and focused complementary field work on both sides of the border. The conceptual model includes the determination of the groundwater flow pattern, the spatial distribution of hydraulic properties, a groundwater budget and the definition of the groundwater types. Isotopes (3H, 14C, 36Cl) were used to delineate the recharge area as well as the active and low-flow areas. 3) The building of a 3D numerical groundwater flow model of the MRA (26,000 km2). This model is a transposition of the geological and hydrogeological conceptual models. A pre

  9. An outline of 1994-1996 geological studies for underground laboratory siting in the Charroux-Civray sediment-capped granitic massif-(southern Vienne-Poitou-France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virlogeux, D. [ANDRA, Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    1998-09-01

    Following the selection of four potentially favourable districts, ANDRA carried out a comprehensive geological investigation in the cantons of Charroux and Civray in order to assess the suitability of a large volume of granitic rocks to host an underground laboratory according to safety regulations. Surface mapping, regional aeromagnetic and gravimetric surveys, seismic reflection lines and 16 cored boreholes led to the selection of a tonalitic unit near La Chapelle-Baton as the target formation to be proposed for detailed study. This volume extends over an area of more than 3x4 km at the surface and at least 800m vertically. There appears to be no prohibitive factors to installation of an underground laboratory for further exploration, particularly from the hydrogeological standpoint. Magmatic joint-type small fracturing shows no variation with depth and polyphasic hydrothermal history has led to plugging the fractures with clays and carbonates. Alkaline fluids crystallising Adular (-126 My) has led to a strong reduction in the initial permeability of basement paleo-weathering zone. The horizontal and relatively fault-free sedimentary cover reveals a simple tectonic history during the last 200 My. One of the objectives of the laboratory study program will be to confirm the conceptual model of slow, shallow circulation in depth, based on the following data: Low frequency water inflows, obtained in the boreholes by pumping and testing, show the very low permeability of (pluri)hectometric blocks delineated by conducting faults. Low hydraulic gradients recorded in the boreholes are consistent with regional topography, and hydraulic heads in the granite similar or lower than those recorded in the overlying sedimentary aquifers. The chemical composition of granitic waters exhibits significant salinity at depth, and is different from the Lias and Dogger aquifer waters, indicating limited hydraulic relationships. The origin and age of the salinity is still under debate

  10. Optimized Model Surfaces for Advanced Atomic Force Microscopy Studies of Surface Nanobubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo; Zhou, Yi; Schönherr, Holger

    2016-11-01

    The formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of binary mixtures of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA) and 1-octadecanethiol (ODT) on ultraflat template-stripped gold (TSG) surfaces was systematically investigated to clarify the assembly behavior, composition, and degree of possible phase segregation in light of atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of surface nanobubbles on these substrates. The data for SAMs on TSG were compared to those obtained by adsorption on rough evaporated gold, as reported in a previous study. Quartz crystal microbalance and surface plasmon resonance data acquired in situ on TSG indicate that similar to SAM formation on conventional evaporated gold substrates ODT and MHDA form monolayers and bilayers, respectively. The second layer on MHDA, whose formation is attributed to hydrogen bonding, can be easily removed by adequate rinsing with water. The favorable agreement of the grazing incidence reflection Fourier transform infrared (GIR FTIR) spectroscopy and contact angle data analyzed with the Israelachvili-Gee model suggests that the binary SAMs do not segregate laterally. This conclusion is fully validated by high-resolution friction force AFM observations down to a length scale of 8-10 nm, which is much smaller than the typical observed surface nanobubble radii. Finally, correspondingly functionalized TSG substrates are shown to be valuable supports for studying surface nanobubbles by AFM in water and for addressing the relation between surface functionality and nanobubble formation and properties.

  11. Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. ?? 2006 MDPI. All rights reserved.

  12. Health Benefits of Geologic Materials and Geologic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Finkelman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. “Terra sigillata,” still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets. Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today’s most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc. that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease.

  13. Geochemical studies for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Research activities in Department of Environmental Safety Research, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Shinichi; Sato, Tsutomu; Nagano, Tetsushi; Yanase, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Isobe, Hiroshi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sekine, Keiichi

    1995-07-01

    The Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory of the Department of Environmental Safety Research of JAERI (EGL/JAERI) is responsible for performing fundamental research to support the geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste and the performance assessment of the disposal concept. This research includes basic laboratory experiments as well as field studies of natural analogs to understand the geochemical behavior of radionuclides, i.e., the interactions between radionuclides, groundwater and geological materials. This report summarizes background, objectives and recent results of the scientific investigations and emphasizes the significance of these studies in terms of both fundamental research on geochemistry and applied research for performance assessment of the waste disposal concept. The importance of performing fundamental research to radioactive waste disposal is stressed in this report. The report is aimed at both the radioactive waste disposal scientific community and the interdisciplinary sciences that interact with this community. (author)

  14. The geological attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.G.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses geological activity which takes place mainly in response to industrial and social pressures. Past geological reaction to these pressures profoundly altered popular conceptions of time, the Church, man, and the balance of nature. The present-day circumstances of geology are not essentially different from those of the past. Petroleum geology in North American illustrates the role of technology in determining the style and scope of geological work. Peaks of activity cluster obviously on the introduction from time to time of new instrumental capabilities (geophysical apparatus, for example), although not infrequently such activity is testing concepts or relationships perceived long before. Organic metamorphism and continental drift provide two examples. The petroleum industry now faces the dilemma of satisfying predicted demands for fuel, without doing irreparable injury to its environment of operation. Awareness of man's place in nature, which is a fundamental perception of geology, governs the geological attitude

  15. The Geology of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, Ralf

    Titan, the largest and most complex satellite in the solar system exhibits an organic dominated surface chemistry and shares surface features with other large icy satellites as well as the terrestrial planets. It is subject to tidal stresses, and its surface appears to have been modified tectonically. Cassini's global observations at infrared and radar wavelengths as well as local investigations by the instruments on the Huygens probe has revealed that Titan has the largest known abundance of organic material in the solar system apart from Earth, and that its active hydrological cycle is analogous to that of Earth, but with methane replacing water. The surface of Titan exhibits morphological features of different sizes and origins created by geological processes that span the entire dynamic range of aeolian, fluvial and tectonic activities, with likely evidence that cryovolcanism might exists where liquid water, perhaps in concert with ammonia, methane and carbon dioxide, makes its way to the surface from the interior [e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18]. Extended dune fields, lakes, mountainous terrain, dendritic erosion patterns and erosional remnants indicate dynamic surface processes. Valleys, small-scale gullies and rounded cobbles require erosion by extended energetic flow of liquids. There is strong evidence that liquid hydrocarbons are ponded on the surface in lakes, predominantly, but not exclusively, at high northern latitudes. A variety of features including extensive flows and caldera-like constructs are interpreted to be cryovolcanic in origin. Chains and isolated blocks of rugged terrain rising from smoother areas are best described as mountains and might be related to tectonic processes. Impact craters form on all solid bodies in the solar system, and have been detected on Titan. But very few have been observed so they must be rapidly destroyed or buried by other geologic processes The morphologies of the impact

  16. Microscopic Study of Surface Microtopographic Characteristics of Dental Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezin, M.; Croharé, L.; Ibañez, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine and compare the micro topographic characteristics of dental implants submitted to different surface treatments, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Materials and Methods: Implants were divided into 7 groups of 3 specimens each, according to the surface treatment used: group 1: Osseotite, BIOMET 3i; group 2: SLA surface, Institut Straumann AG; group 3: Oxalife surface, Tree-Oss implant; group 4: B&W implant surface; group 5: Q-implant surface; group 6: ML implant surface; group 7: RBM surface, Rosterdent implant. The surfaces were examined under SEM (Carl Zeiss FE-SEM-SIGMA). Image Proplus software was used to determine the number and mean diameter of pores per area unit (mm). The data obtained were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney test. A confocal laser microscope (LEXT-OLS4100 Olympus) was used to conduct the comparative study of surface roughness (Ra). Data were analyzed using Tukey's HSD test. Results: The largest average pore diameter calculated in microns was found in group 5 (3.45 µm+/-1.91) while the smallest in group 7 (1.47µm+/-1.29). Significant differences were observed among each one of the groups studied (p<0.05). The largest number of pores/mm2 was found in group 2 (229343) and the smallest number in group 4 (10937). Group 2 showed significant differences regarding the other groups (p<0.05). The greatest roughness (Ra) was observed in group 2 (0.975µm+/-0.115) and the smallest in group 4 (0.304µm+/-0.063). Group 2 was significantly different from the other groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: The micro topography observed in the different groups presented dissimilar and specific features, depending on the chemical treatment used for the surfaces.. PMID:27335615

  17. Sum-frequency spectroscopic studies: I. Surface melting of ice, II. Surface alignment of polymers

    Energy Tech