WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface flux measurements

  1. A new approach of surface flux measurements using DTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, T. H. M.; Wenker, K. J. R.; Rimmer, A.; de Jong, S. A. P.; Lechinsky, Y.; van de Giesen, N. C.

    2012-04-01

    Estimation of surface fluxes is a difficult task, especially over lakes. Determining latent heat flux (evaporation), sensible heat flux and ground heat flux involves measurements and (or calculations) of net radiation, air temperature, water temperature, wind speed and relative humidity. This research presents a new method to measure surface fluxes by means of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS). From 0.5 m above lake level to 1.5 m under lake level DTS was applied to measure temperature. Using a PVC hyperboloid construction, a floating standalone measuring device was developed. This new setup distinguished itself by the open construction, so it is almost insensitive to direct radiation. While most of the lake ground heat changes occur very close to the lake surface, most measuring methods only obtain rough results. With this construction it was possible to create a spiral shaped fiber-optic cable setup, with which a vertical spatial resolution of 0.02 m and a temporal resolution of 1 min was obtained. The new method was tested in the deep Lake Kinneret (Israel) from 6 October, 2011 to 11 October, 2011and in the shallow Lake Binaba (Ghana) from 24 October, 2011 to 28 October, 2011. This study shows that with the developed method it is possible to capture the energy fluxes within the top water layer with a high resolution. When the old low resolution method was compared with the new high resolution method, it could be concluded that the impact of the surface fluxes in the upper layer is high on the energy balance on a daily scale. During the measuring period it was possible to use the temperature measured by the DTS to determine the sensible heat flux, the latent heat flux and the ground heat flux of both lakes.

  2. Magnetic flux surface measurements at the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otte, Matthias; Andreeva, Tamara; Biedermann, Christoph; Bozhenkov, Sergey; Geiger, Joachim; Sunn Pedersen, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Lazerson, Samuel [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Recently the first plasma operation phase of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator has been started at IPP Greifswald. Wendelstein 7-X is an optimized stellarator with a complex superconducting magnet system consisting of 50 non-planar and 20 planar field coils and further 10 normal conducting control and 5 trim coils. The magnetic confinement and hence the expected plasma performance are decisively determined by the properties of the magnet system, especially by the existence and quality of the magnetic flux surfaces. Even small error fields may result in significant changes of the flux surface topology. Therefore, measurements of the vacuum magnetic flux surfaces have been performed before plasma operation. The first experimental results confirm the existence and quality of the flux surfaces to the full extend from low field up to the nominal field strength of B=2.5T. This includes the dedicated magnetic limiter configuration that is exclusively used for the first plasma operation. Furthermore, the measurements are indicating that the intrinsic error fields are within the tolerable range and can be controlled utilizing the trim coils as expected.

  3. Estimating regional methane surface fluxes: the relative importance of surface and GOSAT mole fraction measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fraser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We use an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF, together with the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model, to estimate regional monthly methane (CH4 fluxes for the period June 2009–December 2010 using proxy dry-air column-averaged mole fractions of methane (XCH4 from GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite and/or NOAA ESRL (Earth System Research Laboratory and CSIRO GASLAB (Global Atmospheric Sampling Laboratory CH4 surface mole fraction measurements. Global posterior estimates using GOSAT and/or surface measurements are between 510–516 Tg yr−1, which is less than, though within the uncertainty of, the prior global flux of 529 ± 25 Tg yr−1. We find larger differences between regional prior and posterior fluxes, with the largest changes in monthly emissions (75 Tg yr−1 occurring in Temperate Eurasia. In non-boreal regions the error reductions for inversions using the GOSAT data are at least three times larger (up to 45% than if only surface data are assimilated, a reflection of the greater spatial coverage of GOSAT, with the two exceptions of latitudes >60° associated with a data filter and over Europe where the surface network adequately describes fluxes on our model spatial and temporal grid. We use CarbonTracker and GEOS-Chem XCO2 model output to investigate model error on quantifying proxy GOSAT XCH4 (involving model XCO2 and inferring methane flux estimates from surface mole fraction data and show similar resulting fluxes, with differences reflecting initial differences in the proxy value. Using a series of observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs we characterize the posterior flux error introduced by non-uniform atmospheric sampling by GOSAT. We show that clear-sky measurements can theoretically reproduce fluxes within 10% of true values, with the exception of tropical regions where, due to a large seasonal cycle in the number of measurements because of clouds and aerosols, fluxes are within 15% of true fluxes. We evaluate our

  4. SIERRA-Flux: Measuring Regional Surface Fluxes of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Water Vapor from an Unmanned Aircraft System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fladeland; Yates, Emma Louise; Bui, Thaopaul Van; Dean-Day, Jonathan; Kolyer, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Eddy-Covariance Method for quantifying surface-atmosphere fluxes is a foundational technique for measuring net ecosystem exchange and validating regional-to-global carbon cycle models. While towers or ships are the most frequent platform for measuring surface-atmosphere exchange, experiments using aircraft for flux measurements have yielded contributions to several large-scale studies including BOREAS, SMACEX, RECAB by providing local-to-regional coverage beyond towers. The low-altitude flight requirements make airborne flux measurements particularly dangerous and well suited for unmanned aircraft.

  5. Surface Catalysis and Oxidation on Stagnation Point Heat Flux Measurements in High Enthalpy Arc Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Anuscheh; Driver, David M.; Terrazas-Salinas

    2013-01-01

    Heat flux sensors are routinely used in arc jet facilities to determine heat transfer rates from plasma plume. The goal of this study is to assess the impact of surface composition changes on these heat flux sensors. Surface compositions can change due to oxidation and material deposition from the arc jet. Systematic surface analyses of the sensors were conducted before and after exposure to plasma. Currently copper is commonly used as surface material. Other surface materials were studied including nickel, constantan gold, platinum and silicon dioxide. The surfaces were exposed to plasma between 0.3 seconds and 3 seconds. Surface changes due to oxidation as well as copper deposition from the arc jets were observed. Results from changes in measured heat flux as a function of surface catalycity is given, along with a first assessment of enthalpy for these measurements. The use of cupric oxide is recommended for future heat flux measurements, due to its consistent surface composition arc jets.

  6. Calibration of a distributed hydrology and land surface model using energy flux measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Jensen, Karsten H.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we develop and test a calibration approach on a spatially distributed groundwater-surface water catchment model (MIKE SHE) coupled to a land surface model component with particular focus on the water and energy fluxes. The model is calibrated against time series of eddy flux measure...

  7. Novel dynamic flux chamber for measuring air-surface exchange of Hg(o) from soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Che-Jen; Zhu, Wei; Li, Xianchang; Feng, Xinbin; Sommar, Jonas; Shang, Lihai

    2012-08-21

    Quantifying the air-surface exchange of Hg(o) from soils is critical to understanding the cycling of mercury in different environmental compartments. Dynamic flux chambers (DFCs) have been widely employed for Hg(o) flux measurement over soils. However, DFCs of different sizes, shapes, and sampling flow rates yield distinct measured fluxes for a soil substrate under identical environmental conditions. In this study, we performed an integrated modeling, laboratory and field study to design a DFC capable of producing a steady and uniform air flow over a flat surface. The new DFC was fabricated using polycarbonate sheets. The internal velocity field was experimentally verified against model predictions using both theoretical and computational fluid dynamics techniques, suggesting fully developed flow with velocity profiles in excellent agreement with model results. Laboratory flux measurements demonstrated that the new design improves data reproducibility as compared to a conventional DFC, and reproduces the model-predicted flux trend with increasing sampling flow. A mathematical relationship between the sampling flow rate and surface friction velocity, a variable commonly parametrized in atmospheric models, was developed for field application. For the first time, the internal shear property of a DFC can be precisely controlled using the sampling flow rate, and the flux under atmospheric condition can be inferred from the measured flux and surface shear property. The demonstrated methodology potentially bridges the gap in measured fluxes obtained by the DFC method and the micrometeorological methods.

  8. Evaluation of the flux gradient technique for measurement of ozone surface fluxes over snowpack at Summit, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bocquet

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A multi-step procedure for investigating ozone surface fluxes over polar snow by the tower gradient method was developed and evaluated. These measurements were then used to obtain five months (April–August 2004 of turbulent ozone flux data at the Summit research camp located in the center of the Greenland ice shield. Turbulent fluxes were determined by the gradient method incorporating tower measurements of (a ozone gradients measured by commercial ultraviolet absorption analyzers, (b ambient temperature gradients using aspirated thermocouple sensors, and (c wind speed gradients determined by cup anemometers. All gradient instruments were regularly inter-compared by bringing sensors or inlets to the same measurement height. The developed protocol resulted in an uncertainty on the order of 0.1 ppbv for 30-min averaged ozone gradients that were used for the ozone flux calculations. This protocol facilitated a lower sensitivity threshold for the ozone flux determination of ∼8 × 10−3μg m−2 s−1, respectively ∼0.01 cm s−1 for the ozone deposition velocity for typical environmental conditions encountered at Summit. Uncertainty in the 30-min ozone exchange measurements (evaluated by the Monte Carlo statistical approach was on the order of 10−2 cm s−1. This uncertainty typically accounted to ~20–100% of the ozone exchange velocities that were determined. These measurements are among the most sensitive ozone deposition determinations reported to date. This flux experiment allowed for measurements of the relatively low ozone uptake rates encountered for polar snow, and thereby the study of their environmental and spring-versus-summer dependencies.

  9. High-resolution hot-film measurement of surface heat flux to an impinging jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, T. S.; Persoons, T.; Murray, D. B.

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the complex coupling between surface heat transfer and local fluid velocity in convective heat transfer, advanced techniques are required to measure the surface heat flux at high spatial and temporal resolution. Several established flow velocity techniques such as laser Doppler anemometry, particle image velocimetry and hot wire anemometry can measure fluid velocities at high spatial resolution (µm) and have a high-frequency response (up to 100 kHz) characteristic. Equivalent advanced surface heat transfer measurement techniques, however, are not available; even the latest advances in high speed thermal imaging do not offer equivalent data capture rates. The current research presents a method of measuring point surface heat flux with a hot film that is flush mounted on a heated flat surface. The film works in conjunction with a constant temperature anemometer which has a bandwidth of 100 kHz. The bandwidth of this technique therefore is likely to be in excess of more established surface heat flux measurement techniques. Although the frequency response of the sensor is not reported here, it is expected to be significantly less than 100 kHz due to its physical size and capacitance. To demonstrate the efficacy of the technique, a cooling impinging air jet is directed at the heated surface, and the power required to maintain the hot-film temperature is related to the local heat flux to the fluid air flow. The technique is validated experimentally using a more established surface heat flux measurement technique. The thermal performance of the sensor is also investigated numerically. It has been shown that, with some limitations, the measurement technique accurately measures the surface heat transfer to an impinging air jet with improved spatial resolution for a wide range of experimental parameters.

  10. The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA): A database for the worldwide measured surface energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Ohmura, Atsumu; Schär, Christoph; Müller, Guido; Hakuba, Maria Z.; Mystakidis, Stefanos; Arsenovic, Pavle; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2017-02-01

    The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) is a database for the worldwide measured energy fluxes at the Earth's surface. GEBA is maintained at ETH Zurich (Switzerland) and has been founded in the 1980s by Prof. Atsumu Ohmura. It has continuously been updated and currently contains around 2500 stations with 500`000 monthly mean entries of various surface energy balance components. Many of the records extend over several decades. The most widely measured quantity available in GEBA is the solar radiation incident at the Earth's surface ("global radiation"). The data sources include, in addition to the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC) in St. Petersburg, data reports from National Weather Services, data from different research networks (BSRN, ARM, SURFRAD), data published in peer-reviewed publications and data obtained through personal communications. Different quality checks are applied to check for gross errors in the dataset. GEBA is used in various research applications, such as for the quantification of the global energy balance and its spatiotemporal variation, or for the estimation of long-term trends in the surface fluxes, which enabled the detection of multi-decadal variations in surface solar radiation, known as "global dimming" and "brightening". GEBA is further extensively used for the evaluation of climate models and satellite-derived surface flux products. On a more applied level, GEBA provides the basis for engineering applications in the context of solar power generation, water management, agricultural production and tourism. GEBA is publicly accessible over the internet via www.geba.ethz.ch.

  11. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Flux Using Surface-Mounted One-Dimensional Flat Gages

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the measurement of the net heat flux normal to a surface using flat gages mounted onto the surface. Conduction heat flux is not the focus of this standard. Conduction applications related to insulation materials are covered by Test Method C 518 and Practices C 1041 and C 1046. The sensors covered by this test method all use a measurement of the temperature difference between two parallel planes normal to the surface to determine the heat that is exchanged to or from the surface in keeping with Fourier’s Law. The gages operate by the same principles for heat transfer in either direction. 1.2 This test method is quite broad in its field of application, size and construction. Different sensor types are described in detail in later sections as examples of the general method for measuring heat flux from the temperature gradient normal to a surface (1). Applications include both radiation and convection heat transfer. The gages have broad application from aerospace to biomedical en...

  12. Stable water isotope and surface heat flux simulation using ISOLSM: Evaluation against in-situ measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Mick Y.

    2015-04-01

    The stable isotopes of water are useful tracers of water sources and hydrological processes. Stable water isotope-enabled land surface modeling is a relatively new approach for characterizing the hydrological cycle, providing spatial and temporal variability for a number of hydrological processes. At the land surface, the integration of stable water isotopes with other meteorological measurements can assist in constraining surface heat flux estimates and discriminate between evaporation (E) and transpiration (T). However, research in this area has traditionally been limited by a lack of continuous in-situ isotopic observations. Here, the National Centre for Atmospheric Research stable isotope-enabled Land Surface Model (ISOLSM) is used to simulate the water and energy fluxes and stable water isotope variations. The model was run for a period of one month with meteorological data collected from a coastal sub-tropical site near Sydney, Australia. The modeled energy fluxes (latent heat and sensible heat) agreed reasonably well with eddy covariance observations, indicating that ISOLSM has the capacity to reproduce observed flux behavior. Comparison of modeled isotopic compositions of evapotranspiration (ET) against in-situ Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measured bulk water vapor isotopic data (10. m above the ground), however, showed differences in magnitude and temporal patterns. The disparity is due to a small contribution from local ET fluxes to atmospheric boundary layer water vapor (~1% based on calculations using ideal gas law) relative to that advected from the ocean for this particular site. Using ISOLSM simulation, the ET was partitioned into E and T with 70% being T. We also identified that soil water from different soil layers affected T and E differently based on the simulated soil isotopic patterns, which reflects the internal working of ISOLSM. These results highlighted the capacity of using the isotope-enabled models to discriminate

  13. Flux threshold measurements of He-ion beam induced nanofuzz formation on hot tungsten surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, F W; Hijazi, H; Bannister, M E; Unocic, K A; Garrison, L M; Parish, C M

    2016-01-01

    We report measurements of the energy dependence of flux thresholds and incubation fluences for He-ion induced nano-fuzz formation on hot tungsten surfaces at UHV conditions over a wide energy range using real-time sample imaging of tungsten target emissivity change to monitor the spatial extent of nano-fuzz growth, corroborated by ex situ SEM and FIB/SEM analysis, in conjunction with accurate ion-flux profile measurements. The measurements were carried out at the multicharged ion research facility (MIRF) at energies from 218 eV to 8.5 keV, using a high-flux deceleration module and beam flux monitor for optimizing the decel optics on the low energy MIRF beamline. The measurements suggest that nano-fuzz formation proceeds only if a critical rate of change of trapped He density in the W target is exceeded. To understand the energy dependence of the observed flux thresholds, the energy dependence of three contributing factors: ion reflection, ion range and target damage creation, were determined using the SRIM simulation code. The observed energy dependence can be well reproduced by the combined energy dependences of these three factors. The incubation fluences deduced from first visual appearance of surface emissivity change were (2–4) × 10 23 m −2 at 218 eV, and roughly a factor of 10 less at the higher energies, which were all at or above the displacement energy threshold. The role of trapping at C impurity sites is discussed. (paper)

  14. The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) version 2017: a database for worldwide measured surface energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Ohmura, Atsumu; Schär, Christoph; Müller, Guido; Folini, Doris; Schwarz, Matthias; Zyta Hakuba, Maria; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2017-08-01

    The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) is a database for the central storage of the worldwide measured energy fluxes at the Earth's surface, maintained at ETH Zurich (Switzerland). This paper documents the status of the GEBA version 2017 dataset, presents the new web interface and user access, and reviews the scientific impact that GEBA data had in various applications. GEBA has continuously been expanded and updated and contains in its 2017 version around 500 000 monthly mean entries of various surface energy balance components measured at 2500 locations. The database contains observations from 15 surface energy flux components, with the most widely measured quantity available in GEBA being the shortwave radiation incident at the Earth's surface (global radiation). Many of the historic records extend over several decades. GEBA contains monthly data from a variety of sources, namely from the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC) in St. Petersburg, from national weather services, from different research networks (BSRN, ARM, SURFRAD), from peer-reviewed publications, project and data reports, and from personal communications. Quality checks are applied to test for gross errors in the dataset. GEBA has played a key role in various research applications, such as in the quantification of the global energy balance, in the discussion of the anomalous atmospheric shortwave absorption, and in the detection of multi-decadal variations in global radiation, known as global dimming and brightening. GEBA is further extensively used for the evaluation of climate models and satellite-derived surface flux products. On a more applied level, GEBA provides the basis for engineering applications in the context of solar power generation, water management, agricultural production and tourism. GEBA is publicly accessible through the internet via http://www.geba.ethz.ch. Supplementary data are available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.873078.

  15. Upscaling surface energy fluxes over the North Slope of Alaska using airborne eddy-covariance measurements and environmental response functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafimovich, Andrei; Metzger, Stefan; Hartmann, Jörg; Kohnert, Katrin; Zona, Donatella; Sachs, Torsten

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to upscale airborne flux measurements of sensible heat and latent heat and to develop high resolution flux maps. In order to support the evaluation of coupled atmospheric/land-surface models we investigated spatial patterns of energy fluxes in relation to land-surface properties. We used airborne eddy-covariance measurements acquired by the POLAR 5 research aircraft in June-July 2012 to analyze surface fluxes. Footprint-weighted surface properties were then related to 21 529 sensible heat flux observations and 25 608 latent heat flux observations using both remote sensing and modelled data. A boosted regression tree technique was used to estimate environmental response functions between spatially and temporally resolved flux observations and corresponding biophysical and meteorological drivers. In order to improve the spatial coverage and spatial representativeness of energy fluxes we used relationships extracted across heterogeneous Arctic landscapes to infer high-resolution surface energy flux maps, thus directly upscaling the observational data. These maps of projected sensible heat and latent heat fluxes were used to assess energy partitioning in northern ecosystems and to determine the dominant energy exchange processes in permafrost areas. This allowed us to estimate energy fluxes for specific types of land cover, taking into account meteorological conditions. Airborne and modelled fluxes were then compared with measurements from an eddy-covariance tower near Atqasuk. Our results are an important contribution for the advanced, scale-dependent quantification of surface energy fluxes and provide new insights into the processes affecting these fluxes for the main vegetation types in high-latitude permafrost areas.

  16. Radon flux measurement methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    Five methods for measuring radon fluxes are evaluated: the accumulator can, a small charcoal sampler, a large-area charcoal sampler, the ''Big Louie'' charcoal sampler, and the charcoal tent sampler. An experimental comparison of the five flux measurement techniques was also conducted. Excellent agreement was obtained between the measured radon fluxes and fluxes predicted from radium and emanation measurements

  17. Total luminous flux measurement for flexible surface sources with an integrating sphere photometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Hsueh-Ling; Liu, Wen-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Applying an integrating sphere photometer for total luminous flux measurement is a widely used method. However, the measurement accuracy depends on the spatial uniformity of the integrating sphere, especially when the test sample has a different light distribution from that of the standard source. Therefore, spatial correction is needed to eliminate the effect caused by non-uniformity. To reduce the inconvenience of spatial correction but retain the measurement accuracy, a new type of working standard is designed for flexible and curved surface sources. Applying this new type standard source, the measurement deviation due to different orientations is reduced by an order of magnitude compared with using a naked incandescent lamp as the standard source. (paper)

  18. Measuring and modeling near-surface reflected and emitted radiation fluxes at the FIFE site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blad, Blaine L.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Starks, Patrick J.; Vining, Roel C.; Hays, Cynthia J.; Mesarch, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information is presented pertaining to the measurement and estimation of reflected and emitted components of the radiation balance. Information is included about reflectance and transmittance of solar radiation from and through the leaves of some grass and forb prairie species, bidirectional reflectance from a prairie canopy is discussed and measured and estimated fluxes are described of incoming and outgoing longwave and shortwave radiation. Results of the study showed only very small differences in reflectances and transmittances for the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of grass species in the visible and infrared wavebands, but some differences in the infrared wavebands were noted for the forbs. Reflectance from the prairie canopy changed as a function of solar and view zenith angles in the solar principal plane with definite asymmetry about nadir. The surface temperature of prairie canopies was found to vary by as much as 5 C depending on view zenith and azimuth position and on the solar azimuth. Aerodynamic temperature calculated from measured sensible heat fluxes ranged from 0 to 3 C higher than nadir-viewed temperatures. Models were developed to estimate incoming and reflected shortwave radiation from data collected with a Barnes Modular Multiband Radiometer. Several algorithms for estimating incoming longwave radiation were evaluated and compared to actual measures of that parameter. Net radiation was calculated using the estimated components of the shortwave radiation streams, determined from the algorithms developed, and from the longwave radiation streams provided by the Brunt, modified Deacon, and the Stefan-Boltzmann models. Estimates of net radiation were compared to measured values and found to be within the measurement error of the net radiometers used in the study.

  19. Visible imaging measurement of position and displacement of the last closed flux surface in EAST tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.F. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Xu, G.S., E-mail: gsxu@ipp.ac.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Li, Y.L.; Yang, J.H.; Yan, N.; Liu, L.; Yuan, S.; Luo, Z.P. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Sang, C.F. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Gu, S.; Xu, J.C.; Hu, G.H.; Wang, Y.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Peng, Y.K.M.; Wan, B.N. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • A new method for measuring the position and displacement of the LCFS has been developed in EAST tokamak. • This method is based on the visible imaging diagnostic and shown to be an effective and convenient approach. • This method can be applied to measure displacements of the LCFS during application of resonant magnetic perturbation fields. - Abstract: A new method for measuring the position and displacement of the last closed flux surface (LCFS) with visible imaging diagnostics has been developed in EAST. By measuring the relative intensity profiles of the green visible Li-II emission in the tangential planes of the optical systems, it is possible to infer the positions of certain points on the LCFS. This emission line is readily available in discharges with Li-coating wall routinely employed to improve the plasma performance. We describe the measuring method, giving results which are compared with those obtained by EFIT, and showing this as an effective and convenient approach to determine the position of the LCFS. This method is further applied to measure the displacements of the LCFS during application of resonant magnetic perturbation fields in the EAST tokamak.

  20. Urban surface energy fluxes based on remotely-sensed data and micrometeorological measurements over the Kansai area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukeyasu, T.; Ueyama, M.; Ando, T.; Kosugi, Y.; Kominami, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The urban heat island is associated with land cover changes and increases in anthropogenic heat fluxes. Clear understanding of the surface energy budget at urban area is the most important for evaluating the urban heat island. In this study, we develop a model based on remotely-sensed data for the Kansai area in Japan and clarify temporal transitions and spatial distributions of the surface energy flux from 2000 to 2016. The model calculated the surface energy fluxes based on various satellite and GIS products. The model used land surface temperature, surface emissivity, air temperature, albedo, downward shortwave radiation and land cover/use type from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) under cloud free skies from 2000 to 2016 over the Kansai area in Japan (34 to 35 ° N, 135 to 136 ° E). Net radiation was estimated by a radiation budget of upward/downward shortwave and longwave radiation. Sensible heat flux was estimated by a bulk aerodynamic method. Anthropogenic heat flux was estimated by the inventory data. Latent heat flux was examined with residues of the energy budget and parameterization of bulk transfer coefficients. We validated the model using observed fluxes from five eddy-covariance measurement sites: three urban sites and two forested sites. The estimated net radiation roughly agreed with the observations, but the sensible heat flux were underestimated. Based on the modeled spatial distributions of the fluxes, the daytime net radiation in the forested area was larger than those in the urban area, owing to higher albedo and land surface temperatures in the urban area than the forested area. The estimated anthropogenic heat flux was high in the summer and winter periods due to increases in energy-requirements.

  1. In situ soil temperature and heat flux measurements during controlled surface burns at a southern Colorado forest site

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Massman; J. M. Frank; W. D. Shepperd; M. J. Platten

    2003-01-01

    This study presents in situ soil temperature measurements at 5-6 depths and heat flux measurements at 2-5 depths obtained during the fall/winter of 2001/ 2002 at seven controlled (surface) fires within a ponderosa pine forest site at the Manitou Experimental Forest in central Colorado. Six of these burns included three different (low, medium, and high) fuel loadings...

  2. CO2 surface fluxes at grid point scale estimated from a global 21 year reanalysis of atmospheric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Bousquet, P.; Maignan, F.; Peylin, P.; Ramonet, M.; Rivier, L.; Schmidt, M.; Conway, T.J.; Aalto, T.; Anderson, B.E.; Vay, S.A.; Brunke, E.G.; Ciattaglia, L.; Esaki, Y.; Froehlich, M.; Gomez, A.; Gomez-Pelaez, A.J.; Haszpra, L.; Krummel, P.B.; Langenfelds, R.L.; Steele, L.P.; Leuenberger, M.; Machida, T.; Mukai, H.; Matsueda, H.; Sawa, Y.; Morgui, J.A.; Nakazawa, T.; Vermeulen, A.T.; Wofsy, S.; Worthy, D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents a global Bayesian variational inversion of CO2 surface fluxes during the period 1988-2008. Weekly fluxes are estimated on a 3.75x2.5 (longitude-latitude) grid throughout the 21 years. The assimilated observations include 128 station records from three large data sets of surface CO2 mixing ratio measurements. A Monte Carlo approach rigorously quantifies the theoretical uncertainty of the inverted fluxes at various space and time scales, which is particularly important for proper interpretation of the inverted fluxes. Fluxes are evaluated indirectly against two independent CO2 vertical profile data sets constructed from aircraft measurements in the boundary layer and in the free troposphere. The skill of the inversion is evaluated by the improvement brought over a simple benchmark flux estimation based on the observed atmospheric growth rate. Our error analysis indicates that the carbon budget from the inversion should be more accurate than the a priori carbon budget by 20% to 60% for terrestrial fluxes aggregated at the scale of subcontinental regions in the Northern Hemisphere and over a year, but the inversion cannot clearly distinguish between the regional carbon budgets within a continent. On the basis of the independent observations, the inversion is seen to improve the fluxes compared to the benchmark: the atmospheric simulation of CO2 with the Bayesian inversion method is better by about 1 ppm than the benchmark in the free troposphere, despite possible systematic transport errors. The inversion achieves this improvement by changing the regional fluxes over land at the seasonal and at the interannual time scales.

  3. Surface renewal: an advanced micrometeorological method for measuring and processing field-scale energy flux density data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElrone, Andrew J; Shapland, Thomas M; Calderon, Arturo; Fitzmaurice, Li; Paw U, Kyaw Tha; Snyder, Richard L

    2013-12-12

    Advanced micrometeorological methods have become increasingly important in soil, crop, and environmental sciences. For many scientists without formal training in atmospheric science, these techniques are relatively inaccessible. Surface renewal and other flux measurement methods require an understanding of boundary layer meteorology and extensive training in instrumentation and multiple data management programs. To improve accessibility of these techniques, we describe the underlying theory of surface renewal measurements, demonstrate how to set up a field station for surface renewal with eddy covariance calibration, and utilize our open-source turnkey data logger program to perform flux data acquisition and processing. The new turnkey program returns to the user a simple data table with the corrected fluxes and quality control parameters, and eliminates the need for researchers to shuttle between multiple processing programs to obtain the final flux data. An example of data generated from these measurements demonstrates how crop water use is measured with this technique. The output information is useful to growers for making irrigation decisions in a variety of agricultural ecosystems. These stations are currently deployed in numerous field experiments by researchers in our group and the California Department of Water Resources in the following crops: rice, wine and raisin grape vineyards, alfalfa, almond, walnut, peach, lemon, avocado, and corn.

  4. Surface fluxes over natural landscapes using scintillometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijninger, W.M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by the demand for reliable area-averaged fluxes associated with natural landscapes this thesis investigates a relative new measurement technique known as the scintillation method. For homogeneous areas the surface fluxes can be derived with reasonable accuracy. However, fluxes

  5. Comparison of mesoscale model and tower measurements of surface fluxes during Winter Icing and Storms Program/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncley, S.P.; Dudhia, J.

    1994-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of the ability of the Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) mesoscale model (MM4) to determine surface fluxes to see if measured fluxes should be assimilated into model runs. Fluxes were compared from a high-resolution (5 km grid spacing) MM4 run during one day of the Winter Icing and Storms Programs/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (WISP/ARM) experiment (over NE Colorado in winter 1991) with direct flux measurements made from a tower over a representative site by a three-dimensional sonic anemometer and fast response temperature and humidity sensors. This tower was part of the NCAR Atmosphere-Surface Turbulent Exchange Research (ASTER) facility. Also, mean values were compared to check whether any differences were due to the model parameterization or model variables

  6. Uncertainties of Large-Scale Forcing Caused by Surface Turbulence Flux Measurements and the Impacts on Cloud Simulations at the ARM SGP Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S.; Xie, S.; Tang, Q.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Two types of instruments, the eddy correlation flux measurement system (ECOR) and the energy balance Bowen ratio system (EBBR), are used at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site to measure surface latent and sensible fluxes. ECOR and EBBR typically sample different land surface types, and the domain-mean surface fluxes derived from ECOR and EBBR are not always consistent. The uncertainties of the surface fluxes will have impacts on the derived large-scale forcing data and further affect the simulations of single-column models (SCM), cloud-resolving models (CRM) and large-eddy simulation models (LES), especially for the shallow-cumulus clouds which are mainly driven by surface forcing. This study aims to quantify the uncertainties of the large-scale forcing caused by surface turbulence flux measurements and investigate the impacts on cloud simulations using long-term observations from the ARM SGP site.

  7. Surface Flux Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Ran

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For many gasses and aerosols, dry deposition is an important sink of atmospheric mass. Dry deposition fluxes are also important sources of pollutants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The surface fluxes of some gases, such as ammonia, mercury, and certain volatile organic compounds, can be upward into the air as well as downward to the surface and therefore should be modeled as bi-directional fluxes. Model parameterizations of dry deposition in air quality models have been represented by simple electrical resistance analogs for almost 30 years. Uncertainties in surface flux modeling in global to mesoscale models are being slowly reduced as more field measurements provide constraints on parameterizations. However, at the same time, more chemical species are being added to surface flux models as air quality models are expanded to include more complex chemistry and are being applied to a wider array of environmental issues. Since surface flux measurements of many of these chemicals are still lacking, resistances are usually parameterized using simple scaling by water or lipid solubility and reactivity. Advances in recent years have included bi-directional flux algorithms that require a shift from pre-computation of deposition velocities to fully integrated surface flux calculations within air quality models. Improved modeling of the stomatal component of chemical surface fluxes has resulted from improved evapotranspiration modeling in land surface models and closer integration between meteorology and air quality models. Satellite-derived land use characterization and vegetation products and indices are improving model representation of spatial and temporal variations in surface flux processes. This review describes the current state of chemical dry deposition modeling, recent progress in bi-directional flux modeling, synergistic model development research with field measurements, and coupling with meteorological land surface models.

  8. Radiation flux measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corte, E.; Maitra, P.

    1977-01-01

    A radiation flux measuring device is described which employs a differential pair of transistors, the output of which is maintained constant, connected to a radiation detector. Means connected to the differential pair produce a signal representing the log of the a-c component of the radiation detector, thereby providing a signal representing the true root mean square logarithmic output. 3 claims, 2 figures

  9. Determination of Energy Fluxes Over Agricultural Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Argete

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available An energy budget was conducted over two kinds if surfaces: grass and corn canopy. The net radiative flux and the soil heat flux were directly measured while the latent and sensible heat flux were calculated from the vertical profiles if wet and dry-bulb temperature and wind speed. The crop storage flux was also estimated. Using the gradient or aerodynamic equations, the calculated fluxes when compared to the measured fluxes in the context of an energy budget gave an SEE = 63 Wm-2 over grass and SEE = 81 Wm-2 over corn canopy. The calculated fluxes compared reasonably well with those obtained using the Penman equations.For an energy budget research with limited instrumentation, the aerodynamic method performed satisfactorily in estimating the daytime fluxes, when atmospheric conditions are fully convective, but failed when conditions were stably stratified as during nighttime.

  10. The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA version 2017: a database for worldwide measured surface energy fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wild

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA is a database for the central storage of the worldwide measured energy fluxes at the Earth's surface, maintained at ETH Zurich (Switzerland. This paper documents the status of the GEBA version 2017 dataset, presents the new web interface and user access, and reviews the scientific impact that GEBA data had in various applications. GEBA has continuously been expanded and updated and contains in its 2017 version around 500 000 monthly mean entries of various surface energy balance components measured at 2500 locations. The database contains observations from 15 surface energy flux components, with the most widely measured quantity available in GEBA being the shortwave radiation incident at the Earth's surface (global radiation. Many of the historic records extend over several decades. GEBA contains monthly data from a variety of sources, namely from the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC in St. Petersburg, from national weather services, from different research networks (BSRN, ARM, SURFRAD, from peer-reviewed publications, project and data reports, and from personal communications. Quality checks are applied to test for gross errors in the dataset. GEBA has played a key role in various research applications, such as in the quantification of the global energy balance, in the discussion of the anomalous atmospheric shortwave absorption, and in the detection of multi-decadal variations in global radiation, known as global dimming and brightening. GEBA is further extensively used for the evaluation of climate models and satellite-derived surface flux products. On a more applied level, GEBA provides the basis for engineering applications in the context of solar power generation, water management, agricultural production and tourism. GEBA is publicly accessible through the internet via http://www.geba.ethz.ch. Supplementary data are available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.873078.

  11. Areal Measurements of Ozone, Water, and Heat Fluxes Over Land With Different Surface Complexity, Using Aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, Bruce B.

    2001-01-01

    Contemporary models addressing issues of air quality and/or atmospheric deposition continue to exploit air-surface exchange formulations originating from single-tower studies. In reality,these expressions describe situations that are rare in the real world - nearly flat and spatially homogeneous. There have been several theoretical suggestions about how to extend from single-point understanding to areal descriptions, but so far the capability to address the problem experimentally has been limited. In recent years, however, developments in sensing technology have permitted adaptation of eddy-correlation methods to low-flying aircraft in a far more cost-effective manner than previously. A series of field experiments has been conducted, ranging from flat farmland to rolling countryside, employing a recently modified research aircraft operated by the US NationalOceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The results demonstrate the complexity of the spatial heterogeneity question,especially for pollutants (ozone in particular). In general, the uncertainty associated with the adoption of any single-point formulation when describing areal averages is likely to be in the range 10% to 40%. In the case of sensible and latent heat fluxes, the overall behavior is controlled by the amount of energy available. For pollutant deposition, there is no constraint equivalent to the net radiation limitation on convective heat exchange. Consequently, dry deposition rates and air-surface exchange of trace gases in general are especially vulnerable to errors in spatial extrapolation. The results indicate that the susceptibility of dry deposition formulations to terrain complexity depends on the deposition velocity itself. For readily transferred pollutants (such as HNO 3 ), a factor of two error could be involved

  12. Characterizing Surface Energy Budget Components in Urban Regions Using Combination of Flux Tower Observations and Satellite Remote Sensing Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; Vant-hull, B.; Ramamurthy, P.; Blake, R.; Prakash, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    Urban and built regions because of their lack of surface moisture and their surface impermeability significantly perform differently in surface energy budget than natural and non-urban regions. Characterizing the effect and the response of each surface type in the cities can help to increase our understanding of climate, anthropogenic heat, and urban heat islands. Both ground observations and remote sensing observations are important when the extent of the heat energy balance components in big cities is targeted. This is study aims to provide a novel approach to use ground observations and map the maxima and minima air temperature in New York City using satellite measurements. Complete energy balance stations are installed over distinct materials such as concrete, asphalt, and rooftops. The footprint of these stations is restricted to the individual materials. The energy balance stations monitor the sensible and latent heat fluxes through eddy covariance method. To account for the incoming and outgoing radiation, a 4-component radiometer is used that can observe both incoming and outgoing longwave and shortwave radiation. Moreover, satellite observations from Landsat 8 are utilized to classify the city surfaces to distinct defined surfaces where ground observations were performed. The mapped temperatures will be linked to MODIS surface temperatures to develop a model that can downscale MODIS skin temperatures to fine resolution air temperature over urban regions. The results are compared with ground observations, which they reveal a great potential of using synergetic use of flux tower observations and satellite measurement to study urban surface energy budget. The results of this study can enhance our understanding about urban heat islands as well as climate studies and their effects on the environment.

  13. A simple mathematical procedure to estimate heat flux in machining using measured surface temperature with infrared laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocine Mzad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several techniques have been developed over time for the measurement of heat and the temperatures generated in various manufacturing processes and tribological applications. Each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. The appropriate technique for temperature measurement depends on the application under consideration as well as the available tools for measurement. This paper presents a procedure for a simple and accurate determination of the time-varying heat flux at the workpiece–tool interface of three different metals under known cutting conditions. A portable infrared thermometer is used for surface temperature measurements. A spline smoothing interpolation of the surface temperature history enables to determine the local heat flux produced during stock removal. The measured temperature is represented by a third-order spline approximation. Nonetheless, the accuracy of polynomial interpolation depends on how close are the interpolated points; an increase in degree cannot be used to increase the accuracy. Although the data analysis is relatively complicated, the computing time is very small.

  14. Regional CO2 and latent heat surface fluxes in the Southern Great Plains: Measurements, modeling, and scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, W. J.; Biraud, S.C.; Torn, M.S.; Fischer, M.L.; Billesbach, D.P.; Berry, J.A.

    2009-08-15

    Characterizing net ecosystem exchanges (NEE) of CO{sub 2} and sensible and latent heat fluxes in heterogeneous landscapes is difficult, yet critical given expected changes in climate and land use. We report here a measurement and modeling study designed to improve our understanding of surface to atmosphere gas exchanges under very heterogeneous land cover in the mostly agricultural U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP). We combined three years of site-level, eddy covariance measurements in several of the dominant land cover types with regional-scale climate data from the distributed Mesonet stations and Next Generation Weather Radar precipitation measurements to calibrate a land surface model of trace gas and energy exchanges (isotope-enabled land surface model (ISOLSM)). Yearly variations in vegetation cover distributions were estimated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer normalized difference vegetation index and compared to regional and subregional vegetation cover type estimates from the U.S. Department of Agriculture census. We first applied ISOLSM at a 250 m spatial scale to account for vegetation cover type and leaf area variations that occur on hundred meter scales. Because of computational constraints, we developed a subsampling scheme within 10 km 'macrocells' to perform these high-resolution simulations. We estimate that the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility SGP region net CO{sub 2} exchange with the local atmosphere was -240, -340, and -270 gC m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} (positive toward the atmosphere) in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively, with large seasonal variations. We also performed simulations using two scaling approaches at resolutions of 10, 30, 60, and 90 km. The scaling approach applied in current land surface models led to regional NEE biases of up to 50 and 20% in weekly and annual estimates, respectively. An important factor in causing these biases was the complex leaf area index (LAI) distribution

  15. Surface fluxes in heterogeneous landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay Hasager, C.

    1997-01-01

    The surface fluxes in homogeneous landscapes are calculated by similarity scaling principles. The methodology is well establish. In heterogeneous landscapes with spatial changes in the micro scale range, i e from 100 m to 10 km, advective effects are significant. The present work focus on these effects in an agricultural countryside typical for the midlatitudes. Meteorological and satellite data from a highly heterogeneous landscape in the Rhine Valley, Germany was collected in the large-scale field experiment TRACT (Transport of pollutants over complex terrain) in 1992. Classified satellite images, Landsat TM and ERS SAR, are used as basis for roughness maps. The roughnesses were measured at meteorological masts in the various cover classes and assigned pixel by pixel to the images. The roughness maps are aggregated, i e spatially averaged, into so-called effective roughness lengths. This calculation is performed by a micro scale aggregation model. The model solves the linearized atmospheric flow equations by a numerical (Fast Fourier Transform) method. This model also calculate maps of friction velocity and momentum flux pixel wise in heterogeneous landscapes. It is indicated how the aggregation methodology can be used to calculate the heat fluxes based on the relevant satellite data i e temperature and soil moisture information. (au) 10 tabs., 49 ills., 223 refs.

  16. Measuring wintertime surface fluxes at the Tiksi observatory in northern Sakha (Yakutia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurila, Thomas; Aurela, Mika; Hatakka, Juha; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Asmi, Eija; Kondratyev, Vladimir; Ivakhov, Victor; Reshetnikov, Alexander; Makshtas, Alexander; Uttal, Taneil

    2013-04-01

    Tiksi hydrometeorological observatory has been equipped by new instrumentation for meteorology, turbulence, trace gas and aerosols studies as a joint effort by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Roshydromet (Yakutian Hydrometeorological Service, Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute and Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory units) and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The site is close to the coast of the Laptev Sea on deep permafrost soil with low tundra vegetation and patches of arctic semidesert. Near-by terrain is gently sloping to the south. Further away they are hills in the NE- and W-directions. Turbulence (3-d wind components and sonic temperature) was measured at 10 Hz by USA-1Scientific sonic by Metek, Gmbh. Concentrations of CO2 and H2O were measured by LiCor LI7000 analyzer and CH4 concentrations by Los Gatos RMT200 analyzer. Measurement height was 2.5m. Active layer freeze up took place in extended October period. Methane and carbon dioxide emissions were observed up to early December. Emissions to the atmosphere were enhanced by turbulence created by high wind speeds. Midwinter conditions existed from the end of October to the beginning of April based on rather constant negative net radiation between 20-30 Wm-2 that cools the surface and forms highly stable stratification. Weather conditions are characterized by either low or high wind speed modes. Roughly half of the time wind speed was low, below 2 ms-1. Then, katabatic winds were common and air temperature was between -40..-30°C. High wind speeds, up to 24 ms-1, were observed during synoptic disturbances which lasted typically a few days. In this presentation we will show climatology of surface layer characteristics in late autumn and winter. We will show frequency of well-developed turbulence vs. katabatic low wind speed conditions and related atmospheric stability. The effect of wind speed on methane and carbon dioxide emissions during the freezing period will be

  17. Production of a faithful realistic phantom to human head and thermal neutron flux measurement on the brain surface. Cooperative research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Kumada, Hiroaki; Kishi, Toshiaki; Torii, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Junzo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Endo, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira; Nose, Tadao [Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Thermal neutron flux is determined using the gold wires in current BNCT irradiation, so evaluation of arbitrary points after the irradiation is limited in the quantity of these detectors. In order to make up for the weakness, dose estimation of a patient is simulated by a computational dose calculation supporting system. In another way without computer simulation, a medical irradiation condition can be replicate experimentally using of realistic phantom which was produced from CT images by rapid prototyping technique. This phantom was irradiated at a same JRR-4 neutron beam as clinical irradiation condition of the patient and the thermal neutron distribution on the brain surface was measured in detail. This experimental evaluation technique using a realistic phantom is applicable to in vitro cell irradiation experiments for radiation biological effects as well as in-phantom experiments for dosimetry under the nearly medical irradiation condition of patient. (author)

  18. Production of a faithful realistic phantom to human head and thermal neutron flux measurement on the brain surface. Cooperative research

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, K; Kishi, T; Kumada, H; Matsumura, A; Nose, T; Torii, Y; Uchiyama, J; Yamamoto, T

    2002-01-01

    Thermal neutron flux is determined using the gold wires in current BNCT irradiation, so evaluation of arbitrary points after the irradiation is limited in the quantity of these detectors. In order to make up for the weakness, dose estimation of a patient is simulated by a computational dose calculation supporting system. In another way without computer simulation, a medical irradiation condition can be replicate experimentally using of realistic phantom which was produced from CT images by rapid prototyping technique. This phantom was irradiated at a same JRR-4 neutron beam as clinical irradiation condition of the patient and the thermal neutron distribution on the brain surface was measured in detail. This experimental evaluation technique using a realistic phantom is applicable to in vitro cell irradiation experiments for radiation biological effects as well as in-phantom experiments for dosimetry under the nearly medical irradiation condition of patient.

  19. Determination of transient temperature and heat flux on the surface of a reactor control rod based on temperature measurements at the interior points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebula, Artur; Taler, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents heat transfer calculation results concerning a control rod of nuclear power plant. Apart from numerical calculation results, experimental heat transfer measurements of the control rod model are also presented. The control rod that is the object of interest is surrounded by a mixing region of hot and cold streams and, as a consequence, is subjected to thermal fluctuations. The paper describes a method based on the solution of the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP) for determining heat flux on the outer surface of the rod. Numerical tests were conducted to validate the method by comparison of the results with the time changes of surface temperature and heat flux which were obtained from the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the mixing process. A measuring instrument was designed to measure the heat flux at the outer surface of the control rod model. In addition, the principle of operation and construction of heat flux meter is presented in detail. -- Highlights: • Temperature and heat flux estimation during cooling of control rod are presented. • The inverse technique is based on the space marching method. • The instrument for surface heat flux measurement was manufactured and tested. • CFD simulations were used to validate the developed inverse technique. • Actual data were used to demonstrate practical applicability of the method

  20. Surface renewal method for estimating sensible heat flux | Mengistu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For short canopies, latent energy flux may be estimated using a shortened surface energy balance from measurements of sensible and soil heat flux and the net irradiance at the surface. The surface renewal (SR) method for estimating sensible heat, latent energy, and other scalar fluxes has the advantage over other ...

  1. Pyrolytic graphite gauge for measuring heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Robert C. (Inventor); Ewing, Mark E. (Inventor); Shipley, John L. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A gauge for measuring heat flux, especially heat flux encountered in a high temperature environment, is provided. The gauge includes at least one thermocouple and an anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body that covers at least part of, and optionally encases the thermocouple. Heat flux is incident on the anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body by arranging the gauge so that the gauge surface on which convective and radiative fluxes are incident is perpendicular to the basal planes of the pyrolytic graphite. The conductivity of the pyrolytic graphite permits energy, transferred into the pyrolytic graphite body in the form of heat flux on the incident (or facing) surface, to be quickly distributed through the entire pyrolytic graphite body, resulting in small substantially instantaneous temperature gradients. Temperature changes to the body can thereby be measured by the thermocouple, and reduced to quantify the heat flux incident to the body.

  2. Reactor neutron flux measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okutani, Yasushi; Hayakawa, Toshifumi.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a device for displaying an approximate neutron flux distribution to recognize the neutron flux distribution of the whole reactor in a short period of time. The device of the present invention displays, the results of measurement for neutron fluxes collected by a data collecting section on every results of the measurements at measuring points situating at horizontally identical positions of the reactor core. In addition, every results of the measurements at the measuring points situating at the identical height in the reactor core are accumulated, and the results of the integration are graphically displayed. With such procedures, the neutron flux distribution in the entire reactor is approximately displayed. Existent devices could not recognize the neutron flux distribution of the entire reactor at a glance and it took much time for the recognition. The device of the present invention can recognize the neutron flux distribution of the entire reactor in a short period of time. (I.S.)

  3. An automated analyzer to measure surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of water soluble inorganic aerosol compounds and reactive trace gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rick M; Trebs, Ivonne; Otjes, René; Jongejan, Piet A C; Ten Brink, Harry; Phillips, Gavin; Kortner, Michael; Meixner, Franz X; Nemitz, Eiko

    2009-03-01

    Here, we present a new automated instrument for semicontinuous gradient measurements of water-soluble reactive trace gas species (NH3, HNO3, HONO, HCl, and SO2) and their related aerosol compounds (NH4+, NO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-)). Gas and aerosol samples are collected simultaneously at two heights using rotating wet-annular denuders and steam-jet aerosol collectors, respectively. Online (real-time) analysis using ion chromatography (IC) for anions and flow injection analysis (FIA) for NH4+ and NH3 provide a half-hourly averaged gas and aerosol gradients within each hour. Through the use of syringe pumps, IC preconcentration columns, and high-quality purified water, the system achieves detection limits (3sigma-definition) under field conditions of typically: 136/207,135/114, 29/ 22,119/92, and 189/159 ng m(-3) for NH3/NH4+, HNO3/NO3-, HONO/ NO2-, HCl/Cl- and SO2/SO4(2-), respectively. The instrument demonstrates very good linearity and accuracy for liquid and selected gas phase calibrations over typical ambient concentration ranges. As shown by examples from field experiments, the instrument provides sufficient precision (3-9%), even at low ambient concentrations, to resolve vertical gradients and calculate surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes undertypical meteorological conditions of the atmospheric surface layer using the aerodynamic gradient technique.

  4. A COUPLED LAND-SURFACE AND DRY DEPOSITION MODEL AND COMPARISON TO FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF SURFACE HEAT, MOISTURE, AND OZONE FLUXES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have developed a coupled land-surface and dry deposition model for realistic treatment of surface fluxes of heat, moisture, and chemical dry deposition within a comprehensive air quality modeling system. A new land-surface model (LSM) with explicit treatment of soil moisture...

  5. Carbon fluxes of surfaces vs. ecosystems. Advantages of measuring eddy covariance and soil respiration simultaneously in dry grassland ecosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagy, Z.; Pintér, K.; Pavelka, Marian; Dařenová, Eva; Balogh, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 9 (2011), s. 2523-2534 ISSN 1726-4170 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : carbon fluxes * ecosystems * grassland ecoystems * measuring eddy covariance * soil respiration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.859, year: 2011

  6. 234Th-based measurements of particle flux in surface water of the Bransfield Strait, western Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, S.B.; National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Sevastopol, Autonomous Republic of Crimea

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of particulate and dissolved 234 Th were carried out in March 2002 in the Bransfield Strait located between the Antarctic Peninsula and the South Shetland Islands. The 234 Th/ 238 U disequilibrium found in the upper water column has allowed evaluation of downward particle fluxes across a frontal zone, which divides water masses coming from the Bellingshausen Sea and the Weddell Sea. The highest particle flux has been found in this mixing zone, where it was 3-5 times greater than in the adjacent waters. Total mass fluxes in the upper 150-m water column were estimated as about 2.2 g m -2 day -1 in the eastern part of the Strait and 3.1 g m -2 day -1 in the western area. (author)

  7. Comparison between dry deposition fluxes measured with water and solid surfaces, and estimated by an inferential model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, R.; Consuma, A.; Polesello, S.; Tartari, G. [Istituto di Ricerca sulle Acque, Brugherio, MI (Italy)

    2000-08-01

    The quantification of the dry atmospheric input to natural surfaces is currently a complete task. In this study a water surface sampler (Das) was used contemporary to conventional solid surface samplers (wet and dry and bulk) to monitor the dry deposition in a densely inhabited and industrialised area. The dry contribution to the total deposition was 33-56% for sulfate, 11-39% for ammonium and 18-28% for nitrate ion, depending on the measurement technique. Among the three samplers, the Das one was the most efficient to collect sulfate, ammonium and nitrate. The comparison of the seasonal trends showed that the dry collector using a polyethylene surface, collected mainly aerosol particles of ammonium sulfate, while the aqueous surface of Das sampler was able to sample also the gaseous form of the pollutants. Sulfate and nitrate flux values determined from direct measurements were also compared with those obtained by a resistance model. The sulphate measured values fitted quite well with those predicted from the model showing similar seasonal variations. The quantitative differences observed in winter could be due to an increase in the acidity of water, used as collecting medium, which lowered the solubility of gaseous sulphur dioxide. In order to investigate the effect of water acidity on the deposition on a water body, a series of experiments were carried out. [Italian] La quantificazione della deposizione secca costituisce, ancora oggi, un'operazione complessa. Tre tipi di campionatori, rispettivamente con una superficie acquosa (Das) e con superfici solide in polietilene (wet and dry e bulk) sono stati impiegati per misurare la deposizione secca in un'area densamente antropizzata. Il contributo della deposizione secca alla deposizione totale e' risultato compreso tra 33 e 56% per i solfati, tra 11 e 39% per l'ammonio e tra 18 e il 28% per i nitrati, secondo la tecnica di campionamento. Il campionatore Das si e' dimostrato il piu

  8. Aggregation of energy and water surface fluxes at the agricultural landscape scale by combining scintillometer measurements, remote sensing data and SVAT modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brut, A.; Rivalland, V.; Coudert, B.; Solignac, P. A.; Cote, J.; Keravec, P.; Merlin, O.; Ceschia, E.

    2012-04-01

    The Earth's surface shows variability at the landscape scale (1-10 km) and this has consequences on the water and energy surface fluxes intensity and spatial distribution. In this context, the question of the measurement representativeness is posed. Similarly, the simulation of these surface fluxes is depending on the models parameters distribution whether they are considered at the crop scale or the landscape scale. The purpose of this work is to present a study combining 1) measurements from an eXtra Large Aperture Scintillometer (XLAS), 2) simulations with a calibrated Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) model and 3) fluxes estimates based on a simple Equation Balance model and high resolution remote sensing data, in order to better understand the aggregation processes of surface energy fluxes over agricultural landscapes. In the framework of the SudOuest project managed by CESBIO and the CarboEurope Regional Experiment (CERES 2007), a comprehensive instrumental set-up has been installed over an agricultural area in Southwestern France, near Toulouse. It included an optical scintillometer integrating sensible heat flux over a 10 km transect, between June and September 2007; and two instrumented sites which are part of the GHGEurope network. On these sites, micrometeorological (mass and energy fluxes), vegetation and other biophysical parameters are continuously collected since the year 2005. In this study, we first present the flux computation and data validation from the XLAS measurements, and we perform a quick analysis of the surface heat fluxes related to both the landscape and the local flux datasets from local instrumented fields. Then, a two energy sources SVAT model (SEtHyS french acronym for sol moisture monitoring) has been calibrated over the 2 agricultural experimental sites for the main classes of vegetation and soil types of the studied area. Different aggregation configurations have been tested with the simulated fluxes, either using a

  9. Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, DR

    2011-01-31

    The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration.

  10. Notes on neutron flux measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcala Ruiz, F.

    1984-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to get an useful guide to carry out topical neutron flux measurements. Although the foil activation technique is used in the majority of the cases, other techniques, such as those based on fission chambers and self-powered neutron detectors, are also shown. Special interest is given to the description and application of corrections on the measurement of relative and absolute induced activities by several types of detectors (scintillators, G-M and gas proportional counters). The thermal arid epithermal neutron fluxes, as determined in this work, are conventional or effective (West cots fluxes), which are extensively used by the reactor experimentalists; however, we also give some expressions where they are related to the integrated neutron fluxes, which are used in neutron calculations. (Author) 16 refs

  11. Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration. The instruments used are: • a fast-response, three-dimensional (3D) wind sensor (sonic anemometer) to obtain the orthogonal wind components and the speed of sound (SOS) (used to derive the air temperature) • an open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to obtain the water vapor density and the CO2 concentration, and • an open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to obtain methane density and methane flux at one SGP EF and at the NSA CF. The ECOR systems are deployed at the locations where other methods for surface flux measurements (e.g., energy balance Bowen ratio [EBBR] systems) are difficult to employ, primarily at the north edge of a field of crops. A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system in SGP, NSA, Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes. The SEBS at one SGP and one NSA site also support upwelling and downwelling PAR measurements to qualify those two locations as Ameriflux sites.

  12. Determining Adequate Averaging Periods and Reference Coordinates for Eddy Covariance Measurements of Surface Heat and Water Vapor Fluxes over Mountainous Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ying Chen Ming-Hsu Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two coordinate rotation approaches (double and planar-fit rotations and no rotation, in association with averaging periods of 15 - 480 min, were applied to compute surface heat and water vapor fluxes using the eddy covariance approach. Measurements were conducted in an experimental watershed, the Lien-Hua-Chih (LHC watershed, located in central Taiwan. For no rotation and double rotation approaches, an adequate averaging period of 15 or 30 min was suggested for better energy closure and small variations on energy closure fractions. For the planar-fit rotation approach, an adequate averaging period of 60 or 120 min was recommended, and a typical averaging period of 30 min is not superior to that of 60 or 120 min in terms of better energy closure and small variations on energy closure fractions. The Ogive function analysis revealed that the energy closure was improved with the increase of averaging time by capturing sensible heat fluxes at low-frequency ranges during certain midday hours at LHC site. Seasonal variations of daily energy closure fractions, high in dry season and low in wet season, were found to be associated with the surface dryness and strength of turbulent development. The mismatching of flux footprint areas among flux sensors was suggested as the cause of larger CF variations during the dry seasons as that indicated by the footprint analysis showing scattered source areas. During the wet season, the underestimation of turbulent fluxes by EC observations at the LHC site was attributed to weak turbulence developments as the source area identified by the footprint analysis was closer to the flux tower than those scattered in dry season.

  13. The Validation of the GEWEX SRB Surface Shortwave Flux Data Products Using BSRN Measurements: A Systematic Quality Control, Production and Application Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Taiping; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Cox, Stephen J.; Mikovitz, J. Colleen; Hinkelman, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project has produced a 24.5-year continuous record of global shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at TOA and the Earth's surface from satellite measurements. The time span of the data is from July 1983 to December 2007, and the spatial resolution is 11 latitude11 longitude. The inputs of the latest version (Release 3.0) include the GEOS Version 4.0.3 meteorological information and cloud properties derived from ISCCP DX data. The SRB products are available on 3-hourly, 3-hourly-monthly, daily and monthly time scales. To assess the quality of the product, we extensively validated the SRB data against 5969 site-months of groundbased measurements from 52 Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) stations. This paper describes first the characteristics of the BSRN data and the GEWEX SRB data, the methodology for quality control and processing of the shortwave BSRN data, and then the systematic SRB-BSRN comparisons. It is found that, except for occasional extreme outliers as seen in scatter plots, the satellite-based surface radiation data generally agree very well with BSRN measurements. Specifically, the bias/RMS for the daily and monthly mean shortwave fluxes are, respectively, -3.6/35.5 and -5.2/23.3W1 m2 under all-sky conditions.

  14. Measuring Convective Mass Fluxes Over Tropical Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, David

    2017-04-01

    Deep convection forms the upward branches of all large-scale circulations in the tropics. Understanding what controls the form and intensity of vertical convective mass fluxes is thus key to understanding tropical weather and climate. These mass fluxes and the corresponding conditions supporting them have been measured by recent field programs (TPARC/TCS08, PREDICT, HS3) in tropical disturbances considered to be possible tropical storm precursors. In reality, this encompasses most strong convection in the tropics. The measurements were made with arrays of dropsondes deployed from high altitude. In some cases Doppler radar provided additional measurements. The results are in some ways surprising. Three factors were found to control the mass flux profiles, the strength of total surface heat fluxes, the column-integrated relative humidity, and the low to mid-tropospheric moist convective instability. The first two act as expected, with larger heat fluxes and higher humidity producing more precipitation and stronger lower tropospheric mass fluxes. However, unexpectedly, smaller (but still positive) convective instability produces more precipitation as well as more bottom-heavy convective mass flux profiles. Furthermore, the column humidity and the convective instability are anti-correlated, at least in the presence of strong convection. On spatial scales of a few hundred kilometers, the virtual temperature structure appears to be in dynamic balance with the pattern of potential vorticity. Since potential vorticity typically evolves on longer time scales than convection, the potential vorticity pattern plus the surface heat fluxes then become the immediate controlling factors for average convective properties. All measurements so far have taken place in regions with relatively flat sea surface temperature (SST) distributions. We are currently seeking funding for a measurement program in the tropical east Pacific, a region that exhibits strong SST gradients and

  15. Estimation of Surface Temperature and Heat Flux by Inverse Heat Transfer Methods Using Internal Temperatures Measured While Radiantly Heating a Carbon/Carbon Specimen up to 1920 F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Michelle; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Glass, David

    2015-01-01

    The ability to solve the heat conduction equation is needed when designing materials to be used on vehicles exposed to extremely high temperatures; e.g. vehicles used for atmospheric entry or hypersonic flight. When using test and flight data, computational methods such as finite difference schemes may be used to solve for both the direct heat conduction problem, i.e., solving between internal temperature measurements, and the inverse heat conduction problem, i.e., using the direct solution to march forward in space to the surface of the material to estimate both surface temperature and heat flux. The completed research first discusses the methods used in developing a computational code to solve both the direct and inverse heat transfer problems using one dimensional, centered, implicit finite volume schemes and one dimensional, centered, explicit space marching techniques. The developed code assumed the boundary conditions to be specified time varying temperatures and also considered temperature dependent thermal properties. The completed research then discusses the results of analyzing temperature data measured while radiantly heating a carbon/carbon specimen up to 1920 F. The temperature was measured using thermocouple (TC) plugs (small carbon/carbon material specimens) with four embedded TC plugs inserted into the larger carbon/carbon specimen. The purpose of analyzing the test data was to estimate the surface heat flux and temperature values from the internal temperature measurements using direct and inverse heat transfer methods, thus aiding in the thermal and structural design and analysis of high temperature vehicles.

  16. Mathematical Model for Localised and Surface Heat Flux of the Human Body Obtained from Measurements Performed with a Calorimetry Minisensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, Fabiola; Rodríguez de Rivera, Pedro Jesús; Rodríguez de Rivera, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    The accuracy of the direct and local measurements of the heat power dissipated by the surface of the human body, using a calorimetry minisensor, is directly related to the calibration rigor of the sensor and the correct interpretation of the experimental results. For this, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the body’s local heat dissipation. When the sensor is placed on the surface of the human body, the body reacts until a steady state is reached. We propose a mathematical model that represents the rate of heat flow at a given location on the surface of a human body by the sum of a series of exponentials: W(t) = A0 + ∑Aiexp(−t/τi). In this way, transient and steady states of heat dissipation can be interpreted. This hypothesis has been tested by simulating the operation of the sensor. At the steady state, the power detected in the measurement area (4 cm2) varies depending on the sensor’s thermostat temperature, as well as the physical state of the subject. For instance, for a thermostat temperature of 24 °C, this power can vary between 100–250 mW in a healthy adult. In the transient state, two exponentials are sufficient to represent this dissipation, with 3 and 70 s being the mean values of its time constants. PMID:29182567

  17. Mathematical Model for Localised and Surface Heat Flux of the Human Body Obtained from Measurements Performed with a Calorimetry Minisensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, Fabiola; Rodríguez de Rivera, Pedro Jesús; Rodríguez de Rivera, Miriam; Rodríguez de Rivera, Manuel

    2017-11-28

    The accuracy of the direct and local measurements of the heat power dissipated by the surface of the human body, using a calorimetry minisensor, is directly related to the calibration rigor of the sensor and the correct interpretation of the experimental results. For this, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the body's local heat dissipation. When the sensor is placed on the surface of the human body, the body reacts until a steady state is reached. We propose a mathematical model that represents the rate of heat flow at a given location on the surface of a human body by the sum of a series of exponentials: W ( t ) = A ₀ + ∑A i exp( -t / τ i ). In this way, transient and steady states of heat dissipation can be interpreted. This hypothesis has been tested by simulating the operation of the sensor. At the steady state, the power detected in the measurement area (4 cm²) varies depending on the sensor's thermostat temperature, as well as the physical state of the subject. For instance, for a thermostat temperature of 24 °C, this power can vary between 100-250 mW in a healthy adult. In the transient state, two exponentials are sufficient to represent this dissipation, with 3 and 70 s being the mean values of its time constants.

  18. Dis-aggregation of airborne flux measurements using footprint analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutjes, R.W.A.; Vellinga, O.S.; Gioli, B.; Miglietta, F.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft measurements of turbulent fluxes are generally being made with the objective to obtain an estimate of regional exchanges between land surface and atmosphere, to investigate the spatial variability of these fluxes, but also to learn something about the fluxes from some or all of the land

  19. Estimation of net surface radiation from eddy flux tower measurements using artificial neural network for cloudy skies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dangeti Venkata Mahalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate knowledge of net surface radiation (NSR is required to understand the soil-vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks. However, NSR is seldom measured due to the technical and economical limitations associated with direct measurements. An artificial neural network (ANN technique with Levenberg–Marquardt learning algorithm was used to estimate NSR for a tropical mangrove forest of Indian Sundarban with routinely measured meteorological variables. The root mean square error (RMSE, mean absolute error (MAE, modelling efficiency (ME, coefficient of residual mass (CRM and coefficient of determination (R2 between ANN estimated and measured NSR were 37 W m−2, 26 W m−2, 0.95, 0.017 and 0.97 respectively under all-weather conditions. Thus, the ANN estimated NSR values presented in this study are comparable to those reported in literature. Further, a detailed study on the estimated NSR for cloudy skies was also analysed. ANN estimated NSR values were compared with in situ measurements for cloudy days and non-cloudy days. The RMSE, MAE and CRM of the model decrease to half when considering the non-cloudy days. Thus, the results demonstrate that major source error in estimating NSR comes from the cloudy skies. Sensitivity of input variables to NSR was further analysed.

  20. Climate and vegetation controls on the surface water balance: Synthesis of evapotranspiration measured across a global network of flux towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher A.; Reichstein, Markus; Buchmann, Nina; Baldocchi, Dennis; Beer, Christian; Schwalm, Christopher; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hasler, Natalia; Bernhofer, Christian; Foken, Thomas; Papale, Dario; Schymanski, Stan; Schaefer, Kevin

    2012-06-01

    The Budyko framework elegantly reduces the complex spatial patterns of actual evapotranspiration and runoff to a general function of two variables: mean annual precipitation (MAP) and net radiation. While the methodology has first-order skill, departures from a globally averaged curve can be significant and may be usefully attributed to additional controls such as vegetation type. This paper explores the magnitude of such departures as detected from flux tower measurements of ecosystem-scale evapotranspiration, and investigates their attribution to site characteristics (biome, seasonal rainfall distribution, and frozen precipitation). The global synthesis (based on 167 sites with 764 tower-years) shows smooth transition from water-limited to energy-limited control, broadly consistent with catchment-scale relations and explaining 62% of the across site variation in evaporative index (the fraction of MAP consumed by evapotranspiration). Climate and vegetation types act as additional controls, combining to explain an additional 13% of the variation in evaporative index. Warm temperate winter wet sites (Mediterranean) exhibit a reduced evaporative index, 9% lower than the average value expected based on dryness index, implying elevated runoff. Seasonal hydrologic surplus explains a small but significant fraction of variance in departures of evaporative index from that expected for a given dryness index. Surprisingly, grasslands on average have a higher evaporative index than forested landscapes, with 9% more annual precipitation consumed by annual evapotranspiration compared to forests. In sum, the simple framework of supply- or demand-limited evapotranspiration is supported by global FLUXNET observations but climate type and vegetation type are seen to exert sizeable additional controls.

  1. Validating modeled turbulent heat fluxes across large freshwater surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, B. M.; Fujisaki-Manome, A.; Gronewold, A.; Anderson, E. J.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Blanken, P.; Spence, C.; Lenters, J. D.; Xiao, C.; Charusambot, U.

    2017-12-01

    Turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat are important physical processes that influence the energy and water budgets of the Great Lakes. Validation and improvement of bulk flux algorithms to simulate these turbulent heat fluxes are critical for accurate prediction of hydrodynamics, water levels, weather, and climate over the region. Here we consider five heat flux algorithms from several model systems; the Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model, the Weather Research and Forecasting model, and the Large Lake Thermodynamics Model, which are used in research and operational environments and concentrate on different aspects of the Great Lakes' physical system, but interface at the lake surface. The heat flux algorithms were isolated from each model and driven by meteorological data from over-lake stations in the Great Lakes Evaporation Network. The simulation results were compared with eddy covariance flux measurements at the same stations. All models show the capacity to the seasonal cycle of the turbulent heat fluxes. Overall, the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment algorithm in FVCOM has the best agreement with eddy covariance measurements. Simulations with the other four algorithms are overall improved by updating the parameterization of roughness length scales of temperature and humidity. Agreement between modelled and observed fluxes notably varied with geographical locations of the stations. For example, at the Long Point station in Lake Erie, observed fluxes are likely influenced by the upwind land surface while the simulations do not take account of the land surface influence, and therefore the agreement is worse in general.

  2. Strontium-90 induced squamous cell carcinoma of the gingiva: beta flux measurements from the mandible and teeth surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, N.J.; Swartz, L.; Spangler, W.L.; Book, S.A.; Chrisp, C.E.; Hines, H.H. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-two of 387 dogs exposed to 90 Sr in utero and by continuous ingestion to 540 days developed squamous cell carcinoma of the gingiva. Eleven of the 22 tumors were observed in dogs ingesting 12 μCi/day. No gingival tumors were observed in dogs ingesting less than 1.25 μCi/day, but 3 were observed at this level. The teeth of these animals acquire a 90 Sr burden which is not removed by skeletal remodeling. Thermoluminescent dosimetry was used to determine the beta radiation flux from teeth and bone into adjacent gingival tissue

  3. Coupling between SW monsoon-related surface and deep ocean processes as discerned from continuous particle flux measurements and correlated satellite data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rixen, T.; Haake, B.; Ittekkot, V.; Guptha, M.V.S.; Nair, R.R.; Schlussel, P.

    Particle flux data obtained by time series sediment traps deployed at water depths of approximately 3000 m in the western, central, and eastern Arabian Sea since 1986 were compared with wind speeds derived from measurements made by microwave...

  4. Annual Cycles of Surface Shortwave Radiative Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, Anne C.; Smith, G. Louis; Gupta, Shashi K.; Stackhouse, Paul W.

    2006-01-01

    The annual cycles of surface shortwave flux are investigated using the 8-yr dataset of the surface radiation budget (SRB) components for the period July 1983-June 1991. These components include the downward, upward, and net shortwave radiant fluxes at the earth's surface. The seasonal cycles are quantified in terms of principal components that describe the temporal variations and empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) that describe the spatial patterns. The major part of the variation is simply due to the variation of the insolation at the top of the atmosphere, especially for the first term, which describes 92.4% of the variance for the downward shortwave flux. However, for the second term, which describes 4.1% of the variance, the effect of clouds is quite important and the effect of clouds dominates the third term, which describes 2.4% of the variance. To a large degree the second and third terms are due to the response of clouds to the annual cycle of solar forcing. For net shortwave flux at the surface, similar variances are described by each term. The regional values of the EOFs are related to climate classes, thereby defining the range of annual cycles of shortwave radiation for each climate class.

  5. Neutron flux measurement by mobile detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verchain, M.

    1987-01-01

    Various incore instrumentation systems and their technological evolution are first reviewed. Then, for 1300 MWe PWR nuclear power plant, temperature and neutron flux measurement are described. Mobile fission chambers, with their large measuring range and accurate location allow a good knowledge of the core. Other incore measures are possible because of flux detector thimble tubes inserted in the reactor core [fr

  6. High-frequency pressure variations in the vicinity of a surface CO2 flux chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene S. Takle; James R. Brandle; R. A. Schmidt; Rick Garcia; Irina V. Litvina; William J. Massman; Xinhua Zhou; Geoffrey Doyle; Charles W. Rice

    2003-01-01

    We report measurements of 2Hz pressure fluctuations at and below the soil surface in the vicinity of a surface-based CO2 flux chamber. These measurements were part of a field experiment to examine the possible role of pressure pumping due to atmospheric pressure fluctuations on measurements of surface fluxes of CO2. Under the moderate wind speeds, warm temperatures,...

  7. Measurements of EUV coronal holes and open magnetic flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowder, C.; Qiu, J.; Leamon, R.; Liu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Coronal holes are regions on the Sun's surface that map the footprints of open magnetic field lines. We have developed an automated routine to detect and track boundaries of long-lived coronal holes using full-disk extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images obtained by SOHO/EIT, SDO/AIA, and STEREO/EUVI. We measure coronal hole areas and magnetic flux in these holes, and compare the measurements with calculations by the potential field source surface (PFSS) model. It is shown that, from 1996 through 2010, the total area of coronal holes measured with EIT images varies between 5% and 17% of the total solar surface area, and the total unsigned open flux varies between (2-5)× 10 22 Mx. The solar cycle dependence of these measurements is similar to the PFSS results, but the model yields larger hole areas and greater open flux than observed by EIT. The AIA/EUVI measurements from 2010-2013 show coronal hole area coverage of 5%-10% of the total surface area, with significant contribution from low latitudes, which is under-represented by EIT. AIA/EUVI have measured much enhanced open magnetic flux in the range of (2-4)× 10 22 Mx, which is about twice the flux measured by EIT, and matches with the PFSS calculated open flux, with discrepancies in the location and strength of coronal holes. A detailed comparison between the three measurements (by EIT, AIA-EUVI, and PFSS) indicates that coronal holes in low latitudes contribute significantly to the total open magnetic flux. These low-latitude coronal holes are not well measured with either the He I 10830 line in previous studies, or EIT EUV images; neither are they well captured by the static PFSS model. The enhanced observations from AIA/EUVI allow a more accurate measure of these low-latitude coronal holes and their contribution to open magnetic flux.

  8. Surface renewal analysis for estimating turbulent surface fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellvi, F.

    2009-01-01

    A decade ago, the need for a long-term surface monitoring was recognized to better understand the soil-vegetation-atmosphere scalar exchange and interaction processes. the AmeriFlux concept emerged in the IGBP workshop (La Thuile, IT, 1995). Continuous acquisition of surface fluxes for different species such as temperature, water vapour, CO x , halocarbon, ozone, etc.,) and momentum allows determination of the influence of local (canopy) exchanges, fossil fuel emission, large-scale biotic exchange on ambient concentrations which are crucial to take decisions for protecting natural environments and water resources, to develop new perspective for modern agriculture and forest management and to better understand the global climate change. (Author)

  9. Regional surface fluxes from satellite-derived surface temperatures (AVHRR) and radiosonde profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutsaert, Wilfried; Sugita, Michiaki

    1992-01-01

    Radiometric surface temperatures, derived from measurements by the AVHRR instrument aboard the NOAA-9 and the NOAA-11 polar orbiting satellites, were used in combination with wind velocity and temperature profiles measured by radiosondes, to calculate surface fluxes of sensible heat. The measurements were made during FIFE, the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment, in a hilly tall grass prairie area of northeastern Kansas. The method of calculation was based on turbulent similarity formulations for the atmospheric boundary layer. Good agreement (r = 0.7) was obtained with reference values of sensible heat flux, taken as arithmetric means of measurements with the Bowen ratio method at six ground stations. The values of evaporation (latent heat fluxes), derived from these sensible heat fluxes by means of the energy budget, were also in good agreement (r = 0.94) with the corresponding reference values from the ground stations.

  10. Surface fluxes of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O measured by the eddy correlation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurela, M.; Laurila, T. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Air pollution by ozone has been recognized as a regional problem of the first priority. The acute effects on plants have been documented across Europe, and experimental evidence for chronic and subtle effects is growing. To protect crops and trees UN-ECE has defined the concept of critical levels for ozone. The concept is, however, still developing, and new research findings are needed to improve its scientific basis. O{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} are both important greenhouse gases and their exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere is therefore a subject of growing interest. The eddy correlation technique is a new micrometeorological method to measure fluxes on the ecosystem scale. In this method the high-frequency fluctuating components of the vertical wind velocity and, for example, the concentration, are measured and correlated to give a direct measurement of the flux F{sub c} = w{sup `}c{sup `}, where the primes denote deviations from mean values. Perhaps the most difficult requirement in flux measurements with the eddy correlation technique is the need for fast-response sensors. The sampling should be done at a frequency no lower than 5 Hz. In addition general micro- meteorological requirements exist regarding statistical stationarity and horizontal homogeneity. Eddy correlation measurements can be used to study ozone deposition velocities and the net carbon balance within the related physiological processes of the ecosystem. In this study the turbulent fluxes of these gases were measured in Finland by this direct method above a forest for the first time. Fluxes were studied in a boreal Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest

  11. Surface energy budget and turbulent fluxes at Arctic terrestrial sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, Andrey; Persson, Ola; Uttal, Taneil; Konopleva-Akish, Elena; Crepinsek, Sara; Cox, Christopher; Fairall, Christopher; Makshtas, Alexander; Repina, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Determination of the surface energy budget (SEB) and all SEB components at the air-surface interface are required in a wide variety of applications including atmosphere-land/snow simulations and validation of the surface fluxes predicted by numerical models over different spatial and temporal scales. Here, comparisons of net surface energy budgets at two Arctic sites are made using long-term near-continuous measurements of hourly averaged surface fluxes (turbulent, radiation, and soil conduction). One site, Eureka (80.0 N; Nunavut, Canada), is located in complex topography near a fjord about 200 km from the Arctic Ocean. The other site, Tiksi (71.6 N; Russian East Siberia), is located on a relatively flat coastal plain less than 1 km from the shore of Tiksi Bay, a branch of the Arctic Ocean. We first analyzed diurnal and annual cycles of basic meteorological parameters and key SEB components at these locations. Although Eureka and Tiksi are located on different continents and at different latitudes, the annual course of the surface meteorology and SEB components are qualitatively similar. Surface energy balance closure is a formulation of the conservation of energy principle. Our direct measurements of energy balance for both Arctic sites show that the sum of the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes and the ground (conductive) heat flux systematically underestimate the net radiation by about 25-30%. This lack of energy balance closure is a fundamental and pervasive problem in micrometeorology. We discuss a variety of factors which may be responsible for the lack of SEB closure. In particular, various storage terms (e.g., air column energy storage due to radiative and/or sensible heat flux divergence, ground heat storage above the soil flux plate, energy used in photosynthesis, canopy biomass heat storage). For example, our observations show that the photosynthesis storage term is relatively small (about 1-2% of the net radiation), but about 8-12% of the

  12. Area-averaged evapotranspiration over a heterogeneous land surface: aggregation of multi-point EC flux measurements with a high-resolution land-cover map and footprint analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feinan; Wang, Weizhen; Wang, Jiemin; Xu, Ziwei; Qi, Yuan; Wu, Yueru

    2017-08-01

    The determination of area-averaged evapotranspiration (ET) at the satellite pixel scale/model grid scale over a heterogeneous land surface plays a significant role in developing and improving the parameterization schemes of the remote sensing based ET estimation models and general hydro-meteorological models. The Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) flux matrix provided a unique opportunity to build an aggregation scheme for area-averaged fluxes. On the basis of the HiWATER flux matrix dataset and high-resolution land-cover map, this study focused on estimating the area-averaged ET over a heterogeneous landscape with footprint analysis and multivariate regression. The procedure is as follows. Firstly, quality control and uncertainty estimation for the data of the flux matrix, including 17 eddy-covariance (EC) sites and four groups of large-aperture scintillometers (LASs), were carefully done. Secondly, the representativeness of each EC site was quantitatively evaluated; footprint analysis was also performed for each LAS path. Thirdly, based on the high-resolution land-cover map derived from aircraft remote sensing, a flux aggregation method was established combining footprint analysis and multiple-linear regression. Then, the area-averaged sensible heat fluxes obtained from the EC flux matrix were validated by the LAS measurements. Finally, the area-averaged ET of the kernel experimental area of HiWATER was estimated. Compared with the formerly used and rather simple approaches, such as the arithmetic average and area-weighted methods, the present scheme is not only with a much better database, but also has a solid grounding in physics and mathematics in the integration of area-averaged fluxes over a heterogeneous surface. Results from this study, both instantaneous and daily ET at the satellite pixel scale, can be used for the validation of relevant remote sensing models and land surface process models. Furthermore, this work will be

  13. Estimating surface fluxes using eddy covariance and numerical ogive optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievers, J.; Papakyriakou, T.; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    2015-01-01

    Estimating representative surface fluxes using eddy covariance leads invariably to questions concerning inclusion or exclusion of low-frequency flux contributions. For studies where fluxes are linked to local physical parameters and up-scaled through numerical modelling efforts, low......-frequency contributions interfere with our ability to isolate local biogeochemical processes of interest, as represented by turbulent fluxes. No method currently exists to disentangle low-frequency contributions on flux estimates. Here, we present a novel comprehensive numerical scheme to identify and separate out low......-frequency contributions to vertical turbulent surface fluxes. For high flux rates (|Sensible heat flux| > 40Wm-2, |latent heat flux|> 20Wm-2 and |CO2 flux|> 100 mmolm-2 d-1/ we found that the average relative difference between fluxes estimated by ogive optimization and the conventional method was low (5–20 %) suggesting...

  14. Decadal Changes in Surface Radiative Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, M.

    2009-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests that radiative fluxes incident at the Earth surface are not stable over time but undergo significant changes on decadal timescales. This is not only found in the thermal spectral range, where an increase in the downwelling flux is expected with the increasing greenhouse effect, but also in the solar range. Observations suggest that surface solar radiation, after decades of decline ("global dimming"), reversed into a "brightening" since the mid-1980s at widespread locations. This presentation gives an update on recent investigations related to the decadal variations in these fluxes, based on both observational and modeling approaches. Updated observational data, archived at the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) at ETH Zurich, suggest a continuation of surface solar brightening beyond the year 2000 at numerous locations, yet less pronounced and coherent than during the 1990s, with more regions with no clear changes or declines. Current global climate models as used in the IPCC-AR4 report typically do not reproduce the observed decadal variations to their full extent. Modeling attempts to improve this situation are under way at ETH, based on a global climate model which includes a sophisticated interactive treatment of aerosol and cloud microphysics (ECHAM5-HAM). Further the impact of the decadal changes in surface radiative forcings on different aspects of the global climate system and climate change is discussed, such as 20th century day- and nighttime warming, evapotranspiration changes and the varying intensity of the hydrological cycle as well as the terrestrial carbon cycle. Selected related references: Wild, M., and Co-authors, 2005: From dimming to brightening: Decadal changes in solar radiation at the Earth's surface. Science, 308, 847-850 Wild, M., 2007: Decadal changes in surface radiative fluxes and their importance in the context of global climate change, in: Climate Variability and Extremes during the Past 100 years, Advances

  15. Comparison of surface energy fluxes with satellite-derived surface energy flux estimates from a shrub-steppe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, Randy R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This thesis relates the components of the surface energy balance (i.e., net radiation, sensible and latent heat flux densities, soil heat flow) to remotely sensed data for native vegetation in a semi-arid environment. Thematic mapper data from Landsat 4 and 5 were used to estimate net radiation, sensible heat flux (H), and vegetation amount. Several sources of ground truth were employed. They included soil water balance using the neutron thermalization method and weighing lysimeters, and the measurement of energy fluxes with the Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) technique. Sensible and latent heat flux were measured at four sites on the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site using a weighing lysimeter and/or BREB stations. The objective was to calibrate an aerodynamic transport equation that related H to radiant surface temperature. The transport equation was then used with Landsat thermal data to generate estimates of H and compare these estimates against H values obtained with BREB/lysimeters at the time of overflight. Landsat and surface meteorologic data were used to estimate the radiation budget terms at the surface. Landsat estimates of short-wave radiation reflected from the surface correlate well with reflected radiation measured using inverted Eppley pyranometers. Correlation of net radiation estimates determined from satellite data, pyranometer, air temperature, and vapor pressure compared to net radiometer values obtained at time of overflight were excellent for a single image, but decrease for multiple images. Soil heat flux, GT, is a major component of the energy balance in arid systems and G{sub T} generally decreases as vegetation cover increases. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values generated from Landsat thermatic mapper data were representative of field observations of the presence of green vegetation, but it was not possible to determine a single relationship between NDVI and GT for all sites.

  16. Comparison of surface energy fluxes with satellite-derived surface energy flux estimates from a shrub-steppe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkham, R.R.

    1993-12-01

    This thesis relates the components of the surface energy balance (i.e., net radiation, sensible and latent heat flux densities, soil heat flow) to remotely sensed data for native vegetation in a semi-arid environment. Thematic mapper data from Landsat 4 and 5 were used to estimate net radiation, sensible heat flux (H), and vegetation amount. Several sources of ground truth were employed. They included soil water balance using the neutron thermalization method and weighing lysimeters, and the measurement of energy fluxes with the Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) technique. Sensible and latent heat flux were measured at four sites on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site using a weighing lysimeter and/or BREB stations. The objective was to calibrate an aerodynamic transport equation that related H to radiant surface temperature. The transport equation was then used with Landsat thermal data to generate estimates of H and compare these estimates against H values obtained with BREB/lysimeters at the time of overflight. Landsat and surface meteorologic data were used to estimate the radiation budget terms at the surface. Landsat estimates of short-wave radiation reflected from the surface correlate well with reflected radiation measured using inverted Eppley pyranometers. Correlation of net radiation estimates determined from satellite data, pyranometer, air temperature, and vapor pressure compared to net radiometer values obtained at time of overflight were excellent for a single image, but decrease for multiple images. Soil heat flux, G T , is a major component of the energy balance in arid systems and G T generally decreases as vegetation cover increases. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values generated from Landsat thermatic mapper data were representative of field observations of the presence of green vegetation, but it was not possible to determine a single relationship between NDVI and G T for all sites

  17. Turbulent Fogwater Flux Measurements Above A Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkard, R.; Eugster, W.; Buetzberger, P.; Siegwolf, R.

    Many forest ecosystems in elevated regions receive a significant fraction of their wa- ter and nutrient input by the interception of fogwater. Recently, several studies have demonstrated the suitability of the eddy covariance technique for the direct measure- ment of turbulent liquid water fluxes. Since summer 2001 a fogwater flux measure- ment equipment has been running at a montane site above a mixed forest canopy in Switzerland. The measurement equipment consists of a high-speed size-resolving droplet spectrometer and a three-dimensional ultrasonic anemometer. The chemical composition of the fogwater was determined from samples collected with a modified Caltech active strand collector. The deposition of nutrients by fog (occult deposition) was calculated by multiplying the total fogwater flux (total of measured turbulent and calculated gravitational flux) during each fog event by the ionic concentrations found in the collected fogwater. Several uncertainties still exist as far as the accuracy of the measurements is con- cerned. Although there is no universal statistical approach for testing the quality of the liquid water flux data directly, results of independent data quality checks of the two time series involved in the flux computation and accordingly the two instruments (ultrasonic anemometer and the droplet spectrometer) are presented. Within the measurement period, over 80 fog events with a duration longer than 2.5 hours were analyzed. An enormous physical and chemical heterogeneity among these fog events was found. We assume that some of this heterogeneity is due to the fact that fog or cloud droplets are not conservative entities: the turbulent flux of fog droplets, which can be referred to as the liquid water flux, is affected by phase change processes and coagulation. The measured coexistence of upward fluxes of small fog droplets (di- ameter < 10 µm) with the downward transport of larger droplets indicates the influ- ence of such processes. With the

  18. Apparatus for measuring low thermal fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranovitch, R.; Warnery, M.

    1972-01-01

    Device for the measurement of slight wall heat fluxes, made up of a metallic contact plate combined with a shaft; temperature measurement elements are spaced along the shaft which is kept at a cold adjustable reference temperature lower than that of the walls; heat insulation is provided for the exposed part of the plate and for the shaft [fr

  19. Parameter optimization for surface flux transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitbread, T.; Yeates, A. R.; Muñoz-Jaramillo, A.; Petrie, G. J. D.

    2017-11-01

    Accurate prediction of solar activity calls for precise calibration of solar cycle models. Consequently we aim to find optimal parameters for models which describe the physical processes on the solar surface, which in turn act as proxies for what occurs in the interior and provide source terms for coronal models. We use a genetic algorithm to optimize surface flux transport models using National Solar Observatory (NSO) magnetogram data for Solar Cycle 23. This is applied to both a 1D model that inserts new magnetic flux in the form of idealized bipolar magnetic regions, and also to a 2D model that assimilates specific shapes of real active regions. The genetic algorithm searches for parameter sets (meridional flow speed and profile, supergranular diffusivity, initial magnetic field, and radial decay time) that produce the best fit between observed and simulated butterfly diagrams, weighted by a latitude-dependent error structure which reflects uncertainty in observations. Due to the easily adaptable nature of the 2D model, the optimization process is repeated for Cycles 21, 22, and 24 in order to analyse cycle-to-cycle variation of the optimal solution. We find that the ranges and optimal solutions for the various regimes are in reasonable agreement with results from the literature, both theoretical and observational. The optimal meridional flow profiles for each regime are almost entirely within observational bounds determined by magnetic feature tracking, with the 2D model being able to accommodate the mean observed profile more successfully. Differences between models appear to be important in deciding values for the diffusive and decay terms. In like fashion, differences in the behaviours of different solar cycles lead to contrasts in parameters defining the meridional flow and initial field strength.

  20. Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalczo, John T.; Simpson, Marc L.; McElhaney, Stephanie A.

    1994-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination.

  1. Neutron flux measurement utilizing Campbell technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropik, M.

    2000-01-01

    Application of the Campbell technique for the neutron flux measurement is described in the contribution. This technique utilizes the AC component (noise) of a neutron chamber signal rather than a usually used DC component. The Campbell theorem, originally discovered to describe noise behaviour of valves, explains that the root mean square of the AC component of the chamber signal is proportional to the neutron flux (reactor power). The quadratic dependence of the reactor power on the root mean square value usually permits to accomplish the whole current power range of the neutron flux measurement by only one channel. Further advantage of the Campbell technique is that large pulses of the response to neutrons are favoured over small pulses of the response to gamma rays in the ratio of their mean square charge transfer and thus, the Campbell technique provides an excellent gamma rays discrimination in the current operational range of a neutron chamber. The neutron flux measurement channel using state of the art components was designed and put into operation. Its linearity, accuracy, dynamic range, time response and gamma discrimination were tested on the VR-1 nuclear reactor in Prague, and behaviour under high neutron flux (accident conditions) was tested on the TRIGA nuclear reactor in Vienna. (author)

  2. Atmosphere–Surface Fluxes of CO2 using Spectral Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    2010-01-01

    Different flux estimation techniques are compared here in order to evaluate air–sea exchange measurement methods used on moving platforms. Techniques using power spectra and cospectra to estimate fluxes are presented and applied to measurements of wind speed and sensible heat, latent heat and CO2...... fluxes. Momentum and scalar fluxes are calculated from the dissipation technique utilizing the inertial subrange of the power spectra and from estimation of the cospectral amplitude, and both flux estimates are compared to covariance derived fluxes. It is shown how even data having a poor signal......-to-noise ratio can be used for flux estimations....

  3. Soil heat flux measurements in an open forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderMeulen, MJW; Klaassen, W; Kiely, G

    1996-01-01

    The soil surface heat flux in an open oak forest was determined at four locations to account for the heterogeneity of the forest. Soil temperatures and soil water content were measured at several depths and an integration method with three layers was used. The thickness of the bottom layer was

  4. Identification of boundary heat flux on the continuous casting surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Majchrzak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the numerical solution of the inverse problem consisting in the identification of the heat flux on the continuous casting surface is presented. The additional information results from the measured surface or interior temperature histories. In particular the sequential function specification method using future time steps is applied. On the stage of numerical computations the 1st scheme of the boundary element method for parabolic equations is used. Because the problem is strongly non-linear the additional procedure 'linearizing' the task discussed is introduced. This procedure is called the artificial heat source method. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are shown.

  5. Soil heat flux and day time surface energy balance closure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soil heat flux is an important input component of surface energy balance. Estimates of soil heat flux were made in the year 2008 using soil temperature data at Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, south Kerala. Hourly values of soil heat flux from 00 to 24 LST are presented for selected days typical of the winter, ...

  6. Calorimeter probes for measuring high thermal flux. [in arc jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    Expendable, slug-type calorimeter probes were developed for measuring high heat-flux levels of 10-30 kW/sq cm in electric-arc jet facilities. The probes were constructed with thin tungsten caps mounted on Teflon bodies. The temperature of the back surface of the tungsten cap is measured, and its time rate of change gives the steady-state absorbed heat flux as the calorimeter probe heats to destruction when inserted into the arc jet. Design, construction, test, and performance data are presented.

  7. Estimating surface fluxes over the north Tibetan Plateau area with ASTER imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface fluxes are important boundary conditions for climatological modeling and Asian monsoon system. The recent availability of high-resolution, multi-band imagery from the ASTER (Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer sensor has enabled us to estimate surface fluxes to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements using micrometeorological instruments and regional scale land-atmosphere exchanges of water and heat fluxes that are fundamental for the understanding of the water cycle in the Asian monsoon system. A parameterization method based on ASTER data and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving surface albedo, surface temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI, vegetation coverage, Leaf Area Index (LAI, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux over heterogeneous land surface in this paper. As a case study, the methodology was applied to the experimental area of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP on the Tibetan Plateau (CAMP/Tibet, located at the north Tibetan Plateau. The ASTER data of 24 July 2001, 29 November 2001 and 12 March 2002 was used in this paper for the case of summer, winter and spring. To validate the proposed methodology, the ground-measured surface variables (surface albedo and surface temperature and land surface heat fluxes (net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux were compared to the ASTER derived values. The results show that the derived surface variables and land surface heat fluxes in three different months over the study area are in good accordance with the land surface status. Also, the estimated land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes are in good accordance with ground measurements, and all their absolute percentage difference (APD is less than 10% in the validation sites

  8. Evaluating the JULES Land Surface Model Energy Fluxes Using FLUXNET Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blyth, E.; Gash, J.H.C.; Lloyd, A.J.; Pryor, M.; Weedon, G.P.; Shuttleworth, J.

    2010-01-01

    Surface energy flux measurements from a sample of 10 flux network (FLUXNET) sites selected to represent a range of climate conditions and biome types were used to assess the performance of the Hadley Centre land surface model (Joint U. K. Land Environment Simulator; JULES). Because FLUXNET data are

  9. Estimating global air-sea fluxes from surface properties and from climatological flux data using an oceanic general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziperman, Eli; Bryan, Kirk

    1993-12-01

    A simple method is presented and demonstrated for estimating air-sea fluxes of heat and fresh water with the aid of a general circulation model (GCM), using both sea surface temperature and salinity data and climatological air-sea flux data. The approach is motivated by a least squares optimization problem in which the various data sets are combined to form an optimal solution for the air-sea fluxes. The method provides estimates of the surface properties and air-sea flux data that are as consistent as possible with the original data sets and with the model physics. The calculation of these estimates involves adding a simple equation for calculating the air-sea fluxes during the model run and then running the model to a steady state. The proposed method was applied to a coarse resolution global primitive equation model and annually averaged data sets. Both the spatial distribution of the global air-sea fluxes and the meridional fluxes carried by the ocean were estimated. The resulting air-sea fluxes seem smoother and significantly closer to the climatological flux estimates than do the air-sea fluxes obtained from the GCM by simply specifying the surface temperature and salinity. The better fit to the climatological fluxes was balanced by a larger deviation from the surface temperature and salinity. These surface fields were still close to the observations within the measurement error in most regions, except western boundary areas. The inconsistency of the model and data in western boundary areas is probably related to the inability of the coarse resolution GCM to appropriately simulate the large transports there. The meridional fluxes calculated by the proposed method differ very little from those obtained by simply specifying the surface temperature and salinity. We suggest therefore that these meridional fluxes are strongly influenced by the interior model dynamics; in particular, the too-weak model meridional circulation cell seems to be the reason for

  10. Anthropogenic methane ebullition and continuous flux measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshboul, Zeyad

    2017-04-01

    Keywords: Methane, Wastewater, Effluent, Anaerobic treatment. Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have shown to emit significant amount of methane during treatment processes. While most of studies cover only in-plant diffusive methane flux, magnitude and sources of methane ebullition have not well assessed. Moreover, the reported results of methane emissions from WWTPs are based on low spatial and temporal resolution. Using a continuous measurement approach of methane flux rate for effluent system and secondary clarifier treatment process at one WWTP in Southwest Germany, our results show that high percentage of methane is emitted by ebullition during the anaerobic treatment (clarification pond) with high spatial and temporal variability. Our measurements revealed that no ebullition is occur at the effluent system. The observed high contribution of methane ebullition to the total in-plant methane emission, emphasizes the need for considering in-plant methane emission by ebullition as well as the spatial and temporal variability of these emissions.

  11. Evaluation of surface renewal and flux-variance methods above agricultural and forest surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M.; Katul, G. G.; Noormets, A.; Poznikova, G.; Domec, J. C.; Trnka, M.; King, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Measurements of turbulent surface energy fluxes are of high interest in agriculture and forest research. During last decades, eddy covariance (EC), has been adopted as the most commonly used micrometeorological method for measuring fluxes of greenhouse gases, energy and other scalars at the surface-atmosphere interface. Despite its robustness and accuracy, the costs of EC hinder its deployment at some research experiments and in practice like e.g. for irrigation scheduling. Therefore, testing and development of other cost-effective methods is of high interest. In our study, we tested performance of surface renewal (SR) and flux variance method (FV) for estimates of sensible heat flux density. Surface renewal method is based on the concept of non-random transport of scalars via so-called coherent structures which if accurately identified can be used for the computing of associated flux. Flux variance method predicts the flux from the scalar variance following the surface-layer similarity theory. We tested SR and FV against EC in three types of ecosystem with very distinct aerodynamic properties. First site was represented by agricultural wheat field in the Czech Republic. The second site was a 20-m tall mixed deciduous wetland forest on the coast of North Carolina, USA. The third site was represented by pine-switchgrass intercropping agro-forestry system located in coastal plain of North Carolina, USA. Apart from solving the coherent structures in a SR framework from the structure functions (representing the most common approach), we applied ramp wavelet detection scheme to test the hypothesis that the duration and amplitudes of the coherent structures are normally distributed within the particular 30-minutes time intervals and so just the estimates of their averages is sufficient for the accurate flux determination. Further, we tested whether the orthonormal wavelet thresholding can be used for isolating of the coherent structure scales which are associated with

  12. Mapping Surface Heat Fluxes by Assimilating SMAP Soil Moisture and GOES Land Surface Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Steele-Dunne, Susan C.; Farhadi, Leila; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-12-01

    Surface heat fluxes play a crucial role in the surface energy and water balance. In situ measurements are costly and difficult, and large-scale flux mapping is hindered by surface heterogeneity. Previous studies have demonstrated that surface heat fluxes can be estimated by assimilating land surface temperature (LST) and soil moisture to determine two key parameters: a neutral bulk heat transfer coefficient (CHN) and an evaporative fraction (EF). Here a methodology is proposed to estimate surface heat fluxes by assimilating Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) soil moisture data and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) LST data into a dual-source (DS) model using a hybrid particle assimilation strategy. SMAP soil moisture data are assimilated using a particle filter (PF), and GOES LST data are assimilated using an adaptive particle batch smoother (APBS) to account for the large gap in the spatial and temporal resolution. The methodology is implemented in an area in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. Assessment against in situ observations suggests that soil moisture and LST estimates are in better agreement with observations after assimilation. The RMSD for 30 min (daytime) flux estimates is reduced by 6.3% (8.7%) and 31.6% (37%) for H and LE on average. Comparison against a LST-only and a soil moisture-only assimilation case suggests that despite the coarse resolution, assimilating SMAP soil moisture data is not only beneficial but also crucial for successful and robust flux estimation, particularly when the uncertainties in the model estimates are large.

  13. Noble Gas Surface Flux Simulations And Atmospheric Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, Charles R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sun, Yunwei [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Simpson, Matthew D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    Signatures from underground nuclear explosions or UNEs are strongly influenced by the containment regime surrounding them. The degree of gas leakage from the detonation cavity to the surface obviously affects the magnitude of surface fluxes of radioxenon that might be detected during the course of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty On-Site Inspection. In turn, the magnitude of surface fluxes will influence the downwind detectability of the radioxenon atmospheric signature from the event. Less obvious is the influence that leakage rates have on the evolution of radioxenon isotopes in the cavity or the downwind radioisotopic measurements that might be made. The objective of this letter report is to summarize our attempt to better understand how containment conditions affect both the detection and interpretation of radioxenon signatures obtained from sampling at the ground surface near an event as well as at greater distances in the atmosphere. In the discussion that follows, we make no attempt to consider other sources of radioactive noble gases such as natural backgrounds or atmospheric contamination and, for simplicity, only focus on detonation-produced radioxenon gases. Summarizing our simulations, they show that the decay of radioxenon isotopes (e.g., Xe-133, Xe-131m, Xe-133m and Xe-135) and their migration to the surface following a UNE means that the possibility of detecting these gases exists within a window of opportunity. In some cases, seeps or venting of detonation gases may allow significant quantities to reach the surface and be released into the atmosphere immediately following a UNE. In other release scenarios – the ones we consider here – hours to days may be required for gases to reach the surface at detectable levels. These release models are most likely more characteristic of “fully contained” events that lack prompt venting, but which still leak gas slowly across the surface for periods of months.

  14. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well understood. Prior studies on boiling crisis indicate that CHF monotonically increases with increasing texture density. Here we report on the existence of maxima in CHF enhancement at intermediate texture density using measurements on parametrically designed plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces. Using high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we study the dynamics of dry spot heating and rewetting phenomena and reveal that the dry spot heating timescale is of the same order as that of the gravity and liquid imbibition-induced dry spot rewetting timescale. Based on these insights, we develop a coupled thermal-hydraulic model that relates CHF enhancement to rewetting of a hot dry spot on the boiling surface, thereby revealing the mechanism governing the hitherto unknown CHF enhancement maxima. PMID:26346098

  15. Measurement of the high-energy neutron flux on the surface of the natural uranium target assembly QUINTA irradiated by deuterons of 4- and 8-GeV energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, J.; Baldin, A.A.; Chilap, V.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments with a natural uranium target assembly QUINTA exposed to 4- and 8 GeV deuteron beams of the Nuclotron accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna) are analyzed. The 129 I, 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, nat U, 237 Np, 238 Pu, 239 Pu and 241 Am radioactive samples were installed on the surface of the QUINTA set-up and irradiated with secondary neutrons. The neutron flux through the RA samples was monitored by Al foils. The reaction rates of 27 Al(n, y 1 ) 24 Na, 27 Al(n, y 2 ) 22 Na and 27 Al(n, y 3 ) 7 Be reactions with the effective threshold energies of 5, 27 and 119 MeV were measured at both 4- and 8-GeV deuteron beam energies. The average neutron fluxes between the effective threshold energies and the effective ends of the neutron spectra (which are 800 or 1000 MeV for energy of 4- or 8-GeV deuterons) were determined. The evidence for the intensity shift of the neutron spectra to higher neutron energies with the increase of the deuteron energy from 4 to 8 GeV was found from the ratios of the average neutron fluxes. The reaction rates and the average neutron fluxes were calculated with MCNPX2.7 and MARS15 codes.

  16. Comparing the CarbonTracker and TM5-4DVar data assimilation systems for CO2 surface flux inversions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babenhauserheide, A.; Basu, S.; Peters, W.

    2015-01-01

    Data assimilation systems allow for estimating surface fluxes of greenhouse gases from atmospheric concentration measurements. Good knowledge about fluxes is essential to understand how climate change affects ecosystems and to characterize feedback mechanisms. Based on assimilation of more than one

  17. Estimation of methane emission flux at landfill surface using laser methane detector: Influence of gauge pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Kyu; Kang, Jong-Yun; Lee, Nam-Hoon

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of measuring methane emission fluxes, using surface methane concentration and gauge pressure, by analyzing the influence of gauge pressure on the methane emission flux and the surface methane concentration, as well as the correlation between the methane emission flux and surface methane concentrations. The surface methane concentration was measured using a laser methane detector. Our results show a positive linear relationship between the surface methane concentration and the methane emission flux. Furthermore, the methane emission flux showed a positive linear relationship with the gauge pressure; this implies that when the surface methane concentration and the surface gauge pressure are measured simultaneously, the methane emission flux can be calculated using Darcy's law. A decrease in the vertical permeability was observed when the gauge pressure was increased, because reducing the vertical permeability may lead to a reduced landfill gas emission to the atmosphere, and landfill gas would be accumulated inside the landfill. Finally, this method is simple and can allow for a greater number of measurements during a relatively shorter period. Thus, it provides a better representation of the significant space and time variations in methane emission fluxes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. O2-MAVS: an Instrument for Measuring Oxygen Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    authors note that the decline is consistent with what would be predicted from laboratory studies of the effects of warming and ocean acidification on...calcium carbonate minerals. Approximately 10-20% of all the carbonate production in the ocean occurs in a region that amounts to just 0.17% of the area...fluxes at the air-water surface using the GF technique [46-49]. The gradients of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are very small. To measure

  19. Micrometeorological flux measurements of aerosol and gases above Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemitz, Eiko; Langford, Ben; Mullinger, Neil; Cowan, Nicholas; Coyle, Mhairi; Acton, William Joe; Lee, James; Fu, Pingqing

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution is estimated to cause 1.6 million premature deaths in China every year and in the winter 2016/17 Beijing had to issue health alerts and put in place ad hoc limitations on industrial and vehicular activity. Much of this pollution is attributed to emissions from industrial processes and in particular coal combustion. By contrast, the diffuse pollutant sources within the city are less well understood. This includes, e.g., emissions from the Beijing traffic fleet, the sewage system, food preparation, solid fuel combustion in the streets and small industrial processes. Within the framework of a major UK-Chinese collaboration to study air pollution and its impact on human health in Beijing, we therefore measured fluxes of a large range of pollutants from a height of 102 m on the 325 m meteorological tower at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics. Several instruments were mounted at 102 m: fluxes of CO2 and H2O were measured with an infrared gas analyser (LiCOR 7500) and fluxes of ozone with a combination of a relative fast-response ozone analyser (ROFI) and a 2B absolute O3 instrument. Total particle number fluxes were measured with a condensation particle counter (TSI CPC 3785), and size-segregated fluxes over the size range 0.06 to 20 μm with a combination of an optical Ultrafine High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS) and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer Spectrometer (TSI APS3321). Ammonia (NH3) fluxes were measured for the first time above the urban environment using an Aerodyne compact quantum cascade laser (QCL). In addition, composition resolved aerosol fluxes were measured with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), operated in a measurement container at the bottom of the tower, which subsampled from a 120 m long copper tube (15 mm OD). The analysis so far suggests that, due to often low wind speeds, fluxes were at times de-coupled from the surface. Fluxes normalised by CO2, a tracer for the amount of fossil fuel consumed, should be

  20. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, Daily Grid F08 V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....

  1. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Climatology, Monthly Grid V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  2. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Seasonal Climatology, Set1 and NCEP V2c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  3. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Satellite F13 V2c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF 2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by...

  4. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Monthly Climatology, Set1 and NCEP V2c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  5. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Set1 V2c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr....

  6. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Yearly Climatology, Set1 and NCEP V2c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  7. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Satellite F11 V2c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF 2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by...

  8. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Satellite F14 V2c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF 2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by...

  9. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Satellite F08 V2c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF 2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by...

  10. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, Daily Grid F10 V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....

  11. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Satellite F10 V2c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF 2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by...

  12. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Satellite F15 V2c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF 2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by...

  13. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Climatology, Yearly Grid V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  14. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Climatology, Seasonal Grid V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  15. Determination of Surface Fluxes Using a Bowen Ratio System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Abstract. Components of the surface fluxes of the energy balance equation were determined using a Campbell Bowen ratio system. The fluxes are obtained by the energy balance Bowen ratio technique, a gradient method that uses vertical gradients of temperature and vapour pressure in combination with point ...

  16. Intense equatorial flux spots on the surface of Earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A.

    2003-04-01

    A vast number of vector measurements of the Earth's magnetic field have recently become available from the satellite Oersted, currently in orbit monitoring the core magnetic field. In this presentation I will present new maps of the Earth's magnetic field at the surface of the fluid core derived from these satellite data which show intense flux spots in equatorial regions; the images are derived using a maximum entropy technique which is capable of reconstructing images with high dynamic range more precisely than conventional techniques. The intensity of these features is unusually large - they are comparable to high-latitude flux patches near the poles, previously identified as the major component of the dynamo field. A comparison with sunspots is tempting, though they are probably not associated with expulsion of toroidal magnetic field as is the case for the sun. Indeed, the tendency for pairing of these spots to the north and south of the geographical equator suggests they might be associated with the tops of so-called `Taylor columns' (indicative of the dominance of the rotation of the Earth) which have previously been suggested to be associated with the four high-latitude flux patches near the poles. Equatorially-trapped waves are known to exist in theory, and a correct interpretation of these features might lead to constraints on the strength of the hidden toroidal magnetic field within the Earth, as well as constraints on other physical regimes.

  17. Advanced Tethersonde for High-Speed Flux Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flux measurements of trace gases and other quantities, such as latent heat, are of great importance in scientific field research. One typical flux measurement setup...

  18. Advanced Tethersonde for High-Speed Flux Measurements, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flux measurements of trace gases and other quantities, such as latent heat, are of great importance in scientific field research. One typical flux measurement setup...

  19. Material fluxes on the surface of the earth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources; Division on Earth and Life Studies; Board on Earth Sciences & Resources; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    ...) level of surficial fluxes and their dynamics. Leading experts in the field offer a historical perspective on geofluxes and discuss the cycles of materials on the earth's surface, from weathering processes to the movement of material...

  20. Plasmas fluxes to surfaces for an oblique magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, C.S.; Stangeby, P.C.; Elder, J.D.; Bell, M.G.; Kilpatrick, S.J.; Manos, D.M.; Medley, S.S.; Owens, D.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Ulrickson, M.

    1992-07-01

    The poloidal and toroidal spatial distributions of D α , He I and C II emission have been obtained in the vicinity of the TFTR bumper limiter and are compared with models of ion flow to the surface. The distributions are found not to agree with a model (the ''Cosine'' model) which determines the incident flux density using only the parallel fluxes in the scrape-off layer and the projected area of the surface perpendicular to the field lines. In particular, the Cosine model is not able to explain the significant fluxes observed at locations on the surface which are oblique to the magnetic field. It is further shown that these fluxes cannot be explained by the finite Larmor radius of impinging ions. Finally, it is demonstrated, with the use of Monte Carlo codes, that the distributions can be explained by including both parallel and cross-field transport onto the limiter surface

  1. Plasma-surface interactions under high heat and particle fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Temmerman, G.; Bystrov, K.; Liu, F.; Liu, W.; Morgan, T.; Tanyeli, I.; van den Berg, M.; Xu, H.; Zielinski, J.

    2013-01-01

    The plasma-surface interactions expected in the divertor of a future fusion reactor are characterized by extreme heat and particle fluxes interacting with the plasma-facing surfaces. Powerful linear plasma generators are used to reproduce the expected plasma conditions and allow plasma-surface

  2. Spatial distribution of potential near surface moisture flux at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    An estimate of the areal distribution of present-day surface liquid moisture flux at Yucca Mountain was made using field measured water contents and laboratory measured rock properties. Using available data for physical and hydrologic properties (porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention functions) of the volcanic rocks, surface lithologic units that are hydrologically similar were delineated. Moisture retention and relative permeability functions were assigned to each surface unit based on the similarity of the mean porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity of the surface unit to laboratory samples of the same lithology. The potential flux into the mountain was estimated for each surface hydrologic unit using the mean saturated hydraulic conductivity for each unit and assuming all matrix flow. Using measured moisture profiles for each of the surface units, estimates were made of the depth at which seasonal fluctuations diminish and steady state downward flux conditions are likely to exist. The hydrologic properties at that depth were used with the current relative saturation of the tuff, to estimate flux as the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. This method assumes a unit gradient. The range in estimated flux was 0.02 mm/yr for the welded Tiva Canyon to 13.4 mm/yr for the nonwelded Paintbrush Tuff. The areally averaged flux was 1.4 mm/yr. The major zones of high flux occur to the north of the potential repository boundary where the nonwelded tuffs are exposed in the major drainages

  3. Spatial distribution of potential near surface moisture flux at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    An estimate of the areal distribution of present-day surface liquid moisture flux at Yucca Mountain was made using field measured water contents and laboratory measured rock properties. Using available data for physical and hydrologic properties (porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity moisture retention functions) of the volcanic rocks, surface lithologic units that are hydrologically similar were delineated. Moisture retention and relative permeability functions were assigned to each surface unit based on the similarity of the mean porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity of the surface unit to laboratory samples of the same lithology. The potential flux into the mountain was estimated for each surface hydrologic unit using the mean saturated hydraulic conductivity for each unit and assuming all matrix flow. Using measured moisture profiles for each of the surface units, estimates were made of the depth at which seasonal fluctuations diminish and steady state downward flux conditions are likely to exist. The hydrologic properties at that depth were used with the current relative saturation of the tuff, to estimate flux as the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. This method assumes a unit gradient. The range in estimated flux was 0.02 mm/yr for the welded Tiva Canyon to 13.4 mm/yr for the nonwelded Paintbrush Tuff. The areally averaged flux was 1.4 mm/yr. The major zones of high flux occur to the north of the potential repository boundary where the nonwelded tuffs are exposed in the major drainages

  4. Using model analyses and surface-atmosphere exchange measurements from the Howland AmeriFlux Site in Maine, USA, to improve understanding of forest ecosystem C cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollinger, David Y.; Davidson, Eric A.; Richardson, Andrew D.; Dail, D. B.; Scott, N.

    2013-03-25

    Summary of research carried out under Interagency Agreement DE-AI02-07ER64355 with the USDA Forest Service at the Howland Forest AmeriFlux site in central Maine. Includes a list of publications resulting in part or whole from this support.

  5. Monthly Sea Surface Salinity and Freshwater Flux Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, L.; Xie, P.; Wu, S.

    2017-12-01

    Taking advantages of the complementary nature of the Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) measurements from the in-situ (CTDs, shipboard, Argo floats, etc.) and satellite retrievals from Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA), the Aquarius of a joint venture between US and Argentina, and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) of national Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), a technique is developed at NOAA/NCEP/CPC to construct an analysis of monthly SSS, called the NOAA Blended Analysis of Sea-Surface Salinity (BASS). The algorithm is a two-steps approach, i.e. to remove the bias in the satellite data through Probability Density Function (PDF) matching against co-located in situ measurements; and then to combine the bias-corrected satellite data with the in situ measurements through the Optimal Interpolation (OI) method. The BASS SSS product is on a 1° by 1° grid over the global ocean for a 7-year period from 2010. Combined with the NOAA/NCEP/CPC CMORPH satellite precipitation (P) estimates and the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) evaporation (E) fields, a suite of monthly package of the SSS and oceanic freshwater flux (E and P) was developed to monitor the global oceanic water cycle and SSS on a monthly basis. The SSS in BASS product is a suite of long-term SSS and fresh water flux data sets with temporal homogeneity and inter-component consistency better suited for the examination of the long-term changes and monitoring. It presents complete spatial coverage and improved resolution and accuracy, which facilitates the diagnostic analysis of the relationship and co-variability among SSS, freshwater flux, mixed layer processes, oceanic circulation, and assimilation of SSS into global models. At the AGU meeting, we will provide more details on the CPC salinity and fresh water flux data package and its applications in the monitoring and analysis of SSS variations in association with the ENSO and other major climate

  6. BVOC ecosystem flux measurements at a high latitude wetland site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Holst

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present summertime concentrations and fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs measured at a sub-arctic wetland in northern Sweden using a disjunct eddy-covariance (DEC technique based on a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS. The vegetation at the site was dominated by Sphagnum, Carex and extit{Eriophorum} spp. The measurements reported here cover a period of 50 days (1 August to 19 September 2006, approximately one half of the growing season at the site, and allowed to investigate the effect of day-to-day variation in weather as well as of vegetation senescence on daily BVOC fluxes, and on their temperature and light responses. The sensitivity drift of the DEC system was assessed by comparing H3O+-ion cluster formed with water molecules (H3O+(H2O at m37 with water vapour concentration measurements made using an adjacent humidity sensor, and the applicability of the DEC method was analysed by a comparison of sensible heat fluxes for high frequency and DEC data obtained from the sonic anemometer. These analyses showed no significant PTR-MS sensor drift over a period of several weeks and only a small flux-loss due to high-frequency spectrum omissions. This loss was within the range expected from other studies and the theoretical considerations.

    Standardised (20 °C and 1000 μmol m−2 s−1 PAR summer isoprene emission rates found in this study of 329 μg C m−2 (ground area h−1 were comparable with findings from more southern boreal forests, and fen-like ecosystems. On a diel scale, measured fluxes indicated a stronger temperature dependence than emissions from temperate or (subtropical ecosystems. For the first time, to our knowledge, we report ecosystem methanol fluxes from a sub-arctic ecosystem. Maximum daytime emission fluxes were around 270 μg m−2 h−1

  7. Radiation transport simulation of the Martian GCR surface flux and dose estimation using spherical geometry in PHITS compared to MSL-RAD measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-McLaughlin, John

    2017-08-01

    Planetary bodies and spacecraft are predominantly exposed to isotropic radiation environments that are subject to transport and interaction in various material compositions and geometries. Specifically, the Martian surface radiation environment is composed of galactic cosmic radiation, secondary particles produced by their interaction with the Martian atmosphere, albedo particles from the Martian regolith and occasional solar particle events. Despite this complex physical environment with potentially significant locational and geometric dependencies, computational resources often limit radiation environment calculations to a one-dimensional or slab geometry specification. To better account for Martian geometry, spherical volumes with respective Martian material densities are adopted in this model. This physical description is modeled with the PHITS radiation transport code and compared to a portion of measurements from the Radiation Assessment Detector of the Mars Science Laboratory. Particle spectra measured between 15 November 2015 and 15 January 2016 and PHITS model results calculated for this time period are compared. Results indicate good agreement between simulated dose rates, proton, neutron and gamma spectra. This work was originally presented at the 1st Mars Space Radiation Modeling Workshop held in 2016 in Boulder, CO. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Surface cleanliness measurement procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Mark Stewart; Woodmansee, Donald Ernest; Beadie, Douglas Frank

    2002-01-01

    A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

  9. Plasma–Surface Interactions Under High Heat and Particle Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory De Temmerman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The plasma-surface interactions expected in the divertor of a future fusion reactor are characterized by extreme heat and particle fluxes interacting with the plasma-facing surfaces. Powerful linear plasma generators are used to reproduce the expected plasma conditions and allow plasma-surface interactions studies under those very harsh conditions. While the ion energies on the divertor surfaces of a fusion device are comparable to those used in various plasma-assited deposition and etching techniques, the ion (and energy fluxes are up to four orders of magnitude higher. This large upscale in particle flux maintains the surface under highly non-equilibrium conditions and bring new effects to light, some of which will be described in this paper.

  10. Measurements and Phenomenological Modeling of Magnetic FluxBuildup in Spheromak Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Talamas, C A; Hooper, E B; Jayakumar, R; McLean, H S; Wood, R D; Moller, J M

    2007-12-14

    Internal magnetic field measurements and high-speed imaging at the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) [E. B. Hooper, L. D. Pearlstein, R. H. Bulmer, Nucl. Fusion 39, 863 (1999)] are used to study spheromak formation and field buildup. The measurements are analyzed in the context of a phenomenological model of magnetic helicity based on the topological constraint of minimum helicity in the open flux before reconnecting and linking closed flux. Two stages are analyzed: (1) the initial spheromak formation, i. e. when all flux surfaces are initially open and reconnect to form open and closed flux surfaces, and (2) the stepwise increase of closed flux when operating the gun on a new mode that can apply a train of high-current pulses to the plasma. In the first stage, large kinks in the open flux surfaces are observed in the high-speed images taken shortly after plasma breakdown, and coincide with large magnetic asymmetries recorded in a fixed insertable magnetic probe that spans the flux conserver radius. Closed flux (in the toroidal average sense) appears shortly after this. This stage is also investigated using resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. In the second stage, a time lag in response between open and closed flux surfaces after each current pulse is interpreted as the time for the open flux to build helicity, before transferring it through reconnection to the closed flux. Large asymmetries are seen during these events, which then relax to a slowly decaying spheromak before the next pulse.

  11. Turbulent heat fluxes by profile and inertial dissipation methods: analysis of the atmospheric surface layer from shipboard measurements during the SOFIA/ASTEX and SEMAPHORE experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dupuis

    Full Text Available Heat flux estimates obtained using the inertial dissipation method, and the profile method applied to radiosonde soundings, are assessed with emphasis on the parameterization of the roughness lengths for temperature and specific humidity. Results from the inertial dissipation method show a decrease of the temperature and humidity roughness lengths for increasing neutral wind speed, in agreement with previous studies. The sensible heat flux estimates were obtained using the temperature estimated from the speed of sound determined by a sonic anemometer. This method seems very attractive for estimating heat fluxes over the ocean. However allowance must be made in the inertial dissipation method for non-neutral stratification. The SOFIA/ASTEX and SEMAPHORE results show that, in unstable stratification, a term due to the transport terms in the turbulent kinetic energy budget, has to be included in order to determine the friction velocity with better accuracy. Using the profile method with radiosonde data, the roughness length values showed large scatter. A reliable estimate of the temperature roughness length could not be obtained. The humidity roughness length values were compatible with those found using the inertial dissipation method.

  12. Effect of Energetic Plasma Flux on Flowing Liquid Lithium Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathiparambil, Kishor; Jung, Soonwook; Christenson, Michael; Fiflis, Peter; Xu, Wenyu; Szott, Mathew; Ruzic, David

    2014-10-01

    An operational liquid lithium system with steady state flow driven by thermo-electric magneto-hydrodynamic force and capable of constantly refreshing the plasma exposed surface have been demonstrated at U of I. To evaluate the system performance in reactor relevant conditions, specifically to understand the effect of disruptive plasma events on the performance of the liquid metal PFCs, the setup was integrated to a pulsed plasma generator. A coaxial plasma generator drives the plasma towards a theta pinch which preferentially heats the ions, simulating ELM like flux, and the plasma is further guided towards the target chamber which houses the flowing lithium system. The effect of the incident flux is examined using diagnostic tools including triple Langmuir probe, calorimeter, rogowski coils, Ion energy analyzers, and fast frame spectral image acquisition with specific optical filters. The plasma have been well characterized and a density of ~1021 m-3, with electron temperature ~10 - 20 eV is measured, and final plasma velocities of 34 - 74 kms-1 have been observed. Calorimetric measurements using planar molybdenum targets indicate a maximum plasma energy (with 6 kV plasma gun and 20 kV theta pinch) of 0.08 MJm-2 with plasma divergence effects resulting in marginal reduction of 40 +/- 23 J in plasma energy. Further results from the other diagnostic tools, using the flowing lithium targets and the planar targets coated with lithium will be presented. DOE DE-SC0008587.

  13. Estimation of Surface CO2 Flux Using a Carbon Tracking System Based on Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Kim, H. M.; Cho, C. H.; Boo, K. O.

    2015-12-01

    Estimation of the surface CO2 flux is crucial to understand the mechanism of surface carbon source and sink. In Asia, there are large uptake regions such as forests in boreal and temperate regions. In this study, to diagnose the surface CO2 flux in the globe and Asia, CO2 observations were assimilated in the CarbonTracker developed by NOAA. The CarbonTracker is an inverse modeling system that estimates the surface CO2 flux using an ensemble Kalman filter with atmospheric CO2 measurements as a constraint. First, the capability of CarbonTracker as an analysis tool for estimating surface CO2 flux in Asia was investigated. Different from the CarbonTracker developed by NOAA, a nesting domain centered on Asia was used with additional observations in Asia. In addition, a diagnostic tool to calculate the effect of individual CO2 observations on estimating the surface CO2 flux was developed using the analysis sensitivity to observation and information content in the CarbonTracker framework. The results showed that CarbonTracker works appropriately for estimating surface CO2 flux. The nesting domain centered in Asia produces a detailed estimate of the surface CO2 fluxes and exhibited better agreement with the CO2 observations in Asia. Additional observations provide beneficial impact on the estimated surface CO2 flux in Asia and Europe. The analysis sensitivity showed seasonal variations with greater sensitivities in summer and lower sensitivities in winter. Strong correlation exists between the information content and the optimized surface CO2 flux.

  14. Measurements of neutron flux in the RA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisic, N.

    1961-12-01

    This report includes the following separate parts: Thermal neutron flux in the experimental channels od RA reactor; Epithermal neutron flux in the experimental channels od RA reactor; Fast neutron flux in the experimental channels od RA reactor; Thermal neutron flux in the thermal column and biological experimental channel; Neutronic measurements in the RA reactor cell; Temperature reactivity coefficient of the RA reactor; design of the device for measuring the activity of wire [sr

  15. Obtaining evapotranspiration and surface energy fluxes with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land), a remote sensing based evapotranspiration model, has been applied with Landsat ETM+ sensor for the estimation of actual ... The land uses in this study area consists of irrigated agriculture, rain-fed agriculture and livestock grazing. The obtained results ...

  16. An intercomparison and validation of satellite-based surface radiative energy flux estimates over the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihelä, Aku; Key, Jeffrey R.; Meirink, Jan Fokke; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Palo, Timo; Karlsson, Karl-Göran

    2017-05-01

    Accurate determination of radiative energy fluxes over the Arctic is of crucial importance for understanding atmosphere-surface interactions, melt and refreezing cycles of the snow and ice cover, and the role of the Arctic in the global energy budget. Satellite-based estimates can provide comprehensive spatiotemporal coverage, but the accuracy and comparability of the existing data sets must be ascertained to facilitate their use. Here we compare radiative flux estimates from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Synoptic 1-degree (SYN1deg)/Energy Balanced and Filled, Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) surface energy budget, and our own experimental FluxNet / Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring cLoud, Albedo and RAdiation (CLARA) data against in situ observations over Arctic sea ice and the Greenland Ice Sheet during summer of 2007. In general, CERES SYN1deg flux estimates agree best with in situ measurements, although with two particular limitations: (1) over sea ice the upwelling shortwave flux in CERES SYN1deg appears to be underestimated because of an underestimated surface albedo and (2) the CERES SYN1deg upwelling longwave flux over sea ice saturates during midsummer. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-based GEWEX and FluxNet-CLARA flux estimates generally show a larger range in retrieval errors relative to CERES, with contrasting tendencies relative to each other. The largest source of retrieval error in the FluxNet-CLARA downwelling shortwave flux is shown to be an overestimated cloud optical thickness. The results illustrate that satellite-based flux estimates over the Arctic are not yet homogeneous and that further efforts are necessary to investigate the differences in the surface and cloud properties which lead to disagreements in flux retrievals.

  17. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux: synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Bamberger, I.; Goldstein, A. H.; Gu, L.; Guenther, A.; Hansel, A.; Heinesch, B.; Holst, T.; Hörtnagl, L.; Karl, T.; Laffineur, Q.; Neftel, A.; McKinney, K.; Munger, J. W.; Pallardy, S. G.; Schade, G. W.; Seco, R.; Schoon, N.

    2015-07-01

    Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates, reflecting uncertainties in the approaches used to model and the empirical data used to separately constrain these terms. Here we compiled micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight different study sites and reviewed the corresponding literature in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis of the terrestrial ecosystem-scale methanol exchange and present an independent data-driven view of the land-atmosphere methanol exchange. Our study shows that the controls of plant growth on production, and thus the methanol emission magnitude, as well as stomatal conductance on the hourly methanol emission variability, established at the leaf level, hold across sites at the ecosystem level. Unequivocal evidence for bi-directional methanol exchange at the ecosystem scale is presented. Deposition, which at some sites even exceeds methanol emissions, represents an emerging feature of ecosystem-scale measurements and is likely related to environmental factors favouring the formation of surface wetness. Methanol may adsorb to or dissolve in this surface water and eventually be chemically or biologically removed from it. Management activities in agriculture and forestry are shown to increase local methanol emission by orders of magnitude; however, they are neglected at present in global budgets. While contemporary net land methanol budgets are overall consistent with the grand mean of the micrometeorological methanol flux measurements, we caution that the present approach of simulating methanol emission and deposition separately is prone to opposing systematic errors and does not allow for full advantage to be taken of

  18. AmeriFlux Measurement Component (AMC) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichl, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    An AMC system was installed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s North Slope Alaska (NSA) Barrow site, also known as NSA C1 at the ARM Data Archive, in August 2012. A second AMC system was installed at the third ARM Mobile Facility deployment at Oliktok Point, also known as NSA M1. This in situ system consists of 12 combination soil temperature and volumetric water content (VWC) reflectometers and one set of upwelling and downwelling PAR sensors, all deployed within the fetch of the Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System. Soil temperature and VWC sensors placed at two depths (10 and 30 cm below the vegetation layer) at six locations (or microsites) allow soil property inhomogeneity to be monitored across a landscape. The soil VWC and temperature sensors used at NSA C1 are the Campbell Scientific CS650L and the sensors at NSA M1 use the Campbell Scientific CS655. The two sensors are nearly identical in function, and vendor specifications are based on the CS650 unless otherwise stated.

  19. Gradient heat flux measurement as monitoring method for the diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikov, S. Z.; Mityakov, V. Yu; Mityakov, A. V.; Vintsarevich, A. V.; Pavlov, A. V.; Nalyotov, I. D.

    2017-11-01

    The usage of gradient heat flux measurement for monitoring of heat flux on combustion chamber surface and optimization of diesel work process is proposed. Heterogeneous gradient heat flux sensors can be used at various regimes for an appreciable length of time. Fuel injection timing is set by the position of the maximum point on the angular heat flux diagram however, the value itself of the heat flux may not be considered. The development of such an approach can be productive for remote monitoring of work process in the cylinders of high-power marine engines.

  20. The measurements of thermal neutron flux distribution in a paraffin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The term `thermal flux' implies a Maxwellian distribution of velocity and energy corresponding to the most probable velocity of 2200 ms-1 at 293.4 K. In order to measure the thermal neutron flux density, the foil activation method was used. Thermal neutron flux determination in paraffin phantom by counting the emitted rays of ...

  1. An alternative method for the measurement of neutron flux

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A simple and easy method for measuring the neutron flux is presented. This paper deals with the experimental verification of neutron dose rate–flux relationship for a non-dissipative medium. Though the neutron flux cannot be obtained from the dose rate in a dissipative medium, experimental result shows that for ...

  2. An alternative method for the measurement of neutron flux

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A simple and easy method for measuring the neutron flux is presented. This paper deals with the experimental verification of neutron dose rate–flux relationship for a non-dissipative medium. Though the neutron flux cannot be obtained from the dose rate in a dissipative medium, experimental result shows that for ...

  3. The measurements of thermal neutron flux distribution in a paraffin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The term `thermal flux' implies a Maxwellian distribution of velocity and energy corresponding to the most probable velocity of 2200 ms-1 at 293.4 K. In order to measure the thermal neutron flux density, the foil activation method was used. Thermal neutron flux determination in paraffin phantom by counting the emitted rays of ...

  4. SURFACE ALFVEN WAVES IN SOLAR FLUX TUBES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, M.; Andries, J.; Soler, R.; Van Doorsselaere, T. [Centre for Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Arregui, I.; Terradas, J., E-mail: marcel.goossens@wis.kuleuven.be [Solar Physics Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2012-07-10

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere. Alfven waves and magneto-sonic waves are particular classes of MHD waves. These wave modes are clearly different and have pure properties in uniform plasmas of infinite extent only. Due to plasma non-uniformity, MHD waves have mixed properties and cannot be classified as pure Alfven or magneto-sonic waves. However, vorticity is a quantity unequivocally related to Alfven waves as compression is for magneto-sonic waves. Here, we investigate MHD waves superimposed on a one-dimensional non-uniform straight cylinder with constant magnetic field. For a piecewise constant density profile, we find that the fundamental radial modes of the non-axisymmetric waves have the same properties as surface Alfven waves at a true discontinuity in density. Contrary to the classic Alfven waves in a uniform plasma of infinite extent, vorticity is zero everywhere except at the cylinder boundary. If the discontinuity in density is replaced with a continuous variation of density, vorticity is spread out over the whole interval with non-uniform density. The fundamental radial modes of the non-axisymmetric waves do not need compression to exist unlike the radial overtones. In thin magnetic cylinders, the fundamental radial modes of the non-axisymmetric waves with phase velocities between the internal and the external Alfven velocities can be considered as surface Alfven waves. On the contrary, the radial overtones can be related to fast-like magneto-sonic modes.

  5. Remote Heat Flux Measurement Using a Self Calibration Multiwavelength Pyrometer and a Transparent Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    A self calibrating multiwavelength pyrometer was used to conduct remote heat flux measurements using a transparent sapphire disk by determining the sapphire disk's front and back surface temperatures. Front surface temperature (Tfs) was obtained from detection of surface emitted radiation at long wavelengths (lambda > 6 micrometers). Back surface temperature (Tbs) was obtained from short wavelength (1 to 5 micrometers) radiation transmitted through the sapphire disk. The thermal conductivity k of the sapphire disk and the heat transfer coefficients h(sub 1) and h(sub 2) of its surfaces are determined experimentally. An analysis of the heat flux measurement is presented.

  6. Flux surface shape and current profile optimization in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrott, D.R.; Miller, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Axisymmetric tokamak equilibria of noncircular cross section are analyzed numerically to study the effects of flux surface shape and current profile on ideal and resistive interchange stability. Various current profiles are examined for circles, ellipses, dees, and doublets. A numerical code separately analyzes stability in the neighborhood of the magnetic axis and in the remainder of the plasma using the criteria of Mercier and Glasser, Greene, and Johnson. Results are interpreted in terms of flux surface averaged quantities such as magnetic well, shear, and the spatial variation in the magnetic field energy density over the cross section. The maximum stable β is found to vary significantly with shape and current profile. For current profiles varying linearly with poloidal flux, the highest β's found were for doublets. Finally, an algorithm is presented which optimizes the current profile for circles and dees by making the plasma everywhere marginally stable

  7. Turbulent particle flux to a perfectly absorbing surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Pecseli, H.L.

    2005-01-01

    is generated by two moving grids. The simultaneous trajectories of many small approximately neutrally buoyant polystyrene particles are followed in time. In a Lagrangian analysis, we select one of these as the centre of a ‘sphere of interception’, and obtain estimates for the time variation of the statistical......The feasibility of an experimental method for investigations of the particle flux to an absorbing surface in turbulent flows is demonstrated in a Lagrangian as well as an Eulerian representation. A laboratory experiment is carried out, where an approximately homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flow...... average of the inward particle flux through the surface of this moving sphere. The variation of the flux with the radius in the sphere of interception, as well as the variation with basic flow parameters is described well by a simple model, in particular for radii smaller than a characteristic length...

  8. Instrumental requirements for the measurement of pollutant fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, B.B.

    1975-01-01

    Numerical models that include dry deposition at the surface as a sink for atmospheric contamination usually parameterize this surface flux by means of a deposition velocity which relates the surface flux to the appropriate concentration of material in air at various heights. Although it can be argued that this type of formulation hides too many critical factors in its simplicity, more realistic methods for formulating F/sub c/ do not appear to be as attractive from the viewpoint of numerical simulation. Thus, there is considerable incentive to improve our knowledge of v/sub d/, preferably through carefully-controlled field experiments, especially in order to determine values appropriate over the long times and large distances which are of interest in regional scale simulations. Experimental evaluations of deposition velocity are becoming more common, particularly in the chemically interesting cases of SO 2 and O 3 . Some of the experimental requirements imposed by the turbulent properties of the atmosphere that are involved in the deposition process are discussed, with emphasis on the accuracy and drifts of sensors suitable for measuring gradients

  9. AmeriFlux Measurement Network: Science Team Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, B E

    2012-12-12

    Research involves analysis and field direction of AmeriFlux operations, and the PI provides scientific leadership of the AmeriFlux network. Activities include the coordination and quality assurance of measurements across AmeriFlux network sites, synthesis of results across the network, organizing and supporting the annual Science Team Meeting, and communicating AmeriFlux results to the scientific community and other users. Objectives of measurement research include (i) coordination of flux and biometric measurement protocols (ii) timely data delivery to the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC); and (iii) assurance of data quality of flux and ecosystem measurements contributed by AmeriFlux sites. Objectives of integration and synthesis activities include (i) integration of site data into network-wide synthesis products; and (ii) participation in the analysis, modeling and interpretation of network data products. Communications objectives include (i) organizing an annual meeting of AmeriFlux investigators for reporting annual flux measurements and exchanging scientific information on ecosystem carbon budgets; (ii) developing focused topics for analysis and publication; and (iii) developing data reporting protocols in support of AmeriFlux network goals.

  10. Surface energy, CO2 fluxes and sea ice

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gulev, SK

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current state of observation, parameterization and evaluation of surface air-sea energy and gas fluxes, and sea ice, for the purposes of monitoring and predicting the state of the global ocean. The last 10 years have been...

  11. Aeolian vertical mass flux profiles above dry and moist sandy beach surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotnicka, Joanna

    2013-04-01

    The vertical distribution of aeolian mass flux was investigated in a natural beach environment. Field experiments conducted on the beach of the Łeba Barrier, southern Baltic coast, Poland, measured the sand transport rate and the vertical mass flux distribution above dry rippled sand and a moist flat sandy surface. The experiments were intended to show the changes in the vertical distribution of sand with changing wind speed. All the data represent saturated flux conditions. Sand transport was measured using 0.5 m-high vertically segmented passive sand traps, while the wind speed and direction were monitored at 1 m elevation. The obtained dataset comprises 65 measurements on dry surfaces and 51 measurements on moist sandy surfaces. The sand transport rate above the moist surface was up to 90% higher than above the dry surface for wind speeds of 7-11 m/s, but higher velocities gave smaller differences between the surfaces. The saltation layer was thicker above the moist surface than above the dry surface. All the vertical sand flux profiles are best described by exponential decay functions. Analysis of the normalised flux profiles grouped by wind velocity shows that the fitted curves are less inclined for moist surfaces than dry surfaces. Moreover, the regression coefficients depict a marked trend in which the intercept decreases and the slope increases with increasing wind speed; this indicates that more sand is transported at higher elevations above the bed and less at lower elevations. The proportion of total transport seems to be independent of wind speed at elevations of approximately 35 mm and 50 mm above the dry and moist surfaces, respectively. Differences between the measured- and exponential-fit values of mass flux are particularly distinct close to the bed, where the exponential fit either over- or under-predicts the measured values. Over-predictions occur in weaker winds (up to 6-7 m/s), whereas under-predictions become more pronounced as the wind

  12. Greenhouse gases regional fluxes estimated from atmospheric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messager, C.

    2007-07-01

    build up a new system to measure continuously CO 2 (or CO), CH 4 , N 2 O and SF 6 mixing ratios. It is based on a commercial gas chromatograph (Agilent 6890N) which have been modified to reach better precision. Reproducibility computed with a target gas on a 24 hours time step gives: 0.06 ppm for CO 2 , 1.4 ppb for CO, 0.7 ppb for CH 4 , 0.2 ppb for N 2 O and 0.05 ppt for SF 6 . The instrument's run is fully automated, an air sample analysis takes about 5 minutes. In July 2006, I install instrumentation on a telecommunication tall tower (200 m) situated near Orleans forest in Trainou, to monitor continuously greenhouse gases (CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, SF 6 ), atmospheric tracers (CO, Radon-222) and meteorological parameters. Intake lines were installed at 3 levels (50, 100 and 180 m) and allow us to sample air masses along the vertical. Continuous measurement started in January 2007. I used Mace Head (Ireland) and Gif-sur-Yvette continuous measurements to estimate major greenhouse gases emission fluxes at regional scale. To make the link between atmospheric measurements and surface fluxes, we need to quantify dilution due to atmospheric transport. I used Radon-222 as tracer (radon tracer method) and planetary boundary layer heights estimates from ECMWF model (boundary layer budget method) to parameterize atmospheric transport. In both cases I compared results to available emission inventories. (author)

  13. Determination of surface fluxes using a Bowen ratio system | Kakane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fluxes are obtained by the energy balance Bowen ratio technique, a gradient method that uses vertical gradients of temperature and vapour pressure in combination with point measurements of net radiation and soil heat flow from two sets of soil sensors. The Bowen ratio was measured as the ratio of air temperature ...

  14. Neutron Flux Measurement Produced by BNCT Target using Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Yong Kyun; Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Jong Kyung

    2005-01-01

    We are investigating neutron production target system performance for boron captured neutron therapy (BNCT). The epithermal neutron is useful for this therapy and in present study we performed a simple method to measure neutron flux and energy, which are important for the accurate cancer therapy. The simple method and result of neutron flux and energy measurement experiment are presented

  15. Surface temperature and surface heat flux determination of the inverse heat conduction problem for a slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroyanagi, Toshiyuki

    1983-07-01

    Based on an idea that surface conditions should be a reflection of interior temperature and interior heat flux variation as inverse as interior conditions has been determined completely by the surface temperature and/on surface heat flux as boundary conditions, a method is presented for determining the surface temperature and the surface heat flux of a solid when the temperature and heat flux at an interior point are a prescribed function of time. The method is developed by the integration of Duhumels' integral which has unknown temperature or unknown heat flux in its integrand. Specific forms of surface condition determination are developed for a sample inverse problem: slab. Ducussing the effect of a degree of avairable informations at an interior point due to damped system and the effect of variation of surface conditions on those formulations, it is shown that those formulations are capable of representing the unknown surface conditions except for small time interval followed by discontinuous change of surface conditions. The small un-resolved time interval is demonstrated by a numerical example. An evaluation method of heat flux at an interior point, which is requested by those formulations, is discussed. (author)

  16. Turbulent heat flux measurements in thermally stable boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Owen J.; van Buren, Tyler; Smits, Alexander J.

    2014-11-01

    Thermally stable turbulent boundary layers are prevalent in the polar regions and nocturnal atmospheric surface layer but heat and momentum flux measurements in such flow are often difficult. Here, a new method is employed using a nanoscale cold-wire (T-NSTAP) adjacent to a 2D PIV light sheet to measure these fluxes within rough-wall turbulent boundary layer. This method combines the advantages of fast thermal frequency response with measurement of the spatial variation of the velocity field. Resolution is limited solely by the separation of the probe and the light sheet. The new technique is used to examine the applicability of Monin-Obukhov similarity over a range of Richardson numbers from weak to strongly stable. In addition, the velocity fields are conditionally averaged subject to strong deviations of temperature above and below the local average in an effort to determine the relationship between the coherent turbulent motions and the fluctuating temperature field. This work was supported by the Princeton University Cooperative Institute for Climate Science.

  17. Helium cosmic ray flux measurements at Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kerry; Pinsky, Lawrence; Andersen, Vic; Zeitlin, Cary; Cleghorn, Tim; Cucinotta, Frank; Saganti, Premkumar; Atwell, William; Turner, Ron

    2006-01-01

    The helium energy spectrum in Martian orbit has been observed by the MARIE charged particle spectrometer aboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The orbital data were taken from March 13, 2002 to October 28, 2003, at which time a very intense Solar Particle Event caused a loss of communication between the instrument and the spacecraft. The silicon detector stack in MARIE is optimized for the detection of protons and helium in the energy range below 100MeV/n, which typically includes almost all of the flux during SPEs. This also makes MARIE an efficient detector for GCR helium in the energy range of 50-150MeV/n. We will present the first fully normalized flux results from MARIE, using helium ions in this energy range

  18. What can we learn about ammonia fluxes from open-path eddy covariance measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, D.; Zondlo, M. A.; Benedict, K. B.; Schichtel, B. A.; Ham, J. M.; Shonkwiler, K. B.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is an important component of bio-atmospheric N cycle with implications of regional air quality, human and ecosystem health degradation, and global climate change. NH3 fluxes have high spatiotemporal variability controlled by several factors, such as atmospheric NH3 concentration, meteorological conditions, and compensation point of underlying surfaces. Quantifying NH3 fluxes is further complicated by severe measurement challenges including adsorption to instrument surfaces, low mole fractions, and gas-particle phase partitioning. To overcome these challenges, we have developed an open-path, eddy covariance NH3 instrument that minimizes these sampling issues. Eddy covariance measurements in 2015 and 2016 in the Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado showed the capabilities of the system to measure fluxes in clean and moderate-polluted regions. Interesting patterns of NH3 fluxes and NH3 concentration variations were observed, such as deposition of NH3 associated plumes from urban and agricultural areas and reemission of a similar magnitude when clean free-tropospheric air passing the site. Observed downward fluxes during midnight and upward fluxes in early morning also indicated NH3 fluxes related to dew formation and evaporation events. More details about these patterns and their relationships with ambient temperature, relative humidity, and other fluxes will be presented. These measurements also provided an opportunity to evaluate our current understanding of transport and deposition of NH3. Micrometeorological method, backward trajectory model, and bidirectional NH3 flux model were used to analyze observed variability of NH3 concentrations and fluxes. Implications of these results and how eddy covariance measurements combined with other measurements may provide insights to better quantify NH3 fluxes will be discussed.

  19. Measuring the Magnetic Flux Density in the CMS Steel Yoke

    CERN Document Server

    Klyukhin, V I; Ball, A; Curé, B; Gaddi, A; Gerwig, H; Hervé, A; Mulders, M; Loveless, R

    2012-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector, designed to run at the highest luminosity at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Its distinctive features include a 4 T superconducting solenoid with 6-m-diameter by 12.5-m-length free bore, enclosed inside a 10000-ton return yoke made of construction steel. The return yoke consists of five dodecagonal three-layered barrel wheels and four end-cap disks at each end comprised of steel blocks up to 620 mm thick, which serve as the absorber plates of the muon detection system. Accurate characterization of the magnetic field everywhere in the CMS detector is required. To measure the field in and around the steel, a system of 22 flux-loops and 82 3-D Hall sensors is installed on the return yoke blocks. Fast discharges of the solenoid (190 s time-constant) made during the CMS magnet surface commissioning test at the solenoid central fields of 2.64, 3.16, 3.68 and 4.01 T were used to induce voltages in the flux-loops. The voltages are measured on-line a...

  20. Integrated passive flux measurement in groundwater: design and performance of iFLUX samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verreydt, Goedele; Razaei, Meisam; Meire, Patrick; Van Keer, Ilse; Bronders, Jan; Seuntjens, Piet

    2017-04-01

    The monitoring and management of soil and groundwater is a challenge. Current methods for the determination of movement or flux of pollution in groundwater use no direct measurements but only simulations based on concentration measurements and Darcy velocity estimations. This entails large uncertainties which cause remediation failures and higher costs for contaminated site owners. On top of that, the lack of useful data makes it difficult to get approval for a risk-based management approach which completely avoids costly remedial actions. The iFLUX technology is a key development of Dr. Goedele Verreydt at the University of Antwerp and VITO. It is supported by the passive flux measurement technology as invented by Prof. Mike Annable and his team at the University of Florida. The iFLUX technology includes an in situ measurement device for capturing dynamic groundwater quality and quantity, the iFLUX sampler, and an associated interpretation and visualization method. The iFLUX sampler is a modular passive sampler that provides simultaneous in situ point determinations of a time-averaged target compound mass flux and water flux. The sampler is typically installed in a monitoring well where it intercepts the groundwater flow and captures the compounds of interest. The sampler consists of permeable cartridges which are each packed with a specific sorbent matrix. The sorbent matrix of the water flux cartridge is impregnated with known amounts of water soluble resident tracers. These tracers are leached from the matrix at rates proportional to the groundwater flux. The measurements of the contaminants and the remaining resident tracer are used to determine groundwater and target compound fluxes. Exposure times range from 1 week to 6 months, depending on the expected concentration and groundwater flow velocity. The iFLUX sampler technology has been validated and tested at several field projects. Currently, 4 cartridges are tested and available: 1 waterflux cartridge to

  1. Comparison of eddy covariance and modified Bowen ratio methods for measuring gas fluxes and implications for measuring fluxes of persistent organic pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Bolinius

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Semi-volatile persistent organic pollutants (POPs cycle between the atmosphere and terrestrial surfaces; however measuring fluxes of POPs between the atmosphere and other media is challenging. Sampling times of hours to days are required to accurately measure trace concentrations of POPs in the atmosphere, which rules out the use of eddy covariance techniques that are used to measure gas fluxes of major air pollutants. An alternative, the modified Bowen ratio (MBR method, has been used instead. In this study we used data from FLUXNET for CO2 and water vapor (H2O to compare fluxes measured by eddy covariance to fluxes measured with the MBR method using vertical concentration gradients in air derived from averaged data that simulate the long sampling times typically required to measure POPs. When concentration gradients are strong and fluxes are unidirectional, the MBR method and the eddy covariance method agree within a factor of 3 for CO2, and within a factor of 10 for H2O. To remain within the range of applicability of the MBR method, field studies should be carried out under conditions such that the direction of net flux does not change during the sampling period. If that condition is met, then the performance of the MBR method is neither strongly affected by the length of sample duration nor the use of a fixed value for the transfer coefficient.

  2. A comparison of optical and microwave scintillometers with eddy covariance derived surface heat fluxes

    KAUST Repository

    Yee, Mei Sun

    2015-11-01

    Accurate measurements of energy fluxes between land and atmosphere are important for understanding and modeling climatic patterns. Several methods are available to measure heat fluxes, and scintillometers are becoming increasingly popular because of their ability to measure sensible (. H) and latent (. LvE) heat fluxes over large spatial scales. The main motivation of this study was to test the use of different methods and technologies to derive surface heat fluxes.Measurements of H and LvE were carried out with an eddy covariance (EC) system, two different makes of optical large aperture scintillometers (LAS) and two microwave scintillometers (MWS) with different frequencies at a pasture site in a semi-arid environment of New South Wales, Australia. We used the EC measurements as a benchmark. Fluxes derived from the EC system and LAS systems agreed (R2>0.94), whereas the MWS systems measured lower H (bias ~60Wm-2) and larger LvE (bias ~65Wm-2) than EC. When the scintillometers were compared against each other, the two LASs showed good agreement of H (R2=0.98), while MWS with different frequencies and polarizations led to different results. Combination of LAS and MWS measurements (i.e., two wavelength method) resulted in performance that fell in between those estimated using either LAS or MWS alone when compared with the EC system. The cause for discrepancies between surface heat fluxes derived from the EC system and those from the MWS systems and the two-wavelength method are possibly related to inaccurate assignment of the structure parameter of temperature and humidity. Additionally, measurements from MWSs can be associated with two values of the Bowen ratio, thereby leading to uncertainties in the estimation of the fluxes. While only one solution has been considered in this study, when LvE was approximately less than 200Wm-2, the alternate solution may be more accurate. Therefore, for measurements of surface heat fluxes in a semi-arid or dry environment, the

  3. Determination of 3D Equilibria from Flux Surface Knowledge Only

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.; Pomphrey, N.

    2001-01-01

    We show that the method of Christiansen and Taylor, from which complete tokamak equilibria can be determined given only knowledge of the shape of the flux surfaces, can be extended to 3-dimensional equilibria, such as those of stellarators. As for the tokamak case, the given geometric knowledge has a high degree of redundancy, so that the full equilibrium can be obtained using only a small portion of that information

  4. Surface layer scintillometry for estimating the sensible heat flux component of the surface energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Savage

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relatively recently developed scintillometry method, with a focus on the dual-beam surface layer scintillometer (SLS, allows boundary layer atmospheric turbulence, surface sensible heat and momentum flux to be estimated in real-time. Much of the previous research using the scintillometer method has involved the large aperture scintillometer method, with only a few studies using the SLS method. The SLS method has been mainly used by agrometeorologists, hydrologists and micrometeorologists for atmospheric stability and surface energy balance studies to obtain estimates of sensible heat from which evaporation estimates representing areas of one hectare or larger are possible. Other applications include the use of the SLS method in obtaining crucial input parameters for atmospheric dispersion and turbulence models. The SLS method relies upon optical scintillation of a horizontal laser beam between transmitter and receiver for a separation distance typically between 50 and 250 m caused by refractive index inhomogeneities in the atmosphere that arise from turbulence fluctuations in air temperature and to a much lesser extent the fluctuations in water vapour pressure. Measurements of SLS beam transmission allow turbulence of the atmosphere to be determined, from which sub-hourly, real-time and in situ path-weighted fluxes of sensible heat and momentum may be calculated by application of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Unlike the eddy covariance (EC method for which corrections for flow distortion and coordinate rotation are applied, no corrections to the SLS measurements, apart from a correction for water vapour pressure, are applied. Also, path-weighted SLS estimates over the propagation path are obtained. The SLS method also offers high temporal measurement resolution and usually greater spatial coverage compared to EC, Bowen ratio energy balance, surface renewal and other sensible heat measurement methods. Applying the shortened surface

  5. Device for measuring neutron-flux distribution density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenbljum, N.D.; Mitelman, M.G.; Kononovich, A.A.; Kirsanov, V.S.; Zagadkin, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    An arrangement is described for measuring the distribution of neutron flux density over the height of a nuclear reactor core and which may be used for monitoring energy release or for detecting deviations of neutron flux from an optimal level so that subsequent balance can be achieved. It avoids mutual interference of detectors. Full constructional details are given. (UK)

  6. The measurements of thermal neutron flux distribution in a paraffin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    at 293.4 K. In order to measure the thermal neutron flux density, the foil activation method was used. Thermal neutron flux determination in paraffin phantom by counting the emitted rays of indium foils with two different detectors (Geiger–. Muller counter and NaI(Tl)) was the aim of this project. The relative differences of the ...

  7. Fluxes of chemically reactive species inferred from mean concentration measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galmarini, S.; Vilà-Guerau De Arellano, J.; Duyzer, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    A method is presented for the calculation of the fluxes of chemically reactive species on the basis of routine measurements of meteorological variables and chemical species. The method takes explicity into account the influence of chemical reactions on the fluxes of the species. As a demonstration

  8. Dual-stage trapped-flux magnet cryostat for measurements at high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Zahirul; Das, Ritesh K.; Weinstein, Roy

    2015-04-14

    A method and a dual-stage trapped-flux magnet cryostat apparatus are provided for implementing enhanced measurements at high magnetic fields. The dual-stage trapped-flux magnet cryostat system includes a trapped-flux magnet (TFM). A sample, for example, a single crystal, is adjustably positioned proximate to the surface of the TFM, using a translation stage such that the distance between the sample and the surface is selectively adjusted. A cryostat is provided with a first separate thermal stage provided for cooling the TFM and with a second separate thermal stage provided for cooling sample.

  9. Chemically-resolved aerosol eddy covariance flux measurements in urban Mexico City during MILAGRO 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalakeviciute, R.; Alexander, M. L.; Allwine, E.; Jimenez, J. L.; Jobson, B. T.; Molina, L. T.; Nemitz, E.; Pressley, S. N.; VanReken, T. M.; Ulbrich, I. M.; Velasco, E.; Lamb, B. K.

    2012-08-01

    As part of the MILAGRO 2006 field campaign, the exchange of atmospheric aerosols with the urban landscape was measured from a tall tower erected in a heavily populated neighborhood of Mexico City. Urban submicron aerosol fluxes were measured using an eddy covariance method with a quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer during a two week period in March, 2006. Nitrate and ammonium aerosol concentrations were elevated at this location near the city center compared to measurements at other urban sites. Significant downward fluxes of nitrate aerosol, averaging -0.2 μg m-2 s-1, were measured during daytime. The urban surface was not a significant source of sulfate aerosols. The measurements also showed that primary organic aerosol fluxes, approximated by hydrocarbon-like organic aerosols (HOA), displayed diurnal patterns similar to CO2 fluxes and anthropogenic urban activities. Overall, 47% of submicron organic aerosol emissions were HOA, 35% were oxygenated (OOA) and 18% were associated with biomass burning (BBOA). Organic aerosol fluxes were bi-directional, but on average HOA fluxes were 0.1 μg m-2 s-1, OOA fluxes were -0.03 μg m-2 s-1, and BBOA fluxes were -0.03 μg m-2 s-1. After accounting for size differences (PM1 vs PM2.5) and using an estimate of the black carbon component, comparison of the flux measurements with the 2006 gridded emissions inventory of Mexico City, showed that the daily-averaged total PM emission rates were essentially identical for the emission inventory and the flux measurements. However, the emission inventory included dust and metal particulate contributions, which were not included in the flux measurements. As a result, it appears that the inventory underestimates overall PM emissions for this location.

  10. Elucidating Carbon Exchange at the Regional Scale Via Airborne Eddy Covariance Flux Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannun, R. A.; Wolfe, G. M.; Kawa, S. R.; Newman, P. A.; Hanisco, T. F.; Diskin, G. S.; DiGangi, J. P.; Nowak, J. B.; Barrick, J. D. W.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Noormets, A.; Vargas, R.; Clark, K. L.; Kustas, W. P.

    2017-12-01

    Direct flux observations from aircraft provide a unique tool for probing greenhouse gas (GHG) sources and sinks on a regional scale. Airborne eddy covariance, which relies on high-frequency, simultaneous measurements of fluctuations in concentration and vertical wind speed, is a robust method for quantifying surface-atmosphere exchange. We have assembled and flown an instrument payload onboard the NASA C-23 Sherpa aircraft capable of measuring CO2, CH4, H2O, and heat fluxes. Flights for the Carbon Airborne Flux Experiment (CARAFE) took place during September 2016 and May 2017 based out of Wallops Flight Facility, VA. Flight tracks covered a variety of ecosystems and land-use types in the Mid-Atlantic, including forests, croplands, and wetlands. Carbon fluxes are derived using eddy covariance and wavelet analysis. Our results show a strong drawdown of CO2 and near-zero CH4 emissions from crops and dry-land forest, but seasonally strong CH4 flux from wetland forest. CARAFE flux data will also be compared with observations from several flux towers along the flight path to complement the airborne measurements. We will further assess the effects of land surface type and seasonal variability in carbon exchange. Regional-scale flux observations from CARAFE supply a useful constraint for improving top-down and bottom up estimates of carbon sources and sinks.

  11. Sensors for Metering Heat Flux Area Density and Metrological Equipment for the Heat Flux Density Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronin, D. O.

    2018-04-01

    The demand in measuring and studies of heat conduction of various media is very urgent now. This article considers the problem of heat conduction monitoring and measurement in various media and materials in any industries and branches of science as well as metrological support of the heat flux measurement equipment. The main study objects are both the sensors manufactured and facilities onto which these sensors will be installed: different cladding structures of the buildings, awnings, rocket fairings, boiler units, internal combustion engines. The Company develops and manufactures different types of heat flux sensors: thermocouple, thin-film, heterogeneous gradient as well as metrological equipment for the gauging calibration of the heat flux density measurement. The calibration shall be performed using both referencing method in the unit and by fixed setting of the heat flux in the unit. To manufacture heterogeneous heat flux gradient sensors (HHFGS) the Company developed and designed a number of units: diffusion welding unit, HHFGS cutting unit. Rather good quality HHFGS prototypes were obtained. At this stage the factory tests on the equipment for the heat flux density measurement equipment are planned. A high-sensitivity heat flux sensor was produced, now it is tested at the Construction Physics Research Institute (Moscow). It became possible to create thin-film heat flux sensors with the sensitivity not worse than that of the sensors manufactured by Captec Company (France). The Company has sufficient premises to supply the market with a wide range of sensors, to master new sensor manufacture technologies which will enable their application range.

  12. Axial flux data for fuel measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovich, R.P.

    1964-02-11

    A survey of the PITA-18 nonpoisonous spline program was conducted in conjunction with a study to determine the best method of eliminating the variability of axial flux on the fuel performance parameter, q. The results of this survey and the conclusions reached in the rupture coefficient study were found to be inter-dependent such that both are presented in this report. The data from the PITA-18 nonpoisonous spline program, as received, is the output of the NOLA-2 computer program. One quantity of interest is the rupture potential relative to a cosine, commonly referred to as the relative rupture potential. As programmed, the relative rupture potential, which was derived by applying the rupture model to individual fuel elements, might be expected to vary linearly with the rupture rate. The use of the relative rupture potential was studied over the period of July 1962 through December 1963. The results of this study are presented.

  13. Combining the effect of crops surface albedo variability on the radiative forcing together with crop GHG budgets calculated from in situ flux measurements in a life cycle assessment approach: methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschia, E.; Ferlicoq, M.; Brut, A.; Tallec, T.

    2013-12-01

    The carbon and GHG budgets (GHGB) of the 2 crop sites with contrasted management located in South West France was estimated over a complete rotation by combining a classical LCA approach with on site CO2 flux measurements. At both sites, carbon inputs (organic fertilization, seeds), carbon exports (harvest) and net ecosystem production (NEP), measured with the eddy covariance technique, were estimated. The variability of the different terms and their relative contributions to the net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) were analyzed for all site-years, and the effect of management on NECB was assessed. To account for GHG fluxes that were not directly measured on site, we estimated the emissions caused by field operations (EFO) for each site using emission factors from the literature. The EFO were added to the NECB to calculate the total GHGB for a range of cropping systems and management regimes. N2O emissions were calculated following the IPCC (2007) guidelines or and CH4 emissions were assumed to be negligible. Albedo was calculated continuously using the short wave incident and reflected radiation measurements in the field from CNR1 sensors. Rapid changes in surface albedo typical from those ecosystems and resulting from management and crop phenology were analysed. The annual radiative forcing for each plot was estimated by calculating the difference between a mean annual albedo for each crop and a reference bare soil albedo value calculated over 5 years for each plot. To finalize the radiative forcing calculation, the method developed by Muñoz et al (2010) using up and down atmospheric transmittance had to be corrected so it would only account for up-going atmospheric transmittance. Annual differences in radiative forcing between crops were then converted in g C equivalent m-2 in order to add this effect to the GHG budget of each crop within a rotation. This methodology could be applied to all ICOS/NEON cropland sites. We found that the differences in radiative

  14. Soil heat flux and day time surface energy balance closure at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soil heat flux is a critical component of the surface energy balance along with the ... and prediction techniques. Evaporation measured .... Both incident and reflected solar radiation sensors are developed using wide spectrum photodiodes. The accuracy, resolution and range of the sensors used in the hydro-meteorological ...

  15. Global High Resolution Sea Surface Flux Parameters From Multiple Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Reynolds, R. W.; Shi, L.; Bates, J. J.

    2007-05-01

    Advances in understanding the coupled air-sea system and modeling of the ocean and atmosphere demand increasingly higher resolution data, such as air-sea fluxes of up to 3 hourly and every 50 km. These observational requirements can only be met by utilizing multiple satellite observations. Generation of such high resolution products from multiple-satellite and in-situ observations on an operational basis has been started at the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climatic Data Center. Here we describe a few products that are directly related to the computation of turbulent air-sea fluxes. Sea surface wind speed has been observed from in-situ instruments and multiple satellites, with long-term observations ranging from one satellite in the mid 1987 to six or more satellites since mid 2002. A blended product with a global 0.25° grid and four snapshots per day has been produced for July 1987 to present, using a near Gaussian 3-D (x, y, t) interpolation to minimize aliases. Wind direction has been observed from fewer satellites, thus for the blended high resolution vector winds and wind stresses, the directions are taken from the NCEP Re-analysis 2 (operationally run near real time) for climate consistency. The widely used Reynolds Optimum Interpolation SST analysis has been improved with higher resolutions (daily and 0.25°). The improvements use both infrared and microwave satellite data that are bias-corrected by in- situ observations for the period 1985 to present. The new versions provide very significant improvements in terms of resolving ocean features such as the meandering of the Gulf Stream, the Aghulas Current, the equatorial jets and other fronts. The Ta and Qa retrievals are based on measurements from the AMSU sounder onboard the NOAA satellites. Ta retrieval uses AMSU-A data, while Qa retrieval uses both AMSU-A and AMSU-B observations. The retrieval algorithms are developed using the neural network approach. Training

  16. Detecting buried radium contamination using soil-gas and surface-flux radon meaurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, K.E.

    1988-06-01

    The Technical Measurements Center (TMC) has investigated the effectiveness of using radon soil-gas under surface-flux measurments to locate radium contamination that is buried sufficiently deep to be undetectable by surface gamma methods. At the first test site studied, an indication of a buried source was revealed by mapping anomalous surface-flux and soil-gas concentrations in the near surface overburden. The mapped radon anomalies were found to correspond in rough outline to the shape of the areal extent of the deposit as determined by borehole gamma-ray logs. The 5.9pCi/g radium deposit, buried 2 feet below the surface, went undetected by conventional surface gamma measurements. Similar results were obtained at the second test site where radon and conventional surface gamma measurements were taken in an area having radium concentrations ranging from 13.3 to 341.0 pCi/g at a depth of 4 feet below the surface. The radon methods were found to have a detection limit for buried radium lower than that of the surface gamma methods, as evidenced by the discovery of the 13.3 pCi/g deposit which went undetected by the surface gamma methods. 15 refs., 33 figs., 8 tabs

  17. Estimation of Land Surface Fluxes and Their Uncertainty via Variational Data Assimilation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolghafoorian, A.; Farhadi, L.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate estimation of land surface heat and moisture fluxes as well as root zone soil moisture is crucial in various hydrological, meteorological, and agricultural applications. "In situ" measurements of these fluxes are costly and cannot be readily scaled to large areas relevant to weather and climate studies. Therefore, there is a need for techniques to make quantitative estimates of heat and moisture fluxes using land surface state variables. In this work, we applied a novel approach based on the variational data assimilation (VDA) methodology to estimate land surface fluxes and soil moisture profile from the land surface states. This study accounts for the strong linkage between terrestrial water and energy cycles by coupling the dual source energy balance equation with the water balance equation through the mass flux of evapotranspiration (ET). Heat diffusion and moisture diffusion into the column of soil are adjoined to the cost function as constraints. This coupling results in more accurate prediction of land surface heat and moisture fluxes and consequently soil moisture at multiple depths with high temporal frequency as required in many hydrological, environmental and agricultural applications. One of the key limitations of VDA technique is its tendency to be ill-posed, meaning that a continuum of possibilities exists for different parameters that produce essentially identical measurement-model misfit errors. On the other hand, the value of heat and moisture flux estimation to decision-making processes is limited if reasonable estimates of the corresponding uncertainty are not provided. In order to address these issues, in this research uncertainty analysis will be performed to estimate the uncertainty of retrieved fluxes and root zone soil moisture. The assimilation algorithm is tested with a series of experiments using a synthetic data set generated by the simultaneous heat and water (SHAW) model. We demonstrate the VDA performance by comparing the

  18. Determining Maximum Glycolytic Capacity Using Extracellular Flux Measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona A Mookerjee

    Full Text Available Measurements of glycolytic rate and maximum glycolytic capacity using extracellular flux analysis can give crucial information about cell status and phenotype during normal operation, development of pathology, differentiation, and malignant transformation. They are also of great use when assessing the effects of chemical or drug treatments. Here, we experimentally define maximum glycolytic capacity, demonstrate how it differs from glycolytic rate, and provide a protocol for determining the basal glycolytic rate and maximum glycolytic capacity in cells using extracellular flux measurements. The results illustrate the power of extracellular flux analysis to describe the energetics of adherent cells in culture in a fully quantitative way.

  19. Determining Maximum Glycolytic Capacity Using Extracellular Flux Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookerjee, Shona A; Nicholls, David G; Brand, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of glycolytic rate and maximum glycolytic capacity using extracellular flux analysis can give crucial information about cell status and phenotype during normal operation, development of pathology, differentiation, and malignant transformation. They are also of great use when assessing the effects of chemical or drug treatments. Here, we experimentally define maximum glycolytic capacity, demonstrate how it differs from glycolytic rate, and provide a protocol for determining the basal glycolytic rate and maximum glycolytic capacity in cells using extracellular flux measurements. The results illustrate the power of extracellular flux analysis to describe the energetics of adherent cells in culture in a fully quantitative way.

  20. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Yearly Climatology, Set1 and NCEP V2c (GSSTFYC) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  1. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Monthly Climatology, Set1 and NCEP V2c (GSSTFMC) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  2. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Set1 V2c (GSSTF) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr....

  3. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Monthly Grid, Set1 and Interpolated Data V2c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  4. ENSO impact on surface radiative fluxes as observed from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, R. T.; Grodsky, S. A.; Zhang, B.; Busalacchi, A.; Chen, W.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on surface radiative fluxes over the tropical Pacific using satellite observations and fluxes derived from selected atmospheric reanalyses. Agreement between the two in this region is important because reanalysis information is frequently used to assess surface energy budget sensitivity to ENSO. We found that during the traditional ENSO, the maximum variance of anomalous incoming solar radiation is located just west of the dateline and coincides with the area of the largest anomalous SST gradient. It can reach up to 60 W/m2 and lags behind the Niño3 index by about a month, suggesting a response to anomalous SST gradient. The magnitude of longwave anomaly is only half that large and varies in phase with the SST anomaly. Similar anomalies were derived from outputs: from the European Centre for Medium-Weather Forecasts Reanalysis Interim (ERA-I), from the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis version 2 (MERRA-2), from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1 (R1), and from the Japanese JRA55 reanalysis. Among the four reanalyses used, results from ERA-I are the closest to observations. We have also investigated the surface wind divergence/convergence and found that the main factor limiting eastward excursions of convection is the surface wind convergence. Due to the wind divergence pattern normally present over the eastern cold tongue, anomalous convection extends into the eastern equatorial Pacific only during the strongest warm events. Our analysis also considers the El Niño Modoki events, for which the radiation flux patterns are shifted westward following the SST pattern.

  5. Description of heat flux measurement methods used in hydrocarbon and propellant fuel fires at Sandia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the methods commonly used to measure heat flux in fire applications at Sandia National Laboratories in both hydrocarbon (JP-8 jet fuel, diesel fuel, etc.) and propellant fires. Because these environments are very severe, many commercially available heat flux gauges do not survive the test, so alternative methods had to be developed. Specially built sensors include 'calorimeters' that use a temperature measurement to infer heat flux by use of a model (heat balance on the sensing surface) or by using an inverse heat conduction method. These specialty-built sensors are made rugged so they will survive the environment, so are not optimally designed for ease of use or accuracy. Other methods include radiometers, co-axial thermocouples, directional flame thermometers (DFTs), Sandia 'heat flux gauges', transpiration radiometers, and transverse Seebeck coefficient heat flux gauges. Typical applications are described and pros and cons of each method are listed.

  6. Measurement of the Cosmic Ray and Neutrino-Induced Muon Flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SNO collaboration; Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S.N.; Andersen, T.C.; Anthony, A.E.; Barros, N.; Beier, E.W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S.D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M.G.; Burritt, T.H.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, M.; Chon, M.C.; Cleveland, B.T.; Cox-Mobrand, G.A.; Currat, C.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Doe, P.J.; Dosanjh, R.S.; Doucas, G.; Drouin, P.-L.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Elliott, S.R.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Gagnon, N.; Goon, J.TM.; Grant, D.R.; Guillian, E.; Habib, S.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harvey, P.J.; Harvey, P.J.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Hemingway, R.J.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M.A.; Huang, M.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N.A.; Klein, J.R.; Kos, M.; Kruger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C.B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J.C.; Luoma, S.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A.D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A.B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, M.L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Noble, A.J.; Oblath, N.S.; Okada, C.E.; O?Keeffe, H.M.; Opachich, Y.; Orebi Gann, G.D.; Oser, S.M.; Ott, R.A.; Peeters, S.J.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B.C.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M.H.; Secrest, J.A.; Seibert, S.R.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J.J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M.W.E.; Sonley, T.J.; Steiger, T.D.; Stonehill, L.C.; Tagg, N.; Tesic, G.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Van de Water, R.G.; VanDevender, B.A.; Virtue, C.J.; Waller, D.; Waltham, C.E.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wark, D.L.; Watson, P.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Wilson, J.R.; Wouters, J.M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2009-02-16

    Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth's surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring the flux of through-going muons as a function of zenith angle, the SNO experiment can distinguish between the oscillated and un-oscillated portion of the neutrino flux. A total of 514 muon-like events are measured between -1 {le} cos {theta}{sub zenith} 0.4 in a total exposure of 2.30 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup 2} s. The measured flux normalization is 1.22 {+-} 0.09 times the Bartol three-dimensional flux prediction. This is the first measurement of the neutrino-induced flux where neutrino oscillations are minimized. The zenith distribution is consistent with previously measured atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters. The cosmic ray muon flux at SNO with zenith angle cos {theta}{sub zenith} > 0.4 is measured to be (3.31 {+-} 0.01 (stat.) {+-} 0.09 (sys.)) x 10{sup -10} {micro}/s/cm{sup 2}.

  7. Measurement of the Cosmic Ray and Neutrino-Induced Muon Flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    SNO collaboration; Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S. N.; Andersen, T. C.; Anthony, A. E.; Barros, N.; Beier, E. W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S. D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M. G.; Burritt, T. H.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y. D.; Chen, M.; Chon, M. C.; Cleveland, B. T.; Cox-Mobrand, G. A.; Currat, C. A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Doe, P. J.; Dosanjh, R. S.; Doucas, G.; Drouin, P.-L.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R. J.; Formaggio, J. A.; Gagnon, N.; Goon, J. TM.; Grant, D. R.; Guillian, E.; Habib, S.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hargrove, C. K.; Harvey, P. J.; Harvey, P. J.; Heeger, K. M.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Hemingway, R. J.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M. A.; Huang, M.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N. A.; Klein, J. R.; Kos, M.; Kruger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C. B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J. C.; Luoma, S.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A. D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A. B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, M. L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Noble, A. J.; Oblath, N. S.; Okada, C. E.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Opachich, Y.; Orebi Gann, G. D.; Oser, S. M.; Ott, R. A.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M. H.; Secrest, J. A.; Seibert, S. R.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J. J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M. W. E.; Sonley, T. J.; Steiger, T. D.; Stonehill, L. C.; Tagg, N.; Tesic, G.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Van de Water, R. G.; VanDevender, B. A.; Virtue, C. J.; Waller, D.; Waltham, C. E.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wark, D. L.; Watson, P.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wouters, J. M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2009-07-10

    Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth's surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring the flux of through-going muons as a function of zenith angle, the SNO experiment can distinguish between the oscillated and un-oscillated portion of the neutrino flux. A total of 514 muon-like events are measured between -1 {le} cos {theta}{sub zenith} 0.4 in a total exposure of 2.30 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup 2} s. The measured flux normalization is 1.22 {+-} 0.09 times the Bartol three-dimensional flux prediction. This is the first measurement of the neutrino-induced flux where neutrino oscillations are minimized. The zenith distribution is consistent with previously measured atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters. The cosmic ray muon flux at SNO with zenith angle cos {theta}{sub zenith} > 0.4 is measured to be (3.31 {+-} 0.01 (stat.) {+-} 0.09 (sys.)) x 10{sup -10} {micro}/s/cm{sup 2}.

  8. Quantification of surface energy fluxes from a small water body using scintillometry and eddy covariance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGloin, Ryan; McGowan, Hamish; McJannet, David

    2014-01-01

    % greater than eddy covariance measurements. We suggest possible reasons for this difference and provide recommendations for further research for improving measurements of surface energy fluxes over small water bodies using eddy covariance and scintillometry. Key Points Source areas for Eddy covariance......Accurate quantification of evaporation from small water storages is essential for water management and planning, particularly in water-scarce regions. In order to ascertain suitable methods for direct measurement of evaporation from small water bodies, this study presents a comparison of eddy...... covariance and scintillometry measurements from a reservoir in southeast Queensland, Australia. The work presented expands on a short study presented by McJannet et al. (2011) to include comparisons of eddy covariance measurements and scintillometer-derived predictions of surface energy fluxes under a wide...

  9. Measurement of Gas-Surface Accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, W. M.; Rader, D. J.; Castañeda, J. N.; Torczynski, J. R.; Gallis, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    Thermal accommodation coefficients have been determined for a variety of gas-surface combinations using an experimental apparatus developed to measure both the pressure dependence of the conductive heat flux and the variation of gas density between parallel plates separated by a gas-filled gap. Effects of gas composition, surface roughness and surface contamination have been examined with this system, and the behavior of gas mixtures has also been explored. Results are discussed in comparison with previous parallel-plate experimental studies as well as numerical simulations.

  10. Modeling surface energy fluxes from a patchwork of fields with different soils and crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Christian; Thieme, Christoph; Heinlein, Florian; Priesack, Eckart

    2017-04-01

    Agroecosystems are a dominant terrestrial land-use on planet earth and cover about 36% of the ice-free surface (12% pasture, 26% agriculture) [Foley2011]. Within this land use type, management practices vary strongly due to climate, cultural preferences, degree of industrialization, soil properties, crop rotations, field sizes, degree of land use sustainability, water availability, sowing and harvest dates, tillage, etc. These management practices influence abiotic environmental factors like water flow and heat transport within the ecosystem leading to changes of land surface fluxes. The relevance of vegetation (e.g. crops), ground cover, and soil properties to the moisture and energy exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere is well known [McPherson 2007], but the impact of vegetation growth dynamics on energy fluxes is only partly understood [Gayler et al. 2014]. Thus, the structure of turbulence and the albedo evolve during the cropping period and large variations of heat can be measured on the field scale [Aubinet2012]. One issue of local distributed mixture of different land use is the measurement process which makes it challenging to evaluate simulations. Unfortunately, for meteorological flux-measurements like the Flux-Gradient or the Eddy Covariance (EC) method, comparability with simulations only exists in the ideal case, where fields have to be completely uniform in land use and flat within the reach of the footprint. Then a model with one specific land use would have the same underlying source area as the measurement. An elegant method to avoid the shortcoming of grid cell resolution is the so called mixed approach, which was recently implemented into the ecosystem model framework Expert-N [Biernath et al. 2013]. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the characteristics of five managed field plots, planted with winter wheat, potato and maize on the near surface soil moistures and on the near surface energy flux exchanges of the

  11. Carbon dioxide flux measurements from a coastal Douglas-fir forest floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drewitt, G.B.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis examined the process that affects the exchange of carbon between the soil and the atmosphere with particular attention to the large amounts of carbon stored in soils in the form of decaying organic matter. This forest floor measuring study was conducted in 2000 at a micro-meteorological tower flux site in a coastal temperature Douglas-fir forest. The measuring study involved half hourly measurements of both carbon dioxide and below-ground carbon dioxide storage. Measurements were taken at 6 locations between April and December to include a large portion of the growing season. Eddy covariance (EC) measurements of carbon dioxide flux above the forest floor over a two month period in the summer and the autumn were compared with forest floor measurements. Below-ground carbon dioxide mixing ratios of soil air were measured at 6 depths between 0.02 to 1 m using gas diffusion probes and a syringe sampling method. Maximum carbon dioxide fluxes measured by the soil chambers varied by a factor of 3 and a high spatial variability in soil carbon dioxide flux was noted. Forest floor carbon dioxide fluxes measured by each of the chambers indicated different sensitivities to soil temperature. Hysteresis in the flux temperature relationship over the year was evident. Reliable below-canopy EC measurements of the forest floor carbon dioxide flux were difficult to obtain because of the every low wind speeds below the forest canopy. The amount of carbon dioxde present in the soil increased rapidly with depth near the surface but less rapidly deeper in the soil. It was suggested that approximately half of the carbon dioxide produced below-ground comes from between the soil surface and the first 0.15 m of depth. Carbon dioxide fluxes from the floor of a Douglas-fir forest were found to be large compared to other, less productive ecosystems

  12. Influences of biomass heat and biochemical energy storages on the land surface fluxes and radiative temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lianhong; Meyers, Tilden; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hanson, Paul J.; Yang, Bai; Heuer, Mark; Hosman, Kevin P.; Liu, Qing; Riggs, Jeffery S.; Sluss, Dan; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2007-01-01

    The interest of this study was to develop an initial assessment on the potential importance of biomass heat and biochemical energy storages for land-atmosphere interactions, an issue that has been largely neglected so far. We conducted flux tower observations and model simulations at a temperate deciduous forest site in central Missouri in the summer of 2004. The model used was the comprehensive terrestrial ecosystem Fluxes and Pools Integrated Simulator (FAPIS). We first examined FAPIS performance by testing its predictions with and without the representation of biomass energy storages against measurements of surface energy and CO2 fluxes. We then evaluated the magnitudes and temporal patterns of the biomass energy storages calculated by FAPIS. Finally, the effects of biomass energy storages on land-atmosphere exchanges of sensible and latent heat fluxes and variations of land surface radiative temperature were investigated by contrasting FAPIS simulations with and without these storage terms. We found that with the representation of the two biomass energy storage terms, FAPIS predictions agreed with flux tower measurements fairly well; without the representation, however, FAPIS performance deteriorated for all predicted surface energy flux terms although the effect on the predicted CO2 flux was minimal. In addition, we found that the biomass heat storage and biochemical energy storage had clear diurnal patterns with typical ranges from -50 to 50 and -3 to 20 W m-2, respectively; these typical ranges were exceeded substantially when there were sudden changes in atmospheric conditions. Furthermore, FAPIS simulations without the energy storages produced larger sensible and latent heat fluxes during the day but smaller fluxes (more negative values) at night as compared with simulations with the energy storages. Similarly, without-storage simulations had higher surface radiative temperature during the day but lower radiative temperature at night, indicating that the

  13. On the predictability of land surface fluxes from meteorological variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughton, Ned; Abramowitz, Gab; Pitman, Andy J.

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has shown that land surface models (LSMs) are performing poorly when compared with relatively simple empirical models over a wide range of metrics and environments. Atmospheric driving data appear to provide information about land surface fluxes that LSMs are not fully utilising. Here, we further quantify the information available in the meteorological forcing data that are used by LSMs for predicting land surface fluxes, by interrogating FLUXNET data, and extending the benchmarking methodology used in previous experiments. We show that substantial performance improvement is possible for empirical models using meteorological data alone, with no explicit vegetation or soil properties, thus setting lower bounds on a priori expectations on LSM performance. The process also identifies key meteorological variables that provide predictive power. We provide an ensemble of empirical benchmarks that are simple to reproduce and provide a range of behaviours and predictive performance, acting as a baseline benchmark set for future studies. We reanalyse previously published LSM simulations and show that there is more diversity between LSMs than previously indicated, although it remains unclear why LSMs are broadly performing so much worse than simple empirical models.

  14. Nitrous Oxide flux measurements under various amendments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset consists of measurements of soil nitrous oxide emissions from soils under three different amendments: glucose, cellulose, and manure. Data includes the...

  15. A bottom-up perspective of the net land methanol flux: synthesis of global eddy covariance flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Amelynck, Crist; Ammann, Christof; Arneth, Almut; Bamberger, Ines; Goldstein, Allen; Hansel, Armin; Heinesch, Bernhard; Holst, Thomas; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Karl, Thomas; Neftel, Albrecht; McKinney, Karena; Munger, William; Schade, Gunnar; Schoon, Niels

    2014-05-01

    Methanol (CH3OH) is, after methane, the second most abundant VOC in the troposphere and globally represents nearly 20% of the total biospheric VOC emissions. With typical concentrations of 1-10 ppb in the continental boundary layer, methanol plays a crucial role in atmospheric chemistry, which needs to be evaluated in the light of ongoing changes in land use and climate. Previous global methanol budgets have approached the net land flux by summing up the various emission terms (namely primary biogenic and anthropogenic emissions, plant decay and biomass burning) and by subtracting dry and wet deposition, resulting in a net land flux in the range of 75-245 Tg y-1. The data underlying these budget calculations largely stem from small-scale leaf gas exchange measurements and while recently column-integrated remotely sensed methanol concentrations have become available for constraining budget calculations, there have been few attempts to contrast model calculations with direct net ecosystem-scale methanol flux measurements. Here we use eddy covariance methanol flux measurements from 8 sites in Europe and North America to study the magnitude of and controls on the diurnal and seasonal variability in the net ecosystem methanol flux. In correspondence with leaf-level literature, our data show that methanol emission and its strong environmental and biotic control (by temperature and stomatal conductance) prevailed at the more productive (agricultural) sites and at a perturbed forest site. In contrast, at more natural, less productive sites substantial deposition of methanol occurred, in particular during periods of surface wetness. These deposition processes are poorly represented by currently available temperature/light and/or production-driven modelling algorithms. A new framework for modelling the bi-directional land-atmosphere methanol exchange is proposed which accounts for the production of methanol in leaves, the regulation of leaf methanol emission by stomatal

  16. Surface oxygen vacancy and oxygen permeation flux limits of perovskite ion transport membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hunt, Anton

    2015-09-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The mechanisms and quantitative models for how oxygen is separated from air using ion transport membranes (ITMs) are not well understood, largely due to the experimental complexity for determining surface exchange reactions at extreme temperatures (>800°C). This is especially true when fuels are present at the permeate surface. For both inert and reactive (fuels) operations, solid-state oxygen surface vacancies (δ) are ultimately responsible for driving the oxygen flux, JO2. In the inert case, the value of δ at either surface is a function of the local PO2 and temperature, whilst the magnitude of δ dictates both the JO2 and the inherent stability of the material. In this study values of δ are presented based on experimental measurements under inert (CO2) sweep: using a permeation flux model and local PO2 measurements, collected by means of a local gas-sampling probe in our large-scale reactor, we can determine δ directly. The ITM assessed was La0.9Ca0.1FeO3-δ (LCF); the relative resistances to JO2 were quantified using the pre-defined permeation flux model and local PO2 values. Across a temperature range from 825°C to 1056°C, δ was found to vary from 0.007 to 0.029 (<1%), safely within material stability limits, whilst the permeate surface exchange resistance dominates. An inert JO2 limit was identified owing to a maximum sweep surface δ, δmaxinert. The physical presence of δmaxinert is attributed to a rate limiting step shift from desorption to associative electron transfer steps on the sweep surface as PO2 is reduced. Permeate surface exchange limitations under non-reactive conditions suggest that reactive (fuel) operation is necessary to accelerate surface chemistry for future work, to reduce flux resistance and push δpast δmaxinert in a stable manner.

  17. Field comparison of disjunct and conventional eddy covariance techniques for trace gas flux measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, J.; Douffet, T.; Prigent, Y.; Durand, P.

    2008-01-01

    A field intercomparison experiment of the disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) and the conventional eddy covariance (EC) techniques was conducted over a grass field. The half-hourly water vapor fluxes measured by the DEC were within the estimated uncertainty from the fluxes measured by the EC. On the average there was a slight overestimation (<10%) of the fluxes measured by the DEC during the day and underestimation during the night as compared to the fluxes measured by the EC. As this bias does not appear in the simulated DEC measurements it is likely to be due to instrumental problems. The insensitivity of the quality of the fluxes measured by the DEC method to the deficiencies in the gas analysis shows the robustness of this new approach for measuring the surface-atmosphere exchange of trace gases. - Results from the first field intercomparison between a new state-of-the-art trace gas flux measurement technique and the direct eddy covariance measurements are reported in this paper

  18. How well can we measure the vertical wind speed? Implications for fluxes of energy and mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Kochendorfer; Tilden P. Meyers; John Frank; William J. Massman; Mark W. Heuer

    2012-01-01

    Sonic anemometers are capable of measuring the wind speed in all three dimensions at high frequencies (10­50 Hz), and are relied upon to estimate eddy-covariance-based fluxes of mass and energy over a wide variety of surfaces and ecosystems. In this study, wind-velocity measurement errors from a three-dimensional sonic anemometer with a nonorthogonal transducer...

  19. Accuracy of surface heat fluxes from observations of operational satellites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Sugimori, Y.

    Uncertainties in the flux estimates, resulting from the use of bulk method and remotely sensed data are worked out and are presented for individual and total fluxes. These uncertainties in satellite derived fluxes are further compared...

  20. Rigorous bounds on buoyancy flux in surface driven flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, C. P.

    2004-11-01

    Stably stratified shear flows, where both the velocity and density vary with height, are common in environmentally and geophysically relevant flows. An understanding of constraints on mixing processes is essential for an improved parameterization of geophysical turbulence, in particular for appropriate modelling of the budgets of heat, salinity and momentum in larger scale models. Flows that are principally driven by surface-localized stresses (e.g. caused by wind) are particularly prevalent in geophysical flows. In this talk, I will derive rigorous bounds on the long-time averaged buoyancy flux for a class of such flows, using the background method developed by Doering & Constantin. Interestingly, flows that maximize the buoyancy flux can be directly related to laminar flows with stronger forcing. This is qualitatively different from other stratified mixing problems, for example in stratified plane Couette flow. This result suggests that quasi-laminar mixing, which is typically much more efficient than strongly turbulent mixing, may be the dominant process by which irreversible changes in density occur within such surface driven flows.

  1. Hydrogen sulfide flux measurements from construction and demolition debris (C&D) landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Sangho; Reinhart, Debra R; Cooper, C David; Townsend, Timothy G; Faour, Ayman

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been identified as a principal odorous component of gaseous emissions from construction and demolition debris (C&D) landfills. Although several studies have reported the ambient concentrations of H2S near C&D landfills, few studies have quantified emission rates of H2S. One of the most widely used techniques for measuring surface gas emission rates from landfills is the flux chamber method. Flux measurements using the flux chamber were performed at five different C&D landfills from April to August, 2003. The flux rates of H2S measured in this research were between 0.192 and 1.76 mg/(m2-d).

  2. Global observation-based diagnosis of soil moisture control on land surface flux partition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Elvira, Belen; Taylor, Christopher M.; Harris, Phil P.; Ghent, Darren; Veal, Karen L.; Folwell, Sonja S.

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture plays a central role in the partition of available energy at the land surface between sensible and latent heat flux to the atmosphere. As soils dry out, evapotranspiration becomes water-limited ("stressed"), and both land surface temperature (LST) and sensible heat flux rise as a result. This change in surface behaviour during dry spells directly affects critical processes in both the land and the atmosphere. Soil water deficits are often a precursor in heat waves, and they control where feedbacks on precipitation become significant. State-of-the-art global climate model (GCM) simulations for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) disagree on where and how strongly the surface energy budget is limited by soil moisture. Evaluation of GCM simulations at global scale is still a major challenge owing to the scarcity and uncertainty of observational datasets of land surface fluxes and soil moisture at the appropriate scale. Earth observation offers the potential to test how well GCM land schemes simulate hydrological controls on surface fluxes. In particular, satellite observations of LST provide indirect information about the surface energy partition at 1km resolution globally. Here, we present a potentially powerful methodology to evaluate soil moisture stress on surface fluxes within GCMs. Our diagnostic, Relative Warming Rate (RWR), is a measure of how rapidly the land warms relative to the overlying atmosphere during dry spells lasting at least 10 days. Under clear skies, this is a proxy for the change in sensible heat flux as soil dries out. We derived RWR from MODIS Terra and Aqua LST observations, meteorological re-analyses and satellite rainfall datasets. Globally we found that on average, the land warmed up during dry spells for 97% of the observed surface between 60S and 60N. For 73% of the area, the land warmed faster than the atmosphere (positive RWR), indicating water stressed conditions and increases in sensible heat flux

  3. Estimating local atmosphere-surface fluxes using eddy covariance and numerical ogive optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievers, Jakob; Papakyriakou, T.; Larsen, S.

    2014-01-01

    -frequency contributions to vertical turbulent surface fluxes. For high flux-rates (|Sensible heat flux|> 40 Wm^(-2), |latent heat flux|>10 Wm^(-2) and |CO_2 flux|>170 mmol m^(-2) d^(-1)) we found that the average relative difference between fluxes estimated by Ogive optimization and the conventional method was low (5......–20%) suggesting negligible low-frequency influence and that both methods capture the turbulent fluxes equally well. For flux-rates below these thresholds, however, the average relative difference between flux estimates was found to be very high (23–80%) suggesting non-negligible low-frequency influence...... and that the conventional method fails in separating low-frequency influences from the turbulent fluxes. Hence, the Ogive optimization method is an appropriate method of flux analysis, particularly in low-flux environments....

  4. How to choose methods for lake greenhouse gas flux measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastviken, David

    2017-04-01

    Lake greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes are increasingly recognized as important for lake ecosystems as well as for large scale carbon and GHG budgets. However, many of our flux estimates are uncertain and it can be discussed if the presently available data is representative for the systems studied or not. Data are also very limited for some important flux pathways. Hence, many ongoing efforts try to better constrain fluxes and understand flux regulation. A fundamental challenge towards improved knowledge and when starting new studies is what methods to choose. A variety of approaches to measure aquatic GHG exchange is used and data from different methods and methodological approaches have often been treated as equally valid to create large datasets for extrapolations and syntheses. However, data from different approaches may cover different flux pathways or spatio-temporal domains and are thus not always comparable. Method inter-comparisons and critical method evaluations addressing these issues are rare. Emerging efforts to organize systematic multi-lake monitoring networks for GHG fluxes leads to method choices that may set the foundation for decades of data generation and therefore require fundamental evaluation of different approaches. The method choices do not only regard the equipment but also for example consideration of overall measurement design and field approaches, relevant spatial and temporal resolution for different flux components, and accessory variables to measure. In addition, consideration of how to design monitoring approaches being affordable, suitable for widespread (global) use, and comparable across regions is needed. Inspired by discussions with Prof. Dr. Cristian Blodau during the EGU General Assembly 2016, this presentation aims to (1) illustrate fundamental pros and cons for a number of common methods, (2) show how common methodological approaches originally adapted for other environments can be improved for lake flux measurements, (3) suggest

  5. Estimating surface turbulent heat fluxes from land surface temperature and soil moisture using the particle batch smoother

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Dong, Jianzhi; Steele-Dunne, Susan; van de Giesen, Nick

    2016-04-01

    This study is focused on estimating surface sensible and latent heat fluxes from land surface temperature (LST) time series and soil moisture observations. Surface turbulent heat fluxes interact with the overlying atmosphere and play a crucial role in meteorology, hydrology and other climate-related fields, but in-situ measurements are costly and difficult. It has been demonstrated that the time series of LST contains information of energy partitioning and that surface turbulent heat fluxes can be determined from assimilation of LST. These studies are mainly based on two assumptions: (1) a monthly value of bulk heat transfer coefficient under neutral conditions (CHN) which scales the sum of the fluxes, and (2) an evaporation fraction (EF) which stays constant during the near-peak hours of the day. Previous studies have applied variational and ensemble approaches to this problem. Here the newly developed particle batch smoother (PBS) algorithm is adopted to test its capability in this application. The PBS can be seen as an extension of the standard particle filter (PF) in which the states and parameters within a fix window are updated in a batch using all observations in the window. The aim of this study is two-fold. First, the PBS is used to assimilate only LST time series into the force-restore model to estimate fluxes. Second, a simple soil water transfer scheme is introduced to evaluate the benefit of assimilating soil moisture observations simultaneously. The experiments are implemented using the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) (FIFE) data. It is shown that the restored LST time series using PBS agrees very well with observations, and that assimilating LST significantly improved the flux estimation at both daily and half-hourly time scales. When soil moisture is introduced to further constrain EF, the accuracy of estimated EF is greatly improved. Furthermore, the RMSEs of retrieved fluxes are effectively reduced at both

  6. Assessment of clear sky radiative fluxes in CMIP5 climate models using surface observations from BSRN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, M.; Hakuba, M. Z.; Folini, D.; Ott, P.; Long, C. N.

    2017-12-01

    Clear sky fluxes in the latest generation of Global Climate Models (GCM) from CMIP5 still vary largely particularly at the Earth's surface, covering in their global means a range of 16 and 24 Wm-2 in the surface downward clear sky shortwave (SW) and longwave radiation, respectively. We assess these fluxes with monthly clear sky reference climatologies derived from more than 40 Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) sites based on Long and Ackermann (2000) and Hakuba et al. (2015). The comparison is complicated by the fact that the monthly SW clear sky BSRN reference climatologies are inferred from measurements under true cloud-free conditions, whereas the GCM clear sky fluxes are calculated continuously at every timestep solely by removing the clouds, yet otherwise keeping the prevailing atmospheric composition (e.g. water vapor, temperature, aerosols) during the cloudy conditions. This induces the risk of biases in the GCMs just due to the additional sampling of clear sky fluxes calculated under atmospheric conditions representative for cloudy situations. Thereby, a wet bias may be expected in the GCMs compared to the observational references, which may induce spurious low biases in the downward clear sky SW fluxes. To estimate the magnitude of these spurious biases in the available monthly mean fields from 40 CMIP5 models, we used their respective multi-century control runs, and searched therein for each month and each BSRN station the month with the lowest cloud cover. The deviations of the clear sky fluxes in this month from their long-term means have then be used as indicators of the magnitude of the abovementioned sampling biases and as correction factors for an appropriate comparison with the BSRN climatologies, individually applied for each model and BSRN site. The overall correction is on the order of 2 Wm-2. This revises our best estimate for the global mean surface downward SW clear sky radiation, previously at 249 Wm-2 infered from the GCM clear sky

  7. The topological molecule: Its finite fluxes, exchange stability and minimal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gerald F.

    2016-03-01

    Molecules have at least one nontrivial topological property in common: their minimal surfaces of finite flux. This is why they are stable aggregates of atoms mutually engaged to varying degrees via Coulombic and exchange interactions in fealty to quantum mechanics on otherwise passive nuclear scaffolds. Isolated atoms do not have minimal surfaces but they do undergo exchange interactions. All surfaces implicitly defined by a molecule’s charge density are shown to have zero mean curvature and are consequently minimal surfaces. This finding extends to any potential of a molecule. The minimal surface is of importance in that it is indicative of a vanishing mean curvature whose measurement serves as a way of gauging the charge density or electrostatic potential’s local reliability, a quality assurance protocol absent in conventional crystallography but available to scanning force microscopy. The smaller the mean curvature of an atom, the more bonded is that atom in a molecule. The basis for this discovery is that implicit surfaces admit finite flux to cross them regardless of atomic affiliation, thus engendering exchange, correlation, and chemical bonding between the atoms in the underlying nuclear framework of a molecule. Finite flux in the charge density is a necessary condition for chemical bonding and the stability of molecules and is what makes the electron localization function (ELF) and the exchange-correlation functional (BLYP) useful.

  8. Comparison between elementary flux modes analysis and 13C-metabolic fluxes measured in bacterial and plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurton-Aimar, Marie; Beauvoit, Bertrand; Monier, Antoine; Vallée, François; Dieuaide-Noubhani, Martine; Colombié, Sophie

    2011-06-20

    (13)C metabolic flux analysis is one of the pertinent ways to compare two or more physiological states. From a more theoretical standpoint, the structural properties of metabolic networks can be analysed to explore feasible metabolic behaviours and to define the boundaries of steady state flux distributions. Elementary flux mode analysis is one of the most efficient methods for performing this analysis. In this context, recent approaches have tended to compare experimental flux measurements with topological network analysis. Metabolic networks describing the main pathways of central carbon metabolism were set up for a bacteria species (Corynebacterium glutamicum) and a plant species (Brassica napus) for which experimental flux maps were available. The structural properties of each network were then studied using the concept of elementary flux modes. To do this, coefficients of flux efficiency were calculated for each reaction within the networks by using selected sets of elementary flux modes. Then the relative differences - reflecting the change of substrate i.e. a sugar source for C. glutamicum and a nitrogen source for B. napus - of both flux efficiency and flux measured experimentally were compared. For both organisms, there is a clear relationship between these parameters, thus indicating that the network structure described by the elementary flux modes had captured a significant part of the metabolic activity in both biological systems. In B. napus, the extension of the elementary flux mode analysis to an enlarged metabolic network still resulted in a clear relationship between the change in the coefficients and that of the measured fluxes. Nevertheless, the limitations of the method to fit some particular fluxes are discussed. This consistency between EFM analysis and experimental flux measurements, validated on two metabolic systems allows us to conclude that elementary flux mode analysis could be a useful tool to complement (13)C metabolic flux analysis

  9. Critical heat flux variations on CANDU calandria tube surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behdadi, A.; Luxat, J.C., E-mail: behdada@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: luxatj@mcmaster.ca [McMaster Univ., Engineering Physics Dept., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Heavy water moderator surrounding each fuel channel is one of the important safety features in CANDU reactors since it provides an in-situ passive heat sink for the fuel in situations where other engineered means of heat removal from fuel channels have failed. In a critical break LOCA scenario, fuel cooling becomes severely degraded due to rapid flow reduction in the affected flow pass of the heat transport system. This can result in pressure tubes experiencing significant heat-up during early stages of the accident when coolant pressure is still high, thereby causing uniform thermal creep strain (ballooning) of the pressure tube (PT) into contact with its calandria tube (CT). The contact of the hot PT with the CT causes rapid redistribution of stored heat from the PT to CT and a large heat flux spike from the CT to the moderator fluid. For conditions where subcooling of the moderator fluid is low, this heat flux spike can cause dryout of the CT. This can detrimentally affect channel integrity if the CT post-dryout temperature becomes sufficiently high to result in continued thermal creep strain deformation of both the PT and the CT. The focus of this work is to develop a mechanistic model to predict Critical Heat Flux (CHF) on the CT surface following a contact with its pressure tube. A mechanistic CHF model is applied based on a concept of wall dry patch formation, prevention of rewetting and subsequent dry patch spreading. Results have been compared to an empirical correlation and a good agreement has been obtained. The model has been used to predict the spatial variation of CHF over a cylinder with dimensions of CANDU CT. (author)

  10. Densitometric tomography using the measurement of muon flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hivert, F.; Busto, J.; Brunner, J.; Salin, P.; Gaffet, S.

    2013-12-01

    The knowledge of the subsurface properties is essentially obtained by geophysical methods, e.g. seismic imaging, electric prospection or gravimetry. The present work develops a recent method to investigate the in situ density of rocks using atmospheric the muon flux measurement , its attenuation depending on the rock density and thickness. This new geophysical technique have been mainly applied in volcanology (Lesparre N., 2011) using scintillator detectors. The present project (T2DM2) aims to realize underground muons flux measurements in order to characterizing the rock massif density variations above the LSBB underground research facility in Rustrel (France). The muon flux will be measure with a new Muon telescope instrumentation using Micromegas detectors in Time Projection Chambers (TPC) configuration. The first step of the work presented considers the muon flux simulation using the Gaisser model, for the interactions between muons and atmospheric particles, and the MUSIC code (Kudryavtsev V. A., 2008) for the muons/rock interactions. The results show that the muon flux attenuation caused by density variations are enough significant to be observed until around 500 m depth and for period of time in the order of one month. Such a duration scale and depth of investigation is compatible with the duration of the water transfer processes involved within the Karst unsaturated zone where LSBB is located. Our work now concentrates on the optimization of the spatial distribution of detectors that will be deployed in future.

  11. 3-D density imaging with muon flux measurements from underground galleries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesparre, N.; Cabrera, J.; Marteau, J.

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric muon flux measurements provide information on subsurface density distribution. In this study, muon flux was measured underground, in the Tournemire experimental platform (France). The objective was to image the medium between the galleries and the surface and evaluate the feasibility to detect the presence of discontinuities, for example, produced by secondary subvertical faults or by karstic networks. Measurements were performed from three different sites with a partial overlap of muon trajectories, offering the possibility to seek density variations at different depths. The conversion of the measured muon flux to average density values showed global variations further analysed through a 3-D nonlinear inversion procedure. Main results are the presence of a very low density region at the level of the upper aquifer, compatible with the presence of a karstic network hosting local cavities, and the absence of secondary faults. We discuss the validity of the present results and propose different strategies to improve the accuracy of such measurements and analysis.

  12. Regional warming of hot extremes accelerated by surface energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, M. G.; Pitman, A. J.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2017-07-01

    Strong regional differences exist in how hot temperature extremes increase under global warming. Using an ensemble of coupled climate models, we examine the regional warming rates of hot extremes relative to annual average warming rates in the same regions. We identify hot spots of accelerated warming of model-simulated hot extremes in Europe, North America, South America, and Southeast China. These hot spots indicate where the warm tail of a distribution of temperatures increases faster than the average and are robust across most Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models. Exploring the conditions on the specific day when the hot extreme occurs demonstrates that the hot spots are explained by changes in the surface energy fluxes consistent with drying soils. However, the model-simulated accelerated warming of hot extremes appears inconsistent with observations, except over Europe. The simulated acceleration of hot extremes may therefore be unreliable, a result that necessitates a reevaluation of how climate models resolve the relevant terrestrial processes.

  13. Surface flux density distribution characteristics of bulk high-T c superconductor in external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, H.; Torii, S.; Yuasa, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the measured results of the two-dimensional flux density distribution of a YBCO bulk under applied AC magnetic fields with various frequency. Melt-processed oxide superconductors have been developed in order to obtain strong pinning forces. Various electric mechanical systems or magnetic levitation systems use those superconductors. The major problem is that cracks occur because the bulk superconductors are brittle. The bulk may break in magnetizing process after cracks make superconducting state instable. The trapped flux density and the permanent current characteristics of bulk superconductors have been analyzed, so as to examine the magnetizing processes or superconducting states of the bulk. In those studies, the two-dimensional surface flux density distributions of the bulk in static fields are discussed. On the other hand, the distributions in dynamic fields are little discussed. We attempted to examine the states of the bulk in the dynamic fields, and made a unique experimental device which has movable sensors synchronized with AC applied fields. As a result, the two-dimensional distributions in the dynamic fields are acquired by recombining the one-dimensional distributions. The dynamic states of the flux of the bulk and the influences of directions of cracks are observed from the distributions. In addition, a new method for measuring two-dimensional flux density distribution under dynamic magnetic fields is suggested

  14. Critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon on a downward facing curved surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-06-01

    This report describes a theoretical and experimental study of the boundary layer boiling and critical heat flux phenomena on a downward facing curved heating surface, including both hemispherical and toroidal surfaces. A subscale boundary layer boiling (SBLB) test facility was developed to measure the spatial variation of the critical heat flux and observe the underlying mechanisms. Transient quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were performed in the SBLB facility under both saturated and subcooled conditions to obtain a complete database on the critical heat flux. To complement the experimental effort, an advanced hydrodynamic CHF model was developed from the conservation laws along with sound physical arguments. The model provides a clear physical explanation for the spatial variation of the CHF observed in the SBLB experiments and for the weak dependence of the CHF data on the physical size of the vessel. Based upon the CHF model, a scaling law was established for estimating the local critical heat flux on the outer surface of a heated hemispherical vessel that is fully submerged in water. The scaling law, which compares favorably with all the available local CHF data obtained for various vessel sizes, can be used to predict the local CHF limits on large commercial-size vessels. This technical information represents one of the essential elements that is needed in assessing the efficacy of external cooling of core melt by cavity flooding as a severe accident management strategy. 83 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Modeling surface energy fluxes and thermal dynamics of a seasonally ice-covered hydroelectric reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weifeng; Roulet, Nigel T; Strachan, Ian B; Tremblay, Alain

    2016-04-15

    The thermal dynamics of human created northern reservoirs (e.g., water temperatures and ice cover dynamics) influence carbon processing and air-water gas exchange. Here, we developed a process-based one-dimensional model (Snow, Ice, WAater, and Sediment: SIWAS) to simulate a full year's surface energy fluxes and thermal dynamics for a moderately large (>500km(2)) boreal hydroelectric reservoir in northern Quebec, Canada. There is a lack of climate and weather data for most of the Canadian boreal so we designed SIWAS with a minimum of inputs and with a daily time step. The modeled surface energy fluxes were consistent with six years of observations from eddy covariance measurements taken in the middle of the reservoir. The simulated water temperature profiles agreed well with observations from over 100 sites across the reservoir. The model successfully captured the observed annual trend of ice cover timing, although the model overestimated the length of ice cover period (15days). Sensitivity analysis revealed that air temperature significantly affects the ice cover duration, water and sediment temperatures, but that dissolved organic carbon concentrations have little effect on the heat fluxes, and water and sediment temperatures. We conclude that the SIWAS model is capable of simulating surface energy fluxes and thermal dynamics for boreal reservoirs in regions where high temporal resolution climate data are not available. SIWAS is suitable for integration into biogeochemical models for simulating a reservoir's carbon cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon on a downward facing curved surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes a theoretical and experimental study of the boundary layer boiling and critical heat flux phenomena on a downward facing curved heating surface, including both hemispherical and toroidal surfaces. A subscale boundary layer boiling (SBLB) test facility was developed to measure the spatial variation of the critical heat flux and observe the underlying mechanisms. Transient quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were performed in the SBLB facility under both saturated and subcooled conditions to obtain a complete database on the critical heat flux. To complement the experimental effort, an advanced hydrodynamic CHF model was developed from the conservation laws along with sound physical arguments. The model provides a clear physical explanation for the spatial variation of the CHF observed in the SBLB experiments and for the weak dependence of the CHF data on the physical size of the vessel. Based upon the CHF model, a scaling law was established for estimating the local critical heat flux on the outer surface of a heated hemispherical vessel that is fully submerged in water. The scaling law, which compares favorably with all the available local CHF data obtained for various vessel sizes, can be used to predict the local CHF limits on large commercial-size vessels. This technical information represents one of the essential elements that is needed in assessing the efficacy of external cooling of core melt by cavity flooding as a severe accident management strategy. 83 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Area-averaged surface fluxes and their time-space variability over the FIFE experimental domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E. A.; Hsu, A. Y.; Crosson, W. L.; Field, R. T.; Fritschen, L. J.; Gurney, R. J.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Kustas, W. P.; Nie, D.; Shuttleworth, W. J.

    1992-01-01

    The underlying mean and variance properties of surface net radiation, sensible-latent heat fluxes and soil heat flux are studied over the densely instrumented grassland region encompassing FIFE. Flux variability is discussed together with the problem of scaling up to area-averaged fluxes. Results are compared and contrasted for cloudy and clear situations and examined for the influence of surface-induced biophysical controls (burn and grazing treatments) and topographic controls (aspect ratios and slope factors).

  18. Validation of a minimum microclimate disturbance chamber for net ecosystem flux measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graf, A.; Werner, J.; Langensiepen, M.; Boer, van de A.; Schmidt, M.; Kupisch, M.; Vereecken, H.

    2013-01-01

    A minimum-disturbance chamber for canopy net CO2 and H2O flux measurements is described. The system is a passively (optionally actively) ventilated tunnel with large (similar to 0.14 m2) in- and outlet cross sections covering a surface area of approximately 1.6 m2. A differential, non-drying

  19. Measurements of carbon dioxide and heat fluxes during monsoon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Measurements of carbon dioxide and heat fluxes during monsoon-2011 season over rural site of India by eddy covariance technique. M N Patil∗. , T Dharmaraj, R T Waghmare, T V Prabha and J R Kulkarni. Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411 008, India. ∗. Corresponding author.

  20. Calibration corrections of solar tower flux density measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, Steffen; Luepfert, Eckhard; Pfaender, Markus; Buck, Reiner

    2004-01-01

    The PSA flux density measuring system PROHERMES measures the concentrated solar radiation in the entrance aperture of solar tower receivers with a white rotating bar as target and a CCD-camera taking images. The calibration is done with commercial flux gauges placed in the measurement plane. To improve the calibration of the system and to reveal systematic errors, measurements are performed with two different types of commercial flux gauges (Thermogage sensors with and without quartz window) and a large custom-made calorimeter used as reference. The comparison shows that the sensors without quartz window measure about 5-8% higher and the sensors with quartz window about 100% higher. This error is explained with the differences in the spectral composition of the radiation and different angles of incidence between the manufacturer calibration and the solar measurements and corrections are proposed. Spectral changes of the sunlight during the day and year can affect the measurements by more than 10%. By selecting a correction filter adapted to the camera sensitivity, this influence can be reduced to less than 2.5%. Due to the reflective properties of the target coating, changes in angle of incidence can affect the measurements. In standard solar field conditions, this error is less than 0.5%, but for special conditions a correction of the systematic error of up to 8% is proposed

  1. A refined measurement of the sunspot radiative flux deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    New measurements of the radiative flux deficits of two large sunspots are presented, based on detailed isophotometric maps. Results are given separately for umbrae and penumbrae. The umbral and penumbral deficits are 4-5 x 10 10 and 1-1.5 x 10 10 erg cm -2 s -1 respectively, the larger figures referring to the larger spot. Over limited areas centered on the umbral cores the deficits for the two spots amount to 76 and 86% of the photospheric flux. (orig.)

  2. Flux depression and the absolute measurement of the thermal neutron flux density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensch, Friedrich.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal neutron flux depression in a diffusing medium by an absorbing foil has been treated in numerous papers. The results are re-examined in an attempt to find a uniform and physically meaningful representation of the 'activation correction'. This quantity can be split up into a combination of probabilities. Thus, it is possible to determine the activation correction for any moderator and foil material. Measurements confirm the utility of the concepts introduced

  3. Estimates of land surface heat fluxes of the Mt. Everest region over the Tibetan Plateau utilizing ASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cunbo; Ma, Yaoming; Chen, Xuelong; Su, Zhongbo

    2016-02-01

    Regional land surface albedo, land surface temperature, net radiation flux, ground heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux were derived in the Mt. Everest area utilizing topographical enhanced surface energy balance system (TESEBS) model and nine scenes of ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) data under clear-sky and in-situ measurements at the QOMS station (the Qomolangma Station for Atmospheric Environmental Observation and Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences). The parameterization schemes for diffused and reflected downward shortwave radiation flux of the TESEBS model were improved by introducing the parameters sky-view factor (SVF) and terrain configuration factor (Ct). Then, a so-called C-correction method for land surface albedo was coupled into the TESEBS model to reduce the influences of topography. After topographical correction, the albedo of the dark tilted surface facing away from the Sun was compensated and albedo of the brightness surface facing the Sun was restrained. The downward shortwave radiation flux was broken down into three components including solar direct radiation flux, solar diffused radiation flux, and reflected solar radiation flux by surrounding terrain. The solar diffused radiation flux ranges from about 30 to 60 W/m2 at the satellite passing time on 6 January 2008. The reflected solar radiation flux changes from 0 to more than 100 W/m2 in the area covered by glaciers and snows. Thus, it is important to take the topographical effects into account in estimation of surface radiation balance in the mountainous area, especially in the glacier area. The retrieved land surface parameters, land surface radiation balance components, and the land surface energy balance components were evaluated by the field measurements in the QOMS station. The estimated results were very close to the in-situ observations with low mean bias errors, low root mean square errors and high correlation coefficients

  4. Uncertainty analysis of the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model at multiple flux tower sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingshi; Senay, Gabriel B.; Singh, Ramesh K.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the water cycle – ET from the land surface returns approximately 60% of the global precipitation back to the atmosphere. ET also plays an important role in energy transport among the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. Current regional to global and daily to annual ET estimation relies mainly on surface energy balance (SEB) ET models or statistical and empirical methods driven by remote sensing data and various climatological databases. These models have uncertainties due to inevitable input errors, poorly defined parameters, and inadequate model structures. The eddy covariance measurements on water, energy, and carbon fluxes at the AmeriFlux tower sites provide an opportunity to assess the ET modeling uncertainties. In this study, we focused on uncertainty analysis of the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model for ET estimation at multiple AmeriFlux tower sites with diverse land cover characteristics and climatic conditions. The 8-day composite 1-km MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) was used as input land surface temperature for the SSEBop algorithms. The other input data were taken from the AmeriFlux database. Results of statistical analysis indicated that the SSEBop model performed well in estimating ET with an R2 of 0.86 between estimated ET and eddy covariance measurements at 42 AmeriFlux tower sites during 2001–2007. It was encouraging to see that the best performance was observed for croplands, where R2 was 0.92 with a root mean square error of 13 mm/month. The uncertainties or random errors from input variables and parameters of the SSEBop model led to monthly ET estimates with relative errors less than 20% across multiple flux tower sites distributed across different biomes. This uncertainty of the SSEBop model lies within the error range of other SEB models, suggesting systematic error or bias of the SSEBop model is within

  5. Fourier transform and controlling of flux in scalar hysteresis measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczmann, Miklos

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with a possible realization of eliminating the effect of noise in scalar hysteresis measurements. The measured signals have been transformed into the frequency domain, and, after applying digital filter, the spectrums of the filtered signals have been transformed back to the time domain. The proposed technique results in an accurate noise-removal algorithm. The paper illustrates a fast controlling algorithm applying the inverse of the actually measured hysteresis loop, and another proportional one to measure distorted flux pattern. By developing the mentioned algorithms, it aims at the controlling of a more complicated phenomena, i.e. measuring the vector hysteresis characteristics

  6. N2O eddy covariance fluxes: From field measurements to flux calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lognoul, Margaux; Debacq, Alain; Heinesch, Bernard; Aubinet, Marc

    2017-04-01

    From March to October 2016, we performed eddy covariance measurements in a sugar beet crop at the Lonzée Terrestrial Observatory (LTO, candidate ICOS site) in Belgium. N2O and H2O atmospheric concentrations were measured at 10 Hz using a quantum-cascade laser spectrometer (Aerodyne Research, Inc.) and combined to wind speed 3D components measured with a sonic anemometer (Gill HS-50). Flux computation was carried out using the EddyPro Software (LI-COR) with a focus on adaptations needed for tracers like N2O. Data filtering and quality control were performed according to Vickers and Mahrt (1997) and Mauder and Foken (2004). The flags were adapted to N2O time series. In this presentation, different computation steps will be presented. More specifically: 1) Considering that a large proportion of N2O fluxes are small (within ± 0.5 nmol m-2 s-1), the classical stationarity test might lead to excessive data filtering and in such case, some searchers have chosen to use the running mean (RM) as a detrend method over block averaging (BA) and to filter data otherwise. For our dataset, BA mean fluxes combined to the stationarity test did not significantly differ from RM fluxes when the averaging window was 300s or larger, but were significantly larger otherwise, suggesting that significant eddies occurred at the 5-min timescale and that they were not accounted for with a shorter averaging window. 2) The determination of time-lag in the case of N2O fluxes can become tricky for two reasons : (1) the signal amplitude can differ from one time period to the next, making it difficult to use the method of covariance maximization and (2) an additional clock drift can appear if the spectrometer is not logging on the same computer than the anemometer. In our case, the N2O signal was strong enough to solve both problems and to perform time-lag compensation according to the covariance maximization, with a default value equal to the mode of the lag distribution. The automatic time

  7. Automated calculation of surface energy fluxes with high-frequency lake buoy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolway, R. Iestyn; Jones, Ian D; Hamilton, David P.; Maberly, Stephen C; Muroaka, Kohji; Read, Jordan S.; Smyth, Robyn L; Winslow, Luke A.

    2015-01-01

    Lake Heat Flux Analyzer is a program used for calculating the surface energy fluxes in lakes according to established literature methodologies. The program was developed in MATLAB for the rapid analysis of high-frequency data from instrumented lake buoys in support of the emerging field of aquatic sensor network science. To calculate the surface energy fluxes, the program requires a number of input variables, such as air and water temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and short-wave radiation. Available outputs for Lake Heat Flux Analyzer include the surface fluxes of momentum, sensible heat and latent heat and their corresponding transfer coefficients, incoming and outgoing long-wave radiation. Lake Heat Flux Analyzer is open source and can be used to process data from multiple lakes rapidly. It provides a means of calculating the surface fluxes using a consistent method, thereby facilitating global comparisons of high-frequency data from lake buoys.

  8. Probe measurements of hydrogen fluxes during discharge cleaning in JFT-2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) has been applied during discharge cleaning in the JFT-2M tokamak to measure hydrogen fluxes. The TDS carbon sample, thickness 0.13 mm, was heated to 1000 0 C by direct current and the temperature distribution of the sample surface measured by infrared thermography. The probe was exposed to three types of plasma: Taylor-type discharge cleaning (TDC), ECR discharge cleaning (ECR-DC), and glow discharge cleaning (GDC). The TDS spectra show peak desorption at around 800 0 C. The hydrogen flux, obtained by integration of the TDS spectrum, decreases exponentially in the radial direction with decay length 7.4 cm and 5.8 cm in TDC and ECR-DC, respectively. The relation between hydrogen fluxes and water vapour production was investigated. In TDC, the amount of water vapour depends more strongly on the electron temperature of the plasma than on the hydrogen flux. In ECR-DC, the production of water vapour increases approximately linearly with the hydrogen-flux. In GDC, hydrogen fluxes were measured by TDS but no water vapour could be detected in the residual gases during the discharge. (orig.)

  9. Spatial and temporal patterns of land surface fluxes from remotely sensed surface temperatures within an uncertainty modelling framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. McCabe

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterising the development of evapotranspiration through time is a difficult task, particularly when utilising remote sensing data, because retrieved information is often spatially dense, but temporally sparse. Techniques to expand these essentially instantaneous measures are not only limited, they are restricted by the general paucity of information describing the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of evaporative patterns. In a novel approach, temporal changes in land surface temperatures, derived from NOAA-AVHRR imagery and a generalised split-window algorithm, are used as a calibration variable in a simple land surface scheme (TOPUP and combined within the Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE methodology to provide estimates of areal evapotranspiration at the pixel scale. Such an approach offers an innovative means of transcending the patch or landscape scale of SVAT type models, to spatially distributed estimates of model output. The resulting spatial and temporal patterns of land surface fluxes and surface resistance are used to more fully understand the hydro-ecological trends observed across a study catchment in eastern Australia. The modelling approach is assessed by comparing predicted cumulative evapotranspiration values with surface fluxes determined from Bowen ratio systems and using auxiliary information such as in-situ soil moisture measurements and depth to groundwater to corroborate observed responses.

  10. Soil surface Hg emission flux in coalfield in Wuda, Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhui; Liang, Handong; Liang, Ming; Chen, Yang; Zhou, Yi

    2018-03-30

    Hg emission flux from various land covers, such as forests, wetlands, and urban areas, have been investigated. China has the largest area of coalfield in the world, but data of Hg flux of coalfields, especially, those with coal fires, are seriously limited. In this study, Hg fluxes of a coalfield were measured using the dynamic flux chamber (DFC) method, coupled with a Lumex multifunctional Hg analyzer RA-915+ (Lumex Ltd., Russia). The results show that the Hg flux in Wuda coalfield ranged from 4 to 318 ng m -2  h -1 , and the average value for different areas varied, e.g., coal-fire area 99 and 177 ng m -2  h -1 ; no coal-fire area 19 and 32 ng m -2  h -1 ; and backfilling area 53 ng m -2  h -1 . Hg continued to be emitted from an underground coal seam, even if there were no phenomena, such as vents, cracks, and smog, of coal fire on the soil surface. This phenomenon occurred in all area types, i.e., coal-fire area, no coal-fire area, and backfilling area, which is universal in Wuda coalfield. Considering that many coalfields in northern China are similar to Wuda coalfield, they may be large sources of atmospheric Hg. The correlations of Hg emission flux with influence factors, such as sunlight intensity, soil surface temperature, and atmospheric Hg content, were also investigated for Wuda coalfield. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  11. Spatially explicit regionalization of airborne flux measurements using environmental response functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Metzger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to characterize the sensible (H and latent (LE heat exchange for different land covers in the heterogeneous steppe landscape of the Xilin River catchment, Inner Mongolia, China. Eddy-covariance flux measurements at 50–100 m above ground were conducted in July 2009 using a weight-shift microlight aircraft. Wavelet decomposition of the turbulence data enables a spatial discretization of 90 m of the flux measurements. For a total of 8446 flux observations during 12 flights, MODIS land surface temperature (LST and enhanced vegetation index (EVI in each flux footprint are determined. Boosted regression trees are then used to infer an environmental response function (ERF between all flux observations (H, LE and biophysical (LST, EVI and meteorological drivers. Numerical tests show that ERF predictions covering the entire Xilin River catchment (≈3670 km2 are accurate to ≤18% (1 σ. The predictions are then summarized for each land cover type, providing individual estimates of source strength (36 W m−2 H −2, 46 W m−2 −2 and spatial variability (11 W m−2 H −2, 14 W m−2 LE −2 to a precision of ≤5%. Lastly, ERF predictions of land cover specific Bowen ratios are compared between subsequent flights at different locations in the Xilin River catchment. Agreement of the land cover specific Bowen ratios to within 12 ± 9% emphasizes the robustness of the presented approach. This study indicates the potential of ERFs for (i extending airborne flux measurements to the catchment scale, (ii assessing the spatial representativeness of long-term tower flux measurements, and (iii designing, constraining and evaluating flux algorithms for remote sensing and numerical modelling applications.

  12. Seasonal and latitudinal variations of surface fluxes at two Arctic terrestrial sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, Andrey A.; Persson, P. Ola G.; Uttal, Taneil; Akish, Elena A.; Cox, Christopher J.; Morris, Sara M.; Fairall, Christopher W.; Stone, Robert S.; Lesins, Glen; Makshtas, Alexander P.; Repina, Irina A.

    2017-11-01

    This observational study compares seasonal variations of surface fluxes (turbulent, radiative, and soil heat) and other ancillary atmospheric/surface/permafrost data based on in-situ measurements made at terrestrial research observatories located near the coast of the Arctic Ocean. Hourly-averaged multiyear data sets collected at Eureka (Nunavut, Canada) and Tiksi (East Siberia, Russia) are analyzed in more detail to elucidate similarities and differences in the seasonal cycles at these two Arctic stations, which are situated at significantly different latitudes (80.0°N and 71.6°N, respectively). While significant gross similarities exist in the annual cycles of various meteorological parameters and fluxes, the differences in latitude, local topography, cloud cover, snowfall, and soil characteristics produce noticeable differences in fluxes and in the structures of the atmospheric boundary layer and upper soil temperature profiles. An important factor is that even though higher latitude sites (in this case Eureka) generally receive less annual incoming solar radiation but more total daily incoming solar radiation throughout the summer months than lower latitude sites (in this case Tiksi). This leads to a counter-intuitive state where the average active layer (or thaw line) is deeper and the topsoil temperature in midsummer are higher in Eureka which is located almost 10° north of Tiksi. The study further highlights the differences in the seasonal and latitudinal variations of the incoming shortwave and net radiation as well as the moderating cloudiness effects that lead to temporal and spatial differences in the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer and the uppermost ground layer. Specifically the warm season (Arctic summer) is shorter and mid-summer amplitude of the surface fluxes near solar noon is generally less in Eureka than in Tiksi. During the dark Polar night and cold seasons (Arctic winter) when the ground is covered with snow and air temperatures

  13. Tools for measuring surface cleanliness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroder, Mark Stewart (Hendersonville, NC); Woodmansee, Donald Ernest (Simpsonville, SC); Beadie, Douglas Frank (Greenville, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

  14. Soil heat flux and day time surface energy balance closure at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soil heat flux is an important input component of surface energy balance. Estimates of soil heat flux were made in the year 2008 using soil temperature data at Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, south Kerala. Hourly values of soil heat flux from 00 to 24 LST are presented for selected days typical of the winter, ...

  15. Measurements of absorbed heat flux and water-side heat transfer coefficient in water wall tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taler, Jan; Taler, Dawid; Kowal, Andrzej

    2011-04-01

    The tubular type instrument (flux tube) was developed to identify boundary conditions in water wall tubes of steam boilers. The meter is constructed from a short length of eccentric tube containing four thermocouples on the fire side below the inner and outer surfaces of the tube. The fifth thermocouple is located at the rear of the tube on the casing side of the water-wall tube. The boundary conditions on the outer and inner surfaces of the water flux-tube are determined based on temperature measurements at the interior locations. Four K-type sheathed thermocouples of 1 mm in diameter, are inserted into holes, which are parallel to the tube axis. The non-linear least squares problem is solved numerically using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. The heat transfer conditions in adjacent boiler tubes have no impact on the temperature distribution in the flux tubes.

  16. Novel Sensor for the In Situ Measurement of Uranium Fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatfield, Kirk [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-02-10

    The goal of this project was to develop a sensor that incorporates the field-tested concepts of the passive flux meter to provide direct in situ measures of flux for uranium and groundwater in porous media. Measurable contaminant fluxes [J] are essentially the product of concentration [C] and groundwater flux or specific discharge [q ]. The sensor measures [J] and [q] by changes in contaminant and tracer amounts respectively on a sorbent. By using measurement rather than inference from static parameters, the sensor can directly advance conceptual and computational models for field scale simulations. The sensor was deployed in conjunction with DOE in obtaining field-scale quantification of subsurface processes affecting uranium transport (e.g., advection) and transformation (e.g., uranium attenuation) at the Rifle IFRC Site in Rifle, Colorado. Project results have expanded our current understanding of how field-scale spatial variations in fluxes of uranium, groundwater and salient electron donor/acceptors are coupled to spatial variations in measured microbial biomass/community composition, effective field-scale uranium mass balances, attenuation, and stability. The coupling between uranium, various nutrients and micro flora can be used to estimate field-scale rates of uranium attenuation and field-scale transitions in microbial communities. This research focuses on uranium (VI), but the sensor principles and design are applicable to field-scale fate and transport of other radionuclides. Laboratory studies focused on sorbent selection and calibration, along with sensor development and validation under controlled conditions. Field studies were conducted at the Rifle IFRC Site in Rifle, Colorado. These studies were closely coordinated with existing SBR (formerly ERSP) projects to complement data collection. Small field tests were conducted during the first two years that focused on evaluating field-scale deployment procedures and validating sensor performance under

  17. A new disjunct eddy-covariance system for BVOC flux measurements - validation on CO2 and H2O fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghi, R.; Durand, P.; Jambert, C.; Jarnot, C.; Delon, C.; Serça, D.; Striebig, N.; Ferlicoq, M.; Keravec, P.

    2012-12-01

    The disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) method is an interesting alternative to the conventional eddy covariance (EC) method because it allows the estimation of turbulent fluxes of species for which fast sensors are not available. We have developed and validated a new disjunct sampling system (called MEDEE). This system is built with chemically inert materials. Air samples are taken quickly and alternately in two cylindrical reservoirs, the internal pressures of which are regulated by a moving piston. The MEDEE system was designed to be operated either on the ground or aboard an aircraft. It is also compatible with most analysers since it transfers the air samples at a regulated pressure. To validate the system, DEC and EC measurements of CO2 and latent heat fluxes were performed concurrently during a field campaign. EC fluxes were first compared to simulated DEC (SDEC) fluxes and then to actual DEC fluxes. Both the simulated and actual DEC fluxes showed a good agreement with EC fluxes in terms of correlation. The determination coefficients (R2) were 0.93 and 0.91 for DEC and SDEC latent heat fluxes, respectively. For DEC and SDEC CO2 fluxes R2 was 0.69 in both cases. The conditions of low fluxes experienced during the campaign impaired the comparison of the different techniques especially for CO2 flux measurements. Linear regression analysis showed an 14% underestimation of DEC fluxes for both CO2 and latent heat compared to EC fluxes. A first field campaign, focusing on biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, was carried out to measure isoprene fluxes above a downy oak (Quercus Pubescens) forest in the south-east of France. The measured standard emission rate was in the lower range of reported values in earlier studies. Further analysis will be conducted through ground-based and airborne campaigns in the coming years.

  18. A new frontier in CO2 flux measurements using a highly portable DIAL laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiβer, Manuel; Granieri, Domenico; Burton, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic CO2 emissions play a key role in the geological carbon cycle, and monitoring of volcanic CO2 fluxes helps to forecast eruptions. The quantification of CO2 fluxes is challenging due to rapid dilution of magmatic CO2 in CO2-rich ambient air and the diffuse nature of many emissions, leading to large uncertainties in the global magmatic CO2 flux inventory. Here, we report measurements using a new DIAL laser remote sensing system for volcanic CO2 (CO2DIAL). Two sites in the volcanic zone of Campi Flegrei (Italy) were scanned, yielding CO2 path-amount profiles used to compute fluxes. Our results reveal a relatively high CO2 flux from Campi Flegrei, consistent with an increasing trend. Unlike previous methods, the CO2DIAL is able to measure integrated CO2 path-amounts at distances up to 2000 m using virtually any solid surface as a reflector, whilst also being highly portable. This opens a new frontier in quantification of geological and anthropogenic CO2 fluxes. PMID:27652775

  19. Heat in the Barents Sea: transport, storage, and surface fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Smedsrud

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A column model is set up for the Barents Sea to explore sensitivity of surface fluxes and heat storage from varying ocean heat transport. Mean monthly ocean transport and atmospheric forcing are synthesised and force the simulations. Results show that by using updated ocean transports of heat and freshwater the vertical mean hydrographic seasonal cycle can be reproduced fairly well.

    Our results indicate that the ~70 TW of heat transported to the Barents Sea by ocean currents is lost in the southern Barents Sea as latent, sensible, and long wave radiation, each contributing 23–39 TW to the total heat loss. Solar radiation adds 26 TW in the south, as there is no significant ice production.

    The northern Barents Sea receives little ocean heat transport. This leads to a mixed layer at the freezing point during winter and significant ice production. There is little net surface heat loss annually in the north. The balance is achieved by a heat loss through long wave radiation all year, removing most of the summer solar heating.

    During the last decade the Barents Sea has experienced an atmospheric warming and an increased ocean heat transport. The Barents Sea responds to such large changes by adjusting temperature and heat loss. Decreasing the ocean heat transport below 50 TW starts a transition towards Arctic conditions. The heat loss in the Barents Sea depend on the effective area for cooling, and an increased heat transport leads to a spreading of warm water further north.

  20. Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanton, Brian; Coburn, William; Pizzillo, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    ...., surface texture and coatings) that could become important at high frequency. We measure waviness and roughness of various plates to know the parameter range for smooth aluminum and rolled homogenous armor (RHA...

  1. Radon-222 activity flux measurement using activated charcoal canisters: revisiting the methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Sami H; Akber, Riaz A

    2014-03-01

    The measurement of radon ((222)Rn) activity flux using activated charcoal canisters was examined to investigate the distribution of the adsorbed (222)Rn in the charcoal bed and the relationship between (222)Rn activity flux and exposure time. The activity flux of (222)Rn from five sources of varying strengths was measured for exposure times of one, two, three, five, seven, 10, and 14 days. The distribution of the adsorbed (222)Rn in the charcoal bed was obtained by dividing the bed into six layers and counting each layer separately after the exposure. (222)Rn activity decreased in the layers that were away from the exposed surface. Nevertheless, the results demonstrated that only a small correction might be required in the actual application of charcoal canisters for activity flux measurement, where calibration standards were often prepared by the uniform mixing of radium ((226)Ra) in the matrix. This was because the diffusion of (222)Rn in the charcoal bed and the detection efficiency as a function of the charcoal depth tended to counterbalance each other. The influence of exposure time on the measured (222)Rn activity flux was observed in two situations of the canister exposure layout: (a) canister sealed to an open bed of the material and (b) canister sealed over a jar containing the material. The measured (222)Rn activity flux decreased as the exposure time increased. The change in the former situation was significant with an exponential decrease as the exposure time increased. In the latter case, lesser reduction was noticed in the observed activity flux with respect to exposure time. This reduction might have been related to certain factors, such as absorption site saturation or the back diffusion of (222)Rn gas occurring at the canister-soil interface. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of land surface temperature and heat fluxes over Delhi using remote sensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Surya Deb; Kant, Yogesh; Mitra, Debashis

    2015-01-15

    Surface energy processes has an essential role in urban weather, climate and hydrosphere cycles, as well in urban heat redistribution. The research was undertaken to analyze the potential of Landsat and MODIS data in retrieving biophysical parameters in estimating land surface temperature & heat fluxes diurnally in summer and winter seasons of years 2000 and 2010 and understanding its effect on anthropogenic heat disturbance over Delhi and surrounding region. Results show that during years 2000-2010, settlement and industrial area increased from 5.66 to 11.74% and 4.92 to 11.87% respectively which in turn has direct effect on land surface temperature (LST) and heat fluxes including anthropogenic heat flux. Based on the energy balance model for land surface, a method to estimate the increase in anthropogenic heat flux (Has) has been proposed. The settlement and industrial areas has higher amounts of energy consumed and has high values of Has in all seasons. The comparison of satellite derived LST with that of field measured values show that Landsat estimated values are in close agreement within error of ±2 °C than MODIS with an error of ±3 °C. It was observed that, during 2000 and 2010, the average change in surface temperature using Landsat over settlement & industrial areas of both seasons is 1.4 °C & for MODIS data is 3.7 °C. The seasonal average change in anthropogenic heat flux (Has) estimated using Landsat & MODIS is up by around 38 W/m(2) and 62 W/m(2) respectively while higher change is observed over settlement and concrete structures. The study reveals that the dynamic range of Has values has increased in the 10 year period due to the strong anthropogenic influence over the area. The study showed that anthropogenic heat flux is an indicator of the strength of urban heat island effect, and can be used to quantify the magnitude of the urban heat island effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparing the CarbonTracker and TM5-4DVar data assimilation systems for CO2 surface flux inversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Babenhauserheide

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Data assimilation systems allow for estimating surface fluxes of greenhouse gases from atmospheric concentration measurements. Good knowledge about fluxes is essential to understand how climate change affects ecosystems and to characterize feedback mechanisms. Based on the assimilation of more than 1 year of atmospheric in situ concentration measurements, we compare the performance of two established data assimilation models, CarbonTracker and TM5-4DVar (Transport Model 5 – Four-Dimensional Variational model, for CO2 flux estimation. CarbonTracker uses an ensemble Kalman filter method to optimize fluxes on ecoregions. TM5-4DVar employs a 4-D variational method and optimizes fluxes on a 6° × 4° longitude–latitude grid. Harmonizing the input data allows for analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches by direct comparison of the modeled concentrations and the estimated fluxes. We further assess the sensitivity of the two approaches to the density of observations and operational parameters such as the length of the assimilation time window. Our results show that both models provide optimized CO2 concentration fields of similar quality. In Antarctica CarbonTracker underestimates the wintertime CO2 concentrations, since its 5-week assimilation window does not allow for adjusting the distant surface fluxes in response to the detected concentration mismatch. Flux estimates by CarbonTracker and TM5-4DVar are consistent and robust for regions with good observation coverage, regions with low observation coverage reveal significant differences. In South America, the fluxes estimated by TM5-4DVar suffer from limited representativeness of the few observations. For the North American continent, mimicking the historical increase of the measurement network density shows improving agreement between CarbonTracker and TM5-4DVar flux estimates for increasing observation density.

  4. SAFARI 2000 Surface Albedo and Radiation Fluxes at Mongu and Skukuza, 2000-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Top-of-the-canopy broadband albedo and radiation fluxes are calculated from measurements at the Mongu and Skukuza flux tower sites in southern Africa from March 2000...

  5. BOREAS HYD-05 Bear Trap Creek and Namekus Lake Winter Surface Flux Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains the HYD-05 flux, and meteorological measurements from Bear Trap Forest, Saskatchewan in the winter of 1994. Contains the HYD-05 flux, meteorological, and...

  6. 3D density imaging with muons flux measurements from underground galleries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesparre, Nolwenn; Cabrera, Justo; Marteau, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric muons flux measurements provide information on sub-surface density distribution, giving insights on the medium structure. We measured the muons flux from the underground galleries of the Tournemire experimental platform to image the medium between the galleries and the surface. The experiment aimed at evaluating the capacity of the method to detect the presence of discontinuities produced either by secondary strike-slip faults that present small vertical displacements or by a karstic network may be present at the level of an upper aquifer. Measurements were performed from three different sites so the trajectories of detected muons paths intersect in the medium. Such a configuration provided complementary information on the density distribution, offering the possibility to seek density variations at different depths. A specific calibration method was applied in order to interpolate the data acquired at different times with the same muons sensor. Muons flux measurements variations were then processed through a non-linear inversion, producing a 3D image of the density together with an evaluation of the different distinguished targets reliability. The density distribution showed the presence of a very low density region at the level of the upper aquifer, suggesting the presence of a karstic network hosting locally cavities. The trace of secondary strike-slip faults did not appear clearly on the image as the density contrast they produce might be too low compared to the signal to noise ratio present in the muons flux data. We propose different strategies to improve the density image accuracy.

  7. Particle fluxes in the Bay of Bengal measurEd. by sediment traps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Parthiban, G.

    Particle fluxes were measured between October, 1987 and March, 1988 using six automated time series sediment traps at three locations in the northern, central and southern Bay of Bengal. Particle fluxes varied between 16.8 and 345 mg m/2 day/1...

  8. Flux Loop Measurements of the Magnetic Flux Density in the CMS Magnet Yoke

    CERN Document Server

    Klyukhin, V I; Ball, A.; Curé, B.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Mulders, M.; Hervé, A.; Loveless, R.

    2016-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector, designed to run at the highest luminosity at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Its distinctive features include a 4 T superconducting solenoid with 6-m-diameter by 12.5-m-length free bore, enclosed inside a 10,000-ton return yoke made of construction steel. The return yoke consists of five dodecagonal three-layered barrel wheels and four end-cap disks at each end comprised of steel blocks up to 620 mm thick, which serve as the absorber plates of the muon detection system. To measure the field in and around the steel, a system of 22 flux loops and 82 3-D Hall sensors is installed on the return yoke blocks. A TOSCA 3-D model of the CMS magnet is developed to describe the magnetic field everywhere outside the tracking volume measured with the field-mapping machine. The first attempt is made to measure the magnetic flux density in the steel blocks of the CMS magnet yoke using the standard magnet discharge with the current ramp down speed of 1.5 A/...

  9. Analysis of neutron flux measurement systems using statistical functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontes, Eduardo Winston

    1997-01-01

    This work develops an integrated analysis for neutron flux measurement systems using the concepts of cumulants and spectra. Its major contribution is the generalization of Campbell's theorem in the form of spectra in the frequency domain, and its application to the analysis of neutron flux measurement systems. Campbell's theorem, in its generalized form, constitutes an important tool, not only to find the nth-order frequency spectra of the radiation detector, but also in the system analysis. The radiation detector, an ionization chamber for neutrons, is modeled for cylindrical, plane and spherical geometries. The detector current pulses are characterized by a vector of random parameters, and the associated charges, statistical moments and frequency spectra of the resulting current are calculated. A computer program is developed for application of the proposed methodology. In order for the analysis to integrate the associated electronics, the signal processor is studied, considering analog and digital configurations. The analysis is unified by developing the concept of equivalent systems that can be used to describe the cumulants and spectra in analog or digital systems. The noise in the signal processor input stage is analysed in terms of second order spectrum. Mathematical expressions are presented for cumulants and spectra up to fourth order, for important cases of filter positioning relative to detector spectra. Unbiased conventional estimators for cumulants are used, and, to evaluate systems precision and response time, expressions are developed for their variances. Finally, some possibilities for obtaining neutron radiation flux as a function of cumulants are discussed. In summary, this work proposes some analysis tools which make possible important decisions in the design of better neutron flux measurement systems. (author)

  10. LBA-HMET PC-06 ECMWF Modeled Precipitation and Surface Flux, Rondonia, Brazil: 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides the mean diurnal cycle of precipitation, near-surface thermodynamics, and surface fluxes generated from short-term forecasts from the European...

  11. LBA-HMET PC-06 ECMWF Modeled Precipitation and Surface Flux, Rondonia, Brazil: 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides the mean diurnal cycle of precipitation, near-surface thermodynamics, and surface fluxes generated from short-term forecasts from...

  12. Distributed Temperature Sensing as a tool for measuring soil heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J.; Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Van De Giesen, N.; Selker, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    Soil heat flux is an important component of the surface energy balance. It is typically measured at a point using heat flux plates. Spatial patterns as well as temporal variability can be measured using Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS), in which fiber-optic cable is used as an environmental temperature sensor. Previous research has demonstrated that DTS can be used to monitor soil moisture patterns and soil thermal profiles. By using a custom-built mole-plow, fiber optic cables were installed at three depths within the top 15 centimeters of a grass plot in Delft, The Netherlands. DTS was used to measure temperatures along the cable with a spatial resolution of 1 meter and a temporal resolution 5 minutes along a cable of 84 meters length. In this cable the response of soil temperature to the diurnal cycle of net radiation was measured over three months (Passive DTS). By inverse modeling of the diffusion equation, thermal properties of the soil are determined from which soil heat flux is calculated. During several more intensive campaigns, active heating experiments (Active DTS) were also carried out. In this case, a controlled electrical pulse was applied to the stainless steel armoring on the cable. The thermal response of the cable is measured for pulses of different input power, and this is related to the thermal properties of the surrounding soil. Net radiation, thermal conductivity and sensible heat flux were also measured to quantify the surface energy balance during the intensive campaigns. Results will be presented to illustrate that DTS (Active and/or Passive) is a promising and relatively inexpensive tool to measure large scale spatial patterns in temperature, soil moisture and soil heat flux at high spatial and temporal resolution.

  13. Diurnal variability of surface fluxes at an oceanic station in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, Y.V.B.; Rao, D.P.

    November, 1985. During this period the mean heat storage in the upper 125 m water column is found to be 300 W.m-2. The net surface heat fluxes indicate a mean loss of 37 W.m-2 across the sea surface. Estimation of the heat flux divergence at residual from...

  14. MEASURING THE SOURCES OF THE INTERGALACTIC IONIZING FLUX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowie, L. L.; Barger, A. J.; Trouille, L.

    2009-01-01

    We use a wide-field (0.9 deg 2 ) X-ray sample with optical and Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) ultraviolet observations to measure the contribution of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to the ionizing flux as a function of redshift. Our analysis shows that the AGN contribution to the metagalactic ionizing background peaks at around z = 2. The measured values of the ionizing background from the AGNs are lower than previous estimates and confirm that ionization from AGNs is insufficient to maintain the observed ionization of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z > 3. We show that only X-ray sources with broad lines in their optical spectra have detectable ionizing flux and that the ionizing flux seen in an AGN is not correlated with its X-ray color. We also use the GALEX observations of the GOODS-N region to place a 2σ upper limit of 0.008 on the average ionization fraction f ν (700 A)/f ν (1500 A) for 626 UV selected galaxies in the redshift range z = 0.9-1.4. We then use this limit to estimate an upper bound to the galaxy contribution in the redshift range z = 0-5. If the z ∼ 1.15 ionization fraction is appropriate for higher-redshift galaxies, then contributions from the galaxy population are also too low to account for the IGM ionization at the highest redshifts (z > 4).

  15. Constraining the Sulfur Dioxide Degassing Flux from Turrialba Volcano, Costa Rica Using Unmanned Aerial System Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xin; Johnson, Matthew S.; Jeong, Seongeun; Fladeland, Matthew; Pieri, David; Diaz, Jorge Andres; Bland, Geoffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Observed sulfur dioxide (SO2)mixing ratios onboard unmanned aerial systems (UAS) duringMarch 11-13, 2013 are used to constrain the three-day averaged SO2 degassing flux fromTurrialba volcanowithin a Bayesian inverse modeling framework. A mesoscale model coupled with Lagrangian stochastic particle backward trajectories is used to quantify the source-receptor relationships at very high spatial resolutions (i.e., b1 km). The model shows better performance in reproducing the near-surface meteorological properties and observed SO2 variations when using a first-order closure non-local planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme. The optimized SO2 degassing fluxes vary from 0.59 +/- 0.37 to 0.83 +/- 0.33 kt d-1 depending on the PBL scheme used. These fluxes are in good agreement with ground-based gas flux measurements, and correspond to corrective scale factors of 8-12 to the posteruptive SO2 degassing rate in the AeroCom emission inventory. The maximum a posteriori solution for the SO2 flux is highly sensitive to the specification of prior and observational errors, and relatively insensitive to the SO2 loss term and temporal averaging of observations. Our results indicate relatively low degassing activity but sustained sulfur emissions from Turrialba volcano to the troposphere during March 2013. This study demonstrates the utility of low-cost small UAS platforms for volcanic gas composition and flux analysis.

  16. The reactor neutron flux and period measure meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Ying

    1997-11-01

    The main performance indexes of developed reactor neutron flux and period measure meter (as an intermediate range measuring instrument of nuclear instrumentation system in nuclear power plant) are introduced. The meter's function, working principle, hardware constitution, application software, and the characteristics of the meter are described. The meter adopts the advanced digital technology, it can do calculating and processing by a microprocessor to get the values of power and period. It also can give the output singles as required. The characters of the meter are high accuracy, good ability to resist disturbance, small temperature coefficient and convenient for operation, etc

  17. Doppler lidar measurement of profiles of turbulence and momentum flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Wynn L.; Cupp, Richard E.; Healy, Kathleen R.

    1989-01-01

    A short-pulse CO2 Doppler lidar with 150-m range resolution measured vertical profiles of turbulence and momentum flux. Example measurements are reported of a daytime mixed layer with strong mechanical mixing caused by a wind speed of 15 m/sec, which exceeded the speed above the capping inversion. The lidar adapted an azimuth scanning technique previously demonstrated by radar. Scans alternating between two elevation angles allow determination of mean U-squared, V-squared, and W-squared. Expressions were derived to estimate the uncertainty in the turbulence parameters. A new processing method, partial Fourier decomposition, has less uncertainty than the filtering used earlier.

  18. How do uncertainties in NCEP R2 and CFSR surface fluxes impact tropical ocean simulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Caihong; Xue, Yan; Kumar, Arun; Behringer, David; Yu, Lisan

    2017-11-01

    NCEP/DOE reanalysis (R2) and Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) surface fluxes are widely used by the research community to understand surface flux climate variability, and to drive ocean models as surface forcings. However, large discrepancies exist between these two products, including (1) stronger trade winds in CFSR than in R2 over the tropical Pacific prior 2000; (2) excessive net surface heat fluxes into ocean in CFSR than in R2 with an increase in difference after 2000. The goals of this study are to examine the sensitivity of ocean simulations to discrepancies between CFSR and R2 surface fluxes, and to assess the fidelity of the two products. A set of experiments, where an ocean model was driven by a combination of surface flux components from R2 and CFSR, were carried out. The model simulations were contrasted to identify sensitivity to different component of the surface fluxes in R2 and CFSR. The accuracy of the model simulations was validated against the tropical moorings data, altimetry SSH and SST reanalysis products. Sensitivity of ocean simulations showed that temperature bias difference in the upper 100 m is mostly sensitive to the differences in surface heat fluxes, while depth of 20 °C (D20) bias difference is mainly determined by the discrepancies in momentum fluxes. D20 simulations with CFSR winds agree with observation well in the western equatorial Pacific prior 2000, but have large negative bias similar to those with R2 winds after 2000, partly because easterly winds over the central Pacific were underestimated in both CFSR and R2. On the other hand, the observed temperature variability is well reproduced in the tropical Pacific by simulations with both R2 and CFSR fluxes. Relative to the R2 fluxes, the CFSR fluxes improve simulation of interannual variability in all three tropical oceans to a varying degree. The improvement in the tropical Atlantic is most significant and is largely attributed to differences in surface winds.

  19. Atmospheric dry deposition fluxes of trace elements measured in Bursa, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasdemir, Yuecel; Kural, Can

    2005-01-01

    Trace element dry deposition fluxes were measured using a smooth, greased, knife-edge surrogate surface (KSS) holding greased Mylar strips in Bursa, Turkey. Sampling program was conducted between October 2002 and June 2003 and 46 dry deposition samples were collected. The average fluxes of crustal metals (Mg, Ca, and Fe) were one to four orders of magnitude higher than the fluxes of anthropogenic metals. Trace element fluxes ranged from 3 (Cd) to 24 230 (Ca) μg m -2 d -1 . The average trace element dry deposition fluxes measured in this study were similar to those measured in other urban areas. In addition, ambient air samples were also collected simultaneously with flux samples and concentrations of trace elements, collected with a TSP sampler, were between 0.7 and 4900 ng m -3 for Cd and Ca, respectively. The overall trace element dry deposition velocities, calculated by dividing the fluxes to the particle phase concentrations ranged from 2.3±1.7 cm s -1 (Pb) to 11.1±6.4 cm s -1 (Ni). These values are in good agreement with the values calculated using similar techniques. The anthropogenic and crustal contributions were estimated by employing enrichment factors (EFs) calculated relative to the average crustal composition. Low EFs for dry deposition samples were calculated. This is probably due to contamination of local dust and its important contribution to the collected samples. - Mechanical turbulence has an important influence on re-suspension and dry deposition of trace elements in an urban area

  20. Ozone flux of an urban orange grove: multiple scaled measurements and model comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstad, K. P.; Grulke, N. E.; Jenerette, D. G.; Schilling, S.; Marrett, K.

    2009-12-01

    There is significant uncertainty about the ozone sink properties of the phytosphere due to a complexity of interactions and feedbacks with biotic and abiotic factors. Improved understanding of the controls on ozone fluxes is critical to estimating and regulating the total ozone budget. Ozone exchanges of an orange orchard within the city of Riverside, CA were examined using a multiple-scaled approach. We access the carbon, water, and energy budgets at the stand- to leaf- level to elucidate the mechanisms controlling the variability in ozone fluxes of this agro-ecosystem. The two initial goals of the study were 1. To consider variations and controls on the ozone fluxes within the canopy; and, 2. To examine different modeling and scaling approaches for totaling the ozone fluxes of this orchard. Current understanding of the total ozone flux between the atmosphere near ground and the phytosphere (F-total) include consideration of a fraction which is absorbed by vegetation through stomatal uptake (F-absorb), and fractional components of deposition on external, non-stomatal, surfaces of the vegetation (F-external) and soil (F-soil). Multiplicative stomatal-conductance models have been commonly used to estimate F-absorb, since this flux cannot be measured directly. We approach F-absorb estimates for this orange orchard using chamber measurement of leaf stomatal-conductance, as well as non-chamber sap-conductance collected on branches of varied aspect and sun/shade conditions within the canopy. We use two approaches to measure the F-total of this stand. Gradient flux profiles were measured using slow-response ozone sensors collecting within and above the canopy (4.6 m), and at the top of the tower (8.5 m). In addition, an eddy-covariance system fitted with a high-frequency chemiluminescence ozone system will be deployed (8.5 m). Preliminary ozone gradient flux profiles demonstrate a substantial ozone sink strength of this orchard, with diurnal concentration differentials

  1. Fluxes of nitrates between snow surfaces and the atmosphere in the European high Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Beine

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of atmospheric and snow mixing ratios of nitrates and nitrites and their fluxes above the snow surface were made during two intensive campaigns during spring time 2001 at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard as part of the EU project  "`The NItrogen Cycle and Effects on the oxidation of atmospheric trace species at high latitudes' (NICE. At this coastal site close to the unseasonably unfrozen fjord, of the measured nitrogen species, only HNO3 showed a significant flux on to the snow surface; a mean deposition of -8.7 nmol h-1 m-2 was observed in late April / early May 2001. These fluxes may be due to the reaction of HNO3 with sea salt, and especially NaCl, or may be simply uptake of HNO3 by ice, which is alkaline because of the sea salt in our marine environment. During snowfall periods dry deposition of HNO3 may contribute up to 10% of the N budget in the snow; however, the main source for N is wet deposition in falling snow. The surface snow at Ny-Ålesund showed very complex stratigraphy; the NO3- mixing ratio in snow varied between 65 and 520 ng g-1, the total NO3- content of the snowpack was on the order of 2700 ng cm-2. In comparison the atmospheric boundary layer column showed a NO3- content of only 8 ng cm-2. The limited exchange, however, between the snow and the atmosphere was attributed to low mobility of NO3- in the observed snow. Contrary to other Arctic sites (i.e. Alert, Nunavut or Summit, Greenland deposition of sea salt and crustal aerosols in this marine environment made the surface snow alkaline; snow NO3- was associated with heavier cations and was not readily available for physical exchange or photochemical reactions.

  2. Integral emission factors for methane determined using urban flux measurements and local-scale inverse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Andreas; Johnson, Mark; Molodovskaya, Marina; Ketler, Rick; Nesic, Zoran; Crawford, Ben; Giometto, Marco; van der Laan, Mike

    2013-04-01

    The most important long-lived greenhouse gas (LLGHG) emitted during combustion of fuels is carbon dioxide (CO2), however also traces of the LLGHGs methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are released, the quantities of which depend largely on the conditions of the combustion process. Emission factors determine the mass of LLGHGs emitted per energy used (or kilometre driven for cars) and are key inputs for bottom-up emission modelling. Emission factors for CH4 are typically determined in the laboratory or on a test stand for a given combustion system using a small number of samples (vehicles, furnaces), yet associated with larger uncertainties when scaled to entire fleets. We propose an alternative, different approach - Can integrated emission factors be independently determined using direct micrometeorological flux measurements over an urban surface? If so, do emission factors determined from flux measurements (top-down) agree with up-scaled emission factors of relevant combustion systems (heating, vehicles) in the source area of the flux measurement? Direct flux measurements of CH4 were carried out between February and May, 2012 over a relatively densely populated, urban surface in Vancouver, Canada by means of eddy covariance (EC). The EC-system consisted of an ultrasonic anemometer (CSAT-3, Campbell Scientific Inc.) and two open-path infrared gas analyzers (Li7500 and Li7700, Licor Inc.) on a tower at 30m above the surface. The source area of the EC system is characterised by a relative homogeneous morphometry (5.3m average building height), but spatially and temporally varying emission sources, including two major intersecting arterial roads (70.000 cars drive through the 50% source area per day) and seasonal heating in predominantly single-family houses (natural gas). An inverse dispersion model (turbulent source area model), validated against large eddy simulations (LES) of the urban roughness sublayer, allows the determination of the spatial area that

  3. Estimation of surface heat flux and temperature distributions in a multilayer tissue based on the hyperbolic model of heat conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haw-Long; Chen, Wen-Lih; Chang, Win-Jin; Yang, Yu-Ching

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an inverse algorithm based on the conjugate gradient method and the discrepancy principle is applied to solve the inverse hyperbolic heat conduction problem in estimating the unknown time-dependent surface heat flux in a skin tissue, which is stratified into epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layers, from the temperature measurements taken within the medium. Subsequently, the temperature distributions in the tissue can be calculated as well. The concept of finite heat propagation velocity is applied to the modeling of the bioheat transfer problem. The inverse solutions will be justified based on the numerical experiments in which two different heat flux distributions are to be determined. The temperature data obtained from the direct problem are used to simulate the temperature measurements. The influence of measurement errors on the precision of the estimated results is also investigated. Results show that an excellent estimation on the time-dependent surface heat flux can be obtained for the test cases considered in this study.

  4. Eddy covariance N2O flux measurements at low flux rates: results from the InGOS campaign in a Danish willow field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Brümmer, Christian; Hensen, Arjan; van Asperen, Hella; Carter, Mette S.; Gasche, Rainer; Famulari, Daniela; Kutsch, Werner; Pilegaard, Kim; Ambus, Per

    2014-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from soils are characterised by their high spatial and temporal variability. The fluxes depend on the availability of the substrates for nitrification and denitrification and soil physical and chemical conditions that control the metabolic microbial activity. The sporadic nature of the fluxes and their high sensitivity to alterations of the soil climate put very high demands on measurement approaches. Laser spectroscopy enables accurate and fast response detection of atmospheric N2O concentrations and is used for eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements. Alternatively N2O fluxes can be measured with chambers together with high precision analysers. Differences in the measurement approaches and system designs are expected to have a considerable influence on the accuracy of the flux estimation. This study investigates how three different eddy covariance systems perform in a situation of low N2O fluxes from a flat surface. Chamber flux measurements with differing chamber and analyser designs are used for comparison. In April 2013, the EU research infrastructure project InGOS (http://www.ingos-infrastructure.eu/) organised a campaign of N2O flux measurements in a willow plantation close to the Risø Campus of the Technical University of Denmark. The willow field was harvested in February 2013 and received mineral fertiliser equivalent to 120 kg N ha-1 before the campaign started. Three different eddy covariance systems took part in the campaign: two Aerodyne quantum cascade laser (QCL) based systems and one Los Gatos Research off-axis integrated-cavity-output spectroscopy (ICOS) system for N2O and CO. The sonic anemometers were all installed at 2 m height above the bare ground. Gill R3 type sonic anemometers were used with QCL systems and a Gil HS-50 with the ICOS system. The 10 Hz raw data were analysed with group specific softwares and procedures. The local conditions in the exceptionally cold and dry spring 2013 did not lead to large N2O flux

  5. The AmeriFlux Network of Long-Term CO{sub 2} Flux Measurement Stations: Methodology and Intercomparability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollinger, D. Y.; Evans, R. S.

    2003-05-20

    A portable flux measurement system has been used within the AmeriFlux network of CO{sub 2} flux measurement stations to enhance the comparability of data collected across the network. No systematic biases were observed in a comparison between portable system and site H, LE, or CO{sub 2} flux values although there were biases observed between the portable system and site measurement of air temperature and PPFD. Analysis suggests that if values from two stations differ by greater than 26% for H, 35% for LE, and 32% for CO{sub 2} flux they are likely to be significant. Methods for improving the intercomparability of the network are also discussed.

  6. Quantifying Surface Energy Flux Estimation Uncertainty Using Land Surface Temperature Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, A. N.; Hunsaker, D.; Thorp, K.; Bronson, K. F.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing with thermal infrared is widely recognized as good way to estimate surface heat fluxes, map crop water use, and detect water-stressed vegetation. When combined with net radiation and soil heat flux data, observations of sensible heat fluxes derived from surface temperatures (LST) are indicative of instantaneous evapotranspiration (ET). There are, however, substantial reasons LST data may not provide the best way to estimate of ET. For example, it is well known that observations and models of LST, air temperature, or estimates of transport resistances may be so inaccurate that physically based model nevertheless yield non-meaningful results. Furthermore, using visible and near infrared remote sensing observations collected at the same time as LST often yield physically plausible results because they are constrained by less dynamic surface conditions such as green fractional cover. Although sensitivity studies exist that help identify likely sources of error and uncertainty, ET studies typically do not provide a way to assess the relative importance of modeling ET with and without LST inputs. To better quantify model benefits and degradations due to LST observational inaccuracies, a Bayesian uncertainty study was undertaken using data collected in remote sensing experiments at Maricopa, Arizona. Visible, near infrared and thermal infrared data were obtained from an airborne platform. The prior probability distribution of ET estimates were modeled using fractional cover, local weather data and a Penman-Monteith mode, while the likelihood of LST data was modeled from a two-source energy balance model. Thus the posterior probabilities of ET represented the value added by using LST data. Results from an ET study over cotton grown in 2014 and 2015 showed significantly reduced ET confidence intervals when LST data were incorporated.

  7. Correlations Between Sea-Surface Salinity Tendencies and Freshwater Fluxes in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Adamec, David

    2007-01-01

    Temporal changes in sea-surface salinity (SSS) from 21 years of a high resolution model integration of the Pacific Ocean are correlated with the freshwater flux that was used to force the integration. The correlations are calculated on a 1 x10 grid, and on a monthly scale to assess the possibility of deducing evaporation minus precipitation (E-P) fields from the salinity measurements to be taken by the upcoming Aquarius/SAC-D mission. Correlations between the monthly mean E-P fields and monthly mean SSS temporal tendencies are mainly zonally-oriented, and are highest where the local precipitation is relatively high. Nonseasonal (deviations from the monthly mean) correlations are highest along mid-latitude storm tracks and are relatively small in the tropics. The response of the model's surface salinity to surface forcing is very complex, and retrievals of freshwater fluxes from SSS measurements alone will require consideration of other processes, including horizontal advection and vertical mixing, rather than a simple balance between the two.

  8. Measured and calculated longwave radiation fluxes and their year to year variation at Mizuho Station, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi, Yamanouchi

    1984-01-01

    Together with measurements at Mizuho Station during POLEX-South, longwave radiation fluxes are calculated for the same measurement conditions. Comparing the measured and calculated downward longwave fluxes, good agreement is found for most months in 1979 and several months in 1980; however, large disagreements are seen for winter months in 1980. The variation of longwave radiation between 1979 and 1980 is examined using measured and calculated fluxes. The measured downward longwave flux in th...

  9. Observations of Near-Surface Heat-Flux and Temperature Profiles Through the Early Evening Transition over Contrasting Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Derek D.; Nadeau, Daniel F.; Hoch, Sebastian W.; Pardyjak, Eric R.

    2016-06-01

    Near-surface turbulence data from the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) program are used to study countergradient heat fluxes through the early evening transition. Two sites, subjected to similar large-scale forcing, but with vastly different surface and sub-surface characteristics, are considered. The Playa site is situated at the interior of a large dry lakebed desert with high sub-surface soil moisture, shallow water table, and devoid of vegetation. The Sagebrush site is located in a desert steppe region with sparse vegetation and little soil moisture. Countergradient sensible heat fluxes are observed during the transition at both sites. The transition process is both site and height dependent. At the Sagebrush site, the countergradient flux at 5 m and below occurs when the sign change of the sensible heat flux precedes the local temperature gradient sign change. For 10 m and above, the countergradient flux occurs when the sign change of the sensible heat flux follows the local temperature gradient sign change. At the Playa site, the countergradient flux at all tower levels occurs when the sign change of the sensible heat flux follows the local temperature gradient sign change. The phenomenon is explained in terms of the mean temperature and heat-flux evolution. The temperature gradient sign reversal is a top-down process while the flux reversal occurs nearly simultaneously at all heights. The differing countergradient behaviour is primarily due to the different subsurface thermal characteristics at the two sites. The combined high volumetric heat capacity and high thermal conductivity at the Playa site lead to small vertical temperature gradients that affect the relative magnitude of terms in the heat-flux tendency equation. A critical ratio of the gradient production to buoyant production of sensible heat flux is suggested so as to predict the countergradient behaviour.

  10. Evaluation of Arctic broadband surface radiation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Matsui

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ surface radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure incoming and outgoing shortwave (SW and thermal infrared, or longwave (LW, radiation. Enhancements may include various sensors for measuring irradiance in narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers that keep sensors and shading devices trained on the sun along its diurnal path. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating stations in a pristine undisturbed setting free of artificial blockage (such as from buildings and towers and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data in the Arctic include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the protective glass domes of the radiometers and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, comparisons are made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse SW measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of arctic radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both SW and LW measurements. Solutions to these operational problems that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols are proposed.

  11. Direct measurement of nitrogen gas fluxes from continental shelf sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devol, Allan H.

    1991-01-01

    IT has been suggested that denitrification in continental shelf and slope sediments is the most important sink in the marine nitrogen cycle1-4. This conclusion has been reached, not from direct measurements of denitrification in these areas, but rather from indirect estimates derived from pore-water models of diagenetic processes. In highly bioturbated continental shelf and slope sediments with steep pore-water gradients, such indirect estimates may not be applicable5,6.1 have now made direct, in situ measurements of denitrification in sediments of the eastern North Pacific continental margin by determining the flux of molecular nitrogen out of the sediments into the overlying water. Denitrification rates in continental shelf sediments measured in this fashion averaged 3.7 pmol N cm-2s-1. The flux of nitrate from the overlying water into the sediments was only 1.5 pmol N cm-2s-1, showing that most of the nitrogen gas production is coupled to nitrification within the sediments. The denitrification rates observed here are four to five times those estimated previously by indirect methods for these same sediments, and indicate the limitations of such indirect estimates. My results suggest that the global denitrification rate in shelf and slope sediments may be greater than previously thought, and confirm the importance of sedimentary denitrification in the marine nitrogen budget.

  12. REMOTE SENSING AND SURFACE ENERGY FLUX MODELS TO DERIVE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND CROP COEFFICIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Barbagallo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing techniques using high resolution satellite images provide opportunities to evaluate daily crop water use and its spatial and temporal distribution on a field by field basis. Mapping this indicator with pixels of few meters of size on extend areas allows to characterize different processes and parameters. Satellite data on vegetation reflectance, integrated with in field measurements of canopy coverage features and the monitoring of energy fluxes through the soil-plant-atmosphere system, allow to estimate conventional irrigation components (ET, Kc thus improving irrigation strategies. In the study, satellite potential evapotranspiration (ETp and crop coefficient (Kc maps of orange orchards are derived using semi-empirical approaches between reflectance data from IKONOS imagery and ground measurements of vegetation features. The monitoring of energy fluxes through the orchard allows to estimate actual crop evapotranspiration (ETa using energy balance and the Surface Renewal theory. The approach indicates substantial promise as an efficient, accurate and relatively inexpensive procedure to predict actual ET fluxes and Kc from irrigated lands.

  13. Performance measurements at the fast flux test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1984, Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) management recognized the need to develop a measurement system that would quantify the operational performance of the FFTF and the human resources needed to operate it. Driven by declining budgets and the need to safely manage a manpower rampdown at FFTF, an early warning system was developed. Although the initiating event for the early warning system was the need to safely manage a manpower rampdown, many related uses have evolved. The initial desired objective for the FFTF performance measurements was to ensure safety and control of key performance trends. However, the early warning system has provided a more quantitative, supportable basis upon which to make decisions. From this initial narrow focus, efforts in the FFTF plant and supporting organizations are leading to measurement of and, subsequently, improvements in productivity. Pilot projects utilizing statistical process control have started with longer range productivity improvement

  14. Influence of sodium chloride and weak organic acids (flux residues) on electrochemical migration of tin on surface mount chip components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2013-01-01

    The electrolytic properties of sodium chloride and no-clean solder flux residue, and their effects on electrochemical migration and dendrite growth on surface mount chip capacitors were investigated. The leakage current dependency on concentration of contaminants was measured by a solution...

  15. Variance Method to Determine Turbulent Fluxes of Momentum And Sensible Heat in The Stable Atmospheric Surface Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debruin, H.A.R.; Hartogensis, O.K.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence is presented that in the stable atmospheric surface layer turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum can be determined from the standard deviations of longitudinal wind velocity and temperature, ¿u and ¿T respectively, measured at a single level. An attractive aspect of this method is that it

  16. Optical performance evaluation of a solar furnace by measuring the highly concentrated solar flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyunjin; Chai, Kwankyo; Kim, Jongkyu; Lee, Sangnam; Yoon, Hwanki; Yu, Changkyun; Kang, Yongheack

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated optical performance of a solar furnace in the KIER (Korea Institute of Energy Research) by measuring the highly concentrated solar flux with the flux mapping method. We presented and analyzed optical performance in terms of concentrated solar flux distribution and power distribution. We investigated concentration ratio, stagnation temperature, total power, and concentration accuracy with help of a modeling code based on the ray tracing method and thereby compared with other solar furnaces. We also discussed flux changes by shutter opening angles and by position adjustment of reflector facets. In the course of flux analysis, we provided a better understanding of reference flux measurement for calibration, reflectivity measurement with a portable reflectometer, shadowing area consideration for effective irradiation, as well as accuracy and repeatability of flux measurements. The results in the present study will help proper utilization of a solar furnace by facilitating comparison between flux measurements at different conditions and flux estimation during operation

  17. Quantifying the flux of CaCO3 and organic carbon from the surface ocean using in situ measurements of O2, N2, pCO2, and pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Steven; Sabine, Christopher; Cronin, Meghan F.; Feely, Richard; Cullison Gray, Sarah E.; Degrandpre, Mike

    2011-09-01

    Ocean acidification from anthropogenic CO2 has focused our attention on the importance of understanding the rates and mechanisms of CaCO3 formation so that changes can be monitored and feedbacks predicted. We present a method for determining the rate of CaCO3 production using in situ measureme nts of fCO2 and pH in surface waters of the eastern subarctic Pacific Ocean. These quantities were determined on a surface mooring every 3 h for a period of about 9 months in 2007 at Ocean Station Papa (50°N, 145°W). We use the data in a simple surface ocean, mass balance model of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkalinity (Alk) to constrain the CaCO3: organic carbon (OC) production ratio to be approximately 0.5. A CaCO3 production rate of 8 mmol CaCO3 m-2 d-1 in the summer of 2007 (1.2 mol m-2 yr-1) is derived by combining the CaCO3: OC ratio with the a net organic carbon production rate (2.5 mol C m-2 yr-1) determined from in situ measurements of oxygen and nitrogen gas concentrations measured on the same mooring (Emerson and Stump, 2010). Carbonate chemistry data from a meridional hydrographic section in this area in 2008 indicate that isopycnal surfaces that outcrop in the winter in the subarctic Pacific and deepen southward into the subtropics are a much stronger source for alkalinity than vertical mixing. This pathway has a high enough Alk:DIC ratio to support the CaCO3:OC production rate implied by the fCO2 and pH data.

  18. Reporting central tendencies of chamber measured surface emission and oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abichou, Tarek; Clark, Jeremy; Chanton, Jeffery

    2011-05-01

    Methane emissions, concentrations, and oxidation were measured on eleven MSW landfills in eleven states spanning from California to Pennsylvania during the three year study. The flux measurements were performed using a static chamber technique. Initial concentration samples were collected immediately after placement of the flux chamber. Oxidation of the emitted methane was evaluated using stable isotope techniques. When reporting overall surface emissions and percent oxidation for a landfill cover, central tendencies are typically used to report "averages" of the collected data. The objective of this study was to determine the best way to determine and report central tendencies. Results showed that 89% of the data sets of collected surface flux have lognormal distributions, 83% of the surface concentration data sets are also lognormal. Sixty seven percent (67%) of the isotope measured percent oxidation data sets are normally distributed. The distribution of data for all eleven landfills provides insight of the central tendencies of emissions, concentrations, and percent oxidation. When reporting the "average" measurement for both flux and concentration data collected at the surface of a landfill, statistical analyses provided insight supporting the use of the geometric mean. But the arithmetic mean can accurately represent the percent oxidation, as measured with the stable isotope technique. We examined correlations between surface CH(4) emissions and surface air CH(4) concentrations. Correlation of the concentration and flux values using the geometric mean proved to be a good fit (R(2)=0.86), indicating that surface scans are a good way of identifying locations of high emissions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Instantaneous heat flux flowing into ceramic combustion chamber wall surface of low heat rejection engine; Shanetsu engine no ceramic nenshoshitsu hekimen eno shunji netsuryusoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Y.; Hagihara, Y. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, S. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Adachi, K. [Daido Hoxan Inc., Sapporo (Japan); Nagano, H. [Riso Kagaku Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Ishii, A. [Mitani Sangyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-08-25

    To evaluate the effectiveness of low heat rejection engine under heat loss condition, instantaneous heat fluxes flowing into ceramic piston surface and aluminum alloy (Loex) piston surface using thin film thermocouple were measured, and both were compared. As a result, in the working stroke, the instantaneous heat flux flowing into ceramic piston surface was larger than the instantaneous heat flux flowing into Loex piston surface. Accordingly, it became clear that reduction of heat loss was not effected when ceramics that thermal conductivity is small was used for combustion chamber wall. 21 refs., 14 figs.

  20. First-order chemistry in the surface-flux layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Andersen, C.E.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    1997-01-01

    of a characteristic turbulent time scale and the scalar mean lifetime. We show that if we use only first-order closure and neglect the effect of the Damkohler ratio on the turbulent diffusivity we obtain another analytic solution for the profiles of the flux and the mean concentration which, from an experimental...

  1. Surface-air mercury fluxes across Western North America: A synthesis of spatial trends and controlling variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckley, Chris S.; Tate, Mike T.; Lin, Che-Jen; Gustin, Mae; Dent, Stephen; Eagles-Smith, Collin; Lutz, Michelle A.; Wickland, Kimberly P.; Wang, Bronwen; Gray, John E.; Edwards, Grant C.; Krabbenhoft, Dave P.; Smith, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) emission and deposition can occur to and from soils, and are an important component of the global atmospheric Hg budget. This paper focuses on synthesizing existing surface-air Hg flux data collected throughout the Western North American region and is part of a series of geographically focused Hg synthesis projects. A database of existing Hg flux data collected using the dynamic flux chamber (DFC) approach from almost a thousand locations was created for the Western North America region. Statistical analysis was performed on the data to identify the important variables controlling Hg fluxes and to allow spatiotemporal scaling. The results indicated that most of the variability in soil-air Hg fluxes could be explained by variations in soil-Hg concentrations, solar radiation, and soil moisture. This analysis also identified that variations in DFC methodological approaches were detectable among the field studies, with the chamber material and sampling flushing flow rate influencing the magnitude of calculated emissions. The spatiotemporal scaling of soil-air Hg fluxes identified that the largest emissions occurred from irrigated agricultural landscapes in California. Vegetation was shown to have a large impact on surface-air Hg fluxes due to both a reduction in solar radiation reaching the soil as well as from direct uptake of Hg in foliage. Despite high soil Hg emissions from some forested and other heavily vegetated regions, the net ecosystem flux (soil flux + vegetation uptake) was low. Conversely, sparsely vegetated regions showed larger net ecosystem emissions, which were similar in magnitude to atmospheric Hg deposition (except for the Mediterranean California region where soil emissions were higher). The net ecosystem flux results highlight the important role of landscape characteristics in effecting the balance between Hg sequestration and (re-)emission to the atmosphere. - Highlights: • Soil-air Hg fluxes are an important component of the

  2. Surface-air mercury fluxes across Western North America: A synthesis of spatial trends and controlling variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckley, Chris S., E-mail: eckley.chris@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Region-10, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Tate, Mike T. [US Geological Survey, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Lin, Che-Jen [Center for Advances on Water and Air quality, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Gustin, Mae [Department of Natural Resources & Environmental Science, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Dent, Stephen [CDM Smith, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Eagles-Smith, Collin [US Geological Survey, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Lutz, Michelle A. [US Geological Survey, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Wickland, Kimberly P. [US Geological Survey Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Wang, Bronwen [US Geological Survey, Anchorage, AK 99508 (United States); Gray, John E. [US Geological Survey, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Edwards, Grant C. [Department of Environment and Geography, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109 (Australia); Krabbenhoft, Dave P. [US Geological Survey, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Smith, David B. [US Geological Survey, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Mercury (Hg) emission and deposition can occur to and from soils, and are an important component of the global atmospheric Hg budget. This paper focuses on synthesizing existing surface-air Hg flux data collected throughout the Western North American region and is part of a series of geographically focused Hg synthesis projects. A database of existing Hg flux data collected using the dynamic flux chamber (DFC) approach from almost a thousand locations was created for the Western North America region. Statistical analysis was performed on the data to identify the important variables controlling Hg fluxes and to allow spatiotemporal scaling. The results indicated that most of the variability in soil-air Hg fluxes could be explained by variations in soil-Hg concentrations, solar radiation, and soil moisture. This analysis also identified that variations in DFC methodological approaches were detectable among the field studies, with the chamber material and sampling flushing flow rate influencing the magnitude of calculated emissions. The spatiotemporal scaling of soil-air Hg fluxes identified that the largest emissions occurred from irrigated agricultural landscapes in California. Vegetation was shown to have a large impact on surface-air Hg fluxes due to both a reduction in solar radiation reaching the soil as well as from direct uptake of Hg in foliage. Despite high soil Hg emissions from some forested and other heavily vegetated regions, the net ecosystem flux (soil flux + vegetation uptake) was low. Conversely, sparsely vegetated regions showed larger net ecosystem emissions, which were similar in magnitude to atmospheric Hg deposition (except for the Mediterranean California region where soil emissions were higher). The net ecosystem flux results highlight the important role of landscape characteristics in effecting the balance between Hg sequestration and (re-)emission to the atmosphere. - Highlights: • Soil-air Hg fluxes are an important component of the

  3. Emissions of volatile organic compounds inferred from airborne flux measurements over a megacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karl

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toluene and benzene are used for assessing the ability to measure disjunct eddy covariance (DEC fluxes of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS on aircraft. Statistically significant correlation between vertical wind speed and mixing ratios suggests that airborne VOC eddy covariance (EC flux measurements using PTR-MS are feasible. City-median midday toluene and benzene fluxes are calculated to be on the order of 14.1±4.0 mg/m2/h and 4.7±2.3 mg/m2/h, respectively. For comparison the adjusted CAM2004 emission inventory estimates toluene fluxes of 10 mg/m2/h along the footprint of the flight-track. Wavelet analysis of instantaneous toluene and benzene measurements during city overpasses is tested as a tool to assess surface emission heterogeneity. High toluene to benzene flux ratios above an industrial district (e.g. 10–15 g/g including the International airport (e.g. 3–5 g/g and a mean flux (concentration ratio of 3.2±0.5 g/g (3.9±0.3 g/g across Mexico City indicate that evaporative fuel and industrial emissions play an important role for the prevalence of aromatic compounds. Based on a tracer model, which was constrained by BTEX (BTEX– Benzene/Toluene/Ethylbenzene/m, p, o-Xylenes compound concentration ratios, the fuel marker methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (MTBE and the biomass burning marker acetonitrile (CH3CN, we show that a combination of industrial, evaporative fuel, and exhaust emissions account for >87% of all BTEX sources. Our observations suggest that biomass burning emissions play a minor role for the abundance of BTEX compounds in the MCMA (2–13%.

  4. Electrical conductivity and electron cyclotron current drive efficiencies for non-circular flux surfaces in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    As is well known, the presence of electron trapping can strongly reduce the electrical conductivity and rf current drive efficiencies of tokamak plasmas. For example, the conductivity (in the low collisionality limit) of a flux surface with inverse aspect ratio ε=0.1 is approximately one half of the Spitzer conductivity (σ sp )for uniform magnetic fields. Previous estimates of these effects have assumed that the variation of magnetic field strength around a flux surface is given by the standard form for circular flux surfaces. (author) 11 refs., 4 figs

  5. Using radiometric surface temperature for surface energy flux estimation in Mediterranean drylands from a two-source perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morillas, L.; Garcia Garcia, Monica; Nieto Solana, Hector

    2013-01-01

    and parallel; as well as the iterative algorithm included in the TSM to disaggregate the soil-surface composite temperature into its separate components. Continuous field measurements of composite soil-vegetation surface temperature (T) and bare soil temperature (T) from thermal infrared sensors were used...... of lower errors (~10%) in estimating H using parallel resistance, the series scheme was more robust showing slightly higher correlations (r=0.78-0.80 vs. r=0.75-0.77) and allowing a better disaggregation of soil and canopy fluxes. Differences between model runs using the iterative algorithm to disaggregate...... T and the simplified version that uses separate inputs of T and T' were minor. This demonstrates the robustness of the iterative procedure to disaggregate a composite soil-vegetation temperature into separate soil and vegetation components in semiarid environments with good prospects for image...

  6. New ground-based lidar enables volcanic CO2 flux measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiuppa, Alessandro; Fiorani, Luca; Santoro, Simone; Parracino, Stefano; Nuvoli, Marcello; Chiodini, Giovanni; Minopoli, Carmine; Tamburello, Giancarlo

    2015-09-01

    There have been substantial advances in the ability to monitor the activity of hazardous volcanoes in recent decades. However, obtaining early warning of eruptions remains challenging, because the patterns and consequences of volcanic unrests are both complex and nonlinear. Measuring volcanic gases has long been a key aspect of volcano monitoring since these mobile fluids should reach the surface long before the magma. There has been considerable progress in methods for remote and in-situ gas sensing, but measuring the flux of volcanic CO2-the most reliable gas precursor to an eruption-has remained a challenge. Here we report on the first direct quantitative measurements of the volcanic CO2 flux using a newly designed differential absorption lidar (DIAL), which were performed at the restless Campi Flegrei volcano. We show that DIAL makes it possible to remotely obtain volcanic CO2 flux time series with a high temporal resolution (tens of minutes) and accuracy (volcano monitoring, and will contribute improved volcanic CO2 flux inventories. Our results also demonstrate the unusually strong degassing behavior of Campi Flegrei fumaroles in the current ongoing state of unrest.

  7. Field-scale evaluation of the passive flux meter for simultaneous measurement of groundwater and contaminant fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annable, Michael D; Hatfield, Kirk; Cho, Jaehyun; Klammler, Harald; Parker, Beth L; Cherry, John A; Rao, P Suresh C

    2005-09-15

    A new method, passive flux meter (PFM), has been developed and field-tested for simultaneously measuring contaminant and groundwater fluxes in the saturated zone at hazardous waste sites. The PFM approach uses a sorptive permeable medium placed in either a borehole or monitoring well to intercept contaminated groundwater and release "resident" tracers. The sorbent pack is placed in a groundwater flow field for a specified exposure time and then recovered for extraction and analysis. By quantifying the mass fraction of resident tracers lost and the mass of contaminant sorbed, groundwater and contaminant fluxes are calculated. Here, we assessed the performance of PFMs at the Canadian Forces Base Borden field site in Ontario, Canada. Two field tests were conducted under imposed groundwater flow fields: (1) radial flow to a well and (2) linear flow in a test channel confined by sheet pile walls on three sides. Both tests demonstrate that the local fluxes measured by PFM and averaged overthe screen interval were within 15% of imposed groundwaterflow and within 30% of measured contaminant mass flux. Patterns in depth variations in groundwater and contaminant fluxes, determined by the PFM approach, allow for site characterization at a higher spatial resolution. These results support the PMF method as a potential innovative alternative for measuring groundwater and contaminant fluxes in screened wells.

  8. Sound power flux measurements in strongly exited ducts with flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Keith R.; Davies, Peter O. A. L.; van der Walt, Danie C.

    2002-12-01

    This contribution describes new robust procedures for the measurement of sound power flux at appropriate axial positions along a duct with flow, using pairs of flush wall mounted microphones, or pressure transducers. The technology includes the application of selective averaging, order tracking, and optimized sampling rate methods to identify the small fraction of the total fluctuating wave energy that is being propagated along the flow path in a reverberent, or highly reactive duct system. Such measurements can also be used to quantify the local acoustic characteristics that govern the generation, transfer, and propagation of wave energy in the system. Illustrative examples include the determination of the acoustic characteristics of individual silencing elements installed in IC engine intakes and exhausts both on the flow bench and during controlled acceleration or run down on a test bed, where the wave component spectral levels approached 170 dB.

  9. AmeriFlux Measurement Component (AMC) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichl, Ken [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Biraud, Sebastien C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    An AMC system was installed at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site, also known as NSA C1 at the ARM Data Archive, in August 2012. A second AMC system was installed at the third ARM Mobile Facility deployment at Oliktok Point, also known as NSA M1. This in situ system consists of 12 combination soil temperature and volumetric water content (VWC) reflectometers and one set of upwelling and downwelling photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) sensors, all deployed within the fetch of the Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System. Soil temperature and VWC sensors placed at two depths (10 and 30 cm below the vegetation layer) at six locations (or microsites) allow soil property inhomogeneity to be monitored across a landscape.

  10. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25x0.25 deg, Daily Grid, V3, (GSSTF), at GES DISC V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr....

  11. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25 x 0.25 deg, Daily Grid V3 (GSSTF) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr....

  12. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25x0.25 deg, Monthly Grid, V3, (GSSTFM), at GES DISC V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  13. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Monthly Grid, Set1 and Interpolated Data V2c (GSSTFM) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  14. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25x0.25 deg, Daily Grid, V3, (GSSTF_F13) V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....

  15. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25x0.25 deg, Daily Grid, V3, (GSSTF_F15) V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....

  16. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25x0.25 deg, Daily Grid, V3, (GSSTF_11) V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....

  17. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25x0.25 deg, Daily Grid, V3, (GSSTF_F14) V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....

  18. Sonic anemometer (co) sine response and flux measurement I. The potential for (co)sine error to affect sonic anemometer-based flux measurements. Agriculture and Forest Meteorology 119

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gash, J.H.C.; Dolman, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    The potential for sonic anemometer (co)sine errors to affect eddy flux measurements is investigated. Similarity theory is used to show that the standard deviation of the instantaneous angle between the wind vector and the horizontal (the angle of attack), depends on surface roughness, measurement

  19. Flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    . FLUX betegner en flyden eller strømmen, dvs. dynamik. Forstår man livet som proces og udvikling i stedet for som ting og mekanik, får man et andet billede af det gode liv end det, som den velkendte vestlige mekanicisme lægger op til. Dynamisk forstået indebærer det gode liv den bedst mulige...... kanalisering af den flux eller energi, der strømmer igennem os og giver sig til kende i vore daglige aktiviteter. Skal vores tanker, handlinger, arbejde, samvær og politiske liv organiseres efter stramme og faste regelsæt, uden slinger i valsen? Eller skal de tværtimod forløbe ganske uhindret af regler og bånd...

  20. Fluxes over a heterogeneous land surface: results and perspectives of the LITFASS program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyrich, F.; Richter, S.H.; Weisensee, U.; Herzog, H.J.; DeBruin, H.A.R.; Meijninger, W.M.L.

    2002-01-01

    From 1995 till 2001, the German Meteorological Service (DWD) has performed a research project (LITFASS='Lindenberg Inhomogeneous Terrain - Fluxes between Atmosphere and Surface: a Long-term Study') in order to develop and to test a strategy for the determination of the area-averaged turbulent fluxes

  1. Investigating Alaskan methane and carbon dioxide fluxes using measurements from the CARVE tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karion

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Northern high-latitude carbon sources and sinks, including those resulting from degrading permafrost, are thought to be sensitive to the rapidly warming climate. Because the near-surface atmosphere integrates surface fluxes over large ( ∼  500–1000 km scales, atmospheric monitoring of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 mole fractions in the daytime mixed layer is a promising method for detecting change in the carbon cycle throughout boreal Alaska. Here we use CO2 and CH4 measurements from a NOAA tower 17 km north of Fairbanks, AK, established as part of NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE, to investigate regional fluxes of CO2 and CH4 for 2012–2014. CARVE was designed to use aircraft and surface observations to better understand and quantify the sensitivity of Alaskan carbon fluxes to climate variability. We use high-resolution meteorological fields from the Polar Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model coupled with the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (hereafter, WRF-STILT, along with the Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (PolarVPRM, to investigate fluxes of CO2 in boreal Alaska using the tower observations, which are sensitive to large areas of central Alaska. We show that simulated PolarVPRM–WRF-STILT CO2 mole fractions show remarkably good agreement with tower observations, suggesting that the WRF-STILT model represents the meteorology of the region quite well, and that the PolarVPRM flux magnitudes and spatial distribution are generally consistent with CO2 mole fractions observed at the CARVE tower. One exception to this good agreement is that during the fall of all 3 years, PolarVPRM cannot reproduce the observed CO2 respiration. Using the WRF-STILT model, we find that average CH4 fluxes in boreal Alaska are somewhat lower than flux estimates by Chang et al. (2014 over all of Alaska for May–September 2012; we also find that enhancements appear

  2. A One-Source Approach for Estimating Land Surface Heat Fluxes Using Remotely Sensed Land Surface Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The partitioning of available energy between sensible heat and latent heat is important for precise water resources planning and management in the context of global climate change. Land surface temperature (LST is a key variable in energy balance process and remotely sensed LST is widely used for estimating surface heat fluxes at regional scale. However, the inequality between LST and aerodynamic surface temperature (Taero poses a great challenge for regional heat fluxes estimation in one-source energy balance models. To address this issue, we proposed a One-Source Model for Land (OSML to estimate regional surface heat fluxes without requirements for empirical extra resistance, roughness parameterization and wind velocity. The proposed OSML employs both conceptual VFC/LST trapezoid model and the electrical analog formula of sensible heat flux (H to analytically estimate the radiometric-convective resistance (rae via a quartic equation. To evaluate the performance of OSML, the model was applied to the Soil Moisture-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX in United States and the Multi-Scale Observation Experiment on Evapotranspiration (MUSOEXE in China, using remotely sensed retrievals as auxiliary data sets at regional scale. Validated against tower-based surface fluxes observations, the root mean square deviation (RMSD of H and latent heat flux (LE from OSML are 34.5 W/m2 and 46.5 W/m2 at SMACEX site and 50.1 W/m2 and 67.0 W/m2 at MUSOEXE site. The performance of OSML is very comparable to other published studies. In addition, the proposed OSML model demonstrates similar skills of predicting surface heat fluxes in comparison to SEBS (Surface Energy Balance System. Since OSML does not require specification of aerodynamic surface characteristics, roughness parameterization and meteorological conditions with high spatial variation such as wind speed, this proposed method shows high potential for routinely acquisition of latent heat flux estimation

  3. Digital module for neutron flux measurement by Campbell method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratte, G.

    1987-02-01

    The study reported here concerns a wide range measurement channel for reactor control instrumentation but it may also be useful for specific measurements requiring the Campbell method. A wide range measurement channel allows the processing of the signal issued from a single fission chamber so it's possible to insure control of nuclear reactors in three different running modes: pulse processing, fluctuations and current. The study described in this note includes three parts: - the analogical wide range neutron measurement channel is presented in the first chapter; the fluctuation mode is thoroughly studied; the results of tests and proper limitations of analogical processing are summarized. A theoretical study of the neutron flux measurement by numerical calculation of the fluctuation signal variance is given in the second chapter. The digital module is described in the third chapter; the results of experiments are analysed. The validity of the digital method is proved by means of a practical realisation. The performances obtained with the digital fluctuation test model may be compared with those given by the analogical fluctuation channel which can be used for the control of lower fission rates. The digital module may also be used for any fluctuation measurement where very short response time and broad spectral band of analysis are not strictly necessary [fr

  4. An alternative method for the measurement of neutron flux

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here, the neutron flux inferred from the neutron count rate obtained with R-12 SDD shows an excellent agreement with the flux inferred from the neutron dose rate in a non-dissipative medium. Keywords. Neutron dose; neutron flux; superheated droplet detector; bubble nucleation. PACS Nos 29.40.Rg; 29.40.–n; 29.25.Dz. 1.

  5. Measurements of carbon dioxide and heat fluxes during monsoon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using these observations, we explored the diurnal variability of CO2 flux along with sensible and latent heat. The CO2 flux was positive during night-time and negative during daytime and in phase with convective instability. The CO2 flux relationships with the meteorological parameters such as wind speed, temperature and ...

  6. Bichromatic Scintillometer Measurements of Sensible and Latent Heat Fluxes over a Boreal Forested Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabelle, P. E.; Nadeau, D.; Parent, A. C.; Rousseau, A. N.; Jutras, S.; Anctil, F.

    2017-12-01

    Boreal forest covers roughly 10% of the earth emerged surface, making it one of the world most common type of landscape. There is a large number of studies on the land-atmosphere exchanges of water and energy for this type of forested surfaces. However, few were located in complex terrain, and, to the best of our knowledge, none have looked at continuous regional scale fluxes. Scintillometry is a powerful tool that allows such measurements, but is usually used over flat homogeneous terrain due to its dependency on Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory. However, some recent studies have applied this method over slopes, measuring fluxes comparable to those using the eddy covariance method. Still, more experiments are needed using scintillometry over sloped surfaces. This study presents bichromatic scintillometer measurements of sensible and latent heat fluxes over a boreal-forested valley. The field site is located in the Montmorency Forest, Québec, Canada (47°17'N; 71°10'W). The instrumented valley is surrounded by ridges at 900 m elevation, with the bottom stream at 785 m, and follows a 300-120° azimuth coinciding with the two main wind direction (up and down-valley, respectively). Vegetation mostly includes balsam firs 6-10 m tall, creating a rough but homogeneous surface. Scintillometer transmitters and receivers are installed on top of the ridges enclosing the valley, making the path 1.35 km long and its effective height 70-m tall. The setup includes a large aperture and a micro-wave scintillometer with crossing paths allowing the use of the bichromatic method. Measurement are taken continuously from August to October 2017. Scintillometer fluxes are compared with those measured by a 15-m eddy covariance tower located 100 m west of the measurement path, on the southern slope of the valley. Net radiation is also measured to assess energy budget closure over the valley. The setup allows us to test the limits of applicability of scintillometer measurements, especially

  7. Evaluation of Satellite-Based Surface Energy Budget Products with Surface Measurements Over the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Loeb, N. G.; Lenters, J. D.; Spence, C.; Blanken, P.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's climate is fundamentally driven by the global energy balance. While Earth's energy budget at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) is well understood, satellite-based estimates of the global mean surface energy budget yield an imbalance of 15-20 Wm-2. The data products used to infer the components of the surface energy budget are often based upon physical or empirical models and ancillary input data sets of varying quality. In order to make progress, comparisons between satellite-based estimates of the surface energy budget components and direct surface measurements are critically needed. This study evaluates surface radiative fluxes from NASA CERES EBAF and surface turbulent heat fluxes from OAFLUX by comparing them with surface station measurements from the Great Lakes Evaporation Network (GLEN). The GLEN measurements are collected using instruments on lighthouses in the Great Lakes, and include surface evaporation measurement via eddy covariance technique. The evaluation is performed for 3 offshore and 1 nearshore Great Lakes sites. We highlight results for Stannard Rock in Lake Superior, which is the farthest lighthouse from shore ( 40km from the nearest land). Relative to the GLEN observations, the OAFLUX underestimates latent heat flux by 12 Wm-2 (19 Wm-2) at Stannard Rock (4-station average), in part due to its weaker near surface wind speed, and overestimates sensible heat flux by 12 Wm-2 (6 Wm-2), which is partly contributed by its colder surface air temperature. The CERES EBAF-Surface overestimates the surface downward all-sky shortwave (longwave) flux by 8 Wm-2 (7 Wm-2) at Stannard Rock, and is comparable to the 4-station average. As a result, the surface estimated using EBAF-Surface and OAFLUX receives 16 Wm-2 (13 Wm-2) more than the GLEN observations at Stannard Rock (4-station average). The above surface energy flux differences will be further discussed based on a comparison between the input data sets used in the satellite-based estimates and

  8. Chamber and Diffusive Based Carbon Flux Measurements in an Alaskan Arctic Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkman, E.; Oechel, W. C.; Zona, D.

    2013-12-01

    consumption, whereas chamber and eddy covariance methodologies only document net production from the surface. Also, the capability to measure spring, summer and fall chamber fluxes, and to continuously determine year-round CO2 and CH4 fluxes under even the most extreme weather conditions, allows an unprecedented level of data continuity and local spatial coverage. Comparison to a nearby eddy covariance tower measuring CO2 and CH4 fluxes with an LGR Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyzer add additional power to this set of measurements. Thus, inter-comparison between diffusive, chamber, and tower-based carbon fluxes should lend much insight into the spatial and temporal controls on carbon cycling in this ecosystem.

  9. Extending the applicability of the eddy-covariance flux-measurement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordbo, A.

    2012-07-01

    Surface-atmosphere exchange of momentum, energy and atmospheric constituents affects the atmosphere--from alterations in local microclimates and mesoscale weather to climate modification. These exchange processes can be studied using direct eddy-covariance (EC) measurements of vertical turbulent transport, but the technique has not yet readily been applied in non-prevailing ecosystems. Thus, the aim of this thesis is to extend the applicability of the EC technique in two ways: to non-standard sites and by further developing the technique itself. To reach the aim, EC measurements over a boreal lake and three urban sites in Helsinki were performed. Long-term measurements over a lake revealed that the water below the thermocline was decoupled from the atmosphere and thus not important for atmospheric vertical turbulent fluxes. The energy exchange between the lake and the atmosphere departs from vegetated surfaces especially due to large nocturnal evaporation fuelled by lake-water heat storage. Long-term measurements at a semi-urban site in Helsinki showed that the surface-atmosphere exchange is altered by anthropogenic activity: changes in surface-cover and an additional anthropogenic heat release (13 W m{sup -2}) led to an altered surface energy balance, and anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions led to a large positive annual CO{sub 2} balance (1.8 kg C m{sup -2}). Intra-site and intra-city variation in surface-cover led to differences in atmospheric stability and CO{sub 2} emissions. The EC technique evaluation demonstrated that (1) the 'energy imbalance problem' in EC measurements is not primarily surface-cover dependent, and that (2) common calculation errors in EC calculations can be almost 30% of the flux. Water vapour flux measurements with a closed-path analyser were affected by sorption: the signal's arrival is delayed and it is attenuated. A new spectral-correction method based on wavelet analysis was developed to automatically correct for this

  10. Helicity injection with moving vacuum--plasma boundary with arbitrary flux surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellan, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    If a toroidal plasma has arbitrary nested magnetic flux surfaces and a moving plasma--vacuum interface, then any helicity injected by modulating the magnetic fields is simply consumed by an increase in helicity dissipation due to the modulated fields

  11. Evaluation of satellite and reanalysis-based global net surface energy flux and uncertainty estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Richard; Liu, Chunlei

    2017-04-01

    The net surface energy flux is central to the climate system yet observational limitations lead to substantial uncertainty (Trenberth and Fasullo, 2013; Roberts et al., 2016). A combination of satellite-derived radiative fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA) adjusted using the latest estimation of the net heat uptake of the Earth system, and the atmospheric energy tendencies and transports from the ERA-Interim reanalysis are used to estimate surface energy flux globally (Liu et al., 2015). Land surface fluxes are adjusted through a simple energy balance approach using relations at each grid point with the consideration of snowmelt to improve regional realism. The energy adjustment is redistributed over the oceans using a weighting function to avoid meridional discontinuities. Uncertainties in surface fluxes are investigated using a variety of approaches including comparison with a range of atmospheric reanalysis input data and products. Zonal multiannual mean surface flux uncertainty is estimated to be less than 5 Wm-2 but much larger uncertainty is likely for regional monthly values. The meridional energy transport is calculated using the net surface heat fluxes estimated in this study and the result shows better agreement with observations in Atlantic than before. The derived turbulent fluxes (difference between the net heat flux and the CERES EBAF radiative flux at surface) also have good agreement with those from OAFLUX dataset and buoy observations. Decadal changes in the global energy budget and the hemisphere energy imbalances are quantified and present day cross-equator heat transports is re-evaluated as 0.22±0.15 PW southward by the atmosphere and 0.32±0.16 PW northward by the ocean considering the observed ocean heat sinks (Roemmich et al., 2006) . Liu et al. (2015) Combining satellite observations and reanalysis energy transports to estimate global net surface energy fluxes 1985-2012. J. Geophys. Res., Atmospheres. ISSN 2169-8996 doi: 10.1002/2015JD

  12. Surface Energy Balance Closure and Turbulent Flux Parameterization on a Mid-Latitude Mountain Glacier, Purcell Mountains, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Fitzpatrick

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the majority of glacier surface energy balance studies, parameterization rather than direct measurement is used to estimate one or more of the individual heat fluxes, with others, such as the rain and ground heat fluxes, often deemed negligible. Turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat are commonly parameterized using the bulk aerodynamic technique. This method was developed for horizontal, uniform surfaces rather than sloped, inhomogeneous glacier terrain, and significant uncertainty remains regarding the selection of appropriate roughness length values, and the validity of the atmospheric stability functions employed. A customized weather station, designed to measure all relevant heat fluxes, was installed on an alpine glacier over the 2014 melt season. Eddy covariance techniques were used to observe the turbulent heat fluxes, and to calculate site-specific roughness values. The obtained dataset was used to drive a point ablation model, and to evaluate the most commonly used bulk methods and roughness length schemes in the literature. Modeled ablation showed good agreement with observed rates at seasonal, daily, and sub-daily timescales, effectively closing the surface energy balance, and giving a high level of confidence in the flux observation method. Net radiation was the dominant contributor to melt energy over the season (65.2%, followed by the sensible heat flux (29.7%, while the rain heat flux was observed to be a significant contributor on daily timescales during periods of persistent heavy rain (up to 20% day−1. Momentum roughness lengths observed for the study surface (snow: 10−3.8 m; ice: 10−2.2 m showed general agreement with previous findings, while the scalar values (temperature: 10−4.6 m; water vapor: 10−6 m differed significantly from those for momentum, disagreeing with the assumption of equal roughness lengths. Of the three bulk method stability schemes tested, the functions based on the Monin-Obukhov length

  13. Automatic solar image motion measurements. [electronic disk flux monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgate, S. A.; Moore, E. P.

    1975-01-01

    The solar seeing image motion has been monitored electronically and absolutely with a 25 cm telescope at three sites along the ridge at the southern end of the Magdalena Mountains west of Socorro, New Mexico. The uncorrelated component of the variations of the optical flux from two points at opposite limbs of the solar disk was continually monitored in 3 frequencies centered at 0.3, 3 and 30 Hz. The frequency band of maximum signal centered at 3 Hz showed the average absolute value of image motion to be somewhat less than 2sec. The observer estimates of combined blurring and image motion were well correlated with electronically measured image motion, but the observer estimates gave a factor 2 larger value.

  14. Comparative study of elemental mercury flux measurement techniques over a Fennoscandian boreal peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterwalder, S.; Sommar, J.; Åkerblom, S.; Jocher, G.; Fritsche, J.; Nilsson, M. B.; Bishop, K.; Alewell, C.

    2018-01-01

    Quantitative estimates of the land-atmosphere exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) are biased by the measurement technique employed, because no standard method or scale in space and time are agreed upon. Here we present concurrent GEM exchange measurements over a boreal peatland using a novel relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system, a rectangular Teflon® dynamic flux chamber (DFC) and a DFC designed according to aerodynamic considerations (Aero-DFC). During four consecutive days the DFCs were placed alternately on two measurement plots in every cardinal direction around the REA sampling mast. Spatial heterogeneity in peat surface characteristics (0-34 cm) was identified by measuring total mercury in eight peat cores (57 ± 8 ng g-1, average ± SE), vascular plant coverage (32-52%), water table level (4.5-14.1 cm) and dissolved gaseous elemental mercury concentrations (28-51 pg L-1) in the peat water. The GEM fluxes measured by the DFCs showed a distinct diel pattern, but no spatial difference in the average fluxes was detected (ANOVA, α = 0.05). Even though the correlation between the Teflon® DFC and Aero-DFC was significant (r = 0.76, p scale features, such as experimentally manipulated plots or small scale spatial heterogeneity.

  15. Stair-Step Particle Flux Spectra on the Lunar Surface: Evidence for Nonmonotonic Potentials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Newheart, Anastasia; Poppe, Andrew R.; Hills, H. Kent; Farrell, William M.

    2016-01-01

    We present examples of unusual "stair-step" differential flux spectra observed by the Apollo 14 Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment on the lunar dayside surface in Earth's magnetotail. These spectra exhibit a relatively constant differential flux below some cutoff energy and then drop off precipitously, by about an order of magnitude or more, at higher energies. We propose that these spectra result from photoions accelerated on the lunar dayside by nonmonotonic potentials (i.e.,potentials that do not decay to zero monotonically) and present a model for the expected differential flux. The energy of the cutoff and the magnitude of the differential flux are related to the properties of the local space environment and are consistent with the observed flux spectra. If this interpretation is correct, these surface-based ion observations provide a unique perspective that both complements and enhances the conclusions obtained by remote-sensing orbiter observations on the Moon's exospheric and electrostatic properties.

  16. Measurement and modelling ozone fluxes over a cut and fertilized grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mészáros

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During the GRAMINAE Integrated Experiment between 20 May and 15 June 2000, the ozone flux was measured by the eddy covariance method above intensively managed grassland in Braunschweig, northern Germany. Three different phases of vegetation were covered during the measuring campaign: tall grass canopy before cut (29 May 2000, short grass after cut, and re-growing vegetation after fertilization (5 June 2000. Results show that beside weather conditions, the agricultural activities significantly influenced the O3 fluxes. After the cut the daytime average of the deposition velocity (vd decreased from 0.44 cm s−1 to 0.26 cm s−1 and increased again to 0.32 cm s−1 during the third period. Detailed model calculations were carried out to estimate deposition velocity and ozone flux. The model captures the general diurnal patter of deposition, with vd daytime values of 0.52, 0.24, and 0.35 cm s−1 in the first, second and third period, respectively. Thus the model predicts a stronger response to the cut than the measurements, which is nevertheless smaller than expected on the basis of change in leaf area. The results show that both cut and fertilization have complex impacts on fluxes. Reduction of vegetation by cutting decreased the stomatal flux initially greatly, but the stomatal flux recovered to 80% of its original value within a week. At the same time, the non-stomatal flux appears to have increased directly after the cut, which the model partially explains by an increase in the deposition to the soil. A missing sink after the cut may be the chemical interaction with biogenic volatile organic compounds released after the cut and exposed senescent plant parts, or the increase in soil NO emissions after fertilization. Increased canopy temperatures may also have promoted ozone destruction on leaf surfaces. These results demonstrate the importance of canopy

  17. Measurements and modelling of snowmelt and turbulent heat fluxes over shrub tundra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bewley

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of snowmelt and turbulent heat fluxes were made during the snowmelt periods of two years at two neighbouring tundra sites in the Yukon, one in a sheltered location with tall shrubs exposed above deep snow and the other in an exposed location with dwarf shrubs covered by shallow snow. The snow was about twice as deep in the valley as on the plateau at the end of each winter and melted out about 10 days later. The site with buried vegetation showed a transition from air-to-surface heat transfers to surface-to-air heat transfers as bare ground became exposed during snowmelt, but there were daytime transfers of heat from the surface to the air at the site with exposed vegetation even while snow remained on the ground. A model calculating separate energy balances for snow and exposed vegetation, driven with meteorological data from the sites, is found to be able to reproduce these behaviours. Averaged over 30-day periods the model gives about 8 Wm−2 more sensible heat flux to the atmosphere for the valley site than for the plateau site. Sensitivity of simulated fluxes to model parameters describing vegetation cover and density is investigated.

  18. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Flux Using a Water-Cooled Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of a steady heat flux to a given water-cooled surface by means of a system energy balance. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. A Novel Flux Linkage Indirect Measurement for Switched Reluctance Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pang; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Yue

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a indirect detection system of flux linkage characteristic of switched reluctance motor based on dsPACE, fixed rotor position by mechanical indexing for Static flux linkage detection, the phase windings is excited by the step voltage signal, the voltage and phase current are collected real -time, and calculate flux linkage. The advantages of the method is that the parameters are optimized by ControlDesk, the flux linkage detection model is built by Simulink, no writing program, simple, easy implementation. An 1.5kw three-phase 12/8 SRM experimental prototype was constructed, the detection results of the Static flux linkage and dynamic flux linkage verified its validity and feasibility.

  20. Eddy Covariance flux measurements over an ice/snow covered lake in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potes, Miguel; Salgado, Rui; Provenzale, Maria; Mammarella, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    The inland water bodies play an important role in the regional heat and mass transfer with the atmosphere. As lakes cover an area of 4.2 million km2, representing an area of more than 3% of Earth continental surface, an increasing concern in estimation of heat and greenhouse gases exchanges between inland water bodies and the atmosphere has been developed in the last years. The eddy covariance (EC) method is the worldwide most common technique used to assess turbulent fluxes over all types of surface. In the framework of two Short Term Scientific Mission of the COST action "A European network for a harmonized monitoring of snow for the benefit of climate change scenarios, hydrology and numerical weather prediction" (ES1404), it was feasible to have parallel EC measurements with two identical equipment over a boreal lake. In this communication the results are related to the period comprised between November 2015 and May 2016, including freezing and ice-free periods. Observed near surface fluxes of momentum, heat and mass (H2O and CO2) were obtained with a new eddy covariance system (EC), Campbell Scientific's IRGASON Integrated Open-Path CO2/H2O Gas Analyzer and 3D Sonic Anemometer, over lake Vanajavesi in Finland. The measurement site is located in a tip of narrow peninsula on the lake (61.133935°N; 24.259119°E), offering very good conditions for eddy covariance flux measurements. The EC system was installed at 2.5m height above the lake surface and was oriented against the prevailing wind direction in the site.

  1. Measurement of NOx fluxes from a tall tower in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Freya; Dunmore, Rachel; Lewis, Alastair; Vaughan, Adam; Mullinger, Neil; Nemitz, Eiko; Wild, Oliver; Zhang, Qiang; Hamilton, Jacqueline; Lee, James; Fu, Pingqing

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen Oxides (NOx, the sum of nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) are significant anthropogenic pollutants emitted from most combustion processes. NOx is a precursor species to the formation of O3 and secondary aerosols and, in high concentrations, NO2 can have adverse effects on human health through action as a respiratory irritant. For these reasons, there has been increased focus on improving NOx emissions inventories, typically developed using 'bottom-up' estimates of emissions from their sources, which are used to predict current and future air quality and to guide abatement strategy. Recent studies have shown a discrepancy between NOx inventories and measured NOx emissions for UK cities, highlighting the limitations of bottom-up emissions inventories and the importance of accurate measurement data to improve the estimates. Similarly, inventories in China are associated with large uncertainties and are rapidly changing with time in response to economic development and new environmental regulation. Here, we present data collected as part of the Air Pollutants in Beijing (AIRPOLL-Beijing) campaign from an urban site located at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IAP, CAS) (39˚ 58'28"N, 116˚ 22'16"E) in central Beijing. NOx concentrations were measured using a state-of-the-art chemiluminescence instrument, sampling from an inlet at 100 metres on a meteorological tower. Measurements at 5 Hz coupled with wind vector data measured by a sonic anemometer located at the same height as the inlet allowed NOx emission fluxes to be calculated using the eddy covariance method. Measurements were made during the period 11/11/2016 - 10/12/2016 and compared to existing emission estimates from The Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC) inventory. It is anticipated that this work will be used to evaluate the accuracy of emissions inventories for Beijing, to develop improved emissions estimates and thus provide

  2. Eddy covariance flux measurements of Glyoxal over the tropical Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, S.; Gonzalez, L.; Thalman, R. M.; Volkamer, R. M.; Blomquist, B.; Fairall, C. W.

    2012-12-01

    Direct measurement of turbulent atmosphere-surface exchange fluxes by means of the Eddy Covariance technique (EC) hold great promise to further our understanding of air-sea exchange that is relevant to atmospheric chemistry and climate. Eddy Covariance flux measurements from ships have to date been accomplished only for a limited set of molecules, i.e., CO2, DMS, O3. Here we present the first EC measurements of glyoxal. Glyoxal is a short-lived (atmospheric lifetime of ~2hrs) and very soluble gas (Effective Henry's Law, Heff = 4x10^5 M atm^-1). It's presence over the tropical oceans presents a current mystery, and indicates the oxidation of organic carbon of marine origin at interfaces in the remote marine boundary layer. EC measurements of glyoxal were measured by means of the University of Colorado Fast Cavity Enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy instrument (Fast-CE-DOAS) aboard the NOAA RV Ka'imimoana as part of TORERO 2012 over the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean (Hawaii to Costa Rica, Jan. 2012 - Feb. 2012). In addition to eddy covariance flux measurements, the data also yields overall diurnal cycles of glyoxal for the duration of the cruise, which represents a wide spatial scale as well as varying ocean productivity levels. By assessing the diurnal variability of the glyoxal flux for different portions of the Pacific Ocean and combining this with the information contained if the diurnal cycle of glyoxal, we hope to create a better understanding of the sources and sinks of this trace gas over the open ocean.

  3. In situ methods for measuring thermal properties and heat flux on planetary bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kömle, Norbert I.; Hütter, Erika S.; Macher, Wolfgang; Kaufmann, Erika; Kargl, Günter; Knollenberg, Jörg; Grott, Matthias; Spohn, Tilman; Wawrzaszek, Roman; Banaszkiewicz, Marek; Seweryn, Karoly; Hagermann, Axel

    2011-01-01

    The thermo-mechanical properties of planetary surface and subsurface layers control to a high extent in which way a body interacts with its environment, in particular how it responds to solar irradiation and how it interacts with a potentially existing atmosphere. Furthermore, if the natural temperature profile over a certain depth can be measured in situ, this gives important information about the heat flux from the interior and thus about the thermal evolution of the body. Therefore, in most of the recent and planned planetary lander missions experiment packages for determining thermo-mechanical properties are part of the payload. Examples are the experiment MUPUS on Rosetta's comet lander Philae, the TECP instrument aboard NASA's Mars polar lander Phoenix, and the mole-type instrument HP3 currently developed for use on upcoming lunar and Mars missions. In this review we describe several methods applied for measuring thermal conductivity and heat flux and discuss the particular difficulties faced when these properties have to be measured in a low pressure and low temperature environment. We point out the abilities and disadvantages of the different instruments and outline the evaluation procedures necessary to extract reliable thermal conductivity and heat flux data from in situ measurements. PMID:21760643

  4. Study on a Dynamic Vegetation Model for Simulating Land Surface Flux Exchanges at Lien-Hua-Chih Flux Observation Site in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, T. Y.; Li, M. H.; Chen, Y. Y.; Ryder, J.; McGrath, M.; Otto, J.; Naudts, K.; Luyssaert, S.; MacBean, N.; Bastrikov, V.

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic vegetation model ORCHIDEE (Organizing Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic EcosystEms) is a state of art land surface component of the IPSL (Institute Pierre Simon Laplace) Earth System Model. It has been used world-wide to investigate variations of water, carbon, and energy exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere. In this study we assessed the applicability of using ORCHIDEE-CAN, a new feature with 3-D CANopy structure (Naudts et al., 2015; Ryder et al., 2016), to simulate surface fluxes measured at tower-based eddy covariance fluxes at the Lien-Hua-Chih experimental watershed in Taiwan. The atmospheric forcing including radiation, air temperature, wind speed, and the dynamics of vertical canopy structure for driving the model were obtained from the observations site. Suitable combinations of default plant function types were examined to meet in-situ observations of soil moisture and leaf area index from 2009 to 2013. The simulated top layer soil moisture was ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 and total leaf area was ranging from 2.2 to 4.4, respectively. A sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the sensitive of model parameters and model skills of ORCHIDEE-CAN on capturing seasonal variations of surface fluxes. The most sensitive parameters were suggested and calibrated by an automatic data assimilation tool ORCHDAS (ORCHIDEE Data Assimilation Systems; http://orchidas.lsce.ipsl.fr/). Latent heat, sensible heat, and carbon fluxes simulated by the model were compared with long-term observations at the site. ORCHIDEE-CAN by making use of calibrated surface parameters was used to study variations of land-atmosphere interactions on a variety of temporal scale in associations with changes in both land and atmospheric conditions. Ref: Naudts, K., et al.,: A vertically discretised canopy description for ORCHIDEE (SVN r2290) and the modifications to the energy, water and carbon fluxes, Geoscientific Model Development, 8, 2035-2065, doi:10.5194/gmd-8

  5. Surface and Tethered-Balloon Observations of Actinic Flux: Effects of Arctic stratus, Surface Albedo and Solar Zenith Angle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roode, S.R. de; Duynkerke, P.G.; Boot, Wim; Hage, Jeroen C.H. van der

    2000-01-01

    As part of the FIRE III (First ISCCP Regional Experiment) Arctic Cloud Experiment actinic flux measurements were made above the Arctic Sea ice during May 1998. FIRE III was designed to address questions concerning clouds, radiation and chemistry in the Arctic sea ice region. The actinic flux,

  6. Inferring CO2 Fluxes from OCO-2 for Assimilation into Land Surface Models to Calculate Net Ecosystem Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, R.; Radov, A.; Halem, M.; Nearing, G. S.

    2016-12-01

    Investigations of mid to high latitude atmospheric CO2 show a growing seasonal amplitude. Land surface models poorly predict net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and are unable to substantiate these sporadic observations. An investigation of how the biosphere has reacted to changes in atmospheric CO2 is essential to our understanding of potential climate-vegetation feedbacks. A global, seasonal investigation of CO2-flux is then necessary in order to assimilate into land surface models for improving the prediction of annual NEE. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) of DOE collects CO2-flux measurements (in addition to CO2 concentration and various other meteorological quantities) at several towers located around the globe at half hour temporal frequencies. CO2-fluxes are calculated via the eddy covariance technique, which utilizes CO2-densities and wind velocities to calculate CO2-fluxes. The global coverage of CO2 concentrations as provided by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) provide satellite-derived CO2 concentrations all over the globe. A framework relating the satellite-inferred CO2 concentrations collocated with the ground-based ARM as well as Ameriflux stations would enable calculations of CO2-fluxes far from the station sites around the entire globe. Regression techniques utilizing deep-learning neural networks may provide such a framework. Additionally, meteorological reanalysis allows for the replacement of the ARM multivariable meteorological variables needed to infer the CO2-fluxes. We present the results of inferring CO2-fluxes from OCO-2 CO2 concentrations for a two year period, Sept. 2014- Sept. 2016 at the ARM station located near Oklahoma City. A feed-forward neural network (FFNN) is used to infer relationships between the following data sets: F([ARM CO2-density], [ARM Meteorological Data]) = [ARM CO2-Flux] F([OCO-2 CO2-density],[ARM Meteorological Data]) = [ARM CO2-Flux] F([ARM CO2-density],[Meteorological Reanalysis]) = [ARM CO2-Flux

  7. Characterization of land surface energy fluxes in a tropical lowland rice paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Dibyendu; Tripathi, Rahul; Chatterjee, Sumanta; Debnath, Manish; Shahid, Mohammad; Bhattacharyya, Pratap; Swain, Chinmaya Kumar; Tripathy, Rojalin; Bhattacharya, Bimal K.; Nayak, Amaresh Kumar

    2018-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted in 2015 to study the land surface energy fluxes from tropical lowland rice paddy in eastern India with an objective to determine the mass, momentum, and energy exchange rates between rice paddies and the atmosphere. All the land surface energy fluxes were measured by eddy covariance (EC) system (make Campbell Scientific) in dry season (DS, 1-125 Julian days), dry fallow (DF, 126-181 Julian days), wet season (WS, 182-324 Julian days), and wet fallow (WF, 325-365 Julian days). The rice was cultivated in dry season (January-May) and wet season (July-November) in low wet lands and the ground is kept fallow during the remainder of the year. Results showed that albedo varied from 0.09 to 0.24 and showed positive value from morning 6:00 h until evening 18:00 h. Mean soil temperature (T g) was highest in DF, while the skin temperature (T s) was highest in WS. Average Bowen ratio (B) ranged from 0.21 to 0.64 and large variation in B was observed during the fallow periods as compared to the cropping seasons. The magnitude of aerodynamic, canopy, and climatological resistances increased with the progress of cropping season and their magnitudes decreased during the end of both cropping seasons and found minimum during the fallow periods. At a constant vapor pressure deficit (VPD) at 0.16, 0.18, 0.15, and 0.43 kPa, latent heat flux (LE) initially increased, but later it tended to level off with an increase in VPD. The actual evapotranspiration (ETa) during both the cropping seasons was higher than the fallow period. This study can be used as a source of default values for many land surface energy fluxes which are required in various meteorological or air-quality models for rice paddies. A larger imbalance of energy was observed during the wet season as the energy is stored and perhaps advected in the fresh water.

  8. Surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiel, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    During this PhD, the challenges on the non-intrusive surface temperature measurements of metallic plasma facing components in tokamaks are reported. Indeed, a precise material emissivity value is needed for classical infrared methods and the environment contribution has to be known particularly for low emissivities materials. Although methods have been developed to overcome these issues, they have been implemented solely for dedicated experiments. In any case, none of these methods are suitable for surface temperature measurement in tokamaks.The active pyrometry introduced in this study allows surface temperature measurements independently of reflected flux and emissivities using pulsed and modulated photothermal effect. This method has been validated in laboratory on metallic materials with reflected fluxes for pulsed and modulated modes. This experimental validation is coupled with a surface temperature variation induced by photothermal effect and temporal signal evolvement modelling in order to optimize both the heating source characteristics and the data acquisition and treatment. The experimental results have been used to determine the application range in temperature and detection wavelengths. In this context, the design of an active pyrometry system on tokamak has been completed, based on a bicolor camera for a thermography application in metallic (or low emissivity) environment.The active pyrometry method introduced in this study is a complementary technique of classical infrared methods used for thermography in tokamak environment which allows performing local and 2D surface temperature measurements independently of reflected fluxes and emissivities. (author) [fr

  9. An integrated evaluation of land surface energy fluxes over China in seven reanalysis/modeling products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Fu, Congbin; Guo, Weidong

    2017-08-01

    An integrated evaluation of monthly mean land surface energy fluxes over China in seven reanalysis and land model products during the period 1979-2015 is conducted. Observations from seven field sites are used to evaluate these flux products, including four reanalysis data sets and three produced by off-line land surface models. In general, the expected seasonal variations and spatial patterns in major climatic regimes are well reproduced by all reanalysis and modeling products. However, large differences among the four reanalysis products are found, while the three off-line land surface modeling products correlate well with each other. Looking at the Bowen ratio, it is found that the off-line land surface models convert a larger fraction of surface available energy into sensible heat flux compared to the reanalysis products in all climatic regimes. There are three centers of high interannual variability in sensible heat located in West China, Northeast China, and the eastern Inner Mongolia, respectively. In addition, the sensible heat flux agrees better with observations at grassland sites than at forest sites, while the latent heat flux and net radiation are significantly overestimated at forest sites in all the flux products. Besides, mean square errors of the fluxes are decomposed into biases, correlations, and differences in standard deviation. Finally, based on a ranking system adopted to quantitatively evaluate the performance of each data set, it is found that the surface energy fluxes in ERA-Interim and JRA-25 agree well with observations and the ensemble mean of all these products remains reasonably realistic as well.

  10. Pacific climate variability and the possible impact on global surface CO2 flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawamiya Michio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate variability modifies both oceanic and terrestrial surface CO2 flux. Using observed/assimilated data sets, earlier studies have shown that tropical oceanic climate variability has strong impacts on the land surface temperature and soil moisture, and that there is a negative correlation between the oceanic and terrestrial CO2 fluxes. However, these data sets only cover less than the most recent 20 years and are insufficient for identifying decadal and longer periodic variabilities. To investigate possible impacts of interannual to interdecadal climate variability on CO2 flux exchange, the last 125 years of an earth system model (ESM control run are examined. Results Global integration of the terrestrial CO2 flux anomaly shows variation much greater in amplitude and longer in periodic timescale than the oceanic flux. The terrestrial CO2 flux anomaly correlates negatively with the oceanic flux in some periods, but positively in others, as the periodic timescale is different between the two variables. To determine the spatial pattern of the variability, a series of composite analyses are performed. The results show that the oceanic CO2 flux variability peaks when the eastern tropical Pacific has a large sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA. By contrast, the terrestrial CO2 flux variability peaks when the SSTA appears in the central tropical Pacific. The former pattern of variability resembles the ENSO-mode and the latter the ENSO-modoki1. Conclusions Our results imply that the oceanic and terrestrial CO2 flux anomalies may correlate either positively or negatively depending on the relative phase of these two modes in the tropical Pacific.

  11. Pacific climate variability and the possible impact on global surface CO2 flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Hideki; Kawamiya, Michio

    2011-10-08

    Climate variability modifies both oceanic and terrestrial surface CO2 flux. Using observed/assimilated data sets, earlier studies have shown that tropical oceanic climate variability has strong impacts on the land surface temperature and soil moisture, and that there is a negative correlation between the oceanic and terrestrial CO2 fluxes. However, these data sets only cover less than the most recent 20 years and are insufficient for identifying decadal and longer periodic variabilities. To investigate possible impacts of interannual to interdecadal climate variability on CO2 flux exchange, the last 125 years of an earth system model (ESM) control run are examined. Global integration of the terrestrial CO2 flux anomaly shows variation much greater in amplitude and longer in periodic timescale than the oceanic flux. The terrestrial CO2 flux anomaly correlates negatively with the oceanic flux in some periods, but positively in others, as the periodic timescale is different between the two variables. To determine the spatial pattern of the variability, a series of composite analyses are performed. The results show that the oceanic CO2 flux variability peaks when the eastern tropical Pacific has a large sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA). By contrast, the terrestrial CO2 flux variability peaks when the SSTA appears in the central tropical Pacific. The former pattern of variability resembles the ENSO-mode and the latter the ENSO-modoki1. Our results imply that the oceanic and terrestrial CO2 flux anomalies may correlate either positively or negatively depending on the relative phase of these two modes in the tropical Pacific.

  12. A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael D; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W

    2009-05-01

    A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5 mN with a resolution of 15 microN. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

  13. Simulation of surface energy fluxes and stratification of a small boreal lake by a set of one-dimensional models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Stepanenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five one-dimensional (1D lake models were run for the open water season in 2006 for Lake Valkea-Kotinen (Finland using on-lake measured meteorological forcing. The model results were validated using measurements of water temperature and of eddy covariance (EC fluxes. The surface temperature is satisfactorily simulated by all models showing slight overestimation (by 0.1–1.1°C. Both sensible and latent heat fluxes are positively biased in respect to EC data, consistent with earlier studies. However, correlation coefficients between EC-fluxes and those simulated are relatively high ranging from 0.55 to 0.74. The skill to simulate vertical temperature profiles by different models is assessed as well. It is found that the lake models underestimate the EC-derived surface drag coefficient, however providing realistic temperature profiles. It is argued that the real momentum flux from the atmosphere is larger than simulated, however it is split up between the wave development and the acceleration of lake currents. Adopting the simple parameterisation for momentum flux partitioning in one of the models showed that this mechanism can be significant. Finally, the effect of including the lake bathymetry data in k-ɛ models was the drastic overheating of water below the thermocline. This is likely to be caused by omitting the heat flux at the lake margins. Thus, the parameterisation of heat flux at the lake's margins should be included in the models; otherwise it is recommended to neglect bathymetry effects for such small water bodies as the Lake Valkea-Kotinen.

  14. Spatial Variation of Surface Energy Fluxes Due to Land Use Changes across China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjun Ma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the heat flux changes caused by the projected land transformation over the next 40 years across China to improve the understanding of the impacts of land dynamics on regional climate. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model to investigate these impacts in four representative land transformation zones, where reclamation, overgrazing, afforestation, and urbanization dominates the land use and land cover changes in each zone respectively. As indicated by the significant variance of albedo due to different land use and cover changes, different surface properties cause great spatial variance of the surface flux. From the simulation results, latent heat flux increases by 2 and 21 W/m2 in the reclamation and afforestation regions respectively. On the contrary, overgrazing and urban expansion results in decrease of latent heat flux by 5 and 36 W/m2 correspondingly. Urban expansion leads to an average increase of 40 W/m2 of sensible heat flux in the future 40 years, while reclamation, afforestation, as well as overgrazing result in the decrease of sensible heat flux. Results also show that reclamation and overgrazing lead to net radiation decrease by approximately 4 and 7 W/m2 respectively, however, afforestation and urbanization lead to net radiation increase by 6 and 3 W/m2 respectively. The simulated impacts of projected HLCCs on surface energy fluxes will inform sustainable land management and climate change mitigation.

  15. Observational constraints on Arctic boundary-layer clouds, surface moisture and sensible heat fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D. L.; Boisvert, L.; Klaus, D.; Dethloff, K.; Ganeshan, M.

    2016-12-01

    The dry, cold environment and dynamic surface variations make the Arctic a unique but difficult region for observations, especially in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Spaceborne platforms have been the key vantage point to capture basin-scale changes during the recent Arctic warming. Using the AIRS temperature, moisture and surface data, we found that the Arctic surface moisture flux (SMF) had increased by 7% during 2003-2013 (18 W/m2 equivalent in latent heat), mostly in spring and fall near the Arctic coastal seas where large sea ice reduction and sea surface temperature (SST) increase were observed. The increase in Arctic SMF correlated well with the increases in total atmospheric column water vapor and low-level clouds, when compared to CALIPSO cloud observations. It has been challenging for climate models to reliably determine Arctic cloud radiative forcing (CRF). Using the regional climate model HIRHAM5 and assuming a more efficient Bergeron-Findeisen process with generalized subgrid-scale variability for total water content, we were able to produce a cloud distribution that is more consistent with the CloudSat/CALIPSO observations. More importantly, the modified schemes decrease (increase) the cloud water (ice) content in mixed-phase clouds, which help to improve the modeled CRF and energy budget at the surface, because of the dominant role of the liquid water in CRF. Yet, the coupling between Arctic low clouds and the surface is complex and has strong impacts on ABL. Studying GPS/COSMIC radio occultation (RO) refractivity profiles in the Arctic coldest and driest months, we successfully derived ABL inversion height and surface-based inversion (SBI) frequency, and they were anti-correlated over the Arctic Ocean. For the late summer and early fall season, we further analyzed Japanese R/V Mirai ship measurements and found that the open-ocean surface sensible heat flux (SSHF) can explain 10 % of the ABL height variability, whereas mechanisms such as cloud

  16. The measurements of thermal neutron flux distribution in a paraffin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    neutron flux density, the foil activation method was used. Thermal neutron flux determination in paraffin phantom by counting the emitted rays of indium foils with two different detectors (Geiger–. Muller counter and NaI(Tl)) was the aim of this project. The relative differences of the outcome of the experiments were between ...

  17. estimation of surface energy fluxes from bare ground in a tropical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. This investigation was designed to test the performance of Priestley Taylor method in the parti- tioning of the available energy into sensible and latent heat fluxes in a tropical site. Compared to eddy covariance measured fluxes, the conventional Priestley Taylor constant (αPT) of 1.25 gave low coefficient of ...

  18. Estimation of Surface Energy Fluxes from Bare Ground in a Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was designed to test the performance of Priestley Taylor method in the partitioning of the available energy into sensible and latent heat fluxes in a tropical site. Compared to eddy covariance measured fluxes, the conventional Priestley Taylor constant (αPT) of 1.25 gave low coefficient of determination and ...

  19. Calorimeter probes for measuring high thermal flux. [in electric-arc jet facilities for planetary entry heating simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes expendable, slug-type calorimeter probes developed for measuring high heat-flux levels of 10-30 kW/sq cm in electric-arc jet facilities. The probes are constructed with thin tungsten caps mounted on Teflon bodies; the temperature of the back surface of the tungsten cap is measured, and its rate of change gives the steady-state, absorbed heat flux as the calorimeter probe heats to destruction when inserted into the arc jet. It is concluded that the simple construction of these probes allows them to be expendable and heated to destruction to obtain a measurable temperature slope at high heating rates.

  20. Intuition for the radial penetration of flux surface shaping in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Justin; Parra, Felix I.

    2015-03-01

    Using analytic calculations, the effects of the edge flux surface shape and the toroidal current profile on the penetration of flux surface shaping are investigated in a tokamak. It is shown that the penetration of shaping is determined by the poloidal variation of the poloidal magnetic field on the surface. This fact is used to investigate how different flux surface shapes penetrate from the edge. Then, a technique to separate the effects of magnetic pressure and tension in the Grad-Shafranov equation is presented and used to calculate radial profiles of strong elongation for nearly constant current profiles. Lastly, it is shown that more hollow toroidal current profiles are significantly better at conveying shaping from the edge to the core.

  1. Intuition for the radial penetration of flux surface shaping in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, Justin; Parra, Felix I

    2015-01-01

    Using analytic calculations, the effects of the edge flux surface shape and the toroidal current profile on the penetration of flux surface shaping are investigated in a tokamak. It is shown that the penetration of shaping is determined by the poloidal variation of the poloidal magnetic field on the surface. This fact is used to investigate how different flux surface shapes penetrate from the edge. Then, a technique to separate the effects of magnetic pressure and tension in the Grad–Shafranov equation is presented and used to calculate radial profiles of strong elongation for nearly constant current profiles. Lastly, it is shown that more hollow toroidal current profiles are significantly better at conveying shaping from the edge to the core. (paper)

  2. Orientation effect of ion flux splitting reflected from Wehner cone on solid surface

    CERN Document Server

    Bratchenko, M I; Rozhkov, V V

    2001-01-01

    It is shown that simple geometrical model of specular reflection of particles from the surface of Wehner cone (frequently observed feature of solid surface macroscopic topography developed under ion bombardment) can describe qualitatively the essential characteristics of the reflected particles flux splitting effect predicted earlier by means of computer simulation methods.

  3. `Surface-Layer' momentum fluxes in nocturnal slope flows over steep terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, H. J.; Pardyjak, E.; Higgins, C. W.; Parlange, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    A common working definition for the `surface layer' is the lowest 10% of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) where the turbulent fluxes are essentially constant. The latter part of this definition is a critical assumption that must hold for accurate flux estimations from land-surface models, wall models, similarity theory, flux-gradient relations and bulk transfer methods. We present cases from observed momentum fluxes in nocturnal slope flows over steep (35.5 degree), alpine terrain in Val Ferret, Switzerland that satisfy the classical definitions of the surface layer and other cases where no traditional surface layer is observed. These cases broadly fall into two distinct flow regimes occurring under clear-sky conditions: (1) buoyancy-driven, `katabatic flow', characterized by an elevated velocity maximum (katabatic jet peak) and (2) `downslope winds', for which larger-scale forcing prevents formation of a katabatic jet. Velocity profiles in downslope wind cases are quite similar to logarithmic profiles typically observed over horizontal and homogeneous terrain, and the corresponding momentum fluxes roughly resemble a constant-flux surface-layer. Contrastingly, velocity profiles in the katabatic regime exhibit a jet-like shape. This jet strongly modulates the corresponding momentum fluxes, which exhibit strong gradients over the shallow katabatic layer and usually change sign near the jet peak, where the velocity gradients also change sign. However, a counter-gradient momentum flux is frequently observed near the jet peak (and sometimes at higher levels), suggesting strong non-local turbulent transport within the katabatic jet layer. We compare our observations with katabatic flow theories and observational studies over shallow-angle slopes and use co-spectral analyses to better identify and understand the non-local transport dynamics. Finally, we show that because of the counter-gradient momentum fluxes, surface layer stability and even local stability can be

  4. A simple temperature domain two-source model for estimating agricultural field surface energy fluxes from Landsat images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yunjun; Liang, Shunlin; Yu, Jian; Chen, Jiquan; Liu, Shaomin; Lin, Yi; Fisher, Joshua B.; McVicar, Tim R.; Cheng, Jie; Jia, Kun; Zhang, Xiaotong; Xie, Xianhong; Jiang, Bo; Sun, Liang

    2017-05-01

    A simple and robust satellite-based method for estimating agricultural field to regional surface energy fluxes at a high spatial resolution is important for many applications. We developed a simple temperature domain two-source energy balance (TD-TSEB) model within a hybrid two-source model scheme by coupling "layer" and "patch" models to estimate surface heat fluxes from Landsat thematic mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (TM/ETM+) imagery. For estimating latent heat flux (LE) of full soil, we proposed a temperature domain residual of the energy balance equation based on a simplified framework of total aerodynamic resistances, which provides a key link between thermal satellite temperature and subsurface moisture status. Additionally, we used a modified Priestley-Taylor model for estimating LE of full vegetation. The proposed method was applied to TM/ETM+ imagery and was validated using the ground-measured data at five crop eddy-covariance tower sites in China. The results show that TD-TSEB yielded root-mean-square-error values between 24.9 (8.9) and 78.2 (21.4) W/m2 and squared correlation coefficient (R2) values between 0.60 (0.51) and 0.97 (0.90), for the estimated instantaneous (daily) surface net radiation, soil, latent, and sensible heat fluxes at all five sites. The TD-TSEB model shows good accuracy for partitioning LE into soil (LEsoil) and canopy (LEcanopy) components with an average bias of 11.1% for the estimated LEsoil/LE ratio at the Daman site. Importantly, the TD-TSEB model produced comparable accuracy but requires fewer forcing data (i.e., no wind speed and roughness length are needed) when compared with two other widely used surface energy balance models. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that this accurate operational model provides an alternative method for mapping field surface heat fluxes with satisfactory performance.

  5. Surface wettability effects on critical heat flux of boiling heat transfer using nanoparticle coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Chin-Chi

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of surface wettability on pool boiling heat transfer. Nano-silica particle coatings were used to vary the wettability of the copper surface from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic by modifying surface topography and chemistry. Experimental results show that critical heat flux (CHF) values are higher in the hydrophilic region. Conversely, CHF values are lower in the hydrophobic region. The experimental CHF data of the modified surface do not fit the classical models. Therefore, this study proposes a simple model to build the nexus between the surface wettability and the growth of bubbles on the heating surface. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurement of carbon dioxide fluxes in a free-air carbon dioxide enrichment experiment using the closed flux chamber technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsted, Merete Bang; Ambus, Per; Michelsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    mol−1 to 510 μmol mol−1. All CO2 fluxes were measured by the static chamber methodology. Although the FACE technique enriches the atmosphere with CO2 to a fixed level, the above ground CO2 concentrations may nevertheless locally vary strongly (from about ambient to 1000 μmol mol−1). Deployment...... of static chambers to FACE experiments should therefore be performed with great care in order to ensure reproducible conditions with respect to chamber headspace CO2 concentration. We demonstrate that that the fluxes measured by closed chambers relate linearly to the initial headspace CO2 concentration...... concentration, and the flux also decreased in FACE plots, to 0.79 times that at low concentration. Similar SR in control plots was decreased 0.94 times in control plots and 0.88 times in FACE plots. We found that a useful method to achieve stable and reproducible chamber headspace and soil CO2 concentration...

  7. Determination of surface parameters and fluxes for climate studies from space observation. Methods, results and problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, F.; Seguin, B.

    Climate being the result of many interconnected processes, it can hardly be understood without models which describe these various processes as quantitatively as possible and define the parameters which are relevant for climate studies. Among those, surface processes and therefore surface parameters are now recognized to be of great importance. Some examples are discussed in the first part, showing the great interest to measure the relevant parameters on a multi-year basis, over large areas with sufficiently dense array and on a stable basis, in order to monitor climate changes or to study the impact on climate of the modifications of some relevant parameters which are analysed. Since space observations from satellites fulfil these requirements, it is clear that they will become very soon a fundamental tool for climate studies. Unfortunately, as it is discussed in the second part, satellites do measure only spectral radiances at the top of the atmosphere and the determination of the relevant surface parameters (or fluxes) from these radiances still raises many problems which have to be solved, although many progresses have already been made. The aim of this paper is therefore to review and discuss these problems and the various ways they have been tackled until now. The first part is devoted to an overview of what needs to be measured and why, while the existing methods for determining the most important surface parameters from space observations are presented in the second part where a particular attention is given to the theoretical and experimental validations of these methods, their limits and the problems still to be solved.

  8. ACCENT-BIAFLUX workshop 2005, trace gas and aerosol flux measurement and techniques. Abstract book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, A.; Soerensen, L.L. (eds.)

    2005-04-01

    The woorkshop trace gas and aerosol flux measurement techniques in the second meeting within the Biosphere Atmosphere Exchange of Pollutions (BIAFLUX) group in the EU-network project Atmospheric Composition Change (ACCENT). The goal of the workshop is to obtain an overview of techniques for measurements of gas and aerosol fluxes and to gather the knowledge of uncertainties in flux measurements and calculations. The workshop is funded by ACCENT. The abstract book presents abstracts of 21 oral presentations and 26 poster presentations. (LN)

  9. Liner velocity, current, and symmetry measurements on the 32 MA flux compression generator experiment ALT-1

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, D A; Rodríguez, G; Tabaka, L J

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. A flux compression generator based pulse power system, designed, built, and fielded by a Russian team at the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), was used to successfully drive an aluminum liner to velocities greater than 10 km/sec. The experiment objective was to demonstrate performance of a precision liner implosion at Atlas current of 30 MA or greater. Diagnostics to measure liner performance were an essential part of the experiment. An experimental team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) provided a suite of diagnostics to measure liner performance. Three diagnostics were fielded. 1. a velocity interferometer (VISAR) to continuously measure the liner inner surface velocity from throughout the entire range of travel. 2. Two Faraday rotation devices to measure liner current during the implosion. 3. Sixteen fiber optic impact pins to record liner impact time and provide axial and azimuthal symmetry information. All diagnostics...

  10. 2D surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components with modulated active pyrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiel, S.; Loarer, T.; Pocheau, C.; Roche, H.; Gauthier, E.; Aumeunier, M.-H.; Courtois, X.; Jouve, M.; Balorin, C.; Moncada, V.; Le Niliot, C.; Rigollet, F.

    2014-01-01

    In nuclear fusion devices, such as Tore Supra, the plasma facing components (PFC) are in carbon. Such components are exposed to very high heat flux and the surface temperature measurement is mandatory for the safety of the device and also for efficient plasma scenario development. Besides this measurement is essential to evaluate these heat fluxes for a better knowledge of the physics of plasma-wall interaction, it is also required to monitor the fatigue of PFCs. Infrared system (IR) is used to manage to measure surface temperature in real time. For carbon PFCs, the emissivity is high and known (ε ∼ 0.8), therefore the contribution of the reflected flux from environment and collected by the IR cameras can be neglected. However, the future tokamaks such as WEST and ITER will be equipped with PFCs in metal (W and Be/W, respectively) with low and variable emissivities (ε ∼ 0.1–0.4). Consequently, the reflected flux will contribute significantly in the collected flux by IR camera. The modulated active pyrometry, using a bicolor camera, proposed in this paper allows a 2D surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected fluxes and the emissivity. Experimental results with Tungsten sample are reported and compared with simultaneous measurement performed with classical pyrometry (monochromatic and bichromatic) with and without reflective flux demonstrating the efficiency of this method for surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected flux and the emissivity

  11. Response of concrete exposed to a high heat flux on one surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, J.F.

    1977-11-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the response of concrete to severe thermal environments such as might be encountered during the interaction of molten reactor core materials with the containment substructure following a hypothetical fuel melt accident. The dominant mechanism for erosion of both limestone and basaltic concrete appears to be melting of the cementitious material in the matrix. The erosion proceeded in a quiescent manner with negligible spallation. The erosion rate increased with heat flux, becoming as large as approximately 70 cm/hr for a net surface heat flux of roughly 190 W/cm 2 . Analyses reveal the surface temperature to be the single most significant parameter affecting the net surface heat flux, through its importance to emitted radiation; and that the greatest fraction of the net energy transmitted to the concrete goes into sensible heat

  12. Continental-scale water fluxes from continuous GPS observations of Earth surface loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsa, A. A.; Agnew, D. C.; Cayan, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    After more than a decade of observing annual oscillations of Earth's surface from seasonal snow and water loading, continuous GPS is now being used to model time-varying terrestrial water fluxes on the local and regional scale. Although the largest signal is typically due to the seasonal hydrological cycle, GPS can also measure subtle surface deformation caused by sustained wet and dry periods, and to estimate the spatial distribution of the underlying terrestrial water storage changes. The next frontier is expanding this analysis to the continental scale and paving the way for incorporating GPS models into the National Climate Assessment and into the observational infrastructure for national water resource management. This will require reconciling GPS observations with predictions from hydrological models and with remote sensing observations from a suite of satellite instruments (e.g. GRACE, SMAP, SWOT). The elastic Earth response which transforms surface loads into vertical and horizontal displacements is also responsible for the contamination of loading observations by tectonic and anthropogenic transients, and we discuss these and other challenges to this new application of GPS.

  13. Study of heat fluxes on plasma facing components in a tokamak from measurements of temperature by infrared thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daviot, R.

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this thesis is the development of a method of computation of those heat loads from measurements of temperature by infrared thermography. The research was conducted on three issues arising in current tokamaks but also future ones like ITER: the measurement of temperature on reflecting walls, the determination of thermal properties for deposits observed on the surface of tokamak components and the development of a three-dimensional, non-linear computation of heat loads. A comparison of several means of pyrometry, monochromatic, bi-chromatic and photothermal, is performed on an experiment of temperature measurement. We show that this measurement is sensitive to temperature gradients on the observed area. Layers resulting from carbon deposition by the plasma on the surface of components are modeled through a field of equivalent thermal resistance, without thermal inertia. The field of this resistance is determined, for each measurement points, from a comparison of surface temperature from infrared thermographs with the result of a simulation, which is based on a mono-dimensional linear model of components. The spatial distribution of the deposit on the component surface is obtained. Finally, a three-dimensional and non-linear computation of fields of heat fluxes, based on a finite element method, is developed here. Exact geometries of the component are used. The sensitivity of the computed heat fluxes is discussed regarding the accuracy of the temperature measurements. This computation is applied to two-dimensional temperature measurements of the JET tokamak. Several components of this tokamak are modeled, such as tiles of the divertor, upper limiter and inner and outer poloidal limiters. The distribution of heat fluxes on the surface of these components is computed and studied along the two main tokamak directions, poloidal and toroidal. Toroidal symmetry of the heat loads from one tile to another is shown. The influence of measurements spatial resolution

  14. Airborne Flux Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds and NOx over a European megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Marvin; Lee, James; Davison, Brian; Misztal, Pawel; Karl, Thomas; Hewitt, Nick; Lewis, Alistair

    2014-05-01

    samples (WAS) which were quantitatively determined post-flight via TD-GCMS. Mixing ratios between the PTR-MS and WAS-TD-GCMS were in good agreement with R2 values of 0.8 and 1.0 for Toluene and Benzene respectively. Mixing ratios of NO and NO2 were acquired at 10Hz using a 2 channel NOx chemiluminescence detector with photolytic converter. These measurements were used with 20 Hz 3-D wind vector data from an AIMMS-20 turbulence probe on the aircraft to calculate highly spatially resolved (1 km) surface-to-atmosphere emission flux rates of these compounds using the eddy covariance method of Karl et al. (2013). Measured surface to atmosphere emission fluxes of NOx, benzene and toluene from London were between 40 - 91 mg m2 h-1, 0.1 - 0.4 mg m2 h-1 and 0.2 - 2 mg m2 h-1 respectively, showing the spatial flux heterogeneity over the city. This demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of airborne eddy covariance flux measurements of reactive NOx species. We also show the applicability of wavelet analysis using virtually disjunct eddy covariance measurements of anthropogenic compounds in estimating regional fluxes over a European megacity. We compare our measured emission rates with those estimated from 'bottom-up' emissions inventories and highlight the agreement between the two.

  15. Temperature-dependent attenuation of ex-vessel flux measurements at the Hanford Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, F.E.; Wood, M.R.; Rathbun, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Indicated nuclear power, developed by measuring leakage neutrons, has been found to be temperature dependent at the Hanford Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The magnitude, sense and speed of response of the effect suggest that hot sodium above th core and shield is a significant cause. Future designs which may minimize this effect are discussed

  16. RATES OF PHOTOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FLUX CANCELLATION MEASURED WITH HINODE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soyoung; Chae, Jongchul; Litvinenko, Yuri E.

    2009-01-01

    Photospheric magnetic flux cancellation on the Sun is generally believed to be caused by magnetic reconnection occurring in the low solar atmosphere. Individual canceling magnetic features are observationally characterized by the rate of flux cancellation. The specific cancellation rate, defined as the rate of flux cancellation divided by the interface length, gives an accurate estimate of the electric field in the reconnecting current sheet. We have determined the specific cancellation rate using the magnetograms taken by the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) aboard the Hinode satellite. The specific rates determined with SOT turned out to be systematically higher than those based on the data taken by the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. The median value of the specific cancellation rate was found to be 8 x 10 6 G cm s -1 -a value four times that obtained from the MDI data. This big difference is mainly due to a higher angular resolution and better sensitivity of the SOT, resulting in magnetic fluxes up to five times larger than those obtained from the MDI. The higher rates of flux cancellation correspond to either faster inflows or stronger magnetic fields of the reconnection inflow region, which may have important consequences for the physics of photospheric magnetic reconnection.

  17. Fate factors and emission flux estimates for emerging contaminants in surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa T. Trinh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceuticals, personal care products, hormones, and wastewater products are emerging environmental concerns for manifold reasons, including the potential of some compounds found in these products for endocrine disruption at a very low chronic exposure level. The environmental occurrences and sources of these contaminants in the water, soil, sediment and biota in European nations and the United States are well documented. This work reports a screening-level emission and fate assessment of thirty compounds, listed in the National Reconnaissance of the United States Geological Survey (USGS, 1999–2000 as the most frequently detected organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams and rivers. Estimations of the surface water fate factors were based on Level II and Level III multimedia fugacity models for a 1000 km2 model environment, the size of a typical county in the eastern United States. The compounds are categorized into three groups based upon the sensitivity of their predicted surface water fate factors to uncertainties in their physicochemical property values and the landscape parameters. The environmental fate factors, mass distributions, and loss pathways of all of the compounds are strongly affected by their assumed modes of entry into the environment. It is observed that for thirteen of the thirty organic wastewater contaminants most commonly detected in surface waters, conventional treatment strategies may be ineffective for their removal from wastewater effluents. The surface water fate factors predicted by the fugacity models were used in conjunction with the surface water concentrations measured in the USGS reconnaissance to obtain emission flux estimates for the compounds into U.S. streams and rivers. These include estimated fluxes of 6.8 × 10−5 to 0.30 kg/h km2 for the biomarker coprostanol; 1.7 × 10−5 to 6.5 × 10−5 kg/h km2 for the insect repellent N,N-diethyltoluamide; and 4.3 × 10−6 to 3.1 × 10−5 kg/h km2 for

  18. Estimating Total Heliospheric Magnetic Flux from Single-Point in Situ Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, M. J.; Arge, C. N.; Crooker, N. U.; Schwardron, N. A.; Horbury, T. S.

    2008-01-01

    A fraction of the total photospheric magnetic flux opens to the heliosphere to form the interplanetary magnetic field carried by the solar wind. While this open flux is critical to our understanding of the generation and evolution of the solar magnetic field, direct measurements are generally limited to single-point measurements taken in situ by heliospheric spacecraft. An observed latitude invariance in the radial component of the magnetic field suggests that extrapolation from such single-point measurements to total heliospheric magnetic flux is possible. In this study we test this assumption using estimates of total heliospheric flux from well-separated heliospheric spacecraft and conclude that single-point measurements are indeed adequate proxies for the total heliospheric magnetic flux, though care must be taken when comparing flux estimates from data collected at different heliocentric distances.

  19. Controls of evapotranspiration and CO2 fluxes from scots pine by surface conductance and abiotic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianshan Zha

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (E and CO2 flux (Fc in the growing season of an unusual dry year were measured continuously over a Scots pine forest in eastern Finland, by eddy covariance techniques. The aims were to gain an understanding of their biological and environmental control processes. As a result, there were obvious diurnal and seasonal changes in E, Fc , surface conductance (gc , and decoupling coefficient (Ω, showing similar trends to those in radiation (PAR and vapour pressure deficit (δ. The maximum mean daily values (24-h average for E, Fc , gc , and Ω were 1.78 mmol m(-2 s(-1, -11.18 µmol m(-2 s(-1, 6.27 mm s(-1, and 0.31, respectively, with seasonal averages of 0.71 mmol m(-2 s(-1, -4.61 µmol m(-2 s(-1, 3.3 mm s(-1, and 0.16. E and Fc were controlled by combined biological and environmental variables. There was curvilinear dependence of E on gc and Fc on gc . Among the environmental variables, PAR was the most important factor having a positive linear relationship to E and curvilinear relationship to Fc , while vapour pressure deficit was the most important environmental factor affecting gc . Water use efficiency was slightly higher in the dry season, with mean monthly values ranging from 6.67 to 7.48 μmol CO2 (mmol H2O(-1 and a seasonal average of 7.06 μmol CO2 (μmol H2O(-1. Low Ω and its close positive relationship with gc indicate that evapotranspiration was sensitive to surface conductance. Mid summer drought reduced surface conductance and decoupling coefficient, suggesting a more biotic control of evapotranspiration and a physiological acclimation to dry air. Surface conductance remained low and constant under dry condition, supporting that a constant value of surface constant can be used for modelling transpiration under drought condition.

  20. Estimating the amount and distribution of radon flux density from the soil surface in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo Weihai; Guo Qiuju; Chen Bo; Cheng Guan

    2008-01-01

    Based on an idealized model, both the annual and the seasonal radon ( 222 Rn) flux densities from the soil surface at 1099 sites in China were estimated by linking a database of soil 226 Ra content and a global ecosystems database. Digital maps of the 222 Rn flux density in China were constructed in a spatial resolution of 25 km x 25 km by interpolation among the estimated data. An area-weighted annual average 222 Rn flux density from the soil surface across China was estimated to be 29.7 ± 9.4 mBq m -2 s -1 . Both regional and seasonal variations in the 222 Rn flux densities are significant in China. Annual average flux densities in the southeastern and northwestern China are generally higher than those in other regions of China, because of high soil 226 Ra content in the southeastern area and high soil aridity in the northwestern one. The seasonal average flux density is generally higher in summer/spring than winter, since relatively higher soil temperature and lower soil water saturation in summer/spring than other seasons are common in China

  1. Use of barium-strontium carbonatite for flux welding and surfacing of mining machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukov, R. E.; Kozyrev, N. A.; Usoltsev, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    The results of application of barium-strontium carbonatite for modifying and refining iron-carbon alloys, used for welding and surfacing in ore mining and smelting industry, are generalized. The technology of manufacturing a flux additive containing 70 % of barium-strontium carbonatite and 30 % of liquid glass is proposed. Several compositions of welding fluxes based on silicomanganese slag were tested. The flux additive was introduced in an amount of 1, 3, 5 %. Technological features of welding with the application of the examined fluxes are determined. X-ray spectral analysis of the chemical composition of examined fluxes, slag crusts and weld metal was carried out, as well as metallographic investigations of welded joints. The principal possibility of applying barium-strontium carbonatite as a refining and gas-protective additive for welding fluxes is shown. The use of barium-strontium carbonatite reduces the contamination of the weld seam with nonmetallic inclusions: non-deforming silicates, spot oxides and brittle silicates, and increases the desulfurizing capacity of welding fluxes.

  2. Neutron flux measurement at the Baksan Underground Scintillation Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochkarov, M. M.; Boliev, M. M.; Dzaparova, I. M.; Novoseltseva, R. V.; Novoseltsev, Yu. F.; Petkov, V. B.; Volchenko, V. I.; Volchenko, G. V.; Yanin, A. F.

    2018-01-01

    The characteristics of fast neutrons produced by cosmic-ray muons at the Baksan Underground Scintillation Telescope (BUST) are investigated. A novel approach to the problem consists in estimating the neutron flux by the production rate of the unstable radioactive nuclide 12 B in the ( n, p) reaction on carbon nuclei of the BUST organic scintillator. The processing of the data collected in 2002-2015 yielded {N_{{{12}_B}}} = 337 ± 2.5 events consistent with those of the reaction 12 C( n, p)12 B. For the BUST internal planes, the background of fast neutrons with E > 28.6 MeV is experimentally estimated as Φ ∝ 10-11cm-2 s-1. This is lower than the theoretically predicted total neutron flux by nearly two orders of magnitude. The disagreement with predictions is attributed to the suppression of neutron flux in the external scintillator planes of the detector.

  3. Measurements of Near Sea Surface Infrared Propagation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frost, Shaun

    1999-01-01

    .... Measurements have been made of the atmospheric infrared transmission near the sea surface. Spectral transmission profiles were measured for a number of ranges using a fourier transform spectrometer...

  4. LOW-POWER SOLUTION FOR EDDY COVARIANCE MEASUREMENTS OF METHANE FLUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T.; Burba, G. G.; Komissarov, A.; McDermitt, D. K.; Xu, L.; Zona, D.; Oechel, W. C.; Schedlbauer, J. L.; Oberbauer, S. F.; Riensche, B.; Allyn, D.

    2009-12-01

    Open-path analyzers offer a number of advantages for measuring methane fluxes, including undisturbed in-situ flux measurements, spatial integration using the Eddy Covariance approach, zero frequency response errors due to tube attenuation, confident water and thermal density terms from co-located fast measurements of water and sonic temperature, and possibility of remote and mobile solar-powered or small-generator-powered deployments due to lower power demands in the absence of a pump. The LI-7700 open-path methane analyzer is a VCSEL (vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser)-based instrument. It employs an open Herriott cell and measures levels of methane with RMS noise below 5 ppb at 10 Hz sampling in controlled laboratory conditions. The power consumption of the stand-alone LI-7700 in steady-state is about 8W, so it can be deployed in any methane-generating location of interest on a portable or mobile solar-powered tower, and it does not have to have grid power or permanent industrial generator. Eddy Covariance measurements of methane flux using the LI-7700 open-path methane analyzer were conducted in 2006-2009 in five ecosystems with contrasting weather and moisture conditions: (1) sawgrass wetland in the Florida Everglades; (2) coastal wetlands in an Arctic tundra; and (3) pacific mangroves in Mexico; (4) maize field and (5) ryegrass field in Nebraska. Methane co-spectra behaved in a manner similar to that of the co-spectra of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and air temperature, demonstrating that the LI-7700 adequately measured fluctuations in methane concentration across the whole spectrum of frequencies contributing to vertical atmospheric turbulent transport at the experimental sites. All co-spectra also closely followed the Kaimal model, and demonstrated good agreement with another methane co-spectrum obtained with a TDLS (Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscope; Unisearch Associates, Inc.) over a peatland. Overall, hourly methane fluxes ranged from near-zero at

  5. Radiometric probe design for the measurement of heat flux within a solid rocket motor nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldey, Charles L.; Laughlin, William T.; Popper, Leslie A.

    1996-11-01

    Improvements to solid rocket motor (SRM) nozzle designs and material performance is based on the ability to instrument motors during test firings to understand the internal combustion processes and the response of nozzle components to the severe heating environment. Measuring the desired parameters is very difficult because the environment inside of an SRM is extremely severe. Instrumentation can be quickly destroyed if exposed to the internal rocket motor environment. An optical method is under development to quantify the heating of the internal nozzle surface. A radiometric probe designed for measuring the thermal response and material surface recession within a nozzle while simultaneously confining the combustion products has been devised and demonstrated. As part of the probe design, optical fibers lead to calibrated detectors that measure the interior nozzle thermal response. This two color radiometric measurement can be used for a direct determination of the total heat flux impinging on interior nozzle surfaces. This measurement has been demonstrated using a high power CO2 laser to simulate SRM nozzle heating conditions on carbon phenolic and graphite phenolic materials.

  6. The measurement of surface gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, David; Hinderer, Jacques; Riccardi, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    This review covers basic theory and techniques behind the use of ground-based gravimetry at the Earth's surface. The orientation is toward modern instrumentation, data processing and interpretation for observing surface, land-based, time-variable changes to the geopotential. The instrumentation side is covered in some detail, with specifications and performance of the most widely used models of the three main types: the absolute gravimeters (FG5, A10 from Micro-g LaCoste), superconducting gravimeters (OSG, iGrav from GWR instruments), and the new generation of spring instruments (Micro-g LaCoste gPhone, Scintrex CG5 and Burris ZLS). A wide range of applications is covered, with selected examples from tides and ocean loading, atmospheric effects on gravity, local and global hydrology, seismology and normal modes, long period and tectonics, volcanology, exploration gravimetry, and some examples of gravimetry connected to fundamental physics. We show that there are only a modest number of very large signals, i.e. hundreds of µGal (10 −8 m s −2 ), that are easy to see with all gravimeters (e.g. tides, volcanic eruptions, large earthquakes, seasonal hydrology). The majority of signals of interest are in the range 0.1–5.0 µGal and occur at a wide range of time scales (minutes to years) and spatial extent (a few meters to global). Here the competing effects require a careful combination of different gravimeter types and measurement strategies to efficiently characterize and distinguish the signals. Gravimeters are sophisticated instruments, with substantial up-front costs, and they place demands on the operators to maximize the results. Nevertheless their performance characteristics such as drift and precision have improved dramatically in recent years, and their data recording ability and ruggedness have seen similar advances. Many subtle signals are now routinely connected with known geophysical effects such as coseismic earthquake displacements, post

  7. The measurement of surface gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, David; Hinderer, Jacques; Riccardi, Umberto

    2013-04-01

    This review covers basic theory and techniques behind the use of ground-based gravimetry at the Earth's surface. The orientation is toward modern instrumentation, data processing and interpretation for observing surface, land-based, time-variable changes to the geopotential. The instrumentation side is covered in some detail, with specifications and performance of the most widely used models of the three main types: the absolute gravimeters (FG5, A10 from Micro-g LaCoste), superconducting gravimeters (OSG, iGrav from GWR instruments), and the new generation of spring instruments (Micro-g LaCoste gPhone, Scintrex CG5 and Burris ZLS). A wide range of applications is covered, with selected examples from tides and ocean loading, atmospheric effects on gravity, local and global hydrology, seismology and normal modes, long period and tectonics, volcanology, exploration gravimetry, and some examples of gravimetry connected to fundamental physics. We show that there are only a modest number of very large signals, i.e. hundreds of µGal (10-8 m s-2), that are easy to see with all gravimeters (e.g. tides, volcanic eruptions, large earthquakes, seasonal hydrology). The majority of signals of interest are in the range 0.1-5.0 µGal and occur at a wide range of time scales (minutes to years) and spatial extent (a few meters to global). Here the competing effects require a careful combination of different gravimeter types and measurement strategies to efficiently characterize and distinguish the signals. Gravimeters are sophisticated instruments, with substantial up-front costs, and they place demands on the operators to maximize the results. Nevertheless their performance characteristics such as drift and precision have improved dramatically in recent years, and their data recording ability and ruggedness have seen similar advances. Many subtle signals are now routinely connected with known geophysical effects such as coseismic earthquake displacements, post-glacial rebound

  8. Measurements and models of CO2 and CH4 Flux in the Baltimore/Washington area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, R. R.; Ren, X.; Salawitch, R. J.; Ahn, D.; Karion, A.; Shepson, P. B.; Whetstone, J. R.; Martin, C.

    2017-12-01

    Direct measurements of concentrations of pollutants such as CO2 and CH4 can be combined with wind fields to determine the flux of these species and to evaluate emissions inventories or models. The mass balance approach, assumng linear flow into and out of a volume set over a city, works best where wind fields are simplest. Over typical American east coast cities, upwind sources and complex circulation (e.g., the sea breeze) complicate such analyses. We will present findings from a coupled measurement and modeling project involving a network of surface-based tower measurements, aircraft observations, and remote sensing that constrain model calculations. Summer and winter scenarios are contrasted, and results help evaluate the emissions of short-lived pollutants. Determinations are compared to several emissions inventories and are being used to help States evaluate evaluate plans for pollution control.

  9. Estimating surface CO2 fluxes from space-borne CO2 dry air mole fraction observations using an ensemble Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dance

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF to estimate 8-day regional surface fluxes of CO2 from space-borne CO2 dry-air mole fraction observations (XCO2 and evaluate the approach using a series of synthetic experiments, in preparation for data from the NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO. The 32-day duty cycle of OCO alternates every 16 days between nadir and glint measurements of backscattered solar radiation at short-wave infrared wavelengths. The EnKF uses an ensemble of states to represent the error covariances to estimate 8-day CO2 surface fluxes over 144 geographical regions. We use a 12×8-day lag window, recognising that XCO2 measurements include surface flux information from prior time windows. The observation operator that relates surface CO2 fluxes to atmospheric distributions of XCO2 includes: a the GEOS-Chem transport model that relates surface fluxes to global 3-D distributions of CO2 concentrations, which are sampled at the time and location of OCO measurements that are cloud-free and have aerosol optical depths 2 profiles to XCO2, accounting for differences between nadir and glint measurements, and the associated scene-dependent observation errors. We show that OCO XCO2 measurements significantly reduce the uncertainties of surface CO2 flux estimates. Glint measurements are generally better at constraining ocean CO2 flux estimates. Nadir XCO2 measurements over the terrestrial tropics are sparse throughout the year because of either clouds or smoke. Glint measurements provide the most effective constraint for estimating tropical terrestrial CO2 fluxes by accurately sampling fresh continental outflow over neighbouring oceans. We also present results from sensitivity experiments that investigate how flux estimates change with 1 bias and unbiased errors, 2 alternative duty cycles, 3 measurement density and correlations, 4 the spatial resolution of estimated flux estimates, and 5 reducing the length of the lag window and the

  10. Unsteady Heat-Flux Measurements of Second-Mode Instability Waves in a Hypersonic Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergerise, Michael A.; Rufer, Shann J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report on the application of the atomic layer thermopile (ALTP) heat- flux sensor to the measurement of laminar-to-turbulent transition in a hypersonic flat plate boundary layer. The centerline of the flat-plate model was instrumented with a streamwise array of ALTP sensors and the flat-plate model was exposed to a Mach 6 freestream over a range of unit Reynolds numbers. Here, we observed an unstable band of frequencies that are associated with second-mode instability waves in the laminar boundary layer that forms on the flat-plate surface. The measured frequencies, group velocities, phase speeds, and wavelengths of these instability waves are in agreement with data previously reported in the literature. Heat flux time series, and the Morlet-wavelet transforms of them, revealed the wave-packet nature of the second-mode instability waves. In addition, a laser-based radiative heating system was developed to measure the frequency response functions (FRF) of the ALTP sensors used in the wind tunnel test. These measurements were used to assess the stability of the sensor FRFs over time and to correct spectral estimates for any attenuation caused by the finite sensor bandwidth.

  11. Using sonic anemometer temperature to measure sensible heat flux in strong winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Burns

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sonic anemometers simultaneously measure the turbulent fluctuations of vertical wind (w' and sonic temperature (Ts', and are commonly used to measure sensible heat flux (H. Our study examines 30-min heat fluxes measured with a Campbell Scientific CSAT3 sonic anemometer above a subalpine forest. We compared H calculated with Ts to H calculated with a co-located thermocouple and found that, for horizontal wind speed (U less than 8 m s−1, the agreement was around ±30 W m−2. However, for U ≈ 8 m s−1, the CSAT H had a generally positive deviation from H calculated with the thermocouple, reaching a maximum difference of ≈250 W m−2 at U ≈ 18 m s−1. With version 4 of the CSAT firmware, we found significant underestimation of the speed of sound and thus Ts in high winds (due to a delayed detection of the sonic pulse, which resulted in the large CSAT heat flux errors. Although this Ts error is qualitatively similar to the well-known fundamental correction for the crosswind component, it is quantitatively different and directly related to the firmware estimation of the pulse arrival time. For a CSAT running version 3 of the firmware, there does not appear to be a significant underestimation of Ts; however, a Ts error similar to that of version 4 may occur if the CSAT is sufficiently out of calibration. An empirical correction to the CSAT heat flux that is consistent with our conceptual understanding of the Ts error is presented. Within a broader context, the surface energy balance is used to evaluate the heat flux measurements, and the usefulness of side-by-side instrument comparisons is discussed.

  12. High-resolution land surface fluxes from satellite and reanalysis data (HOLAPS v1.0): evaluation and uncertainty assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Alexander; Peng, Jian; Borsche, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Surface water and energy fluxes are essential components of the Earth system. Surface latent heat fluxes provide major energy input to the atmosphere. Despite the importance of these fluxes, state-of-the-art data sets of surface energy and water fluxes largely differ. The present paper introduces a new framework for the estimation of surface energy and water fluxes at the land surface, which allows for temporally and spatially high-resolved flux estimates at the quasi-global scale (50° S, 50° N) (High resOlution Land Atmosphere Parameters from Space - HOLAPS v1.0). The framework makes use of existing long-term satellite and reanalysis data records and ensures internally consistent estimates of the surface radiation and water fluxes. The manuscript introduces the technical details of the developed framework and provides results of a comprehensive sensitivity and evaluation study. Overall the root mean square difference (RMSD) was found to be 51.2 (30.7) W m-2 for hourly (daily) latent heat flux, and 84 (38) W m-2 for sensible heat flux when compared against 48 FLUXNET stations worldwide. The largest uncertainties of latent heat flux and net radiation were found to result from uncertainties in the solar radiation flux obtained from satellite data products.

  13. Aerodynamic Temperature Derived from Flux-Profile Measurements and Two-Source Model Predictions over a Cotton Row Crop in an Advective Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface aerodynamic temperature (SAT) is related to the atmospheric forcing conditions (radiation, wind speed and air temperature) and surface conditions. SAT is required in the bulk surface resistance equation to calculate the rate of sensible heat flux exchange. SAT cannot be measured directly...

  14. Laboratory Measurements of the Water/Air Flux of Dimethylsulfide Using a Wind/Wave Tank

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dacey, John

    1998-01-01

    The flux of dimethylsulfide (DMS) from the surface water of the ocean to the atmosphere is an important biogeochemical problem, since DMS contributes to optical haze and potentially impacts global climate by influencing earth's albedo...

  15. Measurement of neutron and charged particle fluxes toward earthquake prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksudov, Asatulla U.; Zufarov, Mars A.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a possible method for predicting the earthquakes, which is based on simultaneous recording of the intensity of fluxes of neutrons and charged particles by detectors, commonly used in nuclear physics. These low-energy particles originate from radioactive nuclear processes in the Earth's crust. The variations in the particle flux intensity can be the precursor of the earthquake. A description is given of an electronic installation that records the fluxes of charged particles in the radial direction, which are a possible response to the accumulated tectonic stresses in the Earth's crust. The obtained results showed an increase in the intensity of the fluxes for 10 or more hours before the occurrence of the earthquake. The previous version of the installation was able to indicate for the possibility of an earthquake (Maksudov et al. in Instrum Exp Tech 58:130-131, 2015), but did not give information about the direction of the epicenter location. In this regard, the installation was modified by adding eight directional detectors. With the upgraded setup, we have received both the predictive signals, and signals determining the directions of the location of the forthcoming earthquake, starting 2-3 days before its origin.

  16. First flux measurement in a SINQ supermirror neutron guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, S.; Schlumpf, N.; Bauer, G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    On Dec. 3, 1996, the Swiss spallation neutron source SINQ was taken into operation and produced its first neutrons successfully. The neutron spectrum within one of the supermirror guides was estimated by a chopper Time-of-Flight method. The result shows a 30% higher neutron intensity at the flux maximum than expected from previous Monte-Carlo simulations. (author) 1 fig., 4 refs.

  17. Inertial-Dissipation flux measurements over south Bay of Bengal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The data were collected on ORV Sagar Kanya during BOBMEX-Pilot cruise during the period 23rd October 1998 to 12th November 1998 over south Bay of Bengal. The fluxes are estimated using the data collected through fast response sensors namely Gill anemometer, Sonic anemometer and IR Hygrometer. In this paper ...

  18. Sea spray aerosol fluxes in the Baltic Sea region: Comparison of the WAM model with measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markuszewski, Piotr; Kosecki, Szymon; Petelski, Tomasz

    2017-08-01

    Sea spray aerosol flux is an important element of sub-regional climate modeling. The majority of works related to this topic concentrate on open ocean research rather than on smaller, inland seas, e.g., the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish inland seas by area, where major inflows of oceanic waters are rare. Furthermore, surface waves in the Baltic Sea have a relatively shorter lifespan in comparison with oceanic waves. Therefore, emission of sea spray aerosol may differ greatly from what is known from oceanic research and should be investigated. This article presents a comparison of sea spray aerosol measurements carried out on-board the s/y Oceania research ship with data calculated in accordance to the WAM model. The measurements were conducted in the southern region of the Baltic Sea during four scientific cruises. The gradient method was used to determinate aerosol fluxes. The fluxes were calculated for particles of diameter in range of 0.5-47 μm. The correlation between wind speed measured and simulated has a good agreement (correlation in range of 0.8). The comparison encompasses three different sea spray generation models. First, function proposed by Massel (2006) which is based only on wave parameters, such as significant wave height and peak frequency. Second, Callaghan (2013) which is based on Gong (2003) model (wind speed relation), and a thorough experimental analysis of whitecaps. Third, Petelski et al. (2014) which is based on in-situ gradient measurements with the function dependent on wind speed. The two first models which based on whitecaps analysis are insufficient. Moreover, the research shows strong relation between aerosol emission and wind speed history.

  19. Concentrations and flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in boreal forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäki, Mari; Aaltonen, Hermanni; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Hellén, Heidi; Pumpanen, Jukka; Bäck, Jaana

    2017-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) impact soil processes as VOCs transmit signals between roots and rhizosphere (Ditengou et al., 2015), VOCs can regulate microbial activity (Asensio et al., 2012), and VOCs can also promote root growth (Hung et al., 2012). Belowground concentrations of VOCs have not been measured in situ and for this reason, knowledge of how different soil organisms such as roots, rhizosphere and decomposers contribute to VOC production is limited. The aim of this study was to determine and quantify VOC fluxes and concentrations of different horizons from boreal forest soil. The VOC concentrations and fluxes were measured from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest soil at the SMEAR II station in southern Finland from 21th of April to 2nd of December in 2016. VOC fluxes were measured using dynamic (flow-through) chambers from five soil collars placed on five different locations. VOC concentrations were also measured in each location from four different soil horizons with the measurement depth 1-107 cm. VOCs were collected from underground gas collectors into the Tenax-Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes using portable pumps ( 100 ml min-1). The VOC concentrations and fluxes of isoprene, 11 monoterpenes, 13 sesquiterpenes and different oxygenated VOCs were measured. Sample tubes were analyzed using thermal desorption-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Soil temperature and soil water content were continuously monitored for each soil horizon. Our preliminary results show that the primary source of VOCs is organic soil layer and the contribution of mineral soil to the VOC formation is minor. VOC fluxes and concentrations were dominated by monoterpenes such as α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, and Δ3-carene. Monoterpene concentration is almost 10-fold in organic soil compared to the deeper soil layers. However, the highest VOC fluxes on the soil surface were measured in October, whereas the monoterpene concentrations in organic soil were highest in July

  20. Intercomparison of oceanic and atmospheric forced and coupled mesoscale simulations Part I: Surface fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Josse

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A mesoscale non-hydrostatic atmospheric model has been coupled with a mesoscale oceanic model. The case study is a four-day simulation of a strong storm event observed during the SEMAPHORE experiment over a 500 × 500 km2 domain. This domain encompasses a thermohaline front associated with the Azores current. In order to analyze the effect of mesoscale coupling, three simulations are compared: the first one with the atmospheric model forced by realistic sea surface temperature analyses; the second one with the ocean model forced by atmospheric fields, derived from weather forecast re-analyses; the third one with the models being coupled. For these three simulations the surface fluxes were computed with the same bulk parametrization. All three simulations succeed well in representing the main oceanic or atmospheric features observed during the storm. Comparison of surface fields with in situ observations reveals that the winds of the fine mesh atmospheric model are more realistic than those of the weather forecast re-analyses. The low-level winds simulated with the atmospheric model in the forced and coupled simulations are appreciably stronger than the re-analyzed winds. They also generate stronger fluxes. The coupled simulation has the strongest surface heat fluxes: the difference in the net heat budget with the oceanic forced simulation reaches on average 50 Wm-2 over the simulation period. Sea surface-temperature cooling is too weak in both simulations, but is improved in the coupled run and matches better the cooling observed with drifters. The spatial distributions of sea surface-temperature cooling and surface fluxes are strongly inhomogeneous over the simulation domain. The amplitude of the flux variation is maximum in the coupled run. Moreover the weak correlation between the cooling and heat flux patterns indicates that the surface fluxes are not responsible for the whole cooling and suggests that the response of the ocean mixed layer

  1. Intercomparison of oceanic and atmospheric forced and coupled mesoscale simulations Part I: Surface fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Giordani

    Full Text Available A mesoscale non-hydrostatic atmospheric model has been coupled with a mesoscale oceanic model. The case study is a four-day simulation of a strong storm event observed during the SEMAPHORE experiment over a 500 × 500 km2 domain. This domain encompasses a thermohaline front associated with the Azores current. In order to analyze the effect of mesoscale coupling, three simulations are compared: the first one with the atmospheric model forced by realistic sea surface temperature analyses; the second one with the ocean model forced by atmospheric fields, derived from weather forecast re-analyses; the third one with the models being coupled. For these three simulations the surface fluxes were computed with the same bulk parametrization. All three simulations succeed well in representing the main oceanic or atmospheric features observed during the storm. Comparison of surface fields with in situ observations reveals that the winds of the fine mesh atmospheric model are more realistic than those of the weather forecast re-analyses. The low-level winds simulated with the atmospheric model in the forced and coupled simulations are appreciably stronger than the re-analyzed winds. They also generate stronger fluxes. The coupled simulation has the strongest surface heat fluxes: the difference in the net heat budget with the oceanic forced simulation reaches on average 50 Wm-2 over the simulation period. Sea surface-temperature cooling is too weak in both simulations, but is improved in the coupled run and matches better the cooling observed with drifters. The spatial distributions of sea surface-temperature cooling and surface fluxes are strongly inhomogeneous over the simulation domain. The amplitude of the flux variation is maximum in the coupled run. Moreover the weak correlation between the cooling and heat flux patterns indicates that the surface fluxes are not responsible for the whole cooling and suggests that the response of the ocean mixed layer

  2. Shrub patterns and surface hydrological fluxes in a semiarid hillslope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoray, Tal; Sela, Shai; Assouline, Shmuel

    2010-05-01

    Climate-vegetation interactions and feedbacks are the subject of many studies and recently, the rainfall-plant-soil interplay in the hillslope scale is in the foci of ecohydrology. As most of the models in this scale rely on synthetic environments, there is a need for studies that use remotely sensed and in-situ data to examine the effect of hillslope hydrological processes on ecosystem functioning and plant population spread in a more realistic manner. A major problem is the difficulty encountered in simulating water budget and measuring vegetation at the individual level. In this research, a typical hillslope was chosen offering variations in slope decline and orientation, soil depth and vegetation cover, at the LTER Lehavim site in the center of Israel (31020' N, 34045' E). The annual rainfall is 290 mm, the soils are brown lithosols and arid brown loess and the dominant rock formations are Eocenean limestone and chalk with patches of calcrete. The vegetation is characterized by scattered dwarf shrubs (dominant species Sarcopoterium spinosum) and patches of herbaceous vegetation, mostly annuals, are spread between rocks and dwarf shrubs. Eight areal photographs of the slope, between the years 1978-2005, were acquired, georeferenced and shrub cover was estimated based on supervised classification of the airphotos. An extensive spatial database of soil hydraulic and environmental parameters (e.g. slope, radiation, bulk density, soil depth) was measured in the field and interpolated to continuous maps using geostatistical techniques and physically-based modeling. This spatio-temporal database was used to characterize 1187 spatial cells serving as an input to a numeric hydrological model (Hydrus 1D) solving the flow equations to predict soil water content at the single storm and seasonal scales. The model was verified by sampling soil moisture at 63 random locations at the research site, during three consecutive storms in the 2008-09 rainy seasons. The results show

  3. Quantitative comparison of in situ soil CO2 flux measurement methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; James M. Vose

    2002-01-01

    Development of reliable regional or global carbon budgets requires accurate measurement of soil CO2 flux. We conducted laboratory and field studies to determine the accuracy and comparability of methods commonly used to measure in situ soil CO2 fluxes. Methods compared included CO2...

  4. Measurement and simulation of thermal neutron flux distribution in the RTP core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabir, Mohamad Hairie B.; Jalal Bayar, Abi Muttaqin B.; Hamzah, Na’im Syauqi B.; Mustafa, Muhammad Khairul Ariff B.; Karim, Julia Bt. Abdul; Zin, Muhammad Rawi B. Mohamed; Ismail, Yahya B.; Hussain, Mohd Huzair B.; Mat Husin, Mat Zin B.; Dan, Roslan B. Md; Ismail, Ahmad Razali B.; Husain, Nurfazila Bt.; Jalil Khan, Zareen Khan B. Abdul; Yakin, Shaiful Rizaide B. Mohd; Saad, Mohamad Fauzi B.; Masood, Zarina Bt.

    2018-01-01

    The in-core thermal neutron flux distribution was determined using measurement and simulation methods for the Malaysian’s PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP). In this work, online thermal neutron flux measurement using Self Powered Neutron Detector (SPND) has been performed to verify and validate the computational methods for neutron flux calculation in RTP calculations. The experimental results were used as a validation to the calculations performed with Monte Carlo code MCNP. The detail in-core neutron flux distributions were estimated using MCNP mesh tally method. The neutron flux mapping obtained revealed the heterogeneous configuration of the core. Based on the measurement and simulation, the thermal flux profile peaked at the centre of the core and gradually decreased towards the outer side of the core. The results show a good agreement (relatively) between calculation and measurement where both show the same radial thermal flux profile inside the core: MCNP model over estimation with maximum discrepancy around 20% higher compared to SPND measurement. As our model also predicts well the neutron flux distribution in the core it can be used for the characterization of the full core, that is neutron flux and spectra calculation, dose rate calculations, reaction rate calculations, etc.

  5. Critical heat flux for downward-facing pool boiling on CANDU calandria tube surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behdadi, Azin, E-mail: behdada@mcmaster.ca; Talebi, Farshad; Luxat, John

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Pressure tube-calandria tube contact may challenge fuel channel integrity in CANDU. • Critical heat flux variation is predicted on the outer surface of CANDU calandria tube. • A two-phase boundary layer flow driven by buoyancy is modeled on the surface. • Different slip ratios and flow regimes are considered inside the boundary layer. • Subcooling effects are added to the model using wall heat flux partitioning. - Abstract: One accident scenario in CANDU reactors that can challenge the integrity of the primary pressure boundary is a loss of coolant accident, referred to as critical break LOCA, in which the pressure tube (PT) can undergo thermal creep strain deformation and contact its calandria tube (CT). In such case, rapid redistribution of stored heat from PT to CT, leads to a large spike in heat flux to the moderator which can cause bubble accumulation and dryout on the CT surface. A challenge to fuel channel integrity is posed if critical heat flux occurs on the surface of the CT and results in sustained film boiling. If the post-dryout temperature becomes sufficiently high then continued creep strain of the PT and CT may lead to fuel channel failure. In this study, a mechanistic model is developed to predict the critical heat flux variations along the downward facing outer surface of CT. The hydrodynamic model considers a liquid macrolayer beneath an elongated vapor slug on the surface. Local dryout is postulated to occur whenever the fresh liquid supply to the macrolayer is not sufficient to compensate for the liquid depletion. A boundary layer analysis is performed, treating the two phase motion as an external buoyancy driven flow. The model shows good agreement with the available experimental data and has been modified to take into account the effect of subcooling.

  6. Ocean Surface Waves and Turbulence: Air-Sea Fluxes and Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, W. Kendall

    2009-11-01

    Apart from heating of the atmosphere, two of the most important consequences of current climate variability are changes in sea level, and acidification of the oceans. Over decadal time scales, changes in sea level are caused by changes in heat content and salinity of the ocean, and by changes in mass resulting from exchanges between the ocean, glaciers and other land-based reservoirs. The oceans have absorbed about one third of the anthropogenic CO2 due to fossil fuel burning. This reduces the green house effect in the atmosphere, but the CO2 reacts in the surface waters of the ocean to lower pH. Conservative projections of sea level rise over the next century are O(0.1 - 1) m, while ocean acidification is already having an impact on marine ecosystems. Both these processes depend on air-sea fluxes: heat flux for sea level rise, and gas flux for ocean acidification. These fluxes are among the most poorly constrained in current climate models, but both ultimately depend on fluid dynamics at the ocean surface and in the adjacent boundary layers. Traditional boundary layer models of the marine boundary layer and the marine atmospheric boundary layer were based on classical theories of boundary layers over rigid surfaces, but there is increasing evidence that these models must now include surface wave effects. In this talk the motivating climate data and modeling will be briefly reviewed, and then recent work on surface wave dynamics, air-sea fluxes and the adjacent boundary layers will be presented. The roles of surface wave breaking, Langmuir circulations, wave-turbulence interactions and gravity-capillary waves will be discussed.

  7. Comparison of ecosystem water flux measured with the Eddy covariance- and the direct xylem sap flux method in a mountainous forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanicki, G.; Geissbuehler, P.; Siegwolf, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The Eddy covariance technique allows to measure different components of turbulent air fluxes, including the flow of water vapour. Sap flux measurements determine directly the water flow in tree stems. We compared the water flux just above the crowns of trees in a forest by the technique of Eddy covariance and the water flux by the xylem sap flux method. These two completely different approaches showed a good qualitative correspondence. The correlation coefficient is 0.8. With an estimation of the crown diameter of the measured tree we also find a very good quantitative agreement. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  8. An Overview of the Naval Research Laboratory Ocean Surface Flux (NFLUX) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J. C.; Rowley, C. D.; Barron, C. N.

    2016-02-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) ocean surface flux (NFLUX) system is an end-to-end data processing and assimilation system used to provide near-real time satellite-based surface heat flux fields over the global ocean. Swath-level air temperature (TA), specific humidity (QA), and wind speed (WS) estimates are produced using multiple polynomial regression algorithms with inputs from satellite sensor data records from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A, the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder, and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 sensors. Swath-level WS estimates are also retrieved from satellite environmental data records from WindSat, the MetOp scatterometers, and the Oceansat scatterometer. Swath-level solar and longwave radiative flux estimates are produced utilizing the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for Global Circulation Models (RRTMG). Primary inputs to the RRTMG include temperature and moisture profiles and cloud liquid and ice water paths from the Microwave Integrated Retrieval System. All swath-level satellite estimates undergo an automated quality control process and are then assimilated with atmospheric model forecasts to produce 3-hourly gridded analysis fields. The turbulent heat flux fields, latent and sensible heat flux, are determined from the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) 3.0 bulk algorithms using inputs of TA, QA, WS, and a sea surface temperature model field. Quality-controlled in situ observations over a one-year time period from May 2013 through April 2014 form the reference for validating ocean surface state parameter and heat flux fields. The NFLUX fields are evaluated alongside the Navy's operational global atmospheric model, the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM). NFLUX is shown to have smaller biases and lower or similar root mean square errors compared to NAVGEM.

  9. On the use of the post-closure methods uncertainty band to evaluate the performance of land surface models against eddy covariance flux data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingwersen, Joachim; Imukova, Kristina; Högy, Petra; Streck, Thilo

    2017-04-01

    The energy balance of eddy covariance (EC) flux data is normally not closed. Therefore, at least if used for modeling, EC flux data are usually post-closed, i.e. the measured turbulent fluxes are adjusted so as to close the energy balance. At the current state of knowledge, however, it is not clear how to partition the missing energy in the right way. Eddy flux data therefore contain some uncertainty due to the unknown nature of the energy balance gap, which should be considered in model evaluation and the interpretation of simulation results. We propose to construct the post-closure method uncertainty band (PUB), which essentially designates the differences between non-adjusted flux data and flux data adjusted with the three post-closure methods (Bowen ratio, latent heat flux (LE) and sensible heat flux (H) method). To demonstrate this approach, simulations with the NOAH-MP land surface model were evaluated based on EC measurements conducted at a winter wheat stand in Southwest Germany in 2011, and the performance of the Jarvis and Ball-Berry stomatal resistance scheme was compared. The width of the PUB of the LE was up to 110 W/m2 (21% of net radiation). Our study shows that it is crucial to account for the uncertainty of EC flux data originating from lacking energy balance closure. Working with only a single post-closing method might result in severe misinterpretations in model-data comparisons.

  10. The practical application of scintillometers in determining the surface fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis has collated one review chapter and five experiments concerned with addressing the question, 'how successful is the scintillometer method in determining the surface fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum and under what circumstances does it appear to fail?'

  11. Energy and water cycle over the Tibetan plateau : surface energy balance and turbulent heat fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Zhongbo; Zhang, Ting; Ma, Yaoming; Jia, Li; Wen, Jun

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents an overview and an outlook of studies on energy and water cycle over the Tibetan plateau with focuses on the estimation of energy balance terms and turbulent heat fluxes. On the basis of the surface energy balance calculations, we show that the phenomena of the energy

  12. Energy and water cycle over the Tibetan Plateau: surface energy balance and turbulent heat fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Z.; Zhang, T.; Ma, Y.; Jia, L.; Wen, J.

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents an overview and an outlook of studies on energy and water cycle over the Tibetan plateau with focuses on the estimation of energy balance terms and turbulent heat fluxes. On the basis of the surface energy balance calculations, we show that the phenomena of the energy

  13. Multi-sensor remote sensing parameterization of heat fluxes over heterogeneous land surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faivre, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    The parameterization of heat transfer by remote sensing, and based on SEBS scheme for turbulent heat fluxes retrieval, already proved to be very convenient for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) over homogeneous land surfaces. However, the use of such a method over heterogeneous landscapes (e.g.

  14. Minimum activation martensitic alloys for surface disposal after exposure to neutron flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtenberg, Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Steel alloys for long-term exposure to neutron flux have a martensitic microstructure and contain chromium, carbon, tungsten, vanadium and preferably titanium. Activation of the steel is held to within acceptable limits for eventual surface disposal by stringently controlling the impurity levels of Ni, Mo, Cu, N, Co, Nb, Al and Mn.

  15. Do Surface Energy Fluxes Reveal Land Use/Land Cover Change in South Florida?: A Remote Sensing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, H. P.; Melesse, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Series of changes on land use/ land cover in South Florida resulting from drainage and development activities during early to mid-20th followed by restoration measures since late-20th century have had prominent impacts on hydrologic regime and energy fluxes in the region. Previous results from numerical modeling and MODIS-based analysis have shown a shift in dominance of heat fluxes: from latent to sensible along the axes of urbanization, and an opposite along the axes of restoration. This study implements a slightly modified version of surface energy balance algorithm (SEBAL) on cloud-masked Landsat imageries archived over the period of 30-years combined with ground-meteorological data for South Florida using spatial analysis model in ArcGIS and calculates energy flux components: sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, and ground heat flux. The study finally computes variation of Bowen's ratio (BR) and daily evapotranspiration (ET) rate over various land covers for different years. Coexistences are apparent between increased BR and increased intensity of urbanization, and between increased daily ET rates and improved best management practices in agricultural areas. An increase in mean urban BR from 1.67 in 1984 to 3.06 in 2010 show plausible link of BR with urban encroachment of open lands, and expulsion of additional heat by increased population/automobiles/factories/air conditioning units. Likewise, increase in mean agricultural daily ET rates from 0.21 mm/day to 3.60 mm/day between 1984 to 2010 probably shows the effects of improved moisture conditions on the northern farm lands as the results of restoration practices. Once new observed data become available to corroborate these results, remote sensing methods-owing to their greater spatial and temporal details-can be used as assessment measures both for the progress of restoration evaluation and for the extent detection of human-induced climate change.

  16. Determination of solar proton fluxes and energies at high solar latitudes by UV radiation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, N.; Blum, P. W.; Ajello, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The latitudinal variation of the solar proton flux and energy causes a density increase at high solar latitudes of the neutral gas penetrating the heliosphere. Measurements of the neutral density by UV resonance radiation observations from interplanetary spacecraft thus permit deductions on the dependence of the solar proton flux on heliographic latitude. Using both the results of Mariner 10 measurements and of other off-ecliptic solar wind observations, the values of the solar proton fluxes and energies at polar heliographic latitudes are determined for several cases of interest. The Mariner 10 analysis, together with IPS results, indicate a significant decrease of the solar proton flux at polar latitudes.

  17. Decomposing Shortwave Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Variability in Terms of Surface and Atmospheric Contributions Using CERES Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, N. G.; Wong, T.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's climate is determined by the exchange of radiant energy between the Sun, Earth and space. The absorbed solar radiation (ASR) fuels the climate system, providing the energy required for atmospheric and oceanic motions, while the system cools by emitting outgoing longwave (LW) radiation to space. A central objective of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is to produce a long-term global climate data record of Earth's radiation budget along with the associated atmospheric and surface properties that influence it. CERES data products utilize a number of data sources, including broadband radiometers measuring incoming and reflected solar radiation and OLR, polar orbiting and geostationary spectral imagers, meteorological, aerosol and ozone assimilation data, and snow/sea-ice maps based on microwave radiometer data. Here we use simple diagnostic model of Earth's albedo and CERES Energy Balanced and Filled (EBAF) Ed4.0 data for March 2000-February 2016 to quantify interannual variations in SW TOA flux associated with surface albedo and atmospheric reflectance and transmittance variations. Surface albedo variations account for <0.5% of the total SW TOA flux variance over the tropics and 4% globally. Variations in atmospheric reflectance and transmittance account for virtually all of the total SW TOA flux variance over the tropics and only 81% globally. The remaining 15% of the global SW TOA flux variance is explained by the co-variance of surface albedo and atmospheric reflectance/transmittance. Equatorward of 60-degree latitude, the atmospheric contribution exceeds that of the surface by at least an order-of-magnitude. In contrast, the surface and atmospheric variations contribute equally poleward of 60S and surface variations account for twice as much as the atmosphere poleward of 60N. However, as much as 40% of the total SW TOA flux variance poleward of 60N is explained by the covariance of surface albedo and atmospheric reflectance

  18. Multi Function Heat Pulse Probes (MFHPP) to Estimate Ground Heat Flux and Reduce Surface Energy Budget Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Francesco; Sharma, Varun; Lunati, Ivan; Parlange, Marc B.

    2013-04-01

    Ground heat flux plays a crucial role in surface energy budget: an incorrect estimation of energy storage and heat fluxes in soils occur when probes such as heat flux plates are adopted, and these mistakes can account for up to 90% of the residual variance (Higgins, GRL, 2012). A promising alternative to heat flux plates is represented by Multi Function Heat Pulse Probes (MFHPP). They have proven to be accurate in thermal properties and heat fluxes estimation (e.g. Cobos, VZJ, 2003) and can be used to monitor and quantify subsurface evaporation in field experiments (Xiao et al., VZJ, 2011). We perform a laboratory experiment with controlled temperature in a small Plexiglas column (20cm diameter and 40cm height). The column is packed with homogeneously saturated sandy soil and equipped with three MFHPPs in the upper 4cm and thermocouples and dielectric soil moisture probes deeper. This configuration allows for accurate and simultaneous ground heat flux, soil moisture and subsurface evaporation measurements. Total evaporation is monitored using a precision scale, while an infrared gun and a long wave radiometer measure the soil skin temperature and the outgoing long-short wave radiation, respectively. A fan and a heat lamp placed above the column allow to mimick on a smaller and more controlled scale the field conditions induced by the diurnal cycle. At a reference height above the column relative humidity, wind speed and air temperature are collected. Results are interpreted by means of numerical simulations performed with an ad-hoc-developed numerical model that simulates coupled heat and moisture transfer in soils and is used to match and interpolate the temperature and soil moisture values got at finite depths within the column. Ground heat fluxes are then estimated by integrating over almost continuous, numerically simulated temperature profiles, which avoids errors due to use of discrete data (Lunati et al., WRR, 2012) and leads to a more reliable estimate of

  19. INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR ABSORPTANCE OF BUILDING EXTERNAL SURFACES FROM HEAT FLUX POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral ÖZEL

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, solar absorptance of external surfaces of buildings has been numerically investigated from the heat gain and losses point of view. For this purpose, external surface solar absorptance was icreased from 0 to 1with an ratio of 0.1 and, for the summer and winter conditions, heat fluxs was calculated by considering orientations of the wall and its roof for brick and concrete structure materials. Besides, external surface absorptance was assumed as 0.2, 0.5 and 0.9, respectively. Than, heat gain and losses were calculated to insulation thickness increasing on the outdoor surface of wall. Results obtained were presented as graphics

  20. Reduced Heat Flux Through Preferential Surface Reactions Leading to Vibrationally and Electronically Excited Product States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-04

    an ideal gas at a given temperature, pressure, and composition. A more detailed description of this method can be found in: Norman...are generated at random points on a plane above the surface with a frequency corresponding to the flux of an ideal gas through that plane. This plane...to a dissociated gas at a given temperature and pressure. Examples of steady state surfaces for both amorphous SiO2 and crystalline SiO2 (quartz

  1. Influence of the Surface and Cloud Nonuniformities in the Solar Energy Fluxes in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozwadowska, A.; Cahalan, R. F.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Solar energy fluxes reaching the surface and absorbed by it are basic components of the energy balance of the Arctic. They depend mainly on the solar zenith angle, a state of the atmosphere, especially the cloudiness, and the surface albedo. However, they can also be modified by variabilities in the surface albedo and cloud optical thickness. The surface of the Arctic can be highly nonuniform. The surface of the Arctic Ocean, which covers the huge part of the Arctic can be view as a mosaic of sea water, sea ice, snow and, in the melting period, melting ponds. In our paper, results are presented of Monte Carlo simulations of the expected influence of nonuniform cloud structure and nonuniform surface albedo on radiative fluxes at the Arctic surface. In particular, the plane parallel biases in the surface absorptance and atmospheric transmittance are studied. The bias is defined as the difference between the real absorptance or transmittance (i.e. nonuniform conditions) averaged over a given area, and the uniform or plane parallel case with the same mean cloud optical thickness and the same mean surface albedo. The dependence of the biases is analysed with respect to the following: domain averaged values of the cloud optical thickness and surface albedo, scales of their spatial variabilities, correlation between cloud optical thickness and cloud albedo variabilities, cloud height, and the solar zenith angle. Ranges of means and standard deviations of the input parameters typical of Arctic conditions are obtained from the SHEBA experiment.

  2. Promoting the potential of flux-measuring stations in urban parks: An innovative case study in Naples, Italy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guidolotti, G.; Calfapietra, Carlo; Pallozzi, E.; De Simoni, G.; Esposito, R.; Mattioni, M.; Nicolini, G.; Matteucci, G.; Brugnoli, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 233, feb (2017), s. 153-162 ISSN 0168-1923 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13031 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : eddy covariance measurements * net ecosystem exchange * carbon-dioxide fluxes * ozone deposition * air-quality * mediterranean forest * surface fluxes * climate-change * quercus-ilex * water-vapor * Urban forest * Eddy covariance * Greenhouse gases * bvoc * Air pollutants Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 3.887, year: 2016

  3. A fast gauge for energy flux density measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jorge; Bana de Schor, Beatriz

    1990-01-01

    Herein, the design and characterization of a fast energy flux density gauge are described. The gauge is based on a thermoelectrical pair with the junction made of a thin layer of silver. High absorptivity is attained by an electrolytic deposit of platinum black on the silver coat. Dynamic calibration gives a response time below 100 microsec. Computer methods to obtain the energy flux density from temperature-time history were evaluated. The results of the tests performed with igniters of pelleted boron/potassium nitrate and black powder, used in solid propellant ignition, are shown. The gauge developed can be applied to fast processes which require small response time. The gauge does not need previous calibration, it is resistant to vibrations and accelerations, and, at the same time, it is small in size, economical, and easy to build.

  4. Continuous SO2 flux measurements for Vulcano Island, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Vita

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The La Fossa cone of Vulcano Island (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy is a closed conduit volcano. Today, Vulcano Island is characterized by sulfataric activity, with a large fumarolic field that is mainly located in the summit area. A scanning differential optical absorption spectroscopy instrument designed by the Optical Sensing Group of Chalmers University of Technology in Göteborg, Sweden, was installed in the framework of the European project "Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change", in March 2008. This study presents the first dataset of SO2 plume fluxes recorded for a closed volcanic system. Between 2008 and 2010, the SO2 fluxes recorded showed average values of 12 t.d–1 during the normal sulfataric activity of Vulcano Island, with one exceptional event of strong degassing that occurred between September and December, 2009, when the SO2 emissions reached up to 100 t.d–1.

  5. Roughness Length of Water Vapor over Land Surfaces and Its Influence on Latent Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Jong Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Latent heat flux at the surface is largely dependent on the roughness length for water vapor (z0q. The determination of z0q is still uncertain because of its multifaceted characteristics of surface properties, atmospheric conditions and insufficient observations. In this study, observed values from the Fluxes Over Snow Surface II field experiment (FLOSS-II from November 2002 to March 2003 were utilized to estimate z0q over various land surfaces: bare soil, snow, and senescent grass. The present results indicate that the estimated z0q over bare soil is much smaller than the roughness length of momentum (z0m; thus, the ratio z0m/z0q is larger than those of previous studies by a factor of 20 - 150 for the available flow regime of the roughness Reynolds number, Re* > 0.1. On the snow surface, the ratio is comparable to a previous estimation for the rough flow (Re* > 1, but smaller by a factor of 10 - 50 as the flow became smooth (Re* < 1. Using the estimated ratio, an optimal regression equation of z0m/z0q is determined as a function of Re* for each surface type. The present parameterization of the ratio is found to greatly reduce biases of latent heat flux estimation compared with that estimated by the conventional method, suggesting the usefulness of current parameterization for numerical modeling.

  6. Metal impurity fluxes and plasma-surface interactions in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsåker, H.; Menmuir, S.; Rachlew, E.; Brunsell, P. R.; Frassinetti, L.; Drake, J. R.

    2008-03-01

    The EXTRAP T2R is a large aspect ratio Reversed Field Pinch device. The main focus of interest for the experiments is the active feedback control of resistive wall modes [1]. With feedback it has been possible to prolong plasma discharges in T2R from about 20 ms to nearly 100 ms. In a series of experiments in T2R, in H- and D- plasmas with and without feedback, quantitative spectroscopy and passive collector probes have been used to study the flux of metal impurities. Time resolved spectroscopic measurements of Cr and Mo lines showed large metal release towards discharge termination without feedback. Discharge integrated fluxes of Cr, Fe, Ni and Mo were also measured with collector probes at wall position. Reasonable quantitative agreement was found between the spectroscopic and collector probe measurements. The roles of sputtering, thermal evaporation and arcing in impurity production are evaluated based on the composition of the measured impurity flux.

  7. Large eddies modulating flux convergence and divergence in a disturbed unstable atmospheric surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhongming; Liu, Heping; Russell, Eric S.; Huang, Jianping; Foken, Thomas; Oncley, Steven P.

    2016-02-01

    The effects of large eddies on turbulence structures and flux transport were studied using data collected over a flat cotton field during the Energy Balance Experiment 2000 in the San Joaquin Valley of California in August 2000. Flux convergence (FC; larger fluxes at 8.7 m than 2.7 m) and divergence (FD) in latent heat flux (LE) were observed in a disturbed, unstable atmospheric surface layer, and their magnitudes largely departed from the prediction of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. From our wavelet analysis, it was identified that large eddies affected turbulence structures, scalar distribution, and flux transport differently at 8.7 m and 2.7 m under the FC and FD conditions. Using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition, time series data were decomposed into large eddies and small-scale background turbulence, the time-domain characteristics of large eddies were examined, and the flux contribution by large eddies was also determined quantitatively. The results suggest that large eddies over the frequency range of 0.002 Hz < f < 0.02 Hz (predominantly 300-400 m) enhanced the vertical velocity spectra more significantly at 8.7 m than 2.7 m, leading to an increased magnitude of the cospectra and thus LE at 8.7 m. In the FD case, however, these large eddies were not present and even suppressed in the vertical velocity spectra at 8.7 m. Consequently, the cospectra divergence over the low-frequency ranges primarily caused the LE divergence. This work implies that large eddies may either improve or degrade the surface energy balance closure by increasing or decreasing turbulent fluxes, respectively.

  8. Measuring Surface Combatant Fleet Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crary, Michael

    1999-01-01

    ...? While Measures of Effectiveness for an individual ship can include its number of missiles, speed, and endurance, it is difficult to find a Measure of Effectiveness credible to experienced warplanners...

  9. Assessing the Potential to Derive Air-Sea Freshwater Fluxes from Aquarius-Like Observations of Surface Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Li; Adamec, David

    2009-01-01

    A state-of-the-art numerical model is used to investigate the possibility of determining freshwater flux fields from temporal changes io sea-surface salinity (SSS), a goal of the satellite salinity-measuring mission, Aquarius/SAC-D. Because the estimated advective temporal scale is usually longer than the Aquarius/SAC-D revisit time, the possibility of producing freshwater flux estimates from temporal salinity changes is first examined by using a correlation analysis. For the mean seasonal cycle, the patterns of the correlations between the freshwater fluxes and surface salinity temporal tendencies are mainly zonally oriented, and are highest where the local precipitation is also relatively high. Nonseasonal (deviations from the monthly mean) correlations are highest along mid-latitude moon tracks and are relatively small in the tropics. The complex correlation patterns presented here suggest that a global retrieval of the difference between evaporation and precipitation (E-P) from salinity changes requires more complex techniques than a simple consideration of local balance with surface forcing.

  10. Progress Toward Measuring CO2 Isotopologue Fluxes in situ with the LLNL Miniature, Laser-based CO2 Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna, J. L.; Bora, M.; Bond, T.

    2015-12-01

    One method to constrain photosynthesis and respiration independently at the ecosystem scale is to measure the fluxes of CO2­ isotopologues. Instrumentation is currently available to makes these measurements but they are generally costly, large, bench-top instruments. Here, we present progress toward developing a laser-based sensor that can be deployed directly to a canopy to passively measure CO2 isotopologue fluxes. In this study, we perform initial proof-of-concept and sensor characterization tests in the laboratory and in the field to demonstrate performance of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) tunable diode laser flux sensor. The results shown herein demonstrate measurement of bulk CO2 as a first step toward achieving flux measurements of CO2 isotopologues. The sensor uses a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) in the 2012 nm range. The laser is mounted in a multi-pass White Cell. In order to amplify the absorption signal of CO2 in this range we employ wave modulation spectroscopy, introducing an alternating current (AC) bias component where f is the frequency of modulation on the laser drive current in addition to the direct current (DC) emission scanning component. We observed a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.998 and r2 = 0.978 at all and low CO2 concentrations, respectively) between the 2f signal and the CO2 concentration in the cell across the range of CO2 concentrations relevant for flux measurements. We use this calibration to interpret CO2 concentration of a gas flowing through the White cell in the laboratory and deployed over a grassy field. We will discuss sensor performance in the lab and in situ as well as address steps toward achieving canopy-deployed, passive measurements of CO2 isotopologue fluxes. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675788

  11. Towards closure of regional heat budgets in the North Atlantic using Argo floats and surface flux datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Wells

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The upper ocean heat budget (0–300 m of the North Atlantic from 20°–60° N is investigated using data from Argo profiling floats for 1999–2005 and the NCEP/NCAR and NOC surface flux datasets. Estimates of the different terms in the budget (heat storage, advection, diffusion and surface exchange are obtained using the methodology developed by Hadfield et al. (2007a, b. The method includes optimal interpolation of the individual profiles to produce gridded fields with error estimates at a 10°×10° grid box resolution. Closure of the heat budget is obtained within the error estimates for some regions – particularly the eastern subtropical Atlantic – but not for those boxes that include the Gulf Stream. Over the whole range considered, closure is obtained for 13 (9 out of 20 boxes with the NOC (NCEP/NCAR surface fluxes. The seasonal heat budget at 20–30° N, 35–25° W is considered in detail. Here, the NCEP based budget has an annual mean residual of −55±35 Wm−2 compared with a NOC based value of −4±35 Wm−2. For this box, the net heat divergence of 36 Wm−2 (Ekman=−4 Wm−2, geostrophic=11 Wm−2, diffusion=29 Wm−2 offsets the net heating of 32 Wm−2 from the NOC surface heat fluxes. The results in this box are consistent with an earlier evaluation of the fluxes using measurements from research buoys in the subduction array which revealed biases in NCEP but good agreement of the buoy values with the NOC fields.

  12. Flux observations of isoprene oxidation products above a South East US forest point to chemical conversions on leaf canopy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misztal, P. K.; Su, L.; Park, J.; Holzinger, R.; Nguyen, T.; Teng, A.; St Clair, J. M.; Wennberg, P. O.; Crounse, J.; Seco, R.; Karl, T.; Kaser, L.; Hansel, A.; Canaval, E.; Keutsch, F. N.; Mak, J. E.; Guenther, A. B.; Goldstein, A. H.; Mentler, B.; Lepesant, B.; Schnitzler, J. P.; Partoll, E.

    2016-12-01

    Isoprene is globally the dominant biogenic VOC (BVOC) emitted by the biosphere. Isoprene rapidly reacts with hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere, forming oxidized carbonaceous gases some of which further react to form secondary organic aerosol. Isoprene oxidation proceeds simultaneously via NO and HO2 oxidation pathways with relative proportions depending mainly on the amount of available NOx (NO +NO2). Recent SOA modeling of HO2 oxidation of isoprene peroxides and epoxides reveal different SOA yields but few field studies are available to investigate these processes. Understanding of the fundamental chemical and physical processes controlling the fate of isoprene oxidation products is needed to improve SOA modeling under highly variable NOx concentrations and with the branching ratio between HO2 and NO pathways changing as a function of time of day. Plants are an important sink for many atmospheric chemicals formed in the atmosphere but the role of canopy surfaces is not typically accounted for when modeling atmospheric chemistry. Based on simultaneous flux measurements of isoprene carbonyls (MVK+MAC) by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and isoprene hydroxy hydroperoxides and epoxy diols (ISOPOOH+IEPOX) by tandem chemical ionization mass spectrometry, we show that the relative proportions of concentrations of these first-order isoprene products exhibit different diurnal patterns, dependent on NOx. Furthermore, a different diurnal flux pattern observed for first order products of NO and HO2 reactions reveals the occurrence of peroxide conversions to carbonyls at the canopy surface resulting in observed positive net emission flux of MVK+MAC in the afternoon. We hypothesize that the plant canopy provides an active surface which can catalyze chemical conversion. This hypothesis is supported by observation of consistent flux patterns at multiple different sites in the US and by a controlled ISOPOOH fumigation experiment of a plant in an enclosure chamber. In

  13. A Numerical Study on Impact of Taiwan Island Surface Heat Flux on Super Typhoon Haitang (2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiong Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three to four tropical cyclones (TCs by average usually impact Taiwan every year. This study, using the Developmental Tested Center (DTC version of the Hurricane WRF (HWRF model, examines the effects of Taiwan’s island surface heat fluxes on typhoon structure, intensity, track, and its rainfall over the island. The numerical simulation successfully reproduced the structure and intensity of super Typhoon Haitang. The model, especially, reproduced the looped path and landfall at nearly the right position. Sensitive experiments indicated that Taiwan’s surface heat fluxes have significant influence on the super Typhoon Haitang. Compared to sensible heat (SH fluxes, latent heat (LH is the dominant factor affecting the intensity and rainfall, but they showed opposite effects on intensity and rainfall. LH (SH flux of Taiwan Island intensified (weakened Typhoon Haitang’s intensity and structure by transferring more energy from (to surface. However, only LH played a major role in the looped path before the landfall of the Typhoon Haitang.

  14. Combined FTIR-micrometeorological techniques for long term measurements of greenhouse gas fluxes from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, A. K.; Griffith, D.; Harvey, M.; Naylor, T.; Smith, M.

    2009-04-01

    The exchange of trace gases between the biosphere and the atmosphere affects the atmospheric concentrations of gases such as methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen dioxide and others. The quantification of the exchange between a biogenic system and the atmosphere is necessary for the evaluation of the impact of these interactions. This is of special interest for agricultural systems which can be sources or sinks of trace gases, and the measurement of the fluxes is necessary when evaluating both the environmental impact of agricultural activities and the impact of atmospheric pollution on agricultural production and sustainability. With the exception of CO2, micrometeorological measurements of the fluxes of greenhouse gases from agricultural activities are still mostly possible only in campaign mode due to the complexity and logistical requirements of the existing measurement techniques. This limitation precludes studies of fluxes which run for longer periods, for example over full seasonal or growing cycles for both animal- and crop-based agriculture. We have developed an instrument system for long-term flux measurements through a combination of micrometeorological flux measurement techniques such as Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) and Flux-Gradient (FG) with the high precision multi-species detection capabilities of FTIR spectroscopy. The combined technique is capable of simultaneous flux measurements of N2O, CH4 and CO2 at paddock to regional scales continuously, over longer terms (months, seasonal cycles, years). The system was tested on a 3 weeks field campaign in NSW, Australia on a flat, homogeneous circular grass paddock with grazing cattle. The flux of the atmospheric trace gas CO2 was measured with three different micrometeorological techniques: Relaxed Eddy Accumulation, Flux-Gradient, and Eddy Correlation. Simultaneously, fluxes of CH4 and N2O were measured by REA and FG technique.

  15. Monte Carlo study of thermal flux profiles and body correction factors for body protein measurements of obese subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, B.J.; Allen, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    In previous calculations for total body nitrogen measurements of children, the anterior/posterior thermal neutron flux profile with depth was found to be fairly flat after an initial rise. However, for obese adults significant variations are found in the flux profile with the central flux value being as low as 20% of the peak value. The significance of these flux variations is examined. Correction factors are calculated for the varying attenuation of the nitrogen and hydrogen photons by a range of obese bodies. The calculations included the effect of the thermal flux profile as well as that of an outer layer of low nitrogen content adipose tissue. The bodies are assumed to have a homogeneous hydrogen content. A study of four obese body models with varying sex and fat content shows that the correction factors do not vary much between males and females. This is surprising since the female models are assumed to have a surface fat layer twice as thick as for the male models. The correction factors are found to be only slightly sensitive to the thermal flux variations with depth. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  16. The spatial heterogeneity of land surface conditions and its influence on surface fluxes over a typical underlying surface in the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Genhou; Hu, Zeyong; Wang, Jiemin; Ma, Weiqiang; Gu, Lianglei; Sun, Fanglin; Xie, Zhipeng; Yan, Xiaoqiang

    2018-01-01

    Accurately estimating the surface fluxes of over the heterogeneous land surface in Tibetan Plateau will be helpful to advance the understanding of its influence on regional climate and hydrology. This paper presents a study on the spatial heterogeneity of land surface parameters in terms of the spatial variability and spatial structure of land surface parameters and the influence on surface fluxes over a typical land surface in Tibetan Plateau. The results suggest that the sensible heat fluxes (H) and latent heat fluxes (LE) in the study area in the rain and dry seasons show apparent spatial variabilities due to the spatial heterogeneity in the leaf area index (LAI) and land surface undulations. The relative frequency distribution of H and LE at the spatial resolution of 30 m suggests that the spatial variability of surface fluxes has a close relationship with the spatial heterogeneity of land surface temperature (LST) and LAI. The variogram analyses of LST, LAI, H, and LE in the study area in rain season indicate that the spatial structures of LST and LAI are different and the spatial structures of H and LE are strongly influenced by the spatial structures of LST and LAI in both rain and dry seasons. The optimal pixel sizes for LST, LAI, H, and LE in the study area are 506, 156, 500, and 225 m in the rain season. The optimal pixel sizes for LST, H, and LE in the study area are 165, 165, and 162 m in the dry season. An analysis of the relative frequency distributions (RFDs) of the LST, LAI, H, and LE at different spatial resolutions in the rain and dry seasons reveals that their values at the maximum relative frequency keep stable although their spatial variabilities become weak as the spatial resolution decreases. The averages of LST, LAI, H, and LE of different spatial resolutions of the study area in rain and dry seasons vary within small ranges, suggesting that the influence of spatial resolution on the averaged land surface parameters and surface fluxes in the

  17. Evapotranspiration and heat fluxes over a patchy forest - studied using modelling and measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Dellwik, Ebba; Boegh, Eva

    and latent heat flux above forest downwind of a forest edge show these fluxes to be larger than the available energy over the forest (Klaassen et al. 2002, Theor. Appl. Climatol. 72, 231-243). Because such flux measurements are very often used for calibration of forest parameters or model constants, further...... using these parameters without a proper interpretation in mesoscale or global circulation models can results in serious bias of estimates of modelled evapotranspiration or heat fluxes from given area. Since representative measurements focused on heterogeneous effects are scarce numerical modelling can...... be used to interpret the measurements. Recently, the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) model SCADIS (Sogachev et al., 2002, Tellus 54B, 784-819) has been successfully applied to analyze the mechanisms of CO2 flux formation near a forest edge for neutrally stratified conditions (Sogachev et al., 2008...

  18. Global surface wind and flux fields from model assimilation of Seasat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, R.; Busalacchi, A. J.; Kalnay, E.; Bloom, S.; Ghil, M.

    1986-01-01

    Procedures for dealiasing Seasat data and developing global surface wind and latent and sensible heat flux fields are discussed. Seasat data from September 20, 1978 was dealiased using the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) analysis/forecast system. The wind data obtained with the objective GLA forecast model are compared to the data subjectively dealiased by Peteherych et al. (1984) and Hoffman (1982, 1984). The GLA procedure is also verified using simulated Seasat data. The areas of high and low heat fluxes and cyclonic and anticyclonic wind stresses detected in the generated fields are analyzed and compared to climatological fields. It is observed that there is good correlation between the time-averaged analyses of wind stress obtained subjectively and objectively, and the monthly mean wind stress and latent fluxes agree with climatological fields and atmospheric and oceanic features.

  19. Evaluation of Heat Flux Measurement as a New Process Analytical Technology Monitoring Tool in Freeze Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollrath, Ilona; Pauli, Victoria; Friess, Wolfgang; Freitag, Angelika; Hawe, Andrea; Winter, Gerhard

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the suitability of heat flux measurement as a new technique for monitoring product temperature and critical end points during freeze drying. The heat flux sensor is tightly mounted on the shelf and measures non-invasively (no contact with the product) the heat transferred from shelf to vial. Heat flux data were compared to comparative pressure measurement, thermocouple readings, and Karl Fischer titration as current state of the art monitoring techniques. The whole freeze drying process including freezing (both by ramp freezing and controlled nucleation) and primary and secondary drying was considered. We found that direct measurement of the transferred heat enables more insights into thermodynamics of the freezing process. Furthermore, a vial heat transfer coefficient can be calculated from heat flux data, which ultimately provides a non-invasive method to monitor product temperature throughout primary drying. The end point of primary drying determined by heat flux measurements was in accordance with the one defined by thermocouples. During secondary drying, heat flux measurements could not indicate the progress of drying as monitoring the residual moisture content. In conclusion, heat flux measurements are a promising new non-invasive tool for lyophilization process monitoring and development using energy transfer as a control parameter. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Using Imaging Spectrometry measurements of Ecosystem Composition to constrain Regional Predictions of Carbon, Water and Energy Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakis, A. S.; Bogan, S.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2017-12-01

    Ecosystem composition is a key attribute of terrestrial ecosystems, influencing the fluxes of carbon, water, and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere. The description of current ecosystem composition has traditionally come from relatively few ground-based inventories of the plant canopy, but are spatially limited and do not provide a comprehensive picture of ecosystem composition at regional or global scales. In this analysis, imaging spectrometry measurements, collected as part of the HyspIRI Preparatory Mission, are used to provide spatially-resolved estimates of plant functional type composition providing an important constraint on terrestrial biosphere model predictions of carbon, water and energy fluxes across the heterogeneous landscapes of the Californian Sierras. These landscapes include oak savannas, mid-elevation mixed pines, fir-cedar forests, and high elevation pines. Our results show that imaging spectrometry measurements can be successfully used to estimate regional-scale variation in ecosystem composition and resulting spatial heterogeneity in patterns of carbon, water and energy fluxes and ecosystem dynamics. Simulations at four flux tower sites within the study region yield patterns of seasonal and inter-annual variation in carbon and water fluxes that have comparable accuracy to simulations initialized from ground-based inventory measurements. Finally, results indicate that during the 2012-2015 Californian drought, regional net carbon fluxes fell by 84%, evaporation and transpiration fluxes fell by 53% and 33% respectively, and sensible heat increase by 51%. This study provides a framework for assimilating near-future global satellite imagery estimates of ecosystem composition with terrestrial biosphere models, constraining and improving their predictions of large-scale ecosystem dynamics and functioning.

  1. Evaluating Humidity and Sea Salt Disturbances on CO2 Flux Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Erik; Bergström, Hans; Rutgersson, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Global oceans are an important sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Therefore, understanding the air–sea flux of CO2 is a vital part in describing the global carbon balance. Eddy covariance (EC) measurements are often used to study CO2 fluxes from both land and ocean. Values of CO2 are usual...

  2. Measurement of absolute neutron flux in LWSCR based on the nuclear track method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghzadeh, J.; Nassiri Mofakham, N.; Khajehmiri, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Up to now the spectral parameters of thermal neutrons are measured with activation foils that are not always reliable in low flux systems. ► We applied a solid state nuclear track detector to measure the absolute neutron flux in the light water sub-critical reactor (LWSCR). ► Experiments concerning fission track detecting were performed and were investigated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. ► The neutron fluxes obtained in experiment are in fairly good agreement with the results obtained by MCNP. - Abstract: In the present paper, a solid state nuclear track detector is applied to measure the absolute neutron flux in the light water sub-critical reactor (LWSCR) in Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI). Up to now, the spectral parameters of thermal neutrons have been measured with activation foils that are not always reliable in low flux systems. The method investigated here is the irradiation method. Experiments concerning fission track detecting were performed. The experiment including neutron flux calculation method has also been investigated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The analysis shows that the values of neutron flux obtained by experiment are in fairly good agreement with the results obtained by MCNP. Thus, this method may be able to predict the absolute value of neutron flux at LWSCR and other similar reactors.

  3. High resolution land surface fluxes from satellite data (HOLAPS v1.0): evaluation and uncertainty assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, A.; Peng, J.; Borsche, M.

    2015-12-01

    Surface water and energy fluxes are essential components of the Earth system. Surface latent heat fluxes provide major energy input to the atmosphere. Despite the importance of these fluxes, state-of-the-art datasets of surface energy and water fluxes largely differ. The present paper introduces a new framework for the estimation of surface energy and water fluxes at the land surface, which allows for temporally and spatially high resolved flux estimates at the global scale (HOLAPS). The framework maximizes the usage of existing long-term satellite data records and ensures internally consistent estimates of the surface radiation and water fluxes. The manuscript introduces the technical details of the developed framework and provides results of a comprehensive sensitivity and evaluation study. Overall the results indicate very good agreement with in situ observations when compared against 49 FLUXNET stations worldwide. Largest uncertainties of latent heat flux and net radiation were found to result from uncertainties in the global solar radiation flux obtained from satellite data products.

  4. A weighting lysimeter for a laboratory experiment on water and energy fluxes measurements and hydrological models verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbari, Chiara; paleari, roberto; mantovani, federico; tarro, stefano; mancini, marco

    2017-04-01

    Weighting lysimeters allow a direct measurement of water loss from the soil, determining the soil water balance, and thus providing an interesting tool to validate hydrological models. Lysimeters, which world originates from the greek words "lysis" (movement) and "metron" (to measure) have been used to measure percolation of water through the soils for over 300 years. The aim of this study is twofold: 1) to perform water and energy flux measurements under different meteorological conditions, irrigation practice (surface flood, drip and groundwater capillary rise), and soil coverage (bare soil and basil crop), 2) to verify hydrological model FEST-EWB parameterization at the lysimeter scale. A weighting lysimeter has been constructed in the Hydraulic Laboratory of Politecnico di Milano. It consists of a steel box of 1.5 x 1.5 x 1 m containing reconstructed soil. The box is mounted on a scale with four load cells with a nominal weight of 6000 kg and a precision of 0,5 kg. The lysimeter is fully instrumented to measure all the main components of the hydrological cycle. Profiles of soil moisture and temperature are provided by 7 probes; ground heat flux is measured by a heat flux plate and two thermocouples; the drainage flux is measured by a tipping bucket rain gauge; the four components of radiation are provided by a net radiometer; air temperature and humidity are measured by a thermo-hygrometer. Data are collected every 10 minutes on a datalogger. A thermal camera is also installed to provide accurate maps of land surface temperature. The different instruments have been subjected to a rigorous calibration process. A low cost station is also installed based on an Arduino micro-controller measuring soil moisture and temperature, air humidity and temperature and solar radiation. The idea is to understand whether low cost instruments can be used to monitor the fundamental hydrological variables. The measured fluxes (e.g. evapotranspiration, soil moisture, land surface

  5. Latent Heat Flux Estimate Through an Energy Water Balance Model and Land Surface Temperature from Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbari, Chiara; Sobrino, Jose A.; Mancini, Marco; Hidalgo, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Soil moisture plays a key role in the terrestrial water cycle and is responsible for the partitioning of precipitation between runoff and infiltration. Moreover, surface soil moisture controls the redistribution of the incoming solar radiation on land surface into sensible and latent heat fluxes. Recent developments have been made to improve soil moisture dynamics predictions with hydrologic land surface models (LSMs) that compute water and energy balances between the land surface and the low atmosphere. However, most of the time soil moisture is confined to an internal numerical model variable mainly due to its intrinsic space and time variability and to the well known difficulties in assessing its value from remote sensing as from in situ measurements. In order to exploit the synergy between hydrological distributed models and thermal remote sensed data, FEST-EWB, a land surface model that solves the energy balance equation, was developed. In this hydrological model, the energy budget is solved looking for the representative thermodynamic equilibrium temperature (RET) defined as the land surface temperature that closes the energy balance equation. So using this approach, soil moisture is linked to the latent heat flux and then to LST. In this work the relationship between land surface temperature and soil moisture is analysed using LST from AHS (airborne hyperspectral scanner), with a spatial resolution of 2-4 m, LST from MODIS, with a spatial resolution of 1000 m, and thermal infrared radiometric ground measurements that are compared with the thermodynamic equilibrium temperature from the energy water balance model. Moreover soil moisture measurements were carried out during the airborne overpasses and then compared with SM from the hydrological model. An improvement of this well known inverse relationship between soil moisture and land surface temperature is obtained when the thermodynamic approach is used. The analysis of the scale effects of the different

  6. Comparison of heat flux measurement techniques during the DIII-D metal ring campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J. L.; Nygren, R. E.; Unterberg, E. A.; Watkins, J. G.; Makowski, M. A.; Moser, A.; Rudakov, D. L.; Buchenauer, D.

    2017-12-01

    The heat fluxes expected in the ITER divertor raise concerns about the damage tolerances of tungsten, especially due to thermal transients caused by edge localized modes (ELMs) as well as frequent temperature cycling from high to low extremes. Therefore we are motivated to understand the heat flux conditions that can cause not only enhanced erosion but also bulk thermo-mechanical damage to a tungsten divertor. For the metal ring campaign in DIII-D, tungsten-coated TZM tile inserts were installed making two toroidal arrays of metal tile inserts in the lower divertor. This study examines the deposited heat flux on these rings with embedded thermocouples (TCs) sampling at 10 kHz and compares them to Langmuir probe (LP) and infrared thermography (IRTV) heat flux measurements. We see agreement of the TC, LP, and IRTV data within 20% of the heat flux averaged over the entire discharge, and that all three diagnostics suggest parallel heat flux at the OSP location increases linearly with input heating power. The TC and LP heat flux time traces during the discharge trend together during large changes to the average heat flux. By subtracting the LP measured inter-ELM heat flux from TC data, using a rectangular ELM energy pulse shape, and taking the relative size and duration of each ELM from {{D}}α measurements, we extract the ELM heat fluxes from TC data. This over-estimates the IRTV measured ELM heat fluxes by a factor of 1.9, and could be due to the simplicity of the TC heat flux model and the assumed ELM energy pulse shape. ELM heat fluxes deposited on the inserts are used to model tungsten erosion in this campaign. These TC ELM heat flux estimates are used in addition to IRTV, especially in cases where the IRTV view to the metal ring is obstructed. We observe that some metal inserts were deformed due to exposed leading edges. The thermal conditions on these inserts are investigated with the thermal modeling code ABAQUS using our heat flux measurements when these edges

  7. Evaluation of sequentially-coupled POP fluxes estimated from simultaneous measurements in multiple compartments of an air-water-sediment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, Anna; Cousins, Ian; Gustafsson, Oerjan; Axelman, Johan; Grunder, Kerstin; Broman, Dag; Brorstroem-Lunden, Eva

    2004-01-01

    Bulk atmospheric deposition fluxes, air-water exchange fluxes, particle settling fluxes out of the upper water column, sediment trap fluxes in deep waters, and sediment burial fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were simultaneously measured in the Koster Fjord, eastern Skagerak, on the Swedish west coast. The aim of the study was to compare the magnitude and direction of the compound fluxes in the system in order to diagnose key fate processes. The PCB and PAH fluxes via net atmospheric deposition, settling particles out of the surface and through deep waters, as well as into the accreting underlying sediments were shown to be remarkably similar, agreeing within a factor of a few for any given target compound. Fluxes of all PCB and PAH target compounds remained fairly constant with water column depth. Thus there was no evidence for net desorption from sinking particles. The net unidirectional and near balancing of vertical fluxes suggests a net transport of PCBs and PAHs from the atmosphere to the continental shelf sediments in the Koster Fjord, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the shelf sediments are important sinks for these compounds. - The magnitude and direction of vertical fluxes of PCBs and PAHs in a coupled air-water-sediment system were simultaneously measured and compared

  8. Surface charge measurement by the Pockels effect

    CERN Document Server

    Sam, Y L

    2001-01-01

    have been observed by applying both impulse and AC voltages to a needle electrode in direct contact with the BSO. AC surface discharge behaviour of polymeric materials bonded to the BSO has also been investigated. The effect of the surrounding environment has been experimentally examined by placing the cell inside a vacuum chamber. Surface charge measurements have been made at various atmospheric pressures. The effect of an electro-negative gas (Sulphur Hexafluoride) on the surface charge distribution has also been investigated. This thesis is concerned with the design and development of a surface charge measurement system using Pockels effect. The measurement of surface charge is important in determining the electrical performance of high voltage insulation materials. The method proposed allows on-line measurement of charge and can generate two-dimensional images that represent the charge behaviour on the surface of the material under test. The measurement system is optical and uses a Pockels crystal as the ...

  9. Measurements of neutron flux from an inertial-electrostatic confinement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westenskow, G.A.

    1975-08-01

    A neutron-detection system was built for the purpose of measuring the neutron flux from an Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Device located at Brigham Young University. A BF 3 proportional counter was used for absolute flux measurements and a pair of scintillation detectors was used to compare neutron output under different operating conditions. The detectors were designed to be compatible with the operating conditions of the device and to be able to measure small changes in neutron output. The detectors were calibrated using a Pu-Be source with corrections made for laboratory conditions. Performance of the counting system was checked and data were collected on the neutron flux from the device

  10. The impact of diurnal variability in sea surface temperature on the central Atlantic air-sea CO2 flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Filipiak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of diurnal variations in sea surface temperature (SST on the air-sea flux of CO2 over the central Atlantic ocean and Mediterranean Sea (60 S–60 N, 60 W–45 E is evaluated for 2005–2006. We use high spatial resolution hourly satellite ocean skin temperature data to determine the diurnal warming (ΔSST. The CO2 flux is then computed using three different temperature fields – a foundation temperature (Tf, measured at a depth where there is no diurnal variation, Tf, plus the hourly ΔSST and Tf, plus the monthly average of the ΔSSTs. This is done in conjunction with a physically-based parameterisation for the gas transfer velocity (NOAA-COARE. The differences between the fluxes evaluated for these three different temperature fields quantify the effects of both diurnal warming and diurnal covariations. We find that including diurnal warming increases the CO2 flux out of this region of the Atlantic for 2005–2006 from 9.6 Tg C a−1 to 30.4 Tg C a−1 (hourly ΔSST and 31.2 Tg C a−1 (monthly average of ΔSST measurements. Diurnal warming in this region, therefore, has a large impact on the annual net CO2 flux but diurnal covariations are negligible. However, in this region of the Atlantic the uptake and outgassing of CO2 is approximately balanced over the annual cycle, so although we find diurnal warming has a very large effect here, the Atlantic as a whole is a very strong carbon sink (e.g. −920 Tg C a−1 Takahashi et al., 2002 making this is a small contribution to the Atlantic carbon budget.

  11. Satellite surface salinity maps to determine fresh water fluxes in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarro, Carolina; Estrella, Olmedo; Emelianov, Mikhail; Ballabrera, Joaquim; Turiel, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    , results make you think that assimilating SMOS Arctic SSS data could be beneficial for the TOPAZ Arctic Ocean Prediction system. Therefore, SMOS shows great potential to routinely monitor the extension of the surface freshwater fluxes also in the Arctic Ocean. The new SMOS Arctic products can therefore substantially contribute to increase our knowledge of the critical processes that are taking place in the Arctic. [1] Haine, T. et al. (2015), 'Arctic freshwater export: Status, mechanisms, and prospects', Global and Planetary Change, 125, 2015. [2] Peterson, B., et al. (2002), 'Increasing river discharge to the arctic ocean', Science, 298, 21712173. [3] Font, J. et al. (2010), 'The Challenging Sea Surface Salinity Measurement From Space'. Proceed. IEEE, 98, 649 -665 [4] Swift, C. (1980). Boundary-layer Meteorology, 18:25-54. [5] McMullan, K. et al. (2008), 'SMOS: The payload', IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 46. [6] Olmedo, E., et al. (2017) 'Debiased Non-Bayesian retrieval: a novel approach to SMOS Sea Surface Salinity', Remote Sensing of Environment, under review.

  12. Measuring surface energy and evapotranspiration across Caribbean mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, D.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Price, R.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal mangroves lose large amounts of water through evapotranspiration (ET) that can be equivalent to the amount of annual rainfall in certain years. Satellite remote sensing has been used to estimate surface energy and ET variability in many forested ecosystems, yet has been widely overlooked in mangrove forests. Using a combination of long-term datasets (30-year) acquired from the NASA Landsat 5 and 7 satellite databases, the present study investigated ET and surface energy balance variability between two mangrove forest sites in the Caribbean: 1) Everglades National Park (ENP; Florida, USA) and 2) Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve (SKBR; Quintana Roo, Mexico). A satellite-derived surface energy balance model was used to estimate ET in tall and scrub mangroves environments at ENP and SKBR. Results identified significant differences in soil heat flux measurements and ET between the tall and scrub mangrove environments. Scrub mangroves exhibited the highest soil heat flux coincident with the lowest biophysical indices (i.e., Fractional Vegetation Cover, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index) and ET rates. Mangrove damage and mortality was observed on the satellite images following strong tropical storms and associated with anthropogenic modifications and resulted in low values in spectral vegetation indices, higher soil heat flux, and higher ET. Recovery of the spectral characteristics, soil heat flux and ET was within 1-2 years following hurricane disturbance while, degradation caused by human disturbance persisted for many years. Remotely sensed ET of mangrove forests can provide estimates over a few decades and provide us with some understanding of how these environments respond to disturbances to the landscape in periods where no ground data exists or in locations that are difficult to access. Moreover, relationships between energy and water balance components developed for the coastal mangroves of Florida and Mexico could be

  13. Eddy-covariance methane flux measurements over a European beech forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentsch, Lydia; Siebicke, Lukas; Knohl, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The role of forests in global methane (CH4) turnover is currently not well constrained, partially because of the lack of spatially integrative forest-scale measurements of CH4 fluxes. Soil chamber measurements imply that temperate forests generally act as CH4 sinks. Upscaling of chamber observations to the forest scale is however problematic, if the upscaling is not constrained by concurrent 'top-down' measurements, such as of the eddy-covariance type, which provide sufficient integration of spatial variations and of further potential CH4 flux components within forest ecosystems. Ongoing development of laser absorption-based optical instruments, resulting in enhanced measurement stability, precision and sampling speed, has recently improved the prospects for meaningful eddy-covariance measurements at sites with presumably low CH4 fluxes, hence prone to reach the flux detection limit. At present, we are launching eddy-covariance CH4 measurements at a long-running ICOS flux tower site (Hainich National Park, Germany), located in a semi natural, unmanaged, beech dominated forest. Eddy-covariance measurements will be conducted with a laser spectrometer for parallel CH4, H2Ov and CO2 measurements (FGGA, Los Gatos Research, USA). Independent observations of the CO2 flux by the FGGA and a standard Infrared Gas Analyser (LI-7200, LI-COR, USA) will allow to evaluate data quality of measured CH4 fluxes. Here, we want to present first results with a focus on uncertainties of the calculated CH4 fluxes with regard to instrument precision, data processing and site conditions. In future, we plan to compare eddy-covariance flux estimates to side-by-side turbulent flux observations from a novel eddy accumulation system. Furthermore, soil CH4 fluxes will be measured with four automated chambers situated within the tower footprint. Based on a previous soil chamber study at the same site, we expect the Hainich forest site to act as a CH4 sink. However, we hypothesize that our

  14. Measurement of the light flux density patterns from luminaires proposed as photon sources for photosynthesis during space travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Two luminaires were evaluated to determine the light flux density pattern on a horizontal plane surface. NASA supplied both luminaires; one was made by NASA and the other is commercially available. Tests were made for three combinations of luminaire height and luminaire lens material using the NASA luminaire; only one configuration of the commercial luminaire was tested. Measurements were made using four sensors with different wavelength range capabilities. The data are presented in graphical and tabular formats.

  15. Remote Sensing and Sea-Truth Measurements of Methane Flux to the Atmosphere (HYFLUX project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian MacDonald

    2011-05-31

    , respectively. Based on the contemporaneous wind speeds at this site, contemporary estimates of the diffusive fluxes from the mixed layer to the atmosphere for methane, ethane, and propane are 26.5, 2.10, and 2.78 {micro}mol/m{sup 2}d, respectively. Continuous measurements of air and sea surface concentrations of methane were made to obtain high spatial and temporal resolution of the diffusive net sea-to-air fluxes. The atmospheric methane fluctuated between 1.70 ppm and 2.40 ppm during the entire cruise except for high concentrations (up to 4.01 ppm) sampled during the end of the occupation of GC600 and the transit between GC600 and GC185. Results from interpolations within the survey areas show the daily methane fluxes to the atmosphere at the three sites range from 0.744 to 300 mol d-1. Considering that the majority of seeps in the GOM are deep (>500 m), elevated CH{sub 4} concentrations in near-surface waters resulting from bubble-mediated CH4 transport in the water column are expected to be widespread in the Gulf of Mexico.

  16. Frequency spectra from current vs. magnetic flux density measurements for mobile phones and other electrical appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straume, Aksel; Johnsson, Anders; Oftedal, Gunnhild; Wilén, Jonna

    2007-10-01

    The frequency spectra of electromagnetic fields have to be determined to evaluate human exposure in accordance to ICNIRP guidelines. In the literature, comparisons with magnetic field guidelines have been performed by using the frequency distribution of the current drawn from the battery. In the present study we compared the frequency spectrum in the range 217 Hz to 2.4 kHz of the magnetic flux density measured near the surface of a mobile phone with the frequency spectrum of the supply current. By using the multiple frequency rule, recommended in the ICNIRP guidelines, we estimated the magnetic field exposure in the two cases. Similar measurements and estimations were done for an electric drill, a hair dryer, and a fluorescent desk lamp. All the devices have a basic frequency of 50 Hz, and the frequency spectra were evaluated up to 550 Hz. We also mapped the magnetic field in 3D around three mobile phones. The frequency distributions obtained from the two measurement methods are not equal. The frequency content of the current leads to an overestimation of the magnetic field exposure by a factor up to 2.2 for the mobile phone. For the drill, the hair dryer, and the fluorescent lamp, the supply current signal underestimated the exposure by a factor up to 2.3. In conclusion, an accurate exposure evaluation requires the magnetic flux density spectrum of the device to be measured directly. There was no indication that the devices studied would exceed the reference levels at the working distances normally used.

  17. Contact area measurements on structured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükyildiz, Ömer Can; Jensen, Sebastian Hoppe Nesgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means.......In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means....

  18. Evaluation of the WAMME model surface fluxes using results from the AMMA land-surface model intercomparison project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, Aaron Anthony [GAME-CNRM, Meteo-France, Toulouse (France); Poccard-Leclercq, Isabelle [Universite de Nantes, LETG-Geolittomer, Nantes (France); Xue, Yongkang; Feng, Jinming [University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rosnay, Patricia de [European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, Reading (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    The West African monsoon (WAM) circulation and intensity have been shown to be influenced by the land surface in numerous numerical studies using regional scale and global scale atmospheric climate models (RCMs and GCMs, respectively) over the last several decades. The atmosphere-land surface interactions are modulated by the magnitude of the north-south gradient of the low level moist static energy, which is highly correlated with the steep latitudinal gradients of the vegetation characteristics and coverage, land use, and soil properties over this zone. The African Multidisciplinary Monsoon Analysis (AMMA) has organised comprehensive activities in data collection and modelling to further investigate the significance land-atmosphere feedbacks. Surface energy fluxes simulated by an ensemble of land surface models from AMMA Land-surface Model Intercomparison Project (ALMIP) have been used as a proxy for the best estimate of the ''real world'' values in order to evaluate GCM and RCM simulations under the auspices of the West African Monsoon Modelling Experiment (WAMME) project, since such large-scale observations do not exist. The ALMIP models have been forced in off-line mode using forcing based on a mixture of satellite, observational, and numerical weather prediction data. The ALMIP models were found to agree well over the region where land-atmosphere coupling is deemed to be most important (notably the Sahel), with a high signal to noise ratio (generally from 0.7 to 0.9) in the ensemble and a inter-model coefficient of variation between 5 and 15%. Most of the WAMME models simulated spatially averaged net radiation values over West Africa which were consistent with the ALMIP estimates, however, the partitioning of this energy between sensible and latent heat fluxes was significantly different: WAMME models tended to simulate larger (by nearly a factor of two) monthly latent heat fluxes than ALMIP. This results due to a positive precipitation

  19. A Numerical Study on Impact of Taiwan Island Surface Heat Flux on Super Typhoon Haitang (2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Hongxiong

    2015-01-01

    Three to four tropical cyclones (TCs) by average usually impact Taiwan every year. This study, using the Developmental Tested Center (DTC) version of the Hurricane WRF (HWRF) model, examines the effects of Taiwan’s island surface heat fluxes on typhoon structure, intensity, track, and its rainfall over the island. The numerical simulation successfully reproduced the structure and intensity of super Typhoon Haitang. The model, especially, reproduced the looped path and landfall at nearly the ...

  20. Relevance of decadal variations in surface radiative fluxes for climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin

    2013-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests that radiative fluxes incident at Earth's surface are not stable over time but undergo significant changes on decadal timescales. This is not only found in the thermal spectral range, where an increase in the downwelling flux is expected due to the increasing greenhouse effect, but also in the solar spectral range. Observations suggest that surface solar radiation, after a period of decline from the 1950s to the 1980s ("global dimming"), reversed into a "brightening" since the mid-1980s at widespread locations, often in line with changes in anthropogenic air pollution. These decadal variations observed in both solar and thermal surface radiative fluxes have the potential to affect various aspects of climate change. Discussed here are specifically the evidence for potential effects on global warming, as seen in asymmetries in hemispheric warming rates as well as in differences in the decadal warming rates over land and oceans. These variations in observed warming rates fit well to our conceptual understanding of how aerosol and greenhouse gas-induced changes in the surface radiative fluxes should affect global warming. Specifically, on the Northern Hemisphere, the suppression of warming from the 1950s to the 1980s fits to the concurrent dimming and increasing air pollution, while the accelerated warming from the 1980s to 2000 matches with the brightening and associated reduction in pollution levels. The suppression of warming from the 1950s to the 1980s is even somewhat stronger over oceans than over land, in line with the conceptual idea that aerosol-induced dimming and brightening tendencies may be enhanced through cloud aerosol interactions particularly over the pristine ocean areas. On the Southern Hemisphere, the absence of significant pollution levels as well as trend reversals therein, fit to the observed stable warming rates over the entire 1950 to 2000 period.

  1. On line local measurement of thermal neutron flux on BNCT patient using SPND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.E.; Sztejnberg Goncalves-Carralves, M.L.; Gonzalez, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    The first on-line neutron flux measurement on a patient using a self-powered neutron detector (SPND) was assessed during the fourth clinical trial of the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Project carried out at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) and the medical center Angel H. Roffo. The SPND was specially developed and assembled for BNCT by CNEA. Its small size, 1 cm sensible length and 1.9 mm diameter, allowed performing a localized measurement. Since the treated tumors were cutaneous melanomas of nodular type, the SPND was located on the patient's skin. The patient was exposed to three different and consecutive fields and in each of them the SPND was used to measure local thermal neutron fluxes at selected dosimetric reference points. The values of the measured fluxes agreed with the ones estimated by calculation. This trial also demonstrated the usefulness of the SPND for assessing flux on-line. (author)

  2. Study on methodology of LED's luminous flux measurement with integrating sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Muqing; Zhou Xiaoli; Li Wenyi; Chen Yuyang; Zhang Wanlu

    2008-01-01

    Errors are introduced when using traditional methods for measuring the total luminous flux of LEDs since an LED is quite different from traditional light sources in terms of physical size, flux level, spectrum and spatial distribution. This paper uses commercial lighting simulation software named Tracepro to simulate the self-absorption effect when using traditional integrating sphere methods to measure the total luminous flux of LEDs and then presents a modified method for the measurement. The LED under investigation or a specially designed narrow beam standard lamp is placed on the interior wall of the sphere in our method. The results show that the measurement method presented here can lead to better precision in the evaluation of the total luminous flux of LEDs

  3. Measuring planetary neutron albedo fluxes by remote gamma-ray sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, E. L.; Metzger, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    In order to measure the planetary neutron albedo fluxes, a neutron-absorbing shield which emits gamma rays of characteristic energy and serves as a neutron detector, is added to a gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS). The gamma rays representing the neutron flux are observed against interference consisting of cosmic gamma rays, planetary continuum and line emission, and gamma rays arising from the interaction of cosmic rays with the GRS and the spacecraft. The uncertainty and minimum detection limits in neutron albedo fluxes are calculated for two missions, a lunar orbiter and a comet nucleus rendezvous. A GRS on a lunar orbiter at 100 km altitude detects a thermal neutron albedo flux as low as 0.002/sq cm/s and an expected flux of about 0.6/sq cm/s is measured with an uncertainty of 0.001/sq cm/s, for a 100 h observation period. For the comet nucleus, again in a 100 h observing period, a thermal neutron albedo flux is detected at a level of 0.006/sq cm/s and an expected flux of about 0.4/sq cm/s is measured with an uncertainty of 0.004/sq cm/s. The expanded geological capabilities made possible by this technique include improvements in H sensitivity, spatial resolution, and measurement depth; and an improved model of induced gamma-ray emission.

  4. A stochastic model for estimating groundwater and contaminant discharges from fractured rock passive flux meter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Özlem; Klammler, Harald; Hatfield, Kirk; Newman, Mark A.; Annable, Michael D.; Cho, Jaehyun; Parker, Beth L.; Cherry, John A.; Pehme, Pete; Quinn, Patryk; Kroeker, Ryan

    2013-03-01

    Estimation of water and contaminant discharges is an important hydrological problem. Fractured rock aquifers are recognized as highly complex flow and transport systems, and the fractured rock passive flux meter (FRPFM) is a recently tested device to simultaneously measure cumulative water and contaminant mass fluxes in fractures intersecting an observation well (boring). Furthermore, the FRPFM is capable of indicating orientations and directions of flow in hydraulically active ("flowing") fractures. The present work develops a discharge estimator for when FRPFM measurements of fracture fluxes in the direction perpendicular to a transect (control plane) along one or more observation wells are available. In addition, estimation uncertainty in terms of a coefficient of variation is assessed based on a Monte Carlo approach under normalized conditions. Sources of uncertainty considered are spatially random fracture trace locations, random trace lengths, and orientations as well as variability of trace average fluxes (including smooth spatial trends), variability of local fluxes within traces, and flux measurement errors. Knowledge about the trace length distribution, which is commonly not available from borehole surveys, is not required for discharge estimation. However, it does affect the uncertainty assessment, and equations for upper uncertainty bounds are given as an alternative. In agreement with general statistical inference, it is found that discharge uncertainty decreases proportionally with the number of fluxes measured. Results are validated, and an example problem illustrates practical application and performance.

  5. Direct Heat-Flux Measurement System (MDF) for Solar Central Receiver Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestrin, J.

    2001-01-01

    A direct flux measurement system, MDF, has been designed, constructed and mounted on top of the SSPSCRS tower at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in addition to an indirect flux measurement system based on a CCD camera. It's one of the main future objectives to compare systematically both measurements of the concentrated solar power, increasing in this way the confidence in the estimate of this quantity. Today everything is prepared to perform the direct flux measurement on the aperture of solar receivers: calorimeter array, data acquisition system and software. The geometry of the receiver determines the operation and analysis procedures to obtain the incident power onto the defined area. The study of previous experiences with direct flux measurement systems has been useful to define a new, simpler and more accurate system. A description of each component of the MDF system is included, focusing on the heat-flux sensors or calorimeters, which enables these measurements to be done in a few seconds without water-cooling. The incident solar power and the spatial flux distribution on the aperture of the volumetric receiver Hitrec II are supplied by the above-mentioned MDF system. The first results obtained during the evaluation of this solar receiver are presented including a sunrise-sunset test. AU these measurements have been concentrated in one coefficient that describes the global behavior of the Solar Power Plant. (Author) 18 refs

  6. Fluxes of energetic protons and electrons measured on board the Oersted satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cabrera

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Charged Particle Detector (CPD on board the Oersted satellite (649 km perigee, 865 km apogee and 96.48° inclination currently measures energetic protons and electrons. The measured peak fluxes of E>1 MeV electrons are found to confirm the predictions of AE8-MAX, though they occur at a geographical position relatively shifted in the SAA. The fluxes of protons are one order of magnitude higher than the predictions of AP8-MAX in the energy range 20-500 MeV. This huge discrepancy between AP8 and recent measurements in LEO was already noticed and modelled in SAMPEX/PSB97 and TPM-1 models. Nevertheless some other LEO measurements such as PROBA and CORONA-F result in flux values in good agreement with AP8 within a factor 2. The anisotropy of the low-altitude proton flux, combined with measurement performed on board three-axis stabilised satellites, has been suspected to be one possible source of the important discrepancies observed by different missions. In this paper, we evaluate the effect of anisotropy on flux measurements conducted using the CPD instruments. On the basis of the available data, we confirm the inaccuracy of AP8 at LEO and suggest methods to improve the analysis of data in future flux measurements of energetic protons at low altitudes.

  7. Direct Heat-Flux Measurement System (MDF) for Solar central Receiver Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballestrin, J.

    2001-07-01

    A direct flux measurement system, MDF, has been designed, constructed and mounted on top of the SSPS-CRS tower at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in addition to an indirect flux measurement system based on a CCD camera. It's one of the main future objectives to compare systematically both measurements of the concentrated solar power, increasing in this way the confidence in the estimate of this quantity. Today everything is prepared to perform the direct flux measurement on the aperture of solar receivers: calorimeter array, data acquisition system and software. the geometry of the receiver determines the operation and analysis procedures to obtain the indecent power onto the defined area. The study of previous experiences with direct flux measurement systems ha been useful to define a new simpler and more accurate system. A description of each component of the MDF system is included, focusing on the heat-flux sensors or calorimeters, which enables these measurements to be done in a few seconds without water-cooling. The incident solar power and the spatial flux distribution on the aperture of the volumetric receiver Hitrec II are supplied by the above-mentioned MDF system. The first results obtained during the evaluation of this solar receiver are presented including a sunrise-sunset test. All these measurements have been concentrated in one coefficient that describes the global behavior of the Solar Power Plant. (Author) 18 refs.

  8. A scintillating fission detector for neutron flux measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stange, Sy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Esch, Ernst I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burgett, Eric A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; May, Iain [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muenchausen, Ross E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taw, Felicia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tovesson, Fredrik K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Neutron flux monitors are commonly used for a variety of nuclear physics applications. A scintillating neutron detector, consisting of a liquid scintillator loaded with fissionable material, has been developed, characterized, and tested in the beam line at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, and shows a significant improvement in neutron sensitivity compared with a conventional fission chamber. Recent research on nanocomposite-based scintillators for gamma-ray detection indicates that this approach can be extended to load nanoparticles of fissionable material into a scintillating matrix, with up to three orders of magnitude higher loading than typical fission chambers. This will result in a rugged, cost-efficient detector with high efficiency, a short signal rise time, and the ability to be used in low neutron-flux environments. Initial efforts to utilize the luminescence of uranyl oxide to eliminate the need for wavelength-shifting dyes were unsuccessful. Excitation of uranyl compounds has been reported at wavelengths ranging from 266 nm to 532 nm. However, neither the 300 nm emission of toluene, nor the 350 nm emission of PPO, nor the 410 nm emission of POPOP resulted in significant excitation of and emission by uranyl oxide. As indicated by UV/visible spectroscopy, light emitted at these wavelengths was absorbed by the colored solution. {sup 235}U remains the most attractive candidate for a fissionable scintillator, due to its high fission cross-section and lack of a threshold fission energy, but all solutions containing molecular uranium compounds will be colored, most more highly than the U{sup 6+} compounds used here. Research is therefore continuing toward the fabrication of uranium nanoparticles, in which, due to Rayleigh scattering, the coloration should be less pronounced. The characterization of the thorium-loaded liquid scintillator and the fabrication of the 100 mL detectors for use at LANSCE demonstrated the feasibility of loading fissionable

  9. Nightside electron flux measurements at Mars by the Phobos-2 HARP instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutte, N.; Gringauz, K.; Kiraly, P.; Kotova, G.; Nagy, A. F.; Rosenbauer, H.; Szego, K.; Verigin, M.

    1995-01-01

    All the available nightside electron data obtained during circular orbits at Mars from the Phobos-2 Hyperbolic Retarded Potential Analyzer (HARP) instrument have been examined in detail and are summarized in this paper. An electron flux component with energies exceeding that of the unperturbed solar wind was observed inside the magnetosheath, indicating the presence of acceleration mechanism(s). The character of the electron fluxes measured in the magnetotail cannot be classified in any simple manner, however, there is a correlation between the electron fluxes measured well inside this region and the unperturbed solar wind ram pressure.

  10. Assesment of pesticide fluxes to surface water using Uranine in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Santos, G.; Scheiben, D.; Diaz, J.; Leuenberger, F.; Binder, C. R.

    2009-04-01

    In the highlands of Colombia, potato farmers maximize their yields by the application of pesticides. Properly applied pesticides can significantly reduce yield loss and improve product quality; however their misuse leads to human health and environmental problems, i.e. water bodies contaminated with pesticides. Due to the lack of control regarding local pesticide use, unmeasured hydrological parameters and use of local water runoff as a drinking water supply, an assessment of the impact of agricultural practice on water quality is mandatory as first stage. In order to accomplish this, our study assesses pesticide fluxes to surface water using the tracer Uranine. The experimental area La Hoya main basin (3 km2) contains the Pantano Verde river which flows into the Teatinos river in the Boyaca region (Colombia). Some facts such as the deep soils in the area and the importance of the unsaturated zone for the sorption and degradation of pesticides suggest a lack of contaminants in groundwater. However, due to the humid conditions, steep slopes and an intensive agricultural with high pesticide use, we expect surface water to be highly contaminated. In order to assess pesticide pathways, a tracer (Uranine), detectable at very low amount was used. Four local farmers applied the tracer instead of the pesticide mixture covering a total surface of 1.2 10-2 km2. Meteorological data were measured every 15 min with one compact meteorological station installed within the basin and water flow and water sampling were obtained using an ISCO-6700 water sampler, during one week every 10 min in the outlet of Pantano Verde River. In addition, three pairs of membranes were installed down the river and collected 1 week, one month and 4 months after the experiment to measure tracer accumulation. The tracer in water was analysed using a fluorescent spectrometer. Results of this study show first variations of tracer concentration in water in La Hoya basin and constitute an initial steep in

  11. Research on measurement of neutron flux in irradiation channels of research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Zhitao; Lv Zheng; Wang Yulin; Zheng Wuqin

    2014-01-01

    Relative distribution of thermal neutron flux in the irradiation channel is measured by classical activation foil method. After that, on a representative point in the irradiation channel, neutron temperature and absolute neutron flux are also measured. Cadmium ratio correction method is used to check the experiment result in the end. Comparative analysis shows that the results from two different methods are agreed pretty well, which adds the credibility of experiment results. (authors)

  12. Direct Measurement of CO2 Fluxes in Marine Whitings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa L. Robbins; Kimberly K. Yates

    2001-07-05

    Clean, affordable energy is a requisite for the United States in the 21st Century Scientists continue to debate over whether increases in CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources, including electricity generation, transportation and building systems may be altering the Earth's climate. While global climate change continues to be debated, it is likely that significant cuts in net CO{sub 2} emissions will be mandated over the next 50-100 years. To this end, a number of viable means of CO{sub 2} sequestration need to be identified and implemented. One potential mechanism for CO{sub 2} sequestration is the use of naturally-occurring biological processes. Biosequestration of CO{sub 2} remains one of the most poorly understood processes, yet environmentally safe means for trapping and storing CO{sub 2}. Our investigation focused on the biogeochemical cycling of carbon in microbial precipitations of CaCO{sub 3}. Specifically, we investigated modern whitings (microbially-induced precipitates of the stable mineral calcium carbonate) as a potential, natural mechanism for CO{sub 2} abatement. This process is driven by photosynthetic metabolism of cyanobacteria and microalgae. We analyzed net air: sea CO{sub 2} fluxes, net calcification and photosynthetic rates in whitings. Both field and laboratory investigations have demonstrated that atmospheric CO{sub 2}decreases during the process of microbial calcification.

  13. Regional-scale surface flux observations across the boreal forest during BOREAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oncley, S.P.; Lenschow, D.H.; Campos, T.L.

    1997-01-01

    A major role of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Electra aircraft during the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) was to measure fluxes of momentum, sensible and latent heat, carbon dioxide, and ozone on a transect that crossed the entire boreal forest biome...... forests to be more photosynthetically active than nearby coniferous forests. Coniferous forest fluxes across the transect from the BOREAS southern to northern study areas show no apparent spatial trend, though smaller-scale variability is large. The fluxes make a smooth transition from the BOREAS northern...... study area to the subarctic tundra. Typical midsummer, midday, large-scale net ecosystem exchanges of carbon dioxide were about -10 mu mol m(-2) s(-1) for primarily deciduous forests, about -6 mu mol m(-2) s(-1) for the primarily coniferous regions between and including the two BOREAS study areas...

  14. Stagnation point flow towards nonlinear stretching surface with Cattaneo-Christov heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, T.; Zubair, M.; Ayub, M.; Waqas, M.; Alsaedi, A.

    2016-10-01

    Here the influence of the non-Fourier heat flux in a two-dimensional (2D) stagnation point flow of Eyring-Powell liquid towards a nonlinear stretched surface is reported. The stretching surface is of variable thickness. Thermal conductivity of fluid is taken temperature-dependent. Ordinary differential systems are obtained through the implementation of meaningful transformations. The reduced non-dimensional expressions are solved for the convergent series solutions. Convergence interval is obtained for the computed solutions. Graphical results are displayed and analyzed in detail for the velocity, temperature and skin friction coefficient. The obtained results reveal that the temperature gradient enhances when the thermal relaxation parameter is increased.

  15. Modeling the South American regional smoke plume: aerosol optical depth variability and surface shortwave flux perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Rosário

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intra-seasonal variability of smoke aerosol optical depth (AOD and downwelling solar irradiance at the surface during the 2002 biomass burning season in South America was modeled using the Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracers Transport model with the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CCATT-BRAMS. Measurements of total and fine mode fraction (FMF AOD from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET and solar irradiance at the surface from the Solar Radiation Network (SolRad-NET were used to evaluate model results. In general, the major features associated with AOD evolution over the southern part of the Amazon basin and cerrado ecosystem are captured by the model. The main discrepancies were found for high aerosol loading events. In the northeastern portion of the Amazon basin the model systematically underestimated total AOD, as expected, since smoke contribution is not dominant as it is in the southern portion and emissions other than smoke were not considered in the simulation. Better agreement was obtained comparing the model results with observed FMF AOD, which pointed out the relevance of coarse mode aerosol emission in that region. Likewise, major discrepancies over cerrado during high AOD events were found to be associated with coarse mode aerosol omission in our model. The issue of high aerosol loading events in the southern part of the Amazon was related to difficulties in predicting the smoke AOD field, which was discussed in the context of emissions shortcomings. The Cuiabá cerrado site was the only one where the highest quality AERONET data were unavailable for both total and FMF AOD. Thus, lower quality data were used. Root-mean-square error (RMSE between the model and observed FMF AOD decreased from 0.34 to 0.19 when extreme AOD events (FMF AOD550 nm ≥ 1.0 and Cuiabá were excluded from the analysis. Downward surface solar irradiance comparisons also followed similar trends when extreme AOD were excluded

  16. Uncertainties in surface mass and energy flux estimates due to different eddy covariance sensors and technical set-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriga, Nicola; Fratini, Gerardo; Forgione, Antonio; Tomassucci, Michele; Papale, Dario

    2010-05-01

    Eddy covariance is a well established and widely used methodology for the measurement of turbulent fluxes of mass and energy in the atmospheric boundary layer, in particular to estimate CO2/H2O and heat exchange above ecologically relevant surfaces (Aubinet 2000, Baldocchi 2003). Despite its long term application and theoretical studies, many issues are still open about the effect of different experimental set-up on final flux estimates. Open issues are the evaluation of the performances of different kind of sensors (e.g. open path vs closed path infra-red gas analysers, vertical vs horizontal mounting ultrasonic anemometers), the quantification of the impact of corresponding physical corrections to be applied to get robust flux estimates taking in account all processes concurring to the measurement (e.g. the so-called WPL term, signal attenuation due to air sampling system for closed path analyser, relative position of analyser and anemometer) and the differences between several data transmission protocols used (analogue, digital RS-232, SDM). A field experiment was designed to study these issues using several instruments among those most used within the Fluxnet community and to compare their performances under conditions supposed to be critical: rainy and cold weather conditions for open-path analysers (Burba 2008), water transport and absorption at high air relative humidity conditions for closed-path systems (Ibrom, 2007), frequency sampling limits and recorded data robustness due to different transmission protocols (RS232, SDM, USB, Ethernet) and finally the effect of the displacement between anemometer and analyser using at least two identical analysers placed at different horizontal and vertical distances from the anemometer. Aim of this experiment is to quantify the effect of several technical solutions on the final estimates of fluxes measured at a point in the space and if they represent a significant source of uncertainty for mass and energy cycle

  17. Temperature-dependent surface modification of Ta due to high-flux, low-energy He+ ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakowski, T.J.; Tripathi, J.K.; Hassanein, A.

    2015-01-01

    This work examines the response of Tantalum (Ta) as a potential candidate for plasma-facing components (PFCs) in future nuclear fusion reactors. Tantalum samples were exposed to high-flux, low-energy He + ion irradiation at different temperatures in the range of 823–1223 K. The samples were irradiated at normal incidence with 100 eV He + ions at constant flux of 1.2 × 10 21 ions m −2  s −1 to a total fluence of 4.3 × 10 24 ions m −2 . An additional Ta sample was also irradiated at 1023 K using a higher ion fluence of 1.7 × 10 25 ions m −2 (at the same flux of 1.2 × 10 21 ions m −2  s −1 ), to confirm the possibility of fuzz formation at higher fluence. This higher fluence was chosen to roughly correspond to the lower fluence threshold of fuzz formation in Tungsten (W). Surface morphology was characterized with a combination of field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These results demonstrate that the main mode of surface damage is pinholes with an average size of ∼70 nm 2 for all temperatures. However, significantly larger pinholes are observed at elevated temperatures (1123 and 1223 K) resulting from the agglomeration of smaller pinholes. Ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) provides information about the oxidation characteristics of irradiated surfaces, showing minimal exfoliation of the irradiated Ta surface. Additionally, optical reflectivity measurements are performed to further characterize radiation damage on Ta samples, showing gradual reductions in the optical reflectivity as a function of temperature.

  18. Surface texture measurement for dental wear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, R. S.; Mullen, F.; Bartlett, D. W.

    2015-06-01

    The application of surface topography measurement and characterization within dental materials science is highly active and rapidly developing, in line with many modern industries. Surface measurement and structuring is used extensively within oral and dental science to optimize the optical, tribological and biological performance of natural and biomimetic dental materials. Although there has historically been little standardization in the use and reporting of surface metrology instrumentation and software, the dental industry is beginning to adopt modern areal measurement and characterization techniques, especially as the dental industry is increasingly adopting digital impressioning techniques in order to leverage CAD/CAM technologies for the design and construction of dental restorations. As dental treatment becomes increasingly digitized and reliant on advanced technologies such as dental implants, wider adoption of standardized surface topography and characterization techniques will become evermore essential. The dental research community welcomes the advances that are being made in surface topography measurement science towards realizing this ultimate goal.

  19. Pollutant Flux Estimation in an Estuary Comparison between Model and Field Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chang Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a framework for estimating pollutant flux in an estuary. An efficient method is applied to estimate the flux of pollutants in an estuary. A gauging station network in the Danshui River estuary is established to measure the data of water quality and discharge based on the efficient method. A boat mounted with an acoustic Doppler profiler (ADP traverses the river along a preselected path that is normal to the streamflow to measure the velocities, water depths and water quality for calculating pollutant flux. To know the characteristics of the estuary and to provide the basis for the pollutant flux estimation model, data of complete tidal cycles is collected. The discharge estimation model applies the maximum velocity and water level to estimate mean velocity and cross-sectional area, respectively. Thus, the pollutant flux of the estuary can be easily computed as the product of the mean velocity, cross-sectional area and pollutant concentration. The good agreement between the observed and estimated pollutant flux of the Danshui River estuary shows that the pollutant measured by the conventional and the efficient methods are not fundamentally different. The proposed method is cost-effective and reliable. It can be used to estimate pollutant flux in an estuary accurately and efficiently.

  20. Simultaneous coastal measurements of ozone deposition fluxes and iodine-mediated particle emission fluxes with subsequent CCN formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Whitehead

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the first observations of simultaneous ozone deposition fluxes and ultrafine particle emission fluxes over an extensive infra-littoral zone. Fluxes were measured by the eddy covariance technique at the Station Biologique de Roscoff, on the coast of Brittany, north-west France. This site overlooks a very wide (3 km littoral zone controlled by very deep tides (9.6 m exposing extensive macroalgae beds available for significant iodine mediated photochemical production of ultrafine particles. The aspect at the Station Biologique de Roscoff provides an extensive and relatively flat, uniform fetch within which micrometeorological techniques may be utilized to study links between ozone deposition to macroalgae (and sea water and ultrafine particle production.

    Ozone deposition to seawater at high tide was significantly slower (vd[O3]=0.302±0.095 mm s−1 than low tidal deposition. A statistically significant difference in the deposition velocities to macroalgae at low tide was observed between night time (vd[O3]=1.00±0.10 mm s−1 and daytime (vd[O3]=2.05±0.16 mm s−1 when ultrafine particle formation results in apparent particle emission. Very high emission fluxes of ultrafine particles were observed during daytime periods at low tides ranging from 50 000 particles cm−2 s−1 to greater than 200 000 particles cm−2 s−1 during some of the lowest tides. These emission fluxes exhibited a significant relationship with particle number concentrations comparable with previous observations at another location. Apparent particle growth rates were estimated to be in the range 17–150 nm h−1 for particles in the size range 3–10 nm. Under certain conditions, particle growth may be inferred to continue to greater than 120 nm over tens

  1. Inverse modeling of hydrologic parameters using surface flux and runoff observations in the Community Land Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y.; Hou, Z.; Huang, M.; Tian, F.; Leung, L. Ruby

    2013-12-01

    This study demonstrates the possibility of inverting hydrologic parameters using surface flux and runoff observations in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4). Previous studies showed that surface flux and runoff calculations are sensitive to major hydrologic parameters in CLM4 over different watersheds, and illustrated the necessity and possibility of parameter calibration. Both deterministic least-square fitting and stochastic Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)-Bayesian inversion approaches are evaluated by applying them to CLM4 at selected sites with different climate and soil conditions. The unknowns to be estimated include surface and subsurface runoff generation parameters and vadose zone soil water parameters. We find that using model parameters calibrated by the sampling-based stochastic inversion approaches provides significant improvements in the model simulations compared to using default CLM4 parameter values, and that as more information comes in, the predictive intervals (ranges of posterior distributions) of the calibrated parameters become narrower. In general, parameters that are identified to be significant through sensitivity analyses and statistical tests are better calibrated than those with weak or nonlinear impacts on flux or runoff observations. Temporal resolution of observations has larger impacts on the results of inverse modeling using heat flux data than runoff data. Soil and vegetation cover have important impacts on parameter sensitivities, leading to different patterns of posterior distributions of parameters at different sites. Overall, the MCMC-Bayesian inversion approach effectively and reliably improves the simulation of CLM under different climates and environmental conditions. Bayesian model averaging of the posterior estimates with different reference acceptance probabilities can smooth the posterior distribution and provide more reliable parameter estimates, but at the expense of wider uncertainty bounds.

  2. Four-year (2006–2009 eddy covariance measurements of CO2 flux over an urban area in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vesala

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term measurements of carbon dioxide flux (Fc and the latent and sensible heat fluxes were performed using the eddy covariance (EC method in Beijing, China over a 4-yr period in 2006–2009. The EC setup was installed at a height of 47 m on the Beijing 325-m meteorological tower in the northwest part of the city. Latent heat flux dominated the energy exchange between the urban surface and the atmosphere in summer, while sensible heat flux was the main component in the spring. Winter and autumn were two transition periods of the turbulent fluxes. The source area of Fc was highly heterogeneous, which consisted of buildings, parks, and highways. It was of interest to study of the temporal and spatial variability of Fc in this urban environment of a developing country. Both on diurnal and monthly scale, the urban surface acted as a net source for CO2 and downward fluxes were only occasionally observed. The diurnal pattern of Fc showed dependence on traffic and the typical two peak traffic patterns appeared in the diurnal cycle. Also Fc was higher on weekdays than on weekends due to the higher traffic volumes on weekdays. On seasonal scale, Fc was generally higher in winter than during other seasons likely due to domestic heating during colder months. Total annual average CO2 emissions from the neighborhood of the tower were estimated to be 4.90 kg C m−2 yr−1 over the 4-yr period. Total vehicle population was the most important factor controlling the inter-annual variability of Fc in this urban area.

  3. Evaporation Flux Distribution of Drops on a Hydrophilic or Hydrophobic Flat Surface by Molecular Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chiyu; Liu, Guangzhi; Wang, Moran

    2016-08-16

    The evaporation flux distribution of sessile drops is investigated by molecular dynamic simulations. Three evaporating modes are classified, including the diffusion dominant mode, the substrate heating mode, and the environment heating mode. Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drop-substrate interactions are considered. To count the evaporation flux distribution, which is position dependent, we proposed an azimuthal-angle-based division method under the assumption of spherical crown shape of drops. The modeling results show that the edge evaporation, i.e., near the contact line, is enhanced for hydrophilic drops in all the three modes. The surface diffusion of liquid molecular absorbed on solid substrate for hydrophilic cases plays an important role as well as the space diffusion on the enhanced evaporation rate at the edge. For hydrophobic drops, the edge evaporation flux is higher for the substrate heating mode, but lower than elsewhere of the drop for the diffusion dominant mode; however, a nearly uniform distribution is found for the environment heating mode. The evidence shows that the temperature distribution inside drops plays a key role in the position-dependent evaporation flux.

  4. The development and validation of an unmanned aerial system (UAS) for the measurement of methane flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G.; Shah, A.; Williams, P. I.; Ricketts, H.; Hollingsworth, P.; Kabbabe, K.; Bourn, M.; Pitt, J. R.; Helmore, J.; Lowry, D.; Robinson, R. A.; Finlayson, A.

    2017-12-01

    Emission controls for CH4are a part of the Paris Agreement and other national emissions strategies. This work represents a new method for precise quantification of point-source and facility-level methane emissions flux rates to inform both the climate science community and policymakers. In this paper, we describe the development of an integrated Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) for the measurement of high-precision in-situ CH4 concentrations. We also describe the development of a mass balance flux calculation model tailored to UAS plume sampling downwind; and the validation of this method using a known emission flux from a controlled release facility. A validation field trial was conducted at the UK Met Office site in Cardington, UK, between 31 Oct and 4 Nov 2016 using the UK National Physical Laboratory's Controlled Release Facility (CRF). A modified DJI-S900 hexrotor UAS was tethered via an inlet to a ground-based Los Gatos Ultraportable Greenhouse Gas Analyser to record geospatially-referenced methane (and carbon dioxide) concentrations. Methane fluxes from the CRF were emitted at 5 kg/hr and 10 kg/hr in a series of blind trials (fluxes were not reported to the team prior to the calculation of UAS-derived flux) for a total of 7 UAS flights, which sampled 200 m downwind of source(s), each lasting around 20 minutes. The flux calculation method was adapted for sampling considerations downwind of an emission source that has not had sufficient time to develop a Gaussian morphology. The UAS-measured methane fluxes, and representative flux uncertainty (derived from an error propagation model), were found to compare well with the controlled CH4 emission rate. For the 7 experiments, the standard error between the measured and emitted CH4 flux was found to be +/-6% with a mean bias of +0.4 kg/hr. Limits of flux sensitivity (to within 25% uncertainty) were found to extend to as little as 0.12 kg/h. Further improvements to the accuracy of flux calculation could be made by

  5. Technique for measuring very high surface velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maron, Y.

    1977-01-01

    An interferometric technique for measuring displacements of surfaces moving at velocities in the range of a few millimeters per microsecond is presented. The Doppler shift of frequency of light scattered from such surfaces is too high to be detectable by known devices. The present technique is based upon monitoring the signal resulting from the interference between two beams reflected from the surface at different incidence angles. Measurement systems for specularly as well as diffusely reflecting surfaces are described. Light source with very modest temporal coherence delivering about 100 mw power is required. The accuracy of the technique is discussed. (author)

  6. Measurement of momentum flux using two meteor radars in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Matsumoto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two nearly identical meteor radars were operated at Koto Tabang (0.20° S, 100.32° E, West Sumatra, and Biak (1.17° S, 136.10° E, West Papua, in Indonesia, separated by approximately 4000 km in longitude on the Equator. The zonal and meridional momentum flux, u′w′ and v′w′, where u, v, and w are the eastward, northward, and vertical wind velocity components, respectively, were estimated at 86 to 94 km altitudes using the meteor radar data by applying a method proposed by Hocking (2005. The observed u′w′ at the two sites agreed reasonably well at 86, 90, and 94 km during the observation periods when the data acquisition rate was sufficiently large enough. Variations in v′w′ were consistent between 86, 90, and 94 km altitudes at both sites. The climatological variation in the monthly averaged u′w′ and v′w′ was investigated using the long-term radar data at Koto Tabang from November 2002 to November 2013. The seasonal variations in u′w′ and v′w′ showed a repeatable semiannual and annual cycles, respectively. u′w′ showed eastward values in February–April and July–September and v′w′ was northward in June to August at 90–94 km, both of which were generally anti-phase with the mean zonal and meridional winds, having the same periodicity. Our results suggest the usefulness of the Hocking method.

  7. A Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC) for surface energy balance fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallick, Kaniska; Jarvis, Andrew J.; Boegh, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The use of Penman–Monteith (PM) equation in thermal remote sensing based surface energy balance modeling is not prevalent due to the unavailability of any direct method to integrate thermal data into the PM equation and due to the lack of physical models expressing the surface (or stomatal) and b...

  8. Measurements of carbon dioxide and heat fluxes during monsoon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the atmosphere due to anthropogenic activities is responsible for global warming and hence in recent years, CO2 measurement network has expanded globally. In the monsoon season (July–September) of year 2011, we carried out measurements of CO2 and water ...

  9. Energetic ion diagnostics using neutron flux measurements during pellet injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidbrink, W.W.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron measurements during injection of deuterium pellets into deuterium plasmas on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) indicate that the fractional increase in neutron emission about 0.5 msec after pellet injection is proportional to the fraction of beam-plasma reactions to total fusion reactions in the unperturbed plasma. These observations suggest three diagnostic applications of neutron measurements during pellet injection: (1) measurement of the beam-plasma reaction rate in deuterium plasmas for use in determining the fusion Q in an equivalent deuterium-tritium plasma, (2) measurement of the radial profile of energetic beam ions by varying the pellet size and velocity, and (3) measurement of the ''temperature'' of ions accelerated during wave heating. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Energetic ion diagnostics using neutron flux measurements during pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W.W.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron measurements during injection of deuterium pellets into deuterium plasmas on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) indicate that the fractional increase in neutron emission about 0.5 msec after pellet injection is proportional to the fraction of beam-plasma reactions to total fusion reactions in the unperturbed plasma. These observations suggest three diagnostic applications of neutron measurements during pellet injection: (1) measurement of the beam-plasma reaction rate in deuterium plasmas for use in determining the fusion Q in an equivalent deuterium-tritium plasma, (2) measurement of the radial profile of energetic beam ions by varying the pellet size and velocity, and (3) measurement of the ''temperature'' of ions accelerated during wave heating. 18 refs., 3 figs

  11. Seasonality of Overstory and Understory Fluxes in a Semi-Arid Oak Savanna: What can be Learned from Comparing Measured and Modeled Fluxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz-Yaseef, N.; Sonnentag, O.; Kobayashi, H.; Chen, J. M.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Ma, S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2011-12-01

    Semi-arid climates experience large seasonal and inter-annual variability in radiation and precipitation, creating natural conditions adequate to study how year-to-year changes affect atmosphere-biosphere fluxes. Especially, savanna ecosystems, that combine tree and below-canopy components, create a unique environment in which phenology dramatically changes between seasons. We used a 10-year flux database in order to define seasonal and interannual variability of climatic inputs and fluxes, and evaluate model capability to reproduce observed variability. This is based on the perception that model capability to construct the deviation, and not the average, is important in order to correctly predict ecosystem sensitivity to climate change. Our research site is a low density and low LAI (0.8) semi-arid savanna, located at Tonzi Ranch, Northern California. In this system, trees are active during the warm season (Mar - Oct), and grasses are active during the wet season (Dec - May). Measurements of carbon and water fluxes above and below the tree canopy using eddy covariance and supplementary measurements have been made since 2001. Fluxes were simulated using bio-meteorological process-oriented ecosystem models: BEPS and 3D-CAONAK. Models were partly capable of reproducing fluxes on daily scales (R2=0.66). We then compared model outputs for different ecosystem components and seasons, and found distinct seasons with high correlations while other seasons were purely represented. Comparison was much higher for ET than for GPP. The understory was better simulated than the overstory. CANOAK overestimated spring understory fluxes, probably due to the capability to directly calculated 3D radiative transfer. BEPS underestimated spring understory fluxes, following the pre-description of grass die-off. Both models underestimated peak spring overstory fluxes. During winter tree dormant, modeled fluxes were null, but occasional high fluxes of both ET and GPP were measured following

  12. Measurement of emission fluxes from Technical Area 54, Area G and L. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eklund, B. [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-03-15

    The emission flux (mass/time-area) of tritiated water from TA-54 was measured to support the characterization of radioactive air emissions from waste sites for the Radioactive Air Emissions Management (RAEM) program and for the Area G Performance Assessment. Measurements were made at over 180 locations during the summers of 1993 and 1994, including randomly selected locations across Area G, three suspected areas of contamination at Area G, and the property surrounding TA-54. The emission fluxes of radon were measured at six locations and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at 30 locations. Monitoring was performed at each location over a several-hour period using the U.S. EPA flux chamber approach. Separate samples for tritiated water, radon, and VOCs were collected and analyzed in off-site laboratories. The measured tritiated water emission fluxes varied over several orders of magnitude, from background levels of about 3 pCi/m{sup 2}-min to 9.69 x 10{sup 6} pCi/m{sup 2}-min near a disposal shaft. Low levels of tritiated water were found to have migrated into Pajarito Canyon, directly south of Area G. The tritium flux data were used to generate an estimated annual emission rate of 14 Curies/yr for all of Area G, with the majority of this activity being emitted from relatively small areas adjacent to several disposal shafts. The estimated total annual release is less than 1% of the total tritium release from all LANL in 1992 and results in a negligible off-site dose. Based on the limited data available, the average emission flux of radon from Area G is estimated to be 8.1 pCi/m{sup 2}-min. The measured emission fluxes of VOCs were < 100 {mu}g/m{sup 2}-min, which is small compared with fluxes typically measured at hazardous waste landfills. The air quality impacts of these releases were evaluated in a separate report.

  13. Measurement of emission fluxes from Technical Area 54, Area G and L. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, B.

    1995-01-01

    The emission flux (mass/time-area) of tritiated water from TA-54 was measured to support the characterization of radioactive air emissions from waste sites for the Radioactive Air Emissions Management (RAEM) program and for the Area G Performance Assessment. Measurements were made at over 180 locations during the summers of 1993 and 1994, including randomly selected locations across Area G, three suspected areas of contamination at Area G, and the property surrounding TA-54. The emission fluxes of radon were measured at six locations and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at 30 locations. Monitoring was performed at each location over a several-hour period using the U.S. EPA flux chamber approach. Separate samples for tritiated water, radon, and VOCs were collected and analyzed in off-site laboratories. The measured tritiated water emission fluxes varied over several orders of magnitude, from background levels of about 3 pCi/m 2 -min to 9.69 x 10 6 pCi/m 2 -min near a disposal shaft. Low levels of tritiated water were found to have migrated into Pajarito Canyon, directly south of Area G. The tritium flux data were used to generate an estimated annual emission rate of 14 Curies/yr for all of Area G, with the majority of this activity being emitted from relatively small areas adjacent to several disposal shafts. The estimated total annual release is less than 1% of the total tritium release from all LANL in 1992 and results in a negligible off-site dose. Based on the limited data available, the average emission flux of radon from Area G is estimated to be 8.1 pCi/m 2 -min. The measured emission fluxes of VOCs were 2 -min, which is small compared with fluxes typically measured at hazardous waste landfills. The air quality impacts of these releases were evaluated in a separate report

  14. Surface texture measurement for additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantaphyllou, Andrew; Tomita, Ben; Milne, Katherine A; Giusca, Claudiu L; Macaulay, Gavin D; Roerig, Felix; Hoebel, Matthias; Leach, Richard K

    2015-01-01

    The surface texture of additively manufactured metallic surfaces made by powder bed methods is affected by a number of factors, including the powder’s particle size distribution, the effect of the heat source, the thickness of the printed layers, the angle of the surface relative to the horizontal build bed and the effect of any post processing/finishing. The aim of the research reported here is to understand the way these surfaces should be measured in order to characterise them. In published research to date, the surface texture is generally reported as an Ra value, measured across the lay. The appropriateness of this method for such surfaces is investigated here. A preliminary investigation was carried out on two additive manufacturing processes—selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM)—focusing on the effect of build angle and post processing. The surfaces were measured using both tactile and optical methods and a range of profile and areal parameters were reported. Test coupons were manufactured at four angles relative to the horizontal plane of the powder bed using both SLM and EBM. The effect of lay—caused by the layered nature of the manufacturing process—was investigated, as was the required sample area for optical measurements. The surfaces were also measured before and after grit blasting. (paper)

  15. Constructing invariant fairness measures for surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Ungstrup, Michael

    200