Sample records for surface flow constructed

  1. Statistical Analysis of Nitrogen in the Soil of Constructed Wetland with Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubaszek Anita


    Full Text Available The removal of nitrogen compounds in constructed wetlands depends on various physical, chemical and biomechanical factors as well as on conditions of the environment. The paper presents the results of a statistical analysis of the depositing of nitrogen at HSSF (horizontal subsurface flow construcred wetland. The results of the substrate showed that the highest contents of nitrogen existed in the surface soil layer up to 20 cm of the depth. Nitrogen accumulation decreased in the deposit with depth, and in the direction of the wastewater flow.

  2. Efficiency of a Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow Constructed Wetland Treatment System in an Arid Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Albalawneh


    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and treatment efficiency of the Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow Constructed Wetland treatment system (HSF-CW in an arid climate. Seventeen sub-surface, horizontal-flow HSF-CW units have been operated for approximately three years to improve the quality of partially-treated municipal wastewater. The studied design parameters included two sizes of volcanic tuff media (i.e., fine or coarse, two different bed dimensions (i.e., long and short, and three plantation types (i.e., reed, kenaf, or no vegetation as a control. The effluent Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Suspended Solid (TSS, and phosphorus from all of the treatments were significantly lower as compared to the influent and demonstrated a removal efficiency of 55%, 51%, 67%, and 55%, respectively. There were significant increases in Electrical Conductivity (EC, sulfate, and calcium in the effluent of most HSF-CWs due to evaporative concentration and mineral dissolution from the media. The study suggests that unplanted beds with either fine or coarse media are the most suitable combinations among all of the studied designs based on their treatment efficiency and less water loss in arid conditions.

  3. Performance of surface and subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating eutrophic waters. (United States)

    Hernández-Crespo, C; Gargallo, S; Benedito-Durá, V; Nácher-Rodríguez, Beatriz; Rodrigo-Alacreu, M A; Martín, M


    Three medium size constructed wetlands (CWs) with a total surface of 90ha are working since 2009 in the Albufera de Valencia Natural Park (Spain). Two of them are fed with eutrophic waters from l'Albufera Lake. Their objectives are both reduce the phytoplankton biomass and increase the biodiversity; consequently, improved water quality is returned to the lake. A "science based governance" of these CWs is ongoing inside the LIFE+12 Albufera Project to demonstrate the environmental benefits of these features. In this paper, results and relationships among hydraulic operation, physicochemical variables and plankton in two different CWs typologies, five free water surface CW (FWSCW) and one horizontal subsurface flow CW (HSSFCW), were analysed showing that CWs were capable of improving the water quality and biodiversity but showing clear differences depending on the CW type. The CWs worked under different hydraulic load rates (HLR) from <0.12 to 54.75myr -1 . Inflow water quality was typical from eutrophic waters with mean values of chlorophyll a (Chl a) about 22-90μgChlal -1 and mean total phosphorus (TP) between 0.122 and 0.337mgl -1 . The main conclusion is that HSSFCW was much more efficient than FWSCW in the removal of organic matter, suspended solids and nutrients. The biological role of several shallow lagoons located at the end of the CWs has also been evaluated, showing that they contribute to increase the zooplankton biomass, a key factor to control the phytoplankton blooms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Design and Season Influence Nitrogen Dynamics in Two Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands Treating Nursery Irrigation Runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. White


    Full Text Available Constructed wetlands (CWs are used to remediate runoff from a variety of agricultural, industrial, and urban sources. CW remediation performance is often evaluated at the laboratory scale over durations less than one year. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of CW design (cell depth and residence time on nitrogen (N speciation and fate across season and years in two free water surface wetlands receiving runoff from irrigated plant production areas at an ornamental plant nursery. Water quality (mg·L−1 of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium, dissolved oxygen and oxidation reduction potential was monitored at five sites within each of two CWs each month over four years. Nitrate-N was the dominant form of ionic N present in both CWs. Within CW1, a deep cell to shallow cell design, nitrate comprised 86% of ionic N in effluent. Within CW2, designed with three sequential deep cells, nitrate comprised only 66% of total N and ammonium comprised 27% of total N in CW2 effluent. Differences in ionic N removal efficacies and shifts in N speciation in CW1 and CW2 were controlled by constructed wetland design (depth and hydraulic retention time, the concentration of nutrients entering the CW, and plant species richness.

  5. Suitability of macrophytes for nutrient removal from surface flow constructed wetlands receiving secondary treated sewage effluent in Queensland, Australia. (United States)

    Greenway, M


    From a botanical perspective the major difference between waste stabilisation ponds and wetlands is the dominance of algae or floating plants in the former and emergent plants in the latter. Algae, floating and submerged plants remove nutrients directly from the water column whereas emergent species remove nutrients from the sediment. Water depth is a crucial factor in determining which plant types will become established. Surface flow constructed wetlands offer the greatest potential to grow a wide variety of different types of macrophytes. In assessing the suitability of plant species for nutrient removal, consideration must be given not only to nutrient uptake for growth but also storage of nutrients as plant biomass. A survey of macrophytes in 15 surface flow constructed wetlands treating secondary effluent was conducted in Queensland; 63 native species and 14 introduced species were found. Emergent species have been able to tolerate deeper water than in their natural environment and permanent waterlogging. All species grew well in the higher nutrient enriched wastewater. Submerged, floating leaved-attached and free floating species had the highest tissue nutrient content, followed by aquatic creepers. All these species remove nutrients from the water column. Emergent species had lower nutrient content but a greater biomass and were therefore able to store more nutrients per unit area of wetland. In order to maximise the efficiency of constructed wetlands for nutrient removal, a range of species should be used. Native species should be selected in preference to introduced/exotic species.

  6. Efficient removal of antibiotics in surface-flow constructed wetlands, with no observed impact on antibiotic resistance genes. (United States)

    Berglund, Björn; Khan, Ghazanfar Ali; Weisner, Stefan E B; Ehde, Per Magnus; Fick, Jerker; Lindgren, Per-Eric


    Recently, there have been growing concerns about pharmaceuticals including antibiotics as environmental contaminants. Antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater have been suggested to affect bacterial population dynamics and to promote dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Conventional wastewater treatment processes do not always adequately remove pharmaceuticals causing environmental dissemination of low levels of these compounds. Using constructed wetlands as an additional treatment step after sewage treatment plants have been proposed as a cheap alternative to increase reduction of wastewater contaminants, however this means that the natural microbial community of the wetlands becomes exposed to elevated levels of antibiotics. In this study, experimental surface-flow wetlands in Sweden were continuously exposed to antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater. The aim was to assess the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands and to evaluate the impact of low levels of antibiotics on bacterial diversity, resistance development and expression in the wetland bacterial community. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the effect on the bacterial diversity was assessed with 16S rRNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Real-time PCR was used to detect and quantify antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in the wetlands, during and after the exposure period. The results indicated that the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands was comparable to conventional wastewater treatment schemes. Furthermore, short-term treatment of the constructed wetlands with environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e. 100-2000 ng×l(-1)) of antibiotics did not significantly affect resistance gene concentrations, suggesting that surface-flow constructed wetlands are well-suited for wastewater treatment purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  7. Carbon sequestration in a surface flow constructed wetland after 12 years of swine wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Reddy, Gudigopuram B; Raczkowski, Charles W; Cyrus, Johnsely S; Szogi, Ariel


    Constructed wetlands used for the treatment of swine wastewater may potentially sequester significant amounts of carbon. In past studies, we evaluated the treatment efficiency of wastewater in a marsh-pond-marsh design wetland system. The functionality of this system was highly dependent on soil carbon content and organic matter turnover rate. To better understand system performance and carbon dynamics, we measured plant dry matter, decomposition rates and soil carbon fractions. Plant litter decomposition rate was 0.0052 g day(-1) (±0.00119 g day(-1)) with an estimated half-life of 133 days. The detritus layer accumulated over the soil surface had much more humin than other C fractions. In marsh areas, soil C extracted with NaOH had four to six times higher amounts of humic acid, fulvic acid and humin than soil C extracted by cold and hot water, HCl/HF, and Na pyruvate. In the pond area, humic acid, fulvic acid and humin content were two to four times lower than in the marsh area. More soil C and N was found in the marsh area than in the pond area. These wetlands proved to be large sinks for stable C forms.

  8. Purification ability and carbon dioxide flux from surface flow constructed wetlands treating sewage treatment plant effluent. (United States)

    Wu, Haiming; Lin, Li; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Wenshan; Liang, Shuang; Liu, Hai


    In this study, a two-year experiment was carried out to investigate variation of carbon dioxide (CO2) flux from free water surface constructed wetlands (FWS CW) systems treating sewage treatment plant effluent, and treatment performance was also evaluated. The better 74.6-76.6% COD, 92.7-94.4% NH4(+)-N, 60.1-84.7% TN and 49.3-70.7% TP removal efficiencies were achieved in planted CW systems compared with unplanted systems. The planted CW was a net CO2 sink, while the unplanted CW was a net CO2 source in the entire study period. An obvious annual and seasonal variability of CO2 fluxes from different wetland systems was also presented with the average CO2 flux ranging from -592.83mgm(-2)h(-1) to 553.91mgm(-2)h(-1) during 2012-2013. In addition, the net exchange of CO2 between CW systems and the atmosphere was significantly affected by air temperature, and the presence of plants also had the significant effect on total CO2 emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Physical and biological changes of suspended particles in a free surface flow constructed wetland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulling, B.T.M.; van den Boomen, R.M.; Claassen, T.H.L.; van der Geest, H.G.; Kappelhof, J.W.N.M.; Admiraal, W.


    Suspended particles are considered as contaminants in treated wastewater and can have profound effects on the biological, physical and chemical properties of receiving aquatic ecosystems, depending on the concentration, type and nature of the suspended particles. Constructed wetlands are known to

  10. Suspended particle and pathogen peak discharge buffering by a surface-flow constructed wetland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulling, B.T.M.; van den Boomen, R.M.; van der Geest, H.G.; Kappelhof, J.W.N.M.; Admiraal, W.


    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been shown to improve the water quality of treated wastewater. The capacity of CWs to reduce nutrients, pathogens and organic matter and restore oxygen regime under normal operating conditions cannot be extrapolated to periods of incidental peak discharges. The

  11. Carbon sequestration in surface flow constructed wetland after 12 years of swine wastewater treatment (United States)

    Constructed wetlands used for the treatment of swine wastewater may potentially sequester significant amounts of carbon. In past studies, we evaluated the treatment efficiency of wastewater in marsh-pond-marsh design wetland system. The functionality of this system was highly dependent on soil carbo...

  12. Spatiotemporal and species variations in prokaryotic communities associated with sediments from surface-flow constructed wetlands for treating swine wastewater. (United States)

    Jia, Fen; Lai, Cui; Chen, Liang; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Danlian; Liu, Feng; Li, Xi; Luo, Pei; Wu, Jinshui; Qin, Lei; Zhang, Chen; Cheng, Min; Xu, Piao


    Microorganisms are the main mechanisms of pollutants removals in constructed wetlands (CWs) used for wastewater treatment. However, the different biological processes and variations of prokaryotic community in CWs remain poorly understood. In this study, we applied a high-throughput sequencing technique to investigate the prokaryotic communities associated with sediments from pilot-scale surface-flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) treating swine wastewater (SW) of varying strengths. Our results revealed that highly diverse prokaryotic communities were present in the SFCWs, with Proteobacteria (16.44-44.44%), Acidobacteria (3.25-24.40%), and Chloroflexi (5.77-14.43%) being the major phyla, and Nitrospira (4.14-12.02%), the most dominant genus. The prokaryotic communities in the sediments varied greatly with location and season, which markedly altered the microenvironmental conditions. Principal co-ordinates analysis indicated that SW strength significantly influenced the community structure in sediments of the SFCWs, and canonical correspondence analysis illustrated that the shifts in prokaryotic communities were strongly related to NO 3 - -N and TN in winter; and in summer with NH 4 + N, NO 3 - -N, NO 2 - -N, TN, TP, SOM, and pH. In conclusion, the use of high-throughput sequencing greatly enhanced our understanding of prokaryotic communities with different functional groups in SFCWs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Test study of the optimal design for hydraulic performance and treatment performance of free water surface flow constructed wetland. (United States)

    Guo, Changqiang; Cui, Yuanlai; Dong, Bin; Luo, Yufeng; Liu, Fangping; Zhao, Shujun; Wu, Huirong


    Orthogonal tests with mixed levels of design parameters of a free water surface flow constructed wetland were performed to assess their effect on hydraulic and treatment performance, and discover the relationship between the design parameters and the two performances. The results showed that water depth, plant spacing, and layout of in- and outlet mainly affected the two performances. Under 40cm depth, central pass of in- and outlet, 1.8m 3 /h flow rate, 20cm plant spacing, 2:1 aspect ratio, and Scripus tabernaemontani as the plant species, treatment performance of 5.3% TN, 6.1% TP and 15.6% TSS removal efficiencies and a high hydraulic performance of 0.854e, 0.602MI were achieved. There was no significant correlation between the design parameters and the two performances. The relationship among various hydraulic indicators and that among the purification indicators displayed extremely significant correlation. However, there was no significant correlation between hydraulic and treatment performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamics of sulphur compounds in horizontal sub-surface flow laboratory-scale constructed wetlands treating artificial sewage. (United States)

    Wiessner, A; Rahman, K Z; Kuschk, P; Kästner, M; Jechorek, M


    The knowledge regarding the dynamics of sulphur compounds inside constructed wetlands is still insufficient. Experiments in planted (Juncus effusus) and unplanted horizontal sub-surface-flow laboratory-scale constructed wetlands fed with artificial wastewater were carried out to evaluate the sulphate reduction, the composition and dynamics of generated sulphur compounds, as well as the influence of carbon load and plants on processes of sulphur transformation. In planted and unplanted wetlands, the addition of organic carbon (TOC of about 120 mg L(-1)) immediately affected the transformation of up to 90% of the incoming sulphate (150 mg L(-1)), directing it mainly towards elemental sulphur (30%) and sulphide (8%). During this experimental period, nearly 52% of the transformed sulphate-sulphur was calculated to be immobilized inside the planted wetland and 66% inside the unplanted one. In subsequent experiments, the deficiency of organic carbon inside the planted wetlands favoured the decrease of elemental sulphur in the pore water coupled to retransformation of depot-sulphur to dissolved sulphate. Nearly 90% of the deposited and reduced sulphur was found to be reoxidized. In principle, the results indicate a substantial improvement of this reoxidation of sulphur by oxygen released by the helophytes. Surplus of organic carbon promotes the ongoing sulphate reduction and the stability of deposed and dissolved reduced sulphur compounds. In contrast, inside the unplanted control wetland, a relative stability of the formed sulphur depots and the generated amount of dissolved sulphur compounds including elemental sulphur could be observed independently of the different loading conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of operational and design parameters on vertical redox profiles in sub-surface flow constructed wetlands: surveying the optimal scenario for microbial fuel cell implementation


    Garfi, Marianna; Corbella Vidal, Clara; Puigagut Juárez, Jaume


    The objective of the present work was to determine the optimal redox gradient that can be obtained in sub-surface flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs) to maximize the energy production with microbial fuel cells (MFCs). To this aim, a pilot plant based on SSF CW was evaluated for vertical redox profiles. Key operational and design parameters surveyed that influences redox conditions in SSF CW were the presence of plants (Phragmites australis) and the flow regime (continuous and discontinuous fl...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Vidales-Contreras


    The performance of a surface flow wetland system used to treat activated sludge effluent and filter backwash water from a tertiary treatment facility was evaluated. Samples were collected before and after vegetation removal from the system which consists of two densely vegetated settling basins (0.35 ha, an artificial stream, and a 3-ha surface flow wetland. Bulrush (Scripus spp. and cattail (Typha domingensis were the dominant plant species. The average inflow of chlorinated secondary effluent during the first two months of the actual study was 1.9  m3 min-1 while the inflow for backwash water treatment ranged from 0.21 to 0.42 m3 min-1. The system was able to reduce TSS and BOD5 to tertiary effluent standards; however, monitoring of chloride concentrations revealed that wetland evapotranspiration is probably enriching pollutant concentrations in the wetland outflow. Coliphage removal from the filter backwash was 97 and 35% during 1999 and 2000, respectively. However, when secondary effluent entered the system, coliphage removal averaged 65%. After vegetation removal, pH and coliphage density increased significantly (p

  17. Macrophyte decomposition in a surface-flow ammonia-dominated constructed wetland: Rates associated with environmental and biotic variables (United States)

    Thullen, J.S.; Nelson, S.M.; Cade, B.S.; Sartoris, J.J.


    Decomposition of senesced culm material of two bulrush species was studied in a surface-flow ammonia-dominated treatment wetland in southern California. Decomposition of the submerged culm material during summer months was relatively rapid (k = 0.037 day-1), but slowed under extended submergence (up to 245 days) and during fall and spring sampling periods (k = 0.009-0.014 day-1). Stepwise regression of seasonal data indicated that final water temperature and abundance of the culm-mining midge, Glyptotendipes, were significantly associated with culm decomposition. Glyptotendipes abundance, in turn, was correlated with water quality parameters such as conductivity and dissolved oxygen and ammonia concentrations. No differences were detected in decomposition rates between the bulrush species, Schoenoplectus californicus and Schoenoplectus acutus.

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) for nutrient reduction in drainage discharge from agricultural fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Kjærgaard, Charlotte


    , this paper explores the feasibility of implementing surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) based on their cost effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands in order to establish the most cost-effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients......Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies...... reduction measures carried out. The analyses show that the cost effectiveness of the SFCW is higher in the drainage catchments with higher nutrient loads. The range of the cost effectiveness ratio on nitrogen reduction differs distinctively with that of catch crop measure. The study concludes that SFCW...

  19. Economic feasibility of surface flow constructed (SFCW) wetlands for reduction of water pollution from agricultural fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Kjaergaard, Charlotte


    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as study cases...

  20. Economic feasibility of surface flow constructed (SFCW) wetlands for reduction of water pollution from agricultural fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Kjaergaard, Charlotte


    , this paper explored the economic feasibility of implementing a constructed wetland. Sensitivity analysis was conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands so as to establish the most cost effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients reduction measures carried out. The analysis......Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as study cases...... show that cost effectiveness of the SFCW is higher in the drainage catchments with higher nutrient loads. The range of the cost effectiveness ratio (CER) on nitrogen reduction differs distinctively with that of catch crop measure. The study concludes that, SFCW would be a better optimal nutrients...

  1. Application of photogrammetry to surface flow visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthikeyan, N.; Venkatakrishnan, L. [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Experimental Aerodynamics Division, National Aerospace Laboratories, Delhi (India)


    The construction of three-dimensional surface flow fields is an extremely difficult task owing largely to the fragmented information available in the form of 2D images. Here, the method of photogrammetric resection based on a comprehensive camera model has been used to map oil flow visualization images on to the surface grid of the model. The data exported in the VRML format allow for user interaction in a manner not possible with 2D images. The technique is demonstrated here using the surface oil flow visualization images of a simplified landing gear model at low speed in a conventional wind tunnel without any specialized rigs for photogrammetry. The results are not limited to low-speed regimes and show that this technique can have significant impact on understanding the flow physics associated with the surface flow topology of highly three-dimensional separated flows on complex models. (orig.)

  2. Application of photogrammetry to surface flow visualization (United States)

    Karthikeyan, N.; Venkatakrishnan, L.


    The construction of three-dimensional surface flow fields is an extremely difficult task owing largely to the fragmented information available in the form of 2D images. Here, the method of photogrammetric resection based on a comprehensive camera model has been used to map oil flow visualization images on to the surface grid of the model. The data exported in the VRML format allow for user interaction in a manner not possible with 2D images. The technique is demonstrated here using the surface oil flow visualization images of a simplified landing gear model at low speed in a conventional wind tunnel without any specialized rigs for photogrammetry. The results are not limited to low-speed regimes and show that this technique can have significant impact on understanding the flow physics associated with the surface flow topology of highly three-dimensional separated flows on complex models.

  3. Nitrogen removal and nitrous oxide emission in surface flow constructed wetlands for treating sewage treatment plant effluent: Effect of C/N ratios. (United States)

    Li, Ming; Wu, Haiming; Zhang, Jian; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Kong, Qiang


    In order to design treatment wetlands with maximal nitrogen removal and minimal nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission, the effect of influent C/N ratios on nitrogen removal and N 2 O emission in surface flow constructed wetlands (SF CWs) for sewage treatment plant effluent treatment was investigated in this study. The results showed that nitrogen removal and N 2 O emission in CWs were significantly affected by C/N ratio of influent. Much higher removal efficiency of NH 4 + -N (98%) and TN (90%) was obtained simultaneously in SF CWs at C/N ratios of 12:1, and low N 2 O emission (8.2mg/m 2 /d) and the percentage of N 2 O-N emission in TN removal (1.44%) were also observed. These results obtained in this study would be utilized to determine how N 2 O fluxes respond to variations in C/N ratios and to improve the sustainability of CWs for wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Constructing Invariant Fairness Measures for Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Ungstrup, Michael


    This paper presents a general method which from an invariant curve fairness measure constructs an invariant surface fairness measure. Besides the curve fairness measure one only needs a class of curves on the surface for which one wants to apply the curve measure. The surface measure at a point...... variation.The method is extended to the case where one considers, not the fairness of one curve, but the fairness of a one parameter family of curves. Such a family is generated by the flow of a vector field, orthogonal to the curves. The first, respectively the second order derivative along the curve...... of the size of this vector field is used as the fairness measure on the family.Six basic 3rd order invariants satisfying two quadratic equations are defined. They form a complete set in the sense that any invariant 3rd order function can be written as a function of the six basic invariants together...

  5. Specification and Construction of Control Flow Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelik, R.; Rensink, Arend; Kastenberg, H.; Grundy, J; Howse, J.

    In this paper we propose a visual language CFSL for specifying control flow semantics of programming languages. We also present a translation from CFSL to graph production systems (GPS) for flow graph construction; that is, any CFSL specification, say for a language L, gives rise to a GPS that

  6. Surface obstacles in pulsatile flow (United States)

    Carr, Ian A.; Plesniak, Michael W.


    Flows past obstacles mounted on flat surfaces have been widely studied due to their ubiquity in nature and engineering. For nearly all of these studies, the freestream flow over the obstacle was steady, i.e., constant velocity, unidirectional flow. Unsteady, pulsatile flows occur frequently in biology, geophysics, biomedical engineering, etc. Our study is aimed at extending the comprehensive knowledge base that exists for steady flows to considerably more complex pulsatile flows. Characterizing the vortex and wake dynamics of flows around surface obstacles embedded in pulsatile flows can provide insights into the underlying physics in all wake and junction flows. In this study, we experimentally investigate the wake of two canonical obstacles: a cube and a circular cylinder with an aspect ratio of unity. Our previous studies of a surface-mounted hemisphere in pulsatile flow are used as a baseline for these two new, more complex geometries. Phase-averaged PIV and hot-wire anemometry are used to characterize the dynamics of coherent structures in the wake and at the windward junction of the obstacles. Complex physics occur during the deceleration phase of the pulsatile inflow. We propose a framework for understanding these physics based on self-induced vortex propagation, similar to the phenomena exhibited by vortex rings.

  7. Surface obstacles in pulsatile flow (United States)

    Carr, Ian A.; Plesniak, Michael W.


    Flows past obstacles mounted on flat surfaces have been widely studied due to their ubiquity in nature and engineering. For nearly all of these studies, the freestream flow over the obstacle was steady, i.e. constant velocity unidirectional flow. Unsteady, pulsatile flows occur frequently in biology, geophysics, biomedical engineering, etc. Our study is aimed at extending the comprehensive knowledge base that exists for steady flows to considerably more complex pulsatile flows. Beyond the important practical applications, characterizing the vortex and wake dynamics of flows around surface obstacles embedded in pulsatile flows can provide insights into the underlying physics in all wake and junction flows. In this study, we experimentally investigated the wake of four canonical surface obstacles: hemisphere, cube, and circular cylinders with aspect ratio of 1:1 and 2:1. Phase-averaged PIV and hot-wire anemometry are used to characterize the dynamics of coherent structures in the wake and at the windward junction of the obstacles. Complex physics occur during the deceleration phase of the pulsatile inflow. We propose a framework for understanding these physics based on self-induced vortex propagation, similar to the phenomena exhibited by vortex rings. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number CBET-1236351, and GW Centeor Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  8. Constructal tree-shaped flow structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejan, A.; Lorente, S.


    This paper is an introduction to a new trend in the conceptual design of energy systems: the generation of flow configuration based on the 'constructal' principle that the global performance is maximized by balancing and arranging the various flow resistances (the irreversibilities) in a flow system that is free to morph. The paper focuses on distribution and collection, which are flows that connect one point (source, or sink) with an infinity of points (volume, area, curve). The flow configurations that emerge from this principle are tree-shaped, and the systems that employ them are 'vascularized'. The paper traces the most recent progress made on constructal vascularization. The direction is from large-scale applications toward microscales. The large-scale tree-shaped designs of electric power distribution systems and networks for natural gas and water are now invading small-scale designs such as fuel cells, heat exchangers and cooled packages of electronics. These flow configurations have several properties in common: freedom to morph, multiple scales, hierarchy, nonuniform (optimal) distribution of scales through the available volume, compactness and finite complexity

  9. Singularities in Free Surface Flows (United States)

    Thete, Sumeet Suresh

    Free surface flows where the shape of the interface separating two or more phases or liquids are unknown apriori, are commonplace in industrial applications and nature. Distribution of drop sizes, coalescence rate of drops, and the behavior of thin liquid films are crucial to understanding and enhancing industrial practices such as ink-jet printing, spraying, separations of chemicals, and coating flows. When a contiguous mass of liquid such as a drop, filament or a film undergoes breakup to give rise to multiple masses, the topological transition is accompanied with a finite-time singularity . Such singularity also arises when two or more masses of liquid merge into each other or coalesce. Thus the dynamics close to singularity determines the fate of about-to-form drops or films and applications they are involved in, and therefore needs to be analyzed precisely. The primary goal of this thesis is to resolve and analyze the dynamics close to singularity when free surface flows experience a topological transition, using a combination of theory, experiments, and numerical simulations. The first problem under consideration focuses on the dynamics following flow shut-off in bottle filling applications that are relevant to pharmaceutical and consumer products industry, using numerical techniques based on Galerkin Finite Element Methods (GFEM). The second problem addresses the dual flow behavior of aqueous foams that are observed in oil and gas fields and estimates the relevant parameters that describe such flows through a series of experiments. The third problem aims at understanding the drop formation of Newtonian and Carreau fluids, computationally using GFEM. The drops are formed as a result of imposed flow rates or expanding bubbles similar to those of piezo actuated and thermal ink-jet nozzles. The focus of fourth problem is on the evolution of thinning threads of Newtonian fluids and suspensions towards singularity, using computations based on GFEM and experimental

  10. Zwitterionic materials for antifouling membrane surface construction. (United States)

    He, Mingrui; Gao, Kang; Zhou, Linjie; Jiao, Zhiwei; Wu, Mengyuan; Cao, Jialin; You, Xinda; Cai, Ziyi; Su, Yanlei; Jiang, Zhongyi


    Membrane separation processes are often perplexed by severe and ubiquitous membrane fouling. Zwitterionic materials, keeping electric neutrality with equivalent positive and negative charged groups, are well known for their superior antifouling properties and have been broadly utilized to construct antifouling surfaces for medical devices, biosensors and marine coatings applications. In recent years, zwitterionic materials have been more and more frequently utilized for constructing antifouling membrane surfaces. In this review, the antifouling mechanisms of zwitterionic materials as well as their biomimetic prototypes in cell membranes will be discussed, followed by the survey of common approaches to incorporate zwitterionic materials onto membrane surfaces including surface grafting, surface segregation, biomimetic adhesion, surface coating and so on. The potential applications of these antifouling membranes are also embedded. Finally, we will present a brief perspective on the future development of zwitterionic materials modified antifouling membranes. Membrane fouling is a severe problem hampering the application of membrane separation technology. The properties of membrane surfaces play a critical role in membrane fouling and antifouling behavior/performance. Antifouling membrane surface construction has evolved as a hot research issue for the development of membrane processes. Zwitterionic modification of membrane surfaces has been recognized as an effective strategy to resist membrane fouling. This review summarizes the antifouling mechanisms of zwitterionic materials inspired by cell membranes as well as the popular approaches to incorporate them onto membrane surfaces. It can help form a comprehensive knowledge about the principles and methods of modifying membrane surfaces with zwitterionic materials. Finally, we propose the possible future research directions of zwitterionic materials modified antifouling membranes. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc

  11. Nitrogen Transformation and Removal in Horizontal Surface Flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential use of Constructed Mangrove Wetlands (CMWs) as a cheaper, effective and appropriate method for Nitrogen removal from domestic sewage of coastal zone in peri-urban cities was investigated from August 2007 to. September, 2008. Field investigations were made on horizontal surface flow constructed ...

  12. Domestic Wastewater Depuration Using a Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland and Theoretical Surface Optimization: A Case Study under Dry Mediterranean Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Andreo-Martínez


    Full Text Available The wastewater generated by isolated houses without access to public sewers can cause environmental problems, like the contamination of aquifers with nitrates and phosphates, as occurs in southeastern Spain. The effectiveness of a previously built horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HF-CW was studied over two years as a possible solution. This HF-CW measured 27 m2; it was planted with Phragmites australis(Cav. Trin. Ex Steuds sp. Altissima and the parameters studied were those required by European Union (EU legislation and adopted by Spain. Average abatement efficiency rates, for the first and the second year of study, were: biochemical oxygen demand over five days (BOD5 (96.4%, 92.0%, chemical oxygen demand (COD (84.6%, 77.7%, total suspended solids(TSS (94.8%,89.9%,total nitrogen(TN(79.5%,66.0%,ammonium nitrogen(NH4+-N(98.8%, 86.6% and total phosphorous (TP (83.7%, 82.8%. Average abatement efficiency for nitrate nitrogen (NO3−-N (−1280.5%, −961.1% and nitrite nitrogen (NO2−-N (−5.8%, −40.0% were negative because its content in influent wastewater was very low and they appear mainly from influent NH4+-N, as a result of purification processes carried out in the HF-CW bed. The abatement rates make the system suitable to produce discharges into the environment in accordance with Spanish law. It is noteworthy that the HF-CW patch suffered an episode of bed drying during the summer of 2013, whereby the causes were related to system oversizing and high evapotranspiration in the area. As a consequence, the decrease in the abatement of water pollutants during the second year can be attributed to the creation of preferential water flow paths and short circuits through the constructed wetland (CW bed. As a result of the oversizing of the CW, a theoretical resizing based on BOD5, TSS, TN or TP is proposed. The calculated values for the redesign were: 5.22 m2 considering DBO5, 0.18 m2 considering TSS, 10.14 m2 considering

  13. Construction of fractal surfaces by recurrent fractal interpolation curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Chol-hui; O, Hyong-chol; Choi, Hui-chol


    A method to construct fractal surfaces by recurrent fractal curves is provided. First we construct fractal interpolation curves using a recurrent iterated functions system (RIFS) with function scaling factors and estimate their box-counting dimension. Then we present a method of construction of wider class of fractal surfaces by fractal curves and Lipschitz functions and calculate the box-counting dimension of the constructed surfaces. Finally, we combine both methods to have more flexible constructions of fractal surfaces

  14. Information systems for material flow management in construction processes (United States)

    Mesároš, P.; Mandičák, T.


    The article describes the options for the management of material flows in the construction process. Management and resource planning is one of the key factors influencing the effectiveness of construction project. It is very difficult to set these flows correctly. The current period offers several options and tools to do this. Information systems and their modules can be used just for the management of materials in the construction process.

  15. Characterisation of microbial biocoenosis in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietz, Alexandra; Kirschner, Alexander; Langergraber, Guenter; Sleytr, Kirsten; Haberl, Raimund


    In this study a quantitative description of the microbial biocoenosis in subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands fed with municipal wastewater was carried out. Three different methods (substrate induced respiration, ATP measurement and fumigation-extraction) were applied to measure the microbial biomass at different depths of planted and unplanted systems. Additionally, bacterial biomass was determined by epifluorescence microscopy and productivity was measured via 14 C leucine incorporation into bacterial biomass. All methods showed that > 50% of microbial biomass and bacterial activity could be found in the first cm and about 95% in the first 10 cm of the filter layer. Bacterial biomass in the first 10 cm of the filter body accounted only for 16-19% of the total microbial biomass. Whether fungi or methodical uncertainties are mainly responsible for the difference between microbial and bacterial biomass remains to be examined. A comparison between the purification performance of planted and unplanted pilot-scale subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands (PSCWs) showed no significant difference with the exception of the reduction of enterococci. The microbial biomass in all depths of the filter body was also not different in planted and unplanted systems. Compared with data from soils the microbial biomass in the PSCWs was high, although the specific surface area of the used sandy filter material available for biofilm growth was lower, especially in the beginning of the set-up of the PSCWs, due to missing clay and silt fraction

  16. Simulation of gas compressible flow by free surface water flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altafini, C.R.; Silva Ferreira, R.T. da


    The analogy between the water flow with a free surface and the compressible fluid flow, commonly called hydraulic analogy, is analyzed and its limitations are identified. The water table is the equipment used for this simulation, which allows the quatitative analysis of subsonic and supersonic flow with a low cost apparatus. The hydraulic analogy is applied to subsonic flow around circular cylinders and supersonic flow around cones. The results are compared with available theoretical and experimental data and a good agreement is achieved. (Author) [pt

  17. Lunar surface structural concepts and construction studies (United States)

    Mikulas, Martin

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: lunar surface structures construction research areas; lunar crane related disciplines; shortcomings of typical mobile crane in lunar base applications; candidate crane cable suspension systems; NIST six-cable suspension crane; numerical example of natural frequency; the incorporation of two new features for improved performance of the counter-balanced actively-controlled lunar crane; lunar crane pendulum mechanics; simulation results; 1/6 scale lunar crane testbed using GE robot for global manipulation; basic deployable truss approaches; bi-pantograph elevator platform; comparison of elevator platforms; perspective of bi-pantograph beam; bi-pantograph synchronously deployable tower/beam; lunar module off-loading concept; module off-loader concept packaged; starburst deployable precision reflector; 3-ring reflector deployment scheme; cross-section of packaged starburst reflector; and focal point and thickness packaging considerations.

  18. Polygon formation and surface flow on a rotating fluid surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Raymond; Tophøj, Laust Emil Hjerrild; Homan, T. A. M.


    We present a study of polygons forming on the free surface of a water flow confined to a stationary cylinder and driven by a rotating bottom plate as described by Jansson et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 96, 2006, 174502). In particular, we study the case of a triangular structure, either completely......, we measure the surface flows by particle image velocimetry (PIV) and show that there are three vortices present, but that the strength of these vortices is far too weak to account for the rotation velocity of the polygon. We show that partial blocking of the surface flow destroys the polygons and re...

  19. Analysis of Fluid Flow over a Surface (United States)

    McCloud, Peter L. (Inventor)


    A method, apparatus, and computer program product for modeling heat radiated by a structure. The flow of a fluid over a surface of a model of the structure is simulated. The surface has a plurality of surface elements. Heat radiated by the plurality of surface elements in response to the fluid flowing over the surface of the model of the structure is identified. An effect of heat radiated by at least a portion of the plurality of surface elements on each other is identified. A model of the heat radiated by the structure is created using the heat radiated by the plurality of surface elements and the effect of the heat radiated by at least a portion of the plurality of surface elements on each other.

  20. Core surface flow modelling from high-resolution secular variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, R.; Olsen, Nils


    -flux hypothesis, but the spectrum of the SV implies that a conclusive test of frozen-flux is not possible. We parametrize the effects of diffusion as an expected misfit in the flow prediction due to departure from the frozen-flux hypothesis; at low spherical harmonic degrees, this contribution dominates...... the expected departure of the SV predictions from flow to the observed SV, while at high degrees the SV model uncertainty is dominant. We construct fine-scale core surface flows to model the SV. Flow non-uniqueness is a serious problem because the flows are sufficiently small scale to allow flow around non......-series of magnetic data and better parametrization of the external magnetic field....

  1. Design and construction of two phases flow meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Paiza Mohamad Hasan


    This paper deals with design of the gamma ray correlometer and flow loop system for measuring the velocity between two parallel cross-sections of a pipeline. In the laboratory, the radioisotope source and detector were collimated by brass with small beam slit respectively. The flow loop system consists of transparent pipeline, adjustable frequency pump and water container. As a result, when the construction of the flow loop and correlometer is completed, the velocity of two phases flow can be measured by the cross-correlation techniques. (Author)

  2. Analysis of Separated Flow over Blocked Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this study, the separated flow over flat and blocked surfaces was investigated experimentally. Velocity and turbulence intensity measurements were carried out by a constanttemperature hot wire anemometer and static pressure measurements by a micro-manometer. The flow separations and reattachments were occurred before the first block, on the first block, between blocks and after the last block, and the presence of the blocks significantly increased the turbulent intensity

  3. Incompressible flows of superfluid films on multiply-connected surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrada-Emmanuel, A.


    The theory of Riemann surfaces is applied to the problem of constructing quantized vortex flows in closed surfaces of arbitrary but finite genus. An in principle procedure for obtaining the lowest energy flow is presented. It is shown that quantized vortices in non-zero genus surfaces are, in general, not isomorphic to a Coulomb gas. This failure has a geometrical origin: the appearance in non-zero genus surfaces of closed curves that are not the boundary of any area. A theorem of Riemann is applied to the genus one surface, the torus, to show quantitatively how to construct the quantized vortices. Because of the breakdown in the isomorphism between quantized vortices and charges, a novel effect is possible: the violation of Earnshaw's theorem. On a torus a single vortex can be placed in local stable equilibrium. The uniform flows around the holes of the torus also lead to a new result: a non-vortex mechanism for the destruction of superfluidity in the film. An explicit formula is derived showing this effect by considering the response of a helium film to a rotation of the torus. The author predicts that torii of dissimilar proportions will exhibit different superfluid densities at the same temperature

  4. Dewatering and Treatment of Septage Using Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Yong Tan


    Full Text Available The vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW has become an attractive decentralised technology for septage treatment. One of the main purposes of the septage treatment is to reduce the volume of raw septage through dewatering, where the solids content is retained in the wetland bed and the water content is released. The retention of solids forms a layer of sludge deposit at the wetland surface, and the drained water, the so-called leachate, typically contains a lower solids content. This article reports the performance of dewatering and filtration of a pilot-scale VFCW designed for septage treatment. A comparison between two feeding strategies, hydraulic loading rate (HLR and solids loading rate (SLR, is presented. The dewatering efficiency through drainage was found to be dependent on the solids load. The removal of total solids (TS and chemical oxygen demand (COD were excellent as the quality of leachate showed that more than 90% of TS and COD were retained in the system. This study reveals that the feeding based on SLR delivered a more sustainable performance for dewatering and solids removal. The build-up of sludge deposit significantly deteriorated the dewatering efficiency through drainage, but it tended to improve the filtration capacity.

  5. Surface roughness effects on turbulent Couette flow (United States)

    Lee, Young Mo; Lee, Jae Hwa


    Direct numerical simulation of a turbulent Couette flow with two-dimensional (2-D) rod roughness is performed to examine the effects of the surface roughness. The Reynolds number based on the channel centerline laminar velocity (Uco) and channel half height (h) is Re =7200. The 2-D rods are periodically arranged with a streamwise pitch of λ = 8 k on the bottom wall, and the roughness height is k = 0.12 h. It is shown that the wall-normal extent for the logarithmic layer is significantly shortened in the rough-wall turbulent Couette flow, compared to a turbulent Couette flow with smooth wall. Although the Reynolds stresses are increased in a turbulent channel flow with surface roughness in the outer layer due to large-scale ejection motions produced by the 2-D rods, those of the rough-wall Couette flow are decreased. Isosurfaces of the u-structures averaged in time suggest that the decrease of the turbulent activity near the centerline is associated with weakened large-scale counter-rotating roll modes by the surface roughness. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1D1A1A09000537) and the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2017R1A5A1015311).

  6. Gravity-capillary free-surface flows

    CERN Document Server

    Vanden-Broeck, Jean-Marc


    Free surface problems occur in many aspects of science and of everyday life such as the waves on a beach, bubbles rising in a glass of champagne, melting ice, pouring flows from a container and sails billowing in the wind. Consequently, the effect of surface tension on gravity-capillary flows continues to be a fertile field of research in applied mathematics and engineering. Concentrating on applications arising from fluid dynamics, Vanden-Broeck draws upon his years of experience in the field to address the many challenges involved in attempting to describe such flows mathematically. Whilst careful numerical techniques are implemented to solve the basic equations, an emphasis is placed upon the reader developing a deep understanding of the structure of the resulting solutions. The author also reviews relevant concepts in fluid mechanics to help readers from other scientific fields who are interested in free boundary problems.

  7. Treatment of swine wastewater with subsurface-flow constructed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the capability of horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs) for treating pretreated swine wastewater as a function of contact time (CT) and type of macrophyte under the local conditions of Yucatán, Mexico. Experiments were conducted from July 2004 to November 2005 on a ...

  8. Constructing invariant fairness measures for surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Ungstrup, Michael


    The paper proposes a rational method to derive fairness measures for surfaces. It works in cases where isophotes, reflection lines, planar intersection curves, or other curves are used to judge the fairness of the surface. The surface fairness measure is derived by demanding that all the given cu...... of curves. Six basic third order invariants by which the fairing measures can be expressed are defined. Furthermore, the geometry of a plane intersection curve is studied, and the variation of the total, the normal, and the geodesic curvature and the geodesic torsion is determined....

  9. Vulnerability assessment of groundwater-dependent ecosystems based on integrated groundwater flow modell construction (United States)

    Tóth, Ádám; Simon, Szilvia; Galsa, Attila; Havril, Timea; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Müller, Imre; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit


    Groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) are highly influenced by the amount of groundwater, seasonal variation of precipitation and consequent water table fluctuation and also the anthropogenic activities. They can be regarded as natural surface manifestations of the flowing groundwater. The preservation of environment and biodiversity of these GDEs is an important issue worldwide, however, the water management policy and action plan could not be constructed in absense of proper hydrogeological knowledge. The concept of gravity-driven regional groundwater flow could aid the understanding of flow pattern and interpretation of environmental processes and conditions. Unless the required well data are available, the geological-hydrogeological numerical model of the study area cannot be constructed based only on borehole information. In this case, spatially continuous geophysical data can support groundwater flow model building: systematically combined geophysical methods can provide model input. Integration of lithostratigraphic, electrostratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic information could aid groundwater flow model construction: hydrostratigraphic units and their hydraulic behaviour, boundaries and geometry can be obtained. Groundwater-related natural manifestations, such as GDEs, can be explained with the help of the revealed flow pattern and field mapping of features. Integrated groundwater flow model construction for assessing the vulnerability of GDEs was presented via the case study of the geologically complex area of Tihany Peninsula, Hungary, with the aims of understanding the background and occurrence of groundwater-related environmental phenomena, surface water-groundwater interaction, and revealing the potential effect of anthropogenic activity and climate change. In spite of its important and protected status, fluid flow model of the area, which could support water management and natural protection policy, had not been constructed previously. The 3D

  10. Surface Patterning and Nanowire Biosensor Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars


    assembly on e.g. glass surfaces, providing parallel patterning via gentle and oriented protein immobilization. Such protein patterns are useful for miniaturized bioassays of protein function. Second, in a very different approach, we use a highly focused laser beam to locally desorb alkanethiols from a self...... assembled monolayer on gold, a technique useful for creating diverse monolayer patterns in a direct-write fashion. Addition of a second alkanethiol forms a topologically ultra flat but chemically patterned surface, which by inspection with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed...

  11. Flow Accelerated Corrosion: Effect of Water Chemistry and Database Construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Hee; Kim, Kyung Mo; Lee, Gyeong Geun; Kim, Dong Jin


    Flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) of carbon steel piping in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) has been a major issue in nuclear industry. Severe accidents at Surry Unit 2 in 1986 and Mihama Unit 3 in 2004 initiated the world wide interest in this area. FAC is a dissolution process of the protective oxide layer on carbon steel or low-alloy steel when these parts are exposed to flowing water (single-phase) or wet steam (two-phase). In a single-phase flow, a scalloped, wavy, or orange peel and in a two-phase flow, tiger striping is observed, respectively. FAC is affected by many parameters, like material composition, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), flow velocity, system pressure, and steam quality. This paper describes the water chemistry factors influencing on FAC and the database is then constructed using literature data. In order to minimize FAC in NPPs, the optimal method is to control water chemistry parameters. However, quantitative data about FAC have not been published for proprietary reason even though qualitative behaviors of FAC have been well understood. A database was constructed using experimental data in literature. Accurate statistical analysis will be performed using this database to identify the relationship between the FAC rate and test environment

  12. Flow Accelerated Corrosion: Effect of Water Chemistry and Database Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Hee; Kim, Kyung Mo; Lee, Gyeong Geun; Kim, Dong Jin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) of carbon steel piping in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) has been a major issue in nuclear industry. Severe accidents at Surry Unit 2 in 1986 and Mihama Unit 3 in 2004 initiated the world wide interest in this area. FAC is a dissolution process of the protective oxide layer on carbon steel or low-alloy steel when these parts are exposed to flowing water (single-phase) or wet steam (two-phase). In a single-phase flow, a scalloped, wavy, or orange peel and in a two-phase flow, tiger striping is observed, respectively. FAC is affected by many parameters, like material composition, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), flow velocity, system pressure, and steam quality. This paper describes the water chemistry factors influencing on FAC and the database is then constructed using literature data. In order to minimize FAC in NPPs, the optimal method is to control water chemistry parameters. However, quantitative data about FAC have not been published for proprietary reason even though qualitative behaviors of FAC have been well understood. A database was constructed using experimental data in literature. Accurate statistical analysis will be performed using this database to identify the relationship between the FAC rate and test environment.

  13. Influence of clogging and resting processes on flow patterns in vertical flow constructed wetlands. (United States)

    Hua, Guofen; Kong, Jun; Ji, Yuyu; Li, Man


    Vertical flow constructed wetlands are widely used for removing pollutants from wastewater. Substrate clogging is an operational challenge of constructed wetlands, which can result in impeded water flow and finally a significant decline in the ability of the system to treat the wastewater. The entire clogging process in a vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) was quantitatively analyzed by measurements of hydraulic conductivity. Tracer tests and model simulations were carried out to investigate internal flow patterns during the clogging and resting processes. This analysis revealed that hydraulic conductivity gradually decreased with operation time. Further, the distribution time of the flow field was different under different degrees of clogging. Non-uniformity in water flow was primarily observed in the first 400min after adding the tracer (NaCl) in the early clogging stage, as opposed to the last 400min in the late clogging stage. Variation in water flow divergence was closely correlated with piston flow; the reaction efficiency was highest in the early stages of clogging. In the later stages, stronger flow mixing was observed. Resting operations can reduce the dispersion of internal flow and improve reaction efficiency. After resting for approximately 15days, tracer concentration fluctuations decreased and internal flow back-mixing was alleviated. A simulation further described the internal flow pattern and elaborated and validated the tracer experiment. The outcomes of this study will assist in understanding how internal flow behavior varies in response to the clogging process and reveal details of the internal clogging mechanism in VFCWs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Highly stable superhydrophobic surfaces under flow conditions (United States)

    Lee, Moonchan; Yim, Changyong; Jeon, Sangmin


    We synthesized hydrophobic anodic aluminum oxide nanostructures with pore diameters of 35, 50, 65, and 80 nm directly on quartz crystal microresonators, and the stability of the resulting superhydrophobicity was investigated under flow conditions by measuring changes in the resonance frequency and dissipation factor. When the quartz substrates were immersed in water, their hydrophobic surfaces did not wet due to the presence of an air interlayer. The air interlayer was gradually replaced by water over time, which caused decreases in the resonance frequency (i.e., increases in mass) and increases in the dissipation factor (i.e., increases in viscous damping). Although the water contact angles of the nanostructures increased with increasing pore size, the stability of their superhydrophobicity increased with decreasing pore size under both static conditions (without flow) and dynamic conditions (with flow); this increase can be attributed to an increase in the solid surface area that interacts with the air layer above the nanopores as the pore size decreases. Further, the effects of increasing the flow rate on the stability of the superhydrophobicity were quantitatively determined.

  15. Constructal theory and flow architectures in living systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Antonio Heitor


    Full Text Available We apply Constructal theory to the study of the flow structure of the human respiratory tree. We show that the flow architecture that would per form oxygenation of the blood and removal of carbon dioxide best, i. e. with lowest resistance, would be composed of a channel system with 23 bifurcation with a diffusive zone (alveolus at the end. As this tree matches the human respiratory tree we conclude that nature has optimized it in time. Two constructal relation ships also emerge: (1 the length l, de fined by the ratio of the square of the airway diameter to its length, is constant for all individuals of the same species, and (2 the length γ is related to the volume of the space al located to the respiratory process, to the length of the respiratory tree and to the area of the alveoli, and determines univocally the branching level of the respiratory tree.

  16. Free surface flows under compensated gravity conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyer, Miachel E


    This book considers the behavior of fluids in a low-gravity environment with special emphasis on application in PMD (propellant management device) systems . In the compensated gravity environment of a spacecraft, the hydrostatic pressure decreases to very low values depending on the residual acceleration, and surface tension forces become dominant. Consequently, surface tension can be used to transport and position liquids if the residual acceleration and the resulting hydrostatic pressure are small compared to the capillary pressure. One prominent application is the use of PMDs in surface-tension satellite tanks. PMDs must ensure that the tank outlet is covered with liquid whenever outflow is demanded. Furthermore, PMDs are used to ensure expulsion and refilling of tanks for liquids and gases for life support, reactants, and experiment supplies. Since most of the PMD designs are not testable on ground and thus rely on analytical or numerical concepts, this book treats three different flow problems with analy...

  17. Exploration technology surface systems: Surface Habitats And Construction (SHAC) (United States)

    Hirschbein, Murray


    The objectives of exploration technology program - surface systems are: (1) to develop technology emplace and to build an outpost on the moon and Mars; and (2) to develop concepts for permanent habitats and enclosures on the Moon and Mars.

  18. Surface Effects on Nanoscale Gas Flows (United States)

    Beskok, Ali; Barisik, Murat


    3D MD simulations of linear Couette flow of argon gas confined within nano-scale channels are performed in the slip, transition and free molecular flow regimes. The velocity and density profiles show deviations from the kinetic theory based predictions in the near wall region that typically extends three molecular diameters (s) from each surface. Utilizing the Irwin-Kirkwood theorem, stress tensor components for argon gas confined in nano-channels are investigated. Outside the 3s region, three normal stress components are identical, and equal to pressure predicted using the ideal gas law, while the shear stress is a constant. Within the 3s region, the normal stresses become anisotropic and the shear stress shows deviations from its bulk value due to the surface virial effects. Utilizing the kinetic theory and MD predicted shear stress values, the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient for argon gas interacting with FCC structured walls (100) plane facing the fluid is calculated to be 0.75; this value is independent of the Knudsen number. Results show emergence of the 3s region as an additional characteristic length scale in nano-confined gas flows.

  19. Surface and Flow Field Measurements on the FAITH Hill Model (United States)

    Bell, James H.; Heineck, James T.; Zilliac, Gregory; Mehta, Rabindra D.; Long, Kurtis R.


    A series of experimental tests, using both qualitative and quantitative techniques, were conducted to characterize both surface and off-surface flow characteristics of an axisymmetric, modified-cosine-shaped, wall-mounted hill named "FAITH" (Fundamental Aero Investigates The Hill). Two separate models were employed: a 6" high, 18" base diameter machined aluminum model that was used for wind tunnel tests and a smaller scale (2" high, 6" base diameter) sintered nylon version that was used in the water channel facility. Wind tunnel and water channel tests were conducted at mean test section speeds of 165 fps (Reynolds Number based on height = 500,000) and 0.1 fps (Reynolds Number of 1000), respectively. The ratio of model height to boundary later height was approximately 3 for both tests. Qualitative techniques that were employed to characterize the complex flow included surface oil flow visualization for the wind tunnel tests, and dye injection for the water channel tests. Quantitative techniques that were employed to characterize the flow included Cobra Probe to determine point-wise steady and unsteady 3D velocities, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to determine 3D velocities and turbulence statistics along specified planes, Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) to determine mean surface pressures, and Fringe Imaging Skin Friction (FISF) to determine surface skin friction (magnitude and direction). This initial report summarizes the experimental set-up, techniques used, data acquired and describes some details of the dataset that is being constructed for use by other researchers, especially the CFD community. Subsequent reports will discuss the data and their interpretation in more detail

  20. Construction of the two-phase critical flow test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, C. H.; Chang, S. K.; Park, H. S.; Min, K. H.; Choi, N. H.; Kim, C. H.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, H. C.; Chang, M. H.


    The two-phase critical test loop facility has been constructed in the KAERI engineering laboratory for the simulation of small break loss of coolant accident entrained with non-condensible gas of SMART. The test facility can operate at 12 MPa of pressure and 0 to 60 C of sub-cooling with 0.5 kg/s of non- condensible gas injection into break flow, and simulate up to 20 mm of pipe break. Main components of the test facility were arranged such that the pressure vessel containing coolant, a test section simulating break and a suppression tank inter-connected with pipings were installed vertically. As quick opening valve opens, high pressure/temperature coolant flows through the test section forming critical two-phase flow into the suppression tank. The pressure vessel was connected to two high pressure N2 gas tanks through a control valve to control pressure in the pressure vessel. Another N2 gas tank was also connected to the test section for the non-condensible gas injection. The test facility operation was performed on computers supported with PLC systems installed in the control room, and test data such as temperature, break flow rate, pressure drop across test section, gas injection flow rate were all together gathered in the data acquisition system for further data analysis. This test facility was classified as a safety related high pressure gas facility in law. Thus the loop design documentation was reviewed, and inspected during construction of the test loop by the regulatory body. And the regulatory body issued permission for the operation of the test facility

  1. Comparing two surface flow wetlands for removal of nutrients in agricultural drainage water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Levesen, Bo

    In Denmark there is a growing interest for using constructed wetlands as a mean for removal of nutrients from agricultural run-off, such as drainage ditches and tile drainage systems. We have studied two surface flow constructed wetlands from district Vejle, Jutland, Denmark. The Vicarage Wetland.......020 mg P and unfiltered TP decreases with 75 % to 0.040 mg P l-1. The results from this study seem to indicate that constructed surface flow wetlands are able to remove nitrogen and retain phosphorus from agricultural drainage run-off although the nutrient concentrations are much lower as compared...

  2. Turbulent Flow past High Temperature Surfaces (United States)

    Mehmedagic, Igbal; Thangam, Siva; Carlucci, Pasquale; Buckley, Liam; Carlucci, Donald


    Flow over high-temperature surfaces subject to wall heating is analyzed with applications to projectile design. In this study, computations are performed using an anisotropic Reynolds-stress model to study flow past surfaces that are subject to radiative flux. The model utilizes a phenomenological treatment of the energy spectrum and diffusivities of momentum and heat to include the effects of wall heat transfer and radiative exchange. The radiative transport is modeled using Eddington approximation including the weighted effect of nongrayness of the fluid. The time-averaged equations of motion and energy are solved using the modeled form of transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy and the scalar form of turbulence dissipation with an efficient finite-volume algorithm. The model is applied for available test cases to validate its predictive capabilities for capturing the effects of wall heat transfer. Computational results are compared with experimental data available in the literature. Applications involving the design of projectiles are summarized. Funded in part by U.S. Army, ARDEC.

  3. Construction, specification, and mathematical description of aspheric surfaces. (United States)

    Smith, G; Atchison, D A


    Rotationally symmetrical aspheric surfaces of spectacle lenses are constructed as either "zonal aspherics" or "continuous aspherics." Zonal aspherics consist of annular zones surrounding a central zone with each zone being nominally spherical with progressively lower surface power the farther the zone is from the surface vertex. Aspheric surfaces are often specified by the radial drop in surface power from the center to the edge of the lens (e.g., Welsh Four-drop), but for assessment purposes the surface shape must be specified more precisely. The formulas for the description of continuous aspherics can be manipulated into different forms. Mathematical descriptions are given or developed which will enable theoretical assessment of the performances of all lenses with rotationally symmetrical aspheric surfaces.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANCIU Alexandru Lucian


    Full Text Available The article, as a new concept, analyzes the notion of « pulsating flow », the physical phenomenon seen when emptying bottles of PET or Tetra Pak; which do not have a disposal system of the vacuum created while emptying them, situation in which the fluid stream becomes oscillating in terms of the speed and the flow of the fluid passing through the drain area / section. Pulsating flow is a result of the vacuum created in the container, as opposed to laminar and turbulent flow whose existence is determined by the relative speed of the layers of fluid and the friction forces [2]. In the paper I present some new constructive solutions, designed by AutoCAD and created physically with rapid-prototyping

  5. Influence of flow velocity on the removal of faecal coliforms in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland. (United States)

    Lohay, W S; Lyimo, T J; Njau, K N


    In order to determine the influence of flow velocity on the removal of faecal coliforms (FC) in constructed wetlands (CWs), removal rate constants of FC (k(FC)) were studied at various flow velocities (u). Membrane filtration technique was used during analysis. Values of k(FC) were determined using Reed's equation of pathogen removal; the results were compared with the plug flow equation. According to Reed's equation, k(FC) values ranged from 1.6 day⁻¹ at a velocity of 4 m/day to 34.5 day⁻¹ at a velocity of 42.9 m/day. The removal rates correlated positively with flow velocity (r = 0.84, p < 0.05). On assuming a plug flow equation, removal rates constants ranged from 0.77 to 11.69 day⁻¹; a more positive correlation (r = 0.93, p < 0.05) was observed. Optimum removal rate constants were observed for the velocity ranging 36 to 43 m/day. Generally, the increase of flow velocity improved FC removal rate constants: implying that pathogen removals are influenced by diffusion of the microorganisms into the biofilms on CW media. The velocity dependent approach together with the plug flow equation is therefore proposed for incorporation in the design of CW in a tropical climate where temperature variations are minor.

  6. Validation of groundwater flow model using the change of groundwater flow caused by the construction of AESPOE hard rock laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Takuma; Tanaka, Yasuharu


    A numerical model based on results during pre-investigation phases was applied to the groundwater flow change caused by the construction of AEspoe HRL. The drawdowns and chloride concentration during tunnel construction were simulated to validate the numerical model. The groundwater flow was induced by inflow from the Baltic Sea to the tunnel through the hydraulic conductor domain (HCD). The time series of tunnel progress and inflow, boundaries of the Baltic Sea, transmissivity and geometry of HCD are therefore important in representing the groundwater flow. The numerical model roughly represented the groundwater flow during tunnel construction. These simulations were effective in validating the numerical model for groundwater flow and solute transport. (author)

  7. Construction of the migration flows forecasting into Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Tarasyev


    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic model that can predict the dynamics of migration flows between source countries and host regions, as well as the dynamics of wage levels there. The model is constructed within the framework of neoclassical economics and human capital theory in continuous time. Thanks to liberalization of migration policy in Russia in 2007, the model could be successfully employed to Russian regions and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS, which have visa-free entry regulations with the Russian Federation. Employing the model on statistical data, we forecast the number and origin composition of foreign labor force from the CIS into Russian regions for 2010-2016. The purpose of our further research is to classify migrants by skills

  8. Towards New Membrane Flow from de Wit-Nicolai Construction (United States)

    Ahn, Changhyun; Paeng, Jinsub; Woo, Kyungsung

    The internal 4-form field strengths with 7-dimensional indices have been constructed by de Wit and Nicolai in 1986. They are determined by the following six quantities: the 56-bein of 4-dimensional ${\\mathcal N} = 8$ gauged supergravity, the Killing vectors on the round seven-sphere, the covariant derivative acting on these Killing vectors, the warp factor, the field strengths with 4-dimensional indices and the 7-dimensional metric. In this paper, by projecting out the remaining mixed 4-form field strengths in an SU(8) tensor that appears in the variation of spin-½ fermionic sector, we also write down them explicitly in terms of some of the above quantities. For the known critical points, the ${\\mathcal N} = 8$ $SO(8)$ point and the nonsupersymmetric SO(7)+ point, we reproduce the corresponding 11-dimensional uplifts by computing the full nonlinear expressions. Moreover, we find out the 11-dimensional lift of the nonsupersymmetric SO(7)+ invariant flow. We decode their implicit formula for the first time and the present work will provide how to obtain the new supersymmetric or nonsupersymmetric membrane flows in 11 dimensions.

  9. RIPPLE: A new model for incompressible flows with free surfaces (United States)

    Kothe, D. B.; Mjolsness, R. C.


    A new free surface flow model, RIPPLE, is summarized. RIPPLE obtains finite difference solutions for incompressible flow problems having strong surface tension forces at free surfaces of arbitrarily complex topology. The key innovation is the Continuum Surface Force (CSF) model which represents surface tension as a (strongly) localized volume force. Other features include a high-order momentum advection model, a volume-of-fluid free surface treatment, and an efficient two-step projection solution method. RIPPLE'S unique capabilities are illustrated with two example problems: low-gravity jet-induced tank flow, and the collision and coalescence of two cylindrical rods.

  10. RIPPLE - A new model for incompressible flows with free surfaces (United States)

    Kothe, D. B.; Mjolsness, R. C.


    A new free surface flow model, RIPPLE, is summarized. RIPPLE obtains finite difference solutions for incompressible flow problems having strong surface tension forces at free surfaces of arbitrarily complex topology. The key innovation is the continuum surface force model which represents surface tension as a (strongly) localized volume force. Other features include a higher-order momentum advection model, a volume-of-fluid free surface treatment, and an efficient two-step projection solution method. RIPPLE's unique capabilities are illustrated with two example problems: low-gravity jet-induced tank flow, and the collision and coalescence of two cylindrical rods.

  11. Surface roughness influences on the behaviour of flow inside microchannels (United States)

    Farias, M. H.; Castro, C. S.; Garcia, D. A.; Henrique, J. S.


    This work discusses influence of the surface roughness on the behavior of liquids flowing inside microchannels. By measuring the flow profile using the micro-PIV technique, the flow of water inside two rectangular microchannels of different wall roughness and in a circular smooth microchannel was studied. Comparisons were made among the experimental results, showing that a metrological approach concerning surface characteristics of microdevices is required to ensure reliability of the measurements for flow analyses in microfluidic processes.

  12. Removal of nutrients from septic tank effluent with baffle subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (United States)

    Lihu Cui; Ying Ouyang; Weizhi Yang; Zhujian Huang; Qiaoling Xu; Guangwei Yu


    Three new baffle flow constructed wetlands (CWs), namely the baffle horizontal flow CW (Z1), baffle vertical flow CW (Z2) and baffle hybrid flow CW (Z3), along with one traditional horizontal subsurface flow CW (Z4) were designed to test the removal efficiency of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the septic tank effluent under varying hydraulic retention times (HRTs...

  13. Habitats and Surface Construction Technology and Development Roadmap (United States)

    Cohen, Marc; Kennedy, Kriss J.


    The vision of the technology and development teams at NASA Ames and Johnson Research Centers is to provide the capability for automated delivery and emplacement of habitats and surface facilities. The benefits of the program are as follows: Composites and Inflatables: 30-50% (goal) lighter than Al Hard Structures; Capability for Increased Habitable Volume, Launch Efficiency; Long Term Growth Potential; and Supports initiation of commercial and industrial expansion. Key Habitats and Surface Construction (H&SC) technology issues are: Habitat Shell Structural Materials; Seals and Mechanisms; Construction and Assembly: Automated Pro-Deploy Construction Systems; ISRU Soil/Construction Equipment: Lightweight and Lower Power Needs; Radiation Protection (Health and Human Performance Tech.); Life Support System (Regenerative Life Support System Tech.); Human Physiology of Long Duration Space Flight (Health and Human Performance Tech.); and Human Psychology of Long Duration Space Flight (Health and Human Performance Tech.) What is being done regarding these issues?: Use of composite materials for X-38 CRV, RLV, etc.; TransHAB inflatable habitat design/development; Japanese corporations working on ISRU-derived construction processes. What needs to be done for the 2004 Go Decision?: Characterize Mars Environmental Conditions: Civil Engineering, Material Durability, etc.; Determine Credibility of Inflatable Structures for Human Habitation; and Determine Seal Technology for Mechanisms and Hatches, Life Cycle, and Durability. An overview encompassing all of the issues above is presented.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of shark skin texture surfaces for microchannel flow (United States)

    Yu, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Hao-Chun; Guo, Yang-Yu; Tan, He-Ping; Li, Yao; Xie, Gong-Nan


    The studies of shark skin textured surfaces in flow drag reduction provide inspiration to researchers overcoming technical challenges from actual production application. In this paper, three kinds of infinite parallel plate flow models with microstructure inspired by shark skin were established, namely blade model, wedge model and the smooth model, according to cross-sectional shape of microstructure. Simulation was carried out by using FLUENT, which simplified the computation process associated with direct numeric simulations. To get the best performance from simulation results, shear-stress transport k-omega turbulence model was chosen during the simulation. Since drag reduction mechanism is generally discussed from kinetics point of view, which cannot interpret the cause of these losses directly, a drag reduction rate was established based on the second law of thermodynamics. Considering abrasion and fabrication precision in practical applications, three kinds of abraded geometry models were constructed and tested, and the ideal microstructure was found to achieve best performance suited to manufacturing production on the basis of drag reduction rate. It was also believed that bionic shark skin surfaces with mechanical abrasion may draw more attention from industrial designers and gain wide applications with drag-reducing characteristics.

  15. Viscous flows stretching and shrinking of surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Mehmood, Ahmer


    This authored monograph provides a detailed discussion of the boundary layer flow due to a moving plate. The topical focus lies on the 2- and 3-dimensional case, considering axially symmetric and unsteady flows. The author derives a criterion for the self-similar and non-similar flow, and the turbulent flow due to a stretching or shrinking sheet is also discussed. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of boundary layer flow, but the book will also be beneficial for graduate students.

  16. New advection schemes for free surface flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavan, Sara


    The purpose of this thesis is to build higher order and less diffusive schemes for pollutant transport in shallow water flows or 3D free surface flows. We want robust schemes which respect the main mathematical properties of the advection equation with relatively low numerical diffusion and apply them to environmental industrial applications. Two techniques are tested in this work: a classical finite volume method and a residual distribution technique combined with a finite element method. For both methods we propose a decoupled approach since it is the most advantageous in terms of accuracy and CPU time. Concerning the first technique, a vertex-centred finite volume method is used to solve the augmented shallow water system where the numerical flux is computed through an Harten-Lax-Van Leer-Contact Riemann solver. Starting from this solution, a decoupled approach is formulated and is preferred since it allows to compute with a larger time step the advection of a tracer. This idea was inspired by Audusse, E. and Bristeau, M.O. [13]. The Monotonic Upwind Scheme for Conservation Law, combined with the decoupled approach, is then used for the second order extension in space. The wetting and drying problem is also analysed and a possible solution is presented. In the second case, the shallow water system is entirely solved using the finite element technique and the residual distribution method is applied to the solution of the tracer equation, focusing on the case of time-dependent problems. However, for consistency reasons the resolution of the continuity equation must be considered in the numerical discretization of the tracer. In order to get second order schemes for unsteady cases a predictor-corrector scheme is used in this work. A first order but less diffusive version of the predictor-corrector scheme is also introduced. Moreover, we also present a new locally semi-implicit version of the residual distribution method which, in addition to good properties in

  17. Local grid refinement for free-surface flow simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plas, Peter


    The principal goal of the current study is to explore and investigate the potential of local grid refinement for increasing the numerical efficiency of free-surface flow simulations in a practical context. In this thesis we propose a method for local grid refinement in the free-surface flow model

  18. Wetting Controls Separation of Inertial Flows from Solid Surfaces (United States)

    Duez, Cyril; Ybert, Christophe; Clanet, Christophe; Bocquet, Lydéric


    We investigate the flow of liquids around solid surfaces in the inertial regime, a situation commonly encountered with the so-called “teapot effect”, the annoying tendency for a liquid to trickle down the outside of a receptacle after pouring. We demonstrate that surface wettability is an unexpected key factor in controlling flow separation and trickling, the latter being completely suppressed in the limit of superhydrophobic substrates. This unforeseen coupling is rationalized in terms of an inertial-capillary adhesion framework, which couples inertial flows to surface wettability effects. This description of flow separation successfully captures the observed dependence on the various experimental parameters, wettability, flow velocity, solid surface edge curvature. As a further illustration of this coupling, a real-time control of flow separation is demonstrated using electrowetting for contact angle actuation.

  19. Influence of slip-surface geometry on earth-flow deformation, Montaguto earth flow, southern Italy (United States)

    Guerriero, L.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Revellio, P.; Grelle, G.; Pinto, F.; Guadagno, F.


    We investigated relations between slip-surface geometry and deformational structures and hydrologic features at the Montaguto earth flow in southern Italy between 1954 and 2010. We used 25 boreholes, 15 static cone-penetration tests, and 22 shallow-seismic profiles to define the geometry of basal- and lateral-slip surfaces; and 9 multitemporal maps to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of normal faults, thrust faults, back-tilted surfaces, strike-slip faults, flank ridges, folds, ponds, and springs. We infer that the slip surface is a repeating series of steeply sloping surfaces (risers) and gently sloping surfaces (treads). Stretching of earth-flow material created normal faults at risers, and shortening of earth-flow material created thrust faults, back-tilted surfaces, and ponds at treads. Individual pairs of risers and treads formed quasi-discrete kinematic zones within the earth flow that operated in unison to transmit pulses of sediment along the length of the flow. The locations of strike-slip faults, flank ridges, and folds were not controlled by basal-slip surface topography but were instead dependent on earth-flow volume and lateral changes in the direction of the earth-flow travel path. The earth-flow travel path was strongly influenced by inactive earth-flow deposits and pre-earth-flow drainages whose positions were determined by tectonic structures. The implications of our results that may be applicable to other earth flows are that structures with strikes normal to the direction of earth-flow motion (e.g., normal faults and thrust faults) can be used as a guide to the geometry of basal-slip surfaces, but that depths to the slip surface (i.e., the thickness of an earth flow) will vary as sediment pulses are transmitted through a flow.

  20. The construction of drape surfaces with constrained first derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Fossati


    Full Text Available The need to construct optimal drape surfaces arises in airborne geophysical surveys where it is necessary to fly a safe distance above the ground and within the performance of the aircraft used, but as close as possible to the surface. The problem is formulated as an LP with constraints at every point of a grid covering the area concerned, yielding a huge problem. The lifting algorithm is suggested. This is a surprisingly simple algorithm which starts with the drape surface at ground level and lifts it one point at a time. Only points which are too low relative to one or more of their neighbours are considered and they are lifted just enough to bring them into kilter with their neighbours. It is shown that the lifting algorithm is both exact and has great speed advantages. Some numerical results confirming exactness and speed are presented. An enhanced method with better complexity is proposed and tested numerically.

  1. Liquid flow along a solid surface reversibly alters interfacial chemistry. (United States)

    Lis, Dan; Backus, Ellen H G; Hunger, Johannes; Parekh, Sapun H; Bonn, Mischa


    In nature, aqueous solutions often move collectively along solid surfaces (for example, raindrops falling on the ground and rivers flowing through riverbeds). However, the influence of such motion on water-surface interfacial chemistry is unclear. In this work, we combine surface-specific sum frequency generation spectroscopy and microfluidics to show that at immersed calcium fluoride and fused silica surfaces, flow leads to a reversible modification of the surface charge and subsequent realignment of the interfacial water molecules. Obtaining equivalent effects under static conditions requires a substantial change in bulk solution pH (up to 2 pH units), demonstrating the coupling between flow and chemistry. These marked flow-induced variations in interfacial chemistry should substantially affect our understanding and modeling of chemical processes at immersed surfaces. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. 3D Additive Construction with Regolith for Surface Systems (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.


    Planetary surface exploration on Asteroids, the Moon, Mars and Martian Moons will require the stabilization of loose, fine, dusty regolith to avoid the effects of vertical lander rocket plume impingement, to keep abrasive and harmful dust from getting lofted and for dust free operations. In addition, the same regolith stabilization process can be used for 3 Dimensional ( 3D) printing, additive construction techniques by repeating the 2D stabilization in many vertical layers. This will allow in-situ construction with regolith so that materials will not have to be transported from Earth. Recent work in the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Surface Systems Office (NE-S) Swamp Works and at the University of Southern California (USC) under two NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) awards have shown promising results with regolith (crushed basalt rock) materials for in-situ heat shields, bricks, landing/launch pads, berms, roads, and other structures that could be fabricated using regolith that is sintered or mixed with a polymer binder. The technical goals and objectives of this project are to prove the feasibility of 3D printing additive construction using planetary regolith simulants and to show that they have structural integrity and practical applications in space exploration.

  3. Construction of yeast surface-displayed cDNA libraries. (United States)

    Bidlingmaier, Scott; Liu, Bin


    Using yeast display, heterologous protein fragments can be efficiently displayed at high copy levels on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall. Yeast display can be used to screen large expressed protein libraries for proteins or protein fragments with specific binding properties. Recently, yeast surface-displayed cDNA libraries have been constructed and used to identify proteins that bind to various target molecules such as peptides, small molecules, and antibodies. Because yeast protein expression pathways are similar to those found in mammalian cells, human protein fragments displayed on the yeast cell wall are likely to be properly folded and functional. Coupled with fluorescence-activated cell sorting, yeast surface-displayed cDNA libraries potentially allow the selection of protein fragments or domains with affinity for any soluble molecule that can be fluorescently detected. In this report, we describe protocols for the construction and validation of yeast surface-displayed cDNA libraries using preexisting yeast two-hybrid cDNA libraries as a starting point.

  4. Construction of mechanically durable superhydrophobic surfaces by thermal spray deposition and further surface modification (United States)

    Chen, Xiuyong; Gong, Yongfeng; Suo, Xinkun; Huang, Jing; Liu, Yi; Li, Hua


    Here we report a simple and cost-effective technical route for constructing superhydrophobic surfaces with excellent abrasion resistance on various substrates. Rough surface structures were fabricated by thermal spray deposition of a variety of inorganic materials, and further surface modification was made by applying a thin layer of polytetrafluoroethylene. Results show that the Al, Cu, or NiCrBSi coatings with the surface roughness of up to 13.8 μm offer rough surface profile to complement the topographical morphology in micro-/nano-scaled sizes, and the hydrophobic molecules facilitate the hydrophobicity. The contact angles of water droplets of ∼155° with a sliding angle of up to 3.5° on the samples have been achieved. The newly constructed superhydrophobic coatings tolerate strong abrasion, giving clear insight into their long-term functional applications.

  5. Side Flow Effect on Surface Generation in Nano Cutting. (United States)

    Xu, Feifei; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xiaodong


    The side flow of material in nano cutting is one of the most important factors that deteriorate the machined surface quality. The effects of the crystallographic orientation, feed, and the cutting tool geometry, including tool edge radius, rake angle and inclination angle, on the side flow are investigated employing molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that the stagnation region is formed in front of tool edge and it is characterized by the stagnation radius R s and stagnation height h s . The side flow is formed because the material at or under the stagnation region is extruded by the tool edge to flow to the side of the tool edge. Higher stagnation height would increase the size of the side flow. The anisotropic nature of the material which partly determines the stagnation region also influences the side flow due to the different deformation mechanism under the action of the tool edge. At different cutting directions, the size of the side flow has a great difference which would finally affect the machined surface quality. The cutting directions of {100} , {110} , and {110}  are beneficial to obtain a better surface quality with small side flow. Besides that, the side flow could be suppressed by reducing the feed and optimizing the cutting tool geometry. Cutting tool with small edge radius, large positive rake angle, and inclination angle would decrease the side flow and consequently improve the machined surface quality.

  6. Controlling inertia dominated flows with super-repellent surfaces (United States)

    Ybert, Christophe


    The possibility to affect liquid flows through surface properties was naturally put forward by the recent emergence of small-scales fluidic devices, as downsizing invariably emphasizes the role of surfaces, with respect to bulk properties. Such strategy of flow modification by surface effects is a priori restricted to the natural scales setting the interactions between the surface and the nearby liquid that is, essentially to nanometric scales. In this context, super-repellent surfaces have emerged as possessing not only remarkable (non-)wetting properties but also unique dynamical properties. The latter manifest on their ability to promote large boundary slippage, characterized by slip lengths from 1 to hundreds of microns, that make them capable of modifying flows up such micro-scales. More fundamentally, this raises the question of how far this strategy of flow control through surfaces can be pushed, and of how deep the modification of liquid flows close to super-repellent surface is: can it persist at large scales or large velocities? After briefly going through the properties of super-repellent surfaces in laminar viscous flows, I will discuss their impact on different macro-scale experimental configurations involving inertia-dominated flows. Focusing on splashing and dripping phenomena - the latter being associated to the well-known teapot effect- I will show that although surface effects are usually ignored in such situations, in view of the large values of the Weber number, it is still possible to shape the liquid flows by tailoring surface properties, with optimized effects obtained for super-repellent surfaces.

  7. Surface capturing and multigrid for steady free-surface water flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wackers, J.


    Surface capturing is a technique for modelling the water surface in numerical computations of water flow: the computational grid is not deformed, a separate surface model gives the location of the water surface in the grid. Surface capturing is generally applicable and can handle complicated ship

  8. Do Lateral Flows Matter for the Hyperresolution Land Surface Modeling? (United States)

    Ji, Peng; Yuan, Xing; Liang, Xin-Zhong


    Hyperresolution land surface modeling provides an unprecedented opportunity to simulate locally relevant water and energy cycle, but lateral surface and/or subsurface flows that are essential at fine scale are often neglected by most one-dimensional land surface models (LSMs). To analyze effects of lateral flows across scales, a Conjunctive Surface-Subsurface Process model, which considers soil moisture-surface flow interaction and quasi-three-dimensional subsurface flow, is implemented over a mountainous HyperHydro test bed in southwestern USA at different resolutions. Validation over more than 70 International Soil Moisture Network stations shows that there are significant improvements in soil moisture simulations from 30 km to 4 km as finer soil property and precipitation data are used, with correlation increased by 5%-16% and error decreased by 5%. Lateral surface flow has a significant influence on surface soil moisture and ground evaporation even at coarse resolution. Effect of lateral subsurface flow on soil moisture is nontrivial at 1 km or finer resolution especially over wet areas. At 100 m resolution, topography-induced lateral subsurface flow causes drier peaks and wetter valleys, decreases latent heat by 8% at peaks, while increases it by 12% at valleys. Furthermore, influences of lateral subsurface flow on ground evaporation and vegetation transpiration are more significant during dry season due to a stronger coupling between soil moisture and evapotranspiration. Therefore, it is worthy to incorporate lateral flow processes in hyperresolution LSMs to better represent water and energy heterogeneity even with limited hyperresolution meteorological and surface data.

  9. Flow Structure and Surface Topology on a UCAV Planform (United States)

    Elkhoury, Michel; Yavuz, Metin; Rockwell, Donald


    Flow past a X-45 UCAV planform involves the complex generation and interaction of vortices, their breakdown and occurrence of surface separation and stall. A cinema technique of high-image-density particle image velocimetry, in conjunction with dye visualization, allows characterization of the time-averaged and instantaneous states of the flow, in terms of critical points of the near-surface streamlines. These features are related to patterns of surface normal vorticity and velocity fluctuation. Spectral analysis of the naturally occurring unsteadiness of the flow allows definition of the most effective frequencies for small-amplitude perturbation of the wing, which leads to substantial alterations of the aforementioned patterns of flow structure and topology adjacent to the surface.

  10. Orientation of fibres in suspensions flowing over a solid surface


    Carlsson, Allan


    The orientation of fibres suspended in a viscous fluid, flowing over a solid surface, has been studied experimentally. A shear layer was generated, by letting the suspension flow down an inclined plate. Far upstream from the measuring section the suspension was accelerated to obtain an initial orientation of the fibres aligned with the flow direction. A CCD-camera was used to visualise the fibres. The velocity profile of the fibres coincided with the theoretical expression for fully developed...

  11. A new facility for studying plasma interacting with flowing liquid lithium surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, X.; Ou, W.; Tian, S.; Wang, C.; Zhu, Z.; Wang, J.; Gou, F.; Yang, D.; Chen, S.


    A new facility to study plasmas interacting with flowing liquid lithium surface was designed and is constructing in Sichuan University. The integrated setup includes the liquid lithium circulating part and linear high density plasma generator. The circulating part is consisted of main loop, on-line monitor system, lithium purification system and temperature programmed desorption system. In our group a linear high density plasma generator was built in 2012. Three coils were mounted along the vessel to produce an axial magnetic field inside. The magnetic field strength is up to 0.45 T and work continuously. Experiments on plasmas interacting with free flowing liquid lithium surface will be performed

  12. Rotating polygon instability of a swirling free surface flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tophøj, Laust Emil Hjerrild; Bohr, Tomas; Mougel, J.


    and centrifugal waves on the inner part. Our model is based on potential flow theory, linearized around a potential vortex flow with a free surface for which we show that unstable resonant states appear. Limiting our attention to the lowest order mode of each type of wave and their interaction, we obtain...

  13. Modeling of liquid flow in surface discontinuities (United States)

    Lobanova, I. S.; Meshcheryakov, V. A.; Kalinichenko, A. N.


    Polymer composite and metallic materials have found wide application in various industries such as aviation, rocket, car manufacturing, ship manufacturing, etc. Many design elements need permanent quality control. Ensuring high quality and reliability of products is impossible without effective nondestructive testing methods. One of these methods is penetrant testing using penetrating substances based on liquid penetration into defect cavities. In this paper, we propose a model of liquid flow to determine the rates of filling the defect cavities with various materials and, based on this, to choose optimal control modes.

  14. Integrated Surface/subsurface flow modeling in PFLOTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott L [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Understanding soil water, groundwater, and shallow surface water dynamics as an integrated hydrological system is critical for understanding the Earth’s critical zone, the thin outer layer at our planet’s surface where vegetation, soil, rock, and gases interact to regulate the environment. Computational tools that take this view of soil moisture and shallow surface flows as a single integrated system are typically referred to as integrated surface/subsurface hydrology models. We extend the open-source, highly parallel, subsurface flow and reactive transport simulator PFLOTRAN to accommodate surface flows. In contrast to most previous implementations, we do not represent a distinct surface system. Instead, the vertical gradient in hydraulic head at the land surface is neglected, which allows the surface flow system to be eliminated and incorporated directly into the subsurface system. This tight coupling approach leads to a robust capability and also greatly simplifies implementation in existing subsurface simulators such as PFLOTRAN. Successful comparisons to independent numerical solutions build confidence in the approximation and implementation. Example simulations of the Walker Branch and East Fork Poplar Creek watersheds near Oak Ridge, Tennessee demonstrate the robustness of the approach in geometrically complex applications. The lack of a robust integrated surface/subsurface hydrology capability had been a barrier to PFLOTRAN’s use in critical zone studies. This work addresses that capability gap, thus enabling PFLOTRAN as a community platform for building integrated models of the critical zone.

  15. Understanding turbulent free-surface vortex flows using a Taylor-Couette flow analogy. (United States)

    Mulligan, Sean; De Cesare, Giovanni; Casserly, John; Sherlock, Richard


    Free-surface vortices have long been studied to develop an understanding of similar rotating flow phenomena observed in nature and technology. However, a complete description of its turbulent three-dimensional flow field still remains elusive. In contrast, the related Taylor-Couette flow system has been well explicated which classically exhibits successive instability phases manifested in so-called Taylor vortices. In this study, observations made on the turbulent free-surface vortex revealed distinguishable, time-dependent "Taylor-like" vortices in the secondary flow field similar to the Taylor-Couette flow system. The observations were enabled by an original application of 2D ultrasonic Doppler velocity profiling complemented with laser induced fluorescence dye observations. Additional confirmation was provided by three-dimensional numerical simulations. Using Rayleigh's stability criterion, we analytically show that a wall bounded free-surface vortex can indeed become unstable due to a centrifugal driving force in a similar manner to the Taylor-Couette flow. Consequently, it is proposed that the free-surface vortex can be treated analogously to the Taylor-Couette flow permitting advanced conclusions to be drawn on its flow structure and the various states of free-surface vortex flow stability.

  16. The hydrodynamics of surface tidal flow exchange in saltmarshes (United States)

    Young, David L.; Bruder, Brittany L.; Haas, Kevin A.; Webster, Donald R.


    Modeling studies of estuary circulation show great sensitivity to the water exchange into and out of adjacent marshes, yet there is significant uncertainty in resolving the processes governing marsh surface flow. The objective of this study is to measure the estuary channel-to-saltmarsh pressure gradient and to guide parameterization for how it affects the surface flow in the high marsh. Current meters and high-resolution pressure transducers were deployed along a transect perpendicular to the nearby Little Ogeechee River in a saltmarsh adjacent to Rose Dhu Island near Savannah, Georgia, USA. The vertical elevations of the transducers were surveyed with static GPS to yield high accuracy water surface elevation data. It is found that water level differences between the Little Ogeechee River and neighboring saltmarsh are up to 15 cm and pressure gradients are up to 0.0017 m of water surface elevation change per m of linear distance during rising and falling tides. The resulting Little-Ogeechee-River-to-saltmarsh pressure gradient substantially affects tidal velocities at all current meter locations. At the velocity measurement station located closest to the Little Ogeechee River bank, the tidal velocity is nearly perpendicular to the bank. At this location, surface flow is effectively modeled as a balance between the pressure gradient force and the drag force due to marsh vegetation and bottom stress using the Darcy-Weisbach/Lindner's equations developed for flow-through-vegetation analysis in open channel flow. The study thus provides a direct connection between the pressure gradient and surface flow velocity in the high marsh, thereby overcoming a long-standing barrier in directly relating flow-through-saltmarsh studies to flow-through-vegetation studies in the open channel flow literature.

  17. Construction of force-free fields which have toroidal surfaces about a given surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouligand, G.


    A study of two-fields (B vector, rotB vector) of conservative flux which admits a family of toroidal surfaces of parameter phi on a domain limited by a given surface S, suggests their construction by a Cauchy-Arzela method of step by step. Taking into account the Newcomb condition this method is consistent with force-free magnetic fields and with helical equilibria with scalar pressure. The method supposes that B vector is of class C 1 . This construction makes use of the remarkable property of the field B vector to be the surface gradient of a generating multivalued function Q on a closed surface. Consequently, the initial surface will be given with its normal metric coefficient K; that is to say, B vector admits a family F of homotopic surfaces on a infinitesimal domain about S, an element of F. From this, the periodic part of Q is a solution of a Beltrami equation for the flux conservation of which numerical resolution is envisaged. The study of these fields is made in a biorthogonal system of coordinates. The coeffficients of the two fundamental metric forms of magnetic surfaces vary with phi and are interrelated by a sixth order differential system of equations which gives their variation [fr

  18. The Influence of Slope Breaks on Lava Flow Surface Disruption (United States)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Stephen M.; Fagents, Sarah A.; Wright, Robert


    Changes in the underlying slope of a lava flow impart a significant fraction of rotational energy beyond the slope break. The eddies, circulation and vortices caused by this rotational energy can disrupt the flow surface, having a significant impact on heat loss and thus the distance the flow can travel. A basic mechanics model is used to compute the rotational energy caused by a slope change. The gain in rotational energy is deposited into an eddy of radius R whose energy is dissipated as it travels downstream. A model of eddy friction with the ambient lava is used to compute the time-rate of energy dissipation. The key parameter of the dissipation rate is shown to be rho R(sup 2/)mu, where ? is the lava density and mu is the viscosity, which can vary by orders of magnitude for different flows. The potential spatial disruption of the lava flow surface is investigated by introducing steady-state models for the main flow beyond the steepening slope break. One model applies to slow-moving flows with both gravity and pressure as the driving forces. The other model applies to fast-moving, low-viscosity, turbulent flows. These models provide the flow velocity that establishes the downstream transport distance of disrupting eddies before they dissipate. The potential influence of slope breaks is discussed in connection with field studies of lava flows from the 1801 Hualalai and 1823 Keaiwa Kilauea, Hawaii, and 2004 Etna eruptions.

  19. Bending the urban flow: a construction-migration strategy. (United States)

    Shaw, R P


    The excess rate of migration to urban centers is a problem affecting over 50 developing countries and 18 developed ones (68% of the world's population). Policies that rely on compulsion or disincentives have mostly failed because they do not deal with the cause of the problem. This paper proposes a strategy of increasing or decreasing the rate of housing construction in different urban areas as a means of stimulating or reducing migration to those areas; in most developing areas priority is given to residential construction in already congested metropolitan areas. 5 assumptions are the basis for this approach: 1) migrants tend to gravitate to the most powerful growth poles; 2) residential construction is a leading sector of regional and urban economies; 3) the encouragement of construction activity will make itself felt indirectly via its effect on construction-related employment; 4) rates of residential construction may be manipulated through government policy affecting the cost of materials, availability of loans, level of unionization, and price of housing; and 5) residential construction is amenable to quick policy action. The central idea of the strategy is that an increase in residential construction will exercise a pull on migrants, increasing job opportunities, raising incomes, lowering housing costs, and improving the chances of home ownership. This idea has been verified by various projects in Hong Kong, Ghana, Venezuela, Brazil, Bahrain, Mexico, Colombia, Poland, USSR, and the UK. In Bahrain low-income housing programs have been used to relocate Bahraini nationals in new outlying suburbs and to promote population growth in rural villages. In Mexico self-help and low-income housing programs have helped to redirect migrants headed for small towns toward smaller communities. There is also evidence to show that building construction has the potential to expand and contribute to economic growth. Some problems of implementation might be finding an adequate

  20. Drag reduction induced by superhydrophobic surfaces in turbulent pipe flow (United States)

    Costantini, Roberta; Mollicone, Jean-Paul; Battista, Francesco


    The drag reduction induced by superhydrophobic surfaces is investigated in a turbulent pipe flow. Wetted superhydrophobic surfaces are shown to trap gas bubbles in their asperities. This stops the liquid from coming in direct contact with the wall in that location, allowing the flow to slip over the air bubbles. We consider a well-defined texture with streamwise grooves at the walls in which the gas is expected to be entrapped. This configuration is modeled with alternating no-slip and shear-free boundary conditions at the wall. With respect to the classical turbulent pipe flow, a substantial drag reduction is observed which strongly depends on the grooves' dimension and on the solid fraction, i.e., the ratio between the solid wall surface and the total surface of the pipe's circumference. The drag reduction is due to the mean slip velocity at the wall which increases the flow rate at a fixed pressure drop. The enforced boundary conditions also produce peculiar turbulent structures which on the contrary decrease the flow rate. The two concurrent effects provide an overall flow rate increase as demonstrated by means of the mean axial momentum balance. This equation provides the balance between the mean pressure gradient, the Reynolds stress, the mean flow rate, and the mean slip velocity contributions.

  1. Wetting and free surface flow modeling for potting and encapsulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Carlton, F.; Brooks, Michael J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Graham, Alan Lyman (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Noble, David F. (David Frederick) (.; )); Notz, Patrick K.; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mahoney, Leo James (Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, MO); Baer, Thomas A.; Berchtold, Kathryn (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Adolf, Douglas Brian; Wilkes, Edward Dean; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Givler, Richard C.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Cote, Raymond O.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Grillet, Anne Mary; Kraynik, Andrew Michael


    As part of an effort to reduce costs and improve quality control in encapsulation and potting processes the Technology Initiative Project ''Defect Free Manufacturing and Assembly'' has completed a computational modeling study of flows representative of those seen in these processes. Flow solutions are obtained using a coupled, finite-element-based, numerical method based on the GOMA/ARIA suite of Sandia flow solvers. The evolution of the free surface is solved with an advanced level set algorithm. This approach incorporates novel methods for representing surface tension and wetting forces that affect the evolution of the free surface. In addition, two commercially available codes, ProCAST and MOLDFLOW, are also used on geometries representing encapsulation processes at the Kansas City Plant. Visual observations of the flow in several geometries are recorded in the laboratory and compared to the models. Wetting properties for the materials in these experiments are measured using a unique flowthrough goniometer.

  2. Construction and analysis of compressible flow calculation algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, Jean-Antoine


    The aim of this study is to give a theoretical rationale of a 'paradox' related to the behavior at the stagnation point of some numerical solutions obtained by conventional methods for Eulerian non-equilibrium flows. This 'paradox' concerns the relationship between the solutions given by equilibrium and non-equilibrium models and was raised by several experts during the 'Workshop on Hypersonic Flows for Reentry Problems, Part 1. Antibes 1990'. In the first part, we show that equilibrium conditions are reached at the stagnation point and we analyse the sensitivity of these equilibrium conditions to the flow variables. In the second part, we develop an analysis of the behavior of the mathematical solution to an Eulerian non-equilibrium flow in the vicinity of the stagnation point, which gives an explanation to the described 'paradox'. Then, a numerical procedure, integrating the species convection equations projected on the stagnation point streamline in a Lagrangian time approach, gives a numerical support to the theoretical predictions. We also propose two numerical integration procedures, that allow us to recompute, starting from the equilibrium conditions at the stagnation point, the flow characteristics at the body. The validity limits of these procedures are discussed and the results obtained for a Workshop test-case are compared with the results given by several contributors. Finally, we survey briefly the influence of the local behavior of the solution on the coupling technique to a boundary layer calculation. (author) [fr

  3. Rigorous bounds on buoyancy flux in surface driven flows (United States)

    Caulfield, C. P.


    Stably stratified shear flows, where both the velocity and density vary with height, are common in environmentally and geophysically relevant flows. An understanding of constraints on mixing processes is essential for an improved parameterization of geophysical turbulence, in particular for appropriate modelling of the budgets of heat, salinity and momentum in larger scale models. Flows that are principally driven by surface-localized stresses (e.g. caused by wind) are particularly prevalent in geophysical flows. In this talk, I will derive rigorous bounds on the long-time averaged buoyancy flux for a class of such flows, using the background method developed by Doering & Constantin. Interestingly, flows that maximize the buoyancy flux can be directly related to laminar flows with stronger forcing. This is qualitatively different from other stratified mixing problems, for example in stratified plane Couette flow. This result suggests that quasi-laminar mixing, which is typically much more efficient than strongly turbulent mixing, may be the dominant process by which irreversible changes in density occur within such surface driven flows.

  4. Local mesh refinement for incompressible fluid flow with free surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terasaka, H.; Kajiwara, H.; Ogura, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Company (Japan)] [and others


    A new local mesh refinement (LMR) technique has been developed and applied to incompressible fluid flows with free surface boundaries. The LMR method embeds patches of fine grid in arbitrary regions of interest. Hence, more accurate solutions can be obtained with a lower number of computational cells. This method is very suitable for the simulation of free surface movements because free surface flow problems generally require a finer computational grid to obtain adequate results. By using this technique, one can place finer grids only near the surfaces, and therefore greatly reduce the total number of cells and computational costs. This paper introduces LMR3D, a three-dimensional incompressible flow analysis code. Numerical examples calculated with the code demonstrate well the advantages of the LMR method.

  5. Backward flow in a surface tension driven micropump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Jongil; Park, Joong Yull; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Kyung Chun; Kim, Hyundong; Berthier, Erwin; Beebe, David J


    A surface tension driven micropump harnessing the pressure difference generated by drops of different curvature radii proves to be a simple and attractive passive method to drive fluid flow in microdevices. Here we observed the appearance of backward flow when the initial sizes of the droplets at the inlet and outlet ports are similar. To explain this phenomenon several hypotheses have been investigated. Consideration of the inertia of the fluid in the channel revealed that it alone is insufficient to explain the observed backward flow. We discovered that rotational flow inside the outlet droplet could be a source of inertia, explaining the generation of the backward flow. In addition, we have experimentally determined that the ratio of the volumes of the initial outlet drop and inlet drop correlates with the occurrence of the backward flow. (note)

  6. Optimal conditions for chlorothalonil and dissolved organic carbon in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands. (United States)

    Rìos-Montes, Karina A; Casas-Zapata, Juan C; Briones-Gallardo, Roberto; Peñuela, Gustavo


    The most efficient system of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCW) for removing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the presence of chlorothalonil pesticide (CLT) present in synthetic domestic wastewater was determined using the macrophyte Phragmites australis. Two concentrations of CLT (85 and 385 μg L -1 ) and one concentration of glucose (20 mg L -1 ) were evaluated in four pilot scale horizontal surface flow constructed wetlands coupled with two sizes of silica gravel, igneous gravel, fine chalky gravel (3.18-6.35 mm), coarse gravel (12.70-25.40 mm) and two water surface heights (20 and 40 cm). For a month, wetlands were acclimated with domestic wastewater. Some groups of bacteria were also identified in the biofilm attached to the gravel. In each treatment periodic samplings were conducted in the influent and effluent. Chlorothalonil was quantified by gas chromatography (GC-ECD m), DOC by an organic carbon analyzer and bacterial groups using conventional microbiology in accordance with Standard Methods. The largest removals of DOC (85.82%-85.31%) were found when using fine gravel (3.18-6.35 mm) and the lower layer of water (20 cm). The bacterial groups quantified in the biofilm were total heterotrophic, revivable heterotrophic, Pseudomonas and total coliforms. The results of this study indicate that fine grain gravel (3.18-6.35 mm) and both water levels (20 to 40 cm) can be used in the removal of organic matter and for the treatment of agricultural effluents contaminated with organo-chloride pesticides like CLT in HSSFCW.

  7. Horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands for mitigation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contaminated water. AC Borges, M do Carmo Calijur, AT de Matos, MELR de Queiroz. Abstract. The feasibility of using constructed wetlands (CWs) for the mitigation of pesticide runoff has been studied in the last decade. However, a lack of related ...

  8. Warm season performance of horizontal subsurface flow constructed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental units were filled with substrate of either sand or gravel and operated under hydraulic retention times of 5 and 10 days. Constructed wetlands demonstrated a very good performance in removing organic matter, fecal indicator microorganisms and nutrients from the influent representing a good alternative for the ...

  9. Performance of Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland for Domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constructed wetlands (CW) have recently emerged as efficient technology for secondary treatment of wastewater in developing countries because of its low cost, ease operation, maintenance and generally good performance. At present there are a number of small scale units of CW for wastewater treatment in Tanzania but ...

  10. Real-time High-fidelity Surface Flow Simulation. (United States)

    Ren, Bo; Yuan, Tailing; Li, Chenfeng; Xu, Kun; Hu, Shi-Min


    Surface flow phenomena, such as rain water flowing down a tree trunk and progressive water front in a shower room, are common in real life. However, compared with the 3D spatial fluid flow, these surface flow problems have been much less studied in the graphics community. To tackle this research gap, we present an efficient, robust and high-fidelity simulation approach based on the shallow-water equations. Specifically, the standard shallow-water flow model is extended to general triangle meshes with a feature-based bottom friction model, and a series of coherent mathematical formulations are derived to represent the full range of physical effects that are important for real-world surface flow phenomena. In addition, by achieving compatibility with existing 3D fluid simulators and by supporting physically realistic interactions with multiple fluids and solid surfaces, the new model is flexible and readily extensible for coupled phenomena. A wide range of simulation examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the new approach.

  11. Hydraulic investigation on free surface flow of windowless target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chen; Gu Hanyang


    The formation and control of free surface are the most essential parts in the studies of windowless target in ACCELERATOR-DRIVEN sub-critical system (ADS). Water model experiments and 360° full scale three dimensional simulations were conducted. The experimental study demonstrates that the free surface is significantly affected by the inlet flow velocity and outlet pressure. The length of free surface decreases in the second order with the increase of inlet flow velocity, while it decreases linearly with the outlet pressure. The structure and feature of flow field were investigated. The results show that the free surface is vulnerable to the vortex movement. Transient simulations were performed with volume of fluid (VOF) method, large eddy simulation (LES) and the pressure implicit with splitting of operators (PISO) algorithm. The simulation results agree qualitatively well with the experimental data related to both free surface flow and flow field. These simulation models and methods are proved to be applicable in the hydraulic simulations of liquid heavy metal target. (authors)

  12. Applying isotope methods in flowing surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mook, W.G.


    The most frequent application of natural or environmental isotopes to investigate surface water is as tracer. Especially the natural variations in the 18 O/ 16 O ratio in rainfall are traced in streams and rivers. The isotopes deuterium, 13 C and 14 C enable refined applications such as the investigation of geochemical processes in waters. 18 O analyses are fairly fast (20 samples per day can be carried out) and require little water (1 to 10 ml). Therefore, the natural variations in the 18 O/ 16 O ratio of water are treated. There is a certain connection between the 18 O/ 16 O and D/H ratios in rainfall waters. 18 O analyses are somewhat easier to perform so that this technique is generally preferred. Additional D analyses are of great use in detecting geochemical processes, e.g. evaporation. Although tritium is still an important agent in hydrological studies, the concentration variations in nature are now lower than for 18 O compared to the usual experimental error. Furthermore, they are not so important geochemically. Accurate tritium measurements require relatively much time (1 or 2 analyses per day), are expensive (50 DM to 150 DM) and require more material (10 to 500 ml water), depending on the desired accuracy. The stable and radioactive carbon isotopes are mainly used in special cases to study certain geochemical processes. (orig./HK) [de


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Yean Yng Ling


    Full Text Available As extensive resources are expanded in transferring knowledge from universities to undergraduates, it is important for them to enter the workforce upon graduation to enable the knowledge to flow to the industry. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which knowledge flow is disrupted because graduate women are not entering the Singapore construction industry to ensure its sustainable growth. This study used a structured questionnaire, with data collected from 116 construction-trained graduate women via postal survey. Results show that 58% of them chose not to enter or are considering leaving the construction industry. The disruption in knowledge flow is due to better prospects in other industries (pull factor and poor job conditions within the construction industry (push factor. To retain graduate women in the construction industry, it is recommended that employers: introduce flexible work schedule; allow graduate women to work from home; and give them the same opportunities as their male counterparts.

  14. Towards New Membrane Flow from de Wit-Nicolai Construction


    Ahn, Changhyun; Paeng, Jinsub; Woo, Kyungsung


    The internal 4-form field strengths with 7-dimensional indices have been constructed by de Wit and Nicolai in 1986. They are determined by the following six quantities: the 56-bein of 4-dimensional N=8 gauged supergravity, the Killing vectors on the round seven-sphere, the covariant derivative acting on these Killing vectors, the warp factor, the field strengths with 4-dimensional indices and the 7-dimensional metric. In this paper, by projecting out the remaining mixed 4-form field strengths...

  15. Dynamics and Instabilities of Free Surface and Vortex Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tophøj, Laust Emil Hjerrild


    This PhD thesis consists of two main parts. The first part describes the dynamics of an ideal fluid on a stationary free surface of a given shape. It turns out that one can formulate a set of self-contained equations of momentum conservation for the tangential flow, with no reference to the flow ......)]. Finally, an experimental work on elastic collisions of wet spheres is briefly discussed....

  16. Effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhi [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Bone and Joint Surgery, The affiliated hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou 646000 (China); Qing, Quan [Sichuan College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Mianyang 621000 (China); Regenerative Medicine Research Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chen, Xi; Liu, Cheng-Jun; Luo, Jing-Cong [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Hu, Jin-Lian [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Qin, Ting-Wu, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)


    Highlights: • The shapes of tenocytes varied when seeded on different surface of scaffolds. • Tenocytes were flat on smooth surface and spindle on micro-grooved surface. • Tenocytes were ellipse or spindle on porous surface. • Tenocytes got varying adhesion shape and elongation index on varying surfaces. • The tenocyte survival on porous surface was superior to the other two groups. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs. Tenocytes were obtained from tail tendons of rats. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate three types of scaffolds with varying surface morphological characteristics, i.e., smooth, micro-grooved, and porous surfaces, respectively. The tenocytes were seeded on the surfaces of the scaffolds to form tenocyte-scaffold constructs. The constructs were cryopreserved in a vitreous cryoprotectant (CPA) with a multi-step protocol. The cell adhesion to scaffolds was observed with electronic scanning microscopy (SEM). The elongation index of the living tenocytes and ratio of live/dead cell number were examined based on a live/dead dual fluorescent staining technique, and the survival rate of tenocytes was studied with flow cytometry (FC). The results showed the shapes of tenocytes varied between the different groups: flat or polygonal (on smooth surface), spindle (on micro-grooved surface), and spindle or ellipse (on porous surface). After thawing, the porous surface got the most living tenocytes and a higher survival rate, suggesting its potential application for vitreous cryopreservation of engineered tendon constructs.

  17. Boundary conditions for soft glassy flows: slippage and surface fluidization. (United States)

    Mansard, Vincent; Bocquet, Lydéric; Colin, Annie


    We explore the question of surface boundary conditions for the flow of a dense emulsion. We make use of microlithographic tools to create surfaces with well controlled roughness patterns and measure using dynamic confocal microscopy both the slip velocity and the shear rate close to the wall, which we relate to the notion of surface fluidization. Both slippage and wall fluidization depend non-monotonously on the roughness. We interpret this behavior within a simple model in terms of the building of a stratified layer and the activation of plastic events by the surface roughness.

  18. Flow of viscous fluid along an exponentially stretching curved surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Okechi

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the boundary layer analysis of flow induced by rapidly stretching curved surface with exponential velocity. The governing boundary value problem is reduced into self-similar form using a new similarity transformation. The resulting equations are solved numerically using shooting and Runge-Kutta methods. The numerical results depicts that the fluid velocity as well as the skin friction coefficient increases with the surface curvature, similar trend is also observed for the pressure. The dimensionless wall shear stress defined for this problem is greater than that of a linearly stretching curved surface, but becomes comparably less for a surface stretching with a power-law velocity. In addition, the result for the plane surface is a special case of this study when the radius of curvature of the surface is sufficiently large. The numerical investigations presented in terms of the graphs are interpreted with the help of underlying physics of the fluid flow and the consequences arising from the curved geometry. Keywords: Boundary layer flow, Curved surface, Exponential stretching, Curvature

  19. Numerical simulations of viscoelastic flows with free surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri


    We present a new methodology to simulate viscoelastic flows with free-surfaces. These simulations are motivated by the modelling of polymers manufacturing techniques, such as extrusion and injection moulding. One of the consequences of viscoelasticity is that polymeric materials have a “memory......” of their past deformations. This generates some numerical difficulties which are addressed with the log-conformation transformation. The main novelty of this work lies on the use of the volume-of-fluid method to track the free surfaces of the viscoelastic flows. We present some preliminary results of test case...

  20. Biomolecular Nano-Flow-Sensor to Measure Near-Surface Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noji Hiroyuki


    Full Text Available Abstract We have proposed and experimentally demonstrated that the measurement of the near-surface flow at the interface between a liquid and solid using a 10 nm-sized biomolecular motor of F1-ATPase as a nano-flow-sensor. For this purpose, we developed a microfluidic test-bed chip to precisely control the liquid flow acting on the F1-ATPase. In order to visualize the rotation of F1-ATPase, several hundreds nanometer-sized particle was immobilized at the rotational axis of F1-ATPase to enhance the rotation to be detected by optical microscopy. The rotational motion of F1-ATPase, which was immobilized on an inner surface of the test-bed chip, was measured to obtain the correlation between the near-surface flow and the rotation speed of F1-ATPase. As a result, we obtained the relationship that the rotation speed of F1-ATPase was linearly decelerated with increasing flow velocity. The mechanism of the correlation between the rotation speed and the near-surface flow remains unclear, however the concept to use biomolecule as a nano-flow-sensor was proofed successfully. (See supplementary material 1 Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11671-009-9479-3 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Click here for file

  1. Flow structure from a horizontal cylinder coincident with a free surface in shallow water flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahraman Ali


    Full Text Available Vortex formation from a horizontal cylinder coincident with a free surface of a shallow water flow having a depth of 25.4 [mm] was experimentally investigated using the PIV technique. Instantaneous and time-averaged flow patterns in the wake region of the cylinder were examined for three different cylinder diameter values under the fully developed turbulent boundary layer condition. Reynolds numbers were in the range of 1124£ Re£ 3374 and Froude numbers were in the range of 0.41 £ Fr £ 0.71 based on the cylinder diameter. It was found that a jet-like flow giving rise to increasing the flow entrainment between the core and wake regions depending on the cylinder diameter was formed between the lower surface of the cylinder and bottom surface of the channel. Vorticity intensity, Reynolds stress correlations and the primary recirculating bubble lengths were grown to higher values with increasing the cylinder diameter. On the other hand, in the case of the lowest level of the jet-like flow emanating from the beneath of the smallest cylinder, the variation of flow characteristics were attenuated significantly in a shorter distance. The variation of the reattachment location of the separated flow to the free-surface is a strong function of the cylinder diameter and the Froude number.

  2. Removal of Nutrients from Septic Effluent with Re-circulated Hybrid Tidal Flow Constructed Wetland (United States)

    Lihua Cui; Jigkun Feng; Ying Ouyang; Peiwen. Deng


    Hybrid tidal flow constructed wetland (CW) with recirculation is an improved biological and engineering technique for removal of excess nutrients and certain pollutants from wastewater. This study investigated the removal efficiency of total phosphorus (TP), ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), and total nitrogen (TN) from septic tank effluent with the hybrid tidal flow CW system...

  3. On the flow magnitude and field-flow alignment at Earth's core surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Amit, H.

    We present a method to estimate the typical magnitude of flow close toEarth's core surface based on observational knowledge of the maingeomagnetic field (MF) and its secular variation (SV), together withprior information concerning field-flow alignment gleaned from numericaldynamo models. An expr......We present a method to estimate the typical magnitude of flow close toEarth's core surface based on observational knowledge of the maingeomagnetic field (MF) and its secular variation (SV), together withprior information concerning field-flow alignment gleaned from numericaldynamo models...... geomagnetic field model gufm1for the interval 1840.0 - 1990.0, the method predicts temporalvariations in flow magnitude similar to those found in earlier studies.The calculations rely primarily on knowledge of the MF and SV spectra;by extrapolating these beyond observed scales the influence of smallscales...

  4. Construction and demolition waste: Comparison of standard up-flow column and down-flow lysimeter leaching tests. (United States)

    Butera, Stefania; Hyks, Jiri; Christensen, Thomas H; Astrup, Thomas F


    Five samples of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) were investigated in order to quantify leaching of inorganic elements under percolation conditions according to two different experimental setups: standardised up-flow saturated columns (<4mm particle size) and unsaturated, intermittent down-flow lysimeters (<40mm particle size). While standardised column tests are meant primarily to provide basic information on characteristic leaching properties and mechanisms and not to reproduce field conditions, the lysimeters were intended to mimic the actual leaching conditions when C&DW is used in unbound geotechnical layers. In practice, results from standardised percolation tests are often interpreted as estimations of actual release from solid materials in percolation scenarios. In general, the two tests yielded fairly similar results in terms of cumulative release at liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) 10l·kgTS; however, significant differences were observed for P, Pb, Ba, Mg and Zn. Further differences emerged in terms of concentration in the early eluates (L/S<5l·kg(-1)TS) for Al, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, DOC, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Si, Zn. Observed differences between tests are likely to be due to differences in pH related to crushing and exposure of fresh particle surfaces, as well as in equilibrium conditions. In the case of C&DW, the standardised column tests, which are more practical, are considered to acceptably describe cumulative releases at L/S 10l·kg(-1)TS in percolation scenarios. However, when the focus is on estimation of initial concentrations for (for example) risk assessment, data from standardised column tests may not be fully applicable, and data from lysimeters may be used for validation purposes. Se, Cr and, to a lesser extent, SO4 and Sb were leaching from C&DW in critical amounts compared with existing limit values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Unsteady flow of a Maxwell fluid over a stretching surface in presence of chemical reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Mukhopadhyay


    Full Text Available An analysis is presented for unsteady two-dimensional flow of a Maxwell fluid over a stretching surface in presence of a first order constructive/destructive chemical reaction. Using suitable transformations, the governing partial differential equations are converted to ordinary one and are then solved numerically by shooting method. The flow fields and mass transfer are significantly influenced by the governing parameters. Fluid velocity initially decreases with increasing unsteadiness parameter and concentration decreases significantly due to unsteadiness. The effect of increasing values of the Maxwell parameter is to suppress the velocity field. But the concentration is enhanced with increasing Maxwell parameter.

  6. Solutal Marangoni flows of miscible liquids drive transport without surface contamination (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungsoo; Muller, Koen; Shardt, Orest; Afkhami, Shahriar; Stone, Howard A.


    Mixing and spreading of different liquids are omnipresent in nature, life and technology, such as oil pollution on the sea, estuaries, food processing, cosmetic and beverage industries, lab-on-a-chip devices, and polymer processing. However, the mixing and spreading mechanisms for miscible liquids remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that a fully soluble liquid drop deposited on a liquid surface remains as a static lens without immediately spreading and mixing, and simultaneously a Marangoni-driven convective flow is generated, which are counterintuitive results when two liquids have different surface tensions. To understand the dynamics, we develop a theoretical model to predict the finite spreading time and length scales, the Marangoni-driven convection flow speed, and the finite timescale to establish the quasi-steady state for the Marangoni flow. The fundamental understanding of this solutal Marangoni flow may enable driving bulk flows and constructing an effective drug delivery and surface cleaning approach without causing surface contamination by immiscible chemical species.

  7. Modeling Surface Water Flow in the Atchafalaya Basin (United States)

    Liu, K.; Simard, M.


    While most of the Mississippi River Delta is sinking due to insufficient sediment supply and subsidence, the stable wetlands and the prograding delta systems in the Atchafalaya Basin provide a unique opportunity to study the constructive interactions between riverine and marine forcings and their impacts upon coastal morphology. To better understand the hydrodynamics in this region, we developed a numerical modeling system for the water flow through the river channel - deltas - wetlands networks in the Atchafalaya Basin. Determining spatially varying model parameters for a large area composed of such diverse land cover types poses a challenge to developing an accurate numerical model. For example, the bottom friction coefficient can not be measured directly and the available elevation maps for the wetlands in the basin are inaccurate. To overcome these obstacles, we developed the modeling system in three steps. Firstly, we modeled river bathymetry based on in situ sonar transects and developed a simplified 1D model for the Wax Lake Outlet using HEC-RAS. Secondly, we used a Bayesian approach to calibrate the model automatically and infer important unknown parameters such as riverbank elevation and bottom friction coefficient through Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations. We also estimated the wetland elevation based on the distribution of different vegetation species in the basin. Thirdly, with the lessons learnt from the 1D model, we developed a depth-averaged 2D model for the whole Atchafalaya Basin using Delft3D. After calibrations, the model successfully reproduced the water levels measured at five gauges in the Wax Lake Outlet and the modeled water surface profile along the channel agreed reasonably well with our LIDAR measurements. In addition, the model predicted a one-hour delay in tidal phase from the Wax Lake Delta to the upstream gauge. In summary, this project presents a procedure to initialize hydrology model parameters that integrates field

  8. Mechanics of fluid flow over compliant wrinkled polymeric surfaces (United States)

    Raayai, Shabnam; McKinley, Gareth; Boyce, Mary


    Skin friction coefficients (based on frontal area) of sharks and dolphins are lower than birds, fish and swimming beetles. By either exploiting flow-induced changes in their flexible skin or microscale textures, dolphins and sharks can change the structure of the fluid flow around them and thus reduce viscous drag forces on their bodies. Inspired by this ability, investigators have tried using compliant walls and riblet-like textures as drag reduction methods in aircraft and marine industries and have been able to achieve reductions up to 19%. Here we investigate flow-structure interaction and wrinkling of soft polymer surfaces that can emulate shark riblets and dolphin's flexible skin. Wrinkling arises spontaneously as the result of mismatched deformation of a thin stiff coating bound to a thick soft elastic substrate. Wrinkles can be fabricated by controlling the ratio of the stiffness of the coating and substrate, the applied displacement and the thickness of the coating. In this work we will examine the evolution in the kinematic structures associated with steady viscous flow over the polymer wrinkled surfaces and in particular compare the skin friction with corresponding results for flow over non-textured and rigid surfaces.

  9. Multiscale Finite Element Methods for Flows on Rough Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin


    In this paper, we present the Multiscale Finite Element Method (MsFEM) for problems on rough heterogeneous surfaces. We consider the diffusion equation on oscillatory surfaces. Our objective is to represent small-scale features of the solution via multiscale basis functions described on a coarse grid. This problem arises in many applications where processes occur on surfaces or thin layers. We present a unified multiscale finite element framework that entails the use of transformations that map the reference surface to the deformed surface. The main ingredients of MsFEM are (1) the construction of multiscale basis functions and (2) a global coupling of these basis functions. For the construction of multiscale basis functions, our approach uses the transformation of the reference surface to a deformed surface. On the deformed surface, multiscale basis functions are defined where reduced (1D) problems are solved along the edges of coarse-grid blocks to calculate nodalmultiscale basis functions. Furthermore, these basis functions are transformed back to the reference configuration. We discuss the use of appropriate transformation operators that improve the accuracy of the method. The method has an optimal convergence if the transformed surface is smooth and the image of the coarse partition in the reference configuration forms a quasiuniform partition. In this paper, we consider such transformations based on harmonic coordinates (following H. Owhadi and L. Zhang [Comm. Pure and Applied Math., LX(2007), pp. 675-723]) and discuss gridding issues in the reference configuration. Numerical results are presented where we compare the MsFEM when two types of deformations are used formultiscale basis construction. The first deformation employs local information and the second deformation employs a global information. Our numerical results showthat one can improve the accuracy of the simulations when a global information is used. © 2013 Global-Science Press.

  10. Construction and demolition waste: Comparison of standard up-flow column and down-flow lysimeter leaching tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania; Hyks, Jiri; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    Five samples of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) were investigated in order to quantify leaching of inorganic elements under percolation conditions according to two different experimental setups: standardised up-flow saturated columns (-1TS) for Al, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, DOC, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb...

  11. Moving least squares simulation of free surface flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felter, C. L.; Walther, Jens Honore; Henriksen, Christian


    In this paper a Moving Least Squares method (MLS) for the simulation of 2D free surface flows is presented. The emphasis is on the governing equations, the boundary conditions, and the numerical implementation. The compressible viscous isothermal Navier–Stokes equations are taken as the starting ...

  12. [Optimization of aerobic/anaerobic subsurface flow constructed wetlands]. (United States)

    Li, Feng-Min; Shan, Shi; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yang; Wang, Zheng-Yu


    Previous studies showed that setting aerobic and anaerobic paragraph segments in the subsurface constructed wetlands (SFCWs) can improve the COD, NH4(+)-N, and TN removal rate, whereas the oxygen enrichment environment which produced by the artificial aeration could restrain the NO3(-)-N and NO2(-)-N removal process, and to a certain extent, inhibit the denitrification in SFCWs Therefore, in this research the structure and technology of SFCW with aerobic and anaerobic paragraph segments were optimized, by using the multi-point water inflow and setting the corresponding section for the extra pollutant removal. Results showed that with the hydraulic load of 0.06 m3 x (m2 x d)(-1), the COD, NH4(+)-N and TN removal efficiencies in the optimized SFCW achieved 91.6%, 100% and 87.7% respectively. COD/N increased to 10 speedily after the inflow supplement. The multi-point water inflow could add carbon sources, and simultaneously maximum utilization of wetland to remove pollutants. The optimized SFCW could achieve the purposes of purification process optimization, and provide theoretical basis and application foundation for improving the total nitrogen removal efficiency.

  13. Integral methods for shallow free-surface flows with separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, S.; Putkaradze, V.; Bohr, Tomas


    eddy and separated flow. Assuming a variable radial velocity profile as in Karman-Pohlhausen's method, we obtain a system of two ordinary differential equations for stationary states that can smoothly go through the jump. Solutions of the system are in good agreement with experiments. For the flow down...... an inclined plane we take a similar approach and derive a simple model in which the velocity profile is not restricted to a parabolic or self-similar form. Two types of solutions with large surface distortions are found: solitary, kink-like propagating fronts, obtained when the flow rate is suddenly changed......, and stationary jumps, obtained, for instance, behind a sluice gate. We then include time dependence in the model to study the stability of these waves. This allows us to distinguish between sub- and supercritical flows by calculating dispersion relations for wavelengths of the order of the width of the layer....


    Mikucki, Michael; Zhou, Y C


    This work presents a mathematical model for the localization of multiple species of diffusion molecules on membrane surfaces. Morphological change of bilayer membrane in vivo is generally modulated by proteins. Most of these modulations are associated with the localization of related proteins in the crowded lipid environments. We start with the energetic description of the distributions of molecules on curved membrane surface, and define the spontaneous curvature of bilayer membrane as a function of the molecule concentrations on membrane surfaces. A drift-diffusion equation governs the gradient flow of the surface molecule concentrations. We recast the energetic formulation and the related governing equations by using an Eulerian phase field description to define membrane morphology. Computational simulations with the proposed mathematical model and related numerical techniques predict (i) the molecular localization on static membrane surfaces at locations with preferred mean curvatures, and (ii) the generation of preferred mean curvature which in turn drives the molecular localization.

  15. Hydrodynamic modelling of free water-surface constructed storm water wetlands using a finite volume technique. (United States)

    Zounemat-Kermani, Mohammad; Scholz, Miklas; Tondar, Mohammad-Mahdi


    One of the key factors in designing free water-surface constructed wetlands (FWS CW) is the hydraulic efficiency (λ), which depends primarily on the retention time of the polluted storm water. Increasing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) at various flow levels will increase λ of the overall constructed wetland (CW). The effects of characteristic geometric features that increase HRT were explored through the use of a two-dimensional depth-average hydrodynamic model. This numerical model was developed to solve the equations of continuity and motions on an unstructured triangular mesh using the Galerkin finite volume formulation and equations of the k-ε turbulence model. Eighty-nine diverse forms of artificial FWS CW with 11 different aspect ratios were numerically simulated and subsequently analysed for four scenarios: rectangular CW, modified rectangular CW with rounded edges, different inlet/outlet configurations of CW, and surface and submerged obstructions in front of the inlet part of the CW. Results from the simulations showed that increasing the aspect ratio has a direct influence on the enhancement of λ in all cases. However, the aspect ratio should be at least 9 in order to achieve an appropriate rate for λ in rectangular CW. Modified rounded rectangular CW improved λ by up to 23%, which allowed for the selection of a reduced aspect ratio. Simulation results showed that CW with low aspect ratios benefited from obstructions and optimized inlet/outlet configurations in terms of improved HRT.

  16. Characterizing developing adverse pressure gradient flows subject to surface roughness (United States)

    Brzek, Brian; Chao, Donald; Turan, Özden; Castillo, Luciano


    An experimental study was conducted to examine the effects of surface roughness and adverse pressure gradient (APG) on the development of a turbulent boundary layer. Hot-wire anemometry measurements were carried out using single and X-wire probes in all regions of a developing APG flow in an open return wind tunnel test section. The same experimental conditions (i.e., T ∞, U ref, and C p) were maintained for smooth, k + = 0, and rough, k + = 41-60, surfaces with Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, 3,000 carefully designed such that the x-dependence in the flow field was known. Despite this fact, only a very small region of the boundary layer showed a balance of the various terms in the integrated boundary layer equation. The skin friction computed from this technique showed up to a 58% increase due to the surface roughness. Various equilibrium parameters were studied and the effect of roughness was investigated. The generated flow was not in equilibrium according to the Clauser (J Aero Sci 21:91-108, 1954) definition due to its developing nature. After a development region, the flow reached the equilibrium condition as defined by Castillo and George (2001), where Λ = const, is the pressure gradient parameter. Moreover, it was found that this equilibrium condition can be used to classify developing APG flows. Furthermore, the Zagarola and Smits (J Fluid Mech 373:33-79, 1998a) scaling of the mean velocity deficit, U ∞δ*/δ, can also be used as a criteria to classify developing APG flows which supports the equilibrium condition of Castillo and George (2001). With this information a ‘full APG region’ was defined.

  17. Rational ore deposit drilling pattern with construction of cluster pumping wells in the artesian flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matunov, A.; Pershin, M.


    Drilling pattern and quantity of technological (injection and production) wells in the uranium in-situ leaching is determined by the projection of ore deposit to the daylight surface, structure and hydrogeological characteristics of ore-bearing deposits and given well field productivity. The difference between the structure of production and injection wells lies in that the upper part of production well has a submersible pump which, compared to injection wells, requires installation in its the upper part of the casing string with larger diameter pipes to allow for the pump installation. As a result, the production wells can be operated in pumping and injection mode and injection wells only in injection mode. The essence of the new scheme is as follows: • All wells on the block are constructed as injection wells, i.e. without a larger diameter pipe being installed in the upper part of the string. • The wells selected for operation as production wells, are leak-proof connected with “cluster” pumping wells by plastic pipelines. • “Cluster” pumping wells up to 100 m deep equipped with dead-end string with no screen are constructed near the power sources. Submersible pumps are installed in such wells with the total capacity to be determined by the design flow rate of the block and to ensure the steady, directional flow from injection to production wells. The minimum number of such ''cluster'' pumping wells is one per a well field, which well can be piped to up to seven wells designed for production. As a result, the expenses on procurement of cable products and submersible pumps are reduced and funds for well drilling and their piping are saved. The proposed scheme of well field development used under the artesian flow conditions allows not only for the cost reduction on operating block piping but also for the use of injection wells as production wells at different stages of block development by selecting any necessary combinations of

  18. Characterization of groundwater flow for near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The main objective of this report is to provide a description of the site investigation techniques and modelling approaches that can be used to characterise the flow of subsurface water at near surface disposal facilities in relation to the various development stages of the repositories. As one of the main goals of defining groundwater flow is to establish the possible contaminant migration, certain aspects related to groundwater transport are also described. Secondary objectives are to discuss the implications of various groundwater conditions with regard to the performance of the isolation systems

  19. Integral methods for shallow free-surface flows with separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, S.; Putkaradze, V.; Bohr, Tomas


    an inclined plane we take a similar approach and derive a simple model in which the velocity profile is not restricted to a parabolic or self-similar form. Two types of solutions with large surface distortions are found: solitary, kink-like propagating fronts, obtained when the flow rate is suddenly changed......, and stationary jumps, obtained, for instance, behind a sluice gate. We then include time dependence in the model to study the stability of these waves. This allows us to distinguish between sub- and supercritical flows by calculating dispersion relations for wavelengths of the order of the width of the layer....

  20. Turbulent flow over an interactive alternating land-water surface (United States)

    Van Heerwaarden, C.; Mellado, J. P.


    The alternating land-water surface is a challenging surface to represent accurately in weather and climate models, but it is of great importance for the surface energy balance in polar regions. The complexity of this surface lies in the fact that secondary circulations, which form at the boundary of water and land, interact strongly with the surface energy balance. Due to its large heat capacity, the water temperature adapts slowly to the flow, thus the properties of the atmosphere determine the uptake of energy from the water. In order to study this complex system in a simpler way, retaining only the most essential physics, we have simplified the full surface energy balance including radiation. We have derived a boundary condition that mimics the full balance and can be formulated as a so-called Robin boundary condition: a linear combination of Dirichlet (fixed temperature) and Neumann (fixed temperature gradient) ones. By spatially varying the coefficients, we are able to express land and water using this boundary condition. We have done a series of direct numerical simulations in which we generate artificial land-water patterns from noise created from a Gaussian spectrum centered around a dominant wave number. This method creates realistic random patterns, but we are still in control of the length scales. We show that the system can manifest itself in three regimes: micro-, meso- and macro-scale. In the micro-scale, we find perfect mixing of the near-surface atmosphere that results in identical air properties over water and land. In the meso-scale, secondary circulations alter the heat exchange considerably by advecting air between land and water. In addition, they bring the surface temperature of the land closer to that of the air, thereby modulating the energy loss due to outgoing longwave radiation. In the macro-scale regime, the flow over land and water become independent of each other and only the large scale forcings determine the energy balance.

  1. Measuring surface flow velocity with smartphones: potential for citizen observatories (United States)

    Weijs, Steven V.; Chen, Zichong; Brauchli, Tristan; Huwald, Hendrik


    Stream flow velocity is an important variable for discharge estimation and research on sediment dynamics. Given the influence of the latter on rating curves (stage-discharge relations), and the relative scarcity of direct streamflow measurements, surface velocity measurements can offer important information for, e.g., flood warning, hydropower, and hydrological science and engineering in general. With the growing amount of sensing and computing power in the hands of more outdoorsy individuals, and the advances in image processing techniques, there is now a tremendous potential to obtain hydrologically relevant data from motivated citizens. This is the main focus of the interdisciplinary "WeSenseIt" project, a citizen observatory of water. In this subproject, we investigate the feasibility of stream flow surface velocity measurements from movie clips taken by (smartphone-) cameras. First results from movie-clip derived velocity information will be shown and compared to reference measurements.

  2. Estimating Stream Surface Flow Velocities from Video Clips (United States)

    Weijs, S. V.; Brauchli, T.; Chen, Z.; Huwald, H.


    Measuring surface flow velocities in streams can provide important information on discharge. This information is independent of water level, the most commonly used proxy for discharge and therefore has significant potential to reduce uncertainties. Advances in cheap and commonly used imaging devices (e.g. smartphone cameras) and image processing techniques offer new opportunities to get velocity information. Short video clips of streams can be used in combination with optical flow algorithms to get proxies for stream surface velocities. Here some initial results are presented and the main challenges are discussed, especially in view of using these techniques in a citizen science context (specifically the "WeSenseIt" project, a citizen observatory of water), where we try to minimize the need for site preparation and additional equipment needed to take measurements.

  3. Velocity profiles of fluid flow close to a hydrophobic surface (United States)

    Fialová, Simona; Pochylý, František; Kotek, Michal; Jašíková, Darina

    The results of research on viscous liquid flow upon a superhydrophobic surface are presented in the paper. In the introduction, the degrees of surface hydrophobicity in correlation with an adhesion coefficient are defined. The usage of the adhesion coefficient for the definition of a new boundary condition is employed for expressing the slip of the liquid over the superhydrophobic surface. The slip of the liquid was identified on a special experimental device. The essence of the device consists of a tunnel of rectangular cross section whose one wall is treated with a superhydrophobic layer. The other walls are made of transparent organic glass whose surface is hydrophilic. Velocity profiles are measured by PIV. The methodology is drawn so that it allows the speed determination at the closest point to the wall. The measurements were performed for different Reynolds numbers for both laminar and turbulent flow. Based on the measured velocity profiles, marginal terms of use have been verified, expressing slippage of the liquid on the wall. New forms of velocity profiles considering superhydrophobic surfaces are shown within the work.

  4. Flow and heat transfer regimes during quenching of hot surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnea, Y.; Elias, E.


    Reflooding experiments have been performed to study flow and heat transfer regimes in a heated annular vertical channel under supercooled inlet conditions. A gamma densitometer was employed to determine the void fraction as a function of the distance from the quench front. Surface heat fluxes were determined by fast measurements of the temperature spatial distribution. Two quench front is shown to lie in the transition boiling region which spreads into the dry and wet segments of the heated surface. (authors) 5 refs, 3 figs

  5. Heat Transfer Enhancement in Turbulent Flows by Blocked Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this study, the heat transfer analyses over flat and blocked surfaces were carried out in turbulent flow under the influence of the block height. A constant-temperature hot wire anemometer was used to the velocity and turbulent intensity measurements, while temperature values were measured by copper-constantan thermocouples. The average Stanton numbers for block heights of 15 and 25 mm were higher than those of flat surface by %38 and %84, respectively. The results showed that the presence of the blocks increased the heat transfer and the enhancement rose with block heights

  6. Surface Erosion Control Techniques on Newly Constructed Forest Roads (United States)

    Johnny M. Grace; John Wilhoit; Robert Rummer; Bryce Stokes


    A newly constructed forest road was treated with three erosion control treatments: wood excelsior erosion mat, native grass species, and exotic grass species. The study evaluates treatment methods on the basis of sediment reduction and runoff volume reduction compared to no treatment. The erosion mat treatment was most effective in mitigating erosion losses with a 98...

  7. Solder flow over fine line PWB surface finishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, F.M.; Hernandez, C.L.


    The rapid advancement of interconnect technology has stimulated the development of alternative printed wiring board (PWB) surface finishes to enhance the solderability of standard copper and solder-coated surfaces. These new finishes are based on either metallic or organic chemistries. As part of an ongoing solderability study, Sandia National Laboratories has investigated the solder flow behavior of two azole-based organic solderability preservations, immersion Au, immersion Ag, electroless Pd, and electroless Pd/Ni on fine line copper features. The coated substrates were solder tested in the as-fabricated and environmentally-stressed conditions. Samples were processed through an inerted reflow machine. The azole-based coatings generally provided the most effective protection after aging. Thin Pd over Cu yielded the best wetting results of the metallic coatings, with complete dissolution of the Pd overcoat and wetting of the underlying Cu by the flowing solder. Limited wetting was measured on the thicker Pd and Pd over Ni finishes, which were not completely dissolved by the molten solder. The immersion Au and Ag finishes yielded the lowest wetted lengths, respectively. These general differences in solderability were directly attributed to the type of surface finish which the solder came in contact with. The effects of circuit geometry, surface finish, stressing, and solder processing conditions are discussed.

  8. Remote sensing of surface water for environmental flows (United States)

    Tulbure, M. G.; Kingsford, R.; Lucas, R.; Keith, D.


    Environmental flows represent water management activities that release flushes of water stored in dams on regulated rivers during dry periods. These flows aim to mimic natural flow and inundation regimes to maintain ecological health and function of rivers and wetlands. Assessment and understanding of the effectiveness of environmental flows requires quantification of temporal and spatial pattern of surface water and inundation dynamic in a synoptic yet detailed way and understanding dynamics of vegetation response to flooding. Here we focused on the on the entire Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) of Australia as a case study. The MDB is a large semi-arid region with scarce water resources, high hydroclimatic variability and competing water demands, impacted by climate change, altered flow regimes and land use changes. The basin covers 14% of the Australian continent and contains the nation's largest river system, important groundwater systems, and represents the most important agricultural area in the country. We used Landsat TM and ETM+ data time series to synoptically map the dynamic of surface water extent with an internally consistent algorithm over decades. Within the basin-wide study area we carried out a detailed investigation of the largest river red gum forest in the world, a key site for environmental flow and conservation management. Here we tracked the response of vegetation community condition to flooding across space and time. Results show high interannual variability in number and size of flooded areas. Vegetation community response to flooding varied in space and time and with vegetation types, densities and location relative to areas frequently inundated by environmental water release. Knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamic of flooding and the response of vegetation communities to flooding is important for management of floodplain wetlands and vegetation communities and for investigating effectiveness of environmental flows and flow regimes in the

  9. Effects of water flow on submerged macrophyte-biofilm systems in constructed wetlands. (United States)

    Han, Bing; Zhang, Songhe; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao


    The effects of water flow on the leaf-biofilm interface of Vallisneria natans and Hydrilla verticillata were investigated using artificial plants as the control. Water flow inhibited the growth of two species of submerged macrophytes, reduced oxygen concentrations in plant leaves and changed oxygen profiles at the leaf-biofilm interface. The results from confocal laser scanning microscopy and multifractal analysis showed that water flow reduced biofilm thickness, changed biofilm topographic characterization and increased the percentages of single colony-like biofilm patches. A cluster analysis revealed that the bacterial compositions in biofilms were determined mainly by substrate types and were different from those in sediments. However, water flow increased the bacterial diversity in biofilms in terms of operational taxonomic unit numbers and Shannon Indices. Our results indicated that water flow can be used to regulate the biomass, distribution and bacterial diversities of epiphytic biofilms in constructed wetlands dominated by submerged macrophytes.

  10. 3D Additive Construction with Regolith for Surface Systems (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Planetary surface exploration on Asteroids, the Moon, Mars and Martian Moons will require the stabilization of loose, fine, dusty regolith to avoid the effects of...

  11. Development and Application of a Flow Reactor Cell for Studies of Surface Chemistry (United States)

    Algrim, L. B.; Pagonis, D.; Price, D.; Day, D. A.; De Gouw, J. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Ziemann, P. J.


    We have designed, constructed, characterized, and employed a flow reactor cell that can be used to investigate the interaction of gaseous species such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxidants, acids, and water vapor with authentic and model surfaces that are present in indoor and outdoor environments. The 3.9 L rectangular cell is made of FEP-coated aluminum and has one open face that can be sealed to the surface of interest. An internal plunger is raised (lowered) to expose (cover) the surface while various probe chemicals are added to the flow. To date we have exposed painted surfaces to O3, OH radicals (made from reaction of O3 with tetramethylethene and from photolysis of methyl nitrate/NO mixtures), and NO3 radicals (made from thermal decomposition N2O5) and analyzed the emitted oxidation products with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) equipped with an iodide reagent ion source. Further studies have included the reaction of oxidants with surfaces coated with organic films such as squalene and polyethylene glycol, as well as uptake of ketones and acids from the gas-phase to painted surfaces. The cell was also recently deployed at the University of Colorado-Boulder Art Museum during spring of 2017 to investigate the oxidation products released from the museum walls and floors. Results from all of these studies will be presented.

  12. Simulating phosphorus removal from a vertical-flow constructed wetland grown with C alternifolius species (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Lihua Cui; Gary Feng; John Read


    Vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) is a promising technique for removal of excess nutrients and certain pollutants from wastewaters. The aim of this study was to develop a STELLA (structural thinking, experiential learning laboratory with animation) model for estimating phosphorus (P) removal in an artificial VFCW (i.e., a substrate column with six zones) grown...

  13. New construction of the magnetohydrodynamic spectrum of stationary plasma flows. I. Solution path and alternator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedbloed, J. P.


    A new method of systematically constructing the full structure of the complex magnetohydrodynamic spectra of stationary flows is presented. It is based on the self-adjointness of the generalized force operator G and the Doppler-Coriolis shift operator U, and the associated quadratic forms for the

  14. Vertical flow constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment on tropical conditions: effect of several design parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohorquez, Eliana; Paredes, Diego; Arias, Carlos Alberto

    Vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFWC) design and operation takes into account several variables which affect performance its performance. These aspects had been evaluated and documented among others in countries like USA, Denmark, Austria. In contrast, VFCW had not been studied in tropical...

  15. Water and mass budgets of a vertical-flow constructed wetland used for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuleman, Arthur F M; Van Logtestijn, Richard; Rijs, Gerard B J; Verhoeven, Jos T A

    To estimate the nutrient and organic matter (Biological Oxygen Demand (BODs) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)) removal capacity of a constructed vertical-flow wetland in The Netherlands, a water and nutrient budget study was conducted. Also bacterial water quality enhancement was measured. The

  16. Boundary layer flow of nanofluid over an exponentially stretching surface (United States)

    Nadeem, Sohail; Lee, Changhoon


    The steady boundary layer flow of nanofluid over an exponential stretching surface is investigated analytically. The transport equations include the effects of Brownian motion parameter and thermophoresis parameter. The highly nonlinear coupled partial differential equations are simplified with the help of suitable similarity transformations. The reduced equations are then solved analytically with the help of homotopy analysis method (HAM). The convergence of HAM solutions are obtained by plotting h-curve. The expressions for velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction are computed for some values of the parameters namely, suction injection parameter α, Lewis number Le, the Brownian motion parameter Nb and thermophoresis parameter Nt.

  17. Boundary layer flow of nanofluid over an exponentially stretching surface. (United States)

    Nadeem, Sohail; Lee, Changhoon


    The steady boundary layer flow of nanofluid over an exponential stretching surface is investigated analytically. The transport equations include the effects of Brownian motion parameter and thermophoresis parameter. The highly nonlinear coupled partial differential equations are simplified with the help of suitable similarity transformations. The reduced equations are then solved analytically with the help of homotopy analysis method (HAM). The convergence of HAM solutions are obtained by plotting h-curve. The expressions for velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction are computed for some values of the parameters namely, suction injection parameter α, Lewis number Le, the Brownian motion parameter Nb and thermophoresis parameter Nt.

  18. Effect of non-equilibrium flow chemistry and surface catalysis on surface heating to AFE (United States)

    Stewart, David A.; Henline, William D.; Chen, Yih-Kanq


    The effect of nonequilibrium flow chemistry on the surface temperature distribution over the forebody heat shield on the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle was investigated using a reacting boundary-layer code. Computations were performed by using boundary-layer-edge properties determined from global iterations between the boundary-layer code and flow field solutions from a viscous shock layer (VSL) and a full Navier-Stokes solution. Surface temperature distribution over the AFE heat shield was calculated for two flight conditions during a nominal AFE trajectory. This study indicates that the surface temperature distribution is sensitive to the nonequilibrium chemistry in the shock layer. Heating distributions over the AFE forebody calculated using nonequilibrium edge properties were similar to values calculated using the VSL program.

  19. Correlations of Surface Deformation and 3D Flow Field in a Compliant Wall Turbulent Channel Flow. (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Cao; Katz, Joseph


    This study focuses on the correlations between surface deformation and flow features, including velocity, vorticity and pressure, in a turbulent channel flow over a flat, compliant Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wall. The channel centerline velocity is 2.5 m/s, and the friction Reynolds number is 2.3x103. Analysis is based on simultaneous measurements of the time resolved 3D velocity and surface deformation using tomographic PIV and Mach-Zehnder Interferometry. The volumetric pressure distribution is calculated plane by plane by spatially integrating the material acceleration using virtual boundary, omni-directional method. Conditional sampling based on local high/low pressure and deformation events reveals the primary flow structures causing the deformation. High pressure peaks appear at the interface between sweep and ejection, whereas the negative deformations peaks (dent) appear upstream, under the sweeps. The persistent phase lag between flow and deformations are presumably caused by internal damping within the PDMS. Some of the low pressure peaks and strong ejections are located under the head of hairpin vortices, and accordingly, are associated with positive deformation (bump). Others bumps and dents are correlated with some spanwise offset large inclined quasi-streamwise vortices that are not necessarily associated with hairpins. Sponsored by ONR.

  20. Constructing ab initio and empirical potential energy surfaces for water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kain, Jacqueline Sophie


    The infrared spectrum of water is possibly one of the most well studied and yet portions of it are still poorly understood. Recently, significant advances have been made in assigning water spectra using variational nuclear calculations. The major factor determining the accuracy of ro-vibrational spectra of water is the accuracy of the underlying Potential Energy Surface. Even the most accurate ab initio Potential Energy Surface does not reproduce the Born-Oppenheimer surface to sufficient accuracy for spectroscopic studies. Furthermore, effects beyond this model such as the adiabatic correction, the relativistic correction and the non-adiabatic correction have to be considered. This thesis includes a discussion on how the relativistic correction was calculated, for the water molecule, from first-order perturbation theory. The relativistic correction improved vibrational stretching motion while making the prediction of the bending modes far worse. For rotational motion the relativistic effect had an increasing effect with increasing Ka. A further alteration to the ab initio calculations is introduced by adjusting the barrier to linearity in the water potential. This alteration to the barrier was considered in order to compensate for the lack of convergence of quantum chemical calculations of the Born-Oppenheimer surface. This barrier attempts to represent the change in the potential from linear to equilibrium. We show the improvements this has on the calculated energy levels by comparison with the HITRAN database. This then led the way to the improved spectroscopic potential presented here in this thesis. This new spectroscopic potential reduces the overall standard deviation significantly for vibrational and rotational energy levels. (author)

  1. Rotating channel flows over rough and smooth surfaces (United States)

    Piomelli, Ugo; Wu, Wen; Yuan, Junlin; Turbulence Simulation; Modelling Laboratory Team


    In wall-bounded flows rotating about the spanwise axis, if the signs of the rotation and mean vorticity vectors are the same, the flow tends to be de-stabilized; if they are opposite it may become more stable. In a channel, in which the vorticity has opposite signs near the two walls, one side is unstable and the other one stable. To investigate how roughness can change these dynamics, we performed DNS of channel flows with two rotation rates (Rob = 2 Ωδ /Ub = 0.42 and 1.0), over both smooth and rough surfaces. The roughness is modelled using an immersed-boundary method. At the high Rotation number, in the smooth case the Reynolds stresses vanish on the stable side, and the flow approaches 2D turbulence in the x - z plane. When the wall is rough, the increased momentum transfer due to the roughness results in significant and much more isotropic turbulent fluctuations. On the unstable side both rotation and roughness tend to de-stabilize the flow. Even at mild rotation rates Townsend's similarity hypothesis does not apply on the stable side, and only approximately on the unstable one. The role of production and redistribution due to rotation in the turbulent kinetic energy budget will be discussed. The authors acknowledge the support from Hydro-Québec and the NSERC Collaborative Research & Development program (CRDPJ 418786-11). The simulations were performed at CAC Queen't site. UP also thanks the support of Canada Research Chair Program.

  2. [Construction of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG particles surface display system]. (United States)

    Su, Runyu; Nie, Boyao; Yuan, Shengling; Tao, Haoxia; Liu, Chunjie; Yang, Bailiang; Wang, Yanchun


    To describe a novel particles surface display system which is consisted of gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM) particles and anchor proteins for bacteria-like particles vaccines, we treated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG bacteria with 10% heated-TCA for preparing GEM particles, and then identified the harvested GEM particles by electron microscopy, RT-PCR and SDS-PAGE. Meanwhile, Escherichia coli was induced to express hybrid proteins PA3-EGFP and P60-EGFP, and GEM particles were incubated with them. Then binding of anchor proteins were determined by Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and spectrofluorometry. GEM particles preserved original size and shape, and proteins and DNA contents of GEM particles were released substantially. The two anchor proteins both had efficiently immobilized on the surface of GEM. GEM particles that were bounded by anchor proteins were brushy. The fluorescence of GEM particles anchoring PA3 was slightly brighter than P60, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). GEM particles prepared from L. rhamnosus GG have a good binding efficiency with anchor proteins PA3-EGFP and P60-EGFP. Therefore, this novel foreign protein surface display system could be used for bacteria-like particle vaccines.

  3. Topological Fluid Mechanics with Applications to Free Surfaces and Axisymmetric Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten


    Topological fluid mechanics is the study of qualitative features of fluid patterns. We discuss applications to the flow beneath a stagnant surface film, and to patterns in axisymmetric flow.......Topological fluid mechanics is the study of qualitative features of fluid patterns. We discuss applications to the flow beneath a stagnant surface film, and to patterns in axisymmetric flow....

  4. SIPSON--simulation of interaction between pipe flow and surface overland flow in networks. (United States)

    Djordjević, S; Prodanović, D; Maksimović, C; Ivetić, M; Savić, D


    The new simulation model, named SIPSON, based on the Preissmann finite difference method and the conjugate gradient method, is presented in the paper. This model simulates conditions when the hydraulic capacity of a sewer system is exceeded, pipe flow is pressurized, the water flows out from the piped system to the streets, and the inlets cannot capture all the runoff. In the mathematical model, buried structures and pipelines, together with surface channels, make a horizontally and vertically looped network involving a complex interaction of flows. In this paper, special internal boundary conditions related to equivalent inlets are discussed. Procedures are described for the simulation of manhole cover loss, basement flooding, the representation of street geometry, and the distribution of runoff hydrographs between surface and underground networks. All these procedures are built into the simulation model. Relevant issues are illustrated on a set of examples, focusing on specific parameters and comparison with field measurements of flooding of the Motilal ki Chal catchment (Indore, India). Satisfactory agreement of observed and simulated hydrographs and maximum surface flooding levels is obtained. It is concluded that the presented approach is an improvement compared to the standard "virtual reservoir" approach commonly applied in most of the models.

  5. Non-integrability of geodesic flow on certain algebraic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, T.J.


    This Letter addresses an open problem recently posed by V. Kozlov: a rigorous proof of the non-integrability of the geodesic flow on the cubic surface xyz=1. We prove this is the case using the Morales–Ramis theorem and Kovacic algorithm. We also consider some consequences and extensions of this result. -- Highlights: ► The behaviour of geodesics on surfaces defined by algebraic expressions is studied. ► The non-integrability of the geodesic equations is rigorously proved using differential Galois theory. ► Morales–Ramis theory and Kovacic's algorithm is used and the normal variational equation is of Fuchsian type. ► Some extensions and limitations are discussed.

  6. Removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes from domestic sewage by constructed wetlands: Effect of flow configuration and plant species. (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Wei, Xiao-Dong; Liu, You-Sheng; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Hu, Li-Xin; He, Liang-Ying; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Chen, Fan-Rong; Yang, Yong-Qiang


    This study aims to investigate the removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in raw domestic wastewater by various mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) with different flow configurations or plant species including the constructed wetland with or without plant. Six mesocosm-scale CWs with three flow types (surface flow, horizontal subsurface flow and vertical subsurface flow) and two plant species (Thaliadealbata Fraser and Iris tectorum Maxim) were set up in the outdoor. 8 antibiotics including erythromycin-H2O (ETM-H2O), monensin (MON), clarithromycin (CTM), leucomycin (LCM), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), trimethoprim (TMP), sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sulfapyridine (SPD) and 12 genes including three sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3), four tetracycline resistance genes (tetG, tetM, tetO and tetX), two macrolide resistance genes (ermB and ermC), two chloramphenicol resistance genes (cmlA and floR) and 16S rRNA (bacteria) were determined in different matrices (water, particle, substrate and plant phases) from the mesocosm-scale systems. The aqueous removal efficiencies of total antibiotics ranged from 75.8 to 98.6%, while those of total ARGs varied between 63.9 and 84.0% by the mesocosm-scale CWs. The presence of plants was beneficial to the removal of pollutants, and the subsurface flow CWs had higher pollutant removal than the surface flow CWs, especially for antibiotics. According to the mass balance analysis, the masses of all detected antibiotics during the operation period were 247,000, 4920-10,600, 0.05-0.41 and 3500-60,000μg in influent, substrate, plant and effluent of the mesocosm-scale CWs. In the CWs, biodegradation, substrate adsorption and plant uptake all played certain roles in reducing the loadings of nutrients, antibiotics and ARGs, but biodegradation was the most important process in the removal of these pollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Semiautomatic construction of isobase surfaces: A case study from the central Western Carpathians (United States)

    Jedlička, Karel; Sládek, Ján; Šilhavý, Jakub


    This article describes a method for semiautomated construction of isobase surfaces in the environment of a Geomorphological Information System (GmIS). The motivation to automate the process is that the manual construction of isobase surfaces involves several decision procedures, and also a lot of manual vectorization which can be time-consuming if the area of interest is large. A (semi-)automated process of isobase surface construction could accelerate the process of morphostructural analysis. Therefore, the contribution focuses on design, development and testing of such a method. The developed tools were compared to an expert driven construction of isobase surfaces. The automatically constructed data layers were compared to the layers that were constructed manually in the southwest part of the study area (Turčianska kotlina basin (Western Carpathians) and surrounding area in Slovakia). Three different statistical methods were used (correlation, linear regression and DTM volume difference checking). All three methods proved very high similarity of automatically created isobase surfaces to expert driven isobase surfaces creation. The results show that the method of semiautomated creation can be used in morphostructure analysis and save the time needed for manual isobase surface creation. The method's technological background is based on the ESRI platform. The original desktop solution has been developed for use on a client/server architecture that is able to present the capabilities of GmIS to a wider geomorphological audience.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gražina Žibienė


    Full Text Available Different kinds of natural and artificial filter media are able to retain phosphorus in the constructed wetlands. Due to the fact that the constructed wetland needs huge amounts of the filter media, it is very important to find locally available material which distinguishes itself by its ability to retain phosphorus. The materials found in Lithuania were considered and dolomite was chosen. Two dolomite fractions, dolomite powder (1–2 mm and dolomite chippings (2–5 mm, and sand media were used in the laboratory- scale installed for the comparative experiments. The laboratory-scale with dolomite as the filter media was on average by 21% more efficient in total phosphorus removal in comparison with the sand media. Based on the laboratory research pilot–scale vertical flow constructed wetland of 160 m2 was installed and planted with reed Phragmites australis. The dolomite chippings as filter media were chosen in order to avoid the danger of the clogging of constructed wetland. Efficiency of total phosphorus removal in the pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetland was on average 95.7%, phosphates removal – 94.8% within one year.

  9. Greening European Cities. The example of materials flows management in the Berlin construction industry


    Spars, Guido


    Índice Sustainability as goal for housing construction. Materials flow management in the Berlin construction industry - Strengthening innovation. Notes and bibliographic references. ResumenCiudades europeas más verdes. El ejemplo de la gestión del flujo de materiales en el sector de la construcción de BerlínEl concepto del desarrollo sostenible ha sido adoptado en años recientes como el mínimo común denominador que tanto gobiernos como partidos políticos. organizaciones no gubernamentales y c...

  10. Design and construction of an experiment for two-phase flow in fractured porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala, R.E.G.; Aziz, K.


    In numerical reservoir simulation naturally fractured reservoirs are commonly divided into matrix and fracture systems. The high permeability fractures are usually entirely responsible for flow between blocks and flow to the wells. The flow in these fractures is modeled using Darcy`s law and its extension to multiphase flow by means of relative permeabilities. The influence and measurement of fracture relative permeability for two-phase flow in fractured porous media have not been studied extensively, and the few works presented in the literature are contradictory. Experimental and numerical work on two-phase flow in fractured porous media has been initiated. An apparatus for monitoring this type of flow was designed and constructed. It consists of an artificially fractured core inside an epoxy core holder, detailed pressure and effluent monitoring, saturation measurements by means of a CT-scanner and a computerized data acquisition system. The complete apparatus was assembled and tested at conditions similar to the conditions expected for the two-phase flow experiments. Fine grid simulations of the experimental setup-were performed in order to establish experimental conditions and to study the effects of several key variables. These variables include fracture relative permeability and fracture capillary pressure. The numerical computations show that the flow is dominated by capillary imbibition, and that fracture relative permeabilities have only a minor influence. High oil recoveries without water production are achieved due to effective water imbibition from the fracture to the matrix. When imbibition is absent, fracture relative permeabilities affect the flow behavior at early production times.

  11. Effect of Energetic Plasma Flux on Flowing Liquid Lithium Surfaces (United States)

    Kalathiparambil, Kishor; Jung, Soonwook; Christenson, Michael; Fiflis, Peter; Xu, Wenyu; Szott, Mathew; Ruzic, David


    An operational liquid lithium system with steady state flow driven by thermo-electric magneto-hydrodynamic force and capable of constantly refreshing the plasma exposed surface have been demonstrated at U of I. To evaluate the system performance in reactor relevant conditions, specifically to understand the effect of disruptive plasma events on the performance of the liquid metal PFCs, the setup was integrated to a pulsed plasma generator. A coaxial plasma generator drives the plasma towards a theta pinch which preferentially heats the ions, simulating ELM like flux, and the plasma is further guided towards the target chamber which houses the flowing lithium system. The effect of the incident flux is examined using diagnostic tools including triple Langmuir probe, calorimeter, rogowski coils, Ion energy analyzers, and fast frame spectral image acquisition with specific optical filters. The plasma have been well characterized and a density of ~1021 m-3, with electron temperature ~10 - 20 eV is measured, and final plasma velocities of 34 - 74 kms-1 have been observed. Calorimetric measurements using planar molybdenum targets indicate a maximum plasma energy (with 6 kV plasma gun and 20 kV theta pinch) of 0.08 MJm-2 with plasma divergence effects resulting in marginal reduction of 40 +/- 23 J in plasma energy. Further results from the other diagnostic tools, using the flowing lithium targets and the planar targets coated with lithium will be presented. DOE DE-SC0008587.

  12. Biological mechanisms associated with triazophos (TAP) removal by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Juan; Feng, Yuqin; Dai, Yanran; Cui, Naxin [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and ResourceReuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Anderson, Bruce [Department of Civil Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston K7L3N6 (Canada); Cheng, Shuiping, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and ResourceReuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)


    Triazophos (TAP) is a widely used pesticide that is easily accumulated in the environment due to its relatively high stability: this accumulation from agricultural runoff results in potential hazards to aquatic ecosystems. Constructed wetlands are generally considered to be an effective technology for treating TAP polluted surface water. However, knowledge about the biological mechanisms of TAP removal is still lacking. This study investigates the responses of a wetland plant (Canna indica), substrate enzymes and microbial communities in bench-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSCWs) loaded with different TAP concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 5 mg·L{sup −1}). The results indicate that TAP stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the roots of C. indica. The highest TAP concentrations significantly inhibited photosynthetic activities, as shown by a reduced effective quantum yield of PS II (Φ{sub PSII}) and lower electron transport rates (ETR). However, interestingly, the lower TAP loadings exhibited some favorable effects on these two variables, suggesting that C. indica is a suitable species for use in wetlands designed for treatment of low TAP concentrations. Urease and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the wetland substrate were activated by TAP. Two-way ANOVA demonstrated that urease activity was influenced by both the TAP concentrations and season, while acidphosphatase (ACP) only responded to seasonal variations. Analysis of high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed seasonal variations in the microbial community structure of the wetland substrate at the phylum and family levels. In addition, urease activity had a greater correlation with the relative abundance of some functional microbial groups, such as the Bacillaceae family, and the ALP and ACP may be influenced by the plant more than substrate microbial communities. - Highlights: • Physiological responses of the wetland plant to triazophos

  13. Biological mechanisms associated with triazophos (TAP) removal by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Juan; Feng, Yuqin; Dai, Yanran; Cui, Naxin; Anderson, Bruce; Cheng, Shuiping


    Triazophos (TAP) is a widely used pesticide that is easily accumulated in the environment due to its relatively high stability: this accumulation from agricultural runoff results in potential hazards to aquatic ecosystems. Constructed wetlands are generally considered to be an effective technology for treating TAP polluted surface water. However, knowledge about the biological mechanisms of TAP removal is still lacking. This study investigates the responses of a wetland plant (Canna indica), substrate enzymes and microbial communities in bench-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSCWs) loaded with different TAP concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 5 mg·L −1 ). The results indicate that TAP stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the roots of C. indica. The highest TAP concentrations significantly inhibited photosynthetic activities, as shown by a reduced effective quantum yield of PS II (Φ PSII ) and lower electron transport rates (ETR). However, interestingly, the lower TAP loadings exhibited some favorable effects on these two variables, suggesting that C. indica is a suitable species for use in wetlands designed for treatment of low TAP concentrations. Urease and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the wetland substrate were activated by TAP. Two-way ANOVA demonstrated that urease activity was influenced by both the TAP concentrations and season, while acidphosphatase (ACP) only responded to seasonal variations. Analysis of high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed seasonal variations in the microbial community structure of the wetland substrate at the phylum and family levels. In addition, urease activity had a greater correlation with the relative abundance of some functional microbial groups, such as the Bacillaceae family, and the ALP and ACP may be influenced by the plant more than substrate microbial communities. - Highlights: • Physiological responses of the wetland plant to triazophos loads were

  14. Characterization of lunar surface materials for use in construction (United States)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.


    The Workshop on the Concept of a Common Lunar Lander, which was held at the NASA Johnson Space Center on July 1 and 2, 1991, discussed potential payloads to be placed on the Moon by a common, generic, unmanned, vehicle beginning late in this decade. At this workshop, a variety of payloads were identified including a class of one-meter (and larger) optical telescopes to operate on the lunar surface. These telescopes for lunar-based astronomy are presented in an earlier section of this report. The purpose of this section is to suggest that these and other payloads for the Common Lunar Lander be used to facilitate technology development for the proposed 16-meter Aperture UV/Visible/IR Large Lunar Telescope (LLT) and a large optical aperture-synthesis instrument analogous to the Very Large Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

  15. Assessment of the Lunar Surface Layer and in Situ Materials to Sustain Construction-related Applications (United States)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Chua, Koon Meng


    Present and future technologies to facilitate lunar composition and resource assessment with applications to lunar surface construction are presented. We are particularly interested in the construction activity associated with lunar-based astronomy. We address, as an example, the use of ground-probing radar to help assess subsurface conditions at sites for observatories and other facilities.

  16. Supporting constructed wetlands in P removal efficiency from surface water. (United States)

    Bus, Agnieszka; Karczmarczyk, Agnieszka


    The research investigated the implementation of suspended reactive filters to support the phosphorus (P) removal efficiency of constructed wetlands (CWs). The reactive material (RM) used in this study was autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC). The laboratory experiment consists of four plastic boxes filled with the volume of 10 L of artificial P solution with three variants of RM mass to volume ratio: 1:1 (g:L), 5:1 (g:L), 10:1 (g:L), and the blind probe 0:1 (g:L) as a reference. AAC of different weights (10, 50 and 100 g) was wrapped in a filter bag, put into boxes, and suspended. After 30 days of the laboratory experiment, AAC was able to reduce the P-PO 4 concentration from 2.972 mg·L -1 to: 0.341 mgPO 4 -P·L -1 , 0.006 mgPO 4 -P·L -1 and 0.004 mgPO 4 -P·L -1 for 10 g, 50 g and 100 g mass variant, respectively. This concentration reduction corresponds to unit sorption of: 2.53 mgP-PO 4 ·g -1 , 0.58 mgP-PO 4 ·g -1 and 0.30 mgP-PO 4 ·g -1 for 10 g, 50 g and 100 g, respectively. Based on the obtained data, the CW supporting filter was dimensioned to reduce the outflow P concentration to 0.01 mg·L -1 . P removal efficiency prediction was calculated for Cetynia River, Poland.

  17. Surface Ripples Generated in a Couette Flow with a Free Surface (United States)

    Masnadi, N.; Washuta, N.; Duncan, J. H.


    Free surface ripples created by subsurface turbulence in the gap between a vertical surface-piercing moving wall and a parallel fixed wall are studied experimentally. The moving wall is created with the aide of a meter-wide stainless steel belt that travels horizontally in a loop around two rollers with vertically oriented axes, which are separated by 7.5 meters. One of the two 7.5-m-long belt sections between the rollers is in contact with the water in a large open-surface water tank and forms the moving wall. The fixed wall is an acrylic plate located 4 cm from the belt surface. The water surface ripples are measured in a plane normal to the belt using a cinematic LIF technique. Measurements are done at a location about 100 gap widths downstream of the leading edge of the fixed plate in order to have a fully developed flow condition. It is found that the overall RMS surface fluctuations increase linearly with belt speed. The frequency-domain spectra of the surface height fluctuation and its temporal derivative are computed at locations across the gap width and are used to explore the physics of the free surface motions. The support of the Office of Naval Research is gratefully acknowledged.

  18. Estimating construction and demolition debris generation using a materials flow analysis approach. (United States)

    Cochran, K M; Townsend, T G


    The magnitude and composition of a region's construction and demolition (C&D) debris should be understood when developing rules, policies and strategies for managing this segment of the solid waste stream. In the US, several national estimates have been conducted using a weight-per-construction-area approximation; national estimates using alternative procedures such as those used for other segments of the solid waste stream have not been reported for C&D debris. This paper presents an evaluation of a materials flow analysis (MFA) approach for estimating C&D debris generation and composition for a large region (the US). The consumption of construction materials in the US and typical waste factors used for construction materials purchasing were used to estimate the mass of solid waste generated as a result of construction activities. Debris from demolition activities was predicted from various historical construction materials consumption data and estimates of average service lives of the materials. The MFA approach estimated that approximately 610-78 × 10(6)Mg of C&D debris was generated in 2002. This predicted mass exceeds previous estimates using other C&D debris predictive methodologies and reflects the large waste stream that exists. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Smolt Responses to Hydrodynamic Conditions in Forebay Flow Nets of Surface Flow Outlets, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Hedgepeth, J. B.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Anderson, Michael G.; Deng, Zhiqun; Khan, Fenton; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Sather, Nichole K.; Serkowski, John A.; Steinbeck, John R.


    This study provides information on juvenile salmonid behaviors at McNary and The Dalles dams that can be used by the USACE, fisheries resource managers, and others to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance fish passage. We researched smolt movements and ambient hydrodynamic conditions using a new approach combining simultaneous acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and acoustic imaging device (AID) measurements at surface flow outlets (SFO) at McNary and The Dalles dams on the Columbia River during spring and summer 2007. Because swimming effort vectors could be computed from the simultaneous fish and flow data, fish behavior could be categorized as passive, swimming against the flow (positively rheotactic), and swimming with the flow (negatively rheotactic). We present bivariate relationships to provide insight into fish responses to particular hydraulic variables that engineers might consider during SFO design. The data indicate potential for this empirical approach of simultaneous water/fish measurements to lead to SFO design guidelines in the future.

  20. Construction of a lateral flow strip for detection of soymilk in milk. (United States)

    Gautam, Priyae Brath; Sharma, Rajan; Lata, Kiran; Rajput, Y S; Mann, Bimlesh


    A lateral flow based detection method for ascertaining the presence of soymilk in whole bovine milk has been described. The method uses commercially available rabbit anti-soy protein antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) wherein soymilk protein in adulterated milk and soymilk protein at test line competes for limited antibodies. At control line, anti-rabbit immunoglobulin was immobilized for ensuring flow properties of antibody-conjugated AuNPs. Absence or diminished intensity of band at test line indicates presence of soymilk in milk. The soymilk detection limit was 1.75% (v/v) in whole bovine milk and results are available in 5 min. Constructed lateral flow device can be used for on-spot examination of soymilk in milk.

  1. Multiyear nutrient removal performance of three constructed wetlands intercepting tile drain flows from grazed pastures. (United States)

    Tanner, Chris C; Sukias, James P S


    Subsurface tile drain flows can be a major s ource of nurient loss from agricultural landscapes. This study quantifies flows and nitrogen and phosphorus yields from tile drains at three intensively grazed dairy pasture sites over 3- to 5-yr periods and evaluates the capacity of constructed wetlands occupying 0.66 to 1.6% of the drained catchments too reduce nutrient loads. Continuous flow records are combined with automated flow-proportional sampling of nutrient concentrations to calculate tile drain nutrient yields and wetland mass removal rates. Annual drainage water yields rangedfrom 193 to 564 mm (16-51% of rainfall) at two rain-fed sites and from 827 to 853 mm (43-51% of rainfall + irrigation) at an irrigated site. Annually, the tile drains exported 14 to 109 kg ha(-1) of total N (TN), of which 58 to 90% was nitrate-N. Constructed wetlands intercepting these flows removed 30 to 369 gTN m(-2) (7-63%) of influent loadings annually. Seasonal percentage nitrate-N and TN removal were negatively associated with wetland N mass loadings. Wetland P removal was poor in all wetlands, with 12 to 115% more total P exported annually overall than received. Annually, the tile drains exported 0.12 to 1.38 kg ha of total P, of which 15 to 93% was dissolved reactive P. Additional measures are required to reduce these losses or provide supplementary P removal. Wetland N removal performance could be improved by modifying drainage systems to release flows more gradually and improving irrigation practices to reduce drainage losses.

  2. Effect of physico-chemical pretreatment on the removal efficiency of horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselles-Osorio, Aracelly [Environmental Engineering Division, Hydraulics, Coastal and Environmental Engineering Department, Technical University of Catalonia, c/Jordi Girona 1-3, Modul D-1, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Biology, Atlantic University, Km 7 Higway Old Colombia Port, Barranquilla (Colombia); Garcia, Joan [Environmental Engineering Division, Hydraulics, Coastal and Environmental Engineering Department, Technical University of Catalonia, c/Jordi Girona 1-3, Modul D-1, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail:


    In this study, we tested the effect of a physico-chemical pretreatment on contaminant removal efficiency in two experimental horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs). One SSF CW was fed with settled urban wastewater, whereas the other with the same wastewater after it had undergone a physico-chemical pretreatment. The SSF CWs were operated with three different hydraulic retention times. During the experiments the effluent concentrations of COD, ammonia N and sulfate were very similar, and, therefore, the physico-chemical pretreatment did not improve the quality of the effluents. COD removal efficiency (as percentage or mass surface removal rate) was slightly greater in the SSF CW fed with pretreated wastewater. Ammonia N removal efficiency was, in general, similar in both SSF CWs and very high (80-90%). At the end of the experiments it was observed that in the SSF CW fed with settled wastewater the hydraulic conductivity decreased by a 20%. - A physico-chemical pretreatment may help to reduce the risk of clogging of subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.

  3. Effect of physico-chemical pretreatment on the removal efficiency of horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caselles-Osorio, Aracelly; Garcia, Joan


    In this study, we tested the effect of a physico-chemical pretreatment on contaminant removal efficiency in two experimental horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs). One SSF CW was fed with settled urban wastewater, whereas the other with the same wastewater after it had undergone a physico-chemical pretreatment. The SSF CWs were operated with three different hydraulic retention times. During the experiments the effluent concentrations of COD, ammonia N and sulfate were very similar, and, therefore, the physico-chemical pretreatment did not improve the quality of the effluents. COD removal efficiency (as percentage or mass surface removal rate) was slightly greater in the SSF CW fed with pretreated wastewater. Ammonia N removal efficiency was, in general, similar in both SSF CWs and very high (80-90%). At the end of the experiments it was observed that in the SSF CW fed with settled wastewater the hydraulic conductivity decreased by a 20%. - A physico-chemical pretreatment may help to reduce the risk of clogging of subsurface-flow constructed wetlands

  4. DNS of flows over superhydrophobic surfaces with small texture (United States)

    Fairhall, Chris; Garcia-Mayoral, Ricardo


    We present results from direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces with small texture sizes, comparable to those of practical application. Textures studied with DNS are usually much larger, as the cost of the simulations would otherwise be prohibitive. For this reason, a multi-block code that allows for finer resolution near the walls has been developed. We focus particularly on the pressure distribution at the wall. This distribution can cause the deformation of the gas pockets, which can ultimately lead to their loss and that of the drag reduction effect. The layout of the texture causes stagnation pressures which can contribute substantially to the wall pressure signal (Seo et al. JFM, under review). We study a range of different textures and their influence on these pressures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Yang


    Full Text Available Pipe-roof Pre-construction Method (PPM is regarded as a safer method to construct underground space, especially suitable for the construction sites with dense surface buildings, underground pipelines and complicated geological conditions. Xinleyizhi Station of Shenyang Metro constructed by PPM. In order to ensure safety in construction, the whole construction process was closely monitored. In this paper, monitoring results of surface settlement in PPM is analyzed. According to the monitoring results, the most serious settlement occurred in pipes jacking, which was the first and the most crucial step in PPM. The settlement reasons in each step are discussed, and controlling methods of surface settlement in each step are elaborated. Through close monitoring and timely control, the construction of Xinleyizhi Station completed smoothly. Because of the obvious advantages of PPM, the method will be used more widely in construction of shallow buried excavation under complicated surrounding and geological conditions.

  6. Scaling relationship for surface water transport in stream networks and sub-surface flow interaction (United States)

    Worman, A.


    Ground surface topography is known to control the circulation pattern of groundwater and also reflects the surface hydrological pathways through the landscape. This means that similar geometrical distributions typical to the landscape can be related physically-mathematically to the overall circulation of water and solute elements on land. Such understanding is needed in the management of water resources, especially on the watershed scale or larger. This paper outlines a theory by which we represent landscape topography in terms of its Fourier spectrum of a typical wave-function, formally relate this spectrum to the sub-surface flow of water and solute elements. Further, the stream network characteristics is analysed both in terms of the fractal distribution of individual stream lengths and the distribution of total transport distances in the watershed. Empirical relationships between the three types of distributions are established for two example watersheds in the middle and southern Sweden. Because the flow of water and solute elements in the stream network can also be described by convoluting unit solutions over the stream network, this paper describes an approach that relate lanscape topography to hydrological and geochemical circulation. The study shows that surface topography, stream network characteristics and thickness of quaternary deposits controls the circulation pattern of the deep groundwater. The water exchange is controlled by topography on both the continental scale as well as regional scale. The residence of deep groundwater in the stream network - before entering the coastal zone - is, therefore also controlled by the landscape topography.

  7. Modelling of project cash flow on construction projects in Malang city (United States)

    Djatmiko, Bambang


    Contractors usually prepare a project cash flow (PCF) on construction projects. The flow of cash in and cash out within a construction project may vary depending on the owner, contract documents, and construction service providers who have their own authority. Other factors affecting the PCF are down payment, termyn, progress schedule, material schedule, equipment schedule, manpower schedules, and wages of workers and subcontractors. This study aims to describe the cash inflow and cash outflow based on the empirical data obtained from contractors, develop a PCF model based on Halpen & Woodhead's PCF model, and investigate whether or not there is a significant difference between the Halpen & Woodhead's PCF model and the empirical PCF model. Based on the researcher's observation, the PCF management has never been implemented by the contractors in Malang in serving their clients (owners). The research setting is in Malang City because physical development in all field and there are many new construction service providers. The findings in this current study are summarised as follows: 1) Cash in included current assets (20%), owner's down payment (20%), termyin I (5%-25%), termyin II (20%), termyin III (25%), termyin IV (25%) and retention (5%). Cash out included direct cost (65%), indirect cost (20%), and profit + informal cost(15%), 2)the construction work involving the empirical PCF model in this study was started with the funds obtained from DP or current assets and 3) The two models bear several similarities in the upward trends of direct cost, indirect cost, Pro Ic, progress billing, and S-curve. The difference between the two models is the occurrence of overdraft in the Halpen and Woodhead's PCF model only.

  8. An accessible micro-capillary electrophoresis device using surface-tension-driven flow. (United States)

    Mohanty, Swomitra K; Warrick, Jay; Gorski, Jack; Beebe, David J


    We present a rapidly fabricated micro-capillary electrophoresis chip that utilizes surface-tension-driven flow for sample injection and extraction of DNA. Surface-tension-driven flow (i.e. passive pumping) [G. M. Walker et al., Lab. Chip. 2002, 2, 131-134] injects a fixed volume of sample that can be predicted mathematically. Passive pumping eliminates the need for tubing, valves, syringe pumps, and other equipment typically needed for interfacing with microelectrophoresis chips. This method requires a standard micropipette to load samples before separation, and remove the resulting bands after analysis. The device was made using liquid phase photopolymerization to rapidly fabricate the chip without the need of special equipment typically associated with the construction of microelectrophoresis chips (e.g. cleanroom) [A. K. Agarwal et al., J. Micromech. Microeng. 2006, 16, 332-340; S. K. Mohanty et al., Electrophoresis 2006, 27, 3772-3778]. Batch fabrication time for the device presented here was 1.5 h including channel coating time to suppress electroosmotic flow. Devices were constructed out of poly-isobornyl acrylate and glass. A standard microscope with a UV source was used for sample detection. Separations were demonstrated using Promega BenchTop 100 bp ladder in hydroxyl ethyl cellulose (HEC) and oligonucleotides of 91 and 118 bp were used to characterize sample injection and extraction of DNA bands. The end result was an inexpensive micro-capillary electrophoresis device that uses tools (e.g. micropipette, electrophoretic power supplies, and microscopes) already present in most labs for sample manipulation and detection, making it more accessible for potential end users.

  9. Using subdivision surfaces and adaptive surface simplification algorithms for modeling chemical heterogeneities in geophysical flows (United States)

    Schmalzl, JöRg; Loddoch, Alexander


    We present a new method for investigating the transport of an active chemical component in a convective flow. We apply a three-dimensional front tracking method using a triangular mesh. For the refinement of the mesh we use subdivision surfaces which have been developed over the last decade primarily in the field of computer graphics. We present two different subdivision schemes and discuss their applicability to problems related to fluid dynamics. For adaptive refinement we propose a weight function based on the length of triangle edge and the sum of the angles of the triangle formed with neighboring triangles. In order to remove excess triangles we apply an adaptive surface simplification method based on quadric error metrics. We test these schemes by advecting a blob of passive material in a steady state flow in which the total volume is well preserved over a long time. Since for time-dependent flows the number of triangles may increase exponentially in time we propose the use of a subdivision scheme with diffusive properties in order to remove the small scale features of the chemical field. By doing so we are able to follow the evolution of a heavy chemical component in a vigorously convecting field. This calculation is aimed at the fate of a heavy layer at the Earth's core-mantle boundary. Since the viscosity variation with temperature is of key importance we also present a calculation with a strongly temperature-dependent viscosity.

  10. Visualization of Flow in Pressurizer Spray Line Piping and Estimation of Thermal Stress Fluctuation Caused by Swaying of Water Surface (United States)

    Oumaya, Toru; Nakamura, Akira; Onojima, Daisuke; Takenaka, Nobuyuki

    The pressurizer spray line of PWR plants cools reactor coolant by injecting water into pressurizer. Since the continuous spray flow rate during commercial operation of the plant is considered insufficient to fill the pipe completely, there is a concern that a water surface exists in the pipe and may periodically sway. In order to identify the flow regimes in spray line piping and assess their impact on pipe structure, a flow visualization experiment was conducted. In the experiment, air was used substituted for steam to simulate the gas phase of the pressurizer, and the flow instability causing swaying without condensation was investigated. With a full-scale mock-up made of acrylic, flow under room temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions was visualized, and possible flow regimes were identified based on the results of the experiment. Three representative patterns of swaying of water surface were assumed, and the range of thermal stress fluctuation, when the surface swayed instantaneously, was calculated. With the three patterns of swaying assumed based on the visualization experiment, it was confirmed that the thermal stress amplitude would not exceed the fatigue endurance limit prescribed in the Japanese Design and Construction Code.

  11. Using a Backpropagation Artificial Neural Network to Predict Nutrient Removal in Tidal Flow Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li


    Full Text Available Nutrient removal in tidal flow constructed wetlands (TF-CW is a complex series of nonlinear multi-parameter interactions. We simulated three tidal flow systems and a continuous vertical flow system filled with synthetic wastewater and compared the influent and effluent concentrations to examine (1 nutrient removal in artificial TF-CWs, and (2 the ability of a backpropagation (BP artificial neural network to predict nutrient removal. The nutrient removal rates were higher under tidal flow when the idle/reaction time was two, and reached 90 ± 3%, 99 ± 1%, and 58 ± 13% for total nitrogen (TN, ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N, and total phosphorus (TP, respectively. The main influences on nutrient removal for each scenario were identified by redundancy analysis and were input into the model to train and verify the pollutant effluent concentrations. Comparison of the actual and model-predicted effluent concentrations showed that the model predictions were good. The predicted and actual values were correlated and the margin of error was small. The BP neural network fitted best to TP, with an R2 of 0.90. The R2 values of TN, NH4+-N, and nitrate nitrogen (NO3−-N were 0.67, 0.73, and 0.69, respectively.

  12. Technology of surface wastewater purification, including high-rise construction areas (United States)

    Tsyba, Anna; Skolubovich, Yury


    Despite on the improvements in the quality of high-rise construction areas and industrial wastewater treatment, the pollution of water bodies continues to increase. This is due to the organized and unorganized surface untreated sewage entry into the reservoirs. The qualitative analysis of some cities' surface sewage composition is carried out in the work. Based on the published literature review, the characteristic contamination present in surface wastewater was identified. The paper proposes a new technology for the treatment of surface sewage and presents the results of preliminary studies.

  13. Construction of super-hydrophobic iron with a hierarchical surface structure (United States)

    Yuan, Zhiqing; Bin, Jiping; Wang, Xian; Wang, Menglei; Peng, Chaoyi; Xing, Suli; Xiao, Jiayu; Zeng, Jingcheng; Xiao, Ximei; Fu, Xin


    Wettability of an iron surface is crucial for the wide applications of iron in practice. In this work, a hierarchical structure highly similar to that of the underside of a bamboo leaf was constructed on an iron surface via the template method and controllable etching. After modification by stearic acid, the iron surface with hierarchical structure showed excellent water repellency, with an average contact angle of 156° and a sliding angle of 3°. X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are applied to examine the chemical components of an iron surface.

  14. A review of construction techniques available for surface and underground radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, D.G.; Davies, I.L.; MacKenzie, R.D.


    In terms of engineering requirements the construction of surface or indeed underground radioactive waste repositories is not unduly difficult. The civil engineering techniques likely to be required have generally been carried out previously, albeit not in the context of radioactive waste repositories in this country. The emphasis will have to be very much on the quality of construction. This paper emphasises the need for quality construction and describes the techniques likely to be used in the construction of repositories. Reference is made to the materials likely to be used in the construction of repositories and also to the need for being able to convince the designers, regulating authorities and the general public that the materials used will indeed last for the required time. Brief reference is made at the end of the paper to the civil engineering parameters requiring consideration in the location of repository siting. (author)

  15. Treatment of Chlorinated Aliphatic Contamination of Groundwater by Horizontal Recirculation Wells and by Constructed Vertical Flow Wetlands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shelley, Michael


    ...) constructed vertical subsurface flow wetlands. Both the natural dechlorination in wetland sediments, and the engineered dechlorination in a well using zero-valent metals have major implications for the treatment of Air Force pollutants...

  16. Development of a novel once-through flow visualization technique for kinetic study of bulk and surface scaling (United States)

    Sanni, O.; Bukuaghangin, O.; Huggan, M.; Kapur, N.; Charpentier, T.; Neville, A.


    There is a considerable interest to investigate surface crystallization in order to have a full mechanistic understanding of how layers of sparingly soluble salts (scale) build on component surfaces. Despite much recent attention, a suitable methodology to improve on the understanding of the precipitation/deposition systems to enable the construction of an accurate surface deposition kinetic model is still needed. In this work, an experimental flow rig and associated methodology to study mineral scale deposition is developed. The once-through flow rig allows us to follow mineral scale precipitation and surface deposition in situ and in real time. The rig enables us to assess the effects of various parameters such as brine chemistry and scaling indices, temperature, flow rates, and scale inhibitor concentrations on scaling kinetics. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) scaling at different values of the saturation ratio (SR) is evaluated using image analysis procedures that enable the assessment of surface coverage, nucleation, and growth of the particles with time. The result for turbidity values measured in the flow cell is zero for all the SR considered. The residence time from the mixing point to the sample is shorter than the induction time for bulk precipitation; therefore, there are no crystals in the bulk solution as the flow passes through the sample. The study shows that surface scaling is not always a result of pre-precipitated crystals in the bulk solution. The technique enables both precipitation and surface deposition of scale to be decoupled and for the surface deposition process to be studied in real time and assessed under constant condition.

  17. Nonlinear dynamics and breakup of free-surface flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggers, J.


    Surface-tension-driven flows and, in particular, their tendency to decay spontaneously into drops have long fascinated naturalists, the earliest systematic experiments dating back to the beginning of the 19th century. Linear stability theory governs the onset of breakup and was developed by Rayleigh, Plateau, and Maxwell. However, only recently has attention turned to the nonlinear behavior in the vicinity of the singular point where a drop separates. The increased attention is due to a number of recent and increasingly refined experiments, as well as to a host of technological applications, ranging from printing to mixing and fiber spinning. The description of drop separation becomes possible because jet motion turns out to be effectively governed by one-dimensional equations, which still contain most of the richness of the original dynamics. In addition, an attraction for physicists lies in the fact that the separation singularity is governed by universal scaling laws, which constitute an asymptotic solution of the Navier-Stokes equation before and after breakup. The Navier-Stokes equation is thus continued uniquely through the singularity. At high viscosities, a series of noise-driven instabilities has been observed, which are a nested superposition of singularities of the same universal form. At low viscosities, there is rich scaling behavior in addition to aesthetically pleasing breakup patterns driven by capillary waves. The author reviews the theoretical development of this field alongside recent experimental work, and outlines unsolved problems. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Effects of confinement & surface roughness in electrorheological flows (United States)

    Helal, Ahmed; Telleria, Maria J.; Wang, Julie; Strauss, Marc; Murphy, Mike; McKinley, Gareth; Hosoi, A. E.


    Electrorheological (ER) fluids are dielectric suspensions that exhibit a fast, reversible change in rheological properties with the application of an external electric field. Upon the application of the electric field, the material develops a field-dependent yield stress that is typically modeled using a Bingham plastic model. ER fluids are promising for designing small, cheap and rapidly actuated hydraulic devices such as rapidly-switchable valves, where fluid flowing in a microchannel can be arrested by applying an external electric field. In the lubrication limit, for a Bingham plastic fluid, the maximum pressure the channel can hold, before yielding, is a function of the field-dependent yield stress, the length of the channel and the electrode gap. In practice, the finite width of the channel and the surface roughness of the electrodes could affect the maximum yield pressure but a quantitative understanding of these effects is currently lacking. In this study, we experimentally investigate the effects of the channel aspect ratio (width/height) and the effects of electrode roughness on the performance of ER valves. Based on this quantitative analysis, we formulate new performance metrics for ER valves as well as design rules for ER valves that will help guide and optimize future designs.

  19. Experimental calibration and validation of sewer/surface flow exchange equations in steady and unsteady flow conditions (United States)

    Rubinato, Matteo; Martins, Ricardo; Kesserwani, Georges; Leandro, Jorge; Djordjević, Slobodan; Shucksmith, James


    The linkage between sewer pipe flow and floodplain flow is recognised to induce an important source of uncertainty within two-dimensional (2D) urban flood models. This uncertainty is often attributed to the use of empirical hydraulic formulae (the one-dimensional (1D) weir and orifice steady flow equations) to achieve data-connectivity at the linking interface, which require the determination of discharge coefficients. Because of the paucity of high resolution localised data for this type of flows, the current understanding and quantification of a suitable range for those discharge coefficients is somewhat lacking. To fulfil this gap, this work presents the results acquired from an instrumented physical model designed to study the interaction between a pipe network flow and a floodplain flow. The full range of sewer-to-surface and surface-to-sewer flow conditions at the exchange zone are experimentally analysed in both steady and unsteady flow regimes. Steady state measured discharges are first analysed considering the relationship between the energy heads from the sewer flow and the floodplain flow; these results show that existing weir and orifice formulae are valid for describing the flow exchange for the present physical model, and yield new calibrated discharge coefficients for each of the flow conditions. The measured exchange discharges are also integrated (as a source term) within a 2D numerical flood model (a finite volume solver to the 2D Shallow Water Equations (SWE)), which is shown to reproduce the observed coefficients. This calibrated numerical model is then used to simulate a series of unsteady flow tests reproduced within the experimental facility. Results show that the numerical model overestimated the values of mean surcharge flow rate. This suggests the occurrence of additional head losses in unsteady conditions which are not currently accounted for within flood models calibrated in steady flow conditions.

  20. Construction and operation of an isothermal flow reactor system for study of SO2 removal by injected limestone sorbents (United States)

    Hepola, Jouko


    Desulfurization capacity of Finnish limestones was studied with the aid of an isothermal flow reactor at the Laboratory of Fuel and Process Technology of the Technical Research Center of Finland over the years 1985-1989. Construction and operation of this isothermal flow reactor are presented in the article. Reaction temperature, residence time, and flue gas composition can be regulated independently of each other. The flue gas is formed by burning LPG (mixture of propane and propene). Other gases can be mixed with the flue gases to get the desired gas composition. The hot flue gas is led into a vertical reactor. To compensate heat losses the reactor tube is kept at the desired temperature with the aid of an electric resistance heater installed around the tube. Flow in the reactor is laminar. Limestone powder of 1-100 μm in particle size can be fed by a powder feeder at a rate of 0.2-5 g/min into the reactor. Reacted solid matter is collected with an axially movable, water-cooled, and nitrogen-diluted sampling probe in the reactor tube. It is very important to feed the fine powdered limestone as separate particles into the reactor and to sample the solid product so that detrimental reactions in the sampling system are minimized. The residence time of solid matter in the reactor ranges 0.1-1 s, depending on the gas amount flowing in the reactor tube, and on the position of the sampling probe in the tube. The sample is collected in a cyclone or a filter at the end of the probe. Calcium and sulfur compounds, specific surface area, and pore and particle size distributions are analyzed for the sample.

  1. Measurements of the cesium flow from a surface-plasma H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.V.; Allison, P.W.


    A surface ionization gauge (SIG) was constructed and used to measure the Cs 0 flow rate through the emission slit of a surface-plasma source (SPS) of H - ions with Penning geometry. The equivalent cesium density in the SPS discharge is deduced from these flow measurements. For dc operation the optimum H - current occurs at an equivalent cesium density of approx. 7 x 10 12 cm -3 (corresponding to an average cesium consumption rate of 0.5 mg/h). For pulsed operation the optimum H - current occurs at an equivalent cesium density of approx. 2 x 10 13 cm -3 (1-mg/h average cesium consumption rate). Cesium trapping by the SPS discharge was observed for both dc and pulsed operation. A cesium energy of approx. 0.1 eV is deduced from the observed time of flight to the SIG. In addition to providing information on the physics of the source, the SIG is a useful diagnostic tool for source startup and operation

  2. Evaluating the potential of 'on-line' constructed wetlands for mitigating pesticide transfers from agricultural land to surface waters (United States)

    Whelan, Michael; Ramos, Andre; Guymer, Ian; Villa, Raffaella; Jefferson, Bruce


    Pesticides make important contributions to modern agriculture but losses from land to water can present problems for environmental management, particularly in catchments where surface waters are abstracted for drinking water. Where artificial field drains represent a dominant pathway for pesticide transfers, buffer zones provide little mitigation potential. Instead, "on-line" constructed wetlands have been proposed as a potential means of reducing pesticide fluxes in drainage ditches and headwater streams. Here, we evaluate the potential of small free-surface wetlands to reduce pesticide concentrations in surface waters using a combination of field monitoring and numerical modelling. Two small constructed wetland systems in a first order catchment in Cambridgeshire, UK, were monitored over the 2014-2015 winter season. Discharge was measured at several flow control structures and samples were collected every eight hours and analysed for metaldehyde, a commonly-used molluscicide. Metaldehyde is moderately mobile and, like many other compounds, it has been regularly detected at high concentrations in surface water samples in a number of drinking water supply catchments in the UK over the past few years. However, it is unusually difficult to remove via conventional drinking water treatment which makes it particularly problematical for water companies. Metaldehyde losses from the upstream catchment were significant with peak concentrations occurring in the first storm events in early autumn, soon after application. Concentrations and loads appeared to be unaffected by transit through the wetland over a range of flow conditions - probably due to short solute residence times (quantified via several tracing experiments employing rhodamine WT - a fluorescent dye). A dynamic model, based on fugacity concepts, was constructed to describe chemical fate in the wetland system. The model was used to evaluate mitigation potential and management options under field conditions and

  3. Determination of averaged axisymmetric flow surfaces according to results obtained by numerical simulation of flow in turbomachinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović-Jovanović Jasmina B.


    Full Text Available In the increasing need for energy saving worldwide, the designing process of turbomachinery, as an essential part of thermal and hydroenergy systems, goes in the direction of enlarging efficiency. Therefore, the optimization of turbomachinery designing strongly affects the energy efficiency of the entire system. In the designing process of turbomachinery blade profiling, the model of axisymmetric fluid flows is commonly used in technical practice, even though this model suits only the profile cascades with infinite number of infinitely thin blades. The actual flow in turbomachinery profile cascades is not axisymmetric, and it can be fictively derived into the axisymmetric flow by averaging flow parameters in the blade passages according to the circular coordinate. Using numerical simulations of flow in turbomachinery runners, its operating parameters can be preliminarily determined. Furthermore, using the numerically obtained flow parameters in the blade passages, averaged axisymmetric flow surfaces in blade profile cascades can also be determined. The method of determination of averaged flow parameters and averaged meridian streamlines is presented in this paper, using the integral continuity equation for averaged flow parameters. With thus obtained results, every designer can be able to compare the obtained averaged flow surfaces with axisymmetric flow surfaces, as well as the specific work of elementary stages, which are used in the procedure of blade designing. Numerical simulations of flow in an exemplary axial flow pump, used as a part of the thermal power plant cooling system, were performed using Ansys CFX. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33040: Revitalization of existing and designing new micro and mini hydropower plants (from 100 kW to 1000 kW in the territory of South and Southeast Serbia

  4. Performance of Free Water Surface Constructed Wetland Using Typhalatifolia and Canna Lilies for the Treatment of Domestic Wastewater. (United States)

    Shrikhande, Avinash N; Nema, P; Mhaisalkar, Vasant A


    Discharge of untreated wastewater or partially treated wastewater into surface water bodies or on to land is a major cause of surface and ground water pollution thereby posing health hazards. Conventional wastewater treatment is generally not preferred for small communities due to higher capital and maintenance costs and lack of skilled supervision required for operation and maintenance. A constructed wetland treatment appears to be an appropriate alternative that can be employed both in developed and developing countries. A constructed wetland system is simple to construct and operate with low cost, and hence worth considering for the treatment of municipal wastewaters, especially from small communities. In this context, the site for carrying out the studies related to wastewater treatment was chosen at Kavikulguru Institute of Technology and Science (KITS), Ramtek, Dist. Nagpur. A Free Water Surface Constructed Wetland (FWSCW) of size 22.00m x 6.50 m x 0.60m was constructed at KITS, Ramtek. The performance of FWS CW system was studied for domestic wastewater treatment with theoretical hydraulic retention times of 10 days, 7 days and 5 days. Important parameters, such as BOD5, COD, TSS, NH4-N, PO4-P, DO, pH and faecal coliforms in both raw and treated wastewaters were monitored during a macrophytes life cycle. Based on the studies, it is concluded that minimum 5 days HRT is necessary for the treatment of wastewater in FWSCW using Typhalatifolia or Canna Lilies. Typhalatifolia is better in removal of pollutants from the wastewater in comparison to Canna Lilies and hence, is recommended for use in constructed wetland. The nutrient uptake capacity of Typhalatifolia is also quite encouraging and hence has great potential for application in treating wastewater from fertilizer industry. During the application of kinetic model, the observed and predicted values in respect of BOD, TSS and NH4-N in case of Typhalatifolia and BOD, COD and TSS in case of Canna Lilies were

  5. Designing and Constructing Blood Flow Monitoring System to Predict Pressure Ulcers on Heel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbari H.


    Full Text Available Background: A pressure ulcer is a complication related to the need for the care and treatment of primarily disabled and elderly people. With the decrease of the blood flow caused by the pressure loaded, ulcers are formed and the tissue will be wasted with the passage of time. Objective: The aim of this study was to construct blood flow monitoring system on the heel tissue which was under external pressure in order to evaluate the tissue treatment in the ulcer. Methods: To measure the blood flow changes, three infrared optical transmitters were used at the distances of 5, 10, and 15 mm to the receiver. Blood flow changes in heels were assessed in pressures 0, 30, and 60 mmHg. The time features were extracted for analysis from the recorded signal by MATLAB software. Changes of the time features under different pressures were evaluated at the three distances by ANOVA in SPSS software. The level of significance was considered at 0.05. Results: In this study, 15 subjects, including both male and female, with the mean age of 54±7 participated. The results showed that the signal amplitude, power and absolute signal decreased significantly when pressure on the tissue increased in different layers (p<0.05. Heart rate only decreased significantly in pressures more than 30 mmHg (p=0.02. In pressures more than 30 mmHg, in addition to a decrease in the time features, the pattern of blood flow signal changed and it wasn’t the same as noload signal. Conclusion: By detecting the time features, we can reach an early diagnosis to prognosticate the degeneration of the tissue under pressure and it can be recommended as a method to predict bedsores in the heel.

  6. Continuous vs. pulsating flow boiling. Part 2: Statistical comparison using response surface methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian; Meyer, Knud Erik


    Response surface methodology is used to investigate an active method for flow boiling heat transfer enhancement by means of fluid flow pulsation. The flow pulsations are introduced by a flow modulating expansion device and compared with the baseline continuous flow provided by a stepper......-motor expansion valve. Two experimental designs (data point sets) are generated using a modified Central Composite Design for each valve and their response surfaces are compared using the quadratic model. Statistical information on the significant model terms are used to clarify whether the effect of fluid flow....... The response surface comparison reveals that the flow pulsations improves the time-averaged heat transfer coefficient by as much as 10 % at the smallest cycle time compared with continuous flow. On the other hand, at highest cycle time and heat flux, the reduction may be as much as 20 % due to significant dry...

  7. Critique of Macro Flow/Damage Surface Representations for Metal Matrix Composites Using Micromechanics (United States)

    Lissenden, Cliff J.; Arnold, Steven M.


    Guidance for the formulation of robust, multiaxial, constitutive models for advanced materials is provided by addressing theoretical and experimental issues using micromechanics. The multiaxial response of metal matrix composites, depicted in terms of macro flow/damage surfaces, is predicted at room and elevated temperatures using an analytical micromechanical model that includes viscoplastic matrix response as well as fiber-matrix debonding. Macro flow/damage surfaces (i.e., debonding envelopes, matrix threshold surfaces, macro 'yield' surfaces, surfaces of constant inelastic strain rate, and surfaces of constant dissipation rate) are determined for silicon carbide/titanium in three stress spaces. Residual stresses are shown to offset the centers of the flow/damage surfaces from the origin and their shape is significantly altered by debonding. The results indicate which type of flow/damage surfaces should be characterized and what loadings applied to provide the most meaningful experimental data for guiding theoretical model development and verification.

  8. On the 'area to point' flow problem based on constructal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wenjun; Chen Lingen; Sun Fengrui


    The study of the 'area to point' flow problem, which generates heat uniformly, is conducted based on constructal theory in this paper. Bejan [Bejan A. Constructal-theory network of conducting path for cooling a heat generating volume. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 1997;40(4):799-816] analyzed the problem using an effective thermal conductivity, which simplified the optimization greatly, and deduced an approximate result. Ghodoossi and Egrican [Ghodoossi L, Egrican N. Exact solution for cooling of electronics using constructal theory. J Appl Phys 2003;93(8):4922-9] analyzed the problem without the simplification of an effective conductivity, obtained an exact result, found a great deviation from Bejan's approximate result and stated that the simplification is the cause of the deviation in the approximate solution. It is proved in this paper that the cause of the deviation in the approximate solution is not the reasonable simplification of an effective conductivity but the mistakenly derived effective thermal conductivity. The approximate solution is revised, and the corresponding result, which is consistent with the exact solution, is obtained

  9. Determination of the hydraulic residence time of two subsurface-flow constructed wetlands using radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debien, Bruno R.


    The adoption of constructed wetland systems (CW's) with subsuperficial drainage for sewage treatment is increasingly growing in places with low technological resources and available land. The efficient removal of pollutants depends on the internal flow characteristics in the CW and on its hydraulic residence time (HRT). In the present work 82 Br - a gamma radiation emitter, produced from soluble potassium bromide irradiated in the TRIGA reactor at the Centre for the Development of Nuclear Energy (CDTN) - was used as a pseudo-conservative tracer for the comparative study of aqueous phase flow dynamics in two CW's: one in which plants were grown (WP) whereas the other had no plants (WNP). Experimental hydraulic residence time values were found to be very close to the theoretical one, while dispersion numbers obtained for both CW's were quite small. Besides these measured hydrodynamic parameters, the residence time distribution (RTD) curves of the tracer test and the results of modeling of experimental data also demonstrate the tendency of the units to display a plug flow-like effluent hydraulic transport within their systems, as expected from their designs, considering the large length/width ratio (L/W=8). (author)

  10. Improved Flow Modulator Construction for GC × GC with Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry. (United States)

    Ston, Martin; Cabala, Radomir; Bierhanzl, Vaclav Matej; Krajicek, Jan; Bosakova, Zuzana


    Improvement and testing of a flow modulator for the application in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography separations is the subject of the presented paper. This improved setup constructed from two independent capillary branches each consisting of a pressure regulator, a pressure sensor, a two-way solenoid valve and a microfluidic T-connector, allows an independent and easy settings of the pressures and flow velocities in the modulator and provides system flexibility in an operation without need of any component exchange. The estimated flow rates were 0.4 mL/min in the first column and 3.2 mL/min in the second column. This setup was compared with the commercial Zoex cryogenic modulator for the separation of 17 selected solvents at isothermal conditions. Modulator working conditions were optimized and its separation power was demonstrated on the analysis of a lavender extract under an application of two orthogonal capillary column sets (nonpolar-polar vs. polar-nonpolar) and temperature program. The results were evaluated by two commercial software packages and discussed with respect to the identification compliance. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  11. Performance of Four Full-Scale Artificially Aerated Horizontal Flow Constructed Wetlands for Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Butterworth


    Full Text Available A comparison of the performance of four full-scale aerated horizontal flow constructed wetlands was conducted to determine the efficacy of the technology on sites receiving high and variable ammonia loading rates not yet reported in the literature. Performance was assessed in terms of ammonia and solids removal, hydraulic conductivity and mixing patterns. The capability of systems to produce ammonium effluent concentrations <3 mgNH4+-N/L was observed across all sites in systems receiving variable loadings between 0.1 and 13.0 gNH4+-N/m2/d. Potential resilience issues were observed in relation to response to spike loadings posited to be due to an insufficient nitrifying population within the beds. Hydraulic conductivity and flow mixing patterns observed suggested deterioration of the reactor effective volume over time. Overall, the study demonstrates the efficacy of the technology where ammonium removal is required on small sites receiving high and variable flow rates, with adequate removal of organics and solids, but no significant benefit to the long term hydraulics of the system.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dziubińska


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research undertaken to investigate cold forming process for 40HM constructional steel suitable for heat treatment. In the first part of the paper, mechanical properties of this steel and its industrial applications are described. The second part of the paper presents the results of the analysis of flow curves for two kinds of steel specimens: those that were subjected to annealing and those that did not undergo any heat treatment. It was found that the application of heat treatment had a significant effect on improving the forming conditions for this steel at room temperature. The experimental flow curves obtained in a compression test were described by constitutive equations illustrating the dependence between flow stresses and strain value. In order to determine the equation coefficients, the Generalized Reduced Gradient method implemented in Microsoft Excel was used. Based on the obtained equations, a material model will be developed to perform numerical simulations of cold forming for 40HM steel, using FEM-based software that aids the design of metal forming technologies.

  13. Determination of the hydraulic residence time of two subsurface-flow constructed wetlands using radiotracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debien, Bruno R., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept de Geografia. Lab. de Geomorfologia; Barreto, Alberto A.; Pinto, Amenonia M.F.; Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    The adoption of constructed wetland systems (CW's) with subsuperficial drainage for sewage treatment is increasingly growing in places with low technological resources and available land. The efficient removal of pollutants depends on the internal flow characteristics in the CW and on its hydraulic residence time (HRT). In the present work {sup 82}Br - a gamma radiation emitter, produced from soluble potassium bromide irradiated in the TRIGA reactor at the Centre for the Development of Nuclear Energy (CDTN) - was used as a pseudo-conservative tracer for the comparative study of aqueous phase flow dynamics in two CW's: one in which plants were grown (WP) whereas the other had no plants (WNP). Experimental hydraulic residence time values were found to be very close to the theoretical one, while dispersion numbers obtained for both CW's were quite small. Besides these measured hydrodynamic parameters, the residence time distribution (RTD) curves of the tracer test and the results of modeling of experimental data also demonstrate the tendency of the units to display a plug flow-like effluent hydraulic transport within their systems, as expected from their designs, considering the large length/width ratio (L/W=8). (author)

  14. Gas entrainment inception at the border of a flow-swollen liquid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madarame, Haruki; Chiba, Tamotsu


    A rapid liquid flow into a tank may impinge on the free surface, making it swell partially. The returning flow branches off from the free surface and re-submerges at the border of the swollen surface. If the flow velocity along the swollen surface is high enough, gas bubbles are formed at the border and entrained by the liquid flow. The conditions necessary for gas entrainment in a simple system are examined experimentally, using water and air as working fluids. The effect of surface tension is examined by adding a surface active agent to the water. The results show that gas entrainment inception is determined by the flow pattern in the system and the product of the Froude and Weber numbers based on the local velocity at the bubble formation point. (orig.)

  15. Enteric and indicator virus removal by surface flow wetlands. (United States)

    Rachmadi, Andri T; Kitajima, Masaaki; Pepper, Ian L; Gerba, Charles P


    We investigated the occurrence and attenuation of several human enteric viruses (i.e., norovirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus 1, polyomaviruses, and enterovirus) as well as a plant virus, pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), at two surface flow wetlands in Arizona. The retention time in one of the wetlands was seven days, whereas in the other wetland it could not be defined. Water samples were collected at the inlet and outlet from the wetlands over nine months, and concentration of viral genomes was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Of the human enteric viruses tested, adenovirus and Aichi virus 1 were found in the greatest prevalence in treated wastewater (i.e., inlet of the wetlands). Reduction efficiencies of enteric viruses by the wetlands ranged from 1 to 3 log10. Polyomaviruses were generally removed to below detection limit, indicating at least 2 to 4 log10 removal. PMMoV was detected in a greater concentration in the inlet of both wetlands for all the viruses tested (10(4) to 10(7) genome copies/L), but exhibited little or no removal (1 log10 or less). To determine the factors associated with virus genome attenuation (as determined by qPCR), the persistence of PMMoV and poliovirus type 1 (an enterovirus) was studied in autoclaved and natural wetland water, and deionized water incubated under three different temperatures for 21 days. A combination of elevated water temperature and biological activities reduced poliovirus by 1 to 4 log10, while PMMoV was not significantly reduced during this time period. Overall, PMMoV showed much greater persistence than human viruses in the wetland treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Two-dimensional free-surface flow under gravity: A new benchmark case for SPH method (United States)

    Wu, J. Z.; Fang, L.


    Currently there are few free-surface benchmark cases with analytical results for the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation. In the present contribution we introduce a two-dimensional free-surface flow under gravity, and obtain an analytical expression on the surface height difference and a theoretical estimation on the surface fractal dimension. They are preliminarily validated and supported by SPH calculations.

  17. Characteristics of Nitrogen Loss through Surface-Subsurface Flow on Red Soil Slopes of Southeast China (United States)

    Zheng, Haijin; Liu, Zhao; Zuo, Jichao; Wang, Lingyun; Nie, Xiaofei


    Soil nitrogen (N) loss related to surface flow and subsurface flow (including interflow and groundwater flow) from slope lands is a global issue. A lysimetric experiment with three types of land cover (grass cover, GC; litter cover, LC; and bare land, BL) were carried out on a red soil slope land in southeast China. Total Nitrogen (TN) loss through surface flow, interflow and groundwater flow was observed under 28 natural precipitation events from 2015 to 2016. TN concentrations from subsurface flow on BL and LC plots were, on average, 2.7-8.2 and 1.5-4.4 times greater than TN concentrations from surface flow, respectively; the average concentration of TN from subsurface flow on GC was about 36-56% of that recorded from surface flow. Surface flow, interflow and groundwater flow contributed 0-15, 2-9 and 76-96%, respectively, of loss load of TN. Compared with BL, GC and LC intercepted 83-86% of TN loss through surface runoff; GC intercepted 95% of TN loss through subsurface flow while TN loss through subsurface flow on LC is 2.3 times larger than that on BL. In conclusion, subsurface flow especially groundwater flow is the dominant hydrological rout for N loss that is usually underestimated. Grass cover has the high retention of N runoff loss while litter mulch will increase N leaching loss. These findings provide scientific support to control N runoff loss from the red soil slope lands by using suitable vegetation cover and mulching techniques.

  18. Use of engineered nanomaterials in the construction industry with specific emphasis on paints and their flows in construction and demolition waste in Switzerland. (United States)

    Hincapié, Ingrid; Caballero-Guzman, Alejandro; Hiltbrunner, David; Nowack, Bernd


    One sector where the use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is supposed to offer novel or improved functionalities is the construction industry. During the renovation or demolition of buildings, ENMs contained in former construction materials will enter recycling systems or become construction waste. Currently, information about ENM flows in these processes is insufficient. The potential for the release of ENMs from this waste into the environment is unknown, as are the environmental impacts. To evaluate whether there is currently any nano-relevant construction and demolition waste (C&DW) originating from buildings, we evaluated the sources and flows of ENMs in C&DW and identified their potential exposure pathways. A survey of business representatives of Swiss companies in this sector found that ENMs are mainly used in paints and cement. The most frequently used ENMs in the Swiss housing construction industry are nano-TiO2, nano-SiO2, nano-ZnO, and nano-Ag. Using a bottom-up, semi-quantitative approach, we estimated the flows of ENMs contained in paints along the product's life cycle from buildings to recycling and landfill. The flows of ENMs are determined by their associated flows of building materials. We estimated an annual amount of ENMs used in paints of 14t of TiO2, 12t of SiO2, 5t of ZnO, and 0.2t of Ag. The majority of ENMs contained in paints in Switzerland enter recycling systems (23t/y), a smaller amount is disposed directly in landfills (7t/y), and a tiny fraction of ENM waste is incinerated (0.01t/y). Our results allow a qualitative determination of the potential release of ENMs into technical or environmental compartments, with the highest potential release expected during recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermally driven flows between a Leidenfrost solid and a ratchet surface. (United States)

    Hardt, Steffen; Tiwari, Sudarshan; Baier, Tobias


    The significance of thermally driven flows for the propulsion of Leidenfrost solids on a ratchet surface is studied based on a numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation. The resulting flow patterns are dominated by vortices developing at the edges of the ratchet teeth. In a previous analysis it had been claimed that thermally driven flows could cause the propulsion of Leidenfrost objects. In contrast to that analysis, it is found that such flows make an insignificant contribution to the thrust of Leidenfrost solids on ratchet surfaces, which is dominated by the pressure-driven flow due to the sublimating solid.

  20. Construction (United States)


    Harbor Deepening Project, Jacksonville, FL Palm Valley Bridge Project, Jacksonville, FL Rotary Club of San Juan, San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway...David. What is nanotechnology? What are its implications for construction?, Foresight/CRISP Workshop on Nanotechnology, Royal Society of Arts

  1. Numerical analysis of choked converging nozzle flows with surface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Variation of discharge coefficients for sonic nozzles with flow geometry and Reynolds num- ber was reported by Paik et al (2000), who determined higher discharge coefficients with the increase of mass flow rate. Lear et al (1997) modelled dissipative effects of heat trans- fer on the exit kinetic energy and on nozzle efficiency ...

  2. Construction of estimated flow- and load-duration curves for Kentucky using the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) (United States)

    Unthank, Michael D.; Newson, Jeremy K.; Williamson, Tanja N.; Nelson, Hugh L.


    Flow- and load-duration curves were constructed from the model outputs of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) application for streams in Kentucky. The WATER application was designed to access multiple geospatial datasets to generate more than 60 years of statistically based streamflow data for Kentucky. The WATER application enables a user to graphically select a site on a stream and generate an estimated hydrograph and flow-duration curve for the watershed upstream of that point. The flow-duration curves are constructed by calculating the exceedance probability of the modeled daily streamflows. User-defined water-quality criteria and (or) sampling results can be loaded into the WATER application to construct load-duration curves that are based on the modeled streamflow results. Estimates of flow and streamflow statistics were derived from TOPographically Based Hydrological MODEL (TOPMODEL) simulations in the WATER application. A modified TOPMODEL code, SDP-TOPMODEL (Sinkhole Drainage Process-TOPMODEL) was used to simulate daily mean discharges over the period of record for 5 karst and 5 non-karst watersheds in Kentucky in order to verify the calibrated model. A statistical evaluation of the model's verification simulations show that calibration criteria, established by previous WATER application reports, were met thus insuring the model's ability to provide acceptably accurate estimates of discharge at gaged and ungaged sites throughout Kentucky. Flow-duration curves are constructed in the WATER application by calculating the exceedence probability of the modeled daily flow values. The flow-duration intervals are expressed as a percentage, with zero corresponding to the highest stream discharge in the streamflow record. Load-duration curves are constructed by applying the loading equation (Load = Flow*Water-quality criterion) at each flow interval.

  3. Measurement of the interaction between the flow and the free surface of a liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Koji [Univ. of Tokyo, Ibaraki (Japan); Schmidl, W.D.; Philip, O.G. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)


    The interaction between the flow and free surface was evaluated measuring the velocity distribution and surface movement simultaneously. The test section was a rectangular tank having a free surface. A rectangular nozzle was set near the free surface, causing the wavy free surface condition. The flow under the free surface was visualized by a laser light sheet and small tracer particles. With image processing techniques, the movement of the free surface and the movement of the particles were simultaneously measured from the recorded images, resulting in the velocity distributions and surface locations. Then, the interactions between the flow and free surface were evaluated using the form of turbulent energy and surface-related turbulent values. By increasing the turbulent energy near the free surface, the fluctuations of the free surface height and the inclination of the free surface were increased. The higher fluctuation of horizontal velocity was related to the higher surface position and negative inclination. The image processing technique is found to be very useful to evaluate the interaction between free surface and flow.

  4. Data Flow in Relation to Life-Cycle Costing of Construction Projects in the Czech Republic (United States)

    Biolek, Vojtěch; Hanák, Tomáš; Marović, Ivan


    Life-cycle costing is an important part of every construction project, as it makes it possible to take into consideration future costs relating to the operation and demolition phase of a built structure. In this way, investors can optimize the project design to minimize the total project costs. Even though there have already been some attempts to implement BIM software in the Czech Republic, the current state of affairs does not support automated data flow between the bill of costs and applications that support building facility management. The main aim of this study is to critically evaluate the current situation and outline a future framework that should allow for the use of the data contained in the bill of costs to manage building operating costs.

  5. Soil microbial abundances and enzyme activities in different rhizospheres in an integrated vertical flow constructed wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Ying; Jiang, Yueping; Jiang, Qinsu; Min, Hang; Fan, Haitian; Zeng, Qiang; Chang, Jie [College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Zhang, Chongbang [School of Life Sciences, Taizhou University, Linhai (China); Yue, Chunlei [Zhejiang Forestry Academy, Hangzhou (China)


    Rhizosphere microorganism is an important bio-component for wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands (CWs). Microbial abundance and enzyme activities in the rhizospheres of nine plant species were investigated in an integrated vertical-flow CW. The abundance of denitrifiers, as well as urease, acid, and alkaline phosphatase activities were positively correlated to plant root biomass. The abundance of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, ammonifiers, denitrifiers, and phosphorus decomposers, related to nutrient removal efficiencies in CWs, greatly varied among rhizospheres of different plant species (p < 0.05). Significant differences in rhizosphere enzyme activity among plant species were also observed (p < 0.05), with the exception of catalase activity. The principal component analysis using the data of microbial abundance and enzyme activity showed that Miscanthus floridulus, Acorus calamus, and Reineckia carnea were candidates to be used in CWs to effectively remove nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Manipulating the surface active and anticoagulant properties of heparin through amphiphilic molecular constructs (United States)

    Mintz, Rosita Candida

    ) with increasing hydrocarbon number (n = 36 to 78). Under aqueous flow (1ml/min) the adhesion stability of linear heparin surfactants (n = 6--18), adsorbed on polyethylene, increased with increasing alkyl carbon number. However, on polyurethane, only trioctadecyl HAD 3x18 surfactant remained stable. In in vitro studies, the trioctadecyl heparin surfactant coating demonstrated reduction in static (78%) and shear (67%) platelet adhesion, and reduction in three platelet activation markers relative to a glass control. In vivo experiments, which examined restenosis in a porcine coronary model, demonstrated that the heparin surfactant coating reduced in-stent neointimal formation by 30%, relative to the bare stainless steel control stent. In this research, surface active properties of heparin surfactants were constructively manipulated to maximize the adsorption and adhesion to cardiovascular biomaterials. By maximizing the number of hydrocarbons through alkyl branching and utilizing the hydrophobic effect, heparin-alkyl amphiphiles self assembled into dense, homogeneous, stable layers on hydrophobic surfaces. The heparin surfactant coating provided a nonthrombogenic surface with reduced in-stent restenosis for cardiovascular implants.

  7. Method of driving liquid flow at or near the free surface using magnetic microparticles (United States)

    Snezhko, Oleksiy [Woodridge, IL; Aronson, Igor [Darien, IL; Kwok, Wai-Kwong [Evanston, IL; Belkin, Maxim V [Woodridge, IL


    The present invention provides a method of driving liquid flow at or near a free surface using self-assembled structures composed of magnetic particles subjected to an external AC magnetic field. A plurality of magnetic particles are supported at or near a free surface of liquid by surface tension or buoyancy force. An AC magnetic field traverses the free surface and dipole-dipole interaction between particles produces in self-assembled snake structures which oscillate at the frequency of the traverse AC magnetic field. The snake structures independently move across the free surface and may merge with other snake structures or break up and coalesce into additional snake structures experiencing independent movement across the liquid surface. During this process, the snake structures produce asymmetric flow vortices across substantially the entirety of the free surface, effectuating liquid flow across the free surface.

  8. Robust biological nitrogen removal by creating multiple tides in a single bed tidal flow constructed wetland. (United States)

    Hu, Yuansheng; Zhao, Yaqian; Rymszewicz, Anna


    Achieving effective total nitrogen (TN) removal is one of the major challenges faced by constructed wetlands (CWs). To address this issue, multiple "tides" were proposed in a single stage tidal flow constructed wetland (TFCW). With this adoption, exceptional TN removal (85% on average) was achieved under a high nitrogen loading rate (NLR) of around 28 g Nm(-2)day(-1), which makes the proposed system an adequate option to provide advanced wastewater treatment for peri-urban communities and rural area. It was revealed that the multiple "tides" not only promoted TN removal performance, but also brought more flexibility to TFCWs. Adsorption of NH4(+)-N onto the wetland medium (during contact period) and regeneration of the adsorption capacity via nitrification (during bed resting) were validated as the key processes for NH4(+)-N conversion in TFCWs. Moreover, simultaneous nitrification denitrification (SND) was found to be significant during the bed resting period. These findings will provide a new foundation for the design and modeling of nitrogen conversion and oxygen transfer in TFCWs. © 2013.

  9. Pharmaceutical removal in tropical subsurface flow constructed wetlands at varying hydraulic loading rates. (United States)

    Zhang, Dong Qing; Gersberg, Richard M; Hua, Tao; Zhu, Junfei; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Tan, Soon Keat


    Determining the fate of emerging organic contaminants in an aquatic ecosystem is important for developing constructed wetlands (CWs) treatment technology. Experiments were carried out in subsurface flow CWs in Singapore to evaluate the fate and transport of eight pharmaceutical compounds. The CW system included three parallel horizontal subsurface flow CWs and three parallel unplanted beds fed continuously with synthetic wastewater at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The findings of the tests at 2-6 d HRTs showed that the pharmaceuticals could be categorized as (i) efficiently removed compounds with removal higher than 85% (ketoprofen and salicylic acid); (ii) moderately removed compounds with removal efficiencies between 50% and 85% (naproxen, ibuprofen and caffeine); and (iii) poorly removed compounds with efficiency rate lower than 50% (carbamazepine, diclofenac, and clofibric acid). Except for carbamazepine and salicylic acid, removal efficiencies of the selected pharmaceuticals showed significant (pcaffeine, ketoprofen and clofibric acid were found to follow first order decay kinetics with decay constants higher in the planted beds than the unplanted beds. Correlations between pharmaceutical removal efficiencies and log K(ow) were not significant (p>0.05), implying that their removal is not well related to the compound's hydrophobicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Flow-through devices for the ac electrokinetic construction of microstructured materials (United States)

    Flores-Rodriguez, N.; Markx, G. H.


    With the aid of computer simulation, flow-through devices have been devised for the continuous construction of microstructured materials using non-uniform ac electric fields. Particles can be concentrated and guided along channels defined by non-uniform electric fields generated between microelectrodes. The resulting streams of particles emanating from the microelectrode structures can subsequently be immobilized to form materials with particles embedded in defined locations. Experiments with latex beads with a diameter of 6 µm, suspended in high purity low-melting agarose at a concentration of 0.75% and temperatures over 60 °C, showed that a linear stream of particles can be created by the combined application of negative dielectrophoresis and hydrodynamic flow forces. By guiding the stream of particles onto a conveyor, it was then possible to create a continuous film of agarose containing latex beads in defined positions. Potential applications of the method in the creation of biomaterials such as tissues and biofilms are discussed.

  11. [Removal nitrogen of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland under aeration condition]. (United States)

    Tao, Min; He, Feng; Xu, Dong; Zhou, Qiao-Hong; Liang, Wei; Chen, Shui-Ping; Wu, Zhen-Bin


    Oxygen is an important limit factor of nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands, so it is the key point for improving nitrogen removal efficiency of constructed wetlands that the optimization of oxygen distribution within wetlands. Therefore, oxygen status, nitrogen removal and purification mechanism of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVCW) under aeration condition in summer and winter have been studied. The results showed that both oxygen levels and aerobic zones were increased in the wetland substrates. The area of oxic zone I (expressing with depth) extended from 22 cm, 17 cm to 53 cm, 44 cm, in summer and winter, respectively. The electric potential (Eh) profiling demonstrated that artificial aeration maintained the pattern of sequential oxic-anoxic-oxic (O-A-O) redox zones within the aerated IVCW in winter, while only two oxic-anoxic (O-A) zones were present inside the non-aerated IVCW in the cold season. The decomposition of organic matter and nitrification were obviously enhanced by artificial aeration since the removal efficiency of COD, TN and NH4(+) -N were increased by 12.2%, 6.9% and 15.1% in winter, respectively. There was no significant accumulation of NO3(-) -N in the effluent with an aeration cycle of 8 h on and 16 h off in this experiment. Moreover, we found that oxic zone I was the main region of pollutants removal in IVCW system, and artificial aeration mainly acted to enhance the purification capacity of this oxic zone in the aerated IVCW. These results suggest that aeration is important for optimization and application of IVCW system.

  12. Radioisotope tracer application in surface and groundwater flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monev, E.


    The ''peak to peak'' method for measurement of water flow with the use of radioactive tracer was investigated. The theoretical basis for this method has been established. The experiments in the open channel have shown the applicability of the method. Groundwater flow was studied by injection of radioactive tracer into the bore-hole followed by gamma-logging in three different time intervals. Interpretation of gamma lows in terms of filtration velocity in various depths proved to be possible

  13. Construction of Response Surface with Higher Order Continuity and Its Application to Reliability Engineering (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, T.; Romero, V. J.


    The usefulness of piecewise polynomials with C1 and C2 derivative continuity for response surface construction method is examined. A Moving Least Squares (MLS) method is developed and compared with four other interpolation methods, including kriging. First the selected methods are applied and compared with one another in a two-design variables problem with a known theoretical response function. Next the methods are tested in a four-design variables problem from a reliability-based design application. In general the piecewise polynomial with higher order derivative continuity methods produce less error in the response prediction. The MLS method was found to be superior for response surface construction among the methods evaluated.

  14. Construction of 4D high-definition cortical surface atlases of infants: Methods and applications. (United States)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang


    In neuroimaging, cortical surface atlases play a fundamental role for spatial normalization, analysis, visualization, and comparison of results across individuals and different studies. However, existing cortical surface atlases created for adults are not suitable for infant brains during the first two postnatal years, which is the most dynamic period of postnatal structural and functional development of the highly-folded cerebral cortex. Therefore, spatiotemporal cortical surface atlases for infant brains are highly desired yet still lacking for accurate mapping of early dynamic brain development. To bridge this significant gap, leveraging our infant-dedicated computational pipeline for cortical surface-based analysis and the unique longitudinal infant MRI dataset acquired in our research center, in this paper, we construct the first spatiotemporal (4D) high-definition cortical surface atlases for the dynamic developing infant cortical structures at seven time points, including 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months of age, based on 202 serial MRI scans from 35 healthy infants. For this purpose, we develop a novel method to ensure the longitudinal consistency and unbiasedness to any specific subject and age in our 4D infant cortical surface atlases. Specifically, we first compute the within-subject mean cortical folding by unbiased groupwise registration of longitudinal cortical surfaces of each infant. Then we establish longitudinally-consistent and unbiased inter-subject cortical correspondences by groupwise registration of the geometric features of within-subject mean cortical folding across all infants. Our 4D surface atlases capture both longitudinally-consistent dynamic mean shape changes and the individual variability of cortical folding during early brain development. Experimental results on two independent infant MRI datasets show that using our 4D infant cortical surface atlases as templates leads to significantly improved accuracy for spatial normalization

  15. A framework for modeling connections between hydraulics, water surface roughness, and surface reflectance in open channel flows (United States)

    Legleiter, Carl; Mobley, Curtis D.; Overstreet, Brandon


    This paper introduces a framework for examining connections between the flow field, the texture of the air-water interface, and the reflectance of the water surface and thus evaluating the potential to infer hydraulic information from remotely sensed observations of surface reflectance. We used a spatial correlation model describing water surface topography to illustrate the application of our framework. Nondimensional relations between model parameters and flow intensity were established based on a prior flume study. Expressing the model in the spatial frequency domain allowed us to use an efficient Fourier transform-based algorithm for simulating water surfaces. Realizations for both flume and field settings had water surface slope distributions positively correlated with velocity and water surface roughness. However, most surface facets were gently sloped and thus unlikely to yield strong specular reflections; the model exaggerated the extent of water surface features, leading to underestimation of facet slopes. A ray tracing algorithm indicated that reflectance was greatest when solar and view zenith angles were equal and the sensor scanned toward the Sun to capture specular reflections of the solar beam. Reflected energy was concentrated in a small portion of the sky, but rougher water surfaces reflected rays into a broader range of directions. Our framework facilitates flight planning to avoid surface-reflected radiance while mapping other river attributes, or to maximize this component to exploit relationships between hydraulics and surface reflectance. This initial analysis also highlighted the need for improved models of water surface topography in natural rivers.

  16. A framework for modeling connections between hydraulics, water surface roughness, and surface reflectance in open channel flows (United States)

    Legleiter, Carl J.; Mobley, Curtis D.; Overstreet, Brandon T.


    This paper introduces a framework for examining connections between the flow field, the texture of the air-water interface, and the reflectance of the water surface and thus evaluating the potential to infer hydraulic information from remotely sensed observations of surface reflectance. We used a spatial correlation model describing water surface topography to illustrate the application of our framework. Nondimensional relations between model parameters and flow intensity were established based on a prior flume study. Expressing the model in the spatial frequency domain allowed us to use an efficient Fourier transform-based algorithm for simulating water surfaces. Realizations for both flume and field settings had water surface slope distributions positively correlated with velocity and water surface roughness. However, most surface facets were gently sloped and thus unlikely to yield strong specular reflections; the model exaggerated the extent of water surface features, leading to underestimation of facet slopes. A ray tracing algorithm indicated that reflectance was greatest when solar and view zenith angles were equal and the sensor scanned toward the Sun to capture specular reflections of the solar beam. Reflected energy was concentrated in a small portion of the sky, but rougher water surfaces reflected rays into a broader range of directions. Our framework facilitates flight planning to avoid surface-reflected radiance while mapping other river attributes, or to maximize this component to exploit relationships between hydraulics and surface reflectance. This initial analysis also highlighted the need for improved models of water surface topography in natural rivers.

  17. Efficient surrogate construction by combining response surface methodology and reduced order modeling


    Gogu , Christian; Passieux , Jean-Charles


    International audience; Response surface methodology is an efficient method for approximating the output of complex, computationally expensive codes. Challenges remain however in decreasing their construction cost as well as in approximating high dimensional output instead of scalar values. We propose a novel approach addressing both these challenges simultaneously for cases where the expensive code solves partial differential equations involving the resolution of a large system of equations,...

  18. Pressure-dependent surface viscosity and its surprising consequences in interfacial lubrication flows (United States)

    Manikantan, Harishankar; Squires, Todd M.


    The surface shear rheology of many insoluble surfactants depends strongly on the surface pressure (or concentration) of that surfactant. Here we highlight the dramatic consequences that surface-pressure-dependent surface viscosities have on interfacially dominant flows, by considering lubrication-style geometries within high Boussinesq (Bo) number flows. As with three-dimensional lubrication, high-Bo surfactant flows through thin gaps give high surface pressures, which in turn increase the local surface viscosity, further amplifying lubrication stresses and surface pressures. Despite their strong nonlinearity, the governing equations are separable, so that results from two-dimensional Newtonian lubrication analyses may be immediately adapted to treat surfactant monolayers with a general functional form of ηs(Π ) . Three paradigmatic systems are analyzed to reveal qualitatively new features: a maximum, self-limiting value for surfactant fluxes and particle migration velocities appears for Π -thickening surfactants, and kinematic reversibility is broken for the journal bearing and for suspensions more generally.

  19. Impact of the surface wind flow on precipitation characteristics over the southern Himalayas: GPM observations (United States)

    Zhang, Aoqi; Fu, Yunfei; Chen, Yilun; Liu, Guosheng; Zhang, Xiangdong


    The distribution and influence of precipitation over the southern Himalayas have been investigated on regional and global scales. However, previous studies have been limited by the insufficient emphasis on the precipitation triggers or the lack of droplet size distribution (DSD) data. Here, precipitating systems were identified using Global Precipitation Mission dual-frequency radar data, and then categorized into five classes according to surface flow from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast Interim data. The surface flow is introduced to indicate the precipitation triggers, which is validated in this study. Using case and statistical analysis, we show that the precipitating systems with different surface flow had different precipitation characteristics, including spatio-temporal features, reflectivity profile, DSD, and rainfall intensity. Furthermore, the results show that the source of the surface flow influences the intensity and DSD of precipitation. The terrain exerts different impacts on the precipitating systems of five categories, leading to various distributions of precipitation characteristics over the southern Himalayas. Our results suggest that the introduction of surface flow and DSD for precipitating systems provides insight into the complex precipitation of the southern Himalayas. The different characteristics of precipitating systems may be caused by the surface flow. Therefore, future study on the orographic precipitations should take account the impact of the surface flow and its relevant dynamic mechanism.

  20. Influence of surface tension changes on hydrodynamic flow induced by traveling chemical waves (United States)

    Matthiessen, Kai; Wilke, Hermann; Müller, Stefan C.


    Chemical waves in a thin layer of a Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction solution induce convective flow in the reaction medium. The mechanism of this chemically driven convection is investigated with space-resolved velocimetry, and simulated numerically solving modified Oregonator model equations and the Navier-Stokes equation. To decide whether the flow is driven by surface tension gradients or density gradients the results of the simulations are compared with experimental data. Analysis of the vertical distribution of the horizontal flow velocity suggests that in the mechanism of flow generation surface effects are dominant.

  1. Start-up of a free water surface constructed wetland for treating olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michailides Michail


    Full Text Available An olive mill's existing evaporation pond was separated into five cells and transformed into a free water surface constructed wetland. The constructed wetland was used as a post-treatment stage for olive mill wastewater (OMW. Wastewater was previously treated by an aerobic trickling filter. The influent concentrations in the constructed wetland were 27400 mg.L-1, 4800 mg.L-1, 105 mg.L-1 and 770 mg.L-1 for COD, phenols, ortho-phosphate and TKN, respectively. Despite the rather high influent concentrations, the performance of the constructed wetland was very good since after the 60-day start-up operation period it achieved removal rates of about 94%, 95%, 95% and 98% for COD, phenols, ortho-phosphate and TKN, respectively. The major pollutant removal processes can be attributed to both biological processes occurring in the wetland and photo-oxidation. Laboratory-scale experiments with OMW from fifth cell of the wetland revealed that the net contribution of photo-oxidation after 112 hours of simulated solar radiation at 765 W/m2 (i.e. about 38 days of sunlight irradiation was 18% and 31% removal for COD and phenols, respectively. In the constructed wetland, the total removal reached 81% and 86% for COD and phenols, respectively, for the same time period (38 days.

  2. Comparison of Response Surface Construction Methods for Derivative Estimation Using Moving Least Squares, Kriging and Radial Basis Functions (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Thiagarajan


    Response construction methods using Moving Least Squares (MLS), Kriging and Radial Basis Functions (RBF) are compared with the Global Least Squares (GLS) method in three numerical examples for derivative generation capability. Also, a new Interpolating Moving Least Squares (IMLS) method adopted from the meshless method is presented. It is found that the response surface construction methods using the Kriging and RBF interpolation yields more accurate results compared with MLS and GLS methods. Several computational aspects of the response surface construction methods also discussed.

  3. Experimental and numerical modelling of surface water-groundwater flow and pollution interactions under tidal forcing (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Bockelmann-Evans, Bettina; Schaefer, Florian; Kampanis, Nikolaos; Nanou-Giannarou, Aikaterini; Stamou, Anastasios; Falconer, Roger


    Surface water and groundwater are integral components of the hydrologic continuum and the interaction between them affects both their quantity and quality. However, surface water and groundwater are often considered as two separate systems and are analysed independently. This separation is partly due to the different time scales, which apply in surface water and groundwater flows and partly due to the difficulties in measuring and modelling their interactions (Winter et al., 1998). Coastal areas in particular are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes. Accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands, for example, requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater models. In the past few decades a large number of mathematical models and field methods have been developed in order to quantify the interaction between groundwater and hydraulically connected surface water bodies. Field studies may provide the best data (Hughes, 1995) but are usually expensive and involve too many parameters. In addition, the interpretation of field measurements and linking with modelling tools often proves to be difficult. In contrast, experimental studies are less expensive and provide controlled data. However, experimental studies of surface water-groundwater interaction are less frequently encountered in the literature than filed studies (e.g. Ebrahimi et al., 2007; Kuan et al., 2012; Sparks et al., 2013). To this end, an experimental model has been constructed at the Hyder Hydraulics Laboratory at Cardiff University to enable measurements to be made of groundwater transport through a sand embankment between a tidal water body such as an estuary and a non-tidal water body such as a wetland. The transport behaviour of a conservative tracer was studied for a constant water level on the wetland side of the embankment, while running a

  4. Control and optimzation of sub-surface flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.D.


    Controlling the flow of fluids (e.g. water, oil, natural gas or CO2) in subsurface porous media is a technical process with many mathematical challenges. The underlying physics can be described with coupled nearly-elliptic and nearly-hyperbolic nonlinear partial differential equations, which require

  5. Low-Flow Film Boiling Heat Transfer on Vertical Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe Andersen, J. G.; Dix, G. E.; Leonard, J. E.


    The phenomenon of film boiling heat transfer for high wall temperatures has been investigated. Based on the assumption of laminar flow for the film, the continuity, momentum, and energy equations for the vapor film are solved and a Bromley-type analytical expression for the heat transfer...... length, an average film boiling heat transfer coefficient is obtained....

  6. Mass transfer from smooth alabaster surfaces in turbulent flows (United States)

    Opdyke, Bradley N.; Gust, Giselher; Ledwell, James R.


    The mass transfer velocity for alabaster plates in smooth-wall turbulent flow is found to vary with the friction velocity according to an analytic solution of the advective diffusion equation. Deployment of alabaster plates on the sea floor can perhaps be used to estimate the viscous stress, and transfer velocities for other species.

  7. Model scale measurements of surface ship radiated flow noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F.; Bosschers, J.; Hasenpflug, H.


    Advances in weapon and sensor capabilities are driving an increased interest in the control of underwater signatures of naval platforms. The control of machinery and propeller noise is well understood, but there is a shortfall of knowledge of the mechanisms that govern noise due to the flow around

  8. Nanoscale Fluid Flows in the Vicinity of Patterned Surfaces (United States)

    Cieplak, Marek; Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.


    Molecular dynamics simulations of dense and rarefied fluids comprising small chain molecules in chemically patterned nanochannels predict a novel switching from Poiseuille to plug flow along the channel. We also demonstrate behavior akin to the lotus effect for a nanodrop on a chemically patterned substrate. Our results show that one can control and exploit the behavior of fluids at the nanoscale using chemical patterning.

  9. Laminar flow drag reduction on a soft porous media surface (United States)

    Wu, Zhenxing; Tambasco, Michael; Mirbod, Parisa


    The ability to control flow reduction in microchannels could significantly advance microfluidic-based devices in a wide range of industrial applications including biomedical fields. The aim of this work is to understand the fundamental physics of the laminar skin friction coefficient and the related drag reduction due to the existence of porous media in the pressure-driven flow. We conducted an analytical framework to predict a laminar Newtonian fluid flow and corresponding drag reduction in a rectangular microchannel which coated with various soft random porous media. Specifically, we present predictions of the laminar skin friction coefficient, and drag reduction for pressure-driven flows. We found the laminar drag reduction is strongly depended on the Darcy permeability of porous medium, the thickness of the permeable layer, and the height of the microchannel. To verify the accuracy of our analytical predictions, several pressure-drop experiments were conducted. We chose various combinations of porous material and the morphology of the fibers to achieve a unique height ratio, between the height of two domains, and permeability parameter of porous media for each experiment. We found a good agreement between the experiments and analytical predictions of laminar drag reduction. Supported by NSF Grant CBET#1706766.

  10. Surface deformation induced by water pumping for construction of Mass Rapid Transportation in Taipei basin (United States)

    Hu, J. C.; Wu, P. C.; Tung, H.; Tsai, M. C.


    In 1968, there were 2,200 wells in the Taipei Basin used for water supply to meet the requirement of high population density. The overuse of ground water lead to the land subsidence rate up to 5 cm/yr. Although the government had already begun to limit groundwater pumping since 1968, the groundwater in the Taipei Basin demonstrated temporary fluctuation induced by pumping water for large deep excavation site or engineering usage. The previous study based on precise leveling suggested that the surface deformation was highly associated with the recovery of water level. In 1989, widespread uplift dominated in Taipei basin due to the recovery of ground water Table. In this study, we use 37 high-resolution X-band COSMO-SkyMed radar images from May 2011 to April 2015 to characterize deformation pattern in the period of construction of Mass Rapid Transportation (MRT). We also use 30 wells and 380 benchmarks of precise leveling in Taipei basin to study the correlation of surface deformation and change of ground water table. The storability is roughly constant across most of the aquifer with values between 0.8 x 10-4 and 1.3 x 10-3. Moreover, the high water pumping in two major aquifers, Jignme and Wuku Foramtions, before the underground construction for MRT led to inflict surface deformation and no time delay observed for surface deformation during the water pumping. It implies that the poro-elastic effect dominates in major aquifers in Taipei basin.

  11. Separation of sheet flow on the surface of a circular cylinder (United States)

    Isshiki, Hiroshi; Yoon, Bum-Sang; Yum, Deuk-Joon


    The shape of a spout of a pot is very important for the liquid to flow smoothly from the pot. This is known as the "teapot effect." Separation of flow must take place at the tip of the spout. Separation of sheet flow on the surface of a circular cylinder may provide an explanation as to why pot spouts have such a unique shape. As can be easily observed by a simple experiment, separation of sheet flow from the surface of a circular cylinder is a very interesting phenomenon beyond intuition. In the nonviscous case, the flow released at the top of the surface may proceed completely around the surface and come back to the flow start point without separation. In the present paper, effects of gravity and viscosity on sheet flow are theoretically explained and the theory is verified by experiments. The results of the theoretical model proposed in the present study were very similar to the experimental measurements. In the present study, the effects of viscosity on sheet flow on a circular cylinder, the location of flow separation, and other associated responses were investigated.

  12. Treatment of artificial wastewater containing two azo textile dyes by vertical-flow constructed wetlands. (United States)

    Hussein, Amjad; Scholz, Miklas


    The release of untreated dye textile wastewater into receiving streams is unacceptable not only for aesthetic reasons and its negative impacts on aquatic life but also because numerous dyes are toxic and carcinogenic to humans. Strategies, as of now, used for treating textile wastewaters have technical and economical restrictions. The greater part of the physico-chemical methods, which are used to treat this kind of wastewater, are costly, produce large amounts of sludge and are wasteful concerning some soluble dyes. In contrast, biological treatments such as constructed wetlands are cheaper than the traditional methods, environmental friendly and do not produce large amounts of sludge. Synthetic wastewater containing Acid Blue 113 (AB113) and Basic Red 46 (BR46) has been added to laboratory-scale vertical-flow construction wetland systems, which have been planted with Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. (common reed). The concentrations 7 and 208 mg/l were applied for each dye at the hydraulic contact times of 48 and 96 h. Concerning the low concentrations of BR46 and AB113, the unplanted wetlands are associated with significant (ρ wetlands concerning the removal of dyes. For the high concentrations of AB113, BR46 and a mixture of both of them, wetlands with long contact times were significantly (ρ wetlands that had short contact times in terms of dye, colour and chemical oxygen demand reductions. Regarding nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 -N), the reduction percentage rates of AB113, BR46 and a mixture dye of both of them were between 85 and 100%. For low and high inflow dye concentrations, best removals were generally recorded for spring and summer, respectively.

  13. Experimental Study on Momentum Transfer of Surface Texture in Taylor-Couette Flow (United States)

    Xue, Yabo; Yao, Zhenqiang; Cheng, De


    The behavior of Taylor-Couette (TC) flow has been extensively studied. However, no suitable torque prediction models exist for high-capacity fluid machinery. The Eckhardt-Grossmann-Lohse (EGL) theory, derived based on the Navier-Stokes equations, is proposed to model torque behavior. This theory suggests that surfaces are the significant energy transfer interfaces between cylinders and annular flow. This study mainly focuses on the effects of surface texture on momentum transfer behavior through global torque measurement. First, a power-law torque behavior model is built to reveal the relationship between dimensionless torque and the Taylor number based on the EGL theory. Second, TC flow apparatus is designed and built based on the CNC machine tool to verify the torque behavior model. Third, four surface texture films are tested to check the effects of surface texture on momentum transfer. A stereo microscope and three-dimensional topography instrument are employed to analyze surface morphology. Global torque behavior is measured by rotating a multi component dynamometer, and the effects of surface texture on the annular flow behavior are observed via images obtained using a high-speed camera. Finally, torque behaviors under four different surface conditions are fitted and compared. The experimental results indicate that surface textures have a remarkable influence on torque behavior, and that the peak roughness of surface texture enhances the momentum transfer by strengthening the fluctuation in the TC flow.

  14. wrv: An R Package for Groundwater Flow Model Construction, Wood River Valley Aquifer System, Idaho (United States)

    Fisher, J. C.


    Groundwater models are one of the main tools used in the hydrogeological sciences to assess resources and to simulate possible effects from future water demands and changes in climate. The hydrological inputs to groundwater models can be numerous and can vary in both time and space. Difficulties associated with model construction are often related to extensive datasets and cumbersome data processing tasks. To mitigate these difficulties, a graphical user interface (GUI) is often employed to aid the input of data for creating models. Unfortunately, GUI software presents an obstacle to reproducibility, a cornerstone of research. The considerable effort required to document processing steps in a GUI program, and the rapid obsoleteness of these steps with subsequent versions of the software, has prompted modelers to explicitly write down processing steps as source code to make them 'easily' reproducible. This research describes the R package wrv, a collection of datasets and functions for pre- and post-processing the numerical groundwater flow model of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho. R largely facilitates reproducible modeling with the package vignette; a document that is a combination of content and source code. The code is run when the vignette is built, and all data analysis output (such as figures and tables) is created on the fly and inserted into the final document. The wrv package includes two vignettes that explain and run steps that (1) create package datasets from raw data files located on a publicly accessible repository, and (2) create and run the groundwater flow model. MODFLOW-USG, the numerical groundwater model used in this study, is executed from the vignette, and model output is returned for exploratory analyses. The ability of R to perform all processing steps in a single workflow is attributed to its comprehensive list of features; that include geographic information system and time series functionality.

  15. Construction of the prediction model between pressure and flow rate for pulsating flows based on the Greenfield-Fry model concerning wave dispersion (United States)

    Chun, Sejong; Jin, Jonghan; Cho, Wan-Ho


    Wave dispersion is the key feature in understanding pulsating flows in a rigid circular pipe with small diameter. The wave dispersion makes flow signals distorted in the pulsating flows by boundary conditions due to pipe surface. Detailed description of this phenomenon can make the Greenfield-Fry model more practical. This model describes the relationship between the pressure gradient and the flow rate in the rigid circular pipe. Because pressure gradient measurement requires more than two pressure transducers, it would become more practical if only one pressure transducer is needed by applying the Taylor's frozen field hypothesis. This implies that only one pressure transducer is satisfactory for predicting flow signals with the Greenfield-Fry model. By applying the frequency variant convection velocity to consider the wave dispersion, the Taylor's frozen field hypothesis can relate the pressure signals with the flow signals according to the Greenfield-Fry model. In this study, the Taylor's frozen field hypothesis is reformulated into a simpler functional form with the frequency variant convection velocity in a zero-dimensional model with the Newtonian fluid, uniform, laminar, axially and one-dimensional pulsatile flow assumption. An experiment with a blood flow simulator is exemplified to demonstrate its usefulness to predict the flow signals from the pressure signals with the Greenfield-Fry model. Moreover, the three-element Windkessel model is compared to emphasize the importance of the physical model derived from the Navier-Stokes equation, such as the Greenfield-Fry model for the pulsating flows.

  16. Response of surface buoy moorings in steady and wave flows

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anand, N.M.; Nayak, B.U.; SanilKumar, V.

    A numerical model has been developed to evaluate the dynamics of surface buoy mooring systems under wave and current loading. System tension response and variation of tension in the mooring line at various depths have been evaluated for deep water...

  17. Modelling free surface flows with smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Di G.Sigalotti


    Full Text Available In this paper the method of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH is extended to include an adaptive density kernel estimation (ADKE procedure. It is shown that for a van der Waals (vdW fluid, this method can be used to deal with free-surface phenomena without difficulties. In particular, arbitrary moving boundaries can be easily handled because surface tension is effectively simulated by the cohesive pressure forces. Moreover, the ADKE method is seen to increase both the accuracy and stability of SPH since it allows the width of the kernel interpolant to vary locally in a way that only the minimum necessary smoothing is applied at and near free surfaces and sharp fluid-fluid interfaces. The method is robust and easy to implement. Examples of its resolving power are given for both the formation of a circular liquid drop under surface tension and the nonlinear oscillation of excited drops.

  18. Recirculation or artificial aeration in vertical flow constructed wetlands: a comparative study for treating high load wastewater. (United States)

    Foladori, Paola; Ruaben, Jenny; Ortigara, Angela R C


    Vertical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands at pilot-scale have been applied to treat high hydraulic and organic loads by implementing the following configurations: (1) intermittent recirculation of the treated wastewater from the bottom to the top of the bed, (2) intermittent artificial aeration supplied at the bottom of the bed and (3) the combination of both. These configurations were operated with a saturated bottom layer for a 6h-treatment phase, followed by a free drainage phase prior to a new feeding. COD removal efficiency was 85-90% in all the configurations and removed loads were 54-70 gCOD m(-2)d(-1). The aerated and recirculated wetland resulted in a higher total nitrogen removal (8.6 gN m(-2)d(-1)) due to simultaneous nitrification/denitrification, even in the presence of intermittent aeration (6.8 Nm(3)m(-2)d(-1)). The extra investment needed for implementing aeration/recirculation would be compensated for by a reduction of the surface area per population equivalent, which decreased to 1.5m(2)/PE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fine powder flow under humid environmental conditions from the perspective of surface energy. (United States)

    Karde, Vikram; Ghoroi, Chinmay


    The influence of humidity on surface energetics and flow behavior of fine pharmaceutical powders was investigated. Amorphous and crystalline fine powders with hydrophilic (Corn starch and Avicel PH105) and hydrophobic (ibuprofen) nature were considered for this study. The surface energy was determined using surface energy analyzer and flow behavior was measured in terms of unconfined yield stress (UYS) using a shear tester. The study showed that unlike hydrophobic ibuprofen powder, surface energy and flow of hydrophilic excipient powders were affected by relative humidity (RH). The Lifshitz-van der Waals dispersive (γ(LW)) component of surface energy barely changed with varying RH for all pharmaceutical powders. For hydrophilic excipients, the specific component of surface energy (γ(SP)) was found to increase with increasing RH. Furthermore, for these excipients, flow deterioration at elevated RH was observed due to increased capillary bridge formation. Detailed analysis showed that γ(SP) component of surface energy can be an effective indicator for flow behavior of fine powders under varying humid conditions. The present study also brought out the existence of different regimes of probable interparticle forces which dictate the bulk flow behavior of fine hydrophilic powder under humid conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface water quality deterioration during low-flow (United States)

    Hellwig, Jost; Stahl, Kerstin; Lange, Jens


    Water quality deterioration during low streamflow has mostly been linked to a lower dilution potential for pollutants. Some studies have also found spatial heterogeneities and a different behavior of different water quality parameters. Even though the general mechanisms that cause water quality changes during low-flow are well understood, only a few efforts have been made to explain the differences in the magnitudes of observed deteriorations. We investigated 72 catchments across the federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany, for changes in water quality during low-flow events. Data from the state's water quality monitoring network provided seven water quality parameters (water temperature, electrical conductivity, concentrations of chloride, sodium, sulfate, nitrate and phosphate), which we statistically related to streamflow variability. Water temperatures increased during low flow in summer but decreased during low flow in winter. Nitrate concentrations revealed high spatial heterogeneity with about one third of the stations showing decreasing values during drought. For all other parameters concentrations rose during low-flow with only a few exceptions. Despite consistent trend directions, the magnitudes of changes with streamflow differed markedly across the state. Both multiple linear regression and a multiple analysis of variances were applied to explain these differences with the help of catchment characteristics. Results indicated that for sulfate and conductivity geology of the catchments was the most important control whereas for chloride, sodium and nitrate sewage treatment plants had largest influence. For phosphate no clear control could be identified. Independent from the applied method, land use was a less important control on river water quality during drought than geology or inflow from sewage treatment plants. These results show that the effects of diffuse and point sources, as well as those of natural and anthropogenic sources differ for

  1. Modeling of surface roughness effects on Stokes flow in circular pipes (United States)

    Song, Siyuan; Yang, Xiaohu; Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tian Jian


    Fluid flow and pressure drop across a channel are significantly influenced by surface roughness on a channel wall. The present study investigates the effects of periodically structured surface roughness upon flow field and pressure drop in a circular pipe at low Reynolds numbers. The periodic roughness considered exhibits sinusoidal, triangular, and rectangular morphologies, with the relative roughness (i.e., ratio of the amplitude of surface roughness to hydraulic diameter of the pipe) no more than 0.2. Based upon a revised perturbation theory, a theoretical model is developed to quantify the effect of roughness on fully developed Stokes flow in the pipe. The ratio of static flow resistivity and the ratio of the Darcy friction factor between rough and smooth pipes are expressed in four-order approximate formulations, which are validated against numerical simulation results. The relative roughness and the wave number are identified as the two key parameters affecting the static flow resistivity and the Darcy friction factor.

  2. Prediction of the surface roughness of AA6082 flow-formed tubes by design of experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasulu, M.; Komaraiah, M.; Rao, C. S. Krishna Prasada


    Flow forming is a modern, chipless metal forming process that is employed for the production of thin-walled seamless tubes. Experiments are conducted on AA6082 alloy pre-forms to flow form into thin-walled tubes on a CNC flow-forming machine with a single roller. Design of experiments is used to predict the surface roughness of flow-formed tubes. The process parameters selected for this study are the roller axial feed, mandrel speed, and roller radius. A standard response surface methodology (RSM) called the Box Behnken design is used to perform the experimental runs. The regression model developed by RSM successfully predicts the surface roughness of AA6082 flow-formed tubes within the range of the selected process parameters.

  3. Prediction of the surface roughness of AA6082 flow-formed tubes by design of experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasulu, M. [Government Polytechnic for Women Badangpet, Hyderabad (India); Komaraiah, M. [Sreenidhi Institute of Science and Technology, Hyderabad (India); Rao, C. S. Krishna Prasada [Bharat Dynamics Limited, Hyderabad (India)


    Flow forming is a modern, chipless metal forming process that is employed for the production of thin-walled seamless tubes. Experiments are conducted on AA6082 alloy pre-forms to flow form into thin-walled tubes on a CNC flow-forming machine with a single roller. Design of experiments is used to predict the surface roughness of flow-formed tubes. The process parameters selected for this study are the roller axial feed, mandrel speed, and roller radius. A standard response surface methodology (RSM) called the Box Behnken design is used to perform the experimental runs. The regression model developed by RSM successfully predicts the surface roughness of AA6082 flow-formed tubes within the range of the selected process parameters.

  4. Limestone and Zeolite as Alternative Media in Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Laboratory-Scale Studies (United States)

    Lizama, K.; Jaque, I.; Ayala, J.


    Arsenic is well known for its chronic toxicity. Millions of people around the world are currently at risk, drinking water with As concentrations above 10 ppb, the WHO drinking water guideline. Although different treatment options exist, they are often limited by elevated costs and maintenance requirements. Constructed wetlands are a natural water treatment system, capable to remove metals and metalloids -including As- via different physical, chemical and biological processes. The use of alternative supporting media to enhance As removal in subsurface flow wetlands has been recommended, but not sufficiently studied. Limestone and zeolite have been identified as effective supporting media in subsurface flow wetlands aiming As removal. However, there are still key aspects to be addressed, such as the implications of using these media, the speciation in the solid phase, the role of vegetation, etc. This study investigated the performance of limestone and zeolite in three types of experiments: batch, column and as main supporting media in a bench scale horizontal subsurface flow wetland system. Synthetic water resembling a contaminated river in Chile (As concentration=3 mg/L, Fe concentration= 100 mg/L, pH=2) was used in all experiments. In the batch experiments, the As concentration, the mass of media and the contact time were varied. The column system consisted of three limestone columns and three zeolite columns, operated under a hydraulic loading of 20 mm/d. The wetland system consisted of twelve PVC cells: six filled with zeolite and six with limestone. Phragmites australis were planted in three cells of each media type, as control cells. From the batch experiments, maximum As sorption capacities as indicated by Langmuir model were 1.3 mg/g for limestone and 0.17 mg/g for zeolite, at 18 h contact time and 6.3 g/L medium concentration. EDS and XPS analyses revealed that As and Fe were retained in zeolite at the end of the batch experiments. Zeolite and limestone

  5. Numerical study on cavitating flow due to a hydrofoil near a free surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chen Wu


    Full Text Available A numerical strategy is proposed for a viscous uniform flow past a 2-D partially cavitating hydrofoil placed at a finite depth from the free surface. The flow was modeled by the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS equations. A finite-volume method with the SIMPLE scheme and k-ε turbulence model were employed for computations. The “full cavitation model,” which included the effects of vaporization, noncondensible gases and compressibility, was incorporated in the computation of cavitating flow. The cavity shape and free surface were updated iteratively till a reasonable convergence was reached. As for the determination of the free surface, the VOF approach was adopted. The test cases show the accuracy and stability of our procedure to capture the cavitating flow near the free surface.

  6. A Level Set Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Free Surface Flows - and Water-Wave Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grooss, Jesper


    We present a discontinuous Galerkin method on a fully unstructured grid for the modeling of unsteady incompressible fluid flows with free surfaces. The surface is modeled by a level set technique. We describe the discontinuous Galerkin method in general, and its application to the flow equations...... equations in time are discussed. We investigate theory of di erential algebraic equations, and connect the theory to current methods for solving the unsteady fluid flow equations. We explore the use of a semi-implicit spectral deferred correction method having potential to achieve high temporal order....... The deferred correction method is applied on the fluid flow equations and show good results in periodic domains. We describe the design of a level set method for the free surface modeling. The level set utilize the high order accurate discontinuous Galerkin method fully and represent smooth surfaces very...

  7. Scaling up ecohydrological processes: role of surface water flow in water-limited landscapes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Popp, A


    Full Text Available microscale processes like ecohydrological feedback mechanisms and spatial exchange like surface water flow, the authors derive transition probabilities from a fine-scale simulation model. They applied two versions of the landscape model, one that includes...

  8. Intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal in a novel electrolysis-integrated tidal flow constructed wetland system. (United States)

    Ju, Xinxin; Wu, Shubiao; Zhang, Yansheng; Dong, Renjie


    A novel electrolysis-integrated tidal flow constructed wetland (CW) system was developed in this study. The dynamics of intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal and that of hydrogen sulphide control were evaluated. Ammonium removal of up to 80% was achieved with an inflow concentration of 60 mg/L in wetland systems with and without electrolysis integration. Effluent nitrate concentration decreased from 2 mg/L to less than 0.5 mg/L with the decrease in current intensity from 1.5 mA/cm(2) to 0.57 mA/cm(2) in the electrolysis-integrated wetland system, thus indicating that the current intensity of electrolysis plays an important role in nitrogen transformations. Phosphorus removal was significantly enhanced, exceeding 95% in the electrolysis-integrated CW system because of the in-situ formation of a ferric iron coagulant through the electro-dissolution of a sacrificial iron anode. Moreover, the electrolyzed wetland system effectively inhibits sulphide accumulation as a result of a sulphide precipitation coupled with ferrous-iron electro-dissolution and/or an inhibition of bacterial sulphate reduction under increased aerobic conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Numerical construction and flow simulation in networks of fractures using fractals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Y.C.; Acuna, J.A.


    Present models for the representation of naturally fractured systems rely on the double-porosity Warren-Root model or on random arrays of fractures. However, field observation in outcrops has demonstrated the existence of multiple length scales in many naturally fractured media. The existing models fail to capture this important fractal property. In this paper, we use concepts from the theory of fragmentation and from fractal geometry for the numerical construction of networks of fractures that have fractal characteristics. The method is based mainly on the work of Barnsley (1) and allows for great flexibility in the development of patterns. Numerical techniques are developed for the simulation of unsteady single phase flow in such networks. It is found that the pressure transient response of finite fractals behaves according to the analytical predictions of Chang and Yortsos (6), provided that there exists a power law in the mass-radius relationship around the test well location. Otherwise, the finite size effects become significant and interfere severely with the identification of the underlying fractal structure. 21 refs., 13 figs.

  10. Influence of chlorothalonil on the removal of organic matter in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands. (United States)

    Casas-Zapata, Juan C; Ríos, Karina; Florville-Alejandre, Tomás R; Morató, Jordi; Peñuela, Gustavo


    This study investigates the effects of chlorothalonil (CLT) on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCW) planted with Phragmites australis. Physicochemical parameters of influent and effluent water samples, microbial population counting methods and statistical analysis were used to evaluate the influence of CLT on organic matter removal efficiency. The experiments were conducted on four planted replicate wetlands (HSSFCW-Pa) and one unplanted control wetland (HSSFCW-NPa). The wetlands exhibited high average organic matter removal efficiencies (HSSFCW-Pa: 80.6% DOC, 98.0% COD; HSSFCW-NPa: 93.2% DOC, 98.4% COD). The addition of CLT did not influence organic removal parameters. In all cases CLT concentrations in the effluent occurred in concentrations lower than the detection limit of the analytical method. Microbial population counts from HSSFCW-Pa showed significant correlations among different microbial groups and with different physicochemical variables. The apparent independence of organic matter removal and CLT inputs, along with the CLT depletion observed in effluent samples demonstrated that HSSFCW are a viable technology for the treatment of agricultural effluents contaminated with organo-chloride pesticides like CLT.

  11. Use of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands to treat reverse osmosis concentrate of rolling wastewater. (United States)

    Xu, Jingcheng; Zhao, Gang; Huang, Xiangfeng; Guo, Haobo; Liu, Wei


    According to the characteristics of the reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) generated from iron and steel company, we used three sets of parallel horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) constructed wetlands (CWs) with different plants and substrate layouts to treat the high-salinity wastewater. The plant growth and removal efficiencies under saline condition were evaluated. The evaluation was based entirely on routinely collected water quality data and the physical and chemical characteristics of the plants (Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, Iris wilsonii, and Scirpus planiculmis). The principal parameters of concern in the effluent were chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP). The results showed that the CWs were able to remove COD, TN, and TP from ROC. S. planiculmis was not suitable for the treatment of high-saline wastewater. The sequence of metals accumulated in CW plants was K>Ca>Na>Mg>Zn>Cu. More than 70% of metals were accumulated in the aboveground of P. australis. The CW filled with gravel and manganese ore and planted with P. australis and T. latifolia had the best performance of pollutant removal, with average removal of 49.96%, 39.45%, and 72.01% for COD, TN, and TP, respectively. The effluent water quality met the regulation in China. These results suggested that HSF CW planted with P. australis and T. latifolia can be applied for ROC pollutants removal.

  12. Performance assessment of a vertical flow constructed wetland treating unsettled combined sewer overflow. (United States)

    Pálfy, T G; Gerodolle, M; Gourdon, R; Meyer, D; Troesch, S; Molle, P


    The performance of a vertical flow constructed wetland for combined sewer overflow treatment (CSO CW) has been evaluated. The full-scale site has been monitored for 3 years for major pollutants and for two load events for a range of micropollutants (metals, metalloids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)). Performance were predominantly high (97% for total suspended solids (TSS), 80% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 72% for NH 4 -N), even if several loads were extremely voluminous, pushing the filter to its limits. Two different filter materials (a 4:1 mixture of sand and zeolite and natural pozzolana) showed similar treatment performance. Furthermore, environmental factors were correlated with COD removal efficiency. The greatest influencers of COD removal efficiency were the inlet dissolved COD concentrations and the duration and potential evapotranspiration during inter-event periods. Furthermore, sludge was analysed for quality and a sludge depth map was created. The map, and calculating the changes in sludge volume, helped to understand solid accumulation dynamics.

  13. Ibuprofen removal in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: treatment performance and fungal community dynamics. (United States)

    Zhang, Dongqing; Luo, Jinxue; Lee, Zarraz May Ping; Gersberg, Richard M; Liu, Yu; Tan, Soon Keat; Ng, Wun Jern


    The treatment performance of ibuprofen (IBP)-enriched wastewater by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands planted with cattail (Typha angustifolia) and unplanted control mesocosms was investigated. Removal efficiencies of IBP were significantly (p fungal community in these wetland systems. The overall diversity of the fungal community was reduced under the IBP exposure. Taxonomic analysis revealed that 62.2% of the fungal sequences were affiliated with Basidiomycota, followed by Ascomycota (37.4%) at the phylum level. Uncultured fungus (48.2%), Chaetomium sp. (14.2%), Aspergillus sp. (12.4%), Trichoderma sp. (5.7%), Cladosporium sp. (5.4%), and Emericellopsis sp. (5.2%) were identified as dominant genera. At the genus level, a distinct profile of the fungal community in the IBP-enriched mesocosms was observed as compared to the control beds, and as well specific fungal genera were enhanced in the planted beds, regardless of IBP enrichment. However, despite these differences, the composition of the fungal community (as measured by Bray-Curtis similarity) was mostly unaffected by the significant IBP enrichment. On the other hand, a consistent similarity pattern of fungal community structure in the planted mesocosms suggests that the presence of higher macrophytes in the wetland systems may well help shape the fungal community structure.

  14. Experiment Research on Purifying Domestic Sewage by Duplex Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHANG Ping


    Full Text Available The purification effect on domestic sewage were researched in the new-type of duplex subsurface flow constructed wetlands, of which pollutants were analyzed through the small scale test on the purification effect under different conditions of hydraulic loading, season,aeration pattern. The results showed that water quality of the system was stabilized, which could reach the 1 class A criteria specified in the Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant ( GB 18918-2002.The removal rate of COD,NH3-N could reach up to 87.2%, 68.9% under the conditions of the hydraulic load being 184 mm·d-1.And there were still more than 20% removal efficien-cy of various pollutants on the conditions of low temperature in winter. Orthogonal test showed that the optimum operating conditions was 28.6℃for the temperature, 0.184 m3·m-2·d-1 for hydraulic loading, and 2.4 d for hydraulic retention time. The experimental research showed that pre-aeration was significantly better than the anaerobic treatment on purifying effect.

  15. Effect of plant-based carbon sources on denitrifying microorganisms in a vertical flow constructed wetland. (United States)

    Fu, Guiping; Huangshen, Linkun; Guo, Zhipeng; Zhou, Qiaohong; Wu, Zhenbin


    The effects of supplementing plant-based carbon sources, fermented tissues of Arundo donax and Pontederia cordata, and a combination of the two plants, on the nitrogen removal efficiency and microbial composition in a vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) were examined. The results showed that the addition of the composite carbon source produced the highest removal efficiencies of NH 4 + -N 91.5%, NO 3 - -N 94.5% and TN 92.8% in VFCW. The detected abundance of amoA, nirS, and nxrA genes indicated that ammonia oxidation bacteria and denitrifying bacteria were more abundant than the nitrite oxidation bacteria. Furthermore, the addition of the composite carbon source significantly promoted the growth of the denitrifying bacteria in VFCW. The results indicated that supplementing the system with plant-based carbon sources achieved partial nitrification and denitrification, as well as classic denitrification in VFCWs. The study suggested that multiple nitrogen removal pathways were required to feasibly and efficiently remove nitrogen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Design and construction of a novel Coriolis mass flow rate meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Zwikker, Rini; Jouwsma, Wybren


    The Coriolis principle for measuring flow rates has great advantages compared to other flow measurement principles, the most important being that mass flow is measured directly. Up to now the measurement of low flow rates posed a great challenge. In a joint research project, the University of Twente

  17. New construction of the magnetohydrodynamic spectrum of stationary plasma flows. II. Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedbloed, J. P.


    In a preceding paper [J. P. Goedbloed, Phys. Plasmas 16, 122110 (2009)] a new method was developed to compute the magnetohydrodynamic spectrum of waves and instabilities of stationary plasma flows by means of the construction of the solution paths, P-s and P-u, of stable waves and instabilities in

  18. Should blood flow during cardiopulmonary bypass be individualized more than to body surface area?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Sisse Anette; Larsson, A; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    Blood flow during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is calculated on body surface area (BSA). Increasing comorbidity, age and weight of today's cardiac patients question this calculation as it may not reflect individual metabolic requirement. The hypothesis was that a measured cardiac index (CI) prior...... not improve cerebral and systemic oxygenation compared to a blood flow based on BSA....

  19. Simultaneous calibration of surface flow and baseflow simulations: A revisit of the SWAT model calibration framework (United States)

    Accurate analysis of water flow pathways from rainfall to streams is critical for simulating water use, climate change impact, and contaminant transport. In this study, we developed a new scheme to simultaneously calibrate surface flow (SF) and baseflow (BF) simulations of Soil and Water Assessment ...

  20. Aluminum-contaminant transport by surface runoff and bypass flow from an acid sulphate soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minh, L.Q.; Tuong, T.P.; Mensvoort, van M.E.F.; Bouma, J.


    Quantifying the process and the amount of acid-contaminant released to the surroundings is important in assessing the environmental hazards associated with reclaiming acid sulphate soils (ASS). The roles of surface runoff and bypass flow (i.e. the rapid downward flow of free water along macropores

  1. Simultaneous measurement of a fluid flow and the fluid's free surface using PIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philip, O.G.; Hassan, Y.A.; Okamoto, K.


    The objective of this investigation is to study the interaction between a fluid flow and its free surface with an improved application of the flow measurement technique, particle image velocimetry (PIV). In this study, improvements in the data acquisition and tracking method of the PIV technique were developed

  2. Construction of extracellular microenvironment to improve surface endothelialization of NiTi alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Peng, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Department of Macromolecular Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhao, Yongchun; Yan, Ying; Hu, Yan; Yang, Weihu [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Cai, Kaiyong, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)


    To mimic extracellular microenvironment of endothelial cell, a bioactive multilayered structure of gelatin/chitosan pair, embedding with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), was constructed onto NiTi alloy substrate surface via a layer-by-layer assembly technique. The successful fabrication of the multilayered structure was demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, contact angle measurement, attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The growth behaviors of endothelial cells on various NiTi alloy substrates were investigated in vitro. Cytoskeleton observation, MTT assay, and wound healing assay proved that the VEGF-embedded multilayer structure positively stimulated adhesion, proliferation and motogenic responses of endothelial cells. More importantly, the present system promoted the nitric oxide production of endothelial cells. The approach affords an alternative to construct extracellular microenvironment for improving surface endothelialization of a cardiovascular implant. - Highlights: • Biofunctional multilayer films mimicking extracellular microenvironment were successfully fabricated. • Multilayered structure stimulated the biological responses of endothelial cells. • The approach affords an efficient approach for surface endothelialization of stent implant.

  3. Comparison of Experimental Surface and Flow Field Measurements to Computational Results of the Juncture Flow Model (United States)

    Roozeboom, Nettie H.; Lee, Henry C.; Simurda, Laura J.; Zilliac, Gregory G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.


    Wing-body juncture flow fields on commercial aircraft configurations are challenging to compute accurately. The NASA Advanced Air Vehicle Program's juncture flow committee is designing an experiment to provide data to improve Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling in the juncture flow region. Preliminary design of the model was done using CFD, yet CFD tends to over-predict the separation in the juncture flow region. Risk reduction wind tunnel tests were requisitioned by the committee to obtain a better understanding of the flow characteristics of the designed models. NASA Ames Research Center's Fluid Mechanics Lab performed one of the risk reduction tests. The results of one case, accompanied by CFD simulations, are presented in this paper. Experimental results suggest the wall mounted wind tunnel model produces a thicker boundary layer on the fuselage than the CFD predictions, resulting in a larger wing horseshoe vortex suppressing the side of body separation in the juncture flow region. Compared to experimental results, CFD predicts a thinner boundary layer on the fuselage generates a weaker wing horseshoe vortex resulting in a larger side of body separation.

  4. Constructing Potential Energy Surfaces for Polyatomic Systems: Recent Progress and New Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Espinosa-Garcia


    Full Text Available Different methods of constructing potential energy surfaces in polyatomic systems are reviewed, with the emphasis put on fitting, interpolation, and analytical (defined by functional forms approaches, based on quantum chemistry electronic structure calculations. The different approaches are reviewed first, followed by a comparison using the benchmark H + CH4 and the H + NH3 gas-phase hydrogen abstraction reactions. Different kinetics and dynamics properties are analyzed for these reactions and compared with the available experimental data, which permits one to estimate the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Finally, we analyze different problems with increasing difficulty in the potential energy construction: spin-orbit coupling, molecular size, and more complicated reactions with several maxima and minima, which test the soundness and general applicability of each method. We conclude that, although the field of small systems, typically atom-diatom, is mature, there still remains much work to be done in the field of polyatomic systems.

  5. Surface tension gradient enhanced thin film flow for particle deposition (United States)

    Gilchrist, James; Joshi, Kedar; Muangnapoh, Tanyakorn; Stever, Michael


    We investigate the effect of varying concentration in binary mixtures of water and ethanol as the suspending medium for micron-scale silica particles on convective deposition. By pulling a suspension along a substrate, a thin film is created that results in enhanced evaporation of the solvent and capillary forces that order particles trapped in the thin film. In pure water or pure ethanol, assembly and deposition is easily understood by a simply flux balance first developed by Dimitrov and Nagayama in 1996. In solvent mixtures having only a few percent of ethanol, Marangoni stresses from the concentration gradient set by unbalanced solvent evaporation dominates the thin film flow. The thin film profile is similar to that found in ``tears of wine'' where the particles are deposited in the thin film between the tears and the reservoir. A simple model describes the 10x increase of deposition speed found in forming well-ordered monolayers of particles. At higher ethanol concentrations, lateral instabilities also generated by Marangoni stresses cause nonuniform deposition in the form of complex streaks that mirror sediment deposits in larger scale flows. We acknowledge funding from the NSF Scalable Nanomanufacturing Program under grant No. 1120399.

  6. Thermocouple Rakes for Measuring Boundary Layer Flows Extremely Close to Surface (United States)

    Hwang, Danny P.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Martin, Lisa C.; Blaha, Charles A.


    Of vital interest to aerodynamic researchers is precise knowledge of the flow velocity profile next to the surface. This information is needed for turbulence model development and the calculation of viscous shear force. Though many instruments can determine the flow velocity profile near the surface, none of them can make measurements closer than approximately 0.01 in. from the surface. The thermocouple boundary-layer rake can measure much closer to the surface than conventional instruments can, such as a total pressure boundary layer rake, hot wire, or hot film. By embedding the sensors (thermocouples) in the region where the velocity is equivalent to the velocity ahead of a constant thickness strut, the boundary-layer flow profile can be obtained. The present device fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center microsystem clean room has a heater made of platinum and thermocouples made of platinum and gold. Equal numbers of thermocouples are placed both upstream and downstream of the heater, so that the voltage generated by each pair at the same distance from the surface is indicative of the difference in temperature between the upstream and downstream thermocouple locations. This voltage differential is a function of the flow velocity, and like the conventional total pressure rake, it can provide the velocity profile. In order to measure flow extremely close to the surface, the strut is made of fused quartz with extremely low heat conductivity. A large size thermocouple boundary layer rake is shown in the following photo. The latest medium size sensors already provide smooth velocity profiles well into the boundary layer, as close as 0.0025 in. from the surface. This is about 4 times closer to the surface than the previously used total pressure rakes. This device also has the advantage of providing the flow profile of separated flow and also it is possible to measure simultaneous turbulence levels within the boundary layer.

  7. Experimental and theoretical studies of the streaming flow due to the adsorption of particles at a liquid surface (United States)

    Singh, P.; Musunuri, N.; Benouaguef, I.; Fischer, I.


    The particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique is used to study the streaming flow that is induced when particles are adsorbed at a liquid surface. The flow develops within a fraction of second after the adsorption of the particle. The fluid directly below the particle rises upward, and near the surface, it moves away from the particle. The flow causes powders sprinkled on a liquid surface to disperse on the surface. The flow strength, and the volume over which it extends, decreases with decreasing particle size. The streaming flow induced by the adsorption of two or more particles is a combination of the flows which they induce individually. Work supported by NSF.

  8. Evaluation of Sulfur 'Concrete' for Use as a Construction Material on the Lunar Surface (United States)

    Grugel, R. N.


    Combining molten sulfur with any number of aggregate materials forms, when solid, a mixture having attributes similar, if not better, to conventional water-based concrete. As a result the use of sulfur "concrete" on Earth is well established, particularly in corrosive environments. Consequently, discovery of troilite (FeS) on the lunar surface prompted numerous scenarios about its reduction to elemental sulfur for use, in combination with lunar regolith, as a potential construction material; not requiring water, a precious resource, for its manufacture is an obvious advantage. However, little is known about the viability of sulfur concrete in an environment typified by extreme temperatures and essentially no atmosphere. The experimental work presented here evaluates the response of pure sulfur and sulfur concrete subjected to laboratory conditions that approach those expected on the lunar surface, the results suggesting a narrow window of application.

  9. Explaining electrostatic charging and flow of surface-modified acetaminophen powders as a function of relative humidity through surface energetics. (United States)

    Jallo, Laila J; Dave, Rajesh N


    Powder flow involves particle-particle and particle-vessel contacts and separation resulting in electrostatic charging. This important phenomenon was studied for uncoated and dry-coated micronized acetaminophen (MAPAP) as a function of relative humidity. The main hypothesis is that by modifying powder surface energy via dry coating of MAPAP performed using magnetically assisted impaction coating, its charging tendency, flow can be controlled. The examination of the relationship between electrostatic charging, powder flow, and the surface energies of the powders revealed that an improvement in flow because of dry coating corresponded to a decrease in the charging of the particles. A general trend of reduction in both electrostatic charging and dispersive surface energy with dry coating and relative humidity were also observed, except that a divergent behavior was observed at higher relative humidities (≥55% RH). The uncoated powder was found to have strong electron acceptor characteristic as compared with the dry coated. The adhesion energy between the particles and the tubes used for the electrostatic charging qualitatively predicted the decreasing trend in electrostatic charging from plastic tubes to stainless steel. In summary, the surface energies of the powders and the vessel could explain the electrostatic charging behavior and charge reduction because of dry coating. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  10. Effects of surface roughness and electrokinetic heterogeneity on electroosmotic flow in microchannel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masilamani, Kannan; Ganguly, Suvankar; Feichtinger, Christian; Bartuschat, Dominik; Rüde, Ulrich, E-mail: [Department of Computer Science 10 University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr.11 91058 Erlangen (Germany)


    In this paper, a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann and finite-difference (LB-FD) model is applied to simulate the effects of three-dimensional surface roughness and electrokinetic heterogeneity on electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a microchannel. The lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method has been employed to obtain the flow field and a finite-difference (FD) method is used to solve the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation for the electrostatic potential distribution. Numerical simulation of flow through a square cross-section microchannel with designed roughness is conducted and the results are critically analysed. The effects of surface heterogeneity on the electroosmotic transport are investigated for different roughness height, width, roughness interval spacing, and roughness surface potential. Numerical simulations reveal that the presence of surface roughness changes the nature of electroosmotic transport through the microchannel. It is found that the electroosmotic velocity decreases with the increase in roughness height and the velocity profile becomes asymmetric. For the same height of the roughness elements, the EOF velocity rises with the increase in roughness width. For the heterogeneously charged rough channel, the velocity profile shows a distinct deviation from the conventional plug-like flow pattern. The simulation results also indicate locally induced flow vortices which can be utilized to enhance the flow and mixing within the microchannel. The present study has important implications towards electrokinetic flow control in the microchannel, and can provide an efficient way to design a microfluidic system of practical interest. (paper)

  11. Convective Flow of Sisko Fluid over a Bidirectional Stretching Surface. (United States)

    Munir, Asif; Shahzad, Azeem; Khan, Masood


    The present investigation focuses the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the steady three-dimensional Sisko fluid driven by a bidirectional stretching sheet. The modeled partial differential equations are reduced to coupled ordinary differential equations by a suitable transformation. The resulting equations are solved numerically by the shooting method using adaptive Runge Kutta algorithm in combination with Newton's method in the domain [0,∞). The numerical results for the velocity and temperature fields are graphically presented and effects of the relevant parameters are discussed in detail. Moreover, the skin-friction coefficient and local Nusselt number for different values of the power-law index and stretching ratio parameter are presented through tabulated data. The numerical results are also verified with the results obtained analytically by the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Additionally, the results are validated with previously published pertinent literature as a limiting case of the problem.

  12. Technical assistance to the manufacture, construction and assembly of Osorio-Canoas oil pipeline flow pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Kellson Takenaka; Rangel Junior, Joilson Rangel; Costa, Jose Coelho [Petroleo Brasileiro S/A (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mails:,,


    This paper reports the experiences acquired through the modifications and improvements implemented in the manufacture, construction and assembly of the oil flow centrifugal pumps of the Osorio-Canoas Oil Pipeline (OSCAN 22''), located in Rio Grande do Sul. The OSCAN 22'' pumping capacity expansion was conceived aiming at meeting the Alberto Pasqualini Refinery (REFAP) processing increase project from 20,000 m{sup 3}/day to 30,000 m{sup 3}/day, besides changing the product profile from processed product to national high viscosity national oils. Due to this reason, a new pump park at the Almirante Soares Dutra Terminal (TEDUT) and a new intermediate pump station named Estacao de Santo Antonio da Patrulha (ESPAT) have been erected. Thus, the oil received by a tanker and stored at TEDUT was now pumped to ESPAT and then to REFAP through a 97 km long and 22 inch diameter oil pipeline named OSCAN 22''. In order to get such oil flow done, 03 new main pumps have been installed at TEDUT, one of them being a stand-by one, and other 03 pumps at ESPAT, one of them being also a stand-by one. During the startup of TEDUT's pumps, high vibration levels were observed in the rotors and in the equipment structures. The values defined by the manufacturer for equipment alarm and shutdown were, respectively, 50.0 {mu}m and 75.0 {mu}m, measured on the pump rotors in the bearing region. However, the global vibration levels of the TEDUT's pumps reached 110.0 {mu}m during the startup attended by the manufacturers. The equipment warranty period started after that, and a detailed activity planning was drawn up with the purpose of keeping TEDUT running with the new pumps at the lowest possible operational risk and avoiding a production reduction at REFAP. Simultaneously, various actions were taken in order to identify the vibration sources and reduce its intensity to the lowest possible values. After equipment modifications, median vibration values at 15

  13. The effects of viscosity, surface tension, and flow rate on gasoil-water flow pattern in microchannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boogar, Rahman Sadeghi; Gheshlaghi, Reza; Mahdavi, Mahmood Akhavan [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    A microchannel was fabricated with glass tubes to investigate the effect of viscosity, surface tension, and flow rate on the liquid-liquid two-phase flow regime. Water and gasoil were selected as aqueous and organic working fluids, respectively. The two fluids were injected into the microchannel and created either slug or parallel profile depending on the applied conditions. The range of Reynolds and capillary numbers was chosen in such a way that neither inertia nor interfacial tension forces were negligible. Xanthan gum was used to increase viscosity and Triton X-100 (TX-100) and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) were used to reduce the interfacial tension. The results demonstrated that higher value of viscosity and flow rate increased interfacial area, but slug flow regime remained unchanged. The two surfactants showed different effects on the flow regime and interfacial area. Addition of TX-100 did not change the slug flow but decreased the interfacial area. In contrast, addition of SDS increased interfacial area by decreasing the slug’s length in the low concentrations and by switching from slug to parallel regime at high concentrations.

  14. Mode pattern of internal flow in a water droplet on a vibrating hydrophobic surface. (United States)

    Kim, Hun; Lim, Hee-Chang


    The objective of this study is to understand the mode pattern of the internal flow in a water droplet placed on a hydrophobic surface that periodically and vertically vibrates. As a result, a water droplet on a vibrating hydrophobic surface has a typical shape that depends on each resonance mode, and, additionally, we observed a diversified lobe size and internal flows in the water droplet. The size of each lobe at the resonance frequency was relatively greater than that at the neighboring frequencies, and the internal flow of the nth order mode was also observed in the flow visualization. In general, large symmetrical flow streams were generated along the vertical axis in each mode, with a large circulating movement from the bottom to the top, and then to the triple contact line along the droplet surface. In contrast, modes 2 and 4 generated a Y-shaped flow pattern, in which the flow moved to the node point in the lower part of the droplet, but modes 6 and 8 had similar patterns, with only a little difference. In addition, as a result of the PIV measurement, while the flow velocity of mode 4 was faster than that of model 2, those of modes 6 and 8 were almost similar.

  15. A coupled surface/subsurface flow model accounting for air entrapment and air pressure counterflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delfs, Jens Olaf; Wang, Wenqing; Kalbacher, Thomas


    the mass exchange between compartments. A benchmark test, which is based on a classic experimental data set on infiltration excess (Horton) overland flow, identified a feedback mechanism between surface runoff and soil air pressures. Our study suggests that air compression in soils amplifies surface runoff......This work introduces the soil air system into integrated hydrology by simulating the flow processes and interactions of surface runoff, soil moisture and air in the shallow subsurface. The numerical model is formulated as a coupled system of partial differential equations for hydrostatic (diffusive...... wave) shallow flow and two-phase flow in a porous medium. The simultaneous mass transfer between the soil, overland, and atmosphere compartments is achieved by upgrading a fully established leakance concept for overland-soil liquid exchange to an air exchange flux between soil and atmosphere. In a new...

  16. Stability analysis of a partitioned iterative method for steady free surface flow (United States)

    Demeester, Toon; Degroote, Joris; Vierendeels, Jan


    This note considers the steady free surface (FS) flow problem as encountered in the paper by van Brummelen et al. [1]. In that paper, steady flow of water in a two-dimensional slice of an infinitely wide open channel with a particular bottom wall is calculated as the first step in the development of a 3D surface fitting method for steady flow around ships. In these water-air flows, the influence of air is usually negligible due to the large difference in density. Contrary to surface capturing methods which are typically multiphase techniques (such as the volume-of-fluid method), fitting methods usually consider only the water phase. The latter approach requires appropriate FS boundary conditions. The dynamic boundary condition (DBC) used here assumes that the pressure is constant (atmospheric) at the FS and the shear stresses are zero. The kinematic boundary condition (KBC) states that the FS is impermeable.

  17. [Removal efficiency of nitrogen in aerobic/anaerobic subsurface flow constructed wetlands]. (United States)

    Li, Feng-Min; Shan, Shi; Wang, Hao-Yun; Song, Ni; Wang, Zhen-Yu


    In order to adjust the dissolved oxygen in the traditional subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) and increase the purification efficiency of sewage water, the traditional SFCWs were divided into different sections with enhanced functions. Different kinds of aerobic/anaerobic SFCWs were designed to study the influence of ratio and location of aerobic/anaerobic, artificial aeration and other factors on the nitrogen in effluent. The purification efficiency of the water in this study was compared with that in traditional SFCWs. The results showed that the removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N and TN in traditional SFCWs were 18.4% and 40.6% but 99.7% and 50.7% in aerobic/anaerobic/aerobic SFCWs with aeration (O-A-O SFCWs with aeration) treatment. Aeration in the front and in the rear, and anaerobic treatment in the middle was used in this treatment. Removal efficiency of NH4(+)-N in O-A-O SFCWs with aeration treatment was 100%, while that of O-A-O SFCWs without aeration was about 50%. The removal efficiencies of NH4(+) -N in new SFCWs with aeration in the front and in the rear were increased by 82.81% and 17.91% but 73.16% in the middle. It shows that aeration can significantly improve the removal efficiency of nitrogen, especially NH4(+)-N. Aeration in the front and back can greatly improve the removal efficiency NH4(+)-N and TN. But aeration resulting to oxygen-rich environment is not conducive to the denitrification, which will be an important factor of limiting the TN removal efficiency.

  18. Application of subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands to reject water treatment in dairy wastewater treatment plant. (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Karolinczak, Beata; Gajewska, Magdalena; Wojciechowska, Ewa


    The paper presents the effects of applying subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands (SS VF) for the treatment of reject water generated in the process of aerobic sewage sludge stabilization in the biggest dairy wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Poland. Two SS VF beds were built: bed (A) with 0.65 m depth and bed (B) with 1.0 m depth, planted with reeds. Beds were fed with reject water with hydraulic load of 0.1 m d -1 in order to establish the differences in treatment efficiency. During an eight-months research period, a high removal efficiency of predominant pollutants was shown: BOD 5 88.1% (A) and 90.5% (B); COD 84.5% (A) and 87.5% (B); TSS 87.6% (A) and 91.9% (B); TKN 82.4% (A) and 76.5% (B); N-NH 4 + 89.2% (A) and 85.7% (B); TP 30.2% (A) and 40.6% (B). There were not statistically significant differences in the removal efficiencies between bed (B) with 1.0 m depth and bed (A) with 0.65 m depth. The research indicated that SS VF beds could be successfully applied to reject water treatment in dairy WWTPs. The study proved that the use of SS VF beds in full scale in dairy WWTPs would result in a significant decrease in pollutants' load in reject water. In the analyzed case, decreasing the load of ammonia nitrogen was of greatest importance, as it constituted 58% of the total load treated in dairy WWTP and posed a hazard to the stability of the treatment process.

  19. Swine wastewater treatment using vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland planted with Napier grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantip Klomjek


    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the pollutant removal efficiencies in swine wastewater using a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland (VSF CW planted with two species of Napier grass. The grass productivities were also cultivated and compared in order to provide information for species selection. Twelve treatment units were set up with the VSF CWs planted with Giant Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. King grass and Dwarf Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Mott. with 2 and 5 cm d−1 of hydraulic loading rates (HLR. Comparisons of removal efficiency and grass productivity were analyzed using Duncan's Multiple Range Test and t-test at the significant level 0.05. Both species of Napier grass performed more than 70% of removal efficiency of BOD and TKN. The VSF CW planted with Giant Napier grass at 5 cm d−1 HLR performed the highest BOD removal efficiency of 94 ± 1%, while the 2 cm d−1 HLR removed COD with efficiency of 64 ± 6%. The results also showed the effluent from all treatment units contained averages of BOD, COD, TSS, TKN and pH that followed Thailand's swine wastewater quality standard. Average fresh yields and dry yields were between 4.6 ± 0.4 to 15.2 ± 1.2 and 0.5 ± 0.1 to 2.2 ± 0.1 kg m−2, respectively. The dry yields obtained from four cutting cycles in five months of CW system operation were higher than the ones planted with a traditional method, but declined continuously after each cutting cycle. Both species of Napier grass indicated their suitability to be used in the VSF CW for swine wastewater treatment.

  20. Inertia Effects in the Flow of a Herschel-Bulkley ERF between Fixed Surfaces of Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Walicka


    Full Text Available Many electrorheological fluids (ERFs as fluids with microstructure demonstrate viscoplastic behaviours. Rheometric measurements indicate that some flows of these fluids may be modelled as the flows of a Herschel-Bulkley fluid. In this paper, the flow of a Herschel-Bulkley ER fluid—with a fractional power-law exponent—in a narrow clearance between two fixed surfaces of revolution with common axis of symmetry is considered. The flow is externally pressurized, and it is considered with inertia effect. In order to solve this problem, the boundary layer equations are used. The influence of inertia forces on the pressure distribution is examined by using the method of averaged inertia terms of the momentum equation. Numerical examples of externally pressurized ERFs flows in the clearance between parallel disks and concentric spherical surfaces are presented.

  1. Adaptive Robust Online Constructive Fuzzy Control of a Complex Surface Vehicle System. (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Er, Meng Joo; Sun, Jing-Chao; Liu, Yan-Cheng


    In this paper, a novel adaptive robust online constructive fuzzy control (AR-OCFC) scheme, employing an online constructive fuzzy approximator (OCFA), to deal with tracking surface vehicles with uncertainties and unknown disturbances is proposed. Significant contributions of this paper are as follows: 1) unlike previous self-organizing fuzzy neural networks, the OCFA employs decoupled distance measure to dynamically allocate discriminable and sparse fuzzy sets in each dimension and is able to parsimoniously self-construct high interpretable T-S fuzzy rules; 2) an OCFA-based dominant adaptive controller (DAC) is designed by employing the improved projection-based adaptive laws derived from the Lyapunov synthesis which can guarantee reasonable fuzzy partitions; 3) closed-loop system stability and robustness are ensured by stable cancelation and decoupled adaptive compensation, respectively, thereby contributing to an auxiliary robust controller (ARC); and 4) global asymptotic closed-loop system can be guaranteed by AR-OCFC consisting of DAC and ARC and all signals are bounded. Simulation studies and comprehensive comparisons with state-of-the-arts fixed- and dynamic-structure adaptive control schemes demonstrate superior performance of the AR-OCFC in terms of tracking and approximation accuracy.

  2. Passive control of flow structure interaction between a sphere and free-surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akilli Huseyin


    Full Text Available Flow characteristics for both a smooth and a vented sphere such as velocity vectors, patterns of streamlines, vorticity contours, stream-wise fluctuations, cross-stream velocity fluctuations and Reynolds stress correlations between a sphere and free-surface for various submerged ratio at Re =5,000 are studied by using dye visualization and the particle image velocimetry technique. Passive control of flow structure interaction between sphere and free surface was examined by using a modified geometry which has a 15% sphere diameter hole passing through the sphere equator. Both of the spheres were separately placed beneath the free surface with different positions from touching to the free surface to two sphere diameters below the free surface. It is demonstrated that reattachment point of the separated flow to the free surface varies for both of the sphere cases as the sphere position alters vertically through the water flow while the flow structure for the vented sphere occurs considerably symmetrical due to forming of a pair of counter-rotating ring vortices.

  3. Effective slip lengths for flows over surfaces with nanobubbles: the effects of finite slip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendy, S C; Lund, N J


    We consider effective slip lengths for flows of simple liquids over surfaces contaminated by gaseous nanobubbles. In particular, we examine whether the effects of finite slip over the liquid-bubble interface are important in limiting effective slip lengths over such surfaces. Using an expression that interpolates between the perfect slip and finite slip regimes for flow over bubbles, we conclude that for the bubble dimensions and coverages typically reported in the literature the effects of finite slip are secondary, reducing effective slip lengths by only 10%. Further, we find that nanobubbles do not significantly increase slip lengths beyond those reported for bare hydrophobic surfaces.

  4. Proper construction of ab initio global potential surfaces with accurate long-range interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel


    An efficient procedure based on the reproducing kernel Hilbert space interpolation method is presented for constructing intermolecular potential energy surfaces (PES) using not only calculated ab initio data but also a priori information on long-range interactions. Explicitly, use of the reciprocal power reproducing kernel on the semiinfinite interval [0,∞) yields a set of exact linear relations between dispersion (multipolar) coefficients and PES data points at finite internuclear separations. Consequently, given a combined set of ab initio data and the values of dispersion (multipolar) coefficients, the potential interpolation problem subject to long-range interaction constraints can be solved to render globally smooth, asymptotically accurate ab initio potential energy surfaces. Very good results have been obtained for the one-dimensional He-He potential curve and the two-dimensional Ne-CO PES. The construction of the Ne-CO PES was facilitated by invoking a new reproducing kernel for the angular coordinate based on the optimally stable and shape-preserving Bernstein basis functions. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  5. Modelling of a free-surface ferrofluid flow (United States)

    Habera, M.; Hron, J.


    The Cauchy's stress tensor of a ferrofluid exposed to an external magnetic field is subject to additional magnetic terms. For a linearly magnetizable medium, the terms result in interfacial magnetic force acting on the ferrofluid boundaries. This force changes the characteristics of many free-surface ferrofluid phenomena. The aim of this work is to implement this force into the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and propose a numerical method to solve them. The interface of ferrofluid is tracked with the use of the characteristic level-set method and additional reinitialization step assures conservation of its volume. Incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are formulated for a divergence-free velocity fields while discrete interfacial forces are treated with continuous surface force model. Velocity-pressure coupling is implemented via the projection method. To predict the magnetic force effect quantitatively, Maxwell's equations for magnetostatics are solved in each time step. Finite element method is utilized for the spatial discretization. At the end of the work, equilibrium droplet shape are compared to known experimental results.

  6. Seasonal Greenland Ice Sheet ice flow variations in regions of differing bed and surface topography (United States)

    Sole, A. J.; Livingstone, S. J.; Rippin, D. M.; Hill, J.; McMillan, M.; Quincey, D. J.


    The contribution of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) to future sea-level rise is uncertain. Observations reveal the important role of basal water in controlling ice-flow to the ice sheet margin. In Greenland, drainage of large volumes of surface meltwater to the ice sheet bed through moulins and hydrofracture beneath surface lakes dominates the subglacial hydrological system and provides an efficient means of moving mass and heat through the ice sheet. Ice surface and bed topography influence where meltwater can access the bed, and the nature of its subsequent flow beneath the ice. However, no systematic investigation into the influence of topographic variability on Greenland hydrology and dynamics exists. Thus, physical processes controlling storage and drainage of surface and basal meltwater, and the way these affect ice flow are not comprehensively understood. This presents a critical obstacle in efforts to predict the future evolution of the GrIS. Here we present high-resolution satellite mapping of the ice-surface drainage network (e.g. lakes, channels and moulins) and measurements of seasonal variations in ice flow in south west Greenland. The region is comprised of three distinct subglacial terrains which vary in terms of the amplitude and wavelength and thus the degree to which basal topography is reflected in the ice sheet surface. We find that the distribution of surface hydrological features is related to the transfer of bed topography to the ice sheet surface. For example, in areas of thinner ice and high bed relief, moulins occur more frequently and are more uniformly dispersed, indicating a more distributed influx of surface-derived meltwater to the ice sheet bed. We investigate the implications of such spatial variations in surface hydrology on seasonal ice flow rates.

  7. Generating Inviscid and Viscous Fluid-Flow Simulations over an Aircraft Surface Using a Fluid-Flow Mesh (United States)

    Rodriguez, David L. (Inventor); Sturdza, Peter (Inventor)


    Fluid-flow simulation over a computer-generated aircraft surface is generated using inviscid and viscous simulations. A fluid-flow mesh of fluid cells is obtained. At least one inviscid fluid property for the fluid cells is determined using an inviscid fluid simulation that does not simulate fluid viscous effects. A set of intersecting fluid cells that intersects the aircraft surface are identified. One surface mesh polygon of the surface mesh is identified for each intersecting fluid cell. A boundary-layer prediction point for each identified surface mesh polygon is determined. At least one boundary-layer fluid property for each boundary-layer prediction point is determined using the at least one inviscid fluid property of the corresponding intersecting fluid cell and a boundary-layer simulation that simulates fluid viscous effects. At least one updated fluid property for at least one fluid cell is determined using the at least one boundary-layer fluid property and the inviscid fluid simulation.

  8. Heat and fluid flow in microscale from micro and nano structured surfaces


    İzci, Türker; Izci, Turker


    The use of enhanced surfaces became one of the most popular studies in order to increase heat transfer performances of microsystems. There are various techniques/processes applied to surfaces to enhance excess heat removal from microsystems. In parallel to these research efforts, various micro and nano structured surfaces were evaluated in channel flow, jet impingement and pool boiling applications. In the first study, single micro pin-fins having the same chord thickness/diameter but differe...

  9. MHD biconvective flow of Powell Eyring nanofluid over stretched surface (United States)

    Naseem, Faiza; Shafiq, Anum; Zhao, Lifeng; Naseem, Anum


    The present work is focused on behavioral characteristics of gyrotactic microorganisms to describe their role in heat and mass transfer in the presence of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) forces in Powell-Eyring nanofluids. Implications concerning stretching sheet with respect to velocity, temperature, nanoparticle concentration and motile microorganism density were explored to highlight influential parameters. Aim of utilizing microorganisms was primarily to stabilize the nanoparticle suspension due to bioconvection generated by the combined effects of buoyancy forces and magnetic field. Influence of Newtonian heating was also analyzed by taking into account thermophoretic mechanism and Brownian motion effects to insinuate series solutions mediated by homotopy analysis method (HAM). Mathematical model captured the boundary layer regime that explicitly involved contemporary non linear partial differential equations converted into the ordinary differential equations. To depict nanofluid flow characteristics, pertinent parameters namely bioconvection Lewis number Lb, traditional Lewis number Le, bioconvection Péclet number Pe, buoyancy ratio parameter Nr, bioconvection Rayleigh number Rb, thermophoresis parameter Nt, Hartmann number M, Grashof number Gr, and Eckert number Ec were computed and analyzed. Results revealed evidence of hydromagnetic bioconvection for microorganism which was represented by graphs and tables. Our findings further show a significant effect of Newtonian heating over a stretching plate by examining the coefficient values of skin friction, local Nusselt number and the local density number. Comparison was made between Newtonian fluid and Powell-Eyring fluid on velocity field and temperature field. Results are compared of with contemporary studies and our findings are found in excellent agreement with these studies.

  10. Navier-Stokes Computations With One-Equation Turbulence Model for Flows Along Concave Wall Surfaces (United States)

    Wang, Chi R.


    This report presents the use of a time-marching three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equation numerical solver with a one-equation turbulence model to simulate the flow fields developed along concave wall surfaces without and with a downstream extension flat wall surface. The 3-D Navier- Stokes numerical solver came from the NASA Glenn-HT code. The one-equation turbulence model was derived from the Spalart and Allmaras model. The computational approach was first calibrated with the computations of the velocity and Reynolds shear stress profiles of a steady flat plate boundary layer flow. The computational approach was then used to simulate developing boundary layer flows along concave wall surfaces without and with a downstream extension wall. The author investigated the computational results of surface friction factors, near surface velocity components, near wall temperatures, and a turbulent shear stress component in terms of turbulence modeling, computational mesh configurations, inlet turbulence level, and time iteration step. The computational results were compared with existing measurements of skin friction factors, velocity components, and shear stresses of the developing boundary layer flows. With a fine computational mesh and a one-equation model, the computational approach could predict accurately the skin friction factors, near surface velocity and temperature, and shear stress within the flows. The computed velocity components and shear stresses also showed the vortices effect on the velocity variations over a concave wall. The computed eddy viscosities at the near wall locations were also compared with the results from a two equation turbulence modeling technique. The inlet turbulence length scale was found to have little effect on the eddy viscosities at locations near the concave wall surface. The eddy viscosities, from the one-equation and two-equation modeling, were comparable at most stream-wise stations. The present one

  11. Life cycle assessment of vertical and horizontal flow constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment considering nitrogen and carbon greenhouse gas emissions. (United States)

    Fuchs, Valerie J; Mihelcic, James R; Gierke, John S


    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to compare the environmental impacts of vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCW) and horizontal flow constructed wetlands (HFCW). The LCAs include greenhouse gas (N(2)O, CO(2) and CH(4)) emissions. Baseline constructed wetland designs are compared to different treatment performance scenarios and to conventional wastewater treatment at the materials acquisition, assembly and operation life stages. The LCAs suggest that constructed wetlands have less environmental impact, in terms of resource consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The VFCW is a less impactful configuration for removing total nitrogen from domestic wastewater. Both wetland designs have negligible impacts on respiratory organics, radiation and ozone. Gaseous emissions, often not included in wastewater LCAs because of lack of data or lack of agreement on impacts, have the largest impact on climate change. Nitrous oxide accounts for the increase in impact on respiratory inorganic, and the combined acidification/eutrophication category. The LCAs were used to assess the importance of nitrogen removal and recycling, and the potential for optimizing nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A field study of colloid transport in surface and subsurface flows (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xiang-Yu; Xian, Qing-Song; Weisbrod, Noam; Yang, Jae E.; Wang, Hong-Lan


    Colloids have been recognized to enhance the migration of strongly-sorbing contaminants. However, few field investigations have examined combined colloid transport via surface runoff and subsurface flows. In a headwater catchment of the upper Yangtze River, a 6 m (L) by 4 m (W) sloping (6°) farmland plot was built by cement walls to form no-flow side boundaries. The plot was monitored in the summer of 2014 for the release and transport of natural colloids via surface runoff and subsurface flows (i.e., the interflow from the soil-mudrock interface and fracture flow from the mudrock-sandstone interface) in response to rain events. The water sources of the subsurface flows were apportioned to individual rain events using a two end-member model (i.e., mobile pre-event soil water extracted by a suction-cup sampler vs. rainwater (event water)) based on δ18O measurements. For rain events with high preceding soil moisture, mobile pre-event soil water was the main contributor (generally >60%) to the fracture flow. The colloid concentration in the surface runoff was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that in the subsurface flows. The lowest colloid concentration was found in the subsurface interflow, which was probably the result of pore-scale colloid straining mechanisms. The rainfall intensity and its temporal variation govern the dynamics of the colloid concentrations in both surface runoff and subsurface flows. The duration of the antecedent dry period affected not only the relative contributions of the rainwater and the mobile pre-event soil water to the subsurface flows but also the peak colloid concentration, particularly in the fracture flow. The colloid size fraction accounted for more than 80% of the total suspended particles in the surface runoff, while the colloid size distributions of both the interflow and the fracture flow shifted towards larger diameters. These results highlight the need to avoid the application of strongly-sorbing agrochemicals (e

  13. Integrated Coupling of Surface and Subsurface Flow with HYDRUS-2D (United States)

    Hartmann, Anne; Šimůnek, Jirka; Wöhling, Thomas; Schütze, Niels


    Describing interactions between surface and subsurface flow processes is important to adequately define water flow in natural systems. Since overland flow generation is highly influenced by rainfall and infiltration, both highly spatially heterogeneous processes, overland flow is unsteady and varies spatially. The prediction of overland flow needs to include an appropriate description of the interactions between the surface and subsurface flow. Coupling surface and subsurface water flow is a challenging task. Different approaches have been developed during the last few years, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. A new approach by Weill et al. (2009) to couple overland flow and subsurface flow based on a generalized Richards equation was implemented into the well-known subsurface flow model HYDRUS-2D (Šimůnek et al., 2011). This approach utilizes the one-dimensional diffusion wave equation to model overland flow. The diffusion wave model is integrated in HYDRUS-2D by replacing the terms of the Richards equation in a pre-defined runoff layer by terms defining the diffusion wave equation. Using this approach, pressure and flux continuity along the interface between both flow domains is provided. This direct coupling approach provides a strong coupling of both systems based on the definition of a single global system matrix to numerically solve the coupled flow problem. The advantage of the direct coupling approach, compared to the loosely coupled approach, is supposed to be a higher robustness, when many convergence problems can be avoided (Takizawa et al., 2014). The HYDRUS-2D implementation was verified using a) different test cases, including a direct comparison with the results of Weill et al. (2009), b) an analytical solution of the kinematic wave equation, and c) the results of a benchmark test of Maxwell et al. (2014), that included several known coupled surface subsurface flow models. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis evaluating the effects

  14. Surface height adjustments in pyroclastic-flow deposits observed at Unzen volcano by JERS-1 SAR interferometry (United States)

    Matthews, J. P.; Kamata, H.; Okuyama, S.; Yusa, Y.; Shimizu, H.


    Pyroclastic flows from the 1990-1995 eruption of Unzen, a dacitic volcano in the southwest of Japan, descended the mountain along a variety of routes causing widespread damage and loss of life. Interferograms constructed from JERS-1 L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images show a number of features related to these pyroclastic flows and their secondary effects. The most useful interferogram in this respect is based on images acquired on 22 July 1993 and 1 December 1993 and shows the descent paths for pyroclastic flows occurring in four valley systems within this time window as zones of decorrelation caused by the repeated resurfacing. The 22 July 1993 SAR image was, through considerable good fortune, acquired only 2.6 days after a major pyroclastic flow had descended into the Mizunashi valley so that, in the absence of rainfall, the fresh 2-m-thick deposits were dry when first imaged. The largest differential surface height changes observed in the interferogram represent height decreases in the vertical of ˜12 cm and, significantly, lie within a small region of the Mizunashi valley which was resurfaced by the pyroclastic flow of 19 July 1993 but not subsequently. Within this small region, radar coherence is higher (maximum correlation value of ˜0.75) in a center-valley site where ash but relatively few large boulders are present. In a qualitative sense, the new ash surfaces exhibit higher levels of radar coherence than the older (pre-19 July) deposits. In other Unzen valleys visited by pyroclastic flows, smaller differential surface height decreases (˜4 cm) are observed where the surface deposits were emplaced by events taking place between 1-3 months before the acquisition date of the 22 July 1993 image. The 'extra' ˜8 cm of surface height decrease observed in the case of the freshly laid Mizunashi deposits must result from a deflationary mechanism (or mechanisms) operating in a spatially uniform manner in order for radar coherence to be maintained. A

  15. Performance of pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands with and without the emergent macrophyte Spartina alterniflora treating mariculture effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Treger Zydowicz Sousa


    Full Text Available Vertical flow constructed wetlands, planted with and without Spartina alterniflora, were tested for the treatment of mariculture wastewater. Wetlands with and without the emergent macrophyte produced reductions of 89 and 71% for inorganic solids, 82 and 96% for organic solids, 51 and 63% for total nitrogen, 82 and 92% for ammoniacal nitrogen, 64 and 59% for orthophosphate, and 81 and 89% for turbidity, respectively. Wetlands with S. alterniflora showed denitrification tendencies, while wetlands without S. alterniflora had higher oxygen levels leading to nitrification. The results suggest the fundamental role of oxygen controlling the purification processes as well as the potential of constructed wetlands to treat mariculture effluents.

  16. The dynamic response of hyporheic zone redox zonation after surface flow perturbation (United States)

    Kaufman, M.; Zheng, L.; Cardenas, M. B.


    As water in a stream or river flows over ripples and other bedforms, differential surface pressures create bedform-induced hyporheic exchange. The oxygen, carbon, and nutrients carried into the bed by the surface water as well as those already existing in the bed material form the basis for microbial communities in the sediment.The resulting dissolved oxygen conditions are a critical control on the ecological function of the hyporheic zone (HZ), from both micro- and macro-biological habitat perspectives. Because hyporheic exchange rates are controlled by surface flow velocity, variations in surface flow have significant impact on the subsurface oxygen conditions. Most rivers are subject to flow velocity variations due to natural forcing including precipitation and variations in evapotranspiration as well as anthropogenic forces like dam releases. We use a large (10m x 0.7m x 0.3m) programmable flume instrumented with a bedform-scale high-resolution planar optode dissolved oxygen imaging system to observe the distribution of oxygenated sediment within the HZ over time. Using this system we characterize the rate at which hyporheic oxygen conditions reconfigure in response to changes in the surface flow velocity, particularly the time it takes for conditions to recover after a pulse of increased flow velocity. In addition, we make use of numerical models to further identify critical response time drivers. With these tools, we develop equations to describe the post-disturbance recovery time as a function of relative pulse magnitude and duration. Using these equations we can predict the time scale over which the hyporheic zone will recover following both natural and anthropogenic flow regime disturbances. Being able to predict the magnitude and duration of dissolved oxygen changes in the wake of flow perturbing events allows us to better understand the impact these disturbances have on the ecology of the hyporheic zone.

  17. Performance of subsurface flow constructed wetland mesocosms in enhancing nutrient removal from municipal wastewater in warm tropical environments. (United States)

    Bateganya, Najib Lukooya; Kazibwe, Alex; Langergraber, Guenter; Okot-Okumu, James; Hein, Thomas


    Nutrient-rich effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have significantly contributed to eutrophication of surface waters in East Africa. We used vertical (VF, 0.2 m(2)) and horizontal (HF, 0.45 m(2)) subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetland (CW) configurations to design single-stage mesocosms planted with Cyperus papyrus, and operating under batch hydraulic loading regime (at a mean organic loading rate of 20 g COD m(-2) d(-1) for HF and 77 g COD m(-2) d(-1) for VF beds). The aim of the investigation was to assess the performance of SSF CWs as hotspots of nutrient transformation and removal processes between the WWTP and the receiving natural urban wetland environment in Kampala, Uganda. C. papyrus coupled with batch loading enhanced aerobic conditions and high efficiency regarding the elimination of suspended solids, organic matter, and nutrients with significant performance (P rates (g m(-2) d(-1)) were 9.16 N and 5.41 P in planted VF, and 1.97 N and 1.02 P in planted HF mesocosms, respectively. The lowest mean nutrient elimination rate (g m(-2) d(-1)) was 1.10 N and 0.62 P found in unplanted HF controls. Nutrient accumulation in plants and sediment retention were found to be essential processes. It can be concluded that whereas the SSF CWs may not function as independent treatment systems, they could be easily adopted as flexible and technologically less intensive options at a local scale, to increase the resilience of receiving environments by buffering peak loads from WWTPs.

  18. Observations of flow path interactions with surface structures during initial soil development stage using irrigation experiments (United States)

    Bartl, Steffen; Biemelt, Detlef; Badorreck, Annika; Gerke, Horst H.


    Structures and processes are dynamically linked especially during initial stages of soil and ecosystem development. Here we assume that soil pore structures and micro topography determine the flow paths and water fluxes as well as further structure changes. Reports about flow path developments at the soil surface are still limited because of an insufficient knowledge of the changing micro topography at the surface. The objective of this presentation is to evaluate methods for parameterisation of surface micro topography for analysing interactions between infiltration and surface runoff. Complex irrigation experiments were carried out at an experimental site in the neighbourhood of the artificially created water catchment "Chicken Creek". The irrigation rates between 160 mm/h and 250 mm/h were held constant over a time period of 20 minutes. The incoming intensities were measured as well as the raindrop-velocity and -size distributions. The surface runoff was continuously registered, soil samples were taken, and soil water potential heads were monitored using tensiometers. Surface and subsurface flow paths were identified using different tracers. The soil surface structures were recorded using a high resolution digital camera before, during, and after irrigation. Micro topography was surveyed using close-range photogrammetry. With this experimental design both, flow paths on the surface and in the soil as well as structure and texture changes could be observed simultaneously. In 2D vertical cross-sections, the effect of initial sediment deposition structure on infiltration and runoff was observed. Image analysis of surface pictures allowed identifying structural and soil textural changes during the runoff process. Similar structural changes related to surface flow paths were found with the photogrammetric surface analysis. We found evidence for the importance of the initial structures on the flow paths as well as a significant influence of the system development

  19. Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education. (United States)

    Bergman, Esther M; Sieben, Judith M; Smailbegovic, Ida; de Bruin, Anique B H; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M


    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially those of the musculoskeletal system, move and function in a living human being. A recent development in teaching methods for surface anatomy is body painting, which several studies suggest increases both student motivation and knowledge acquisition. This article focuses on a teaching approach and is a translational contribution to existing literature. In line with best evidence medical education, the aim of this article is twofold: to briefly inform teachers about constructivist learning theory and elaborate on the principles of constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning; and to provide teachers with an example of how to implement these learning principles to change the approach to teaching surface anatomy. Student evaluations of this new approach demonstrate that the application of these learning principles leads to higher student satisfaction. However, research suggests that even better results could be achieved by further adjustments in the application of contextual and self-directed learning principles. Successful implementation and guidance of peer physical examination is crucial for the described approach, but research shows that other options, like using life models, seem to work equally well. Future research on surface anatomy should focus on increasing the students' ability to apply anatomical knowledge and defining the setting in which certain teaching methods and approaches have a positive effect. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. A surface accumulator of Escherichia coli in water flow. (United States)

    Mayeed, M S; Al-Mekhnaqi, A M; Auner, G W; Newaz, G M


    The objective of this research is to design and optimise a mini/micro-channel based surface accumulator of Escherichia coli to be detected by acoustic wave biosensors. A computational research has been carried out using the state of the art software, CFD-ACE with water as bacteria bearing fluid. E. coli bacteria have been modelled as random discrete particles tracked by solving the Lagrangian equations. The design challenges are to achieve low shear force (pico-N), high concentration at accumulation and high enough Reynolds number to avoid bacteria swimming. A range of low Reynolds number (Re) from 28.2 to 58.3 has been considered along with the effects of particle-boundary interactions, gravity, Saffman lift and Magnus lift. About four orders of magnitude higher concentration at accumulation than the inlet concentration and lower shear force in the order of less than pico-N have been achieved in the optimised design with particles accumulating at a specific location under random particle-boundary interactions.

  1. Numerical and experimental investigation of the 3D free surface flow in a model Pelton turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiereder, R; Riemann, S; Schilling, R


    This investigation focuses on the numerical and experimental analysis of the 3D free surface flow in a Pelton turbine. In particular, two typical flow conditions occurring in a full scale Pelton turbine - a configuration with a straight inlet as well as a configuration with a 90 degree elbow upstream of the nozzle - are considered. Thereby, the effect of secondary flow due to the 90 degree bending of the upstream pipe on the characteristics of the jet is explored. The hybrid flow field consists of pure liquid flow within the conduit and free surface two component flow of the liquid jet emerging out of the nozzle into air. The numerical results are validated against experimental investigations performed in the laboratory of the Institute of Fluid Mechanics (FLM). For the numerical simulation of the flow the in-house unstructured fully parallelized finite volume solver solver3D is utilized. An advanced interface capturing model based on the classic Volume of Fluid method is applied. In order to ensure sharp interface resolution an additional convection term is added to the transport equation of the volume fraction. A collocated variable arrangement is used and the set of non-linear equations, containing fluid conservation equations and model equations for turbulence and volume fraction, are solved in a segregated manner. For pressure-velocity coupling the SIMPLE and PISO algorithms are implemented. Detailed analysis of the observed flow patterns in the jet and of the jet geometry are presented.

  2. Retention/Diffusivity Studies in Free-Surface Flowing Liquid Lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.A. Stubbers; G.H. Miley; M. Nieto; W. Olczak; D.N. Ruzic; A. Hassanein


    FLIRE was designed to measure the hydrogen and helium retention and diffusivity in a flowing stream of liquid lithium, and it has accomplished these goals. Retention coefficients for helium in the flowing liquid stream were 0.1-2% for flow speeds of 44 cm/s and implantation energies between 500 and 2000 eV. The energy dependence of retention is linear for the energy range considered, as expected, and the dependence of retention on flow velocity fits the expected square-root of flow speed dependence. Estimates of the helium diffusion coefficient in the flowing lithium stream were ∼ 4 x 10 -7 cm 2 /s, and are independent of implantation energy. This value is much lower than expected, which could be due to several factors, such as mixing, bubble formation or surface film formation. In the case of hydrogen, long term retention and release mechanisms are of greatest importance, since this relates to tritium inventory in flowing lithium PFCs for fusion applications. The amount of hydride formation was measured for flowing lithium exposed to neutral deuterium gas. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) measurements indicate that the hydride concentration was between 0.1 and 0.2% over a wide range of pressures (6.5 x 10 -5 to 1 Torr). This result implies that the deuterium absorption rate is limited by the surface dissociation rate, since deuterium (hydrogen/tritium) is absorbed in its atomic form, not its molecular form

  3. Retention/Diffusivity Studies in Free-Surface Flowing Liquid Lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Stubbers; G.H. Miley; M. Nieto; W. Olczak; D.N. Ruzic; A. Hassanein


    FLIRE was designed to measure the hydrogen and helium retention and diffusivity in a flowing stream of liquid lithium, and it has accomplished these goals. Retention coefficients for helium in the flowing liquid stream were 0.1-2% for flow speeds of 44 cm/s and implantation energies between 500 and 2000 eV. The energy dependence of retention is linear for the energy range considered, as expected, and the dependence of retention on flow velocity fits the expected square-root of flow speed dependence. Estimates of the helium diffusion coefficient in the flowing lithium stream were {approx} 4 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/s, and are independent of implantation energy. This value is much lower than expected, which could be due to several factors, such as mixing, bubble formation or surface film formation. In the case of hydrogen, long term retention and release mechanisms are of greatest importance, since this relates to tritium inventory in flowing lithium PFCs for fusion applications. The amount of hydride formation was measured for flowing lithium exposed to neutral deuterium gas. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) measurements indicate that the hydride concentration was between 0.1 and 0.2% over a wide range of pressures (6.5 x 10{sup -5} to 1 Torr). This result implies that the deuterium absorption rate is limited by the surface dissociation rate, since deuterium (hydrogen/tritium) is absorbed in its atomic form, not its molecular form.

  4. Computer-Aided Panoramic Images Enriched by Shadow Construction on a Prism and Pyramid Polyhedral Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Dzwierzynska


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop an efficient and practical method of a direct mapping of a panoramic projection on an unfolded prism and pyramid polyhedral projection surface with the aid of a computer. Due to the fact that straight lines very often appear in any architectural form we formulate algorithms which utilize data about lines and draw panoramas as plots of functions in Mathcad software. The ability to draw panoramic images of lines enables drawing a wireframe image of an architectural object. The application of the multicenter projection, as well as the idea of shadow construction in the panoramic representation, aims at achieving a panoramic image close to human perception. The algorithms are universal as the application of changeable base elements of panoramic projection—horizon height, station point location, number of polyhedral walls—enables drawing panoramic images from various viewing positions. However, for more efficient and easier drawing, the algorithms should be implemented in some graphical package. The representation presented in the paper and the method of its direct mapping on a flat unfolded projection surface can find application in the presentation of architectural spaces in advertising and art when drawings are displayed on polyhedral surfaces and can be observed from multiple viewing positions.

  5. Construction and characterization of a spin polarized helium ion beam for surface electronic structure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, A.R.


    Ion neutralization and metastable de-excitation spectroscopy, INS and MDS, allow detailed analysis of the surface electronic configuration of metals. The orthodox application of these spectroscopies may be enhanced by electronic spin polarization of the probe beams. For this reason, a spin polarized helium ion beam has been constructed. The electronic spin of helium metastables created within an rf discharge may be spacially aligned by optically pumping the atoms. Subsequent collisions between metastables produce helium ions which retain the orientation of the electronic spin. Extracted ion polarization, although not directly measurable, may be estimated from extracted electron polarization, metastable polarization, pumping radiation absorption and current modulation measurements. Ions extracted from the optically pumped discharge exhibit an estimated polarization of about ten per cent at a beam current of a few tenths of a microampere. Extraction of helium ions from the discharge requires that the ions have a high kinetic energy. However, to avoid undesirable kinetic electron ejection from the target surface, the ions must be decelerated. Examination of various deceleration configurations, in paticular exponential and linear deceleration fields, and experimental observation indicate that a linear decelerating field produces the best low energy beam to the target surface

  6. [Effect of reed rhizosphere on nitrogen and COD removal efficiency in subsurface flow constructed wetlands]. (United States)

    Dai, Yuan-yuan; Yang, Xin-ping; Zhou, Li-xiang


    Nitrogen removal efficiency was investigated in three subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CWs) with and without reed. Root bag made of nylon sieve with 300 mesh was used to enwrap the reed root in one of reed CWs to distinguish reed rhizosphere from non-rhizosphere. The CWs with root bag enwrapped reed root (hereinafter called as mesh CWs) and other CWs were fed with artificial ammonium-rich wastewater. The results indicated that the COD and N removal occurred mainly in the front of CWs, and C and nitrogen removal occurred concurrently along the stream way. When C/N ratio of influent was 5, the removal efficiencies of NH4+ -N in control CWs, reed CWs and mesh CWs were 66.2%, 94.2% and 82.2%, respectively. TN removal efficiencies were 67.2%, 90.7% and 76.1% respectively. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification phenomenon in this study was also observed. The removal efficiency of organic carbon was different from nitrogen removal efficiency, mesh CWs showed the highest COD removal efficiency with 80.9%, while control CWs and reed CWs were 72.2% and 56.2%, respectively. C/N ratio of wastewater throughout the bed was more than 5 in three CWs, which indicated carbon source supply was enough for denitrification. The oxidation-reduction position (ORP) and concentration of total organic carbon in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere were detected. The ORP in the front of mesh CWs's rhizosphere was much higher than that in control CWs and non-rhizosphere in mesh CWs, which were 11-311 mV and 62-261 mV, respectively. Root exudates also showed the difference between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere in mesh CWs, the TOC of them were 21.3-54.6 mg x L(-1) and 6.65-12.0 mg x L(-1). Due to the higher ORP and concentration of TOC, the nitrogen removal efficiency in plant CWs was much higher than that in control CWs.

  7. Lubricant-impregnated surfaces for drag reduction in viscous laminar flow (United States)

    Solomon, Brian; Khalil, Karim; Varanasi, Kripa; MIT Team


    For the first time, we explore the potential of lubricant impregnated surfaces (LIS) in reducing drag. LIS, inspired by the surface of the Nepenthes pitcher plant, have been introduced as a novel way of functionalizing a surface. LIS are characterized by extremely low contact angle hysteresis and have been show to effectively repel various liquids including water, oils, ketchup and blood. Motivated by the slippery nature of such surfaces, we explore the potential of LIS to reduce drag in internal flows. We observe a reduction in drag for LIS surfaces in a viscous laminar drag flow and model the impact of relevant system parameters (lubricant viscosity, working fluid viscosity, solid fraction, depth of texture, etc.).

  8. Initial adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to solid surfaces under liquid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szlavik, Julie; Soares Paiva, Dionísio; Mørk, Nils


    Some strains of the food borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes persist in food processing environments. The exact reason behind this phenomenon is not known, but strain differences in the ability to adhere to solid surfaces could offer an explanation. In the present work, initial adhesion of nine...... strains of L. monocytogenes was investigated under liquid flow at two levels of shear stress on six different surfaces using a flow chamber set-up with microscopy measurements. The surfaces tested were glass and PVC, and glass coated with beef extract, casein, and homogenised and unhomogenised milk....... In addition, the effect of prior environmental stress (5% NaCl, low nutrient availability) on initial adhesion was investigated. The hydrophobicity of the investigated surfaces was determined by contact angle measurements and the surface properties of the investigated L. monocytogenes strains were determined...

  9. Comprehensive study of flow and heat transfer at the surface of circular cooling fin (United States)

    Mityakov, V. Yu; Grekov, M. A.; Gusakov, A. A.; Sapozhnikov, S. Z.; Seroshtanov, V. V.; Bashkatov, A. V.; Dymkin, A. N.; Pavlov, A. V.; Milto, O. A.; Kalmykov, K. S.


    For the first time is proposed to combine heat flux measurements with thermal imaging and PIV (particle image velocimetry) for a comprehensive study of flow and heat transfer at the surface of the circular cooling fin. The investigated hollow fin is heated from within with saturated water steam; meanwhile the isothermal external surface simulates one of the perfect fin. Flow and heat transfer at the surface of the solid fin of the same size and shape, made of titanium alloy is investigated in the same regimes. Gradient Heat Flux Sensors (GHFS) were installed at different places of the fin surface. Velocity field around a cylinder, temperature field at the surface of the fin and heat flux for each rated time were obtained. Comprehensive method including heat flux measurement, PIV and thermal imaging allow to study flow and heat transfer at the surface of the fin in real time regime. The possibility to study flow and heat transfer for non-isothermal fins is shown; it is allow to improve traditional calculation of the cooling fins.

  10. Daily river flow prediction based on Two-Phase Constructive Fuzzy Systems Modeling: A case of hydrological - meteorological measurements asymmetry (United States)

    Bou-Fakhreddine, Bassam; Mougharbel, Imad; Faye, Alain; Abou Chakra, Sara; Pollet, Yann


    Accurate daily river flow forecast is essential in many applications of water resources such as hydropower operation, agricultural planning and flood control. This paper presents a forecasting approach to deal with a newly addressed situation where hydrological data exist for a period longer than that of meteorological data (measurements asymmetry). In fact, one of the potential solutions to resolve measurements asymmetry issue is data re-sampling. It is a matter of either considering only the hydrological data or the balanced part of the hydro-meteorological data set during the forecasting process. However, the main disadvantage is that we may lose potentially relevant information from the left-out data. In this research, the key output is a Two-Phase Constructive Fuzzy inference hybrid model that is implemented over the non re-sampled data. The introduced modeling approach must be capable of exploiting the available data efficiently with higher prediction efficiency relative to Constructive Fuzzy model trained over re-sampled data set. The study was applied to Litani River in the Bekaa Valley - Lebanon by using 4 years of rainfall and 24 years of river flow daily measurements. A Constructive Fuzzy System Model (C-FSM) and a Two-Phase Constructive Fuzzy System Model (TPC-FSM) are trained. Upon validating, the second model has shown a primarily competitive performance and accuracy with the ability to preserve a higher day-to-day variability for 1, 3 and 6 days ahead. In fact, for the longest lead period, the C-FSM and TPC-FSM were able of explaining respectively 84.6% and 86.5% of the actual river flow variation. Overall, the results indicate that TPC-FSM model has provided a better tool to capture extreme flows in the process of streamflow prediction.

  11. Investigations of subsurface flow constructed wetlands and associated geomaterial resources in the Akumal and Reforma regions, Quintana Roo, Mexico (United States)

    Krekeler, Mark P. S.; Probst, Pete; Samsonov, Misha; Tselepis, Cynthia M.; Bates, William; Kearns, Lance E.; Maynard, J. Barry


    Subsurface flow constructed wetlands in the village of Akumal, Quintana Roo, Mexico were surveyed to determine the general status of the wetland systems and provide baseline information for long term monitoring and further study. Twenty subsurface flow wetlands were surveyed and common problems observed in the systems were overloading, poor plant cover, odor, and no secondary containment. Bulk mineral composition of aggregate from two subsurface flow constructed wetlands was determined to consist solely of calcite using bulk powder X-ray diffraction. Some soil structure is developed in the aggregate and aggregate levels in wetlands drop at an estimated rate between 3 and 10 cm/year for overloaded wetlands owing to dissolution. Mineral composition from fresh aggregate samples commonly is a mixture of calcite and aragonite. Trace amounts of Pb, Zn, Co, and Cr were observed in fresh aggregate. Coefficients of permeability ( k) varied from 0.006 to 0.027 cm/s with an average values being 0.016 cm/s. Grain size analysis of fresh aggregate samples indicates there are unimodal and multimodal size distributions in the samples with modes in the coarse and fine sand being common. Investigations of other geologic media from the Reforma region indicate that a dolomite with minor amounts of Fe-oxide and palygorskite is abundant and may be a better aggregate source that the current materials used. A Ca-montmorillonite bed was identified in the Reforma region as well and this unit is suitable to serve as a clay liner to prevent leaks for new and existing wetland systems. These newly discovered geologic resources should aid in the improvement of subsurface flow constructed wetlands in the region. Although problems do exist in these wetlands with respect to design, these systems represent a successful implementation of constructed wetlands at a community level in developing regions.

  12. Finite element analysis of transient viscous flow with free surface using filling pattern technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Don; Yang, Dong Yol; Jeong, Jun Ho


    The filling pattern technique based on the finite element method and Eulerian mesh advancement approach has been developed to analyze incompressible transient viscous flow with free surfaces. The governing equation for flow analysis is Navier-Stokes equation including inertia and gravity effects. The penalty and predictor-corrector methods are used effectively for finite element formulation. The flow front surface and the volume inflow rate are calculated using the filling pattern technique to select an adequate pattern among four filling patterns at each triangular control volume. Using the proposed numerical technique, the collapse of a dam has been analyzed to predict flow phenomenon of fluid and the predicted front positions versus time have been compared with the reported experimental result

  13. Design of combination biofilter and subsurface constructed wetland-multilayer filtration with vertical flow type using Vetiveria zizanioides (akar wangi) (United States)

    Astuti, A. D.; Lindu, M.; Yanidar, R.; Faruq, M.


    As environmental regulation has become stricter in recent years, there is an increasing concern about the issue of wastewater treatment in urban areas. Senior High School as center of student activity has a potential source to generated domestic wastewater from toilet, bathroom and canteen. Canteen wastewater contains high-organic content that to be treated before discharged. Based on previous research the subsurface constructed wetland-multilayer filtration with vertical flow is an attractive alternative to provide efficient treatment of canteen wastewater. The effluent concentration complied with regulation according to [9]. Due to limited land, addition of preliminary treatment such as the presence of biofilter was found to improve the performance. The aim of this study was to design combination biofilter and subsurface constructed wetland-multilayer filtration with vertical flow type using vetiveria zizanioides (akar wangi) treating canteen wastewater. Vetiveria zizanioides (akar wangi) is used because from previous research, subsurface constructed wetland-multilayer filtration (SCW-MLF) with vertical flow type using vetiveria zizanioides (akar wangi) can be an alternative canteen wastewater treatment that is uncomplicated in technology, low cost in operational and have a beautiful landscape view, besides no odors or insects were presented during the operation.

  14. Surface coatings on carbon steel for prevention of flow accelerated corrosion under two phase flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Hee-Sang; Kim, Kyung Mo; Hur, Do Haeng [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Ji Hyun [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    Since the occurrence of a Surry-2 pipe rupture accident, a lot of effort has been made to prevent FAC of carbon steel piping. Some of the chemicals were suggested as a corrosion inhibitor. A platinum decoration was applied as another prevention strategy of carbon steel thinning. The severe FAC-damaged carbon steel pipings were replaced by tolerant materials such as SA335 Gr.P22. However, some components such as the piping materials between moisture separator and turbine have still suffered from the FAC degradation. This work provides a coating method to prevent the FAC degradation of the SA106 Gr.B, which is a piping material between moisture separator and high-pressure turbine, under two-phase flow. We suggested the coating materials to prevent FAC of SA106Gr.B under two-phase water-vapor flow. The FAC resistance of SA106Gr.B was improved with 5 times by electroless-deposited Ni-P protective layer. Other coating materials also enhanced the tolerance up to 5 times for the FAC in a condition of 150 .deg. C and 3.8 bar at 9.5 compared to non-coated SA106Gr.B.

  15. Surface coatings on carbon steel for prevention of flow accelerated corrosion under two phase flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Hee-Sang; Kim, Kyung Mo; Hur, Do Haeng; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Ji Hyun


    Since the occurrence of a Surry-2 pipe rupture accident, a lot of effort has been made to prevent FAC of carbon steel piping. Some of the chemicals were suggested as a corrosion inhibitor. A platinum decoration was applied as another prevention strategy of carbon steel thinning. The severe FAC-damaged carbon steel pipings were replaced by tolerant materials such as SA335 Gr.P22. However, some components such as the piping materials between moisture separator and turbine have still suffered from the FAC degradation. This work provides a coating method to prevent the FAC degradation of the SA106 Gr.B, which is a piping material between moisture separator and high-pressure turbine, under two-phase flow. We suggested the coating materials to prevent FAC of SA106Gr.B under two-phase water-vapor flow. The FAC resistance of SA106Gr.B was improved with 5 times by electroless-deposited Ni-P protective layer. Other coating materials also enhanced the tolerance up to 5 times for the FAC in a condition of 150 .deg. C and 3.8 bar at 9.5 compared to non-coated SA106Gr.B

  16. Mesh construction and evaluation of the stress intensity factor for the semi-elliptical surface cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Wook; Lee, Gyu Mahn; Jeong, Kyeong Hoon; Kim, Tae Wan; Park, Keun Bae


    As actual cracks found in practical structures are mostly three-dimensional surface cracks, such cracks give rise to the important problem when the structural integrity is evaluated in a viewpoint of fracture mechanics. The case of a semi-elliptical surface crack is more complicated than that of the embedded elliptical crack since the crack front intersects the free surface. Therefore, the exact expression of stress field according to the boundary condition can be the prior process for the structural integrity evaluation . The commercial code, I-DEAS does not provide the family of strain singular element for the cracked-body analysis. This means that the user cannot make use of the pre-processing function of I-DEAS effectively. But I-DEAS has the capability to hold input data in common with computational fracture mechanics program like ABAQUS. Hence, user can construct the optimized analysis method for the generation of input data of program like ABAQUS using the I-DEAS. In the present study, a procedure for the generation of input data for the optimized 3-dimensional computational fracture mechanics is developed as a series of effort to establish the structural integriyt evaluation procedure of SMART reactor vessel assembly. Input data for the finite element analysis are made using the commercial code, I-DEAS program, The stress analysis is performed using the ABAQUS. To demonstrate the validation of the developed procedure in the present sutdy, semi-elliptic surface crack in a half space subjected to uniform tension are solved, and the effects of crack configuration ratio are discussed in detail. The numerical results are presented and compared to those presented by Raju and Newman. Also, we have established the structural integrity evaluation procedure through the 3-D crack modeling

  17. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students' Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis (United States)

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John


    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of…

  18. Using Electronic Energy Derivative Information in Automated Potential Energy Surface Construction for Vibrational Calculations. (United States)

    Sparta, Manuel; Hansen, Mikkel B; Matito, Eduard; Toffoli, Daniele; Christiansen, Ove


    The availability of an accurate representation of the potential energy surface (PES) is an essential prerequisite in an anharmonic vibrational calculation. At the same time, the high dimensionality of the fully coupled PES and the adverse scaling properties with respect to the molecular size make the construction of an accurate PES a computationally demanding task. In the past few years, our group tested and developed a series of tools and techniques aimed at defining computationally efficient, black-box protocols for the construction of PESs for use in vibrational calculations. This includes the definition of an adaptive density-guided approach (ADGA) for the construction of PESs from an automatically generated set of evaluation points. Another separate aspect has been the exploration of the use of derivative information through modified Shepard (MS) interpolation/extrapolation procedures. With this article, we present an assembled machinery where these methods are embedded in an efficient way to provide both a general machinery as well as concrete computational protocols. In this framework we introduce and discuss the accuracy and computational efficiency of two methods, called ADGA[2gx3M] and ADGA[2hx3M], where the ADGA recipe is used (with MS interpolation) to automatically define modest sized grids for up to two-mode couplings, while MS extrapolation based on, respectively, gradients only and gradients and Hessians from the ADGA determined points provides access to sufficiently accurate three-mode couplings. The performance of the resulting potentials is investigated in vibrational coupled cluster (VCC) calculations. Three molecular systems serve as benchmarks: a trisubstituted methane (CHFClBr), methanimine (CH2NH), and oxazole (C3H3NO). Furthermore, methanimine and oxazole are addressed in accurate calculations aiming to reproduce experimental results.

  19. Impact of highway construction on land surface energy balance and local climate derived from LANDSAT satellite data. (United States)

    Nedbal, Václav; Brom, Jakub


    Extensive construction of highways has a major impact on the landscape and its structure. They can also influence local climate and heat fluxes in the surrounding area. After the removal of vegetation due to highway construction, the amount of solar radiation energy used for plant evapotranspiration (latent heat flux) decreases, bringing about an increase in landscape surface temperature, changing the local climate and increasing surface run-off. In this study, we evaluated the impact of the D8 highway construction (Central Bohemia, Czech Republic) on the distribution of solar radiation energy into the various heat fluxes (latent, sensible and ground heat flux) and related surface functional parameters (surface temperature and surface wetness). The aim was to describe the severity of the impact and the distance from the actual highway in which it can be observed. LANDSAT multispectral satellite images and field meteorological measurements were used to calculate surface functional parameters and heat balance before and during the highway construction. Construction of a four-lane highway can influence the heat balance of the landscape surface as far as 90m in the perpendicular direction from the highway axis, i.e. up to 75m perpendicular from its edge. During a summer day, the decrease in evapotranspired water can reach up to 43.7m 3 per highway kilometre. This means a reduced cooling effect, expressed as the decrease in latent heat flux, by an average of 29.7MWh per day per highway kilometre and its surroundings. The loss of the cooling ability of the land surface by evaporation can lead to a rise in surface temperature by as much as 7°C. Thus, the results indicate the impact of extensive line constructions on the local climate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Project and construction of a spectrometer for alpha particles using surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terini, R.A.


    The project, construction, tests and some applications of a system for alpha and beta spectrometry, using surface barrier detector are described. The device includes a solid state detector ORTEC-Series F coupled to a system for amplifying the charges produced by passage of an ionizing particle through the detector. The amplifying system is composed by a charge sensitive pre-amplifier, which employs an operational amplifier CA 3140, and a low noise linear amplifier, which is based on the operational amplifiers CA 3140 and LM 301. The pre-amplifier stage input impedance is on the order of TΩ and produces output pulses which heights are proportional to total charge produced by passage of particle through the detector sensitive volume. The main advantage to use charge sensitive system lies in obtention of independent pulse heights of the distributed capacity of connecting cable between the detector and the pre-amplifier. The total system amplification ca reach a maximum of 50.000 in the linear region. Pulses are analysed in a multichannel system ORTEC, model 6240. The amplifier system is easily constructed and low cost using components available in the national market, and it can be employed with ionization chambers, proportional counters, scitillation counters and semiconductor detectors. The results of spectrometer application for alpha spectrometry of AM 241 source were compared to systems made with imported stages. (Author) [pt

  1. Enhanced removal of organic matter and ammoniacal-nitrogen in a column experiment of tidal flow constructed wetland system. (United States)

    Sun, Guangzhi; Zhao, Yaqian; Allen, Stephen


    A tidal flow constructed wetland system was investigated for the removal of organic matter and ammoniacal-nitrogen from diluted piggery wastewater. The results demonstrated that the operation of tidal flow enhanced the transfer of oxygen into wetland matrices. The supply of oxygen by the operation (473 gO2/m2d) matched the demand for wastewater treatment. The overall oxygen consumption rate in the system was considerably higher than the typical rate obtainable in conventional wetlands; most oxygen being used for the decomposition of organic matter. Compared with conventional systems, the tidal flow system demonstrated greater efficiency in the removal of organic matter. Significant nitrification did not take place, although 27-48% ammonia was removed from the wastewater. Immobilization by microbial cells and adsorption were the likely routes to remove ammonia under the specific experiment conditions. Percentage removals of BOD5, NH4-N and SS increased after effluent recirculation at a ratio of 1:1 was employed.

  2. Effects of flow on corrosion and surface film formation on an alkali borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.; Christensen, H.; Hermansson, H.P.; Sundvall, S.B.; Werme, L.


    Samples of the Swedish KBS glass type ABS 39 have been leached in doubly distilled water for 28 days at 90 0 C under static and flow conditions. After leaching, pH, weight loss, and elemental mass loss were determined. Surface film formation was studied by using IRRS, SEM-EDS, and SIMS analyses. Increasing the flow rate resulted in a decreased attack on the glass surface. Na and B were depleted while Al, Fe, La, and U were enriched at the surfaces of all the samples. The depth of the extensively leached layer determined by SIMS was approximately 6 μm on the low-flow-rate sample and about 2 μm on the high-flow-rate sample. SEM analysis also showed some variations in the thickness of the leached layers, but in general, the thickness of the layer on the 0.5 mL/h samples was about 3 times greater than on the 90 mL/g samples. Small particles ( 2 for the static and 0.5 mL/h samples and 6 g/m 2 for the 90 mL/h samples. This factor of 3 difference in weight loss between the low and high flow rates correlates well with the factor of 3 difference in their leached depths. A model is proposed to explain the results based on the effectiveness of protective surface layers

  3. Gold nanorods for surface Plasmon resonance detection of mercury (II) in flow injection analysis. (United States)

    Trieu, Khang; Heider, Emily C; Brooks, Scott C; Barbosa, Fernando; Campiglia, Andres D


    This article investigates the flow injection analysis of mercury (II) ions in tap water samples via surface Plasmon resonance detection. Quantitative analysis of mercury (II) is based on the chemical interaction of metallic mercury with gold nanorods immobilized on a glass substrate. A new flow cell design is presented with the ability to accommodate the detecting substrate in the sample compartment of commercial spectrometers. Two alternatives are here considered for mercury (II) detection, namely stop-flow and continuous flow injection analysis modes. The best limit of detection (2.4 ng mL(-1)) was obtained with the continuous flow injection analysis approach. The accurate determination of mercury (II) ions in samples of unknown composition is demonstrated with a fortified tap water sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Boundary layer flow past a stretching/shrinking surface beneath an external uniform shear flow with a convective surface boundary condition in a nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Anuar


    Full Text Available Abstract The problem of a steady boundary layer shear flow over a stretching/shrinking sheet in a nanofluid is studied numerically. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation, before being solved numerically by a Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method with shooting technique. Two types of nanofluids, namely, Cu-water and Ag-water are used. The effects of nanoparticle volume fraction, the type of nanoparticles, the convective parameter, and the thermal conductivity on the heat transfer characteristics are discussed. It is found that the heat transfer rate at the surface increases with increasing nanoparticle volume fraction while it decreases with the convective parameter. Moreover, the heat transfer rate at the surface of Cu-water nanofluid is higher than that at the surface of Ag-water nanofluid even though the thermal conductivity of Ag is higher than that of Cu.

  5. Numerical simulation of viscous flow and hydrodynamic noise in surface ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Han


    Full Text Available [Objectives] The problem of noise caused by an unsteady flow field around a surface ship is a difficulty facing the stealth design of ship hulls, in which the existence of the free surface makes it different from submarine hydrodynamic noise calculation. To solve this problem,[Methods] the Volume of Fluid(VOF method and SST k-ω turbulence model are combined to simulate the unsteady flow field of the hull, and the free surface is given an air acoustic impedance to simulate the absorption boundary. The pulsating pressure of the hull surface is used as the source of the noise, and the underwater radiation noise of the surface ship is calculated with the acoustic finite element method.[Results] The results show high agreement with the experimental results and previous simulation results. The noise sources are mainly concentrated at the bow of the hull.[Conclusions] The results show that this calculation method can accurately simulate the flow field and sound field of a surface ship, and it can provides valuable reference for the acoustic stealth design of surface ships.

  6. Liquid flow in surface-nanostructured channels studied by molecular dynamics simulation (United States)

    Cao, Bing-Yang; Chen, Min; Guo, Zeng-Yuan


    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to investigate the fluid wetting and flow in nanochannels whose surfaces are structured by an array of nanoscale triangular modules. We find that the surface nanostructures have a dual effect on the boundary slip and friction of the liquid nanoflow. On the one hand, the nanostructures can enhance the surface hydrophilicity for a hydrophilic liquid-solid interaction, and can increase the hydrophobicity for a hydrophobic interaction due to a nanoscale lotus effect. In particular, the nanostructured surface may show superhydrophobicity and lead to the large velocity slip of the liquid flow. On the other hand, simultaneously, the nanostructures distort the nanoscale streamlines of the liquid flow near the channel surfaces and block the nanoflow directly, which decreases the apparent slip length equivalently. The dual effect of the nanostructures on the surface wettability and the hydrodynamic disturbance results in a nonmonotonic dependence of the slip length on the nanostructure size. The simulations imply that the surface nanostructures can be applied to control the friction of liquid micro- and nanoflows.

  7. Nanoscale surface modifications to control capillary flow characteristics in PMMA microfluidic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Subhadeep


    Full Text Available Abstract Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA microfluidic devices have been fabricated using a hot embossing technique to incorporate micro-pillar features on the bottom wall of the device which when combined with either a plasma treatment or the coating of a diamond-like carbon (DLC film presents a range of surface modification profiles. Experimental results presented in detail the surface modifications in the form of distinct changes in the static water contact angle across a range from 44.3 to 81.2 when compared to pristine PMMA surfaces. Additionally, capillary flow of water (dyed to aid visualization through the microfluidic devices was recorded and analyzed to provide comparison data between filling time of a microfluidic chamber and surface modification characteristics, including the effects of surface energy and surface roughness on the microfluidic flow. We have experimentally demonstrated that fluid flow and thus filling time for the microfluidic device was significantly faster for the device with surface modifications that resulted in a lower static contact angle, and also that the incorporation of micro-pillars into a fluidic device increases the filling time when compared to comparative devices.

  8. Surface profiling of normally responding and nonreleasing basophils by flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Poulsen, Lars Kærgaard; Jensen, Bettina Margrethe

    a maximum release blood mononuclear cells were purified by density centrifugation and using flow cytometry, basophils, defined as FceRIa+CD3-CD14-CD19-CD56-,were analysed for surface expression of relevant markers. All samples were compensated and analysed in logicle display. All gates......c, C3aR, C5aR CCR3, FPR1, ST2, CRTH2 on anti-IgE respondsive and nonreleasing basophils by flow cytometry, thereby generating a surface profile of the two phenotypes. Methods Fresh buffy coat blood (

  9. Shear induced hexagonal ordering observed in an ionic viscoelastic fluid in flow past a surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, W.A.; Butler, P.D.; Baker, S.M.; Smith, G.S.; Hayter, J.B.; Magid, L.J.; Pynn, R.


    We present the first clear evidence of a shear induced hexagonal phase in a polyionic fluid in flow past a plane quartz surface. The dilute surfactant solution studied is viscoelastic due to the formation and entanglement of highly extended charged threadlike micelles many thousands of A long, which are known to align along the flow direction under shear. Small-angle neutron diffraction data show that in the high shear region within a few tens of microns of the surface these micelles not only align, but form a remarkably well ordered hexagonal array separated by 370 A, 8 times their 46 A diameter

  10. Debris flow grain size scales with sea surface temperature over glacial-interglacial timescales (United States)

    D'Arcy, Mitch; Roda Boluda, Duna C.; Whittaker, Alexander C.; Araújo, João Paulo C.


    Debris flows are common erosional processes responsible for a large volume of sediment transfer across a range of landscapes from arid settings to the tropics. They are also significant natural hazards in populated areas. However, we lack a clear set of debris flow transport laws, meaning that: (i) debris flows remain largely neglected by landscape evolution models; (ii) we do not understand the sensitivity of debris flow systems to past or future climate changes; and (iii) it remains unclear how to interpret debris flow stratigraphy and sedimentology, for example whether their deposits record information about past tectonics or palaeoclimate. Here, we take a grain size approach to characterising debris flow deposits from 35 well-dated alluvial fan surfaces in Owens Valley, California. We show that the average grain sizes of these granitic debris flow sediments precisely scales with sea surface temperature throughout the entire last glacial-interglacial cycle, increasing by ~ 7 % per 1 ° C of climate warming. We compare these data with similar debris flow systems in the Mediterranean (southern Italy) and the tropics (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), and find equivalent signals over a total temperature range of ~ 14 ° C. In each area, debris flows are largely governed by rainfall intensity during triggering storms, which is known to increase exponentially with temperature. Therefore, we suggest that these debris flow systems are transporting predictably coarser-grained sediment in warmer, stormier conditions. This implies that debris flow sedimentology is governed by discharge thresholds and may be a sensitive proxy for past changes in rainfall intensity. Our findings show that debris flows are sensitive to climate changes over short timescales (≤ 104 years) and therefore highlight the importance of integrating hillslope processes into landscape evolution models, as well as providing new observational constraints to guide this. Finally, we comment on what grain size

  11. Theory for source-responsive and free-surface film modeling of unsaturated flow (United States)

    Nimmo, J.R.


    A new model explicitly incorporates the possibility of rapid response, across significant distance, to substantial water input. It is useful for unsaturated flow processes that are not inherently diffusive, or that do not progress through a series of equilibrium states. The term source-responsive is used to mean that flow responds sensitively to changing conditions at the source of water input (e.g., rainfall, irrigation, or ponded infiltration). The domain of preferential flow can be conceptualized as laminar flow in free-surface films along the walls of pores. These films may be considered to have uniform thickness, as suggested by field evidence that preferential flow moves at an approximately uniform rate when generated by a continuous and ample water supply. An effective facial area per unit volume quantitatively characterizes the medium with respect to source-responsive flow. A flow-intensity factor dependent on conditions within the medium represents the amount of source-responsive flow at a given time and position. Laminar flow theory provides relations for the velocity and thickness of flowing source-responsive films. Combination with the Darcy-Buckingham law and the continuity equation leads to expressions for both fluxes and dynamic water contents. Where preferential flow is sometimes or always significant, the interactive combination of source-responsive and diffuse flow has the potential to improve prediction of unsaturated-zone fluxes in response to hydraulic inputs and the evolving distribution of soil moisture. Examples for which this approach is efficient and physically plausible include (i) rainstorm-generated rapid fluctuations of a deep water table and (ii) space- and time-dependent soil water content response to infiltration in a macroporous soil. ?? Soil Science Society of America.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. E. Li


    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is a key parameter of land surface physical processes on global and regional scales, linking the heat fluxes and interactions between the ground and atmosphere. Based on MODIS 8-day LST products (MOD11A2 from the split-window algorithms, we constructed and obtained the monthly and annual LST dataset of Fujian Province from 2000 to 2015. Then, we analyzed the monthly and yearly time series LST data and further investigated the LST distribution and its evolution features. The average LST of Fujian Province reached the highest in July, while the lowest in January. The monthly and annual LST time series present a significantly periodic features (annual and interannual from 2000 to 2015. The spatial distribution showed that the LST in North and West was lower than South and East in Fujian Province. With the rapid development and urbanization of the coastal area in Fujian Province, the LST in coastal urban region was significantly higher than that in mountainous rural region. The LST distributions might affected by the climate, topography and land cover types. The spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of LST could provide good references for the agricultural layout and environment monitoring in Fujian Province.

  13. Determination of Chlorinated Solvent Contamination in an Upward Flow Constructed Wetland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Opperman, Bryan


    .... Analysis will be accomplished by means of purge-and-trap gas chromatography. The contaminant concentration levels will be used to enhance the design and construction of man-made wetlands used to remove chlorinated solvents from aquifers...

  14. Smooth Operator - Mobile Information Technology for Improved Flow at the Construction Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben


    Mobile information technology (IT) seems an ideal innovation to promote effectiveness of the construction process, particularly at the construction site; research has over the last 15 years focused on solutions, potentials and barriers with this field. This paper aim at the duality between research...... and industry for an updated and forward looking comprehension, and view of tendencies, of the roles and potentials of mobile IT at the construction site including potential for further research. Qualitative and interpretive methodology inspired by information systems and sociology of research and construction...... is used; mobility is classified as remote, local or micro. Furthermore an extensive literature study is employed along with both market screening for systems and case studies of companies adopting as well as rejecting the technology. Both within research communities, software manufacturers...

  15. Surface Thermal Insulation and Pipe Cooling of Spillways during Concrete Construction Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhenhong


    Full Text Available Given that spillways adopt a hydraulic thin concrete plate structure, this structure is difficult to protect from cracks. The mechanism of the cracks in spillways shows that temperature stress is the major reason for cracks. Therefore, an effective way of preventing cracks is a timely and reasonable temperature-control program. Studies show that one effective prevention method is surface thermal insulation combined with internal pipe cooling. The major factors influencing temperature control effects are the time of performing thermal insulation and the ways of internal pipe cooling. To solve this problem, a spillway is taken as an example and a three-dimensional finite element program and pipe cooling calculation method are adopted to conduct simulation calculation and analysis on the temperature fields and stress fields of concretes subject to different temperature-control programs. The temperature-control effects are then compared. Optimization results show that timely and reasonable surface thermal insulation and water-flowing mode can ensure good temperature-control and anticrack effects. The method has reference value for similar projects.

  16. Surface flow observations from a gauge-cam station on the Tiber river (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Porfiri, Maurizio; Petroselli, Andrea; Grimaldi, Salvatore


    Understanding the kinematic organization of natural water bodies is central to hydrology and environmental engineering practice. Reliable and continuous flow observations are essential to comprehend flood generation and propagation mechanisms, erosion dynamics, sediment transport, and drainage network evolution. In engineering practice, flood warning systems largely rely on real-time discharge measurements, and flow velocity monitoring is important for the design and management of hydraulic structures, such as reservoirs and hydropower plants. Traditionally, gauging stations have been equipped with water level meters, and stage-discharge relationships (rating curves) have been established through few direct discharge measurements. Only in rare instances, monitoring stations have integrated radar technology for local measurement of surface flow velocity. Establishing accurate rating curves depends on the availability of a comprehensive range of discharge values, including measurements recorded during extreme events. However, discharge values during high-flow events are often difficult or even impossible to obtain, thereby hampering the reliability of discharge predictions. Fully remote observations have been enabled in the past ten years through optics-based velocimetry techniques. Such methodologies enable the estimation of the surface flow velocity field over extended regions from the motion of naturally occurring debris or floaters dragged by the current. Resting on the potential demonstrated by such approaches, here, we present a novel permanent gauge-cam station for the observation of the flow velocity field in the Tiber river. This new station captures one-minute videos every 10 minutes over an area of up to 20.6 × 15.5m2. In a feasibility study, we demonstrate that experimental images analyzed via particle tracking velocimetry and particle image velocimetry can be used to obtain accurate surface flow velocity estimations in close agreement with radar records

  17. Mathematical modelling of surface water-groundwater flow and salinity interactions in the coastal zone (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.


    Coastal areas are the most densely-populated areas in the world. Consequently water demand is high, posing great pressure on fresh water resources. Climatic change and its direct impacts on meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation) and indirect impact on sea level rise, as well as anthropogenic pressures (e.g. groundwater abstraction), are strong drivers causing groundwater salinisation and subsequently affecting coastal wetlands salinity with adverse effects on the corresponding ecosystems. Coastal zones are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes and variable-density flow conditions. Simulation of sea level rise and tidal effects on aquifer salinisation and accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater models. In the past few decades several computer codes have been developed to simulate coupled surface and groundwater flow. In these numerical models surface water flow is usually described by the 1-D Saint Venant equations (e.g. Swain and Wexler, 1996) or the 2D shallow water equations (e.g. Liang et al., 2007). Further simplified equations, such as the diffusion and kinematic wave approximations to the Saint Venant equations, are also employed for the description of 2D overland flow and 1D stream flow (e.g. Gunduz and Aral, 2005). However, for coastal bays, estuaries and wetlands it is often desirable to solve the 3D shallow water equations to simulate surface water flow. This is the case e.g. for wind-driven flows or density-stratified flows. Furthermore, most integrated models are based on the assumption of constant fluid density and therefore their applicability to coastal regions is questionable. Thus, most of the existing codes are not well-suited to represent surface water-groundwater interactions in coastal areas. To this end, the 3D integrated

  18. Cooling of a channeled lava flow with non-Newtonian rheology: crust formation and surface radiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Santini


    Full Text Available We present here the results from dynamical and thermal models that describe a channeled lava flow as it cools by radiation. In particular, the effects of power-law rheology and of the presence of bends in the flow are considered, as well as the formation of surface crust and lava tubes. On the basis of the thermal models, we analyze the assumptions implicit in the currently used formulae for evaluation of lava flow rates from satellite thermal imagery. Assuming a steady flow down an inclined rectangular channel, we solve numerically the equation of motion by the finite-volume method and a classical iterative solution. Our results show that the use of power-law rheology results in relevant differences in the average velocity and volume flow rate with respect to Newtonian rheology. Crust formation is strongly influenced by power-law rheology; in particular, the growth rate and the velocity profile inside the channel are strongly modified. In addition, channel curvature affects the flow dynamics and surface morphology. The size and shape of surface solid plates are controlled by competition between the shear stress and the crust yield strength: the degree of crust cover of the channel is studied as a function of the curvature. Simple formulae are currently used to relate the lava flow rate to the energy radiated by the lava flow as inferred from satellite thermal imagery. Such formulae are based on a specific model, and consequently, their validity is subject to the model assumptions. An analysis of these assumptions reveals that the current use of such formulae is not consistent with the model.

  19. Experimental investigation of the microscale rotor-stator cavity flow with rotating superhydrophobic surface (United States)

    Wang, Chunze; Tang, Fei; Li, Qi; Wang, Xiaohao


    The flow characteristics of microscale rotor-stator cavity flow and the drag reduction mechanism of the superhydrophobic surface with high shearing stress were investigated. A microscale rotating flow testing system was established based on micro particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV), and the flow distribution under different Reynolds numbers (7.02 × 103 ≤ Re ≤ 3.51 × 104) and cavity aspect ratios (0.013 ≤ G ≤ 0.04) was measured. Experiments show that, for circumferential velocity, the flow field distributes linearly in rotating Couette flow in the case of low Reynolds number along the z-axis, while the boundary layer separates and forms Batchelor flow as the Reynolds number increases. The separation of the boundary layer is accelerated with the increase of cavity aspect ratio. The radial velocities distribute in an S-shape along the z-axis. As the Reynolds number and cavity aspect ratio increase, the maximum value of radial velocity increases, but the extremum position at rotating boundary remains at Z* = 0.85 with no obvious change, while the extremum position at the stationary boundary changes along the z-axis. The model for the generation of flow disturbance and the transmission process from the stationary to the rotating boundary was given by perturbation analysis. Under the action of superhydrophobic surface, velocity slip occurs near the rotating boundary and the shearing stress reduces, which leads to a maximum drag reduction over 51.4%. The contours of vortex swirling strength suggest that the superhydrophobic surface can suppress the vortex swirling strength and repel the vortex structures, resulting in the decrease of shearing Reynolds stress and then drag reduction.

  20. The interplay of curvature and vortices in flow on curved surfaces


    Reuther, Sebastian; Voigt, Axel


    Incompressible fluids on curved surfaces are considered with respect to the interplay between topology, geometry and fluid properties using a surface vorticity-stream function formulation, which is solved using parametric finite elements. Motivated by designed examples for superfluids, we consider the influence of a geometric potential on vortices for fluids with finite viscosity and show numerical examples in which a change in the geometry is used to manipulate the flow field.

  1. Influences of high-flow events on a stream channel altered by construction of a highway bridge: A case study (United States)

    Hedrick, Lara B.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Anderson, James T.


    Impacts of highway construction on streams in the central Appalachians are a growing concern as new roads are created to promote tourism and economic development in the area. Alterations to the streambed of a first-order stream, Sauerkraut Run, Hardy County, WV, during construction of a highway overpass included placement and removal of a temporary culvert, straightening and regrading of a section of stream channel, and armourment of a bank with a reinforced gravel berm. We surveyed longitudinal profiles and cross sections in a reference reach and the altered reach of Sauerkraut Run from 2003 through 2007 to measure physical changes in the streambed. During the four-year period, three high-flow events changed the streambed downstream of construction including channel widening and aggradation and then degradation of the streambed. Upstream of construction, at a reinforced gravel berm, bank erosion was documented. The reference section remained relatively unchanged. Knowledge gained by documenting channel changes in response to natural and anthropogenic variables can be useful for managers and engineers involved in highway construction projects.

  2. The application of slip length models to larger textures in turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces (United States)

    Fairhall, Chris; Garcia-Mayoral, Ricardo


    We present results from direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces. We assess the validity of simulations where the surface is modelled as homogeneous slip lengths, comparing them to simulations where the surface texture is resolved. Our results show that once the coherent flow induced by the texture is removed from the velocity fields, the remaining flow sees the surface as homogeneous. We then investigate how the overlying turbulence is modified by the presence of surface texture. For small textures, we show that turbulence is shifted closer to the wall due to the presence of slip, but otherwise remains essentially unmodified. For larger textures, the texture interacts with the turbulent lengthscales, thereby modifying the overlying turbulence. We also show that the saturation of the effect of the spanwise slip length (Fukagata et al. 2006, Busse & Sandham 2012, Seo & Mani 2016), which is drag increasing, is caused by the impermeability imposed at the surface. This work was supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

  3. Influence of recirculation in a lab-scale vertical flow constructed wetland on the treatment efficiency of landfill leachate. (United States)

    Lavrova, Silviya; Koumanova, Bogdana


    Landfill leachate taken from a landfill situated in the north-western region of Bulgaria has been treated in a laboratory scale vertical flow constructed wetland (VF-CW) at different flow rates (40, 60 and 82 ml min(-1)) and recirculation ratios (time of water running through wetland to time of quiet water - 1:1; 1:2; 1:3). Young Phragmites australis was planted on the top layer of the reactor. The low flow rate (40 ml min(-1)) and recirculation ratio of 1:3 allowed removal efficiencies of 96% for COD (in 8 days), 92% for BOD(5) (in 3 days), 100% for ammonia (in 5 days) and 100% for total phosphorus (in 2 days). At the highest flow rate studied (82 ml min(-1)) and shorter quiet period (recirculation ratio 1:1) the water needs longer period of treatment (2 days more according to COD). The results of this study indicate that both flow rate and recirculation ratio should be taken into account for proper design of VF-CW. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Time-Distance Helioseismology with f Modes as a Method for Measurement of Near-Surface Flows (United States)

    Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Gizon, Laurent


    Travel times measured for the f mode have been used to study flows near the solar surface in conjunction with simultaneous measurements of the magnetic field. Previous flow measurements of doppler surface rotation, small magnetic feature rotation, supergranular pattern rotation, and surface meridional circulation have been confirmed. In addition, the flow in supergranules due to Coriolis forces has been measured. The spatial and temporal power spectra for a six-day observing sequence has been measured.

  5. Temperature distribution on the MEA surface of a PEMFC with serpentine channel flow bed (United States)

    Wang, Maohai; Guo, Hang; Ma, Chongfang

    Knowledge of the temperature distribution on the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) surface and heat transfer processes inside a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is helpful to improvement of cell reliability, durability and performance. The temperature fields on the surface of MEA fixed inside a proton exchange membrane fuel cell with a serpentine channel flow bed were measured by infrared imaging technology under non-humidification conditions. The temperature distributions over the MEA surface under whole channel region were achieved. The experimental results show that the downstream temperatures are higher than the upstream. The hot region on the MEA surface is easy to locate from the infrared temperature image. The mean temperature on the MEA surface and the cell temperature both increase with the current density. Higher current density makes the non-uniformity of temperature distribution on the MEA surface worse. The loading time significantly affects the temperature distribution. Compared with the electrical performance of the cell, the MEA's temperatures need much more time to reach stable. The results indicate that isothermal assumption is not appropriate for a modeling of PEMFCs, and monitoring the temperature of external surface of the flow field plate or end plate cannot supply accurate reference to control the temperatures on MEA surface.

  6. Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Half-corrugated Channel Flow by Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Rastan


    Full Text Available In the first part of the present study, a two dimensional half-corrugated channel flow is simulated at Reynolds number of 104, in no-slip condition (hydrophilic surfaces( using various low Reynolds turbulence models as well as standard k-ε model; and an appropriate turbulence model (k-ω 1998 model( is proposed. Then, in order to evaluate the proposed solution method in simulation of flow adjacent to hydrophobic surfaces, turbulent flow is simulated in simple channel and the results are compared with the literature. Finally, two dimensional half-corrugated channel flow at Reynolds number of 104 is simulated again in vicinity of hydrophobic surfaces for varoius slip lengths. The results show that this method is capable of drag reduction in such a way that an increase of 200 μm in slip length leads to a massive drag reduction up to 38%. In addition, to access a significant drag reduction in turbulent flows, the non-dimensionalized slip length should be larger than the minimum.

  7. A review of surface heat-flow data of the northern Middle Atlas (Morocco) (United States)

    Chiozzi, Paolo; Barkaoui, Alae-Eddine; Rimi, Abdelkrim; Verdoya, Massimo; Zarhloule, Yassine


    We revised thermal data available from water and oil wells in the northern sector of the Middle Atlas region. To avoid biased estimation of surface heat flow caused by advection likely occurring in shallow aquifers, temperature measurements in water boreholes were carefully inspected and selected. The heat flow in the oil wells was inferred by taking into account the porosity variation with depth, the temperature effect on thermal conductivity of the matrix and the pore fluid, together with the contribution of the radiogenic heat production. Moreover, the possible bias in heat flow caused by convection occurring in confined carbonate aquifers was evaluated. The results of heat flow slightly modify the picture reported in previous investigations. The heat flow value over the investigated region is rather uniform (about 80 mW m-2) and is similar in oil wells and in water boreholes. Geothermal calculations indicate that such a surface heat flow is compatible with a ∼70 km thick thermal lithosphere and normal thermal conditions in the asthenospheric mantle.

  8. Internal flow and evaporation characteristic inside a water droplet on a vertical vibrating hydrophobic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Hun; Lim, Hee Chang


    This study aims to understand the internal flow and the evaporation characteristics of a deionized water droplet subjected to vertical forced vibrations. To predict and evaluate its resonance frequency, the theories of Lamb, Strani, and Sabetta have been applied. To visualize the precise mode, shape, and internal flow inside a droplet, the experiment utilizes a combination of a high-speed camera, macro lens, and continuous laser. As a result, a water droplet on a hydrophobic surface has its typical shape at each mode, and complicated vortices are observed inside the droplet. In particular, large symmetrical flow streams are generated along the vertical axis at each mode, with a large circulating movement from the bottom to the top and then to the triple contact line along the droplet surface. In addition, a bifurcation-shaped flow pattern is formed at modes 2 and 4, whereas a large ellipsoid-shape flow pattern forms at modes 6 and 8. Mode 4 has the fastest internal flow speed and evaporation rate, followed by modes 8 then 6, with 2 having the slowest of these properties. Each mode has the fastest evaporation rate amongst its neighboring frequencies. Finally, the droplet evaporation under vertical vibration would lead to more rapid evaporation, particularly for mode 4

  9. Practical computational aeroacoustics for compact surfaces in low mach number flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pradera-Mallabiabarrena, Ainara; Keith, Graeme; Jacobsen, Finn


    compared to the wavelength of interest. This makes it possible to focus on the surface source term of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. In this paper, in order to illustrate the basic method for storing and utilizing data from the CFD analysis, the flow past a circular cylinder at a Reynolds number...

  10. Free-Molecular Gas Flow in Channels (Pores) with Physico-Chemical Transformation on the Surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Levdansky, V.V.; Smolík, Jiří; Moravec, Pavel


    Roč. 49, 13-14 (2006), s. 2356-2365 ISSN 0017-9310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : free-molecular flow * surface * spatial distribution Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.482, year: 2006

  11. Near-surface geophysical characterization of Holocene faults conducive to geothermal flow near Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, Colton; Dorsey, Alison; Louie, John [UNR; Schwering, Paul; Pullammanappallil, Satish


    Colton Dudley, Alison Dorsey, Paul Opdyke, Dustin Naphan, Marlon Ramos, John Louie, Paul Schwering, and Satish Pullammanappallil, 2013, Near-surface geophysical characterization of Holocene faults conducive to geothermal flow near Pyramid Lake, Nevada: presented at Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, Pacific Section Annual Meeting, Monterey, Calif., April 19-25.

  12. Turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces with shear-dependent slip length (United States)

    Khosh Aghdam, Sohrab; Seddighi, Mehdi; Ricco, Pierre


    Motivated by recent experimental evidence, shear-dependent slip length superhydrophobic surfaces are studied. Lyapunov stability analysis is applied in a 3D turbulent channel flow and extended to the shear-dependent slip-length case. The feedback law extracted is recognized for the first time to coincide with the constant-slip-length model widely used in simulations of hydrophobic surfaces. The condition for the slip parameters is found to be consistent with the experimental data and with values from DNS. The theoretical approach by Fukagata (PoF 18.5: 051703) is employed to model the drag-reduction effect engendered by the shear-dependent slip-length surfaces. The estimated drag-reduction values are in very good agreement with our DNS data. For slip parameters and flow conditions which are potentially realizable in the lab, the maximum computed drag reduction reaches 50%. The power spent by the turbulent flow on the walls is computed, thereby recognizing the hydrophobic surfaces as a passive-absorbing drag-reduction method, as opposed to geometrically-modifying techniques that do not consume energy, e.g. riblets, hence named passive-neutral. The flow is investigated by visualizations, statistical analysis of vorticity and strain rates, and quadrants of the Reynolds stresses. Part of this work was funded by Airbus Group. Simulations were performed on the ARCHER Supercomputer (UKTC Grant).

  13. Modified SIMPLE algorithm for the numerical analysis of incompressible flows with free surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, Jin Ho; Hong, Chun Pyo; Lee, Jin Ho


    While the SIMPLE algorithm is most widely used for the simulations of flow phenomena that take place in the industrial equipment or the manufacturing processes, it is less adopted for the simulations of the free surface flow. Though the SIMPLE algorithm is free from the limitation of time step, the free surface behavior imposes the restriction on the time step. As a result, the explicit schemes are faster than the implicit scheme in terms of computation time when the same time step is applied to, since the implicit scheme includes the numerical method to solve the simultaneous equations in its procedure. If the computation time of SIMPLE algorithm can be reduced when it is applied to the unsteady free surface flow problems, the calculation can be carried out in the more stable way and, in the design process, the process variables can be controlled based on the more accurate data base. In this study, a modified SIMPLE algorithm is presented for the free surface flow. The broken water column problem is adopted for the validation of the modified algorithm (MoSIMPLE) and for comparison to the conventional SIMPLE algorithm

  14. Surface ice flow velocity and tide retrieval of the amery ice shelf using precise point positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.H.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar


    Five days of continuous GPS observation data were collected in the frontal zone of the Amery ice shelf and subsequently post-processed using precise point position (PPP) technology based on precise orbit and clock products from the International GNSS service. The surface ice flow velocity...

  15. Simulation of Effective Slip and Drag in Pressure-Driven Flow on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanding Huang


    Full Text Available The flow on superhydrophobic surfaces was investigated using finite element modeling (FEM. Surfaces with different textures like grooves, square pillars, and cylinders immersed in liquid forming Cassie state were modeled. Nonslip boundary condition was assumed at solid-liquid interface while slip boundary condition was supposed at gas-liquid interface. It was found that the flow rate can be affected by the shape of the texture, the fraction of the gas-liquid area, the height of the channel, and the driving pressure gradient. By extracting the effective boundary slip from the flow rate based on a model, it was found that the shape of the textures and the fraction of the gas-liquid area affect the effective slip significantly while the height of the channel and the driving pressure gradient have no obvious effect on effective slip.

  16. Numerical investigation of thermally stratified Williamson fluid flow over a cylindrical surface via Keller box method (United States)

    Bilal, S.; Rehman, Khalil Ur; Malik, M. Y.

    Present study is addressed to express the implementation of Keller-Box technique on physical problem in the field of fluid rheology, for this purpose the Williamson fluid flow is considered along a cylindrical stretching surface manifested with temperature stratification. The flow model is translated mathematically in terms of differential equations. Numerical simulation is executed to trace out the solution structure of developed differential system. The graphical outcomes for the flow regime of two different geometries (i-e cylindrical and plane surface) are reported and examined towards involved physical parameters. Furthermore, the local skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are computed numerically. A remarkable agreement of present study is noticed with the previously published results, which confirms the implementation and validation of Keller-Box scheme and it will serve as a helping source for the future correspondence.

  17. Numerical Modeling of Surface and Volumetric Cooling using Optimal T- and Y-shaped Flow Channels (United States)

    Kosaraju, Srinivas


    The layout of T- and V-shaped flow channel networks on a surface can be optimized for minimum pressure drop and pumping power. The results of the optimization are in the form of geometric parameters such as length and diameter ratios of the stem and branch sections. While these flow channels are optimized for minimum pressure drop, they can also be used for surface and volumetric cooling applications such as heat exchangers, air conditioning and electronics cooling. In this paper, an effort has been made to study the heat transfer characteristics of multiple T- and Y-shaped flow channel configurations using numerical simulations. All configurations are subjected to same input parameters and heat generation constraints. Comparisons are made with similar results published in literature.

  18. Hydrodynamics of free surface flows modelling with the finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Hervouet, Jean-Michel


    A definitive guide for accurate state-of-the-art modelling of free surface flows Understanding the dynamics of free surface flows is the starting point of many environmental studies, impact studies, and waterworks design. Typical applications, once the flows are known, are water quality, dam impact and safety, pollutant control, and sediment transport. These studies used to be done in the past with scale models, but these are now being replaced by numerical simulation performed by software suites called "hydro-informatic systems". The Telemac system is the leading software package worldwide, and has been developed by Electricité de France and Jean-Michel Hervouet, who is the head and main developer of the Telemac project. Written by a leading authority on Computational Fluid Dynamics, the book aims to provide environmentalists, hydrologists, and engineers using hydro-informatic systems such as Telemac and the finite element method, with the knowledge of the basic principles, capabilities, different hypothese...

  19. Evaluation of hydrodynamic factors on flow accelerated corrosion in gas-liquid two phase flow and construction of equation for mass transfer coefficient. Part 1. Grasp of hydrodynamic factors on flow accelerated corrosion in gas-liquid two phase flow and examination of reproduction of behavior of liquid film in annular flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satake, Masaaki; Yoneda, Kimitoshi; Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Domae, Masafumi


    Flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) is one of the serious wall thinning problems when power plants are operating. FAC has been studied in water single-phase flow. The methods of evaluation of wall thinning rate in FAC are constructed from the results of these studies. On the other hand, FAC in water-steam two-phase flow has been hardly studied, so that methods of evaluation of wall thinning rate in it flow have not been constructed. In this report, a few researches about FAC in two-phase flow are investigated. From these researches, firstly FAC in two-phase flow is assumed to occur in annular flow. Secondly, liquid film velocity and liquid film thickness are dealt as the important hydrodynamic factors on FAC in the two phase flow. Besides, partition of pH control agent into water-vapor two phase flow is one of the water-chemical factors in the two phase flow. A water-air two phase annular flow is simulated. From the results, liquid film thicknesses in the simulation are under that of experimental results, and shear stresses are over that of experimental results. (author)

  20. Potential of constructed wetlands as an alternative for wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    surface flow Constructed Wetland (HSSFCW) system in polishing pre-treated wastewater in the UPward Flow Anaerobic sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor plant as a potential wastewater treatment system that can meet the requirement for ...

  1. Large-eddy simulation of open channel flow with surface cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.; Tejada-Martínez, A.E.; Martinat, G.; Grosch, C.E.


    Highlights: • Open channel flow comparable to a shallow tidal ocean flow is simulated using LES. • Unstable stratification is imposed by a constant surface cooling flux. • Full-depth, convection-driven, rotating supercells develop when cooling is applied. • Strengthening of cells occurs corresponding to an increasing of the Rayleigh number. - Abstract: Results are presented from large-eddy simulations of an unstably stratified open channel flow, driven by a uniform pressure gradient and with zero surface shear stress and a no-slip lower boundary. The unstable stratification is applied by a constant cooling flux at the surface and an adiabatic bottom wall, with a constant source term present to ensure the temperature reaches a statistically steady state. The structure of the turbulence and the turbulence statistics are analyzed with respect to the Rayleigh number (Ra τ ) representative of the surface buoyancy relative to shear. The impact of the surface cooling-induced buoyancy on mean and root mean square of velocity and temperature, budgets of turbulent kinetic energy (and components), Reynolds shear stress and vertical turbulent heat flux will be investigated. Additionally, colormaps of velocity fluctuations will aid the visualization of turbulent structures on both vertical and horizontal planes in the flow. Under neutrally stratified conditions the flow is characterized by weak, full-depth, streamwise cells similar to but less coherent than Couette cells in plane Couette flow. Increased Ra τ and thus increased buoyancy effects due to surface cooling lead to full-depth convection cells of significantly greater spanwise size and coherence, thus termed convective supercells. Full-depth convective cell structures of this magnitude are seen for the first time in this open channel domain, and may have important implications for turbulence analysis in a comparable tidally-driven ocean boundary layer. As such, these results motivate further study of the

  2. Abnormal high surface heat flow caused by the Emeishan mantle plume (United States)

    Jiang, Qiang; Qiu, Nansheng; Zhu, Chuanqing


    It is commonly believed that increase of heat flow caused by a mantle plume is small and transient. Seafloor heat flow data near the Hawaiian hotspot and the Iceland are comparable to that for oceanic lithosphere elsewhere. Numerical modeling of the thermal effect of the Parana large igneous province shows that the added heat flow at the surface caused by the magmatic underplating is less than 5mW/m2. However, the thermal effect of Emeishan mantle plume (EMP) may cause the surface hear-flow abnormally high. The Middle-Late Emeishan mantle plume is located in the western Yangtze Craton. The Sichuan basin, to the northeast of the EMP, is a superimposed basin composed of Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks and Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial clastic rocks. The vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data as a paleogeothermal indicator records an apparent change of thermal regime of the Sichuan basin. The Ro profiles from boreholes and outcrops which are close to the center of the basalt province exhibit a 'dog-leg' style at the unconformity between the Middle and Upper Permian, and they show significantly higher gradients in the lower subsection (pre-Middle Permian) than the Upper subsection (Upper Permian to Mesozoic). Thermal history inversion based on these Ro data shows that the lower subsection experienced a heat flow peak much higher than that of the upper subsection. The abnormal heat flow in the Sichuan basin is consistent with the EMP in temporal and spatial distribution. The high-temperature magmas from deep mantle brought heat to the base of the lithosphere, and then large amount of heat was conducted upwards, resulting in the abnormal high surface heat flow.

  3. Flow modelling for The Construction of The Soil gas ventig systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solecki T.


    Full Text Available In 1999 the hydrogeological and geotechnical investigations for construction of the large shopping centre were performed showing not documented landfill site. It was recognized that the area intended for construction of the shopping centre served in the past as an illegal not documented refuse dump. The investigation area was located in the centre of large town of Kraków, Poland. This part of city has a high density of blocks of buildings and service lines. During drilling and sampling activities small explosions were observed in same boreholes. This caused the stopping of the works and forced the investor to perform additional investigations for soil gas quality.

  4. Temperature and concentration stratification effects on non-Newtonian fluid flow past a cylindrical surface (United States)

    Rehman, Khalil Ur; Khan, Abid Ali; Malik, M. Y.; Zehra, Iffat; Ali, Usman

    The theme of present work is to report the numerical solution of mixed convection tangent hyperbolic fluid flow towards stretching cylindrical surface immersed in a double stratified media. The fluid flow is attained through no slip condition. The flow regime characteristics are modelled in terms of partial differential equations. A similarity transformation is used to transform partial differential equations into coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations. A computational algorithm is executed to predict numerical results. The effects of flow controlling parameters namely, mixed convection parameter, thermal stratification and solutal stratification parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration are examined and offered by means of graphical outcomes. It is noticed that in the presence of mixed convection effect both the fluid temperature and concentration are decreasing function of thermal stratification and solutal stratification parameters respectively. The obtained values are certified by developing comparison with existing values and an excellent agreement is observed which confirms the execution of computational algorithm.

  5. How Important Is Connectivity for Surface Water Fluxes? A Generalized Expression for Flow Through Heterogeneous Landscapes (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Ma, Jie; Kaplan, David


    How important is hydrologic connectivity for surface water fluxes through heterogeneous floodplains, deltas, and wetlands? While significant for management, this question remains poorly addressed. Here we adopt spatial resistance averaging, based on channel and patch configuration metrics quantifiable from aerial imagery, to produce an upscaled rate law for discharge. Our model suggests that patch coverage largely controls discharge sensitivity, with smaller effects from channel connectivity and vegetation patch fractal dimension. However, connectivity and patch configuration become increasingly important near the percolation threshold and at low water levels. These effects can establish positive feedbacks responsible for substantial flow change in evolving landscapes (14-36%, in our Everglades case study). Connectivity also interacts with other drivers; flow through poorly connected hydroscapes is less resilient to perturbations in other drivers. Finally, we found that flow through heterogeneous patches is alone sufficient to produce non-Manning flow-depth relationships commonly observed in wetlands but previously attributed to depth-varying roughness.

  6. Greenhouse wastewater treatment by baffled subsurface-flow constructed wetlands supplemented with flower straws as carbon source in different modes. (United States)

    Chang, Junjun; Ma, Luyao; Chen, Jinquan; Lu, Yifeng; Wang, Xiaoyun


    Four laboratory-scale baffled subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (BSCWs) were established for the treatment of greenhouse wastewater containing high levels of nitrate and sulfate in the present study. Each BSCW microcosm involved a treatment zone and another post-treatment zone with a surface area ratio of 2:1. Evenly mixed straws of carnation and rose (w/w: 1/1), two common ornamental flowers, were supplemented as an organic carbon source into the treatment zone through a hydrolysis zone (CW 1), decentralized vertically installed perforated pipes (CW 2), and centralized pipes (CW 3 in the figures), except the blank system. Removals and transformations of nitrogen and sulfate as well as carbon release in the BSCWs were investigated and comparatively assessed. Results showed that the supplements of flower straws could greatly enhance both the nitrate and sulfate removals, and good performance was achieved during the beginning operation period of 30 days, followed by decline due to insufficient organic carbon supply. Nitrate removal efficiency was significantly higher and more stable compared to sulfate. The highest removal rates of nitrate and sulfate were achieved in the CW 3, with a mean value of 4.33 g NO 3 - -N·m -2  d -1 and 2.74 g SO 4 2- -S·m -2  d -1 , respectively, although the differences among the experimental microcosms were not statistically significant. However, almost the same TN removal rate (3.40-3.47 g N·m -2  d -1 ) was obtained due to the productions of NO 2 - -N and NH 4 + -N and leaching of organic N from the straws. High contents of organic carbon and colored substance were leached from the straws during the initial 10 days, but dropped rapidly to low levels, and could hardly determined after 30 days operation. The post-treatment zone could further eliminate various contaminants, but the capability was limited. Inorganic carbon (IC) concentration was detected to be a highly good indicator for the estimation of nitrate and

  7. Design of a High Viscosity Couette Flow Facility for Patterned Surface Drag Measurements (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler; Lang, Amy


    Direct drag measurements can be difficult to obtain with low viscosity fluids such as air or water. In this facility, mineral oil is used as the working fluid to increase the shear stress across the surface of experimental models. A mounted conveyor creates a flow within a plexiglass tank. The experimental model of a flat or patterned surface is suspended above a moving belt. Within the gap between the model and moving belt a Couette flow with a linear velocity profile is created. PIV measurements are used to determine the exact velocities and the Reynolds numbers for each experiment. The model is suspended by bars that connect to the pillow block housing of each bearing. Drag is measured by a force gauge connected to linear roller bearings that slide along steel rods. The patterned surfaces, initially consisting of 2-D cavities, are embedded in a plexiglass plate so as to keep the total surface area constant for each experiment. First, the drag across a flat plate is measured and compared to theoretical values for laminar Couette flow. The drag for patterned surfaces is then measured and compared to a flat plate.

  8. Process Parameter Identification in Thin Film Flows Driven by a Stretching Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyananda Panda


    Full Text Available The flow of a thin liquid film over a heated stretching surface is considered in this study. Due to a potential nonuniform temperature distribution on the stretching sheet, a temperature gradient occurs in the fluid which produces surface tension gradient at the free surface of the thin film. As a result, the free surface deforms and these deformations are advected by the flow in the stretching direction. This work focuses on the inverse problem of reconstructing the sheet temperature distribution and the sheet stretch rate from observed free surface variations. This work builds on the analysis of Santra and Dandapat (2009 who, based on the long-wave expansion of the Navier-Stokes equations, formulate a partial differential equation which describes the evolution of the thickness of a film over a nonisothermal stretched surface. In this work, we show that after algebraic manipulation of a discrete form of the governing equations, it is possible to reconstruct either the unknown temperature field on the sheet and hence the resulting heat transfer or the stretching rate of the underlying surface. We illustrate the proposed methodology and test its applicability on a range of test problems.

  9. Viscous surface flow induced on Ti-based bulk metallic glass by heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kun [Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Hu, Zheng [Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Science and Technology on Vehicle Transmission Laboratory, China North Vehicle Research Institute, Beijing 100072 (China); Li, Fengjiang [Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wei, Bingchen, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)


    Highlights: • Obvious smoothing and roughening phases on the Ti-based MG surface resulted, which correspond respectively to the normal and off-normal incidence angles. • Atomic force microscopy confirms two types of periodic ripples distributed evenly over the rough surface. • The irradiation-induced viscosity of MG is about 4×10{sup 12} Pa·s, which accords with the theoretical prediction for metallic glasses close to glass transition temperature. • Surface-confined viscous flow plays a dominant quantitative role, which is due to radiation-induced softening of the low-viscosity surface layer. - Abstract: Ti-based bulk metallic glass was irradiated by a 20 MeV Cl{sup 4+} ion beam under liquid-nitrogen cooling, which produced remarkable surface smoothing and roughening that respectively correspond to normal and off-normal incidence angles of irradiation. Atomic force microscopy confirms two types of periodic ripples distributed evenly over the rough glass surface. In terms of mechanism, irradiation-induced viscosity agrees with the theoretical prediction for metallic glasses near glass transition temperature. Here, a model is introduced, based on relaxation of confined viscous flow with a thin liquid-like layer, that explains both surface smoothing and ripple formation. This study demonstrates that bulk metallic glass has high morphological instability and low viscosity under ion irradiation, which assets can pave new paths for metallic glass applications.

  10. Shock tunnel measurements of surface pressures in shock induced separated flow field using MEMS sensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriram, R; Jagadeesh, G; Ram, S N; Hegde, G M; Nayak, M M


    Characterized not just by high Mach numbers, but also high flow total enthalpies—often accompanied by dissociation and ionization of flowing gas itself—the experimental simulation of hypersonic flows requires impulse facilities like shock tunnels. However, shock tunnel simulation imposes challenges and restrictions on the flow diagnostics, not just because of the possible extreme flow conditions, but also the short run times—typically around 1 ms. The development, calibration and application of fast response MEMS sensors for surface pressure measurements in IISc hypersonic shock tunnel HST-2, with a typical test time of 600 μs, for the complex flow field of strong (impinging) shock boundary layer interaction with separation close to the leading edge, is delineated in this paper. For Mach numbers 5.96 (total enthalpy 1.3 MJ kg −1 ) and 8.67 (total enthalpy 1.6 MJ kg −1 ), surface pressures ranging from around 200 Pa to 50 000 Pa, in various regions of the flow field, are measured using the MEMS sensors. The measurements are found to compare well with the measurements using commercial sensors. It was possible to resolve important regions of the flow field involving significant spatial gradients of pressure, with a resolution of 5 data points within 12 mm in each MEMS array, which cannot be achieved with the other commercial sensors. In particular, MEMS sensors enabled the measurement of separation pressure (at Mach 8.67) near the leading edge and the sharply varying pressure in the reattachment zone. (paper)

  11. A novel algorithm for delineating wetland depressions and mapping surface hydrologic flow pathways using LiDAR data (United States)

    In traditional watershed delineation and topographic modeling, surface depressions are generally treated as spurious features and simply removed from a digital elevation model (DEM) to enforce flow continuity of water across the topographic surface to the watershed outlets. In re...

  12. Effective Medium Theory for Drag Reducing Micro-patterned Surfaces in Turbulent Flows (United States)

    Battiato, I.


    Inspired by the lotus effect, many studies in the last decade have focused on micro- and nano-patterned surfaces. They revealed that patterns at the micro-scale combined with high contact angles can significantly reduce skin drag. However, the mechanisms and parameters that control drag reduction, e.g. Reynolds number and pattern geometry, are still unclear. We propose an effective medium representation of the micro-features, that treats the latter as a porous medium, and provides a framework to model flow over patterned surfaces in both Cassie and Wenzel states. Our key result is a closed-form expression for the skin friction coefficient in terms of frictional Reynolds (or Karman) number in turbulent regime, the viscosity ratio between the fluid in and above the features, and their geometrical properties. We apply the proposed model to turbulent flows over superhydrophobic ridged surfaces. The model predictions agree with laboratory experiments for Reynolds numbers ranging from 3000 to 10000.

  13. Numerical analysis of special-shaped surface in abrasive flow machining (United States)

    Li, Junye; Zhou, Zengwei; Wu, Guiling; Lu, Hui; Sun, Zhihuai


    Solid-liquid two-phase abrasive flow machining is a method to effectively polish the surface of Special-shaped surface parts. Based on the processing characteristics of the abrasive flow machining. The standard model and the pressure-coupled SIMPLEC algorithm are used. The shear force and velocity of the near-wall surface of the runner of the solid-liquid two-phase abrasive machining with different inlet pressure are analyzed. The numerical simulation results show that the inlet pressure has little effect on the velocity, and the shear force has a linear relationship with the inlet pressure. To obtain a better polishing effect, the outlet pressure can be appropriately increased.

  14. The effects of surface modification on carbon felt electrodes for use in vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Jae; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Park, Min-Sik


    Highlights: ► We observed the physical and chemical changes on the surface of carbon felts after various surface modifications. ► The surface area and chemistry of functional groups formed on the surface of carbon felt are critical to determine the kinetics of the redox reactions of vanadium ions. ► By incorporation of the surface modifications into the electrode preparation, the electrochemical activity of carbon felts could be notably enhanced. - Abstract: The surface of carbon felt electrodes has been modified for improving energy efficiency of vanadium redox flow batteries. For comparative purposes, the effects of various surface modifications such as mild oxidation, plasma treatment, and gamma-ray irradiation on the electrochemical properties of carbon felt electrodes were investigated at optimized conditions. The cell energy efficiency was improved from 68 to 75% after the mild oxidation of the carbon felt at 500 °C for 5 h. This efficiency improvement could be attributed to the increased surface area of the carbon felt electrode and the formation of functional groups on its surface as a result of the modification. On the basis of various structural and electrochemical characterizations, a relationship between the surface nature and electrochemical activity of the carbon felt electrodes is discussed.

  15. Treatment of fishpond water by recirculating horizontal and vertical flow constructed wetlands in the tropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Dennis; Trang, Ngo Thuy Diem; Brix, Hans


    efficient use of water and less environmental impact. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of using constructed wetlands (CWs) for the treatment of fishpond water in a recirculating aquaculture system in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Water from a fishpond stocked with Nile tilapia (Oreochromis...... and the associated environmental impact can be significantly reduced. © 2011 Elsevier B.V....

  16. Studies on surface tension effect for free surface flow around floating models; Futai mokei mawari no jiyu hyomenryu ni oyobosu hyomen choryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K. [Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Akiba, H. [Toyo Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The effect of surface tension on free surface flow around floating models is discussed experimentally and numerically. Three-dimensional free surface flow around vertical circular cylinders floating in a circulating water channel was visually observed, where a surface-active agent was added to water. The results are analyzed using Weber number. The numerical analysis was done for vertical cylinder and CY100 models using the Rankine source method. Weber number of at least around 120 is necessary to eliminate the effect of surface tension from free surface flow around the CY100 model. The numerical analysis for the cylinder model needs simulation with wavelength shorter than that of free surface wave used by the Rankine source method. The model for the resistance test should be at least around 7m long to eliminate the effect of surface tension at Froude number of 0.1 or higher. 15 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of flow and heat transfer in random porous media constructed by simulated annealing algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Minghua; Shi, Yong; Yan, Jiashu; Yan, Yuying


    Highlights: • A numerical capability combining the lattice Boltzmann method with simulated annealing algorithm is developed. • Digitized representations of random porous media are constructed using limited but meaningful statistical descriptors. • Pore-scale flow and heat transfer information in random porous media is obtained by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. • The effective properties at the representative elementary volume scale are well specified using appropriate upscale averaging. - Abstract: In this article, the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method for transport phenomena is combined with the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm for digitized porous-medium construction to study flow and heat transfer in random porous media. Importantly, in contrast to previous studies which simplify porous media as arrays of regularly shaped objects or effective pore networks, the LB + SA method in this article can model statistically meaningful random porous structures in irregular morphology, and simulate pore-scale transport processes inside them. Pore-scale isothermal flow and heat conduction in a set of constructed random porous media characterized by statistical descriptors were then simulated through use of the LB + SA method. The corresponding averages over the computational volumes and the related effective transport properties were also computed based on these pore scale numerical results. Good agreement between the numerical results and theoretical predictions or experimental data on the representative elementary volume scale was found. The numerical simulations in this article demonstrate combination of the LB method with the SA algorithm is a viable and powerful numerical strategy for simulating transport phenomena in random porous media in complex geometries.

  18. Generating a Simulated Fluid Flow Over an Aircraft Surface Using Anisotropic Diffusion (United States)

    Rodriguez, David L. (Inventor); Sturdza, Peter (Inventor)


    A fluid-flow simulation over a computer-generated aircraft surface is generated using a diffusion technique. The surface is comprised of a surface mesh of polygons. A boundary-layer fluid property is obtained for a subset of the polygons of the surface mesh. A pressure-gradient vector is determined for a selected polygon, the selected polygon belonging to the surface mesh but not one of the subset of polygons. A maximum and minimum diffusion rate is determined along directions determined using a pressure gradient vector corresponding to the selected polygon. A diffusion-path vector is defined between a point in the selected polygon and a neighboring point in a neighboring polygon. An updated fluid property is determined for the selected polygon using a variable diffusion rate, the variable diffusion rate based on the minimum diffusion rate, maximum diffusion rate, and angular difference between the diffusion-path vector and the pressure-gradient vector.

  19. Generating a Simulated Fluid Flow over a Surface Using Anisotropic Diffusion (United States)

    Rodriguez, David L. (Inventor); Sturdza, Peter (Inventor)


    A fluid-flow simulation over a computer-generated surface is generated using a diffusion technique. The surface is comprised of a surface mesh of polygons. A boundary-layer fluid property is obtained for a subset of the polygons of the surface mesh. A gradient vector is determined for a selected polygon, the selected polygon belonging to the surface mesh but not one of the subset of polygons. A maximum and minimum diffusion rate is determined along directions determined using the gradient vector corresponding to the selected polygon. A diffusion-path vector is defined between a point in the selected polygon and a neighboring point in a neighboring polygon. An updated fluid property is determined for the selected polygon using a variable diffusion rate, the variable diffusion rate based on the minimum diffusion rate, maximum diffusion rate, and the gradient vector.

  20. Application of vertical flow constructed wetland in treatment of heavy metals from pulp and paper industry wastewater. (United States)

    Arivoli, A; Mohanraj, R; Seenivasan, R


    The paper production is material intensive and generates enormous quantity of wastewater containing organic pollutants and heavy metals. Present study demonstrates the feasibility of constructed wetlands (CWs) to treat the heavy metals from pulp and paper industry effluent by using vertical flow constructed wetlands planted with commonly available macrophytes such as Typha angustifolia, Erianthus arundinaceus, and Phragmites australis. Results indicate that the removal efficiencies of the planted CWs for iron, copper, manganese, zinc, nickel, and cadmium were 74, 80, 60, 70, 71, and 70 %, respectively. On the other hand, the removal efficiency of the unplanted system was significantly lower ranging between 31 and 55 %. Among the macrophytes, T. angustifolia and E. arundinaceus exhibited comparatively higher bioconcentration factor (10(2) to 10(3)) than P. australis.

  1. Treatment of high-strength wastewater in tropical constructed wetlands planted with Sesbania sesban: Horizontal subsurface flow versus vertical downflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Truong Hoang; Quang, Le Nhat; Chiem, Nguyen Huu


    Treatment of various types of wastewaters is an urgent problem in densely populated areas of many tropical countries. We studied the potential of using Sesbania sesban, an N2-fixing shrub, in constructed wetland systems for the treatment of high-strength wastewater. A replicated horizontal...... subsurface flow system and a saturated vertical downflow system was established with planted and unplanted beds to assess the effects of system design and presence of plants on treatment performance. The systems were loaded with a mixture of domestic and pig farm wastewater at three hydraulic loading rates...... of 80, 160 and 320mmd-1. The S. sesban plants grew very well in the constructed wetland systems and produced 17.2-20.2kgdry matterm-2year-1 with a high nitrogen content. Mass removal rates and removal rate constants increased with loading rate, but at 320mmd-1 the effluent quality was unacceptable...

  2. Construction of Potential Energy Surfaces for Theoretical Studies of Spectroscopy and Dynamics (United States)

    Dawes, Richard


    Accurate potential energy surfaces (PESs) combined with methods to solve the Schrödinger equation for the nuclei permit the prediction and interpretation of various types of molecular spectra and/or dynamics. Part of this talk describes the development of a PES generator (software code) which uses parallel processing on High-Performance Computing (HPC) clusters to construct PESs automatically. Thousands of ab initio data are computed at geometries chosen by an algorithm and fit to a functional form. This strategy is particularly successful when the electronic structure is robustly convergent (such as vdWs systems composed of two closed-shell monomers). Results for a few of such systems [e.g., (CO)2, (NNO)2, CO2-CS2, (OCS)2] will be presented. The electronic structure of molecules is difficult to describe continuously across global reactive PESs since it changes qualitatively as bonds are formed and broken along reaction coordinates. I will discuss a high-level ab initio method (GDW-SA-CASSCF/MRCI) designed to allow the electronic wavefunction to smoothly evolve across the PES and provide an accurate and balanced description of the various regions. These methods are combined to study a number of small gas-phased molecules from the areas of atmospheric, combustion and interstellar chemistry including a large variational calculation of all the bound vibrational states of ozone and the photodissociation dynamics of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH2OO).

  3. New strategies for optimization of compliant tensegrity surfaces for drag reduction in turbulent flows (United States)

    Luo, H.; Bewley, T. R.


    The present project is inspired by two observations from nature: 1) the incredible strength of spider fibers (derived essentially from a tensegrity-based configuration of proteins), and 2) the efficient swimming motion of dolphins (perhaps derived in part from the compliant nature of their skin). Motivated by such observations, we are exploring a new design for a tensegrity-based ``fabric'' consisting of a weave of both members in tension and members designed to support compressive loads. In particular, we are attempting to optimize the surface compliance of such a fabric, that is, the response of the surface of the fabric to externally-applied friction and pressure forces, in order to reduce the drag induced by an overlying turbulent flow at the flow/structure interface. As the first stage of the research, we developed the software simulating the interaction of the two-part system. Direct numerical simulations are used to model the dynamics of the flow part. To account for the moving walls, we use an immersed-boundary technique which simulates the presence of a moving boundary. In collaboration with another research group, we developed object-oriented software for computation of the dynamics of the tensegrity fabric part. The two codes written in two different languages run in parallel and communicate data at each time step. In this presentation, we will outline the numerical method used, present recent simulation results demonstrating the flow/surface interaction, and outline our ongoing efforts to optimize the compliance properties of the tensegrity fabric.

  4. Experimental investigation of turbulent flow-roughness interaction over surfaces of rigid and flexible roughness (United States)

    Toloui, Mostafa; Hong, Jiarong


    The influence of flexible surface roughness on wall-bounded turbulent flows is examined experimentally via simultaneous 3D fluid velocity and roughness deformation measurements using Digital inline holographic PTV (i.e. DIH-PTV, Toloui et al. Meas. Sci. & Tech 2017). The experiments are conducted in a refractive-index-matched turbulent channel over two rough surface panels of similar geometry but with an order of magnitude difference in elastic modulus (1.8 Mpa vs. 0.2 Mpa). The roughness elements (i.e. tapered cylinders of 0.35 mm in base diameter, 3 mm in height, 4 mm spacing) are designed such that the rough surface with higher modulus shows no deformation (namely rigid roughness) while the one with lower elasticity deforms appreciably under the same flow conditions (Reh 32500 , based on centerline velocity and channel width). The concurrent fluid velocity and roughness deformation measurements are acquired with 160 μs temporal, 1.1 mm/vector velocity, and linked to roughness deformation. The fingerprint of this energy exchange on shortening the instantaneous flow structures, reduction of Reynolds stresses as well as flow features in energy spectra are examined and will be presented in detail.

  5. Comparison of Flow Characteristics of Different Sphere Geometries Under the Free Surface Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin B.


    Full Text Available Comparison of the experimental results of turbulent flow structures between a smooth sphere and a sphere with a vent hole, roughened, and o-ring is presented in the presence of a free-surface. Dye visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV techniques were performed to examine effects of passive control methods on the sphere wake for Reynolds number Re = 5000 based on the sphere diameter with a 42.5mm in an open water channel. Instantaneous and time-averaged flow patterns in the wake region of the sphere were examined from point of flow physics for the different sphere locations in the range of 0≤h/D≤2.0 where h was the space between the top point of the sphere and the free surface. The ratio of ventilation hole to sphere diameter was 0.15, o-ring was located at 55° with a 2 mm from front stagnation point of the sphere and roughened surface was formed by means of totally 410 circular holes with a 3 mm diameter and around 2 mm depth in an equilateral triangle arrangement. The flow characteristics of instantaneous velocity vectors, vorticity contours, time-averaged streamline patterns, Reynolds stress correlations and streamwise and cross-stream velocity fluctuations for both the smooth and passively controlled sphere were interpreted.

  6. Spatial characteristics of secondary flow in a turbulent boundary layer over longitudinal surface roughness (United States)

    Hwang, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Jae Hwa


    Direct numerical simulations of turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) over spanwise heterogeneous surface roughness are performed to investigate the characteristics of secondary flow. The longitudinal surface roughness, which features lateral change in bed elevation, is described by immersed boundary method. The Reynolds number based on the momentum thickness is varied in the range of Reθ = 300-900. As the TBLs over the roughness elements spatially develop in the streamwise direction, a secondary flow emerges in a form of counter-rotating vortex pair. As the spanwise spacing between the roughness elements and roughness width vary, it is shown that the size of the secondary flow is determined by the valley width between the roughness elements. In addition, the strength of the secondary flow is mostly affected by the spanwise distance between the cores of the secondary flow. Analysis of the Reynolds-averaged turbulent kinetic energy transport equation reveals that the energy redistribution terms in the TBLs over-the ridge type roughness play an important role to derive low-momentum pathways with upward motion over the roughness crest, contrary to the previous observation with the strip-type roughness. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1D1A1A09000537) and the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2017R1A5A1015311).

  7. The influence of surface roughness on supersonic high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer flow (United States)

    Latin, Robert Michael

    A comprehensive study of rough-wall high-speed (M = 2.9) high Reynolds number (Re/m = 1.9e7) turbulent boundary layer flow was performed consisting of experimental, analytical, and numerical methods. Six wall topologies consisting of a smooth and five rough surfaces (two- and three-dimensional machined roughness plates; and 80, 36. and 20 grit sand-grain roughened plates) were studied. A confocal laser scan microscope was used to measure the topography of the sand-grain roughnesses. The experimental measurement techniques included a convention Pitot pressure probe, laser Doppler velocimetry, hot-wire anemometry, color schlieren and laser sheet Mie scattering images. Mean measurements included velocity, Mach number, density, and mass flux. Turbulent measurements included velocity and mass flux turbulence intensities, kinematic Reynolds shear stress, compressible Reynolds shear stress in two planes, and the traverse apparent mass flux. Kinematic turbulent flow statistical properties were found to scale by local mean quantities and displayed a weak dependence on surface roughness. Turbulent flow statistical properties with the explicit appearance of density did not scale by local mean quantities, and had a strong linear dependence on roughness. Surface roughness also had a significant effect on the flow structure size, angles, and energy spectra. A theoretical analysis was performed and a new integral method for the estimation of skin friction was developed. The skin friction estimates were within 4% of compressible semi-empirical relations. A numerical study was performed which used a parabolized Navier-Stokes solver with two algebraic turbulence models and the Rotta model for surface roughness. A new method for the estimation of momentum loss improved the numerical flow predictability. The algebraic turbulence models predicted qualitatively correct profile shapes and accurately predicted the kinematic and compressible Reynolds shear stress levels for all but the

  8. Numerical study for Darcy-Forchheimer flow of nanofluid due to an exponentially stretching curved surface (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Haider, Farwa; Muhammad, Taseer; Alsaedi, Ahmed


    Here Darcy-Forchheimer flow of viscous nanofluid with Brownian motion and thermophoresis is addressed. An incompressible viscous liquid saturates the porous space through Darcy-Forchheimer relation. Flow is generated by an exponentially stretching curved surface. System of partial differential equations is converted into ordinary differential system. Nonlinear systems are solved numerically by NDSolve technique. Graphs are plotted for the outcomes of various pertinent variables. Skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers have been physically interpreted. Our results indicate that the local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are reduced for larger values of local porosity parameter and Forchheimer number.

  9. Free-surface non-Newtonian fluid flow in a round pipe (United States)

    Borzenko, E. I.; Schrager, G. R.; Yakutenok, V. A.


    Free-surface pseudoplastic and viscoplastic fluid flows in a round pipe were studied for the case where the direction of motion coincides with the direction of gravity. Numerical modeling was performed using a technique based on a combination of the SIMPLE algorithm and the method of invariants. Three characteristic filling regimes were found to exist: a complete filling regime, a regime characterized by air-cavity formation on the solid wall, and a jet regime. Critical parameter values separating the regions of existence of these regimes were calculated. The evolution of quasisolid cores was studied for flow of a fluid with an yield point.

  10. From Geodesic Flow on a Surface of Negative Curvature to Electronic Generator of Robust Chaos (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Sergey P.


    Departing from the geodesic flow on a surface of negative curvature as a classic example of the hyperbolic chaotic dynamics, we propose an electronic circuit operating as a generator of rough chaos. Circuit simulation in NI Multisim software package and numerical integration of the model equations are provided. Results of computations (phase trajectories, time dependencies of variables, Lyapunov exponents and Fourier spectra) show good correspondence between the chaotic dynamics on the attractor of the proposed system and of the Anosov dynamics for the original geodesic flow.

  11. The effect of surface temperature on dynamics of water droplet in minichannel with gas flow (United States)

    Isachenko, Ekaterina; Orlik, Evgeniy


    The experiments have been carried out to study dynamics of liquid droplets, blown by the gas flow in a mini-channel. The mean velocity at which the droplet motion over the substrate starts was determined depending on the surface temperature at different droplet volumes. The shadow method was the main method of measurement. The advancing and receding contact angles were measured depending on the gas flow rate. The friction force was determined using the advancing and receding contact angles and droplet size. A motion of a droplet was also observed from the top. The local velocity and acceleration of droplet were calculated.

  12. A finite area scheme for shallow granular flows on three-dimensional surfaces (United States)

    Rauter, Matthias


    Shallow granular flow models have become a popular tool for the estimation of natural hazards, such as landslides, debris flows and avalanches. The shallowness of the flow allows to reduce the three-dimensional governing equations to a quasi two-dimensional system. Three-dimensional flow fields are replaced by their depth-integrated two-dimensional counterparts, which yields a robust and fast method [1]. A solution for a simple shallow granular flow model, based on the so-called finite area method [3] is presented. The finite area method is an adaption of the finite volume method [4] to two-dimensional curved surfaces in three-dimensional space. This method handles the three dimensional basal topography in a simple way, making the model suitable for arbitrary (but mildly curved) topography, such as natural terrain. Furthermore, the implementation into the open source software OpenFOAM [4] is shown. OpenFOAM is a popular computational fluid dynamics application, designed so that the top-level code mimics the mathematical governing equations. This makes the code easy to read and extendable to more sophisticated models. Finally, some hints on how to get started with the code and how to extend the basic model will be given. I gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the OEAW project "beyond dense flow avalanches". Savage, S. B. & Hutter, K. 1989 The motion of a finite mass of granular material down a rough incline. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 199, 177-215. Ferziger, J. & Peric, M. 2002 Computational methods for fluid dynamics, 3rd edn. Springer. Tukovic, Z. & Jasak, H. 2012 A moving mesh finite volume interface tracking method for surface tension dominated interfacial fluid flow. Computers & fluids 55, 70-84. Weller, H. G., Tabor, G., Jasak, H. & Fureby, C. 1998 A tensorial approach to computational continuum mechanics using object-oriented techniques. Computers in physics 12(6), 620-631.

  13. Batch versus continuous feeding strategies for pharmaceutical removal by subsurface flow constructed wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongqing; Gersberg, Richard M.; Zhu, Junfei; Hua, Tao; Jinadasa, K.B.S.N.; Tan, Soon Keat


    This study evaluated the effect of continuous and batch feeding on the removal of 8 pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, naproxen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, caffeine, salicylic acid, ketoprofen and clofibric acid) from synthetic wastewater in mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands (CWs). Both loading modes were operated at hydraulic application rates of 5.6 cm day −1 and 2.8 cm day −1 . Except for carbamazepine, clofibric acid and naproxen, removal in CWs was significantly (p ow ) and removal efficiencies of pharmaceutical compounds in the CWs, showed that pharmaceutical removal efficiency was significantly (p ow value, but not with log K ow value. - Highlights: ► Batch feeding in mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands enhances pharmaceutical removal. ► K values for the 8 pharmaceuticals were in the range of 0.01–0.1 m day −1 . ► The pharmaceutical removal efficiency was inversely correlated with log D ow value. - Batch (drain and fill) feeding in mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands enhances pharmaceutical removal.

  14. Numerical analysis of high-speed liquid lithium free-surface flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordeev, Sergej, E-mail: [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute for Technology-Campus North, Post box 3640, Hermann v. Helmholtz Platz 1, D76344 Eggenstein (Germany); Heinzel, Volker; Stieglitz, Robert [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute for Technology-Campus North, Post box 3640, Hermann v. Helmholtz Platz 1, D76344 Eggenstein (Germany)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The free surface behavior of a high speed lithium jet is investigated by means of a CFD LES analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study is aiming to validate adequate LES technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Osaka University experiments with liquid lithium jet have been simulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four cases with jet flow velocities of 4, 9, 13 and 15 m/s are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculation results show a good qualitative and a quantitative agreement with the experimental data. - Abstract: The free-surface stability of the target of the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is one of the crucial issues, since the spatio-temporal behavior of the free-surface determines the neutron flux to be generated. This article investigates the relation between the evolution of a wall boundary layer in a convergent nozzle and the free surface shape of a high speed lithium jet by means of a CFD LES analysis using the Osaka University experiments. The study is aiming to validate adequate LES technique to analyze the individual flow phenomena observed. Four cases with jet flow velocities of 4, 9, 13 and 15 m/s are analyzed. First analyses of calculation results show that the simulation exhibits a good qualitative and a quantitative agreement with the experimental data, which allows in the future a more realistic prediction of the IFMIF target behavior.

  15. Calculation of three-dimensional fluid flow with multiple free surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vander Vorst, M.J.; Chan, R.K.C.


    This paper presents a method for computing incompressible fluid flows with multiple free surfaces which are not restricted in their orientation. The method is presented in the context of the three-dimensional flow in a Mark I reactor pressure suppression system immediately following a postulated loss of coolant accident. The assumption of potential flow is made. The numerical method is a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation with the interior treated as Eulerian and the free surfaces as Lagrangian. The accuracy of solution hinges on the careful treatment of two important aspects. First, the Laplace equation for the potential is solved at interior points of the Eulerian finite difference mesh using a three-dimensional ''irregular star'' so that boundary conditions can be imposed at the exact position of the free surface. Second, the Lagrangian free surfaces are composed of triangular elements, upon each vertex of which is applied the fully nonlinear Bernoulli equation. One result of these calculations is the transient load on the suppression vessel during the vent clearing and bubble formation events of a loss of coolant accident

  16. Demonstrating electromagnetic control of free-surface, liquid-metal flows relevant to fusion reactors (United States)

    Hvasta, M. G.; Kolemen, E.; Fisher, A. E.; Ji, H.


    Plasma-facing components (PFC’s) made from solid materials may not be able to withstand the large heat and particle fluxes that will be produced within next-generation fusion reactors. To address the shortcomings of solid PFC’s, a variety of liquid-metal (LM) PFC concepts have been proposed. Many of the suggested LM-PFC designs rely on electromagnetic restraint (Lorentz force) to keep free-surface, liquid-metal flows adhered to the interior surfaces of a fusion reactor. However, there is very little, if any, experimental data demonstrating that free-surface, LM-PFC’s can actually be electromagnetically controlled. Therefore, in this study, electrical currents were injected into a free-surface liquid-metal that was flowing through a uniform magnetic field. The resultant Lorentz force generated within the liquid-metal affected the velocity and depth of the flow in a controllable manner that closely matched theoretical predictions. These results show the promise of electromagnetic control for LM-PFC’s and suggest that electromagnetic control could be further developed to adjust liquid-metal nozzle output, prevent splashing within a tokamak, and alter heat transfer properties for a wide-range of liquid-metal systems.

  17. Numerical analysis of high-speed liquid lithium free-surface flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordeev, Sergej; Heinzel, Volker; Stieglitz, Robert


    Highlights: ► The free surface behavior of a high speed lithium jet is investigated by means of a CFD LES analysis. ► The study is aiming to validate adequate LES technique. ► The Osaka University experiments with liquid lithium jet have been simulated. ► Four cases with jet flow velocities of 4, 9, 13 and 15 m/s are analyzed. ► Calculation results show a good qualitative and a quantitative agreement with the experimental data. - Abstract: The free-surface stability of the target of the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is one of the crucial issues, since the spatio-temporal behavior of the free-surface determines the neutron flux to be generated. This article investigates the relation between the evolution of a wall boundary layer in a convergent nozzle and the free surface shape of a high speed lithium jet by means of a CFD LES analysis using the Osaka University experiments. The study is aiming to validate adequate LES technique to analyze the individual flow phenomena observed. Four cases with jet flow velocities of 4, 9, 13 and 15 m/s are analyzed. First analyses of calculation results show that the simulation exhibits a good qualitative and a quantitative agreement with the experimental data, which allows in the future a more realistic prediction of the IFMIF target behavior.

  18. The effect of water temperature and synoptic winds on the development of surface flows over narrow, elongated water bodies (United States)

    Segal, M.; Pielke, R. A.


    Simulations of the thermally induced breeze involved with a relatively narrow, elongated water body is presented in conjunction with evaluations of sensible heat fluxes in a stable marine atmospheric surface layer. The effect of the water surface temperature and of the large-scale synoptic winds on the development of surface flows over the water is examined. As implied by the sensible heat flux patterns, the simulation results reveal the following trends: (1) when the synoptic flow is absent or light, the induced surface breeze is not affected noticeably by a reduction of the water surface temperature; and (2) for stronger synoptic flow, the resultant surface flow may be significantly affected by the water surface temperature.

  19. Forced heat loss from body surface reduces heat flow to body surface. (United States)

    Berman, A


    Heat stress is commonly relieved by forced evaporation from body surfaces. The mode of heat stress relief by heat extraction from the periphery is not clear, although it reduces rectal temperature. Radiant surface temperature (Ts) of the right half of the body surface was examined by thermovision in 4 lactating Holstein cows (30 kg of milk/d) during 7 repeated cycles of forced evaporation created by 30s of wetting followed by 4.5 min of forced airflow. Wetting was performed by an array of sprinklers (0.76 m(3)/h), and forced airflow (>3m/s velocity) over the right side of the body surface was produced by fans mounted at a height of 3m above the ground. Sprinkling wetted the hind legs, rump, and chest, but not the lower abdomen side, front legs, or neck. The animals were maintained in shade at an air temperature of 28 degrees C and relative humidity of 47%. Coat thickness was 1 to 2mm, so Ts closely represented skin temperature. Mean Ts of 5 x 20cm areas on the upper and lower hind and front legs, rump, chest, abdomen side, and neck were obtained by converting to temperature their respective gray intensity in single frames obtained at 10-s intervals. Little change occurred in Ts during the first wetting (0.1+/-0.6 degrees C), but it decreased rapidly thereafter (1.6+/-0.6 degrees C in the fifth wetting). The Ts also decreased, to a smaller extent, in areas that remained dry (0.7+/-1.0 degrees C). In all body sites, a plateau in Ts was reached by 2 min after wetting. The difference between dry and wet areas in the first cooling cycle was approximately 1.2 degrees C. The Ts of different body areas decreased during consecutive cooling cycles and reached a plateau by 3 cooling cycles in dry sites (front leg, neck, abdomen side), by 5 cooling cycles in the hind leg, and 7 cooling cycles in the rump and chest. The reduction in mean Ts produced by 7 cycles was 4.0 to 6.0 degrees C in wetted areas and 1.6 to 3.7 degrees C in sites that were not wetted. Initial rectal

  20. A Variational Model for Two-Phase Immiscible Electroosmotic Flow at Solid Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Sihong


    We develop a continuum hydrodynamic model for two-phase immiscible flows that involve electroosmotic effect in an electrolyte and moving contact line at solid surfaces. The model is derived through a variational approach based on the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation. This approach was first presented in the derivation of a continuum hydrodynamic model for moving contact line in neutral two-phase immiscible flows (Qian, Wang, and Sheng, J. Fluid Mech. 564, 333-360 (2006)). Physically, the electroosmotic effect can be formulated by the Onsager principle as well in the linear response regime. Therefore, the same variational approach is applied here to the derivation of the continuum hydrodynamic model for charged two-phase immiscible flows where one fluid component is an electrolyte exhibiting electroosmotic effect on a charged surface. A phase field is employed to model the diffuse interface between two immiscible fluid components, one being the electrolyte and the other a nonconductive fluid, both allowed to slip at solid surfaces. Our model consists of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation for momentum transport, the Nernst-Planck equation for ion transport, the Cahn-Hilliard phase-field equation for interface motion, and the Poisson equation for electric potential, along with all the necessary boundary conditions. In particular, all the dynamic boundary conditions at solid surfaces, including the generalized Navier boundary condition for slip, are derived together with the equations of motion in the bulk region. Numerical examples in two-dimensional space, which involve overlapped electric double layer fields, have been presented to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the model, and a few salient features of the two-phase immiscible electroosmotic flows at solid surface. The wall slip in the vicinity of moving contact line and the Smoluchowski slip in the electric double layer are both investigated. © 2012 Global-Science Press.

  1. A unique application of the instream flow incremental methodology (IFIM) to predict impacts on riverine aquatic habitat, resulting from construction of a proposed hydropower reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, P.S.


    The City of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, proposed to construct a new low-head hydroelectric project on the Susquehanna River in the central part of the state in 1986, about 108 km upstream of the river mouth. As part of the licensing process, the city was required by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to carry out studies that would forecast the impacts on riverine aquatic habitat as a result of construction of the proposed 13 km long by 1.5 km wide reservoir. The methodology selected by the city and its consultants was to use the IFIM to model the habitat conditions in the project reach both before and after construction of the proposed reservoir.The IFIM is usually used to model instream flow releases downstream of dams and diversions, and had not been used before to model habitat conditions within the proposed reservoir area. The study team hydraulically modelled the project reach using existing hydraulic data, and a HEC-2 backwater analysis to determine post-project water surface elevations. The IFG-4 model was used to simulate both pre- and post-project water velocities, by distributing velocities across transects based on known discharges and cell depth. Effects on aquatic habitat were determined using the IFIM PHABSIM program, in which criteria for several evaluation species and life stages were used to yield estimates of Weighted Usable Area. The analysis showed, based on trends in WUA from pre- and post-project conditions, that habitat conditions would improve for several species and life stages, and would be negatively affected for fewer life stages and species. Some agency concerns that construction of the proposed reservoir would have significant adverse effects on the resident and anadromous fish populations were responded to using these results

  2. On-farm irrigation reservoirs for surface water storage in eastern Arkansas: Trends in construction in response to aquifer depletion (United States)

    Yaeger, M. A.; Reba, M. L.; Massey, J. H.; Adviento-Borbe, A.


    On-farm surface water storage reservoirs have been constructed to address declines in the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial aquifer, the primary source of irrigation for most of the row crops grown in eastern Arkansas. These reservoirs and their associated infrastructure represent significant investments in financial and natural resources, and may cause producers to incur costs associated with foregone crop production and long-term maintenance. Thus, an analysis of reservoir construction trends in the Grand Prairie Critical Groundwater Area (GPCGA) and Cache River Critical Groundwater Area (CRCGA) was conducted to assist future water management decisions. Between 1996 and 2015, on average, 16 and 4 reservoirs were constructed per year, corresponding to cumulative new reservoir surface areas of 161 and 60 ha yr-1, for the GPCGA and the CRCGA, respectively. In terms of reservoir locations relative to aquifer status, after 1996, 84.5% of 309 total reservoirs constructed in the GPCGA and 91.0% of 78 in the CRCGA were located in areas with remaining saturated aquifer thicknesses of 50% or less. The majority of new reservoirs (74% in the GPCGA and 63% in the CRCGA) were constructed on previously productive cropland. The next most common land use, representing 11% and 15% of new reservoirs constructed in the GPCGA and CRCGA, respectively, was the combination of a field edge and a ditch, stream, or other low-lying area. Less than 10% of post-1996 reservoirs were constructed on predominately low-lying land, and the use of such lands decreased in both critical groundwater areas during the past 20 years. These disparities in reservoir construction rates, locations, and prior land uses is likely due to groundwater declines being first observed in the GPCGA as well as the existence of two large-scale river diversion projects under construction in the GPCGA that feature on-farm storage as a means to offset groundwater use.

  3. Study on blade surface flow around wind turbine by using LDV measurements (United States)

    Phengpom, Tinnapob; Kamada, Yasunari; Maeda, Takao; Murata, Junsuke; Nishimura, Shogo; Matsuno, Tasuku


    This paper has attempted to study a mechanism of three-dimensional flow around a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) rotor blade. An experimental study of the flow phenomenon in the vicinity of the wind turbine blade is a challenging endeavor. In this research, the HAWT model with 2.4 m diameter was tested in the large wind tunnel. The flow around the rotating blade surface was measured simultaneously for three velocity components, and two probes were used for the synchronized measurement of three-dimensional flow components. The local velocity was detected for the single seeding particle measured in the point where three pairs of laser beams intersected. Blade sections of interest in this study are composed of radial positions r/R = 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7. Optimum and low tip speed ratio flow characteristics were also compared. The velocity flow vector, skin friction coefficient and bound circulation were calculated from LDV measurements, and the experimental research showed reasonably and clearly the experimental results.

  4. Surface Patterning: Controlling Fluid Flow Through Dolphin and Shark Skin Biomimicry (United States)

    Gamble, Lawren; Lang, Amy; Bradshaw, Michael; McVay, Eric


    Dolphin skin is characterized by circumferential ridges, perpendicular to fluid flow, present from the crest of the head until the tail fluke. When observing a cross section of skin, the ridges have a sinusoidal pattern. Sinusoidal grooves have been proven to induce vortices in the cavities that can help control flow separation which can reduce pressure drag. Shark skin, however, is patterned with flexible scales that bristle up to 50 degrees with reversed flow. Both dolphin ridges and shark scales are thought to help control fluid flow and increase swimming efficiency by delaying the separation of the boundary layer. This study investigates how flow characteristics can be altered with bio-inspired surface patterning. A NACA 4412 hydrofoil was entirely patterned with transverse sinusoidal grooves, inspired by dolphin skin but scaled so the cavities on the model have the same Reynolds number as the cavities on a swimming shark. Static tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of approximately 100,000 and at varying angles of attack. The results were compared to the smooth hydrofoil case. The flow data was quantified using Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). The results of this study demonstrated that the patterned hydrofoil experienced greater separation than the smooth hydrofoil. It is hypothesize that this could be remediated if the pattern was placed only after the maximum thickness of the hydrofoil. Funding through NSF REU grant 1062611 is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Preliminary study of the effect of the turbulent flow field around complex surfaces on their acoustic characteristics (United States)

    Olsen, W. A.; Boldman, D.


    Fairly extensive measurements have been conducted of the turbulent flow around various surfaces as a basis for a study of the acoustic characteristics involved. In the experiments the flow from a nozzle was directed upon various two-dimensional surface configurations such as the three-flap model. A turbulent flow field description is given and an estimate of the acoustic characteristics is provided. The developed equations are based upon fundamental theories for simple configurations having simple flows. Qualitative estimates are obtained regarding the radiation pattern and the velocity power law. The effect of geometry and turbulent flow distribution on the acoustic emission from simple configurations are discussed.

  6. Seismic effects on bedrock and underground constructions. A literature survey of damage on constructions; Changes in groundwater levels and flow; Changes in chemistry in groundwater and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeshoff, Kennert.


    This report is a literature review of direct and indirect effects of earthquakes on underground constructions as tunnels, caverns and mines. The direct damage will cause vibrations, shaking and displacement, which may lead to partial or total destruction of the underground facility. Damage caused by shaking has been reported in several studies, and several hundreds of events have been reported both from mines and tunnels. These reports are mainly from active earthquake areas. There are very few reports of damage caused by displacements on an existing fault. The damage, which may be severe, is generally concentrated to the vicinity of the fault zone. The report also includes a review of the effects caused by earthquakes on groundwater level, flow, pressure, chemistry and constituents in the ground. Such changes are mainly reported from studies in wells near active faults. The interesting coupling of changes in groundwater characteristics around an underground construction is, unfortunately, very seldom reported. The groundwater level and pressure changes are discussed in Chapter 4. The bases for this part of the review is taken from the Alaska earthquake 1964. Other observations are reported from wells and reservoirs located near existing faults. Changes of the geochemistry in groundwater and soil gases are reviewed in Chapter 4. The mechanisms of seismochemical anomalies are discussed and examples of short and long term monitoring are given from USA, Soviet Union and China. Gases in ground water and soil is reported in Chapter 5. Radon is so far one of the most studied species and its variation in short, medium and long term with seismic activity is rather well understood. Other gases or isotopes that have been studied include helium, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, argon and methane, radium and uranium. The paper also includes same statements for repository design based on the result of the review. (81 refs.)

  7. Simulation of groundwater flow and interaction of groundwater and surface water on the Lac du Flambeau Reservation, Wisconsin (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Fienen, Michael N.; Hunt, Randall J.


    The Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa and Indian Health Service are interested in improving the understanding of groundwater flow and groundwater/surface-water interaction on the Lac du Flambeau Reservation (Reservation) in southwest Vilas County and southeast Iron County, Wisconsin, with particular interest in an understanding of the potential for contamination of groundwater supply wells and the fate of wastewater that is infiltrated from treatment lagoons on the Reservation. This report describes the construction, calibration, and application of a regional groundwater flow model used to simulate the shallow groundwater flow system of the Reservation and water-quality results for groundwater and surface-water samples collected near a system of waste-water-treatment lagoons. Groundwater flows through a permeable glacial aquifer that ranges in thickness from 60 to more than 200 feet (ft). Seepage and drainage lakes are common in the area and influence groundwater flow patterns on the Reservation. A two-dimensional, steady-state analytic element groundwater flow model was constructed using the program GFLOW. The model was calibrated by matching target water levels and stream base flows through the use of the parameter-estimation program, PEST. Simulated results illustrate that groundwater flow within most of the Reservation is toward the Bear River and the chain of lakes that feed the Bear River. Results of analyses of groundwater and surface-water samples collected downgradient from the wastewater infiltration lagoons show elevated levels of ammonia and dissolved phosphorus. In addition, wastewater indicator chemicals detected in three downgradient wells and a small downgradient stream indicate that infiltrated wastewater is moving southwest of the lagoons toward Moss Lake. Potential effects of extended wet and dry periods (within historical ranges) were evaluated by adjusting precipitation and groundwater recharge in the model and comparing the

  8. Enhancing the removal of arsenic, boron and heavy metals in subsurface flow constructed wetlands using different supporting media. (United States)

    Allende, K Lizama; Fletcher, T D; Sun, G


    The presence of arsenic and heavy metals in drinking water sources poses a serious health risk due to chronic toxicological effects. Constructed wetlands have the potential to remove arsenic and heavy metals, but little is known about pollutant removal efficiency and reliability of wetlands for this task. This lab-scale study investigated the use of vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands for removing arsenic, boron, copper, zinc, iron and manganese from synthetic wastewater. Gravel, limestone, zeolite and cocopeat were employed as wetland media. Conventional gravel media only showed limited capability in removing arsenic, iron, copper and zinc; and it showed virtually no capability in removing manganese and boron. In contrast, alternative wetland media: cocopeat, zeolite and limestone, demonstrated significant efficiencies--in terms of percentage removal and mass rate per m3 of wetland volume--for removing arsenic, iron, manganese, copper and zinc; their ability to remove boron, in terms of mass removal rate, was also higher than that of the gravel media. The overall results demonstrated the potential of using vertical flow wetlands to remove arsenic and metals from contaminated water, having cocopeat, zeolite or limestone as supporting media.

  9. Elimination of veterinary antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes from swine wastewater in the vertical flow constructed wetlands. (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Liu, Chaoxiang; Zheng, Jiayu; Huang, Xu; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Yuhong; Zhu, Gefu


    This paper investigated the efficiency of two vertical flow constructed wetlands characterized by volcanic (CW1) and zeolite (CW2) respectively, at removing three common antibiotics (ciprofloxacin HCl, oxytetracycline HCl, and sulfamethazine) and tetracycline resistance (tet) genes (tetM, tetO, and tetW) from swine wastewater. The result indicated that the two systems could significantly reduce the wastewater antibiotics content, and elimination rates were in the following sequence: oxytetracycline HCl>ciprofloxacin HCl>sulfamethazine. The zeolite-medium system was superior to that of the volcanic-medium system vis-à-vis removal, perhaps because of the differing pH values and average pore sizes of the respective media. A higher concentration of antibiotics accumulated in the soil than in the media and vegetation, indicating that soil plays the main role in antibiotics removal from wastewater in vertical flow constructed wetlands. The characteristics of the wetland medium may also affect the antibiotic resistance gene removal capability of the system; the total absolute abundances of three tet genes and of 16S rRNA were reduced by 50% in CW1, and by almost one order of magnitude in CW2. However, the relative abundances of target tet genes tended to increase following CW1 treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimization of operating parameters of hybrid vertical down-flow constructed wetland systems for domestic sewerage treatment. (United States)

    Huang, Zhujian; Zhang, Xianning; Cui, Lihua; Yu, Guangwei


    In this work, three hybrid vertical down-flow constructed wetland (HVDF-CW) systems with different compound substrates were fed with domestic sewage and their pollutants removal performance under different hydraulic loading and step-feeding ratio was investigated. The results showed that the hydraulic loading and step-feeding ratio were two crucial factors determining the removal efficiency of most pollutants, while substrate types only significantly affected the removal of COD and NH4(+)-N. Generally, the lower the hydraulic loading, the better removal efficiency of all contaminants, except for TN. By contrast, the increase of step-feeding ratio would slightly reduce the removal rate of ammonium and TP but obviously promoted the TN removal. Therefore, the optimal operation of this CWs could be achieved with low hydraulic loading combined with 50% of step-feeding ratio when TN removal is the priority, whereas medium or low hydraulic loading without step-feeding would be suitable when TN removal is not taken into consideration. The obtained results in this study can provide us with a guideline for design and optimization of hybrid vertical flow constructed wetland systems to improve the pollutants removal from domestic sewage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Flowing afterglow: construction of an apparatus, measurement of rate constants, and consideration of the diffusive behavior of charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Shingo; Nakamura, Hirone; Tamura, Takaaki; Fujii, Toshihiro.


    A flowing afterglow apparatus was constructed and the operation of the afterglow system including data analysis was tested by measuring the rate constants for the reactions N + + NO, N 2 + + NO, He + + N 2 , and SF 6 + e; the results were 5.8 x 10 -10 , 3.9 x 10 -10 , 1.20 x 10 -9 , and 2.1 x 10 -7 cm 3 s -1 respectively. In the measurements an extraction voltage for ion sampling was not applied to the nose cone in order not to introduce an electric field into the reaction region. A ''non-ambipolar'' model developed by us was used for the data analysis of the ion/molecule reactions. For the data analysis of the electron attachment, a typical curve fit mehtod to the product ion signal was used. However, no theoretical curves fit the experimental points. This disagreement is attributed to a change of the ion-sampling efficiency through the nose-cone aperture arising from a change of the electron-dominated plasma to a negative-ion-dominated plasma with an increasing flow rate of SF 6 . Nevertheless, the attachment rate could be determined by fitting the theoretical and experimantal curves in the limited region of the SF 6 flow rate where the negative-ion-dominated plasma is established at the sampling aperture. All the rate constants obtained here agree reasonably well with literature values. Next, errors in the positive ion/molecule reaction rate constants, which would occur if the diffusion coefficients of the ions and neutrals each have a + 10 % error were calculated for the flow model to be -0.4 and +1.2 % respectively, demonstrating that these parameters are not important in the analysis of data. This insensitivity explains why the nose-cone voltage applied in a typical flowing afterglow operation has not caused a significant error in the published rate constants although it disturbs the ion diffusive behavior. (author)

  12. Lattice Boltzmann model for free-surface flow and its application to filling process in casting

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, I


    A generalized lattice Boltzmann model to simulate free-surface is constructed in both two and three dimensions. The proposed model satisfies the interfacial boundary conditions accurately. A distinctive feature of the model is that the collision processes is carried out only on the points occupied partially or fully by the fluid. To maintain a sharp interfacial front, the method includes an anti-diffusion algorithm. The unknown distribution functions at the interfacial region are constructed according to the first-order Chapman-Enskog analysis. The interfacial boundary conditions are satisfied exactly by the coefficients in the Chapman-Enskog expansion. The distribution functions are naturally expressed in the local interfacial coordinates. The macroscopic quantities at the interface are extracted from the least-square solutions of a locally linearized system obtained from the known distribution functions. The proposed method does not require any geometric front construction and is robust for any interfacial ...

  13. Flow-dependent assimilation of sea surface temperature in isopycnal coordinates with the Norwegian Climate Prediction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Counillon


    Full Text Available We document a pilot stochastic re-analysis computed by assimilating sea surface temperature (SST anomalies into the ocean component of the coupled Norwegian Climate Prediction Model (NorCPM for the period 1950–2010 (doi: 10.11582/2016.00002. NorCPM is based on the Norwegian Earth System Model and uses the ensemble Kalman filter for data assimilation (DA. Here, we assimilate SST from the stochastic HadISST2 historical reconstruction. The accuracy, reliability and drift are investigated using both assimilated and independent observations. NorCPM is slightly overdispersive against assimilated observations but shows stable performance through the analysis period. It demonstrates skills against independent measurements: sea surface height, heat and salt content, in particular in the Equatorial and North Pacific, the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre (SPG region and the Nordic Seas. Furthermore, NorCPM provides a reliable monitoring of the SPG index and represents the vertical temperature variability there, in good agreement with observations. The monitoring of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation is also encouraging. The benefit of using a flow-dependent assimilation method and constructing the covariance in isopycnal coordinates are investigated in the SPG region. Isopycnal coordinates discretisation is found to better capture the vertical structure than standard depth-coordinate discretisation, because it leads to a deeper influence of the assimilated surface observations. The vertical covariance shows a pronounced seasonal and decadal variability that highlights the benefit of flow-dependent DA method. This study demonstrates the potential of NorCPM to compute an ocean re-analysis for the 19th and 20th centuries when SST observations are available.

  14. Flow and heat transfer over a rotating disk with surface roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Myung Sup; Hyun, Jae Min; Park, Jun Sang


    A numerical study is made of flow and heat transfer near an infinite disk, which rotates steadily about the longitudinal axis. The surface of the disk is characterized by axisymmetric, sinusoidally-shaped roughness. The representative Reynolds number is large. Numerical solutions are acquired to the governing boundary-layer-type equations. The present numerical results reproduce the previous data for a flat disk. For a wavy surface disk, the radial distributions of local skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number show double periodicity, which is in accord with the previous results. Physical explanations are provided for this finding. The surface-integrated torque coefficient and average Nusselt number increase as the surface roughness parameter increases. The effect of the Rossby number is also demonstrated

  15. Environmental quality of primary and secundary construction materials in relation to re-use and protection of soil and surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers ThG; Wilde PGM de; Rood GA; Vermij PHM; Saft RJ; Beek AIM van de; Broekman MH; Masereeuw P; Kamphuis Ch; Dekker PM; Valentijn EA; LAE-RIVM


    To support the General Administrative Order on Construction Materials (Soil and Surface Waters Protection) this document supplies information on: 1) the quantification of the standard values for the application of construction materials ; 2) the environmental quality (characterization) of

  16. Non-textured laser modification of silica glass surface: Wettability control and flow channel formation (United States)

    Aono, Yuko; Hirata, Atsushi; Tokura, Hitoshi


    Local wettability of silica glass surface is modified by infrared laser irradiation. The silica glass surface exhibits hydrophobic property in the presence of sbnd CF3 or sbnd (CH3)2 terminal functional groups, which are decomposed by thermal treatment, and degree of the decomposition depends on the applied heat. Laser irradiation can control the number of remaining functional groups according to the irradiation conditions; the contact angle of deionized water on the laser modified surfaces range from 100° to 40°. XPS analysis confirms that the variation in wettability corresponds to the number of remaining sbnd CF3 groups. The laser irradiation achieves surface modification without causing any cracks or damages to the surface, as observed by SEM and AFM; moreover, surface transparency to visible light and surface roughness remains unaffected. The proposed method is applied to plane flow channel systems. Dropped water spreads only on the hydrophilic and invisible line modified by the laser irradiation without formation of any grooves. This indicates that the modified line can act as a surface channel. Furthermore, self-transportation of liquid is also demonstrated on a channel with gradually-varied wettability along its length. A water droplet on a hydrophobic side is self-transported to a hydrophilic side due to contact-angle hysteresis force without any actuators or external forces.

  17. Online Coupling of Flow-Field Flow Fractionation and Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry: Characterization of Nanoparticle Surface Coating Thickness and Aggregation State (United States)

    Surface coating thickness and aggregation state have strong influence on the environmental fate, transport, and toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. In this study, flow-field flow fractionation coupled on-line with single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry i...

  18. Fluid flow device, comprising a valv member and a valve seat defining a fluid flow surface area, as well as method of manufacturing the same

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Maarten; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Brookhuis, Robert Anton; Wiegerink, Remco J.


    The invention relates to a fluid flow regulator device, comprising a valve member and a valve seat arranged to be movable with respect to each other such that a fluid flow surface area defined by the valve member and the valve seat can be changed. Furthermore, sensor means are provided for measuring

  19. Fluid flow regulator device, comprising a valve member and a valve seat defining a fluid flow surface area, as well as method of using the same

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Maarten; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Brookhuis, Robert Anton; Wiegerink, Remco J.


    The invention relates to a fluid flow regulator device, comprising a valve member and a valve seat arranged to be movable with respect to each other such that a fluid flow surface area defined by the valve member and the valve seat can be changed. Furthermore, sensor means are provided for measuring

  20. Supersonic flow over a pitching delta wing using surface pressure measurements and numerical simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Experimental and numerical methods were applied to investigating high subsonic and supersonic flows over a 60° swept delta wing in fixed state and pitching oscillation. Static pressure coefficient distributions over the wing leeward surface and the hysteresis loops of pressure coefficient versus angle of attack at the sensor locations were obtained by wind tunnel tests. Similar results were obtained by numerical simulations which agreed well with the experiments. Flow structure around the wing was also demonstrated by the numerical simulation. Effects of Mach number and angle of attack on pressure distribution curves in static tests were investigated. Effects of various oscillation parameters including Mach number, mean angle of attack, pitching amplitude and frequency on hysteresis loops were investigated in dynamic tests and the associated physical mechanisms were discussed. Vortex breakdown phenomenon over the wing was identified at high angles of attack using the pressure coefficient curves and hysteresis loops, and its effects on the flow features were discussed.

  1. Unsteady MHD flow of an UCM fluid over a stretching surface with higher order chemical reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhagar Palani


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to illustrate the frequent and wide occurrence of unsteady two dimensional MHD flow of an UCM fluid over a stretching surface in the presence of higher order chemical reaction in a diverse range of applications, both in nature and in technology. The governing partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation. The ordinary differential equations were numerically solved by using shooting technique. The effects of different governing parameters on the flow field and mass transfer are shown in graphs and tables. The governing physical parameters significantly influence the flow field and mass transfer. Also, existing results in the literature are compared with the present study as a special case. In addition to practical applications in foams, suspensions, polymer solutions and melts, the present study also contributed to the existing literature.

  2. A multiscale method for compressible liquid-vapor flow with surface tension*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaegle Felix


    Full Text Available Discontinuous Galerkin methods have become a powerful tool for approximating the solution of compressible flow problems. Their direct use for two-phase flow problems with phase transformation is not straightforward because this type of flows requires a detailed tracking of the phase front. We consider the fronts in this contribution as sharp interfaces and propose a novel multiscale approach. It combines an efficient high-order Discontinuous Galerkin solver for the computation in the bulk phases on the macro-scale with the use of a generalized Riemann solver on the micro-scale. The Riemann solver takes into account the effects of moderate surface tension via the curvature of the sharp interface as well as phase transformation. First numerical experiments in three space dimensions underline the overall performance of the method.

  3. Stagnation point flow towards nonlinear stretching surface with Cattaneo-Christov heat flux (United States)

    Hayat, T.; Zubair, M.; Ayub, M.; Waqas, M.; Alsaedi, A.


    Here the influence of the non-Fourier heat flux in a two-dimensional (2D) stagnation point flow of Eyring-Powell liquid towards a nonlinear stretched surface is reported. The stretching surface is of variable thickness. Thermal conductivity of fluid is taken temperature-dependent. Ordinary differential systems are obtained through the implementation of meaningful transformations. The reduced non-dimensional expressions are solved for the convergent series solutions. Convergence interval is obtained for the computed solutions. Graphical results are displayed and analyzed in detail for the velocity, temperature and skin friction coefficient. The obtained results reveal that the temperature gradient enhances when the thermal relaxation parameter is increased.

  4. Modeling organic matter and nitrogen removal from domestic wastewater in a pilot-scale vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland. (United States)

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab; Quiñones-Bolaños, Edgar; Castro-Faccetti, Claudia Fernanda


    Constructed wetlands have become an attractive alternative for wastewater treatment. However, there is not a globally accepted mathematical model to predict their performance. In this study, the VS2DTI software was used to predict the effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total nitrogen (TN) in a pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) treating domestic wastewater. After a 5-week adaptation period, the pilot system was monitored for another 6 weeks. Experiments were conducted at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) in the range of 2-4 days with Typha latifolia as the vegetation. The raw wastewater concentrations ranged between 144-430 and 122-283 mg L(-1) for BOD5 and TN, respectively. A first-order kinetic model coupled with the advection/dispersion and Richards' equations was proposed to predict the removal rates of BOD5 and TN from domestic wastewater. Two main physical processes were modeled in this study, porous material water flow and solute transport through the different layers of the VFCW to simulate the constructed wetland (CW) conditions. The model was calibrated based on the BOD5 and TN degradation constants. The model indicated that most of BOD and TN (88 and 92%, respectively) were removed through biological activity followed by adsorption. It was also observed that the evapotranspiration was seen to have a smaller impact. An additional data series of effluent BOD and TN was used for model validation. The residual analysis of the calibrated model showed a relatively random pattern, indicating a decent fit. Thus, the VS2DTI was found to be a useful tool for CW simulation.

  5. Modulation of ATP/ADP concentration at the endothelial surface by shear stress: effect of flow recirculation. (United States)

    Choi, Hyo Won; Ferrara, Katherine W; Barakat, Abdul I


    The extracellular presence of the adenine nucleotides ATP and ADP induces calcium mobilization in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). ATP/ADP concentration at the EC surface is determined by a balance of convective-diffusive transport to and from the EC surface, hydrolysis by ectonucleotidases at the cell surface, and flow-induced ATP release from ECs. Our previous numerical simulations in a parallel plate geometry had demonstrated that flow-induced ATP release has a profound effect on nucleotide concentration at the EC surface. In the present study, we have extended the modeling to probe the impact of flow separation and recirculation downstream of a backward facing step (BFS) on ATP/ADP concentration at the EC surface. The results show that for both steady and pulsatile flow over a wide range of wall shear stresses, the ATP+ADP concentration at the EC surface is considerably lower within the flow recirculation region than in areas of undisturbed flow outside the recirculation zone. Pulsatile flow also leads to sharp temporal gradients in nucleotide concentration. If confirmed experimentally, the present findings suggest that disturbed and undisturbed flow may affect EC calcium mobilization differently. Such differences might, in turn, contribute to the observed endothelial dysfunction in regions of disturbed flow.

  6. Drag reduction using wrinkled surfaces in high Reynolds number laminar boundary layer flows (United States)

    Raayai-Ardakani, Shabnam; McKinley, Gareth H.


    Inspired by the design of the ribbed structure of shark skin, passive drag reduction methods using stream-wise riblet surfaces have previously been developed and tested over a wide range of flow conditions. Such textures aligned in the flow direction have been shown to be able to reduce skin friction drag by 4%-8%. Here, we explore the effects of periodic sinusoidal riblet surfaces aligned in the flow direction (also known as a "wrinkled" texture) on the evolution of a laminar boundary layer flow. Using numerical analysis with the open source Computational Fluid Dynamics solver OpenFOAM, boundary layer flow over sinusoidal wrinkled plates with a range of wavelength to plate length ratios ( λ / L ), aspect ratios ( 2 A / λ ), and inlet velocities are examined. It is shown that in the laminar boundary layer regime, the riblets are able to retard the viscous flow inside the grooves creating a cushion of stagnant fluid that the high-speed fluid above can partially slide over, thus reducing the shear stress inside the grooves and the total integrated viscous drag force on the plate. Additionally, we explore how the boundary layer thickness, local average shear stress distribution, and total drag force on the wrinkled plate vary with the aspect ratio of the riblets as well as the length of the plate. We show that riblets with an aspect ratio of close to unity lead to the highest reduction in the total drag, and that because of the interplay between the local stress distribution on the plate and stream-wise evolution of the boundary layer the plate has to exceed a critical length to give a net decrease in the total drag force.

  7. The Design and Construction of Flow-through Hydrothermal Cells for in situ Neutron Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pring, A.; Tenailleau, C.; Wang, H.; Brugger, J.; Ngothai, Yung; ONeill, B.


    Full text: A flow-through hydrothermal cell for the in-situ neutron diffraction study of hydrothermal crystallisation and phase transitions has been developed. It can be used for kinetic studies on materials that exhibit structural transformations under hydrothermal conditions. New fundamental knowledge on the mechanisms of phase transitions can thus be determined. It is specifically designed for the use on the Medium Resolution Powder Diffractometer at ANSTO, Lucas Heights, Sydney. But it is planned to adapt the design for the new High intensity powder diffractometer (Wombat) at the new Australian reactor Opal. The equipment has been initially created for the low temperature transformation study of Fe-Ni sulfide minerals. The design and use of the flow-through hydrothermal cell from 25 to 120degC are described. The first results of a successful transformation of pentlandite to violarite under mild conditions (pH 4) at 120degC and 3 bars using in-situ neutron diffraction measurements are presented. (authors)

  8. The Design and Construction of Flow-through Hydrothermal Cells for in situ Neutron Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pring, A.; Tenailleau, C.; Wang, H.; Brugger, J.; Ngothai, Yung; ONeill, B.


    Full text: A flow-through hydrothermal cell for the in-situ neutron diffraction study of hydrothermal crystallisation and phase transitions has been developed. It can be used for kinetic studies on materials that exhibit structural transformations under hydrothermal conditions. New fundamental knowledge on the mechanisms of phase transitions can thus be determined. It is specifically designed for the use on the Medium Resolution Powder Diffractometer at ANSTO, Lucas Heights, Sydney. But it is planned to adapt the design for the new High intensity powder diffractometer (Wombat) at the new Australian reactor Opal. The equipment has been initially created for the low temperature transformation study of Fe-Ni sulfide minerals. The design and use of the flow-through hydrothermal cell from 25 to 120 deg C are described. The first results of a successful transformation of pentlandite to violarite under mild conditions (pH 4) at 120 deg C and 3 bars using in-situ neutron diffraction measurements are presented. (authors)

  9. Surface Characterization of LMMS Molybdenum Disilicide Coated HTP-8 Using Arc- Jet Hypersonic Flow (United States)

    Stewart, David A.


    Surface properties for an advanced Lockheed Martin Missile and Space (LMMS) molybdenum disilicide coated insulation (HTP-8) were determined using arc-jet flow to simulate Earth entry at hypersonic speeds. The catalytic efficiency (atom recombination coefficients) for this advanced thermal protection system was determined from arc-jet data taken in both oxygen and nitrogen streams at temperatures ranging from 1255 K to roughly 1600 K. In addition, optical and chemical stability data were obtained from these test samples.

  10. Evaluation of surface blood flow in intact and ruptured canine cruciate ligaments using laser Doppler flowmetry. (United States)

    Testuz, Joakim; Howard, Judith; Pozzi, Antonio; Rytz, Ulrich; Krudewig, Christiane; Spreng, David; Forterre, Simone


    To evaluate the usefulness of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) to measure surface blood flow in canine cruciate ligaments, compare measurements in different sites of intact and partially ruptured canine cranial cruciate ligaments (CrCL) and intact caudal cruciate ligaments (CaCL), and investigate any association between surface blood flow in partially ruptured CrCL and synovitis or duration of clinical signs. Case-controlled clinical study. Sixteen dogs with partially ruptured CrCL and five dogs with intact CrCL. Blood cell flux (BCF) readings during three measurement cycles using LDF at two sites in each ligament (mid-substance and the distal portion of the CrCL, and mid-substance and the proximal portion of the CaCL) were recorded. Synovial changes were graded grossly and histologically using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International histopathology scoring system. The within-run coefficients of variation (CV) for a single BCF measurement cycle were 12.2% and 12.7% in the ruptured and intact CrCL groups, respectively. The between-run CV for three measurement cycles was 20.8% and 14.8%, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, absolute agreement) was 0.66 for a single measurement cycle and 0.86 for the average of three cycles. No difference in average BCF readings was found between any two sites in either group, but BCF readings in both CrCL sites were significantly higher in the ruptured CrCL group than the intact CrCL group. No associations between BCF and synovial grades or duration of lameness were identified. Laser Doppler flowmetry can be used to assess surface blood flow in intact and partially ruptured canine cruciate ligaments with acceptable precision. Using this method, surface blood flow appears greater in partially ruptured canine CrCL than intact CrCL. Further studies are required to determine if this is a sequela of trauma or synovitis.

  11. A simple iterative method for estimating evapotranspiration with integrated surface/subsurface flow models (United States)

    Hwang, H.-T.; Park, Y.-J.; Frey, S. K.; Berg, S. J.; Sudicky, E. A.


    This work presents an iterative, water balance based approach to estimate actual evapotranspiration (ET) with integrated surface/subsurface flow models. Traditionally, groundwater level fluctuation methods have been widely accepted and used for estimating ET and net groundwater recharge; however, in watersheds where interactions between surface and subsurface flow regimes are highly dynamic, the traditional method may be overly simplistic. Here, an innovative methodology is derived and demonstrated for using the water balance equation in conjunction with a fully-integrated surface and subsurface hydrologic model (HydroGeoSphere) in order to estimate ET at watershed and sub-watershed scales. The method invokes a simple and robust iterative numerical solution. For the proof of concept demonstrations, the method is used to estimate ET for a simple synthetic watershed and then for a real, highly-characterized 7000 km2 watershed in Southern Ontario, Canada (Grand River Watershed). The results for the Grand River Watershed show that with three to five iterations, the solution converges to a result where there is less than 1% relative error in stream flow calibration at 16 stream gauging stations. The spatially-averaged ET estimated using the iterative method shows a high level of agreement (R2 = 0.99) with that from a benchmark case simulated with an ET model embedded directly in HydroGeoSphere. The new approach presented here is applicable to any watershed that is suited for integrated surface water/groundwater flow modelling and where spatially-averaged ET estimates are useful for calibrating modelled stream discharge.

  12. Parallel Simulation of Three-Dimensional Free Surface Fluid Flow Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Simulation of viscous three-dimensional fluid flow typically involves a large number of unknowns. When free surfaces are included, the number of unknowns increases dramatically. Consequently, this class of problem is an obvious application of parallel high performance computing. We describe parallel computation of viscous, incompressible, free surface, Newtonian fluid flow problems that include dynamic contact fines. The Galerkin finite element method was used to discretize the fully-coupled governing conservation equations and a ''pseudo-solid'' mesh mapping approach was used to determine the shape of the free surface. In this approach, the finite element mesh is allowed to deform to satisfy quasi-static solid mechanics equations subject to geometric or kinematic constraints on the boundaries. As a result, nodal displacements must be included in the set of unknowns. Other issues discussed are the proper constraints appearing along the dynamic contact line in three dimensions. Issues affecting efficient parallel simulations include problem decomposition to equally distribute computational work among a SPMD computer and determination of robust, scalable preconditioners for the distributed matrix systems that must be solved. Solution continuation strategies important for serial simulations have an enhanced relevance in a parallel coquting environment due to the difficulty of solving large scale systems. Parallel computations will be demonstrated on an example taken from the coating flow industry: flow in the vicinity of a slot coater edge. This is a three dimensional free surface problem possessing a contact line that advances at the web speed in one region but transitions to static behavior in another region. As such, a significant fraction of the computational time is devoted to processing boundary data. Discussion focuses on parallel speed ups for fixed problem size, a class of problems of immediate practical importance

  13. Application and evaluation of LS-PIV technique for the monitoring of river surface velocities in high flow conditions


    Jodeau , M.; Hauet , A.; Paquier , A.; Le Coz , J.; Dramais , G.


    Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LS-PIV) is used to measure the surface flow velocities in a mountain stream during high flow conditions due to a reservoir release. A complete installation including video acquisition from a mobile elevated viewpoint and artificial flow seeding has been developed and implemented. The LS-PIV method was adapted in order to take into account the specific constraints of these high flow conditions. Using a usual LS-PIV data processing, significant variations...

  14. Endothelial surface glycocalyx can regulate flow-induced nitric oxide production in microvessels in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanyi Yen

    Full Text Available Due to its unique location, the endothelial surface glycocalyx (ESG at the luminal side of the microvessel wall may serve as a mechano-sensor and transducer of blood flow and thus regulate endothelial functions. To examine this role of the ESG, we used fluorescence microscopy to measure nitric oxide (NO production in post-capillary venules and arterioles of rat mesentery under reduced (low and normal (high flow conditions, with and without enzyme pretreatment to remove heparan sulfate (HS of the ESG and in the presence of an endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS inhibitor, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA. Rats (SD, 250-300 g were anesthetized. The mesentery was gently taken out from the abdominal cavity and arranged on the surface of a glass coverslip for the measurement. An individual post-capillary venule or arteriole was cannulated and loaded for 45 min with 5 μM 4, 5-Diaminofluorescein diacetate, a membrane permeable fluorescent indictor for NO, then the NO production was measured for ~10 min under a low flow (~300 μm/s and for ~60 min under a high flow (~1000 μm/s. In the 15 min after switching to the high flow, DAF-2-NO fluorescence intensity increased to 1.27-fold of its baseline, DAF-2-NO continuously increased under the high flow, to 1.53-fold of its baseline in 60 min. Inhibition of eNOS by 1 mM L-NMMA attenuated the flow-induced NO production to 1.13-fold in 15 min and 1.30-fold of its baseline in 60 min, respectively. In contrast, no significant increase in NO production was observed after switching to the high flow for 60 min when 1 h pretreatment with 50 mU/mL heparanase III to degrade the ESG was applied. Similar NO production was observed in arterioles under low and high flows and under eNOS inhibition. Our results suggest that ESG participates in endothelial cell mechanosensing and transduction through its heparan sulfate to activate eNOS.

  15. Bed Surface Responses to Spatially Variable Flow in Low Relative Submergence Conditions (United States)

    Monsalve Sepulveda, A.; Yager, E.


    Flow hydraulics and sediment fluxes in mountainous rivers are partly controlled by large relatively immobile grains and sediment patches. Generally, in these rivers the flow depth is similar to the size of these large grains (low relative submergence), and is characterized by 3D heterogeneity and plunging flow that can cause spatial distributions of bed surface elevations, textures, and sedimentation rates. Sediment patches, on the other hand, consist of distinct areas of the bed with relatively narrow grain size distributions (GSD) and greater sorting compared to that of the reach, can cause spatial distributions of flow properties, and therefore, a continuous feedback between them and flow hydraulics exists and partially controls the evolution of a river. Although sediment-water interactions are affected by sediment patches, they are rarely explicitly included in bedload transport calculations, in part because their formation and evolution are controlled by highly temporal and spatially variable mechanisms, such as shear stress fields, flow discharges, turbulence, and local GSD. To explore how the bed surface evolves and sediment patches are formed, we conducted a set of experiments in which we varied the relative submergence (RS) of staggered simulated boulders between runs. All experiments had the same average sediment transport capacity, upstream sediment supply, and initial gravel bed thickness and GSD. Different RS between experiments were achieved by simultaneously adjusting flow discharge and bed slope (2.15 - 3.7 %). To obtain a detailed flow field we combined our laboratory measurements with a 3D flow model. Around the boulders, the shear stress field was highly variable and controlled the sediment flux rates and its direction. The divergence in shear stress caused by the boulders promoted size-selective bedload deposition, which in some cases resulted in the formation of a coarse sediment patch upstream of the boulders but, for the higher slopes, a bar

  16. Bio-cathode materials evaluation and configuration optimization for power output of vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland - microbial fuel cell systems. (United States)

    Liu, Shentan; Song, Hailiang; Wei, Size; Yang, Fei; Li, Xianning


    To optimize the performance of a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland-microbial fuel cell (CW-MFC), studies of bio-cathode materials and reactor configurations were carried out. Three commonly used bio-cathode materials including stainless steel mesh (SSM), carbon cloth (CC) and granular activated carbon (GAC) were compared and evaluated. GAC-SSM bio-cathode achieved the highest maximum power density of 55.05 mWm(-2), and it was most suitable for CW-MFCs application because of its large surface area and helpful capillary water absorption. Two types of CW-MFCs with roots were constructed, one was placed in the anode and the other was placed in the cathode. Both planted CW-MFCs obtained higher power output than non-planted CW-MFC. Periodic voltage fluctuations of planted CW-MFCs were caused by light/dark cycles, and the influent substrate concentration significantly affected the amplitude of oscillation. The coulombic efficiencies of CW-MFCs decreased greatly with the increase of the influent substrate concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Visualization of pre-set vortices in boundary layer flow over wavy surface in rectangular channel

    KAUST Repository

    Budiman, Alexander Christantho


    Abstract: Smoke-wire flow visualization is used to study the development of pre-set counter-rotating streamwise vortices in boundary layer flow over a wavy surface in a rectangular channel. The formation of the vortices is indicated by the vortical structures on the cross-sectional plane normal to the wavy surface. To obtain uniform spanwise vortex wavelength which will result in uniform vortex size, two types of spanwise disturbances were used: a series of perturbation wires placed prior and normal to the leading edge of the wavy surface, and a jagged pattern in the form of uniform triangles cut at the leading edge. These perturbation wires and jagged pattern induce low-velocity streaks that result in the formation of counter-rotating streamwise vortices that evolve downstream to form the mushroom-like structures on the cross-sectional plane of the flow. The evolution of the most amplified disturbances can be attributed to the formation of these mushroom-like structures. It is also shown that the size of the mushroom-like structures depends on the channel entrance geometry, Reynolds number, and the channel gap.Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Dynamic Gas Flow Effects on the ESD of Aerospace Vehicle Surfaces (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Cox, Rachel E.; Mulligan, Jaysen; Ahmed, Kareem; Wilson, Jennifer G.; Calle, Luz M.


    The purpose of this work is to develop a version of Paschen's Law that takes into account the flow of ambient gas past electrode surfaces. Paschen's Law does not consider the flow of gas past an aerospace vehicle, whose surfaces may be triboelectrically charged by dust or ice crystal impingement while traversing the atmosphere. The basic hypothesis of this work is that the number of electron-ion pairs created per unit distance between electrode surfaces is mitigated by the electron-ion pairs removed per unit distance by the flow of gas. The revised theoretical model must be a function of the mean velocity, v (sub xm), of the ambient gas and reduce to Paschen's law when the gas mean velocity, v (sub xm) equals 0. A new theoretical formulation of Paschen's Law, taking into account the Mach number and dynamic pressure, derived by the authors, will be discussed. This equation was evaluated by wind tunnel experimentation whose results were consistent with the model hypothesis.

  19. The interaction between fluid flow and ultra-hydrophobic surface in mini channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasikova Darina


    Full Text Available Interaction of liquid with ultra-hydrophobic surface is accompanied by creation of layer of air. The effect of the air film has a potential of use in industry in many applications. The quality of the surface is influenced by matrix roughness, the character of physical or chemical cover. There was developed a method for analysis of the liquid flow and the air film using the lighting in volume, visualization with CCD camera and long distance microscope, and optical filters. There were prepared four stainless steel samples of inner channel of dimensions (80 × 8 × 8 mm and initial surface roughness Ra 0.33, Ra 1.0, Ra 2.0, and Ra 2.2. The inner channel was treated with plasma and commercial hydrophobic coating Greblon (WEILBURGER Coatings GmbH. There was realized study focused on the liquid flow velocity profile close to the air film. There are present results for laminar, transient and turbulent flows. The study also estimated the air film thickness depending on the Re number. The knowledge of the air film behaviour helps applied suitable degree of processing and cover for the target application.

  20. Active and passive controls of Jeffrey nanofluid flow over a nonlinear stretching surface (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Aziz, Arsalan; Muhammad, Taseer; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    This communication explores magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary-layer flow of Jeffrey nanofluid over a nonlinear stretching surface with active and passive controls of nanoparticles. A nonlinear stretching surface generates the flow. Effects of thermophoresis and Brownian diffusion are considered. Jeffrey fluid is electrically conducted subject to non-uniform magnetic field. Low magnetic Reynolds number and boundary-layer approximations have been considered in mathematical modelling. The phenomena of impulsing the particles away from the surface in combination with non-zero mass flux condition is known as the condition of zero mass flux. Convergent series solutions for the nonlinear governing system are established through optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM). Graphs have been sketched in order to analyze that how the temperature and concentration distributions are affected by distinct physical flow parameters. Skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are also computed and analyzed. Our findings show that the temperature and concentration distributions are increasing functions of Hartman number and thermophoresis parameter.

  1. Numerical analysis of 3D micropolar nanofluid flow induced by an exponentially stretching surface embedded in a porous medium (United States)

    Subhani, M.; Nadeem, S.


    The present article is devoted to probe the behavior of a three-dimensional micropolar nanofluid over an exponentially stretching surface in a porous medium. The mathematical model is constructed in the form of partial differential equations using the boundary layer approach. Then by employing similarity transformations, the modelled partial differential equations are transformed to ordinary differential equations. The solution of subsequent ODEs is derived by utilizing the BVP-4C technique alongside the shooting scheme. The graphical illustrations are presented to interpret the salient features of pertinent physical parameters on the concerned profiles for different kinds of nanoparticles, namely copper, titania and alumina with water as the base fluid. For a better understanding of the fluid flow, the numerical variation in the local skin friction coefficients, Cfx and Cfy , and local Nusselt number is analyzed through tables. We can see, from the present study, that the omission of porous matrix enhances the flow of the fluid. Microrotation has a decreasing impact on the skin friction whereas it increases the rate of the heat transfer of the nanofluid.

  2. Convective heat transfer in MHD slip flow over a stretching surface in the presence of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul Haq, Rizwan; Nadeem, Sohail; Khan, Z.H.; Noor, N.F.M.


    In the present study, thermal conductivity and viscosity of both single-wall and multiple-wall Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) within the base fluids (water, engine oil and ethylene glycol) of similar volume have been investigated when the fluid is flowing over a stretching surface. The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and viscous dissipation effects are also incorporated in the present phenomena. Experimental data consists of thermo-physical properties of each base fluid and CNT have been considered. The mathematical model has been constructed and by employing similarity transformation, system of partial differential equations is rehabilitated into the system of non-linear ordinary differential equations. The results of local skin friction and local Nusselt number are plotted for each base fluid by considering both Single Wall Carbon Nanotube (SWCNT) and Multiple-Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT). The behavior of fluid flow for water based-SWCNT and MWCNT are analyzed through streamlines. Concluding remarks have been developed on behalf of the whole analysis and it is found that engine oil-based CNT have higher skin friction and heat transfer rate as compared to water and ethylene glycol-based CNT. - Graphical abstract: Comparison among three different base fluids in the presence of SWCNTs and MWCNTs for skin friction and local Nusselt number.

  3. How to reduce tire-pavement noise : better practices for constructing and texturing concrete pavement surfaces. (United States)


    Concrete pavements can be designed and constructed to be as quiet as any other conventional pavement type in use today. This report : provides an overview of how this can be doneand done consistently. : In order to construct a quieter concrete pav...

  4. `Surface-Layer' momentum fluxes in nocturnal slope flows over steep terrain (United States)

    Oldroyd, H. J.; Pardyjak, E.; Higgins, C. W.; Parlange, M. B.


    A common working definition for the `surface layer' is the lowest 10% of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) where the turbulent fluxes are essentially constant. The latter part of this definition is a critical assumption that must hold for accurate flux estimations from land-surface models, wall models, similarity theory, flux-gradient relations and bulk transfer methods. We present cases from observed momentum fluxes in nocturnal slope flows over steep (35.5 degree), alpine terrain in Val Ferret, Switzerland that satisfy the classical definitions of the surface layer and other cases where no traditional surface layer is observed. These cases broadly fall into two distinct flow regimes occurring under clear-sky conditions: (1) buoyancy-driven, `katabatic flow', characterized by an elevated velocity maximum (katabatic jet peak) and (2) `downslope winds', for which larger-scale forcing prevents formation of a katabatic jet. Velocity profiles in downslope wind cases are quite similar to logarithmic profiles typically observed over horizontal and homogeneous terrain, and the corresponding momentum fluxes roughly resemble a constant-flux surface-layer. Contrastingly, velocity profiles in the katabatic regime exhibit a jet-like shape. This jet strongly modulates the corresponding momentum fluxes, which exhibit strong gradients over the shallow katabatic layer and usually change sign near the jet peak, where the velocity gradients also change sign. However, a counter-gradient momentum flux is frequently observed near the jet peak (and sometimes at higher levels), suggesting strong non-local turbulent transport within the katabatic jet layer. We compare our observations with katabatic flow theories and observational studies over shallow-angle slopes and use co-spectral analyses to better identify and understand the non-local transport dynamics. Finally, we show that because of the counter-gradient momentum fluxes, surface layer stability and even local stability can be

  5. Unsteady convection flow and heat transfer over a vertical stretching surface. (United States)

    Cai, Wenli; Su, Ning; Liu, Xiangdong


    This paper investigates the effect of thermal radiation on unsteady convection flow and heat transfer over a vertical permeable stretching surface in porous medium, where the effects of temperature dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity are also considered. By using a similarity transformation, the governing time-dependent boundary layer equations for momentum and thermal energy are first transformed into coupled, non-linear ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients. Numerical solutions to these equations subject to appropriate boundary conditions are obtained by the numerical shooting technique with fourth-fifth order Runge-Kutta scheme. Numerical results show that as viscosity variation parameter increases both the absolute value of the surface friction coefficient and the absolute value of the surface temperature gradient increase whereas the temperature decreases slightly. With the increase of viscosity variation parameter, the velocity decreases near the sheet surface but increases far away from the surface of the sheet in the boundary layer. The increase in permeability parameter leads to the decrease in both the temperature and the absolute value of the surface friction coefficient, and the increase in both the velocity and the absolute value of the surface temperature gradient.

  6. Effects of Micromachining Processes on Electro-Osmotic Flow Mobility of Glass Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihisa Miki


    Full Text Available Silica glass is frequently used as a device material for micro/nano fluidic devices due to its excellent properties, such as transparency and chemical resistance. Wet etching by hydrofluoric acid and dry etching by neutral loop discharge (NLD plasma etching are currently used to micromachine glass to form micro/nano fluidic channels. Electro-osmotic flow (EOF is one of the most effective methods to drive liquids into the channels. EOF mobility is affected by a property of the micromachined glass surfaces, which includes surface roughness that is determined by the manufacturing processes. In this paper, we investigate the effect of micromaching processes on the glass surface topography and the EOF mobility. We prepared glass surfaces by either wet etching or by NLD plasma etching, investigated the surface topography using atomic force microscopy, and attempted to correlate it with EOF generated in the micro-channels of the machined glass. Experiments revealed that the EOF mobility strongly depends on the surface roughness, and therefore upon the fabrication process used. A particularly strong dependency was observed when the surface roughness was on the order of the electric double layer thickness or below. We believe that the correlation described in this paper can be of great help in the design of micro/nano fluidic devices.

  7. A finite-volume HLLC-based scheme for compressible interfacial flows with surface tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrick, Daniel P. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States); Owkes, Mark [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT (United States); Regele, Jonathan D., E-mail: [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States)


    Shock waves are often used in experiments to create a shear flow across liquid droplets to study secondary atomization. Similar behavior occurs inside of supersonic combustors (scramjets) under startup conditions, but it is challenging to study these conditions experimentally. In order to investigate this phenomenon further, a numerical approach is developed to simulate compressible multiphase flows under the effects of surface tension forces. The flow field is solved via the compressible multicomponent Euler equations (i.e., the five equation model) discretized with the finite volume method on a uniform Cartesian grid. The solver utilizes a total variation diminishing (TVD) third-order Runge–Kutta method for time-marching and second order TVD spatial reconstruction. Surface tension is incorporated using the Continuum Surface Force (CSF) model. Fluxes are upwinded with a modified Harten–Lax–van Leer Contact (HLLC) approximate Riemann solver. An interface compression scheme is employed to counter numerical diffusion of the interface. The present work includes modifications to both the HLLC solver and the interface compression scheme to account for capillary force terms and the associated pressure jump across the gas–liquid interface. A simple method for numerically computing the interface curvature is developed and an acoustic scaling of the surface tension coefficient is proposed for the non-dimensionalization of the model. The model captures the surface tension induced pressure jump exactly if the exact curvature is known and is further verified with an oscillating elliptical droplet and Mach 1.47 and 3 shock-droplet interaction problems. The general characteristics of secondary atomization at a range of Weber numbers are also captured in a series of simulations.

  8. The influence of surface roughness on cloud cavitation flow around hydrofoils (United States)

    Hao, Jiafeng; Zhang, Mindi; Huang, Xu


    The aim of this study is to investigate experimentally the effect of surface roughness on cloud cavitation around Clark-Y hydrofoils. High-speed video and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were used to obtain cavitation patterns images (Prog. Aerosp. Sci. 37: 551-581, 2001), as well as velocity and vorticity fields. Results are presented for cloud cavitating conditions around a Clark-Y hydrofoil fixed at angle of attack of α =8{°} for moderate Reynolds number of Re=5.6 × 105 . The results show that roughness had a great influence on the pattern, velocity and vorticity distribution of cloud cavitation. For cavitating flow around a smooth hydrofoil (A) and a rough hydrofoil (B), cloud cavitation occurred in the form of finger-like cavities and attached subulate cavities, respectively. The period of cloud cavitation around hydrofoil A was shorter than for hydrofoil B. Surface roughness had a great influence on the process of cloud cavitation. The development of cloud cavitation around hydrofoil A consisted of two stages: (1) Attached cavities developed along the surface to the trailing edge; (2) A reentrant jet developed, resulting in shedding and collapse of cluster bubbles or vortex structure. Meanwhile, its development for hydrofoil B included three stages: (1) Attached cavities developed along the surface to the trailing edge, with accumulation and rotation of bubbles at the trailing edge of the hydrofoil affecting the flow field; (2) Development of a reentrant jet resulted in the first shedding of cavities. Interaction and movement of flows from the pressure side and suction side brought liquid water from the pressure side to the suction side of the hydrofoil, finally forming a reentrant jet. The jet kept moving along the surface to the leading edge of the hydrofoil, resulting in large-scale shedding of cloud bubbles. Several vortices appeared and dissipated during the process; (3) Cavities grew and shed again.

  9. The influence of surface roughness on cloud cavitation flow around hydrofoils (United States)

    Hao, Jiafeng; Zhang, Mindi; Huang, Xu


    The aim of this study is to investigate experimentally the effect of surface roughness on cloud cavitation around Clark-Y hydrofoils. High-speed video and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were used to obtain cavitation patterns images (Prog. Aerosp. Sci. 37: 551-581, 2001), as well as velocity and vorticity fields. Results are presented for cloud cavitating conditions around a Clark-Y hydrofoil fixed at angle of attack of α =8{°} for moderate Reynolds number of Re=5.6 × 105. The results show that roughness had a great influence on the pattern, velocity and vorticity distribution of cloud cavitation. For cavitating flow around a smooth hydrofoil (A) and a rough hydrofoil (B), cloud cavitation occurred in the form of finger-like cavities and attached subulate cavities, respectively. The period of cloud cavitation around hydrofoil A was shorter than for hydrofoil B. Surface roughness had a great influence on the process of cloud cavitation. The development of cloud cavitation around hydrofoil A consisted of two stages: (1) Attached cavities developed along the surface to the trailing edge; (2) A reentrant jet developed, resulting in shedding and collapse of cluster bubbles or vortex structure. Meanwhile, its development for hydrofoil B included three stages: (1) Attached cavities developed along the surface to the trailing edge, with accumulation and rotation of bubbles at the trailing edge of the hydrofoil affecting the flow field; (2) Development of a reentrant jet resulted in the first shedding of cavities. Interaction and movement of flows from the pressure side and suction side brought liquid water from the pressure side to the suction side of the hydrofoil, finally forming a reentrant jet. The jet kept moving along the surface to the leading edge of the hydrofoil, resulting in large-scale shedding of cloud bubbles. Several vortices appeared and dissipated during the process; (3) Cavities grew and shed again.

  10. Scenarios constructed for nominal flow in the presence of a repository at Yucca Mountain and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, G.E.; Hunter, R.L.; Dunn, E.; Flint, A.


    Scenario development for the system performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project defines a scenario as a well-posed problem connecting an initiating event with radionuclide release to the accessible environment by a logical and physically possible combination or sequence of features, events, and processes. Drawing on the advice and assistance of the Project's principal investigators (PIs), a collection of release scenarios initiated by the nominal ground-water flow occurring in the vicinity of the potential Yucca Mountain high-level-waste repository is developed and described in pictorial form. This collection of scenarios is intended to provide a framework to assist PIs in recognizing essential field and calculational analyses, to assist performance assessment in providing guidance to site characterization, and to continue the effort to exhaustively identify all features, events, and processes important to releases. It represents a step in the iterative process of identifying what details of the potential site are important for safe disposal. 67 refs

  11. Continuous surface force based lattice Boltzmann equation method for simulating thermocapillary flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Lin, E-mail: [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Zheng, Song [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zhai, Qinglan [School of Economics Management and Law, Chaohu University, Chaohu 238000 (China)


    In this paper, we extend a lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) with continuous surface force (CSF) to simulate thermocapillary flows. The model is designed on our previous CSF LBE for athermal two phase flow, in which the interfacial tension forces and the Marangoni stresses as the results of the interface interactions between different phases are described by a conception of CSF. In this model, the sharp interfaces between different phases are separated by a narrow transition layers, and the kinetics and morphology evolution of phase separation would be characterized by an order parameter via Cahn–Hilliard equation which is solved in the frame work of LBE. The scalar convection–diffusion equation for temperature field is resolved by thermal LBE. The models are validated by thermal two layered Poiseuille flow, and two superimposed planar fluids at negligibly small Reynolds and Marangoni numbers for the thermocapillary driven convection, which have analytical solutions for the velocity and temperature. Then thermocapillary migration of two/three dimensional deformable droplet are simulated. Numerical results show that the predictions of present LBE agreed with the analytical solution/other numerical results. - Highlights: • A CSF LBE to thermocapillary flows. • Thermal layered Poiseuille flows. • Thermocapillary migration.

  12. Continuous surface force based lattice Boltzmann equation method for simulating thermocapillary flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Lin; Zheng, Song; Zhai, Qinglan


    In this paper, we extend a lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) with continuous surface force (CSF) to simulate thermocapillary flows. The model is designed on our previous CSF LBE for athermal two phase flow, in which the interfacial tension forces and the Marangoni stresses as the results of the interface interactions between different phases are described by a conception of CSF. In this model, the sharp interfaces between different phases are separated by a narrow transition layers, and the kinetics and morphology evolution of phase separation would be characterized by an order parameter via Cahn–Hilliard equation which is solved in the frame work of LBE. The scalar convection–diffusion equation for temperature field is resolved by thermal LBE. The models are validated by thermal two layered Poiseuille flow, and two superimposed planar fluids at negligibly small Reynolds and Marangoni numbers for the thermocapillary driven convection, which have analytical solutions for the velocity and temperature. Then thermocapillary migration of two/three dimensional deformable droplet are simulated. Numerical results show that the predictions of present LBE agreed with the analytical solution/other numerical results. - Highlights: • A CSF LBE to thermocapillary flows. • Thermal layered Poiseuille flows. • Thermocapillary migration.

  13. Construction of Low Dissipative High Order Well-Balanced Filter Schemes for Non-Equilibrium Flows (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yee, H. C.; Sjogreen, Bjorn; Magin, Thierry; Shu, Chi-Wang


    The goal of this paper is to generalize the well-balanced approach for non-equilibrium flow studied by Wang et al. [26] to a class of low dissipative high order shock-capturing filter schemes and to explore more advantages of well-balanced schemes in reacting flows. The class of filter schemes developed by Yee et al. [30], Sjoegreen & Yee [24] and Yee & Sjoegreen [35] consist of two steps, a full time step of spatially high order non-dissipative base scheme and an adaptive nonlinear filter containing shock-capturing dissipation. A good property of the filter scheme is that the base scheme and the filter are stand alone modules in designing. Therefore, the idea of designing a well-balanced filter scheme is straightforward, i.e., choosing a well-balanced base scheme with a well-balanced filter (both with high order). A typical class of these schemes shown in this paper is the high order central difference schemes/predictor-corrector (PC) schemes with a high order well-balanced WENO filter. The new filter scheme with the well-balanced property will gather the features of both filter methods and well-balanced properties: it can preserve certain steady state solutions exactly; it is able to capture small perturbations, e.g., turbulence fluctuations; it adaptively controls numerical dissipation. Thus it shows high accuracy, efficiency and stability in shock/turbulence interactions. Numerical examples containing 1D and 2D smooth problems, 1D stationary contact discontinuity problem and 1D turbulence/shock interactions are included to verify the improved accuracy, in addition to the well-balanced behavior.

  14. Observing hydrological processes: recent advancements in surface flow monitoring through image analysis (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Grimaldi, Salvatore


    Recently, several efforts have been devoted to the design and development of innovative, and often unintended, approaches for the acquisition of hydrological data. Among such pioneering techniques, this presentation reports recent advancements towards the establishment of a novel noninvasive and potentially continuous methodology based on the acquisition and analysis of images for spatially distributed observations of the kinematics of surface waters. The approach aims at enabling rapid, affordable, and accurate surface flow monitoring of natural streams. Flow monitoring is an integral part of hydrological sciences and is essential for disaster risk reduction and the comprehension of natural phenomena. However, water processes are inherently complex to observe: they are characterized by multiscale and highly heterogeneous phenomena which have traditionally demanded sophisticated and costly measurement techniques. Challenges in the implementation of such techniques have also resulted in lack of hydrological data during extreme events, in difficult-to-access environments, and at high temporal resolution. By combining low-cost yet high-resolution images and several velocimetry algorithms, noninvasive flow monitoring has been successfully conducted at highly heterogeneous scales, spanning from rills to highly turbulent streams, and medium-scale rivers, with minimal supervision by external users. Noninvasive image data acquisition has also afforded observations in high flow conditions. Latest novelties towards continuous flow monitoring at the catchment scale have entailed the development of a remote gauge-cam station on the Tiber River and integration of flow monitoring through image analysis with unmanned aerial systems (UASs) technology. The gauge-cam station and the UAS platform both afford noninvasive image acquisition and calibration through an innovative laser-based setup. Compared to traditional point-based instrumentation, images allow for generating surface

  15. Effect of surface transport properties on the performance of carbon plastic electrodes for flow battery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xihe; Souier, Tewfik; Chiesa, Matteo; Vassallo, Anthony


    Due to their high electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance, carbon nanotube (MWNT)-high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites are potential candidates to replace traditional activated carbon electrodes for the next generation of fuel-cells, super capacitors and flow batteries. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is employed to separate the surface conduction from bulk conduction in 15% HDPE-MWNT and 19% carbon black (CB)-HDPE composites for zinc-bromine flow battery electrodes. While exhibiting superior bulk conductivity, the interfacial conductivity of MWNT-filled composites is lower than that of CB-filled composites. High resolution conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) imaging and current-voltage (I-V) spectroscopy were employed to investigate the sub-surface electronic transport of the composite. Unlike the CB-composite, the fraction of conducting MWNTs near the surface is very low compared to their volume fraction. In addition, the non-linear I-V curves reveal the presence of a tunneling junction between the tip and the polymer-coated MWNTs. The tunneling resistance is as high as 1 GΩ, which strongly affects the electronic/electrochemical transfer at the interface of the electrolyte and the surface of the composite, which is evident in the voltammetric and EIS observations

  16. Stagnation-point flow of second grade nanofluid towards a nonlinear stretching surface with variable thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai Sajjad Saif

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the stagnation point flow of second grade nanomaterial towards a nonlinear stretching surface subject to variable surface thickness. The process of heat transfer is examined through the melting heat and mixed convection effects. Further novel features regarding Brownian motion and thermophoresis are present. Boundary-layer approximation is employed in the problem formulation. Momentum, energy and concentration equations are converted into the non-linear ordinary differential system through the appropriate transformations. Convergent solutions for resulting problem are computed. Behaviors of various sundry variables on temperature and concentration are studied in detail. The skin friction coefficient and heat and mass transfer rates are also computed and analyzed. Our results indicate that the temperature and concentration distributions are enhanced for larger values of thermophoresis parameter. Further the present work is hoped to be useful in improving the performance of heat transfer of base fluid. Keywords: Stagnation-point flow, Second grade fluid, Nanoparticles, Melting heat process, Nonlinear stretching surface, Variable surface thickness

  17. Development of Additive Construction Technologies for Application to Development of Lunar/Martian Surface Structures Using In-Situ Materials (United States)

    Werkheiser, Niki J.; Fiske, Michael R.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.; Khoshnevis, Berokh


    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in situ materials will become increasingly critical. As human presence on these bodies expands, so must the breadth of the structures required to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for natural radiation and surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. Planetary surface structure manufacturing and assembly technologies that incorporate in situ resources provide options for autonomous, affordable, pre-positioned environments with radiation shielding features and protection from micrometeorites, exhaust plume debris, and other hazards. The ability to use in-situ materials to construct these structures will provide a benefit in the reduction of up-mass that would otherwise make long-term Moon or Mars structures cost prohibitive. The ability to fabricate structures in situ brings with it the ability to repair these structures, which allows for the self-sufficiency and sustainability necessary for long-duration habitation. Previously, under the auspices of the MSFC In-Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) project and more recently, under the jointly-managed MSFC/KSC Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project, the MSFC Surface Structures Group has been developing materials and construction technologies to support future planetary habitats with in-situ resources. One such additive construction technology is known as Contour Crafting. This paper presents the results to date of these efforts, including development of novel nozzle concepts for advanced layer deposition using this process. Conceived initially for rapid development of cementitious structures on Earth, it also lends itself exceptionally well to the automated fabrication of planetary surface structures using minimally processed regolith as aggregate, and binders developed from in situ materials as well. This process has been used successfully in the fabrication of

  18. Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman-de Bres, E.M.; Sieben, J.M.; Smailbegovic, I.; Bruin, A. de; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der


    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially

  19. A new geometrical construction using rounded surfaces proposed for the transverse flux machine for direct drive wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argeseanu, Alin; Nica, Florin Valentin Traian; Ritchie, Ewen


    This paper proposes a new construction for transverse flux machines (TFM) using a rounded surfaces core geometry. The new concept has been developed for TFM with U core geometry. In this case a new analytic design procedure was proposed. The analytic design of the new TFM construction is further...... improved by FEM modelling and analysis. Using the new concept, a significant reduction of the active materials is obtained. The innovative geometry also provides a uniform magnetic field in the core structure. According to the comparison of both the TFM with prismatic and rounded core geometries the new...

  20. Transient flow between aquifers and surface water: analytically derived field-scale hydraulic heads and fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. de Rooij


    Full Text Available The increasing importance of catchment-scale and basin-scale models of the hydrological cycle makes it desirable to have a simple, yet physically realistic model for lateral subsurface water flow. As a first building block towards such a model, analytical solutions are presented for horizontal groundwater flow to surface waters held at prescribed water levels for aquifers with parallel and radial flow. The solutions are valid for a wide array of initial and boundary conditions and additions or withdrawals of water, and can handle discharge into as well as lateral infiltration from the surface water. Expressions for the average hydraulic head, the flux to or from the surface water, and the aquifer-scale hydraulic conductivity are developed to provide output at the scale of the modelled system rather than just point-scale values. The upscaled conductivity is time-variant. It does not depend on the magnitude of the flux but is determined by medium properties as well as the external forcings that drive the flow. For the systems studied, with lateral travel distances not exceeding 10 m, the circular aquifers respond very differently from the infinite-strip aquifers. The modelled fluxes are sensitive to the magnitude of the storage coefficient. For phreatic aquifers a value of 0.2 is argued to be representative, but considerable variations are likely. The effect of varying distributions over the day of recharge damps out rapidly; a soil water model that can provide accurate daily totals is preferable over a less accurate model hat correctly estimates the timing of recharge peaks.

  1. Water Entry and Exit of Horizontal Cylinder in Free Surface Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafsia, Zouhaier; Maalel, Khlifa; Mnasri, Chokri; Mohamed, Omri


    This paper describes two-dimensional numerical simulations of the water entry and exit of horizontal circular cylinder at constant velocity. The deformation of free surface is described by Navier-Stokes (N S) equations of incompressible and viscous fluid with additional transport equation of the volume-of-fluid (VOF). The motion of the cylinder is modeled by the associated momentum source term implemented in the Phoenicis (Parabolic Hyperbolic Or Elliptic Numerical Integration Code Series) code. The domain is discretized by a fixed Cartesian grid using a finite volume method and the cylinder is represented and cut cell method. The simulated results are compared with the numerical results of Lin (2007). This comparison shows good agreement in terms of free surface evolution for water exit and sinking. However, for water entry, the jet flow simulated by Lin is not reproduced. The free surface deformation around the cylinder in downward direction is accurately predicted

  2. Dissipation on Steady MHD Marangoni Convection Flow over a Flat Surface with Suction and Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammed Ibrahim


    Full Text Available The combined effects of radiation and mass transfer on a steady MHD two-dimensional Marangoni convection flow over a flat surface in presence of Joule heating and viscous dissipation under influence of suction and injection is studied numerically. The general governing partial differential equations are transformed into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using unique similarity transformation. Numerical solutions of the similarity equations are obtained using the Runge-Kutta method along with shooting technique. The effects of governing parameters on velocity, temperature, and concentration as well as interface velocity, the surface temperature gradient, and the surface concentration gradient were presented in graphical and tabular forms. Comparisons with previously published work are performed and the results are found to be in excellent agreement.

  3. Construction and surface/interface behavior of bio-functional surface layer by microwave-excited Ar/H2O plasma-induced polyethylene glycol polymerization (United States)

    Shao, Z.; Ogino, A.; Nagatsu, M.


    Ar/H2O microwave-excited surface-wave plasma-induced grafting-polymerization and crosslinking technique was presented to construct a bio-functional surface layer. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to diagnose Ar/H2O plasma. The surface/interface behavior especially the aging effect of hydroxyl groups over the grafted PEG spacer layer was investigated by measuring water contact angle and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that the addition of water vapor into Ar plasma can optimize the concentration of hydroxyl functional groups on surface; grafted PEG spacer layer can provide a long-term hydrophilicity of PU films, and alleviate the aging effect of hydroxyl functional groups.

  4. Construction of second order accurate monotone and stable residual distribution schemes for unsteady flow problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abgrall, Remi; Mezine, Mohamed


    The aim of this paper is to construct upwind residual distribution schemes for the time accurate solution of hyperbolic conservation laws. To do so, we evaluate a space-time fluctuation based on a space-time approximation of the solution and develop new residual distribution schemes which are extensions of classical steady upwind residual distribution schemes. This method has been applied to the solution of scalar advection equation and to the solution of the compressible Euler equations both in two space dimensions. The first version of the scheme is shown to be, at least in its first order version, unconditionally energy stable and possibly conditionally monotonicity preserving. Using an idea of Csik et al. [Space-time residual distribution schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws, 15th AIAA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference, Anahein, CA, USA, AIAA 2001-2617, June 2001], we modify the formulation to end up with a scheme that is unconditionally energy stable and unconditionally monotonicity preserving. Several numerical examples are shown to demonstrate the stability and accuracy of the method

  5. Scenarios constructed for nominal flow in the presence of a repository at Yucca Mountain and vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, G.E.; Hunter, R.L.; Dunn, E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flint, A. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States)


    Scenario development for the system performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project defines a scenario as a well-posed problem connecting an initiating event with radionuclide release to the accessible environment by a logical and physically possible combination or sequence of features, events, and processes. Drawing on the advice and assistance of the Project`s principal investigators (PIs), a collection of release scenarios initiated by the nominal ground-water flow occurring in the vicinity of the potential Yucca Mountain high-level-waste repository is developed and described in pictorial form. This collection of scenarios is intended to provide a framework to assist PIs in recognizing essential field and calculational analyses, to assist performance assessment in providing guidance to site characterization, and to continue the effort to exhaustively identify all features, events, and processes important to releases. It represents a step in the iterative process of identifying what details of the potential site are important for safe disposal. 67 refs.

  6. A mass balance study on nitrification and deammonification in vertical flow constructed wetlands treating landfill leachate. (United States)

    Sun, G; Austin, D


    A laboratory-scale, mass-balance study was carried out on the transformation of nitrogenous pollutants in four vertical flow wetland columns. Landfill leachate containing low organic matter, but a high concentration of ammoniacal-nitrogen, was treated under dissolved oxygen concentrations close to saturation. Influent total nitrogen (TN) comprised ammoniacal-nitrogen with less than 1% nitrate and nitrite, negligible organic nitrogen, and very low BOD. Nitrification occurred in three of the four columns. There was a substantial loss of total nitrogen (52%) in one column, whereas other columns exhibited zero to minor losses (Nitrogen loss under study conditions was unexpected. Two hypotheses are proposed to account for it: (1) either the loss of TN is attributed to nitrogen transformation into a form (provisionally termed alpha-nitrogen) that is undetectable by the analytical methods used; or (2) the loss is caused by microbial denitrification or deammonification. By elimination and stoichiometric mass balance calculations, completely autotrophic nitrogen-removal over nitrite (CANON) deammonification is confirmed as responsible for nitrogen loss in one column. This result reveals that CANON can be native to aerobic engineered wetland systems treating high ammonia, low organic content wastewater.

  7. Surface Tension of Multi-phase Flow with Multiple Junctions Governed by the Variational Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsutani, Shigeki; Nakano, Kota; Shinjo, Katsuhiko


    We explore a computational model of an incompressible fluid with a multi-phase field in three-dimensional Euclidean space. By investigating an incompressible fluid with a two-phase field geometrically, we reformulate the expression of the surface tension for the two-phase field found by Lafaurie et al. (J Comput Phys 113:134–147, 1994) as a variational problem related to an infinite dimensional Lie group, the volume-preserving diffeomorphism. The variational principle to the action integral with the surface energy reproduces their Euler equation of the two-phase field with the surface tension. Since the surface energy of multiple interfaces even with singularities is not difficult to be evaluated in general and the variational formulation works for every action integral, the new formulation enables us to extend their expression to that of a multi-phase (N-phase, N ≥ 2) flow and to obtain a novel Euler equation with the surface tension of the multi-phase field. The obtained Euler equation governs the equation for motion of the multi-phase field with different surface tension coefficients without any difficulties for the singularities at multiple junctions. In other words, we unify the theory of multi-phase fields which express low dimensional interface geometry and the theory of the incompressible fluid dynamics on the infinite dimensional geometry as a variational problem. We apply the equation to the contact angle problems at triple junctions. We computed the fluid dynamics for a two-phase field with a wall numerically and show the numerical computational results that for given surface tension coefficients, the contact angles are generated by the surface tension as results of balances of the kinematic energy and the surface energy.

  8. Performance and behaviour of planted and unplanted units of a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland system treating municipal effluent from a UASB reactor. (United States)

    da Costa, Jocilene Ferreira; de Paoli, André Cordeiro; Seidl, Martin; von Sperling, Marcos


    A system composed of two horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands operating in parallel was evaluated for the post-treatment of UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor effluent, for a population equivalent of 50 inhabitants per unit. One unit was planted with cattail (Typha latifolia) and the other was unplanted. The study was undertaken over a period of 4 years, comprising monitoring of influent and effluent constituents together with a full characterization of the behaviour of the units (tracer studies, mathematical modelling of chemical oxygen demand (COD) decay, characterization of solids in the filter medium). The mean value of the surface hydraulic load was 0.11 m(3)m(-2)d(-1), and the theoretical hydraulic retention time was 1.1 d in each unit. Using tracer tests with (82)Br, dispersion number (d) values of 0.084 and 0.079 for the planted and unplanted units were obtained, indicating low to moderate dispersion. The final effluent had excellent quality in terms of organic matter and suspended solids, but the system showed low capacity for nitrogen removal. Four-year mean effluent concentration values from the planted and unplanted units were, respectively: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)): 25 and 23 mg L(-1); COD: 50 and 55 mg L(-1); total suspended solids (TSS): 9 and 9 mg L(-1); N-ammonia: 27 and 28 mg L(-1). The COD decay coefficient K for the traditional plug-flow model was 0.81 and 0.84 d(-1) for the planted and unplanted units. Around 80% of the total solids present in the filter medium were inorganic, and most of them were present in the interstices rather than attached to the support medium. As an overall conclusion, horizontal subsurface flow wetlands can be a very suitable post-treatment method for municipal effluents from anaerobic reactors.

  9. Measurement, Construction, and Maintenance of Skid-Resistant Airport Pavement Surfaces (United States)


    This advisory circular (AC) contains guidelines and procedures for the design : and construction of skid-resistant pavement, pavement evaluation with friction : measuring equipment, and maintenance of high skid-resistant pavements. 45p.

  10. A study of direct-current surface discharge plasma for a Mach 3 supersonic flow control (United States)

    Shin, Jichul

    A direct-current, non-equilibrium surface glow discharge plasma in the presence of a Mach 2.85 flow is studied experimentally for flow control applications. The discharge is generated with pin-like electrodes flush mounted on a ceramic plate with sustaining currents from 25 mA to 300 mA. In the presence of a supersonic flow, two distinct discharge modes - diffuse and constricted - are observed depending on the flow and discharge operating conditions. In cathode upstream location, both diffuse and constricted discharges are observed while in cathode downstream location, the discharge mostly exhibits either constricted mode or bistable mixed mode. The effect of the discharge on the flow ("plasma actuation'') is characterized by the appearance of a weak shock wave in the vicinity of the discharge. The shock is observed at low powers (˜10 W) for the diffuse discharge mode but is absent for the higher power (˜100 W) constricted mode. High speed laser schlieren imaging suggests that the diffuse mode plasma actuation is rapid as it occurs on a time scale that is less than 100 microsec. Rotational (gas) and vibrational temperatures within the discharge are estimated by emission spectral line fits of N 2 and N+2 rovibronic bands near 365-395 nm. The electronic temperatures are estimated by using the Boltzmann plot method for Fe(I) atomic lines. Rotational temperatures are found to be high (˜1500 K) in the absence of a flow but drop sharply (˜500 K) in the presence of a supersonic flow for both the diffuse and constricted discharge modes. The vibrational and electronic temperatures are measured to be about 3000 K and 1.25 eV (14500 K), respectively, and these temperatures are the same with and without flow. The gas (rotational) temperature spatial profiles above the cathode surface are found to be similar for the diffuse and constricted modes indicating that dilatational effects due to gas heating are similar. However, complete absence of flow actuation for the

  11. A Nonlinear Multiobjective Bilevel Model for Minimum Cost Network Flow Problem in a Large-Scale Construction Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuping Xu


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to deal with a minimum cost network flow problem (MCNFP in a large-scale construction project using a nonlinear multiobjective bilevel model with birandom variables. The main target of the upper level is to minimize both direct and transportation time costs. The target of the lower level is to minimize transportation costs. After an analysis of the birandom variables, an expectation multiobjective bilevel programming model with chance constraints is formulated to incorporate decision makers’ preferences. To solve the identified special conditions, an equivalent crisp model is proposed with an additional multiobjective bilevel particle swarm optimization (MOBLPSO developed to solve the model. The Shuibuya Hydropower Project is used as a real-world example to verify the proposed approach. Results and analysis are presented to highlight the performances of the MOBLPSO, which is very effective and efficient compared to a genetic algorithm and a simulated annealing algorithm.

  12. Prediction of Ablation Rates from Solid Surfaces Exposed to High Temperature Gas Flow (United States)

    Akyuzlu, Kazim M.; Coote, David


    A mathematical model and a solution algorithm is developed to study the physics of high temperature heat transfer and material ablation and identify the problems associated with the flow of hydrogen gas at very high temperatures and velocities through pipes and various components of Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) motors. Ablation and melting can be experienced when the inner solid surface of the cooling channels and the diverging-converging nozzle of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) motor is exposed to hydrogen gas flow at temperatures around 2500 degrees Kelvin and pressures around 3.4 MPa. In the experiments conducted on typical NTR motors developed in 1960s, degradation of the cooling channel material (cracking in the nuclear fuel element cladding) and in some instances melting of the core was observed. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study based on two types of physics based mathematical models that were developed to simulate the thermal-hydrodynamic conditions that lead to ablation of the solid surface of a stainless steel pipe exposed to high temperature hydrogen gas near sonic velocities. One of the proposed models is one-dimensional and assumes the gas flow to be unsteady, compressible and viscous. An in-house computer code was developed to solve the conservations equations of this model using a second-order accurate finite-difference technique. The second model assumes the flow to be three-dimensional, unsteady, compressible and viscous. A commercial CFD code (Fluent) was used to solve the later model equations. Both models assume the thermodynamic and transport properties of the hydrogen gas to be temperature dependent. In the solution algorithm developed for this study, the unsteady temperature of the pipe is determined from the heat equation for the solid. The solid-gas interface temperature is determined from an energy balance at the interface which includes heat transfer from or to the interface by conduction, convection, radiation, and

  13. Purifying capability, enzyme activity, and nitrification potentials in December in integrated vertical flow constructed wetland with earthworms and different substrates. (United States)

    Xu, Defu; Gu, Jiaru; Li, Yingxue; Zhang, Yu; Howard, Alan; Guan, Yidong; Li, Jiuhai; Xu, Hui


    The response of purifying capability, enzyme activity, nitrification potentials, and total number of bacteria in the rhizosphere in December to wetland plants, substrates, and earthworms was investigated in integrated vertical flow constructed wetlands (IVFCW). The removal efficiency of total nitrogen (TN), NH4-N, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total phosphorus (TP) was increased when earthworms were added into IVFCW. A significantly average removal efficiency of N in IVFCW that employed river sand as substrate and in IVFCW that employed a mixture of river sand and Qing sand as substrate was not found. However, the average removal efficiency of P was higher in IVFCW with a mixture of river sand and Qing sand as substrate than in IVFCW with river sand as substrate. Invertase activity in December was higher in IVFCW that used a mixture of river sand and Qing sand as substrate than in IVFCW which used only river sand as substrate. However, urease activity, nitrification potential, and total number of bacteria in December was higher in IVFCW that employed river sand as substrate than in IVFCW with a mixture of river sand and Qing sand as substrate. The addition of earthworms into the integrated vertical flow constructed wetland increased the above-ground biomass, enzyme activity (catalase, urease, and invertase), nitrification potentials, and total number of bacteria in December. The above-ground biomass of wetland plants was significantly positively correlated with urease and nitrification potentials (p earthworms into IVFCW increased enzyme activity and nitrification potentials in December, which resulted in improving purifying capability.

  14. Adhesion, Deformation, Rolling, and Detachment of a Liquid Capsule on An Adhesive Surface In Shear Flow (United States)

    Pappu, Vijay; Bagchi, Prosenjit


    3D computational modeling and simulation are presented on adhesion, deformation, rolling and detachment of a liquid capsule on adhesive surfaces in shear flow with an objective to understand the adhesive rolling motion of biological cells, such as leukocyte and cancel cells, and the coupling between cell deformation and biophysics of the adhesive bonds. The computational model is based on an immersed boundary method for deformable capsules, and a finite difference-Fourier transform technique for solving the complete Navier-Stokes equations. The flow solver is coupled with a Monte Carlo simulation representing random process for bond formation and breakage between the capsule and the adhesive surface. Becuase of the stochastic process of bond formation and breakage, the roling motion is comprised of intermittent ``stops-and-runs'' which is well-known for biological cells such as leukocytes, which is reproduced in our simulations. The major objective of this talk is to present phase diagrams for cell adhesion which are obtained in terms of the critical bond strength as a function of cell deformability and biophysical parameters of the adhesion bonds. Through these phase diagrams, we elucidate the role of the hydrodynamic lift force, that exists on an wall- bounded deformable particle in shear flow, in the process of cell capture. Funded by NSF (BES-0603035 and CTS-0625936).

  15. DNA motion induced by electrokinetic flow near an Au coated nanopore surface as voltage controlled gate. (United States)

    Sugimoto, Manabu; Kato, Yuta; Ishida, Kentaro; Hyun, Changbae; Li, Jiali; Mitsui, Toshiyuki


    We used fluorescence microscopy to investigate the diffusion and drift motion of λ DNA molecules on an Au-coated membrane surface near nanopores, prior to their translocation through solid-state nanopores. With the capability of controlling electric potential at the Au surface as a gate voltage, Vgate, the motions of DNA molecules, which are presumably generated by electrokinetic flow, vary dramatically near the nanopores in our observations. We carefully investigate these DNA motions with different values of Vgate in order to alter the densities and polarities of the counterions, which are expected to change the flow speed or direction, respectively. Depending on Vgate, our observations have revealed the critical distance from a nanopore for DNA molecules to be attracted or repelled-DNA's anisotropic and unsteady drifting motions and accumulations of DNA molecules near the nanopore entrance. Further finite element method (FEM) numerical simulations indicate that the electrokinetic flow could qualitatively explain these unusual DNA motions near metal-collated gated nanopores. Finally, we demonstrate the possibility of controlling the speed and direction of DNA motion near or through a nanopore, as in the case of recapturing a single DNA molecule multiple times with alternating current voltages on the Vgate.

  16. Numerical analysis of non-stationary free surface flow in a Pelton bucket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hana, Morten


    Computation and analysis of flow in Pelton buckets have been carried out. First a graphical method is investigated and partially improved. In order to decide whether to improve the method further or disregard it in favour of commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes, a study on numerical methods for free surface flow was carried out. This part of this work concentrates on the theoretical background for different numerical methods, and describes some practical considerations. Although small programs were created based on the literature survey, but only one reported herein, it was soon found that commonly available numerical codes were favourable in use. A code, RIPPLE, was acquired to study the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method in detail. The commercial codes used were Flow-3D and CFX-4. These programs were used in three different cases. First, a simplified 2-dimensional case was verified experimentally. Next, a 3-dimensional fixed jet calculation was carried out. Finally, numerical calculations with relative motion between the jet and buckets were carried out with CFX-4. The conclusion is that commercial CFD codes can replace the graphical method. But careful implementation is needed in order to resolve the special features of Pelton turbines, which are the free surface, the complex geometry and the relative motion between the jet and the bucket.

  17. Non-isothermal electro-osmotic flow in a microchannel with charge-modulated surfaces (United States)

    Bautista, Oscar; Sanchez, Salvador; Mendez, Federico


    In this work, we present an theoretical analysis of a nonisothermal electro-osmotic flow of a Newtonian fluid over charge-modulated surfaces in