WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface finishes volume

  1. Auto-recognition of surfaces and auto-generation of material removal volume for finishing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataraki, Pramod S.; Salman Abu Mansor, Mohd

    2018-03-01

    Auto-recognition of a surface and auto-generation of material removal volumes for the so recognised surfaces has become a need to achieve successful downstream manufacturing activities like automated process planning and scheduling. Few researchers have contributed to generation of material removal volume for a product but resulted in material removal volume discontinuity between two adjacent material removal volumes generated from two adjacent faces that form convex geometry. The need for limitation free material removal volume generation was attempted and an algorithm that automatically recognises computer aided design (CAD) model’s surface and also auto-generate material removal volume for finishing process of the recognised surfaces was developed. The surfaces of CAD model are successfully recognised by the developed algorithm and required material removal volume is obtained. The material removal volume discontinuity limitation that occurred in fewer studies is eliminated.

  2. Innovative Deterministic Optical Surface Finishing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Increasing the optical surface finishing precision and reducing surface roughness will greatly benefit astronomy telescope and other optical systems. Conventional...

  3. Effect of Burnishing Parameters on Surface Finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirsat, Uddhav; Ahuja, Basant; Dhuttargaon, Mukund

    2017-08-01

    Burnishing is cold working process in which hard balls are pressed against the surface, resulting in improved surface finish. The surface gets compressed and then plasticized. This is a highly finishing process which is becoming more popular. Surface quality of the product improves its aesthetic appearance. The product made up of aluminum material is subjected to burnishing process during which kerosene is used as a lubricant. In this study factors affecting burnishing process such as burnishing force, speed, feed, work piece diameter and ball diameter are considered as input parameters while surface finish is considered as an output parameter In this study, experiments are designed using 25 factorial design in order to analyze the relationship between input and output parameters. The ANOVA technique and F-test are used for further analysis.

  4. Influence of the surface finishing on ultrasound velocity in wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Špaček

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive diagnostic methods are very useful for monumental buildings. This paper deals with one of these technique, namely with ultrasound testing and influence of surface finishing on ultrasound velocity measured by means of device the Arborsonic Decay Detector. Surface finishing (Primalex – thick synthetic film of the surface finishing, Luxol – Extra – thin synthetic film of the surface finishing and Impranal Profi SL – thick acryl film the surface finishing were selected and tested in this research. The transmittion time was measured and velocity was converted from it. This was compared before and after application of surface finishing.

  5. Electrodeposition and surface finishing fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Djokic, Stojan

    2014-01-01

    This volume of Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry has contributions from significant individuals in electrochemistry. This 7 chapter book discusses electrodeposition and the characterization of alloys and composite materials, the mechanistic aspects of lead electrodeposition, electrophoretic deposition of ceramic materials onto metal surfaces and the fundamentals of metal oxides for energy conversion and storage technologies. This volume also has a chapter devoted to the anodization of aluminum, electrochemical aspects of chemical and mechanical polishing, and surface treatments prior to metal

  6. Implementing Cleaner Printed Wiring Board Technologies: Surface Finishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the problems, solutions, and time and effort involved in implementing alternative surface finish technologies, and this guide is produced as part of the DfE Printed Wiring Board Project

  7. Solder flow over fine line PWB surface finishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, F.M.; Hernandez, C.L.

    1998-08-01

    The rapid advancement of interconnect technology has stimulated the development of alternative printed wiring board (PWB) surface finishes to enhance the solderability of standard copper and solder-coated surfaces. These new finishes are based on either metallic or organic chemistries. As part of an ongoing solderability study, Sandia National Laboratories has investigated the solder flow behavior of two azole-based organic solderability preservations, immersion Au, immersion Ag, electroless Pd, and electroless Pd/Ni on fine line copper features. The coated substrates were solder tested in the as-fabricated and environmentally-stressed conditions. Samples were processed through an inerted reflow machine. The azole-based coatings generally provided the most effective protection after aging. Thin Pd over Cu yielded the best wetting results of the metallic coatings, with complete dissolution of the Pd overcoat and wetting of the underlying Cu by the flowing solder. Limited wetting was measured on the thicker Pd and Pd over Ni finishes, which were not completely dissolved by the molten solder. The immersion Au and Ag finishes yielded the lowest wetted lengths, respectively. These general differences in solderability were directly attributed to the type of surface finish which the solder came in contact with. The effects of circuit geometry, surface finish, stressing, and solder processing conditions are discussed.

  8. Polishing Metal Mirrors to 0,025 Micron Surface Finish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, P. E.

    1978-01-01

    A research program undertaken by the Danish Atomic Energy Commission required the fabrication of metal mirrors measuring 1 m long by 53 mm wide, which had to be finished to extremely tight tolerances on thickness, plane-parallelism and surface characteristics. Progressively finer diamond compounds...... are employed to achieve a high gloss finish on the metal mirrors, which are used in polarized neutron experiments. This article describes the fabrication techniques developed at the Commission's Ris phi Central Workshop....

  9. Investigation of Floor Surface Finishes for Optimal Slip Resistance Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Ju Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing the slip resistance of floor surfaces would be desirable, but there is a lack of evidence on whether traction properties are linearly correlated with the topographic features of the floor surfaces or what scales of surface roughness are required to effectively control the slipperiness of floors. Objective: This study expands on earlier findings on the effects of floor surface finishes against slip resistance performance and determines the operative ranges of floor surface roughness for optimal slip resistance controls under different risk levels of walking environments. Methods: Dynamic friction tests were conducted among three shoes and nine floor specimens under wet and oily environments and compared with a soapy environment. Results: The test results showed the significant effects of floor surface roughness on slip resistance performance against all the lubricated environments. Compared with the floor-type effect, the shoe-type effect on slip resistance performance was insignificant against the highly polluted environments. The study outcomes also indicated that the oily environment required rougher surface finishes than the wet and soapy ones in their lower boundary ranges of floor surface roughness. Conclusion: The results of this study with previous findings confirm that floor surface finishes require different levels of surface coarseness for different types of environmental conditions to effectively manage slippery walking environments. Collected data on operative ranges of floor surface roughness seem to be a valuable tool to develop practical design information and standards for floor surface finishes to efficiently prevent pedestrian fall incidents. Keywords: floor surface finishes, operational levels of floor surface roughness, slip resistance, wet, soapy and oily environments

  10. Tool steel quality and surface finishing of plastic molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Agnelli Mesquita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic industry is today in a constant growth, demanding several products from other segments, which includes the plastic molds, mainly used in the injection molding process. Considering all the requirements of plastic molds, the surface finishing is of special interest, as the injected plastic part is able to reproduce any details (and also defects from the mold surface. Therefore, several aspects on mold finishing are important, mainly related to manufacturing conditions - machining, grinding, polishing and texturing, and also related to the tool steel quality, in relation to microstructure homogeneity and non-metallic inclusions (cleanliness. The present paper is then focused on this interrelationship between steel quality and manufacturing process, which are both related to the final quality of plastic mold surfaces. Examples are discussed in terms of surface finishing of plastic molds and the properties or the microstructure of mold steels.

  11. Analytical methods for the characterization of surface finishing in bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardini, I.; Zendri, E.; Biscontin, G.; Brunetin, A.

    2006-01-01

    The recent restoration works of Santo Stefano Church Facade (XV century) in Venice have shown traces variously saved of different kind of surface finishes. These finishes were found on the brick's surface both in the masonry and in the decorative elements. Different brick's surface and decorative tile samples were investigated using several techniques: optical microscopy, scanning electron-microscopy, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and reflectance Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. The evaluation of the reached results was used to understand the decorative techniques and to recognize the material employed

  12. The importance of surface finish to energy performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Geoff B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Power generation in solar energy systems, thermal control in buildings and mitigation of the Urban Heat Island problem, are all sensitive to directional response to incoming radiation. The radiation absorption and emission profile also plays a crucial role in each system's response and depends strongly on surface finish. This important sensitivity needs wider recognition in materials data sheets, system modeling, plus in materials and environmental engineering. The impact of surface roughness on thermal response of natural and man-made external environments is examined. Important examples will be given of the role of surface finish within each class. Total emittance links to the way surface finish influences directional emittance E(θ. Smooth surface thermal emittance on PV module covers, many solar absorbers, some roof paints, polished concrete, and glass windows can be up to 15% different from insulator results based on fully diffuse models of the same material. Widespread evidence indicates smooth metals and low-E solar absorber surfaces cool faster, and smooth insulators slower than previously thought. Matt paint is cooler than low sheen paint under the same solar heating impacts and normal concrete cooler than polished. Emittance for water is the prime environmental example of oblique impacts as it reflects strongly at oblique incidence, which leads to a significant drop in E(θ. Ripples or waves however raise water's average emittance. A surprise in this work was the high sensitivity of total E and its angular components to roughness in the depth range of 0.1–0.8 μm, which are well under ambient thermal IR wavelengths of 3–30 μm but common in metal finishing. Parallel energy flows such as evaporation and convective cooling vary if emittance varies. Thermal image analysis can provide insights into angular radiative effects.

  13. Statistical Analysis of Magnetic Abrasive Finishing (MAF) On Surface Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givi, Mehrdad; Tehrani, Alireza Fadaei; Mohammadi, Aminollah

    2010-06-01

    Magnetic assisted finishing is one of the nontraditional methods of polishing that recently has been attractive for the researchers. This paper investigates the effects of some parameters such as rotational speed of the permanent magnetic pole, work gap between the permanent pole and the work piece, number of the cycles and the weight of the abrasive particles on aluminum surface plate finishing. The three levels full factorial method was used as the DOE technique (design of experiments) for studying the selected factors. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) has been used to determine significant factors and also to obtain an equation based on data regression. Experimental results indicate that for a change in surface roughness ΔRa, number of cycles and working gap are found to be the most significant parameters followed by rotational speed and then weight of powders.

  14. Surface profiling in mating parts by combined nonabrasive finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentsev, EV; Fedonin, ON; Smolentsev, VP

    2017-02-01

    Nonabrasive finishing of precision mating surfaces in locking devices with the use of a combined erosion-chemical process at the first stage of the processing and with the use of anodic dissolution by alternating low-voltage current at the final stage of a refinement operation till gapless joints obtaining is considered. It is shown that the application of electro-erosion, electrochemical and combined nonabrasive finishing in mating parts opens up a possibility to ensure stable impermeability in locking devices on a macro- and micro-level through the method of a substantiated purpose of technological modes. A procedure is created for the development of such modes, and on their basis technological processes for the obtaining of gapless mating surfaces meeting the performance requirements for locking devices are developed. For this purpose, qualitative devices resistant to hostile environment are manufactured that is urgent for the mechanical engineering including repetition work for the equipment of petrochemical industry, transport and household machinery.

  15. Polymer micromolds with near optical quality surface finishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Pun-Pang; Knopf, George K.; Nikumb, Suwas

    2012-03-01

    Disposable microfluidic systems are used to avoid sample contamination in a variety of medical and environmental monitoring applications. A contactless hot intrusion (HI) process for fabricating reusable polymer micromolds with near "optical quality" surface finishes is described in this paper. A metallic hot intrusion mask with the desired microchannels and related passive components is first machined using a tightly focused beam from a diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) laser. The polymer mold master is then created by pressing the 2D metallic mask onto a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrate. Since it is a contactless fabrication process the resultant 3D micro-reliefs have near optical quality surface finishes. Unfortunately, the desired micro-relief dimensions (height and width) are not easily related to the hot intrusion process parameters of pressure, temperature, and time exposure profile. A finite element model is introduced to assist the manufacturing engineer in predicting the behavior of the PMMA substrate material as it deforms under heat and pressure during micromold manufacture. The FEM model assumes that thermo-plastics like PMMA become "rubber like" when heated to a temperature slightly above the glass transition temperature. By controlling the material temperature and maintaining its malleable state, it is possible to use the stress-strain relationship to predict the profile dimensions of the imprinted microfeature. Examples of curved microchannels fabricated using PMMA mold masters are presented to illustrate the proposed methodology and verify the finite element model. In addition, the non-contact formation of the micro-reliefs simplifies the demolding process and helps to preserve the high quality surface finishes.

  16. Technology of magnetic abrasive finishing in machining of difficult-to-machine alloy complex surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujian MA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The technology of magnetic abrasive finishing is one of the important finishing technologies. Combining with low-frequency vibration and ultrasonic vibration, it can attain higher precision, quality and efficiency. The characteristics and the related current research of magnetic abrasive finishing, vibration assisted magnetic abrasive finishing and ultrasonic assisted magnetic abrasive finishing are introduced. According to the characteristics of the difficult-to-machine alloy's complex surface, the important problems for further study are presented to realize the finishing of complex surface with the technology of magnetic abrasive finishing, such as increasing the machining efficiency by enhancing the magnetic flux density of machining gap and compounding of magnetic energy and others, establishing of the control function during machining and the process planning method for magnetic abrasive finishing of complex surface under the space geometry restraint of complex surface on magnetic pole, etc.

  17. Deburring and surface finishing: The past ten years and projections for the next ten years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1990-09-01

    The 1970s were a decade of significant growth in deburring and surface finishing. In the 1980s progress was made in robotic finishing, burr formation models, surface finish measurement, new processes, equipment and tooling. The centers of burr and surface related research changed. The decade of the 1990s will bring greater competition, environmental restrictions, more processes, more automation, and better characterization and simulation of processes.

  18. Design Process Control for Improved Surface Finish of Metal Additive Manufactured Parts of Complex Build Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikdam Jamal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal additive manufacturing (AM is increasingly used to create complex 3D components at near net shape. However, the surface finish (SF of the metal AM part is uneven, with surface roughness being variable over the facets of the design. Standard post-processing methods such as grinding and linishing often meet with major challenges in finishing parts of complex shape. This paper reports on research that demonstrated that mass finishing (MF processes are able to deliver high-quality surface finishes (Ra and Sa on AM-generated parts of a relatively complex geometry (both internal features and external facets under select conditions. Four processes were studied in this work: stream finishing, high-energy (HE centrifuge, drag finishing and disc finishing. Optimisation of the drag finishing process was then studied using a structured design of experiments (DOE. The effects of a range of finishing parameters were evaluated and optimal parameters and conditions were determined. The study established that the proposed method can be successfully applied in drag finishing to optimise the surface roughness in an industrial application and that it is an economical way of obtaining the maximum amount of information in a short period of time with a small number of tests. The study has also provided an important step in helping understand the requirements of MF to deliver AM-generated parts to a target quality finish and cycle time.

  19. Proceedings of national executive management seminar on surface finishing by radiation curing technology: radiation curing for better finishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This book compiled the paper presented at this seminar. The papers discussed are 1. Incentives for investment in the manufacturing sector (in Malaysia) 2.Trends and prospect of surface finishing by radiation curing technology in Malaysia 3. Industrial application of radiation curing

  20. Surface morphology changes of acrylic resins during finishing and polishing phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucio Serra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The finishing and polishing phases are essential to improve smoothness and shining on the surface of acrylic resins used to make removable orthodontic appliances. A good surface finishing reduces roughness, which facilitates hygiene, prevents staining and provides greater comfort to the patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to analyze the changes on surface morphology of acrylic resins during finishing and polishing phases. METHODS: Thirty discs (10 mm in diameter and 5 mm in length were made with acrylic resin and randomly divided into ten groups. The control group did not receive any treatment while the other groups received gradual finishing and polishing. The last group received the entire finishing and polishing procedures. Surface morphology was qualitatively analyzed through scanning electron microscopy and quantitatively analyzed through a laser profilometer test. RESULTS: The acrylic resin surfaces without treatment showed bubbles which were not observed in the subsequent phases. Wearing out with multilaminated burs, finishing with wood sandpaper and finishing with water sandpaper resulted in surfaces with decreasing irregularities. The surfaces that were polished with pumice and with low abrasive liquids showed high superficial smoothness. CONCLUSION: Highly smooth acrylic resin surfaces can be obtained after mechanical finishing and polishing performed with multilaminated burs, wood sandpaper, water sandpaper, pumice and low abrasive liquids.

  1. Surface Finish and Residual Stresses Induced by Orthogonal Dry Machining of AA7075-T651.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Walid; Songmene, Victor; Bocher, Philippe

    2014-02-28

    The surface finish was extensively studied in usual machining processes (turning, milling, and drilling). For these processes, the surface finish is strongly influenced by the cutting feed and the tool nose radius. However, a basic understanding of tool/surface finish interaction and residual stress generation has been lacking. This paper aims to investigate the surface finish and residual stresses under the orthogonal cutting since it can provide this information by avoiding the effect of the tool nose radius. The orthogonal machining of AA7075-T651 alloy through a series of cutting experiments was performed under dry conditions. Surface finish was studied using height and amplitude distribution roughness parameters. SEM and EDS were used to analyze surface damage and built-up edge (BUE) formation. An analysis of the surface topography showed that the surface roughness was sensitive to changes in cutting parameters. It was found that the formation of BUE and the interaction between the tool edge and the iron-rich intermetallic particles play a determinant role in controlling the surface finish during dry orthogonal machining of the AA7075-T651 alloy. Hoop stress was predominantly compressive on the surface and tended to be tensile with increased cutting speed. The reverse occurred for the surface axial stress. The smaller the cutting feed, the greater is the effect of cutting speed on both axial and hoop stresses. By controlling the cutting speed and feed, it is possible to generate a benchmark residual stress state and good surface finish using dry machining.

  2. SURFACE FINISH WHEN THREADING TITANIUM-BASED ALLOY UNDER DRY MACHINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hartini Hamdan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the quality of surface finish when threading titanium-based alloy under dry condition. The quality of surface finish was studied at various cutting parameters and at the two extreme stages of the machining process, i.e. at the beginning and end of the process. The objective is to evaluate the effect of a worn-out tool on the quality of surface finish. PVD-coated carbide tools were used in this study. Experiments were conducted at two cutting speeds, 35 and 55 m/min, two depths of cut, 0.2 and 0.25 mm, and a constant pitch of 2.0 mm. The tool wear and the quality of surface finish were inspected visually by microscope. The tool’s flank wear was measured gradually and machining was stopped when the flank wear reached the rejection criterion of0.3 mm. The microstructure beneath the machined surface was also evaluated. It was found that, at the beginning of machining, there was only a feed mark on the surface finish. When the machining was prolonged until the tools reached the rejection criterion, a bad surface finish was produced. Metal debris, surface cavities and a boundary crack were observed. Results show that machining with a worn-out tool can cause microstructure alteration beneath the machined surface. The selection of cutting parameters and monitoring of tool wear are crucial in order to obtain a good surface finish. Characterization of the surface finish with respect to the threading process under a dry condition would ultimately help in the development of suitable parameters for machining titanium-based alloys. Surface finish, microstructure, dry machining

  3. Effect of surface finishing and heat treatments on the mechanical strength of sintered alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lino, U.R.A.

    1982-04-01

    The effect of surface finishing on the mechanical strength of two pure aluminas, one of self-production and another a commercial one, is studied. Three types of finishings: as-sintered, as machined and as-machined with thermal treatment were studied. It was verified that the as-machined alumina is about 50 percent stronger than the as-sintered one, and that a thermal treatment increases even more the mechanical strength of the sintered alumina. The effect of the volume and pressing direction on mechanical strength was studied. The kinetics of crack healing was determined from a series of systematically selected thermal treatments with annealing temperatures between 1200 0 C and 1600 0 C. It was verified that a recently developed theoretical model for crack healing can describe the experimental results; using this model a value for the activation energy of the process of 715 kJ/mcl was obtained, which suggests that crack healing is promoted by volume diffusion. The material behavior under subcritical crack growth action was also studied, and a value of about 40 for the subcritical crack growth exponent N from dynamic loading tests in water was found. A fractographic study intended to localize and measure the flaws that originated the fracture of the tested specimens was performed; the measured flaw sizes were compared with the flaw size calculated from the values of the measured mechanical strength; in this comparison an excellent agreement was observed. (Author) [pt

  4. Effect of finishing/polishing techniques and time on surface roughness of esthetic restorative materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanthi Sampath Madhyastha

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: It might be concluded that: (i Filtek P90 showed least Ra values followed by < Z100 < Dyract < GIC; (ii immediate (24 h finishing/polishing of materials is better than delayed; and (iii among all these polishing systems, diamond bur–Astropol and Astrobrush showed good surface finish.

  5. Surface finish effects on the high-cycle fatigue of Alloy 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korth, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    Load control high-cycle fatigue tests at 427 and 649 0 C were conducted on Alloy 718 specimens given various surface finishes. The standard surface preparation for fatigue specimens involves a low-stress grind to minimize the residual surface stresses. A low-stress grind surface was used for generating baseline data; various other surfaces that could be considered feasible for large components fabricated in commercial shops were produced on test specimens, and the high-cycle fatigue strength of each was compared. Surface finishes produced by belt sanding, grit blasting, fine machining, and electropolishing were examined. Surface roughness measurements were taken on typical specimens with each surface finish, and residual stress profiles were measured on three of the surface types. Results show little or no difference in fatigue life for the various surfaces and indicate that residual stress profile and grain size are more important factors than surface roughness in determining high-cycle fatigue strength. 12 figures, 5 tables

  6. Effects of Wet and Dry Finishing and Polishing on Surface Roughness and Microhardness of Composite Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Nasoohi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of wet and dry finishing and polishing on microhardness and roughness of microhybrid and nanohybrid composites.Materials and Methods: Thirty samples were fabricated of each of the Polofil Supra and Aelite Aesthetic All-Purpose Body microhybrid and Grandio and Aelite Aesthetic Enamel nanohybrid composite resins. Each group (n=30 was divided into three subgroups of D, W and C (n=10. Finishing and polishing were performed dry in group D and under water coolant in group W. Group C served as the control group and did not receive finishing and polishing. Surface roughness of samples was measured by a profilometer and their hardness was measured by a Vickers hardness tester. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA (P<0.05.Results: The smoothest surfaces with the lowest microhardness were obtained under Mylar strip without finishing/polishing for all composites (P<0.0001. The highest surface roughness was recorded for dry finishing/polishing for all composites (P<0.0001. Dry finishing/polishing increased the microhardness of all composites (P<0.0001.Conclusions: Dry finishing and polishing increases the microhardness and surface roughness of microhybrid and nanohybrid composite resins. Keywords: Composite Resins; Dental Polishing; Hardness

  7. Low-Stress Silicon Cladding for Surface Finishing Large UVOIR Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I research, ZeCoat Corporation demonstrated a low-stress silicon cladding process for surface finishing large UVOIR mirrors. A polishable cladding is...

  8. Surface Finish and Residual Stresses Induced by Orthogonal Dry Machining of AA7075-T651

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Jomaa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The surface finish was extensively studied in usual machining processes (turning, milling, and drilling. For these processes, the surface finish is strongly influenced by the cutting feed and the tool nose radius. However, a basic understanding of tool/surface finish interaction and residual stress generation has been lacking. This paper aims to investigate the surface finish and residual stresses under the orthogonal cutting since it can provide this information by avoiding the effect of the tool nose radius. The orthogonal machining of AA7075-T651 alloy through a series of cutting experiments was performed under dry conditions. Surface finish was studied using height and amplitude distribution roughness parameters. SEM and EDS were used to analyze surface damage and built-up edge (BUE formation. An analysis of the surface topography showed that the surface roughness was sensitive to changes in cutting parameters. It was found that the formation of BUE and the interaction between the tool edge and the iron-rich intermetallic particles play a determinant role in controlling the surface finish during dry orthogonal machining of the AA7075-T651 alloy. Hoop stress was predominantly compressive on the surface and tended to be tensile with increased cutting speed. The reverse occurred for the surface axial stress. The smaller the cutting feed, the greater is the effect of cutting speed on both axial and hoop stresses. By controlling the cutting speed and feed, it is possible to generate a benchmark residual stress state and good surface finish using dry machining.

  9. The effects of lubrication on the temperature rise and surface finish of amalgam and composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C S; Billington, R W; Pearson, G J

    2007-01-01

    It was thought that when finishing and polishing direct filling materials lubrication would affect the surface roughness and temperature rise in samples of amalgam and composite. Previous work by the authors has shown that there is an optimum load, speed and time that produced the smoothest surface when finishing amalgam and composite resin using each of four grades of a disc system. This work was undertaken to examine the effects on temperature rise in samples of amalgam and composite resin of finishing dry compared to finishing with different lubricants. The experiments all used these optimum loads, speeds and times. It also compares the surface finish produced using different lubricants. A high copper amalgam and a hybrid composite resin were finished using the four grades of abrasive discs. Samples produced were 25 mm long by 6 mm wide by 2 mm deep. A thermocouple was inserted 1 mm into the base of the samples. The thermocouple was connected via an electronic thermometer to a computer that permitted the display and recording of temperature against time. After roughening, the samples were finished and polished in a specially constructed jig that mimicked oral finishing. The pre-determined optimum loads, speeds and times were used sequentially for each of the four grades of disc. Five samples were tested for each method of finishing. Firstly, run dry, then in turn lubricated with water, walnut oil and petroleum jelly. After the use of each abrasive disc the surface roughness was measured. One of the five samples was selected at random and prepared for examination in the scanning electron microscope. All results were subjected to non-parametric statistically analyses. With both materials the temperature rise was greatest when run dry, followed by petroleum jelly, walnut oil and the least was when lubricated with water. With these two materials the surface roughness correlates negatively with the temperature rise. The smoothest surface being achieved when finished

  10. Proceedings of workshop on surface finishing by radiation curing technology: radiation curing for better finishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This book compiled the paper presented at this workshop. The papers discussed are 1. Introduction to radiation curing, 2. Radiation sources -ultraviolet and electron beams, 3. UV/EB curing of surface coating - wood and nonwood substrates, 4. Development of EPOLA (epoxidised palm oil products acrylate) and its application, 5. Development of radiation-curable resin based natural rubber

  11. Wavelet theory and belt finishing process, influence of wavelet shape on the surface roughness parameter values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawaja, Z; Mazeran, P-E; Bigerelle, M; Guillemot, G; Mansori, M El

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a multi-scale theory based on wavelet decomposition to characterize the evolution of roughness in relation with a finishing process or an observed surface property. To verify this approach in production conditions, analyses were developed for the finishing process of the hardened steel by abrasive belts. These conditions are described by seven parameters considered in the Tagushi experimental design. The main objective of this work is to identify the most relevant roughness parameter and characteristic length allowing to assess the influence of finishing process, and to test the relevance of the measurement scale. Results show that wavelet approach allows finding this scale.

  12. Multi-Parameter Analysis of Surface Finish in Electro-Discharge Machining of Tool Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Victoria Anghel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a multi- parameter analysis of surface finish imparted to tool-steel plates by electro-discharge machining (EDM is presented. The interrelationship between surface texture parameters and process parameters is emphasized. An increased number of parameters is studied including amplitude, spacing, hybrid and fractal parameters,, as well. The correlation of these parameters with the machining conditions is investigated. Observed characteristics become more pronounced, when intensifying machining conditions. Close correlation exists between certain surface finish parameters and EDM input variables and single and multiple statistical regression models are developed.

  13. Experimental analysis of surface finish in normal conducting cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrebini-Esfahani, A.; Aslaninejad, M.; Ristic, M.; Long, K.

    2017-10-01

    A normal conducting 805 MHz test cavity with an in built button shaped sample is used to conduct a series of surface treatment experiments. The button enhances the local fields and influences the likelihood of an RF breakdown event. Because of their smaller sizes, compared to the whole cavity surface, they allow practical investigations of the effects of cavity surface preparation in relation to RF breakdown. Manufacturing techniques and steps for preparing the buttons to improve the surface quality are described in detail. It was observed that even after the final stage of the surface treatment, defects on the surface of the cavities still could be found.

  14. Effect of machining parameters on surface finish of Inconel 718 in end milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Bapi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface finish is an important criteria in machining process and selection of proper machining parameters is important to obtain good surface finish. In the present work effects of the machining parameters in end milling of Inconel 718 were investigated. Central composite design was used to design the total number of experiments. A Mathematical model for surface roughness has been developed using response surface methodology. In this study, the influence of cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut on surface roughness was analyzed. The study includes individual effect of cutting parameters on surface roughness as well as their interaction. The analysis of variance (ANOVA was employed to find the validity of the developed model. The results show that depth of cut mostly affected the surface roughness. It is also observed that surface roughness values are comparable in both dry and wet machining conditions.

  15. Effect of surface finishing on the oxidation behaviour of a ferritic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardigo-Besnard, M.R., E-mail: maria-rosa.ardigo-besnard@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS—Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Popa, I.; Heintz, O.; Chassagnon, R. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS—Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Vilasi, M. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS—Université de Lorraine, Parc de Saurupt, 54011 Nancy (France); Herbst, F. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS—Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Girardon, P. [APERAM, Centre de Recherche, BP15, 62330 Isbergues (France); Chevalier, S. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS—Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Study of surface finishing effect on the corrosion behaviour of a stainless steel. • Mirror polished samples were compared to as-rolled material. • Two oxidation mechanisms were identified depending on the surface finishing. • Before oxidation, native chemical phases are identical for both samples. • Subsurface dislocations generated by the polishing process promote Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation. - Abstract: The corrosion behaviour and the oxidation mechanism of a ferritic stainless steel, K41X (AISI 441), were evaluated at 800 °C in water vapour hydrogen enriched atmosphere. Mirror polished samples were compared to as-rolled K41X material. Two different oxidation behaviours were observed depending on the surface finishing: a protective double (Cr,Mn){sub 3}O{sub 4}/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale formed on the polished samples whereas external Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and (Cr,Fe){sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides grew on the raw steel. Moreover, isotopic marker experiments combined with SIMS analyses revealed different growth mechanisms. The influence of surface finishing on the corrosion products and growth mechanisms was apprehended by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and residual stress analyses using XRD at the sample surfaces before ageing.

  16. Microgel-based surface modifying system for stimuli-responsive functional finishing of cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulkarni, A.N.; Tourrette, A.; Warmoeskerken, Marinus; Jocic, D.

    2010-01-01

    An innovative strategy for functional finishing of textile materials is based on the incorporation of a thin layer of surface modifying systems (SMS) in the form of stimuli-sensitive microgels or hydrogels. Since the copolymerization of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) with an ionizable polymer, such as

  17. Effects of surface finishing conditions on the biocompatibility of a nickel-chromium dental casting alloy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinley, Emma Louise

    2011-07-01

    To assess the effects of surface finishing condition (polished or alumina particle air abraded) on the biocompatibility of direct and indirect exposure to a nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) d.Sign®10 dental casting alloy on oral keratinocytes. Biocompatibility was performed by assessing cellular viability and morphology, metabolic activity, cellular toxicity and presence of inflammatory cytokine markers.

  18. Surface roughness and hardness of a composite resin: influence of finishing and polishing and immersion methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Botta Martins de Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the finishing and polishing effect on the surface roughness and hardness of the Filtek Supreme XT, in fluoride solutions. Specimens were prepared (n = 140 with half of the samples finished and polished with Super-Snap® disks. The experimental groups were divided according to the presence or absence of finishing and polishing and immersion solutions (artificial saliva, sodium fluoride solution at 0.05% - manipulated, Fluordent Reach, Oral B, Fluorgard. The specimens remained immersed in artificial saliva for 24 hours and were then subjected to initial analysis (baseline of surface roughness and Vickers microhardness. Next, they were immersed in different fluoride solutions for 1 min/day, for 60 days. Afterwards, a new surface roughness and microhardness reading was conducted. The data were submitted to a two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (5% significance level. For the comparison of mean roughness and hardness at baseline and after 60 days, the paired Student t test was used. The results showed that the surface roughness and microhardness of the Filtek Supreme XT were influenced by the finishing and polishing procedure, independently of the immersion methods.

  19. 3D printed glass: surface finish and bulk properties as a function of the printing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Susanne; Avery, Michael P.; Richardson, Robert; Bartlett, Paul; Frei, Regina; Simske, Steven

    2015-03-01

    It is impossible to print glass directly from a melt, layer by layer. Glass is not only very sensitive to temperature gradients between different layers but also to the cooling process. To achieve a glass state the melt, has to be cooled rapidly to avoid crystallization of the material and then annealed to remove cooling induced stress. In 3D-printing of glass the objects are shaped at room temperature and then fired. The material properties of the final objects are crucially dependent on the frit size of the glass powder used during shaping, the chemical formula of the binder and the firing procedure. For frit sizes below 250 μm, we seem to find a constant volume of pores of less than 5%. Decreasing frit size leads to an increase in the number of pores which then leads to an increase of opacity. The two different binders, 2- hydroxyethyl cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt, generate very different porosities. The porosity of samples with 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose is similar to frit-only samples, whereas carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt creates a glass foam. The surface finish is determined by the material the glass comes into contact with during firing.

  20. Effects of Wet and Dry Finishing and Polishing on Surface Roughness and Microhardness of Composite Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasoohi, Negin; Hoorizad, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of wet and dry finishing and polishing on microhardness and roughness of microhybrid and nanohybrid composites. Materials and Methods: Thirty samples were fabricated of each of the Polofil Supra and Aelite Aesthetic All-Purpose Body microhybrid and Grandio and Aelite Aesthetic Enamel nanohybrid composite resins. Each group (n=30) was divided into three subgroups of D, W and C (n=10). Finishing and polishing were performed dry in group D and under water coolant in group W. Group C served as the control group and did not receive finishing and polishing. Surface roughness of samples was measured by a profilometer and their hardness was measured by a Vickers hardness tester. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA (Pcomposites (Pcomposites (Pcomposites (Pcomposite resins. PMID:29104597

  1. Performance Improvement of Friction Stir Welds by Better Surface Finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Sam; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The as-welded friction stir weld has a cross section that may act as a stress concentrator. The geometry associated with the stress concentration may reduce the weld strength and it makes the weld challenging to inspect with ultrasound. In some cases, the geometry leads to false positive nondestructive evaluation (NDE) indications and, in many cases, it requires manual blending to facilitate the inspection. This study will measure the stress concentration effect and develop an improved phased array ultrasound testing (PAUT) technique for friction stir welding. Post-welding, the friction stir weld (FSW) tool would be fitted with an end mill that would machine the weld smooth, trimmed shaved. This would eliminate the need for manual weld preparation for ultrasonic inspections. Manual surface preparation is a hand operation that varies widely depending on the person preparing the welds. Shaving is a process that can be automated and tightly controlled.

  2. Microscopic observation of pattern attack by aggressive ions on finished surface of aluminium alloy sacrificial anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaifol Samsu; Muhammad Daud; Siti Radiah Mohd Kamarudin; Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Azali Muhammad; Mohd Shaari Ripin; Rusni Rejab; Mohd Shariff Sattar

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a microscopic observation on submerged finished surface of aluminium alloy sacrificial anode. Experimental tests were carried out on polished surface aluminium anode exposed to seawater containing aggressive ions in order to observe of pattern corrosion attack on corroding surface of anode. Results have shown, at least under the present testing condition, that surface of sacrificial anode were attack by an aggressive ion such as chloride along grain boundaries. In addition, results of microanalysis showed that the corrosion products on surface of aluminium alloy have Al, Zn and O element for all sample and within the pit was consists of Al, Zn, O and Cl element. (author)

  3. Surface finish in ultra-precision diamond turning of single-crystal silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayomoh, M.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.

    2015-10-01

    Silicon is an optical material widely used in the production of infrared optics. However, silicon as a brittle material exhibits some difficulties when ultra-precision machined by mono-crystalline single point diamond. Finish turning of silicon with mono- crystalline diamond inserts results in accelerated tool wear rates if the right combination of the machining parameters is not properly selected. In this study, we conducted a series of machining tests on an ultra-high precision machine tool using finish turning conditions when using mono-crystalline diamond inserts with negative rake angle and relatively big nose radius. The study yields some recommendations on the best combination of machining parameters that will result in maximum material removal rates with smallest possible surface finish. In this work, standard non-controlled waviness diamond inserts having nose radius of about 1.5 mm, rake angle of negative 25°, and clearance angle of 5° were used to produce flat surfaces on silicon disk. From the results, it has been established that feed rate has the most influential effect followed by the depth of cut and cutting speed.

  4. The effects of surface finish and grain size on the strength of sintered silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y. H.; Kim, Y. W.; Lee, J. G.; Kim, C. H.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of surface treatment and microstructure, especially abnormal grain growth, on the strength of sintered SiC were studied. The surfaces of sintered SiC were treated with 400, 800 and 1200 grit diamond wheels. Grain growth was induced by increasing the sintering times at 2050 C. The beta to alpha transformation occurred during the sintering of beta-phase starting materials and was often accompanied by abnormal grain growth. The overall strength distributions were established using Weibull statistics. The strength of the sintered SiC is limited by extrinsic surface flaws in normal-sintered specimens. The finer the surface finish and grain size, the higher the strength. But the strength of abnormal sintering specimens is limited by the abnormally grown large tabular grains. The Weibull modulus increases with decreasing grain size and decreasing grit size for grinding.

  5. Machining the Integral Impeller and Blisk of Aero-Engines: A Review of Surface Finishing and Strengthening Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Youzhi; Gao, Hang; Wang, Xuanping; Guo, Dongming

    2017-05-01

    The integral impeller and blisk of an aero-engine are high performance parts with complex structure and made of difficult-to-cut materials. The blade surfaces of the integral impeller and blisk are functional surfaces for power transmission, and their surface integrity has significant effects on the aerodynamic efficiency and service life of an aero-engine. Thus, it is indispensable to finish and strengthen the blades before use. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of studies on finishing and strengthening technologies for the impeller and blisk of aero-engines. The review includes independent and integrated finishing and strengthening technologies and discusses advanced rotational abrasive flow machining with back-pressure used for finishing the integral impeller and blisk. A brief assessment of future research problems and directions is also presented.

  6. EVALUATION OF SURFACE CONDITION AFTER FINISHING AND POLISHING OF A FLOWABLE COMPOSITE MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan MUNTEANU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the surface condition, after finishing and polishing with 3 different systems, of a flowable composite material, starting from the microstructure experimentally analyzed by atomic force microscopy. Materials and method. The material tested in the present study was Filtek Ultimate Flowable Restorative (3M ESPE composite. 20 cylindrical samples, 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick, were prepared by using metallic molds. The samples were randomly divided into 4 groups: a group containing 5 control samples, not subjected to finishing and 3 groups formed, each, of 5 samples for each of the three finishing and polishing systems, respectively system 1: the two-step Sof-Lex (3M ESPE, system 2: multistep Super Snap (Shofu, Inc. Kyoto, Japan and system 3: multi-step OptiDisc (KerrHawe SA, Switzerland. The surfaces of the samples were analyzed by atomic force microscopy. For quantitative evaluations, the rugosity parameter (Ra, and the mean deviation of the determined profile were calculated. Results. All 3 polishing systems determined an increase of the Ra parameter, comparatively with the control samples; the highest mean Ra value, of 1.19 µm, was recorded for system 3, followed by system 2 (mean Ra value = 1.12 µm, while the lowest mean value, of 1.10 µm, was registered for system 1. Conclusions. All three systems under investigation induced increased rugosity on the surfaces of the samples prepared from the Filtek Ultimate Flowable Restorative (3M ESPE composite resin. The most abrasive system appears to be OptiDisc (KerrHawe SA, Switzerland, followed by the Super Snap (Shofu, Inc. Kyoto, Japan system, the one recording the lowest abrasion being SofLex (3M ESPE.

  7. The Effect of Finishing and Polishing Techniques on the Surface Roughness and the Color of Nanocomposite Resin Restorative Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsar, Aysun; Yuzbasioglu, Emir; Sarac, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    Rough, poorly polished surfaces contribute to staining, plaque accumulation, gingival irritation and recurrent caries. Finishing and polishing techniques are critical factors contributing to the longevity of the direct composite resin restorations. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of finishing and polishing systems on surface roughness of six nanocomposite restorative resins. Thirty specimens of each restorative material (n=180) were placed in a teflon mould (6 mm in diameter and 3 mm in depth) and cured with a LED curing unit. Six specimens from each of restorative material were randomly assigned to four groups for finishing and polishing (carbide burs, diamond burs, aluminium oxide discs, silicon rubber polisher) techniques. Mylar strip formed specimens were served as control group. After finishing and polishing procedures surface roughness was evaluated by a profilometer. The data was analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance and the Tukey HSD test (α=0.05). Significant differences were found between the groups in terms roughness (prestorative materials. Although mylar matrix strip formed surfaces presents lower surface roughness values, recountouring and polishing of resin restorations are often required in clinical situations. Aluminium oxide discs and carbide finishing burs are suitable for finishing and polishing procedures for nanocomposite restorative resins.

  8. Effect of different finishing techniques for restorative materials on surface roughness and bacterial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykent, Filiz; Yondem, Isa; Ozyesil, Atilla G; Gunal, Solen K; Avunduk, Mustafa C; Ozkan, Semiha

    2010-04-01

    The formation of biofilm and bacterial accumulation on dental materials may lead to the development of gingival inflammation and secondary caries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of different surface finishing and polishing methods on surface roughness and the adhesion of S. mutans bacteria to 2 new-generation indirect composite resins, 1 direct composite resin, and 1 ceramic material. Forty specimens (10 x 10 x 2 mm) of each material, indirect composite resins (SR Adoro, Estenia), direct composite resin (Tetric), and a ceramic material (VITABLOCS Mark II), were fabricated. Specimens were divided into 4 groups (n=10) that were treated with 1 of the following 4 surface finishing techniques: diamond rotary cutting instrument, sandpaper discs (Sof-Lex), silicone-carbide rubber points (Shofu), or a felt wheel with diamond paste. Surface roughness was measured with a profilometer. Test specimens were covered with artificial saliva and mucin to produce pellicle. Bacterial suspension (10(9) CFU/ml) was then added to the pellicle-coated specimens, and bacterial adhesion was determined using a confocal laser microscope and image analyzing program. Data were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey HSD test, Pearson correlation, and regression analysis (alpha=.05). The highest surface roughness values were recorded in SR Adoro and diamond rotary cutting instrument groups. The lowest vital S. mutans adhesion was seen in the ceramic group and in SR Adoro indirect composite resin (Padhesion to indirect composite resin materials differed from that to ceramic material after surface treatments. A positive correlation was observed between surface roughness and the vital S. mutans adhesion. Copyright 2010 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of surface finishes on outdoor granite and limestone pavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Martínez, J.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Two types of ornamental stones, namely granite (Blanco Rafaela or Zarzalejo Granite and microcrystalline limestone (marble known commercially as Gris Pulpis, treated for different surface finishes, were tested for suitability as paving slabs. The finishes tested in both stones were polishing, hammering, honing and flaming, while acid treatment and abrasion were applied to limestone only and sawn finishes were only studied in granite.The stones were tested for the three physical properties that determine suitability for use as paving slabs; flexural strength under a concentrated load, and abrasion and slip resistance. Laboratory freeze-thaw cycle ageing tests were also conducted and flexural strength subsequently evaluated. Stone water sorption proved to be substantially unaltered by the type of finish employed. Finish barely affected flexural strength, except in the case of limestone flaming, where it was lower. Hammering was found to provide good slip resistance in both stones. The best slip performance for granite, however, was found for flamed specimens. Finish was shown to have no effect on abrasion resistance in either of the stone materials. Polished limestone suffered the least damage in freeze-thaw cycles, whereas freeze-thaw resistance was similar in all the granite specimens, regardless of the finish used.Se han estudiado, para su utilización como baldosas de pavimentos, granito (Blanco Rafaela o Granito de Zarzalejo y caliza microcristalina (mármol comercial Gris Pulpis con diferentes acabados. Estos acabados son: pulido, apomazado, abujardado y flameado en ambas rocas y además acabado al ácido y amolado en la caliza. Se han determinado mediante ensayos estandarizados las tres propiedades físicas de mayor interés para el uso de la piedra natural como baldosa en pavimentos de exteriores: resistencia a la flexión bajo carga concentrada, a la abrasión y al deslizamiento. Se han realizado ensayos de durabilidad por ciclos de hielo

  10. The Effect of Composition on the Surface Finish of PS400: A New High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Stanford, malcolm K.; Thomas, Fransua; Edmonds, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    A new composite, multi-constituent, solid lubricant coating, NASA PS400, developed for high temperature tribological applications, exhibits a smoother surface finish after grinding and polishing than its predecessors PS200 and PS300. In this paper, the baseline composition of PS400 is modified to investigate each individual constituent s role on the achievable surface finish through a series of coating deposition, grinding, and polishing experiments. Furthermore, to explore the limits of compositional tailoring for improved tribological performance, several PS400 coatings were doped with additional solid lubricants (graphite, MoS2 and BN) and tribologically tested. The test results clearly showed that, compared to PS300 coatings, PS400 achieves a smoother surface finish via a reduced lubricant content. Coatings prepared with higher than the baseline level (10 wt%) of lubricants exhibited higher final surface roughness than the earlier generation PS300 coatings. Reducing or eliminating the one or both lubricants (fluorides or silver) did not further improve the surface finish suggesting that the current composition of PS400 is near optimal with respect to surface finish. Lastly, attempts to improve the poor initial room temperature tribological behavior of PS400 via the addition of traditional solid lubricants were unsuccessful. Based upon this work and earlier results it is expected that future research will concentrate on developing methods to produce a lubricious glaze on the rubbing surface during break in to ensure that low friction and wear are rapidly achieved.

  11. Study on effect of tool electrodes on surface finish during electrical discharge machining of Nitinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Anshuman Kumar; Chatterjee, Suman; Nayak, Praveen Kumar; Sankar Mahapatra, Siba

    2018-03-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a non-traditional machining process which is widely used in machining of difficult-to-machine materials. EDM process can produce complex and intrinsic shaped component made of difficult-to-machine materials, largely applied in aerospace, biomedical, die and mold making industries. To meet the required applications, the EDMed components need to possess high accuracy and excellent surface finish. In this work, EDM process is performed using Nitinol as work piece material and AlSiMg prepared by selective laser sintering (SLS) as tool electrode along with conventional copper and graphite electrodes. The SLS is a rapid prototyping (RP) method to produce complex metallic parts by additive manufacturing (AM) process. Experiments have been carried out varying different process parameters like open circuit voltage (V), discharge current (Ip), duty cycle (τ), pulse-on-time (Ton) and tool material. The surface roughness parameter like average roughness (Ra), maximum height of the profile (Rt) and average height of the profile (Rz) are measured using surface roughness measuring instrument (Talysurf). To reduce the number of experiments, design of experiment (DOE) approach like Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array has been chosen. The surface properties of the EDM specimen are optimized by desirability function approach and the best parametric setting is reported for the EDM process. Type of tool happens to be the most significant parameter followed by interaction of tool type and duty cycle, duty cycle, discharge current and voltage. Better surface finish of EDMed specimen can be obtained with low value of voltage (V), discharge current (Ip), duty cycle (τ) and pulse on time (Ton) along with the use of AlSiMg RP electrode.

  12. Influence of the Cutting Conditions in the Surface Finishing of Turned Pieces of Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, M.; Arroyo, P.; Sánchez Carrilero, M.; Álvarez, M.; Salguero, J.; Marcos, M.

    2009-11-01

    Titanium is a material that, despite its high cost, is increasingly being introduced in the aerospace industry due to both, its weight, its mechanical properties and its corrosion potential, very close to that of carbon fiber based composite material. This fact allows using Ti to form Fiber Metal Laminates Machining operations are usually used in the manufacturing processes of Ti based aerospace structural elements. These elements must be machined under high surface finish requirements. Previous works have shown the relationship between the surface roughness and the tool changes in the first instants of turning processes. From these results, new tests have been performed in an aeronautical factory, in order to analyse roughness in final pieces.

  13. Interferometric And Microscopic Measurements Of Surface Finish Appearance Evaluations Of Ophthalmic Lens Edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, M.; Mezghani, S.; El Mansori, M.; Divo, F.

    2011-01-01

    Surface appearance and product material integrity are important features that will affect product functionality, reliability and customer confidence. Yet despite this, and perhaps surprisingly, lens surface inspection is still undertaken visually with undefined criteria, varying levels of quality expertise, and differing moods of inspectors. In this paper, an objective quality inspection method for the polished edge of ophthalmic lenses is developed. Four defect categorizes have been indentified on the machined edge of non-acceptable lenses: chatter marks, linear, creep and cracks. Chatter matters have an irregular surface with waviness. The linear defect has a linear defect along the lens' edge surface. Creep has deformation of the surface due to the material removal process. Cracks have cracks along the surface of the lens. The developed technique was applied to several ophthalmic lens materials (Polycarbonate, CR39, high index materials) that contain defects of diverse shapes and sizes in different locations. Results show the effectiveness of the developed inspection technique for ophthalmic lens quality assurance and defect identification. It was also found that there is a correlation between the scale-sensitive fractal dimension parameter and surface finish appearance.

  14. Optimization of surface finish of 8-m class ULE glass telescope mirror blanks for lifetime mechanical reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Suresh T.

    1996-08-01

    The mechanical reliability of 8 m class ULETM glass telescope mirror blanks is a key requirement for both the blank manufacturer and end-user. The massive monolithic blank experiences stresses during the various manufacturing steps including handling, grinding, sagging, and finishing. Likewise, it is subjected to vibrational loads and road shocks during transportation to end-user. And finally, it experiences transient stresses during installation and steady-state static stresses throughout its useful life in service. The large blank, which weighs nearly 35 tons, must have appropriate surface finish to sustain manufacturing, transportation, installation and service stresses with low probability of flaw initiation and propagation. This paper examines the critical stress/time histories the blanks experience during manufacturing and their ability to initiate slow crack growth from grinding flaws. Two different surface finishes, namely 120 grit and 270/325 grit, with and without acid etching are characterized with respect to strength, flaw, and fatigue behavior. These data show that the 270/325 grit finish with acid etching is appropriate for the sagging step which imposes a static stress of 750 psi in the center region of the mirror blank over a two-week sag period. Similarly, the 120 grit surface finish is adequate for grinding, packaging and transporting steps which impose a static stress of 435 psi in the support pad region for a three-month period. These predictions, based on Power law fatigue model, were verified by conducting static fatigue tests (at appropriate stress levels) on a large sample of 6' diameter ULETM discs (with appropriate surface finish) at 25 degree(s)C and 100% RH. Such a verification is imperative for selecting appropriate surface finishes for the mirror blanks to promote mechanical reliability during manufacturing and service.

  15. Effects of Delayed Finishing/Polishing on Surface Roughness, Hardness and Gloss of Tooth-Coloured Restorative Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, A. Ruya; Tuncer, Duygu; Antonson, Sibel; Onen, Alev; Kilinc, Evren

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of delayed finishing/polishing on the surface roughness, hardness and gloss of tooth-coloured restorative materials. Methods: Four different tooth-coloured restoratives: a flowable resin composite- Tetric Flow, a hybrid resin composite- Venus, a nanohybrid resin composite- Grandio, and a polyacid modified resin composite- Dyract Extra were used. 30 specimens were made for each material and randomly assigned into three groups. The first group was finished/polished immediately and the second group was finished/polished after 24 hours. The remaining 10 specimens served as control. The surface roughness of each sample was recorded using a laser profilometer. Gloss measurements were performed using a small-area glossmeter. Vickers microhardness measurements were performed from three locations on each specimen surface under 100g load and 10s dwell time. Data for surface roughness and hardness were analyzed by Kruskal Wallis test and data for gloss were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Tukey test (P Grandio samples showed significantly higher roughness than the delayed polished samples (P .05). The lowest hardness values were found under Mylar strip. Delayed finishing/polishing significantly increased the hardness of all materials. Conclusions: The effect of delayed finishing/polishing on surface roughness, gloss and hardness appears to be material dependent. PMID:20046480

  16. Surface Roughness, Microhardness, and Microleakage of a Silorane-Based Composite Resin after Immediate or Delayed Finishing/Polishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carvalho Rezende Lins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study evaluated the effect of immediate or delayed finishing/polishing using different systems on the surface roughness, hardness, and microleakage of a silorane-based composite. Material and Methods. Specimens were made with silorane-based composite (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE and assigned to the treatments: control (light-cured; aluminum oxide discs (Sof-Lex, 3M ESPE; diamond-impregnated silicone tips (Astropol, Ivoclar Vivadent; aluminum oxide-impregnated silicone tips (Enhance, Dentsply. Half of the specimens were finished/polished immediately and the rest after 7 days. Surface roughness (Ra, μm; n=20 and Vickers microhardness (50 g; 45 s; n=10 were measured. Cavities were prepared in bovine incisors and filled with Filtek P90. The fillings received immediate or delayed finishing/polishing (n=10 and were subjected to dye penetration test (0.5% basic fuchsin, 24 h. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Scheffe, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests (p<0.05. Results. The finishing/polishing system significantly influenced roughness and microhardness (p<0.0001. For enamel, microleakage was not affected by the finishing/polishing system (p=0.309. For dentin, Sof-Lex discs and Astropol points promoted greater microleakage than Enhance points (p=0.033. Conclusion. Considering roughness, microhardness, and microleakage together, immediate finishing/polishing of a silorane-based composite using aluminum oxide discs may be recommended.

  17. The effects of finishing and polishing techniques on surface roughness and color stability of nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönülol, Nihan; Yilmaz, Fikret

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of different finishing and polishing techniques on the surface roughness and color stability of nanocomposites. Two nanohybrid (Grandio, Aelite Aesthetic Enamel), two nanofill (Filtek Supreme XT Dentin and Translucent), and a microhybrid (Filtek Z250) composites were used. Two hundred and eighty disc-shaped specimens were cured under a mylar strip. Seven specimens of each resin composite were randomly assigned to one of the seven polishing systems. A profilometer was used for assessing surface roughness. ΔE was calculated with a colorimeter at baseline and 48 h after storage in a coffee solution. The results were analysed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test (α=0.05). Regression analysis was used to examine the correlation between surface roughness and color stability (α=0.01). There was no significant difference in R(a) values between mylar strips and Sof-Lex polishing discs (p>0.05). The highest ΔE and R(a) values were obtained from Grandio (pGrandio presented the highest surface roughness and staining susceptibility after storage in coffee solution. Aelite Aesthetic Enamel, which did not include TEGDMA in its composition, showed the least discoloration. The composites with smaller filler size did not necessarily show low surface roughness and discoloration. Staining of composite resins was dependent on monomer structure, as well as surface irregularities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Three-dimensional evaluation of surface roughness of resin composites after finishing and polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Veena S; Sainudeen, Shan; Padmanabhan, Prabeesh; Vijayashankar, L V; Sujathan, Unu; Pillai, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of finishing and polishing procedures on four novel resin composites using three-dimensional optical profilometer. Four composites classified according to their filler size, were selected: Filtek™ Z350 XT/Nanofill (3M™ ESPE™), Esthet-X HD/Hybrid (Dentsply Caulk), Te Econom/Microfill (Ivoclar Vivadent(®)), Tetric EvoCeram(®) /Nanohybrid (Ivoclar Vivadent(®)). Composite specimens were made in Plexiglass mold and polished with Soflex (3M ESPE), Enhance + Pogo (Dentsply Caulk). Both the systems were used according to the manufacturers' instructions, and the polished surfaces were assessed with an optical profilometer. Kruskal-Wallis test and further pairwise comparison were performed by Mann-Whitney test. The smoothest surfaces for all the resin composites tested were obtained from the Mylar strip; statistically significant differences were observed among them (P = 0.001). The order of composites was ranked from the lowest to highest surface roughness; Filtek Z350 XT Econom < Tetric EvoCeram < Esthet XHD. Pairwise multiple comparison with Mann-Whitney test showed Filtek Z350 to have the smoothest surface and the least with Teric EvoCeram. Among the polishing systems, Soflex showed the smoothest surface and was significantly different from Pogo (P = 0.046). The effectiveness of the polishing systems seems to be dependent on the material used, treatment modality and also on the filler particle size.

  19. Artificial evolutionary approaches to produce smoother surface in magnetic abrasive finishing of hardened AISI 52100 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teimouri, Reza; Baseri, Hamid [Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    In this work, two models of feed forward back-propagation neural network (FFBP-NN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) have been developed to predict the performance of magnetic abrasive finishing process, based on experimental data of literature. Input parameters of process are electromagnet's voltage, mesh number of abrasive particles, poles rotational speed and weight percent of abrasive particles, and also the output is percentage of surface roughness variation. In order to select the best model, a comparison between developed models has been done based on their mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE). Moreover, optimization methods based on simulated annealing (SA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms were used to maximize the percent of surface roughness variation and select the optimal process parameters. Results indicated that the models based on artificial intelligence predict much more precise values with respect to predictive regression model developed in main literature. Also, the ANFIS model had a lowest value of MAE and RMSE with respect to others. So it was used as an objective function to maximize the surface roughness variation by using SA and PSO. Comparison between the obtained optimal solutions and analysis of results in main literature indicated that SA and PSO could find the optimal answers logically and precisely.

  20. Artificial evolutionary approaches to produce smoother surface in magnetic abrasive finishing of hardened AISI 52100 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teimouri, Reza; Baseri, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    In this work, two models of feed forward back-propagation neural network (FFBP-NN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) have been developed to predict the performance of magnetic abrasive finishing process, based on experimental data of literature. Input parameters of process are electromagnet's voltage, mesh number of abrasive particles, poles rotational speed and weight percent of abrasive particles, and also the output is percentage of surface roughness variation. In order to select the best model, a comparison between developed models has been done based on their mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE). Moreover, optimization methods based on simulated annealing (SA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms were used to maximize the percent of surface roughness variation and select the optimal process parameters. Results indicated that the models based on artificial intelligence predict much more precise values with respect to predictive regression model developed in main literature. Also, the ANFIS model had a lowest value of MAE and RMSE with respect to others. So it was used as an objective function to maximize the surface roughness variation by using SA and PSO. Comparison between the obtained optimal solutions and analysis of results in main literature indicated that SA and PSO could find the optimal answers logically and precisely.

  1. Clinical and laboratory surface finishing procedures for zirconia on opposing human enamel wear: A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Bevan J; Thangavel, Arun K; Rolton, Shane B; Guazzato, Massimiliano; Klineberg, Iven J

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effect of laboratory and clinical finishing procedures for zirconia on antagonistic enamel wear. Forty-eight yttria-tetragonal partially stabilised zirconia (Y-TZP) specimens were prepared and divided into four groups according to their surface preparation: laboratory polished (LP); laboratory polished and glazed (G); clinically adjusted (CA); and clinically adjusted and repolished (CAR). Enamel opposing enamel was used as a control. Pre-testing surface roughness for each group was determined using contact profilometry. Two-body wear resistance tests were conducted using a masticatory simulator. Enamel specimens were subjected to 120,000 cycles in distilled water (frequency 1.6 Hz, loading force of 49 N). Volumetric and vertical enamel losses were measured by superimposition of pre- and post-testing images using a three-dimensional laser scanner and software analysis. Scanning electron microscopy was used for qualitative surface analysis of pre- and post-testing zirconia and enamel surfaces. One-way ANOVA and multiple comparisons with Bonferroni corrections were used for statistical analysis at a significance level of α=0.05. There was no statistical difference in volumetric and vertical enamel loss between CAR, G and LP. CAR produced statistically significantly less volumetric enamel loss compared with CA and control, and statistically significantly less vertical enamel loss compared with CA. Volumetric and vertical enamel loss were highly correlated in all groups. Enamel wear by clinically ground zirconia is comparable to that of opposing enamel surfaces and greater than clinically repolished zirconia. Repolishing of zirconia restorations following clinical adjustment with diamond burs is effective in reducing antagonistic enamel wear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Parameters Affecting Magnetic Abrasive Finishing on Concave Freeform Surface of Al Alloy via RSM Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Vahdati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The attempts of researchers in industries to obtain accurate and high quality surfaces led to the invention of new methods of finishing. Magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF is a relatively new type of finishing in which the magnetic field is used to control the abrasive tools. Applications such as the surface of molds are ones of the parts which require very high surface smoothness. Usually this type of parts has freeform surface. In this study, the effect of magnetic abrasive process parameters on freeform surfaces of parts made of aluminum is examined. This method is obtained through combination of magnetic abrasive process and Control Numerical Computer (CNC. The use of simple hemisphere for installation on the flat area of the magnets as well as magnets’ spark in curve form is a measure done during testing the experiments. The design of experiments is based on response surface methodology. The gap, the rotational speed of the spindle, and the feed rate are found influential and regression equations governing the process are also determined. The impact of intensity of the magnetic field is obtained using the finite element software of Maxwell. Results show that in concave areas of the surface, generally speaking, the surface roughness decreases to 0.2 μm from its initial 1.3 μm roughness. However, in some points the lowest surface roughness of 0.08 μm was measured.

  3. Improvement of the surface finish obtained by laser ablation with a Nd: YAG laser on pre-ablated tool steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface finish is an important requirement for tool and die makers and remains a challenge with conventional machining technologies. Nd: YAG lasers have been utilised for many years in the area of laser marking, engraving and micro machining...

  4. Comparison of Roller Burnishing Method with Other Hole Surface Finishing Processes Applied on AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkurt, Adnan

    2011-08-01

    Component surface quality and selection of the optimum material are the main factors determining the performance of components used in machine manufacturing. The level of hole surface quality can be evaluated by the measurements regarding surface roughness, micro-hardness, and cylindricity. In this study, data had been obtained for different hole drilling methods. The characteristics of materials obtained after applications were compared for different hole-finishing processes to identify best hole drilling method. AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel material was used. Surface finishing of holes were performed using drilling, turning, reaming, grinding, honing, and roller burnishing methods. The results of the study show that the roller burnishing method gives the best results for mechanical, metallurgical properties, and hole surface quality of the material. On the other hand, the worst characteristics were obtained in the drilling method.

  5. Residual stress evaluation of austenitic stainless steel with a finished surface by polychromatic X-ray method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibano, Jun-ichi; Ukai, Takayoshi; Tadano, Shigeru [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Todoh, Masahiro

    1995-11-01

    The residual stress in a subsurface layer of austenitic stainless steel with a finished surface was evaluated by the polychromatic X-ray method. A surface of austenitic stainless steel SUS316 plate was ground and lapped as the specimen. In this method, the relation between strain and depth was approximated with a linear function or an exponential function, and it was assumed that the plane stress state existed in each subsurface layer in the depth direction of the specimen. As a result, the residual strain which was estimated under the assumption of the exponential function showed more reasonable distribution than that of the linear function. In addition, the residual stress which was calculated from the strain distribution was maximum tension at the surface of the specimen, and maximum compression at a position 3 {mu}m below the surface. Therefore, the steep gradient of residual stress could be confirmed in a subsurface layer of the SUS316 with a finished surface. (author).

  6. An Overview of Surface Finishes and Their Role in Printed Circuit Board Solderability and Solder Joint Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianco, P.T.

    1998-10-15

    A overview has been presented on the topic of alternative surface finishes for package I/Os and circuit board features. Aspects of processability and solder joint reliability were described for the following coatings: baseline hot-dipped, plated, and plated-and-fused 100Sn and Sn-Pb coatings; Ni/Au; Pd, Ni/Pd, and Ni/Pd/Au finishes; and the recently marketed immersion Ag coatings. The Ni/Au coatings appear to provide the all-around best option in terms of solderability protection and wire bondability. Nickel/Pal ftishes offer a slightly reduced level of performance in these areas that is most likely due to variable Pd surface conditions. It is necessmy to minimize dissolved Au or Pd contents in the solder material to prevent solder joint embrittlement. Ancillary aspects that included thickness measurement techniques; the importance of finish compatibility with conformal coatings and conductive adhesives; and the need for alternative finishes for the processing of non-Pb bearing solders were discussed.

  7. Finishing of sliding surfaces with geometrically defined cutting edges: Presentation held at "Friction, Wear and Wear Protection", Symposium "TriboMan-Session", 26.- 28. Oct 2011, Karlsruhe

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, Andreas; Schmidt, Torsten; Schneider, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    The rising importance of friction reduction of parts and components, especially in the power train, leads to increasing demands on the finishing of sliding surfaces. In order to meet these new requirements, new methods have to be applied. A new approach for the surface finishing is, to generate an approximated run-in condition to the surface by the finishing process in order to obtain lower initial friction and a shorter run-in period. This requires specific surface properties to ensure the p...

  8. On the properties of two binary NiTi shape memory alloys. Effects of surface finish on the corrosion behaviour and in vitro biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Souni, Mohammed; Es-Souni, Martha; Fischer-Brandies, Helge

    2002-07-01

    The present paper compares the transformation behaviour and mechanical properties of two orthodontic wires of close chemical compositions. The effects of surface topography and surface finish residues on the potentiodynamic corrosion behaviour and biocompatibility are also reported. The cytotoxicity tests were performed on both alloys in fibroblast cell cultures from human gingiva using the MTT test. It is shown that the surface finish and the amounts of surface finish residues affect dramatically the corrosion resistance. Bad surface finish results in lower corrosion resistance. The in vitro biocompatibility, though not affected to the extent of corrosion resistance, is also reduced as the surface roughness and the amounts of residues increase. This is thought to be due to surface effects on corrosion and metallic ions release.

  9. Influence of substrate microstructure and surface finish on cracking and delamination response of TiN-coated cemented carbides

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jing; Odén, Magnus; Johansson-Joesaar, Mats P.; Llanes, L.

    2016-01-01

    The cracking and delamination of TiN-coated hardmetals (WC-Co cemented carbides) when subjected to Brale indentation were studied. Experimental variables were substrate microstructure related to low (6 wt% Co) and medium (13 wt% Co) binder content, and surface finishes associated with grinding and polishing stages before film deposition. Brale indentation tests were conducted on both coated and uncoated hardmetals. Emphasis has been placed on assessing substrate microstructure and subsurface ...

  10. Printed Circuit Board Surface Finish and Effects of Chloride Contamination, Electric Field, and Humidity on Corrosion Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    Corrosion reliability is a serious issue today for electronic devices, components, and printed circuit boards (PCBs) due to factors such as miniaturization, globalized manufacturing practices which can lead to process-related residues, and global usage effects such as bias voltage and unpredictable...... probability under condensing conditions. Leakage currents were measured on interdigitated comb test patterns with three different types of surface finish typically used in the electronics industry, namely gold, copper, and tin. Susceptibility to electrochemical migration was studied under droplet conditions...

  11. Surface tridimensional topography analysis of materials and finishing procedures after resinous infiltration of subsurface bovine enamel lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jan; Yang, Fan; Neumann, Konrad; Kielbassa, Andrej M

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of materials and finishing procedures on the surface roughness of infiltrated subsurface bovine enamel lesions. Eighty enamel specimens were prepared from 80 bovine incisors and partially varnished (control). The nonvarnished areas were demineralized (pH 4.95, 28 days) and etched with phosphoric acid gel (20%, 5 seconds). Specimens were randomly divided into two groups, which were each split into four subgroups (each n = 10): E1/E2 (Excite, Ivoclar Vivadent), F1/F2 (Fortify, Bisco), G1/G2 (Glaze and Bond, DMG), and I1/I2 (Icon, DMG). In group 1, resin materials were polymerized and polished using finishing strips by means of a polishing device; in group 2, excess material was removed with a rubber cup before polymerization (without polishing). The surface roughness (Sa) of control, demineralized, and treated surfaces were evaluated topometrically using a focus variation 3D scanning microscope. Demineralized surfaces were significantly rougher than sound enamel (P < .0005, t test). Etching increased Sa significantly to more than 450% of demineralization values (P < .0005). Surfaces of nonpolished infiltrated lesions were significantly rougher than demineralized enamel (P < .0005), while no significant differences could be found among infiltrated subgroups (P = .067), nor between polished and nonpolished groups (P = .359). Application of Glaze and Bond (G2) appeared to reduce Sa values of etched lesions (P < .0005), while with all other subgroups Sa values improved only marginally. Regarding surface roughness, the use of finishing strips after infiltration of subsurface lesions does not seem to be advantageous. Excess material should be removed before light curing, but surface quality of nonprocessed infiltrants seems to be perfectible.

  12. Finishes checklist : a guide to achieving optimum coating performance on exterior wood surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony Bonura; Steve Bussjeager; Lynne Christensen; George Daisey; Tom Daniels; Mark Hirsch; Charles J. Jourdain; D. Douglas Mall; Bob Springate; Louis E. Wagner; Warren Harry; R. Sam Williams

    2004-01-01

    When the time comes for a consumer to select the wood and finish types for a given outdoor project, there is a wide variety of sources of information, articles, and opinions available. Occasionally, these sources will conflict, mostly due to the data available at the time of publication, or practical experience based on a snapshot of conditions at a given time period....

  13. Effects of two surface finishes on the color of cemented and colored anatomic-contour zirconia crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Fang; Feng, Sheng-Wei; Lu, Yi-Jie; Wu, Hsin-Jui; Peng, Pei-Wen

    2016-08-01

    The esthetic appearance of anatomic-contour zirconia restorations is influenced by the shade of the coloring liquid and the optical properties of the luting cements. However, few studies are available on the effects of surface-finishing methods and luting cements on colored anatomic-contour zirconia restorations. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effects of surface finishing methods on the color distribution of colored anatomic-contour zirconia crowns before and after being cemented onto abutments. Implant-supported anatomic-contour zirconia premolar crowns were fabricated and immersed in A3-coloring liquid for 30 seconds. The colored zirconia crowns were separated into 3 groups according to the method of surface treatment: no treatment (N), polishing (P), and glazing (G). The zirconia crowns without coloring liquid application served as the control group. CIELab color coordinates were obtained, and color differences (ΔE) between shaded crowns were calculated with a spectrophotometer. The color stability of the crown before and after cement application was also investigated. Before cement application, the mean color difference between groups N and P was 2.85 ΔE units, whereas the mean ΔE value between groups N and G was 3.27. Mean ΔE values with and without cement application among groups ranged from 2.75 to 3.45 ΔE units. The color appearance of the colored zirconia crowns was strongly influenced by the surface-finishing methods and luting cement application. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of the Effect of Surface Finish on High-Cycle Fatigue of SLM-IN718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    The surface finish of parts produced by additive manufacturing processes is much rougher than the surface finish generated by machining processes, and a rougher surface can reduce the fatigue strength of a part. This paper discusses an effort to quantify that reduction of strength in high-cycle fatigue for selective laser melt (SLM) coupons. A high-cycle fatigue (HCF) knockdown factor was estimated for Inconel 718, manufactured with the SLM process. This factor is the percentage reduction from the maximum stress in fatigue for low-stress ground (LSG) specimens to the maximum stress of those left with the original surface condition at the same fatigue life. Specimens were provided by a number of vendors, free to use their "best practice"; only one heat treat condition was considered; and several test temperatures were characterized, including room temperature, 800F, 1000F, and 1200F. The 1000F data had a large variance, and was omitted from consideration in this document. A first method used linear approximations extracted from the graphs, and only where data was available for both. A recommended knockdown factor of the as-built surface condition (average roughness of approximately 245 micro-inches/inch) versus low-stress ground condition (roughness no more than 4 micro-inches/inch) was established at approximately 1/3 or 33%. This is to say that for the as-built surface condition, a maximum stress of 2/3 of the stress for LSG can be expected to produce a similar life in the as-built surface condition. In this first evaluation, the knockdown factor did not appear to be a function of temperature. A second approach, the "KP method", incorporated the surface finish measure into a new parameter termed the pseudo-stress intensity factor, Kp, which was formulated to be similar to the fracture mechanics stress intensity factor. Using Kp, the variance seemed to be reduced across all sources, and knockdown factors were estimated using Kp over the range where data occurred. A

  15. Influence of finishing/polishing on color stability and surface roughness of composites submitted to accelerated artificial aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Da Col dos Santos Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the influence of finishing/polishing procedure on color stability (ΔE and surface roughness (Ra of composites (Heliomolar and Tetric - color A2 submitted to accelerated artificial aging (AAA. Materials and Methods : Sixty test specimens were made of each composite (12 mm × 2 mm and separated into six groups (n = 10, according to the type of finishing/polishing to which they were submitted: C, control; F, tip 3195 F; FF, tip 3195 FF; FP, tip 3195 F + diamond paste; FFP, tip 3195 FF + diamond paste; SF, Sof-Lex discs. After polishing, controlled by an electromechanical system, initial color (spectrophotometer PCB 6807 BYK GARDNER and Ra (roughness meter Surfcorder SE 1700, cut-off 0.25 mm readings were taken. Next, the test specimens were submitted to the AAA procedure (C-UV Comexim for 384 hours, and at the end of this period, new color readings and R a were taken. Results: Statistical analysis [2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Bonferroni, P < 0.05] showed that all composites demonstrated ΔE alteration above the clinically acceptable limits, with the exception of Heliomolar composite in FP. The greatest ΔE alteration occurred for Tetric composite in SF (13.38 ± 2.10 statistically different from F and FF (P < 0.05. For Ra , Group F showed rougher samples than FF with statistically significant difference (P < 0.05. Conclusion: In spite of the surface differences, the different finishing/polishing procedures were not capable of providing color stability within the clinically acceptable limits.

  16. Improvement of finishing antifriction treatment without abrasive of the rubbing parts surfaces of agricultural machineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Shepelenk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The wear of machines and mechanisms after rubbing is a major concern. The costs of manufacturing and restoration parts for agricultural machinery are enormous such as the trunnions pinions of hydraulic pumps. Finishing treatment antifriction without abrasive (FTAA is the existing method of manufacturing and restoration, but it has disadvantages like low work efficiency and the frequent replacement of the instrument. That is why a new method of FTAA parts type ''tree'' has been developed called vibratory finishing treatment antifriction without abrasive, (VFTAA method. The study was conducted at the laboratory of the State Technical University of Kirovograd (Ukraine where turn 16K20, the profilograph-profilometer "Talysurf-5", the scanning electron microscope REM-106I, friction machine MI-1M and the stand KI-28097-02M were used respectively for machining, study of micro relief before and after the VFTAA, microstructure, wear resistance and the determination of the break-in period of parts. The results showed that the VFTAA helped reduce the roughness Ra of the samples studied by half compared to the samples processed by polishing and 1.3 times compared to those treated with the FTAA, the break-in period has been reduced four times , this leads to an increase in the life of the hydraulic pump. This technology can be recommended for manufacturing and repair of hydraulic units of agricultural machineries.

  17. Specification of the surface figure and finish of optical elements in terms of system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1992-09-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory is the site of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); an electron synchrotron which is an intense source of hard and soft x-rays. Since there are no effective refracting elements for x rays, this radiation must be manipulated and focused by mirrors configured to give high reflectivity. This paper describes methods of predicting the degradation of the performance of a simple imaging system in terms of the statistics of the shape errors of the focusing element, and conversely, of specifying those statistics in terms of requirements on image quality. Results are illustrated for a normal-incidence x-ray mirrors having figure errors plus conventional and/or fractal finish errors

  18. Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D. R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios. (JN)

  19. Flat friction tests applied to austenic stainless steels with several surface finish. Analysis of adhesion conditions in friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coello, J.; Miguel, V.; Ferrer, C.; Calatatyd, A.; Martinez, A.

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the tribological behaviour of austenic stainless steels AISI 304 with bright surface finishing (B). The assays have been carried out in flat faced dies system with mineral oil of 200 cts viscosity, S 2 Mo grease and in dry conditions. The relationship between friction coefficient and pressure and velocity has been established for the mineral oil as lubricant. In these conditions, a strong adhesive tendency has been found in boundary lubrication regime. The results obtained here, show us that S 2 Mo grease leads to lowest values for the friction coefficient. A minor adhesive behaviour tendency for AISI 316 steel, harder than 304 grades, has been found. A relevant plowing phenomena has been observed for the more critical friction conditions tried out. A surface hardener is produced as a consequence of that. (Author) 19 refs

  20. Effect of surface finishing on friction and wear of Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone (PEEK under oil lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Fontoura de Andrade

    Full Text Available Abstract The tribological properties of poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK containing 30% of carbon fiber were studied in an oil-lubricated environment and different surface finishing of the metallic counterbody. Four different finishing processes, commonly used in the automotive industry, were chosen for this study: turning, grinding, honing and polishing. The test system used was tri-pin on disc with pins made of PEEK and counterbody made of steel; they were fully immersed in ATF Dexron VI oil. Some test parameters were held constant, such as the apparent pressure of 2 MPa, linear velocity of 2 m/s, oil temperature at 85 °C, and the time - 120 minutes. The lubrication regime for the apparent pressure of 1 MPa to 7 MPa range was also studied at different sliding speeds. A direct correlation was found between the wear rate, friction coefficient and the lubrication regime, wherein wear under hydrodynamic lubrication was, on average, approximately 5 times lower, and the friction coefficient 3 times lower than under boundary lubrication.

  1. Effect of finishing process on the surface quality of Co-Cr-Mo dental alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Klimecka -Tatar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Preparatory procedures for the material have a significant influence on the surface stereometry of the material. This study investigated the effect of the electropolishing process on the surface quality of metallic prosthetic constructions based on Co-Cr-Mo alloys. It has been found that the process of electropolishing prevents to excessive development of the surface of a material and consequently improves surface quality.

  2. Volumes and surface areas of pendular rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W.

    1958-01-01

    A packing of spheres is taken as a suitable model of porous media. The packing may be regular and the sphere size may be uniform, but in general, both should be random. Approximations are developed to give the volumes and surface areas of pendular rings that exist at points of sphere contact. From these, the total free volume and interfacial specific surface area are derived as expressive of the textural character of the packing. It was found that the log-log plot of volumes and surface areas of pendular rings vary linearly with the angle made by the line joining the sphere centers and the line from the center of the largest sphere to the closest edge of the pendular ring. The relationship, moreover, was found not to be very sensitive to variation in the size ratio of the spheres in contact. It also was found that the addition of pendular ring material to various sphere packings results in an unexpected decrease in the surface area of the boundaries that confine the resulting pore space. ?? 1958 The American Institute of Physics.

  3. Effect of Binder and Mold parameters on Collapsibility and Surface Finish of Gray Cast Iron No-bake Sand Molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasulu Reddy, K.; Venkata Reddy, Vajrala; Mandava, Ravi Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Chemically bonded no-bake molds and cores have good mechanical properties and produce dimensionally accurate castings compared to green sand molds. Poor collapsibility property of CO2 hardened sodium silicate bonded sand mold and phenolic urethane no-bake (PUN) binder system, made the reclamation of the sands more important. In the present work fine silica sand is mixed with phenolic urethane no-bake binder and the sand sets in a very short time within few minutes. In this paper it is focused on optimizing the process parameters of PUN binder based sand castings for better collapsibility and surface finish of gray cast iron using Taguchi design. The findings were successfully verified through experiments.

  4. Analysis of the influence of process conditions on the surface finish of ceramic materials manufactured by EDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puertas-Arbizu, I.; Luis-Perez, C. J.

    2004-01-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is an emerging alternative versus some other manufacturing processes of conductive ceramic materials, such as: laser machining, electrochemical machining, abrasive water jet, ultrasonic machining and diamond wheel grinding. Due to its interest in the industrial field, in this work a study of the influence of process conditions on the surface aspect of three conductive ceramic materials: hot-pressed boron carbide (B 4 C), reaction-bonded silicon carbide (SiSiC) and cobalt-bonded tungsten carbide (WC-Co) is carried out. These materials are to be electrical discharge machined under different machining conditions and in the particular case of finish stages (Ra≤ 1 μm). (Author)

  5. Thermal cyclic test for Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu solders on high P Ni/Au and Ni/Pd/Au surface finishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Azmah Hanim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In electronic packaging, the reliability of the interconnection changes with the surface finish and the type of solders being used. Thermal cycling is one method of reliability assessment. In thermal cycling experiments, the strain state is simplified by soldering together regular shaped pieces of materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion and exposing the joint to repeated fluctuations of temperature within a certain range. Thus, this study focuses on the intermetallic evolution of Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu on Ni/Au and Ni/Pd/Au surface finishes with thermal cycling up to 1000 cycles with the range of temperature varying from 10 to 80 °C. Sandwich samples were prepared by placing solder balls of Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu between two substrates of two different surface finishes: Ni/Au and Ni/Pd/Au. Optical microscope and FESEM (Field emission scanning electron microscope were used to analyze the samples. From the study, it was observed that the intermetallic changes from (Cu, Ni6Sn5 to (Ni, Cu3Sn4 after 1000 thermal cycles for Ni/Au. These changes promote the formation of cracks at the solder joint because of the different mechanical properties between Ni-Sn based intermetallic and Cu-Sn intermetallics. However, for the Ni/Pd/Au surface finishes, no cracks formed after thermal cycling up to 1000 cycles. This shows that the reliability of the solder joint is higher for Ni/Pd/Au surface finishes in this experiment. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the reliability of the Ni/Pd/Au surface finishes with Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu solders is higher within the given condition of this research.

  6. Agricultural Construction Volume II. Oxy-Gas and Other Cutting/Welding Processes. Woodworking, Metals, Finishing. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admire, Myron; Maricle, Gary

    This guide contains instructor's materials for teaching a secondary agricultural construction course consisting of instructional units on oxy-gas and other cutting and welding processes (10 lessons), woodworking (6 lessons), metals (10 lessons), and finishing (4 lessons). The materials for each unit include student objectives, a list of…

  7. Effect of tooth brushing and thermal cycling on a surface change of ceromers finished with different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, L-R; Yi, Y-J; Heo, S-J

    2002-09-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of tooth brushing and thermal cycling on the surface lustre and surface roughness of three ceromer systems treated with different surface finishing methods. The ceromers studied were: (1). Artglass, (2). Targis, (3). Sculpture and (4). the control group, Z 100. Half of the Targis and Sculpture groups were polished and the rest were coated with staining and glazing solution, respectively. All specimens were subjected to thermocycling 10000 times. Tooth brushing abrasion tests were performed in a customized tooth-brushing machine with 500 g weight applied on a back-and-forth cycle for 20000 repetitions. The lustre determined by measuring the light reflection area and the average roughness was compared between groups and between pre- and post-test values. All materials showed a lower lustre and rougher surface after thermocycling and tooth brushing (P ceromer specimens, except glazed Sculpture, showed a higher lustre and similar roughness to the control group. The post-brushing results revealed that glazed Sculpture presented discretely fallen out glaze coatings and had maximum change. However, stained Targis showed minimum change (P < 0.05) and polished Targis presented more changes than that of the staining treatment. It is therefore concluded that the glaze coatings for Sculpture don't exhibit long-term durability, while stain coatings for Targis acted like a protective layer.

  8. Evaluation of magnesium alloys with alternative surface finishing for the proliferation and chondro-differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, J; Arruebarrena, G; De Argandona, E Saenz; De Eguino, G Ruiz; Infante, A; RodrIguez, C I

    2010-01-01

    Articular cartilage has little capacity for self-repair. As a result, continuous mechanical stress can lead to the degradation of articular cartilage, culminating in progressive damage and joint degeneration. Tissue engineering has arisen as a promising therapeutic approach to cartilage repair. Magnesium alloys are one of the most important metallic biomaterials emerging in this area due to their biocompatibility, bio-absorbability and especially to their mechanical properties. These properties make magnesium alloys a promising biomaterial in the regeneration of cartilage tissue. Objective. This study was undertaken to analyze the influence of surface characteristics of magnesium alloys in the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Methods. Two commercial magnesium alloys (AZ31B and ZM21) were subjected to different treatments in order to obtain four different surfaces in each alloy. Human MSCs were seeded into the magnesium alloys and analyzed for their proliferation and chondrogenesis differentiation ability. Results. Human MSCs showed a greater proliferation and chondro-differentiation when cultured in the ZM21 magnesium alloy with a surface finishing of fine sanding, polishing, and etching.

  9. Influence of Oxidation Treatments and Surface Finishing on the Electrochemical Behavior of Ni-20Cr HVOF Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Luna, H.; Porcayo-Calderon, J.; Alvarado-Orozco, J. M.; Mora-García, A. G.; Martinez-Gomez, L.; Trápaga-Martínez, L. G.; Muñoz-Saldaña, J.

    2017-12-01

    The low-temperature electrochemical behavior of HVOF Ni-20Cr coatings was assessed. The coatings were evaluated in different conditions including as-sprayed, as-ground, and heat-treated in air and argon atmospheres. A detailed analysis of the coatings was carried out by means of XRD, SEM, and EPMA, prior and after the corrosion test. The corrosion rate was analyzed in a NaCl solution saturated with CO2. Results demonstrate that the use of a low-oxygen partial pressure favors the formation of a Cr2O3 layer on the surface of the coatings. According to the electrochemical results, the lower corrosion rates were obtained for the heat-treated coatings irrespective of the surface finishing, being the ground and argon heat-treated condition that shows the best corrosion performance. This behavior is due to the synergistic effect of the low-pressure heat treatment and the grinding processes. The grinding promotes a more homogeneous reaction area without surface heterogeneities such as voids, and the pre-oxidation treatment decreases the porosity content of the coating and also allows the growing of a Cr-rich oxide scale which acts as a barrier against the ions of the aqueous solution.

  10. Characterization of internal surface finishing of tubes for CAREM 25 fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, N.V; Juarez, G; Bianchi, D; Flores, A; Vizcaino, P

    2012-01-01

    One of the factors that ensure the good behavior of the fuel claddings of the nuclear power reactors is the internal surface quality. In the present work has been carried out a study of the internal surface of the tube after a cold rolling process developed in the Departamento de Tecnologia de Aleaciones de Circonio and applied by FAE-SA and PPFAE-CNEA in each rolling stage to obtain the fuel claddings for the reactor CAREM 25. The inner surface has been observed by scanning electron microscopy, SEM, being the objective of this study to verify not only the good internal surface but also infer about how starting from tubes of different initial diameter reduction the quality of the final product will be affected. The manufacturing process of the tubes for this new fuel went through modifications during the development, adding intermediate chemical pickling stages in order to improve the internal surface quality of the final product. From determinations made with ultrasound, the defects charts obtained made it possible to compare the observed signals more relevant and the micrographs in these areas in order to characterize possible defects (author)

  11. Drywall Finishing Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengert, Gerald

    This manual, a self-study guide for apprentices in the drywall finishing trade in British Columbia, attempts to establish standards for the trade. It tells how to produce a properly taped and filled drywall surface and describes what that surface should look like. The standards emphasize quality work that can be realistically achieved on the job.…

  12. The effect of finishing and polishing on surface roughness of a processed resilient denture liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loney, R W; Moulding, M B

    1993-01-01

    A raised ridge on a Molloplast-B sample was removed using one of three burs, four stones, or a coarse sandpaper disc. Samples were polished using pumice alone, tin oxide alone, or both agents. A flat, unfinished sample served as a control. The average surface roughness was measured after reductions and subsequent polishings. The length of time required for initial reduction was recorded. Average surface roughness measurements ranged from 16.0 to 1.4 microns, with the control measuring 0.66 micron. Without polishing, burs produced rougher surfaces than stones and required longer times for reduction. Bur samples also remained rougher than stone samples after pumicing. No significant differences were found between treatments or controls after the use of either a combination of pumice and tin oxide or tin oxide alone.

  13. First-principles study of the (0001)-MgB2 surface finished in Mg and B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura, Sully; Martínez, Jairo Arbey Rodríguez; Moreno-Armenta, María Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    We present a study based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) of the volume and two surfaces (0001) of MgB 2 , one of them terminated in Mg and the other one terminated in B. Each one of the surface was relaxed and their electronic properties were determined. From calculation of the enthalpy of formation we found that the Mg-terminated surface is energetically favored. The bands seem to present a formation similar to the Dirac's cone as that are presented in graphene, but in MgB 2 is above of the Fermi level. In the three cases, volume and the two surfaces, the behaviour is boron-metallic, because there are strong presence of B orbital's in the neighborhood of the Ferm level

  14. Influence of the surface finishing on electrochemical corrosion characteristics of AISI 316L stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Dundeková

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steels from 316 group are very often and successfully uses for medical applications where the good mechanical and chemical properties in combination with non-toxicity of the material assure its safe and long term usage. Corrosion properties of AISI 361L stainless steel are strongly influenced by surface roughness and treatment of the engineering parts (specimens and testing temperature. Electrochemical characteristics of ground, mechanically polished and passivated AISI 316L stainless steel specimens were examined with the aim to identify the polarization resistance evolution due to the surface roughness decrease. Results obtained on mechanically prepared specimens where only natural oxide layer created due to the exposure of the material to the corrosion environment was protecting the materials were compared to the passivated specimens with artificial oxide layer. Also the influence of temperature and stabilization time before measurement were taken into account when discussing the obtained results. Positive influence of decreasing surface roughness was obtained as well as increase of polarization resistance due to the chemical passivation of the surface. Increase of the testing temperature and short stabilization time of the specimen in the corrosion environment were observed negatively influencing corrosion resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel.

  15. Influence of the surface finishing on electrochemical corrosion characteristics of AISI 316L stainless steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dundeková, S.; Hadzima, B.; Fintová, Stanislava

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2015), s. 77-84 ISSN 1335-0803 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : AISI 316L stainless steel * EIS * Corrosion Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials http://ojs.mateng.sk/index.php/Mateng/article/view/167/278

  16. Influence of the surface finishing on the corrosion behaviour of AISI 316L stainless steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dundeková, S.; Zatkalíková, V.; Fintová, Stanislava; Hadzima, B.; Škorík, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2015), s. 48-53 ISSN 1335-0803 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0063 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : AISI 316L stainless steel * Corrosion * Immersion test * Corrosion rate Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials http://ojs.mateng.sk/index.php/Mateng/article/view/166/251

  17. Superficial roughness on composite surface, composite enamel and composite dentin junctions after different finishing and polishing procedures. Part I: roughness after treatments with tungsten carbide vs diamond burs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Federico; Conti, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate different instruments for finishing composite restorations, as well as examining different surfaces and interfaces of the same restoration. The null hypothesis is represented by the fact that there are no significant differences on roughness of composite restorations finishing between tungsten carbide and diamond burs, furthermore the null hypothesis is that there are no significant differences on roughness between finishing on composite surfaces (C), compositeenamel (CE) and composite-dentin (CD) interfaces. The study was performed on 28 teeth, and class V cavities were prepared on the extracted teeth. Restorations were done in Filtek XTE nanofilled composite (3M Espe) in a standardized method, to then be finished. A comparison was made in the phase 1 between tungsten carbide burs (16 blades), diamond burs (46 μm), with a similar shape by the same manufacturer (Komet). Each surface received 5 bur applications. Consequently, an analysis with a profilometer was performed. Phase 2 involved further confrontation of ulterior finishing with ultrafine tungsten carbide burs (30 blades) and with extra and ultrafine diamond burs (25 and 8 μm) (the same shape as previously mentioned). A second analysis was then performed with a profilometer. All measurements were taken on C surfaces, CE and CD interfaces. Statistical analyses were carried out with c2 test (a = 0.05). The finishing procedures with fine grit or toothing burs gave a better smoothness with tungsten carbide burs compared to diamond burs. While with the ultrafine grit no significant differences were noted between tungsten carbide and diamond burs on the CE and CD interfaces, the diamond bur left less superficial roughness on the C surfaces. With regards to the superficial roughness of the different areas of restoration, it can be concluded that: minor roughness was detected on C surfaces, while the CD interface had the most superficial roughness, regardless of whether the

  18. A new combined surface and volume registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, Natasha; Joshi, Anand A.; Leahy, Richard M.; Brun, Caroline; Chou, Yi-Yu; Pennec, Xavier; Lee, Agatha D.; Barysheva, Marina; De Zubicaray, Greig I.; Wright, Margaret J.; McMahon, Katie L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-03-01

    3D registration of brain MRI data is vital for many medical imaging applications. However, purely intensitybased approaches for inter-subject matching of brain structure are generally inaccurate in cortical regions, due to the highly complex network of sulci and gyri, which vary widely across subjects. Here we combine a surfacebased cortical registration with a 3D fluid one for the first time, enabling precise matching of cortical folds, but allowing large deformations in the enclosed brain volume, which guarantee diffeomorphisms. This greatly improves the matching of anatomy in cortical areas. The cortices are segmented and registered with the software Freesurfer. The deformation field is initially extended to the full 3D brain volume using a 3D harmonic mapping that preserves the matching between cortical surfaces. Finally, these deformation fields are used to initialize a 3D Riemannian fluid registration algorithm, that improves the alignment of subcortical brain regions. We validate this method on an MRI dataset from 92 healthy adult twins. Results are compared to those based on volumetric registration without surface constraints; the resulting mean templates resolve consistent anatomical features both subcortically and at the cortex, suggesting that the approach is well-suited for cross-subject integration of functional and anatomic data.

  19. Modeling of the integrity of machining surfaces: application to the case of 15-5 PH stainless steel finish turning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondelin, A.

    2012-01-01

    During machining, extreme conditions of pressure, temperature and strain appear in the cutting zone. In this thermo-mechanical context, the link between the cutting conditions (cutting speed, lubrication, feed rate, wear, tool coating...) and the machining surface integrity represents a major scientific target. This PhD study is a part of a global project called MIFSU (Modeling of the Integrity and Fatigue resistance of Machining Surfaces) and it focuses on the finish turning of the 15-5PH (a martensitic stainless steel used for parts of helicopter rotor). Firstly, material behavior has been studied in order to provide data for machining simulations. Stress-free dilatometry tests were conducted to obtain the austenitization kinetics of 15-5PH steel for high heating rates (up to 11,000 degrees C/s). Then, parameters of Leblond metallurgical model have been calibrated. In addition, dynamic compression tests (de/dt ranging from 0.01 to 80/s and e ≥ 1) have been performed to calibrate a strain-rate dependent elasto-plasticity model (for high strains). These tests also helped to highlight the dynamic recrystallization phenomena and their influence on the flow stress of the material. Thus, recrystallization model has also been implemented.In parallel, a numerical model for the prediction of machined surface integrity has been constructed. This model is based on a methodology called 'hybrid' (developed during the PhD thesis of Frederic Valiorgue for the AISI 304L steel). The method consists in replacing tool and chip modeling by equivalent loadings (obtained experimentally). A calibration step of these loadings has been carried out using orthogonal cutting and friction tests (with sensitivity studies of machining forces, friction and heat partition coefficients to cutting parameters variations).Finally, numerical simulations predictions of microstructural changes (austenitization and dynamic recrystallization) and residual stresses have been successfully compared with

  20. Process Optimization of Eco-Friendly Flame Retardant Finish for Cotton Fabric: a Response Surface Methodology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Sohail; Curti, Massimo; Behary, Nemeshwaree; Perwuelz, Anne; Giraud, Stephane; Rovero, Giorgio; Guan, Jinping; Chen, Guoqiang

    The n-methylol dimethyl phosphono propionamide (MDPA) flame retardant compounds are predominantly used for cotton fabric treatments with trimethylol melamine (TMM) to obtain better crosslinking and enhanced flame retardant properties. Nevertheless, such treatments are associated with a toxic issue of cancer-causing formaldehyde release. An eco-friendly finishing was used to get formaldehyde-free fixation of flame retardant to the cotton fabric. Citric acid as a crosslinking agent along with the sodium hypophosphite as a catalyst in the treatment was utilized. The process parameters of the treatment were enhanced for optimized flame retardant properties, in addition, low mechanical loss to the fabric by response surface methodology using Box-Behnken statistical design experiment methodology was achieved. The effects of concentrations on the fabric’s properties (flame retardancy and mechanical properties) were evaluated. The regression equations for the prediction of concentrations and mechanical properties of the fabric were also obtained for the eco-friendly treatment. The R-squared values of all the responses were above 0.95 for the reagents used, indicating the degree of relationship between the predicted values by the Box-Behnken design and the actual experimental results. It was also found that the concentration parameters (crosslinking reagents and catalysts) in the treatment formulation have a prime role in the overall performance of flame retardant cotton fabrics.

  1. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  2. Concentration data for anthropogenic organic compounds in groundwater, surface water, and finished water of selected community water systems in the United States, 2002-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.; Delzer, Gregory C.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began implementing Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) in 2001 that focus on characterizing the quality of source water and finished water of aquifers and major rivers used by some of the larger community water systems in the United States. As used in SWQA studies, source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at the supply well before water treatment (for groundwater) or the raw (ambient) water collected from the river near the intake (for surface water), and finished water is the water that has been treated and is ready to be delivered to consumers. Finished-water samples are collected before the water enters the distribution system. The primary objective of SWQAs is to determine the occurrence of more than 250 anthropogenic organic compounds in source water used by community water systems, many of which currently are unregulated in drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A secondary objective is to understand recurrence patterns in source water and determine if these patterns also occur in finished water before distribution. SWQA studies were conducted in two phases for most studies completed by 2005, and in one phase for most studies completed since 2005. Analytical results are reported for a total of 295 different anthropogenic organic compounds monitored in source-water and finished-water samples collected during 2002-10. The 295 compounds were classified according to the following 13 primary use or source groups: (1) disinfection by-products; (2) fumigant-related compounds; (3) fungicides; (4) gasoline hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and oxygenate degradates; (5) herbicides and herbicide degradates; (6) insecticides and insecticide degradates; (7) manufacturing additives; (8) organic synthesis compounds; (9) pavement- and combustion-derived compounds; (10) personal-care and domestic-use products; (11) plant- or animal-derived biochemicals; (12) refrigerants and

  3. Surface and volume photoemission of hot electrons from plasmonic nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, Alexander V.; Protsenko, Igor E.; Ikhsanov, Renat S.

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically compare surface- and volume-based photoelectron emission from spherical nanoparticles, obtaining analytical expressions for the emission rate in both mechanisms. We show that the surface mechanism prevails, being unaffected by detrimental hot electron collisions....

  4. Configuration design and accuracy analysis of a novel magneto rheological finishing machine tool for concave surfaces with small radius of curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Henan; Chen, Mingjun; Yu, Bo; Zhen, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is a computer-controlled deterministic polishing technique that is widely used in the production of high-quality optics. In order to overcome the defects of existing MRF processes that are unable to achieve concave surfaces with small radius of curvature, a configuration method of a novel structured MRF machine tool using small ball-end permanent-magnet polishing head is proposed in this paper. The preliminary design focuses on the structural configuration of the machine, which includes the machine body, motion units and accessory equipment, and so on. Structural deformation and fabrication accuracy of the machine are analyzed theoretically, in which the reasonable structure sizes, manufacturing errors and assembly errors of main structural components are given for configuration optimization. Based on the theoretical analysis, a four-axes linkage MRF machine tool is developed. Preliminary experiments of spot polishing are carried out and the results indicate that the proposed MRF process can achieve stable polishing area which meets requirement of deterministic polishing. A typical small-bore complex component is polished on the developed device and fine surface quality is obtained with sphericity of the finished spherical surfaces 1.3 μm and surface roughness Ra less than 0.018 μm.

  5. Optimal set-up and surface finish characteristics in electrical discharge machining on Ti-5Al-2.5Sn using graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ashikur Rahman Khan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In electrical discharge machining (EDM process which is an advance and non-conventional technique, the selection of machining parameters for achieving high machining performance is an important; however, very problematic task. In the current manuscript it was aimed to ascertain optimal machining set-up of EDM process related with fine surface finish. The die-sinking EDM was carried out using the both polarities (positive and negative of graphite electrode. The microstructure of the workpiece surface was investigated by scanning electronic microscopy. The negative polarity produces, on average, nearly double surface roughness than that with positive polarity. The surface microstructure is deteriorated as the discharge energy level increases for both polarities.

  6. Develop of ceramic effects: surface finishes, through digital inject technology; Desarrollo de efectos ceramicos como acabados superficiales, mediante tecnologia de inyeccion digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Ferro Spain SA has tackled the practical viability of tile surfaces decoration by means of applying layers of reduced thickness by means of the use of digital injection technology by ink jet and, specifically, relating to effects and superficial finishes different from colouring. It has been studied several mechanisms which allow to get those effects and the influence of the main variables. It has also been assessed the obtained results dealing with the current regulations as in the case of non-slip effect. (Author)

  7. Optical behaviors of esthetic CAD-CAM restorations after different surface finishing and polishing procedures and UV aging: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Hamiyet; Turgut, Sedanur

    2018-01-05

    Esthetic computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) materials have various chemical compositions and can be prepared by using different finishing and polishing procedures. Their optical properties may change over time, depending on these factors. However, information about their stain resistance is still scarce. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the optical properties of esthetic CAD-CAM materials after different finishing and polishing procedures and ultraviolet (UV) aging. Lava Ultimate, Cerasmart, Vita Enamic, Vita Suprinity, and Vita Mark II materials were used. A total of 150 specimens (14×12×1 mm) were prepared (n=10). A spectrophotometer was used to measure color parameters after different finishing and polishing procedures (control, manual polishing, glazing) and ultraviolet (UV) aging. Lightness (L*), green-red (a*), blue-yellow (b*), chroma (Ch), and hue (h) parameters were recorded, and change in lightness (ΔE*) values were calculated. Statistical analyses were performed with 2-way ANOVA, the Fisher least significant difference test, and the paired samples t test (α=.05). Significant interactions were noted between the aging conditions, material type, and finishing and polishing procedures for all evaluated parameters (P<.001). Vita Suprinity and Vita Mark II glazing groups resulted in significantly higher L 1 * values (P<.05) after the first color measurements. The b 1 * and C 1 values of Vita Suprinity were higher than for other materials (P<.05). The highest ΔE* value was observed in the Lava Ultimate-glazing group (ΔE*=22.7) and the lowest in the Vita Mark II-control group (ΔE*=0.86). The optical properties of CAD-CAM materials can be affected by the material type and the applied surface finishing and polishing procedure. Manual polishing seems to be a better choice for Lava Ultimate and Cerasmart and glazing for Vita Enamic. For ceramic materials, manual polishing or glazing can be recommended in terms

  8. Analysis of magnetic abrasive finishing with slotted magnetic pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayswal, S. C.; Jain, V. K.; Dixit, P. M.

    2004-06-01

    Magnetic Abrasive Finishing (MAF) is relatively a new finishing process among the advanced finishing processes in which the workpiece is kept in the magnetic field created by two poles of an electromagnet. The working gap between the workpiece and the magnet is filled with magnetic abrasive particles. A flexible magnetic abrasive brush is formed, acting as a multipoint cutting tool, due to the effect of magnetic field in the working gap. This process is capable of producing the surface finish of nanometer range. Most of the researchers have been using the electromagnet having a slot in it to improve the performance of the process but hardly any information is available about its effect on the process performance. This paper deals with the effect of a slot made in the electromagnet on the forces and surface quality during MAF. An experimental set-up is designed and fabricated for the measurement of the magnetic field distribution in the working gap. The magnetic field is simulated using a finite element model of the process. The magnetic field is also measured experimentally to validate the theoretical results. It indicates a good agreement between the experimental results and simulated values. The finite element method is further used for the evaluation of the magnetic force and surface quality during MAF. To our surprise it is found that the force under the slot is negative, even then process performance is improved. MAF process removes a very small amount of material by indentation and rotation of the magnetic abrasive particles in the circular tracks. Due to rotation of the magnetic abrasive flexible brush, grooves are formed on the workpiece surface which decides the surface profile after MAF. Surface quality is determined on the basis of the surface profile achieved by equating the volume of groove produced. These results show an improvement in finishing rate while using a slotted pole surface.

  9. Finishability of CCA pressure-treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Ross; Richard Carlson; William Feist; Steven Bussjaeger

    2000-01-01

    Thus, a need arose for the development of surface finishes for CCA-treated wood that could address the special requirements of this substrate and provide protection against the ravages of water, sunlight, mildew, and other aspects of weathering and wear. Initially, this need was not addressed, most wood preserving companies had little expertise in surface finishes and...

  10. A volume-based method for denoising on curved surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Biddle, Harry

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate a method for removing noise from images or other data on curved surfaces. Our approach relies on in-surface diffusion: we formulate both the Gaussian diffusion and Perona-Malik edge-preserving diffusion equations in a surface-intrinsic way. Using the Closest Point Method, a recent technique for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) on general surfaces, we obtain a very simple algorithm where we merely alternate a time step of the usual Gaussian diffusion (and similarly Perona-Malik) in a small 3D volume containing the surface with an interpolation step. The method uses a closest point function to represent the underlying surface and can treat very general surfaces. Experimental results include image filtering on smooth surfaces, open surfaces, and general triangulated surfaces. © 2013 IEEE.

  11. Packaging Reliability Effect of ENIG and ENEPIG Surface Finishes in Board Level Thermal Test under Long-Term Aging and Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chaobo; Hai, Zhou; Zhao, Cong; Zhang, Jiawei; Evans, John L; Bozack, Michael J; Suhling, Jeffrey C

    2017-04-26

    This study illustrates test results and comparative literature data on the influence of isothermal aging and thermal cycling associated with Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC105) and Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) ball grid array (BGA) solder joints finished with ENIG and ENEPIG on the board side and ENIG on the package side compared with ImAg plating on both sides. The resulting degradation data suggests that the main concern for 0.4 mm pitch 10 mm package size BGA is package side surface finish, not board side. That is, ENIG performs better than immersion Ag for applications involving long-term isothermal aging. SAC305, with a higher relative fraction of Ag₃Sn IMC within the solder, performs better than SAC105. SEM and polarized light microscope analysis show cracks propagated from the corners to the center or even to solder bulk, which eventually causes fatigue failure. Three factors are discussed: IMC, grain structure, and Ag₃Sn particle. The continuous growth of Cu-Sn intermetallic compounds (IMC) and grains increase the risk of failure, while Ag₃Sn particles seem helpful in blocking the crack propagation.

  12. Students' and Teachers' Application of Surface Area to Volume Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amy R.; Jones, M. Gail

    2013-02-01

    The National Science Education Standards emphasize teaching unifying concepts and processes such as basic functions of living organisms, the living environment, and scale (NRC 2011). Scale includes understanding that different characteristics, properties, or relationships within a system might change as its dimensions are increased or decreased (NRC 2011). One such relationship involves surface area to volume which is a pervasive concept that can be found throughout different sciences. This concept is important for students to not only understand the association of the two, but to also be able to apply this relationship in science contexts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that influence the understanding surface area to volume relationships. This study examined middle school students', high school students', and science teachers' logical thinking skills (including proportional reasoning), visual-spatial skills, and understandings of surface area to volume relationships. Regression results indicated that participants' reasoning abilities and components of visual-spatial skills could be possible predictors for one's ability to understand surface area to volume relationships. Implications for teaching scale concepts such as surface area to volume relationships in the science classroom are discussed.

  13. Infinite volume of noncommutative black hole wrapped by finite surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Baocheng, E-mail: zhangbc.zhang@yahoo.com [School of Mathematics and Physics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); You, Li, E-mail: lyou@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Physics, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-02-10

    The volume of a black hole under noncommutative spacetime background is found to be infinite, in contradiction with the surface area of a black hole, or its Bekenstein–Hawking (BH) entropy, which is well-known to be finite. Our result rules out the possibility of interpreting the entropy of a black hole by counting the number of modes wrapped inside its surface if the final evaporation stage can be properly treated. It implies the statistical interpretation for the BH entropy can be independent of the volume, provided spacetime is noncommutative. The effect of radiation back reaction is found to be small and doesn't influence the above conclusion.

  14. Simulated studies of wear and friction in total hip prosthesis components with various ball sizes and surface finishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swikert, M. A.; Johnson, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on a newly designed total hip joint simulator. The apparatus closely simulates the complex motions and loads of the human hip in normal walking. The wear and friction of presently used appliance configurations and materials were determined. A surface treatment of the metal femoral ball specimens was applied to influence wear. The results of the investigation indicate that wear can be reduced by mechanical treatment of metal femoral ball surfaces. A metallographic examination and surface roughness measurements were made.

  15. Progressive tool flank wear and surface roughness when turning AISI 1017 mild steel using reduced thickness inserts in finishing cutting conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Saiful Anwar Che; Zakaria, Mohd Hafizu; Harun, Wan Sharuzi Wan; Ghazalli, Zakri

    2017-12-01

    Tool wear is a major aspect in metal cutting, especially during steel machining. This studies the capability of 1 mm thick uncoated tungsten carbide insert during the turning of AISI 1017 mild steel. The reduction of insert thickness will lead to a more economical and efficient use of material and energy during fabrication, operation, and disposal of the cutting insert. Axial machining trials have been performed using the finishing cutting conditions. Tool flank wear and workpiece surface roughness were analysed using an optical microscope and contact perthometer device, respectively. The data of flank wear and surface roughness achieved were used to analyse the capability of replacing 4 mm thick cutting inserts with 1 mm thick cutting inserts. The results showed that the flank wear and the surface roughness of conventional inserts performed better as compared to the 1 mm thick insert with a significant difference of 5.74 % and 1.57 %. Thus, the experimental study shows that the 1 mm thick insert performed as good as a conventional cutting insert in terms of tool life and surface roughness quality.

  16. Evaluation of surface quality by Fractal Dimension and Volume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental and simulation results have enabled to show than the large diameter ball under low loads and medium feed speeds, favors the elimination of peaks and reduction of fractal dimension whence quality improvement of surface. Keywords: burnishing, volume parameters, fractal dimension, experimental designs ...

  17. Condylar volume and surface in Caucasian young adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordasco Giancarlo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been no quantitative standards for volumetric and surface measurements of the mandibular condyle in Caucasian population. However, the recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT system allows measurement of these parameters with high accuracy. Methods CBCT was used to measure the condylar volume, surface and the volume to surface ratio, called the Morphometric Index (MI, of 300 temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ in 150 Caucasian young adult subjects, with varied malocclusions, without pain or dysfunction of TMJs. Results The condylar volume was 691.26 ± 54.52 mm3 in males and 669.65 ± 58.80 mm3 in, and was significantly higher (p2 in males and 394.77 ± 60.73 mm2 in females. Furthermore, the condylar volume (693.61 ± 62.82 mm3 in the right TMJ was significantly higher than in the left (666.99 ± 48.67 mm3, p 2 in the right TMJ and 389.41 ± 56.63 mm2 in the left TMJ; t = 3.29; p Conclusion These data from temporomandibular joints of patients without pain or clinical dysfunction might serve as examples of normal TMJ's in the general population not seeking orthodontic care.

  18. Effect of Isothermal Aging on the Long-Term Reliability of Fine-Pitch Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Ag Solder Interconnects With and Without Board-Side Ni Surface Finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Kyu; Duh, Jeng-Gong

    2014-11-01

    The combined effects on long-term reliability of isothermal aging and chemically balanced or unbalanced surface finish have been investigated for fine-pitch ball grid array packages with Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) (wt.%) and Sn-3.5Ag (SnAg) (wt.%) solder ball interconnects. Two different printed circuit board surface finishes were selected to compare the effects of chemically balanced and unbalanced structure interconnects with and without board-side Ni surface finish. NiAu/solder/Cu and NiAu/solder/NiAu interconnects were isothermally aged and thermally cycled to evaluate long-term thermal fatigue reliability. Weibull plots of the combined effects of each aging condition and each surface finish revealed lifetime for NiAu/SAC305/Cu was reduced by approximately 40% by aging at 150°C; less degradation was observed for NiAu/SAC305/NiAu. Further reduction of characteristic life-cycle number was observed for NiAu/SnAg/NiAu joints. Microstructure was studied, focusing on its evolution near the board and package-side interfaces. Different mechanisms of aging were apparent under the different joint configurations. Their effects on the fatigue life of solder joints are discussed.

  19. Condylar volume and surface in Caucasian young adult subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tecco, Simona; Saccucci, Matteo; Nucera, Riccardo; Polimeni, Antonella; Pagnoni, Mario; Cordasco, Giancarlo; Festa, Felice; Iannetti, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    There have been no quantitative standards for volumetric and surface measurements of the mandibular condyle in Caucasian population. However, the recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system allows measurement of these parameters with high accuracy. CBCT was used to measure the condylar volume, surface and the volume to surface ratio, called the Morphometric Index (MI), of 300 temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ) in 150 Caucasian young adult subjects, with varied malocclusions, without pain or dysfunction of TMJs. The condylar volume was 691.26 ± 54.52 mm 3 in males and 669.65 ± 58.80 mm 3 in, and was significantly higher (p< 0.001) in the males. The same was observed for the condylar surface, although without statistical significance (406.02 ± 55.22 mm 2 in males and 394.77 ± 60.73 mm 2 in females). Furthermore, the condylar volume (693.61 ± 62.82 mm 3 ) in the right TMJ was significantly higher than in the left (666.99 ± 48.67 mm 3 , p < 0.001) as was the condylar surface (411.24 ± 57.99 mm 2 in the right TMJ and 389.41 ± 56.63 mm 2 in the left TMJ; t = 3.29; p < 0.01). The MI is 1.72 ± 0.17 for the whole sample, with no significant difference between males and females or the right and left sides. These data from temporomandibular joints of patients without pain or clinical dysfunction might serve as examples of normal TMJ's in the general population not seeking orthodontic care

  20. High-temperature stability of Au/Pd/Cu and Au/Pd(P)/Cu surface finishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. E.; Hsieh, W. Z.; Lee, P. T.; Huang, Y. H.; Kuo, T. T.

    2018-03-01

    Thermal reliability of Au/Pd/Cu and Au/Pd(4-6 wt.% P)/Cu trilayers in the isothermal annealing at 180 °C were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The pure Pd film possessed a nanocrystalline structure with numerous grain boundaries, thereby facilitating the interdiffusion between Au and Cu. Out-diffusion of Cu through Pd and Au grain boundaries yielded a significant amount of Cu oxides (CuO and Cu2O) over the Au surface and gave rise to void formation in the Cu film. By contrast, the Pd(P) film was amorphous and served as a good diffusion barrier against Cu diffusion. The results of this study indicated that amorphous Pd(P) possessed better oxidation resistance and thermal reliability than crystalline Pd.

  1. Vitrified metal finishing wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, P.A. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: p.a.bingham@sheffield.ac.uk; Hand, R.J. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-17

    Durable phosphate glasses were formed by vitrifying waste filter cakes from two metal finishing operations. Some melts formed crystalline components during cooling. Compositional analysis of dried, heat treated and vitrified samples was made using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy and Leco induction furnace combustion analysis. Hydrolytic dissolution, measured by an adapted product consistency test, was reduced by up to 3 orders of magnitude upon heat treatment or vitrification, surpassing the performance of borosilicate glass in some cases. This was attributed to the high levels of iron and zinc in the wastes, which greatly improve the durability of phosphate glasses. One of the wastes arose from a metal phosphating process and was particularly suitable for vitrification due to its high P{sub 2}O{sub 5} content and favourable melting behaviour. The other waste, which arose from a number of processes, was less suitable as it had a low P{sub 2}O{sub 5} content and during heating it emitted harmful corrosive gases and underwent violent reactions. Substantial volume reductions were obtained by heat treatment and vitrification of both wastes. Compositions and performances of some vitrified wastes were comparable with those of glasses which are under consideration for the immobilisation of toxic and nuclear wastes.

  2. Mucosal detail at CT virtual reality: surface versus volume rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, K D; Iyriboz, A T; Wise, S W; Neuman, J D; Mauger, D T; Kasales, C J

    2000-02-01

    To evaluate computed tomographic virtual reality with volumetric versus surface rendering. Virtual reality images were reconstructed for 27 normal or pathologic colonic, gastric, or bronchial structures in four ways: the transition zone (a) reconstructed separately from the wall by using volume rendering; (b) with attenuation equal to air; (c) with attenuation equal to wall (soft tissue); (d) with attenuation halfway between air and wall. The four reconstructed images were randomized. Four experienced imagers blinded to the reconstruction graded them from best to worst with predetermined criteria. All readers rated images with the transition zone as a separate structure as overwhelmingly superior (P Virtual reality is best with volume rendering, with the transition zone (mucosa) between the wall and air reconstructed as a separate structure.

  3. Rapid surface-water volume estimations in beaver ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karran, Daniel J.; Westbrook, Cherie J.; Wheaton, Joseph M.; Johnston, Carol A.; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Beaver ponds are surface-water features that are transient through space and time. Such qualities complicate the inclusion of beaver ponds in local and regional water balances, and in hydrological models, as reliable estimates of surface-water storage are difficult to acquire without time- and labour-intensive topographic surveys. A simpler approach to overcome this challenge is needed, given the abundance of the beaver ponds in North America, Eurasia, and southern South America. We investigated whether simple morphometric characteristics derived from readily available aerial imagery or quickly measured field attributes of beaver ponds can be used to approximate surface-water storage among the range of environmental settings in which beaver ponds are found. Studied were a total of 40 beaver ponds from four different sites in North and South America. The simplified volume-area-depth (V-A-h) approach, originally developed for prairie potholes, was tested. With only two measurements of pond depth and corresponding surface area, this method estimated surface-water storage in beaver ponds within 5 % on average. Beaver pond morphometry was characterized by a median basin coefficient of 0.91, and dam length and pond surface area were strongly correlated with beaver pond storage capacity, regardless of geographic setting. These attributes provide a means for coarsely estimating surface-water storage capacity in beaver ponds. Overall, this research demonstrates that reliable estimates of surface-water storage in beaver ponds only requires simple measurements derived from aerial imagery and/or brief visits to the field. Future research efforts should be directed at incorporating these simple methods into both broader beaver-related tools and catchment-scale hydrological models.

  4. Collective Phenomena In Volume And Surface Barrier Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogelschatz, U.

    2010-07-01

    Barrier discharges are increasingly used as a cost-effective means to produce non-equilibrium plasmas at atmospheric pressure. This way, copious amounts of electrons, ions, free radicals and excited species can be generated without appreciable gas heating. In most applications the barrier is made of dielectric material. In laboratory experiments also the use of resistive, ferroelectric and semiconducting materials has been investigated, also porous ceramic layers and dielectric barriers with controlled surface conductivity. Major applications utilizing mainly dielectric barriers include ozone generation, surface cleaning and modification, polymer and textile treatment, sterilization, pollution control, CO2 lasers, excimer lamps, plasma display panels (flat TV screens). More recent research efforts are also devoted to biomedical applications and to plasma actuators for flow control. Sinu- soidal feeding voltages at various frequencies as well as pulsed excitation schemes are used. Volume as well as surface barrier discharges can exist in the form of filamentary, regularly patterned or laterally homogeneous discharges. Reviews of the subject and the older literature on barrier discharges were published by Kogelschatz (2002, 2003), by Wagner et al. (2003) and by Fridman et al. (2005). A detailed discussion of various properties of barrier discharges can also be found in the recent book "Non-Equilibrium Air Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure" by Becker et al. (2005). The physical effects leading to collective phenomena in volume and surface barrier discharges will be discussed in detail. Special attention will be given to self-organization of current filaments. Main similarities and differences of the two types of barrier discharges will be elaborated.

  5. Plutonium Finishing Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Plutonium Finishing Plant, also known as PFP, represented the end of the line (the final procedure) associated with plutonium production at Hanford.PFP was also...

  6. Surfaced-based investigations plan, Volume 4: Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This document represents a detailed summary of design plans for surface-based investigations to be conducted for site characterization of the Yucca Mountain site. These plans are current as of December 1988. The description of surface-based site characterization activities contained in this document is intended to give all interested parties an understanding of the current plans for site characterization of Yucca Mountain. The maps presented in Volume 4 are products of the Geographic Information System (GIS) being used by the Yucca Mountain Project. The ARC/INFO GIS software, developed by Environmental Systems Research Institute, was used to digitize and process these SBIP maps. The maps were prepared using existing US Geological Survey (USGS) maps as a planimetric base. Roads and other surface features were interpreted from a variety of sources and entered into the GIS. Sources include the USGS maps, 1976 USGS orthophotoquads and aerial photography, 1986 and 1987 aerial photography, surveyed coordinates of field sites, and a combination of various maps, figures, descriptions and approximate coordinates of proposed locations for future activities

  7. Deepwater Horizon - Estimating surface oil volume distribution in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, B.; Simecek-Beatty, D.; Leifer, I.

    2011-12-01

    Spill responders to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill required both the relative spatial distribution and total oil volume of the surface oil. The former was needed on a daily basis to plan and direct local surface recovery and treatment operations. The latter was needed less frequently to provide information for strategic response planning. Unfortunately, the standard spill observation methods were inadequate for an oil spill this size, and new, experimental, methods, were not ready to meet the operational demands of near real-time results. Traditional surface oil estimation tools for large spills include satellite-based sensors to define the spatial extent (but not thickness) of the oil, complemented with trained observers in small aircraft, sometimes supplemented by active or passive remote sensing equipment, to determine surface percent coverage of the 'thick' part of the slick, where the vast majority of the surface oil exists. These tools were also applied to DWH in the early days of the spill but the shear size of the spill prevented synoptic information of the surface slick through the use small aircraft. Also, satellite images of the spill, while large in number, varied considerably in image quality, requiring skilled interpretation of them to identify oil and eliminate false positives. Qualified staff to perform this task were soon in short supply. However, large spills are often events that overcome organizational inertia to the use of new technology. Two prime examples in DWH were the application of hyper-spectral scans from a high-altitude aircraft and more traditional fixed-wing aircraft using multi-spectral scans processed by use of a neural network to determine, respectively, absolute or relative oil thickness. But, with new technology, come new challenges. The hyper-spectral instrument required special viewing conditions that were not present on a daily basis and analysis infrastructure to process the data that was not available at the command

  8. Wall Finishes; Carpentry: 901895.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline is designed to provide instruction in selecting, preparing, and installing wall finishing materials. Prerequisites for the course include mastery of building construction plans, foundations and walls, and basic mathematics. Intended for use in grades 11 and 12, the course contains five blocks of study totaling 135 hours of…

  9. Research on the use of particles coming from almond husk as fillers for vinyl plastisols to manufacture hollow pieces with similar surface finishing than wood by using a rotational moulding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Amoros, Jose Enrique

    PVC pastes or plasticized PVC offer great possibilities in the industrial field in which this research work has been developed since they show great relevance in plastic processing. On one hand, it is important to study these materials from different points of view: quality improvement, wide range of performance, high versatility, low costs,.... On the other hand, most of the industrial fields that usually employ these polymeric materials are characterized by developing products on which aesthetic considerations and surface finishing acquire special relevance. These industrial fields include all those on which new designs require complex shapes and new and novelty surface finishing such as interior design (furniture, wood products,...) toys industry, houseware, shoe industry,.... The main aim of this work is to improve the use of PVC plastisols in these industrial fields by optimizing formulations with new additives (low toxicity plasticizers) and fillers (lignocellulosic wastes) to obtain new materials that minimize damages to environment. In this work, we have developed new plastisol formulations based on the use of low toxicity plasticizers to obtain more ecological plastisols. We have used a biodegradable plasticizer DINCH which is a derivative of a dicarboxilate as substitute of traditional plasticizers based on phthalates. As we are working with relatively new plasticizers (specially at industrial level) we have performed a whole study of its properties by using different experimental analysis techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamical-mechanical analysis (DMA) and espectrofotometric techniques (visible and infrared). Furthermore a complete mechanical characterization has been carried out to analyze the most important parameters that influence on materials properties such as processing parameters (temperature and time) and plastisol formulations (mainly plasticizer content). We have also performed a

  10. Finishing with invisalign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Trang; Kuo, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Finishing in orthodontics can be challenging and can involve use of various techniques and armamentarium. This article reports a study that evaluates a procedure for using a thicker Aligner at the end of treatment to aide in finishing and also to determine if this would reduce the need for additional "case refinement" Aligners at the end of treatment. Align Technology has developed the Invisalign System, which is a series of clear plastic appliances ("aligners") that move the patient's teeth in small increments from their original state to a final, treated state. The Invisalign System uses a computer as a tool to assist in creating a series of sequential movements to assure light and consistent forces on the patient's teeth.

  11. Experimental investigation on shore hardness of barrel-finished ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Barrel finishing (BF) process is widely used to improve the surface finish and dimensional features of metallic and non-metallic parts using different types of media. As a matter of fact the change in shore hardness (SH) features of fused deposition modelling (FDM)-based master pattern is one of the important considerations ...

  12. 52nd colloid and surface science symposium. Proceedings volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, E.L. Jr.; Corbett, H.G.

    1978-05-01

    Abstracts are presented under the headings: cell/surface interactions, surface properties and reactions of catalysts, solution chemistry of surfactants, dynamic systems, microorganism/surface interactions, gas-solid interactions, biological surfaces, solid sorbents, lung surfactant and intestinal absorption, pigments, and liquid systems. (DLC)

  13. Preliminary findings of the effect of surface finish and coatings on PuO2 contamination hold-up and ease of decontamination in aqueous and non-aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.T.; Chamberlain, H.E.; Turner, A.D.; Dawson, R.K.

    1984-11-01

    The application of temporary and permanent coatings for the reduction of α-activity hold-up and increased ease of decontamination has been reviewed and a variety of surface treatments and coatings identified as being worthy of investigation. A range of specimens have been prepared with hard coatings and smooth surfaces. A number of adhesive films, paints and lacquers have been applied to mild and stainless steel substrates. In order to compare the different surfaces, a standard contamination technique using a mechanical wiper has been developed to reproducibly contaminate the materials with PuO 2 . A standard decontamination test using water/Decon 75 or Arklone X is being used to compare the ease of decontamination. Preliminary experiments have shown that the smoothest surface finishes have the lowest activity hold-up and are more easily cleaned. Due to the superior level of micro-smoothness attainable on metals, these showed a significantly lower activity retention than the organic coatings examined to date. A comparison of the relative efficiency of cleaning in Decon 75 and Arklone X showed that generally speaking metal surfaces were cleaned equally well by both media, while the unaged organic surfaces were decontaminated more thoroughly in Arklone X, though the differences were somewhat marginal. (author)

  14. Measuring air layer volumes retained by submerged floating-ferns Salvinia and biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J. Mayser

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Some plants and animals feature superhydrophobic surfaces capable of retaining a layer of air when submerged under water. Long-term air retaining surfaces (Salvinia-effect are of high interest for biomimetic applications like drag reduction in ship coatings of up to 30%. Here we present a novel method for measuring air volumes and air loss under water. We recorded the buoyancy force of the air layer on leaf surfaces of four different Salvinia species and on one biomimetic surface using a highly sensitive custom made strain gauge force transducer setup. The volume of air held by a surface was quantified by comparing the buoyancy force of the specimen with and then without an air layer. Air volumes retained by the Salvinia-surfaces ranged between 0.15 and 1 L/m2 depending on differences in surface architecture. We verified the precision of the method by comparing the measured air volumes with theoretical volume calculations and could find a good agreement between both values. In this context we present techniques to calculate air volumes on surfaces with complex microstructures. The introduced method also allows to measure decrease or increase of air layers with high accuracy in real-time to understand dynamic processes.

  15. Nano finish grinding of brittle materials using electrolytic in-process ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    \\R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Recent developments in grinding have opened up new avenues for finishing of hard and brittle materials with nano-surface finish, high tolerance and accuracy. Grinding with superabrasive wheels is ... materials up to nano accuracy is a great challenge in the manufacturing industry. Finishing of micro components such as ...

  16. Chronicle of 65 years of wood finishing research at the Forest Products Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Gorman; William C. Feist

    1989-01-01

    For 65 years, the Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) in Madison, Wisconsin, has had a continuous and extensive program of research on finishing wood for outdoor use. The research has stressed the fundamental aspects of wood weathering and the interactions of pretreatments and finishes on wood surfaces. This report outlines the history of the FPL wood finishing research...

  17. Variant of a volume-of-fluid method for surface tension-dominant two ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... The capabilities of the volume-of-fluid method for the calculation of surface tension-dominant two-phase flows are explained. The accurate calculation of the interface remains a problem for the volume-of-fluid method if the density ratios of the fluids in different phases are high. The simulations of bubble ...

  18. Estimated venous return surface and cardiac output curve precisely predicts new hemodynamics after volume change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimachi, Masaru; Sunagawa, Kenji; Uemura, Kazunori; Kamiya, Atsunori; Shimizu, Shuji; Inagaki, Masashi; Shishido, Toshiaki

    2010-01-01

    In our extended Guyton's model, the ability of heart to pump blood is characterized by a cardiac output curve and the ability of vasculature to pool blood by a venous return surface. These intersect in a three-dimensional coordinate system at the operating right atrial pressure, left atrial pressure, and cardiac output. The baseline cardiac output curve and venous return surface and their changes after volume change would predict new hemodynamics. The invasive methods needed to precisely characterize cardiac output curve and venous return surface led us to aim at estimating cardiac output curve and venous return surface from a single hemodynamic measurement. Using the average values for two logarithmic function parameters, and for two slopes of a surface, we were able to estimate cardiac output curve and venous return surface. The estimated curve and surface predicted new hemodynamics after volume change precisely.

  19. Corrosion protection and finishing of automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, S.T.

    2005-01-01

    one primer coat and a double finish coat. The two finishing coats are applied one immediately after the other, and both are baked simultaneously. An alternate system is to apply a red iron oxide epoxy primer followed by a gray epoxy primer and to bake the two coats at 200 degree C for about 35 minutes. The dry film thickness is about is about 1.5 mils. This coating is wet sanded, washed, and dried then top-coated with a double (wet-on-wet) coat of alkyd-amino resin enamel. The enamel is baked at 120 degree C for about 35 minutes. The lacquer system consists of one prime coat followed by several coats of lacquer finish. Number of coats depending on the price range of the car. All the efforts are made to make the metal surface as smooth as possible and free from rough places due to spot wielding and filing. This means a minimum of sanding on the primer, thus saving in labour cost but also makes possible less pigment in the primer resulting in better hold-out of the finish. However, the primer must be hard enough to sand easily, because rubbery primers tare slow sanding and tend to show scratch marks from the sand paper. All metal surfaces are given a passivating treatment before application of the primer. (author)

  20. Quantitative parameterization of soil surface structure with increasing rainfall volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Edison Aparecido Mome Filho

    2016-01-01

    The study of soil structure allows inferences on soil behavior. Quantitative parameters are oftentimes required to describe soil structure and the multifractal ones are still underused in soil science. Some studies have shown relations between the multifractal spectrum and both soil surface roughness decay by rainfall and porous system heterogeneity, however, a particular multifractal response to a specific soil behavior is not established yet. Therefore, the objectives of this research were:...

  1. The use of CaCl2 and other salts to improve surface finish and eliminate vacuoles in ICF microencapsulated shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuillan, B.W.; Elsner, F.H.; Stephens, R.B.; Brown, L.C.

    1999-01-01

    Polystyrene and poly(α-methylstyrene) (PAMS) shells made by microencapsulation are prone to having vacuoles in the walls and a concomitant surface roughness. These defects can be detrimental to the implosion required for ICF shots. The authors have found that adding sufficient salt (typically CaCl 2 or NH 4 Cl) to the exterior polyvinylalcohol (PVA) solution during the drying phase inhibits the formation of vacuoles and decreases the surface roughness of the shells. The use of such salts does affect other shell specifications, for which other process variables must be adjusted

  2. Do skeletal cephalometric characteristics correlate with condylar volume, surface and shape? A 3D analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saccucci Matteo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the condylar volume in subjects with different mandibular divergence and skeletal class using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT and analysis software. Materials and methods For 94 patients (46 females and 48 males; mean age 24.3 ± 6.5 years, resultant rendering reconstructions of the left and right temporal mandibular joints (TMJs were obtained. Subjects were then classified on the base of ANB angle the GoGn-SN angle in three classes (I, II, III . The data of the different classes were compared. Results No significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left sides in condylar volume. The analysis of mean volume among low, normal and high mandibular plane angles revealed a significantly higher volume and surface in low angle subjects (p  Class III subjects also tended to show a higher condylar volume and surface than class I and class II subjects, although the difference was not significant. Conclusions Higher condylar volume was a common characteristic of low angle subjects compared to normal and high mandibular plane angle subjects. Skeletal class also appears to be associated to condylar volume and surface.

  3. Characterization Investigation Study: Volume 3, Radiological survey of surface soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solow, A.J.; Phoenix, D.R.

    1987-12-01

    The Feed Materials Production Center was constructed to produce high purity uranium metal for use at various Department of Energy facilities. The waste products from these operations include general uncontaminated scrap and refuse, contaminated and uncontaminated metal scrap, waste oils, low-level radioactive waste, co-contaminated wastes, mixed waste, toxic waste, sludges from water treatment, and fly ash from the steam plant. This material is estimated to total more than 350,000 cubic meters. Other wastes stored in this area include laboratory chemicals and other combustible materials in the burn pit; fine waste stream sediments in the clear well; fly ash and waste oils in the two fly ash areas; lime-alum sludges and boiler plant blowdown in the lime sludge ponds; and nonradioactive sanitary waste, construction rubble, and asbestos in the sanitary landfill. A systematic survey of the surface soils throughout the Waste Storage Area, associated on-site drainages, and the fly ash piles was conducted using a Field Instrument for Detecting Low-Energy Radiation (FIDLER). Uranium is the most prevalent radioactive element in surface soil; U-238 is the principal radionuclide, ranging from 2.2 to 1790 pCi/g in the general Waste Storage Area. The maximum values for the next highest activity concentrations in the same area were 972 pCi/g for Th-230 and 298 pCi/g for U-234. Elevated activity concentrations of Th-230 were found along the K-65 slurry line, the maximum at 3010 pCi/g. U-238 had the highest value of 761 pCi/g in the drainage just south of pit no. 5. The upper fly ash area had the highest radionuclide activity concentrations in the surface soils with the maximum values for U-238 at 8600 pCi/g, U-235 at 2190 pCi/g, U-234 at 11,400 pCi/g, Tc-99 at 594 pCi/g, Ra-226 at 279 pCi/g, and Th-230 at 164 pCi/g.

  4. Effects of plyometric training volume and training surface on explosive strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Andrade, David C; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of different volume and training surfaces during a short-term plyometric training program on neuromuscular performance. Twenty-nine subjects were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control group (CG, n = 5), moderate volume group (MVG, n = 9, 780 jumps), moderate volume hard surface group (MVGHS, n = 8, 780 jumps), and high volume group (HVG, n = 7, 1,560 jumps). A series of tests were performed by the subjects before and after 7 weeks of plyometric training. These tests were measurement of maximum strength (5 maximum repetitions [5RMs]), drop jumps (DJs) of varying heights (20, 40, and 60 cm), squat and countermovement jumps (SJ and CMJ, respectively), timed 20-m sprint, agility, body weight, and height. The results of the present study suggest that high training volume leads to a significant increase in explosive performance that requires fast stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) actions (such as DJ and sprint) in comparison to what is observed after a moderate training volume regimen. Second, when plyometric training is performed on a hard training surface (high-impact reaction force), a moderate training volume induces optimal stimulus to increase explosive performance requiring fast SSC actions (e.g., DJ), maximal dynamic strength enhancement, and higher training efficiency. Thus, a finding of interest in the study was that after 7 weeks of plyometric training, performance enhancement in maximal strength and in actions requiring fast SSC (such as DJ and sprint) were dependent on the volume of training and the surface on which it was performed. This must be taken into account when using plyometric training on different surfaces.

  5. Automation in tube finishing bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Prateek; Satyadev, B.; Raghuraman, S.; Syama Sundara Rao, B.

    1997-01-01

    Automation concept in tube finishing bay, introduced after the final pass annealing of PHWR tubes resulted in integration of number of sub-systems in synchronisation with each other to produce final cut fuel tubes of specified length, tube finish etc. The tube finishing bay which was physically segregated into four distinct areas: 1. tube spreader and stacking area, 2. I.D. sand blasting area, 3. end conditioning, wad blowing, end capping and O.D. wet grinding area, 4. tube inspection, tube cutting and stacking area has been studied

  6. Longitudinal in vivo reproducibility of cartilage volume and surface in osteoarthritis of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brem, M.H.; Pauser, J.; Yoshioka, H.; Stratmann, J.; Kikinis, R.; Duryea, J.; Lang, P.; Brenning, A.; Hennig, F.F.; Winalski, C.S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal reproducibility of cartilage volume and surface area measurements in moderate osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. We analysed 5 MRI (GE 1.5T, sagittal 3D SPGR) data sets of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee (Kellgren Lawrence grade I-II). Two scans were performed: one baseline scan and one follow-up scan 3 months later (96 ± 10 days). For segmentation, 3D Slicer 2.5 software was used. Two segmentations were performed by two readers independently who were blinded to the scan dates. Tibial and femoral cartilage volume and surface were determined. Longitudinal and cross-sectional precision errors were calculated using the standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV%=100 x [SD/mean]) from the repeated measurements in each patient. The in vivo reproducibility was then calculated as the root mean square of these individual reproducibility errors. The cross-sectional root mean squared coefficient of variation (RMSE-CV) was 1.2, 2.2 and 2.4% for surface area measurements (femur, medial and lateral tibia respectively) and 1.4, 1.8 and 1.3% for the corresponding cartilage volumes. Longitudinal RMSE-CV was 3.3, 3.1 and 3.7% for the surface area measurements (femur, medial and lateral tibia respectively) and 2.3, 3.3 and 2.4% for femur, medial and lateral tibia cartilage volumes. The longitudinal in vivo reproducibility of cartilage surface and volume measurements in the knee using this segmentation method is excellent. To the best of our knowledge we measured, for the first time, the longitudinal reproducibility of cartilage volume and surface area in participants with mild to moderate OA. (orig.)

  7. Volumes, Masses, and Surface Areas for Shippingport LWBR Spent Nuclear Fuel in a DOE SNF Canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.W. Davis

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate volumes, masses, and surface areas associated with (a) an empty Department of Energy (DOE) 18-inch diameter, 15-ft long spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister, (b) an empty DOE 24-inch diameter, 15-ft long SNF canister, (c) Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) SNF, and (d) the internal basket structure for the 18-in. canister that has been designed specifically to accommodate Seed fuel from the Shippingport LWBR. Estimates of volumes, masses, and surface areas are needed as input to structural, thermal, geochemical, nuclear criticality, and radiation shielding calculations to ensure the viability of the proposed disposal configuration

  8. Methodology for calculating the volume of condensate droplets on topographically modified, microgrooved surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, A D

    2011-05-03

    Liquid droplets on micropatterned surfaces consisting of parallel grooves tens of micrometers in width and depth are considered, and a method for calculating the droplet volume on these surfaces is presented. This model, which utilizes the elongated and parallel-sided nature of droplets condensed on these microgrooved surfaces, requires inputs from two droplet images at ϕ = 0° and ϕ = 90°--namely, the droplet major axis, minor axis, height, and two contact angles. In this method, a circular cross-sectional area is extruded the length of the droplet where the chord of the extruded circle is fixed by the width of the droplet. The maximum apparent contact angle is assumed to occur along the side of the droplet because of the surface energy barrier to wetting imposed by the grooves--a behavior that was observed experimentally. When applied to water droplets condensed onto a microgrooved aluminum surface, this method was shown to calculate the actual droplet volume to within 10% for 88% of the droplets analyzed. This method is useful for estimating the volume of retained droplets on topographically modified, anisotropic surfaces where both heat and mass transfer occur and the surface microchannels are aligned parallel to gravity to assist in condensate drainage.

  9. Size dependence of volume and surface nucleation rates for homogeneous freezing of supercooled water droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kuhn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The relative roles of volume and surface nucleation were investigated for the homogeneous freezing of pure water droplets. Experiments were carried out in a cryogenic laminar aerosol flow tube using supercooled water aerosols with maximum volume densities at radii between 1 and 3 μm. Temperature- and size-dependent values of volume- and surface-based homogeneous nucleation rates between 234.8 and 236.2 K were derived using a microphysical model and aerosol phase compositions and size distributions determined from infrared extinction measurements in the flow tube. The results show that the contribution from nucleation at the droplet surface increases with decreasing droplet radius and dominates over nucleation in the bulk droplet volume for droplets with radii smaller than approximately 5 μm. This is interpreted in terms of a lowered free energy of ice germ formation in the surface-based process. The implications of surface nucleation for the parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation in numerical models are considered.

  10. Environmentally friendly antibacterial cotton textiles finished with siloxane sulfopropylbetaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiguo; Chen, Shaojun; Jiang, Song; Xiong, Meiling; Luo, Junxuan; Tang, Jiaoning; Ge, Zaochuan

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports a novel environmentally friendly antibacterial cotton textile finished with reactive siloxane sulfopropylbetaine(SSPB). The results show that SSPB can be covalently bound onto the cotton textile surface, imparting perdurable antibacterial activity. The textiles finished with SSPB have been investigated systematically from the mechanical properties, thermal stability, hydrophilic properties and antibacterial properties. It is found that the hydrophilicity and breaking strength are improved greatly after the cotton textiles are finished with SSPB. Additionally, the cotton textiles finished with SSPB exhibit good antibacterial activities against gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus, ATCC 6538), gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E.coli, 8099) and fungi Candida albicans (C.albicans, ATCC 10231). Moreover, SSPB is nonleachable from the textiles, and it does not induce skin stimulation and is nontoxic to animals. Thus, SSPB is ideal candidate for environmentally friendly antibacterial textile applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. Internal photoemission from plasmonic nanoparticles: comparison between surface and volume photoelectric effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskov, Alexander V; Protsenko, Igor E; Ikhsanov, Renat S; Babicheva, Viktoriia E; Zhukovsky, Sergei V; Lavrinenko, Andrei V; O'Reilly, Eoin P; Xu, Hongxing

    2014-05-07

    We study the emission of photoelectrons from plasmonic nanoparticles into a surrounding matrix. We consider two mechanisms of electron emission from the nanoparticles--surface and volume ones--and use models for these two mechanisms which allow us to obtain analytical results for the photoelectron emission rate from a nanoparticle. Calculations have been carried out for a step potential at the surface of a spherical nanoparticle, and a simple model for the hot electron cooling has been used. We highlight the effect of the discontinuity of the dielectric permittivity at the nanoparticle boundary in the surface mechanism, which leads to a substantial (by ∼5 times) increase of the internal photoelectron emission rate from a nanoparticle compared to the case when such a discontinuity is absent. For a plasmonic nanoparticle, a comparison of the two photoeffect mechanisms was undertaken for the first time which showed that the surface photoeffect can in the general case be larger than the volume one, which agrees with the results obtained for a flat metal surface first formulated by Tamm and Schubin in their pioneering development of a quantum-mechanical theory of photoeffect in 1931. In accordance with our calculations, this possible predominance of the surface effect is based on two factors: (i) effective cooling of hot carriers during their propagation from the volume of the nanoparticle to its surface in the scenario of the volume mechanism and (ii) strengthening of the surface mechanism through the effect of the discontinuity of the dielectric permittivity at the nanoparticle boundary. The latter is stronger at relatively lower photon energies and correspondingly is more substantial for internal photoemission than for an external one. We show that in the general case, it is essential to take both mechanisms into account in the development of devices based on the photoelectric effect and when considering hot electron emission from a plasmonic nanoantenna.

  12. Validity and repeatability of a depth camera-based surface imaging system for thigh volume measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullas, Alice M; Choppin, Simon; Heller, Ben; Wheat, Jon

    2016-10-01

    Complex anthropometrics such as area and volume, can identify changes in body size and shape that are not detectable with traditional anthropometrics of lengths, breadths, skinfolds and girths. However, taking these complex with manual techniques (tape measurement and water displacement) is often unsuitable. Three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging systems are quick and accurate alternatives to manual techniques but their use is restricted by cost, complexity and limited access. We have developed a novel low-cost, accessible and portable 3D surface imaging system based on consumer depth cameras. The aim of this study was to determine the validity and repeatability of the system in the measurement of thigh volume. The thigh volumes of 36 participants were measured with the depth camera system and a high precision commercially available 3D surface imaging system (3dMD). The depth camera system used within this study is highly repeatable (technical error of measurement (TEM) of <1.0% intra-calibration and ~2.0% inter-calibration) but systematically overestimates (~6%) thigh volume when compared to the 3dMD system. This suggests poor agreement yet a close relationship, which once corrected can yield a usable thigh volume measurement.

  13. Fatigue Crack Growth in Several 7050T7451 Aluminium Alloy Thick Section Plates with Aircraft Manufacturer's and Laboratory Surface Finishes Representing Some Regions of the F/A-18 Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barter, Simon

    2003-01-01

    ... of finished components has on service fatigue crack initiation and life. This report examines a series of fatigue test specimens that were cut from three different 7050 plates, including two aircraft manufacturers' plates...

  14. Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Church, E.L.

    1989-08-01

    Great improvement has been made in the past several years in the quality of optical components used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. Most of this progress has been the result of vastly improved metrology techniques and instrumentation permitting rapid and accurate measurement of the surface finish and figure on grazing incidence optics. A significant theoretical effort has linked the actual performance of components used as x-ray wavelengths to their topological properties as measured by surface profiling instruments. Next-generation advanced light sources will require optical components and systems to have sub-arc second surface figure tolerances. This paper will explore the consequences of these requirements in terms of manufacturing tolerances to see if the present manufacturing state-of-the-art is capable of producing the required surfaces. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  15. ALE finite volume method for free-surface Bingham plastic fluids with general curvilinear coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Katsuaki; Ushijima, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    A numerical prediction method has been proposed to predict Bingham plastic fluids with free-surface in a two-dimensional container. Since the linear relationships between stress tensors and strain rate tensors are not assumed for non-Newtonian fluids, the liquid motions are described with Cauchy momentum equations rather than Navier-Stokes equations. The profile of a liquid surface is represented with the two-dimensional curvilinear coordinates which are represented in each computational step on the basis of the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method. Since the volumes of the fluid cells are transiently changed in the physical space, the geometric conservation law is applied to the finite volume discretizations. As a result, it has been shown that the present method enables us to predict reasonably the Bingham plastic fluids with free-surface in a container.

  16. ALE finite volume method for free-surface Bingham plastic fluids with general curvilinear coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Katsuaki; Ushijima, Satoru

    2010-06-01

    A numerical prediction method has been proposed to predict Bingham plastic fluids with free-surface in a two-dimensional container. Since the linear relationships between stress tensors and strain rate tensors are not assumed for non-Newtonian fluids, the liquid motions are described with Cauchy momentum equations rather than Navier-Stokes equations. The profile of a liquid surface is represented with the two-dimensional curvilinear coordinates which are represented in each computational step on the basis of the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method. Since the volumes of the fluid cells are transiently changed in the physical space, the geometric conservation law is applied to the finite volume discretizations. As a result, it has been shown that the present method enables us to predict reasonably the Bingham plastic fluids with free-surface in a container.

  17. Modification of the Steel Surface Treated by a Volume Discharge Plasma in Nitrogen at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erofeev, M. V.; Shulepov, M. A.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Oskomov, K. V.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2016-03-01

    Effect of volume discharge plasma initiated by an avalanche electron beam on the composition, structure, and properties of the surface steel layer is investigated. Voltage pulses with incident wave amplitude up to 30 kV, full width at half maximum of about 4 ns, and wave front of about 2.5 ns were applied to the gap with an inhomogeneous electric field. Changes indicating the hardening effect of the volume discharge initiated by an avalanche electron beam are revealed in St3-grade steel specimens treated by the discharge of this type.

  18. Total reference air kerma can accurately predict isodose surface volumes in cervix cancer brachytherapy. A multicenter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nkiwane, Karen S; Andersen, Else; Champoudry, Jerome

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To demonstrate that V60 Gy, V75 Gy, and V85 Gy isodose surface volumes can be accurately estimated from total reference air kerma (TRAK) in cervix cancer MRI-guided brachytherapy (BT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: 60 Gy, 75 Gy, and 85 Gy isodose surface volumes levels were obtained from...

  19. An Electric Field Volume Integral Equation Approach to Simulate Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Remis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an electric field volume integral equation approach to simulate surface plasmon propagation along metal/dielectric interfaces. Metallic objects embedded in homogeneous dielectric media are considered. Starting point is a so-called weak-form of the electric field integral equation. This form is discretized on a uniform tensor-product grid resulting in a system matrix whose action on a vector can be computed via the fast Fourier transform. The GMRES iterative solver is used to solve the discretized set of equations and numerical examples, illustrating surface plasmon propagation, are presented. The convergence rate of GMRES is discussed in terms of the spectrum of the system matrix and through numerical experiments we show how the eigenvalues of the discretized volume scattering operator are related to plasmon propagation and the medium parameters of a metallic object.

  20. A Calderón multiplicative preconditioner for coupled surface-volume electric field integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Bagci, Hakan

    2010-08-01

    A well-conditioned coupled set of surface (S) and volume (V) electric field integral equations (S-EFIE and V-EFIE) for analyzing wave interactions with densely discretized composite structures is presented. Whereas the V-EFIE operator is well-posed even when applied to densely discretized volumes, a classically formulated S-EFIE operator is ill-posed when applied to densely discretized surfaces. This renders the discretized coupled S-EFIE and V-EFIE system ill-conditioned, and its iterative solution inefficient or even impossible. The proposed scheme regularizes the coupled set of S-EFIE and V-EFIE using a Calderón multiplicative preconditioner (CMP)-based technique. The resulting scheme enables the efficient analysis of electromagnetic interactions with composite structures containing fine/subwavelength geometric features. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme. © 2006 IEEE.

  1. High volume hydraulic fracturing operations: potential impacts on surface water and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrdjen, Igor; Lee, Jiyoung

    2016-08-01

    High volume, hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) processes, used to extract natural gas and oil from underground shale deposits, pose many potential hazards to the environment and human health. HVHF can negatively affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air matrices with potential pollutants. Due to the relatively novel nature of the process, hazards to surface waters and human health are not well known. The purpose of this article is to link the impacts of HVHF operations on surface water integrity, with human health consequences. Surface water contamination risks include: increased structural failure rates of unconventional wells, issues with wastewater treatment, and accidental discharge of contaminated fluids. Human health risks associated with exposure to surface water contaminated with HVHF chemicals include increased cancer risk and turbidity of water, leading to increased pathogen survival time. Future research should focus on modeling contamination spread throughout the environment, and minimizing occupational exposure to harmful chemicals.

  2. Reduced-volume antennas with integrated high-impedance electromagnetic surfaces.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forman, Michael A.

    2006-11-01

    Several antennas with integrated high-impedance surfaces are presented. The high-impedance surface is implemented as a composite right/left-handed (CRLH) metamaterial fabricated from a periodic structure characterized by a substrate, filled with an array of vertical vias and capped by capacitive patches. Omnidirectional antennas placed in close proximity to the high-impedance surface radiate hemispherically with an increase in boresight far-field pattern gain of up to 10 dB and a front-to-back ratio as high as 13 dB at 2.45 GHz. Several TEM rectangular horn antennas are realized by replacing conductor walls with high-impedance surfaces. The TEM horn antennas are capable of operating below the TE{sub 1,0} cutoff frequency of a standard all-metal horn antenna, enabling a reduction in antenna volume. Above the cutoff frequency the TEM horn antennas function similarly to standard rectangular horn antennas.

  3. Induced wettability and surface-volume correlation of composition for bovine bone derived hydroxyapatite particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidaniuc, Andreea; Miculescu, Florin; Voicu, Stefan Ioan; Andronescu, Corina; Miculescu, Marian; Matei, Ecaterina; Mocanu, Aura Catalina; Pencea, Ion; Csaki, Ioana; Machedon-Pisu, Teodor; Ciocan, Lucian Toma

    2018-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite powders characteristics need to be determined both for quality control purposes and for a proper control of microstructural features of bone reconstruction products. This study combines bulk morphological and compositional analysis methods (XRF, SEM-EDS, FT-IR) with surface-related methods (XPS, contact angle measurements) in order to correlate the characteristics of hydroxyapatite powders derived from bovine bone for its use in medical applications. An experimental approach for correlating the surface and volume composition was designed based on the analysis depth of each spectral method involved in the study. Next, the influences of powder particle size and forming method on the contact angle between water drops and ceramic surface were evaluated for identifying suitable strategies of tuning hydroxyapatite's wettability. The results revealed a preferential arrangement of chemical elements at the surface of hydroxyapatite particles which could induce a favourable material behaviour in terms of sinterability and biological performance.

  4. A posteriori error estimates for finite volume approximations of elliptic equations on general surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Lili; Tian, Li; Wang, Desheng

    2008-10-31

    In this paper, we present a residual-based a posteriori error estimate for the finite volume discretization of steady convection– diffusion–reaction equations defined on surfaces in R3, which are often implicitly represented as level sets of smooth functions. Reliability and efficiency of the proposed a posteriori error estimator are rigorously proved. Numerical experiments are also conducted to verify the theoretical results and demonstrate the robustness of the error estimator.

  5. Dynamics at Solid State Surfaces and Interfaces, Volume 1 Current Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Bovensiepen, Uwe; Wolf, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This two-volume work covers ultrafast structural and electronic dynamics of elementary processes at solid surfaces and interfaces, presenting the current status of photoinduced processes. Providing valuable introductory information for newcomers to this booming field of research, it investigates concepts and experiments, femtosecond and attosecond time-resolved methods, as well as frequency domain techniques. The whole is rounded off by a look at future developments.

  6. Solution of volume-surface integral equations using higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    The problem of electromagnetic scattering by composite metallic and dielectric objects is solved using the coupled volume-surface integral equation (VSIE). The method of moments (MoM) based on higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions and higher-order curvilinear geometrical elements...... with the analytical Mie series solution. Scattering by more complex metal-dielectric objects are also considered to compare the presented technique with other numerical methods....

  7. Quantification of surface water volume changes in the Mackenzie Delta using satellite multi-mission data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normandin, Cassandra; Frappart, Frédéric; Lubac, Bertrand; Bélanger, Simon; Marieu, Vincent; Blarel, Fabien; Robinet, Arthur; Guiastrennec-Faugas, Léa

    2018-02-01

    Quantification of surface water storage in extensive floodplains and their dynamics are crucial for a better understanding of global hydrological and biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we present estimates of both surface water extent and storage combining multi-mission remotely sensed observations and their temporal evolution over more than 15 years in the Mackenzie Delta. The Mackenzie Delta is located in the northwest of Canada and is the second largest delta in the Arctic Ocean. The delta is frozen from October to May and the recurrent ice break-up provokes an increase in the river's flows. Thus, this phenomenon causes intensive floods along the delta every year, with dramatic environmental impacts. In this study, the dynamics of surface water extent and volume are analysed from 2000 to 2015 by combining multi-satellite information from MODIS multispectral images at 500 m spatial resolution and river stages derived from ERS-2 (1995-2003), ENVISAT (2002-2010) and SARAL (since 2013) altimetry data. The surface water extent (permanent water and flooded area) peaked in June with an area of 9600 km2 (±200 km2) on average, representing approximately 70 % of the delta's total surface. Altimetry-based water levels exhibit annual amplitudes ranging from 4 m in the downstream part to more than 10 m in the upstream part of the Mackenzie Delta. A high overall correlation between the satellite-derived and in situ water heights (R > 0.84) is found for the three altimetry missions. Finally, using altimetry-based water levels and MODIS-derived surface water extents, maps of interpolated water heights over the surface water extents are produced. Results indicate a high variability of the water height magnitude that can reach 10 m compared to the lowest water height in the upstream part of the delta during the flood peak in June. Furthermore, the total surface water volume is estimated and shows an annual variation of approximately 8.5 km3 during the whole study period, with

  8. Effect of carbon nano tube (CNT) particles in magnetic abrasive finishing of Mg alloy bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Lida; Wang, Rui; Kim, Min Soo; Mun, Sang Don; Yang, Gyun Eui [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    The Magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) process is a surface finishing technique in which a magnetic field is used to control abrasive particles during surface finishing of a material. Because smooth surfaces are required for general use, the magnetic abrasive finishing process was developed for finishing surfaces. We studied the effect of CNT particles on the surface roughness of a workpiece. Magnesium alloy bars were used as the cylindrical workpiece and were finished using an MAF process at high workpiece revolution speeds of 1000, 5000, 10000 and 25000 rpm; diamond pastes with diameters of 0.5, 1, and 3 μ were used for comparison. The best value for surface roughness was equivalent to treatment at 0.02 μ m when 0.01 g of CNT particles was mixed together with the unbonded magnetic abrasive at 25000 rpm for 20 seconds. CNT particles were applied to the finishing process to improve the surface roughness of the material, because they have many advantageous properties such as very high strength, light weight, elasticity, and high thermal and air stability. CNT particles are particularly effective for the improvement of Mg alloy bar surface roughness in the MAF process.

  9. Prediction of lateral surface, volume and sphericity of pomegranate using MLP artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rohani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fast and accurate determination of geometrical properties of agricultural products has many applications in agricultural operations like planting, cultivating, harvesting and post-harvesting. Calculations related to storing, shipping and storage-coating materials as well as peeling time and surface-microbial concentrations are some applications of estimating product volume and surface area. Sphericity is also a parameter by which the shape differences between fruits, vegetables, grains and seeds can be quantified. This parameter is important in grading systems and inspecting rolling capability of agricultural products. Bayram presented a new dimensional method and equation to calculate the sphericity of certain shapesand some granular food materials (Bayram, 2005. Kumar and Mathew proposed atheoretically soundmethod for estimating the surface area of ellipsoidal food materials (Kumar and Mathew, 2003. Clayton et al. used non-linear regression models for calculation of apple surface area using the fruit mass or volume (Clayton et al., 1995. Humeida and Hobani predicted surface area and volume of pomegranates based on the weight and geometrical diametermean (Humeida and Hobani, 1993. Wang and Nguang designeda low cost sensor system to automatically compute the volume and surface area of axi-symmetricagricultural products such as eggs, lemons, limes and tamarillos (Wang and Nguang, 2007. The main objective of this study was to investigate the potential of Artificial Neural Network (ANN technique as an alternative method to predict the volume, surface area and sphericity of pomegranates. Materials and methods: The water displacement method (WDM was used for measuring the actual volume of pomegranates. Also, the sphericity and surface area are computed by using analytical methods. In this study, the neural MLP models were designed based upon the three nominal diameters of pomegranatesas variable inputs, while the output model consisted

  10. Abrasive properties of modified oxides for finish polishing of steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroleva, L. F.

    2017-12-01

    The study of modified chromium and aluminum oxides, demonstrates that finish polishing by modified hydroxocomplexes based on a solid solution of iron and aluminum oxides provide a surface nanoroughness of 0.02 to 0.005 µm for the hardened ShKh15 steel (American Standard AISI 52100).

  11. Conformal surface coatings to enable high volume expansion Li-ion anode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Leah A; Cavanagh, Andrew S; George, Steven M; Jung, Yoon Seok; Yan, Yanfa; Lee, Se-Hee; Dillon, Anne C

    2010-07-12

    An alumina surface coating is demonstrated to improve electrochemical performance of MoO(3) nanoparticles as high capacity/high-volume expansion anodes for Li-ion batteries. Thin, conformal surface coatings were grown using atomic layer deposition (ALD) that relies on self-limiting surface reactions. ALD coatings were tested on both individual nanoparticles and prefabricated electrodes containing conductive additive and binder. The coated and non-coated materials were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling. Importantly, increased stability and capacity retention was only observed when the fully fabricated electrode was coated. The alumina layer both improves the adhesion of the entire electrode, during volume expansion/contraction and protects the nanoparticle surfaces. Coating the entire electrode also allows for an important carbothermal reduction process that occurs during electrode pre-heat treatment. ALD is thus demonstrated as a novel and necessary method that may be employed to coat the tortuous network of a battery electrode.

  12. New model for estimating the relationship between surface area and volume in the human body using skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasabova, Boryana E; Holliday, Trenton W

    2015-04-01

    A new model for estimating human body surface area and body volume/mass from standard skeletal metrics is presented. This model is then tested against both 1) "independently estimated" body surface areas and "independently estimated" body volume/mass (both derived from anthropometric data) and 2) the cylindrical model of Ruff. The model is found to be more accurate in estimating both body surface area and body volume/mass than the cylindrical model, but it is more accurate in estimating body surface area than it is for estimating body volume/mass (as reflected by the standard error of the estimate when "independently estimated" surface area or volume/mass is regressed on estimates derived from the present model). Two practical applications of the model are tested. In the first test, the relative contribution of the limbs versus the trunk to the body's volume and surface area is compared between "heat-adapted" and "cold-adapted" populations. As expected, the "cold-adapted" group has significantly more of its body surface area and volume in its trunk than does the "heat-adapted" group. In the second test, we evaluate the effect of variation in bi-iliac breadth, elongated or foreshortened limbs, and differences in crural index on the body's surface area to volume ratio (SA:V). Results indicate that the effects of bi-iliac breadth on SA:V are substantial, while those of limb lengths and (especially) the crural index are minor, which suggests that factors other than surface area relative to volume are driving morphological variation and ecogeographical patterning in limb prorportions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Coupling of Surface and Volume Dipole Oscillations in C60 Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, M.; Winkler, P.; Murthy, M. V. N.

    We first give a short review of the "local-current approximation" (LCA), derived from a general variation principle, which serves as a semiclassical description of strongly collective excitations in finite fermion systems starting from their quantum-mechanical mean-field ground state. We illustrate it for the example of coupled translational and compressional dipole excitations in metal clusters. We then discuss collective electronic dipole excitations in C60 molecules (Buckminster fullerenes). We show that the coupling of the pure translational mode ("surface plasmon") with compressional volume modes in the semiclasscial LCA yields semi-quantitative agreement with microscopic time-dependent density functional (TDLDA) calculations, while both theories yield qualitative agreement with the recent experimental observation of a "volume plasmon".

  14. Coupling of surface and volume dipole oscillations in C60 molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brack, M.; Winkler, P.; Murthy, M.V.N.

    2008-01-01

    We first give a short review of the "local-current approximation" (LCA), derived from a general variation principle, which serves as a semiclassical description of strongly collective excitations in finite fermion systems starting from their quantum-mechanical mean-field ground state. We illustrate it for the example of coupled translational and compressional dipole excitations in metal clusters. We then discuss collective electronic dipole excitations in C 60 molecules (Buckminster fullerenes). We show that the coupling of the pure translational mode ("surface plasmon") with compressional volume modes in the semiclasscial LCA yields semi-quantitative agreement with microscopic time-dependent density functional (TDLDA) calculations, while both theories yield qualitative agreement with the recent experimental observation of a "volume plasmon". (author)

  15. Trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume maturation in normal brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ducharme

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of developmental trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume in the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development. The quality-controlled sample included 384 individual typically-developing subjects with repeated scanning (1–3 per subject, total scans n=753 from 4.9 to 22.3 years of age. The best-fit model (cubic, quadratic, or first-order linear was identified at each vertex using mixed-effects models, with statistical correction for multiple comparisons using random field theory. Analyses were performed with and without controlling for total brain volume. These data are provided for reference and comparison with other databases. Further discussion and interpretation on cortical developmental trajectories can be found in the associated Ducharme et al.׳s article “Trajectories of cortical thickness maturation in normal brain development – the importance of quality control procedures” (Ducharme et al., 2015 [1].

  16. Relationship Between the Surface Area to Volume Ratio and Temperature across Geologic Time in Ostracods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C.; Zaroff, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2014-12-01

    In 1877 Joseph Allen proposed that endothermic terrestrial organisms would have lower surface area to volume ratios (SAVR) in colder climates and higher SAVRs in warmer climates. With a smaller surface area compared to volume, organisms can retain more heat in cold climates. We tested to see if this principle applied to ostracods, a type of ectothermic marine invertebrate. We hypothesised that Allen's rule applies to ostracods, as Allen's rule has been demonstrated in frogs (Alho 2011), which are also ectotherms . We used the linear dimensions of the three major carapace axes of ostracod holotypes to estimate the SAVR. We compared ostracod SAVRs with paleotemperatures from Royer et al. (2004). We found that there was a correlation between surface area and temperature; it is a small, but statistically significant correlation (adj. R2=0.0167). This means that as temperature increased, the SAVR also increased. We also found a negative correlation between ostracod SAVR to geologic time(adj. R2=0.0114), which shows us that as time has gone on, ostracod SAVR has decreased. We then plotted the correlation coefficient of SAVR to temperature over geologic time to explore trends in the strength of Allen's rule. For most of time there was no relationship but during the Devonian, Allen's Rule did explain the trend. In short, temperature does explain some of the correlation between the SAVR and temperature, but it is likely there were other environmental factors affecting this relationship.

  17. Effect of drop volume and surface statistics on the superhydrophobicity of randomly rough substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afferrante, L.; Carbone, G.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a simple theoretical approach is developed with the aim of evaluating shape, interfacial pressure, apparent contact angle and contact area of liquid drops gently deposed on randomly rough surfaces. This method can be useful to characterize the superhydrophobic properties of rough substrates, and to investigate the contact behavior of impacting drops. We assume that (i) the size of the apparent liquid–solid contact area is much larger than the micromorphology of the substrate, and (ii) a composite interface is always formed at the microscale. Results show apparent contact angle and liquid–solid area fraction are slightly influenced by the drop volume only at relatively high values of the root mean square roughness h rms, whereas the effect of volume is practically negligible at small h rms. The main statistical quantity affecting the superhydrophobic properties is found to be the Wenzel roughness parameter r W, which depends on the average slope of the surface heights. Moreover, transition from the Cassie–Baxter state to the Wenzel one is observed when r W reduces below a certain critical value, and theoretical predictions are found to be in good agreement with experimental data. Finally, the present method can be conveniently exploited to evaluate the occurrence of pinning phenomena in the case of impacting drops, as the Wenzel critical pressure for liquid penetration gives an estimation of the maximum impact pressure tolerated by the surface without pinning occurring.

  18. High-voltage electrode optimization towards uniform surface treatment by a pulsed volume discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, A. V.; Pedos, M. S.; Scherbinin, S. V.; Mamontov, Y. I.; Ponomarev, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the shape and material of the high-voltage electrode of an atmospheric pressure plasma generation system were optimised. The research was performed with the goal of achieving maximum uniformity of plasma treatment of the surface of the low-voltage electrode with a diameter of 100 mm. In order to generate low-temperature plasma with the volume of roughly 1 cubic decimetre, a pulsed volume discharge was used initiated with a corona discharge. The uniformity of the plasma in the region of the low-voltage electrode was assessed using a system for measuring the distribution of discharge current density. The system's low-voltage electrode - collector - was a disc of 100 mm in diameter, the conducting surface of which was divided into 64 radially located segments of equal surface area. The current at each segment was registered by a high-speed measuring system controlled by an ARM™-based 32-bit microcontroller. To facilitate the interpretation of results obtained, a computer program was developed to visualise the results. The program provides a 3D image of the current density distribution on the surface of the low-voltage electrode. Based on the results obtained an optimum shape for a high-voltage electrode was determined. Uniformity of the distribution of discharge current density in relation to distance between electrodes was studied. It was proven that the level of non-uniformity of current density distribution depends on the size of the gap between electrodes. Experiments indicated that it is advantageous to use graphite felt VGN-6 (Russian abbreviation) as the material of the high-voltage electrode's emitting surface.

  19. High-voltage electrode optimization towards uniform surface treatment by a pulsed volume discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, A V; Pedos, M S; Scherbinin, S V; Mamontov, Y I; Ponomarev, S V

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the shape and material of the high-voltage electrode of an atmospheric pressure plasma generation system were optimised. The research was performed with the goal of achieving maximum uniformity of plasma treatment of the surface of the low-voltage electrode with a diameter of 100 mm. In order to generate low-temperature plasma with the volume of roughly 1 cubic decimetre, a pulsed volume discharge was used initiated with a corona discharge. The uniformity of the plasma in the region of the low-voltage electrode was assessed using a system for measuring the distribution of discharge current density. The system's low-voltage electrode - collector - was a disc of 100 mm in diameter, the conducting surface of which was divided into 64 radially located segments of equal surface area. The current at each segment was registered by a high-speed measuring system controlled by an ARM™-based 32-bit microcontroller. To facilitate the interpretation of results obtained, a computer program was developed to visualise the results. The program provides a 3D image of the current density distribution on the surface of the low-voltage electrode. Based on the results obtained an optimum shape for a high-voltage electrode was determined. Uniformity of the distribution of discharge current density in relation to distance between electrodes was studied. It was proven that the level of non-uniformity of current density distribution depends on the size of the gap between electrodes. Experiments indicated that it is advantageous to use graphite felt VGN-6 (Russian abbreviation) as the material of the high-voltage electrode's emitting surface. (paper)

  20. Understanding the growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes via the ``cluster volume to surface area" model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandati, Sreekanth; Kunstmann, Jens; Boerrnert, Felix; Schoenfelder, Ronny; Ruemmeli, Mark; Kar, Kamal K.; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2010-03-01

    The influence of mixed catalysts for the high yield production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been studied systematically. Based on extensive experimental data a ``Catalyst Volume to Surface Area'' (CVSA) model was developed to understand the influence of the process parameters on the yield and CNT diameter distribution [1]. In our study, we present a refined version of the CVSA model developed by combining experiments and simulations. We discuss our current understanding of the growth mechanism and how the model might be used to increase CNT yields by using mixed catalysts.[4pt] [1] S. Tetali et al., ACS Nano (2009), DOI: 10.1021/nn9012548.

  1. Functional finishes of stretch cotton fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, N A; Amr, A; Eid, B M; Almetwally, A A; Mourad, M M

    2013-11-06

    Functionalized cotton cellulose/spandex woven fabrics with different structures namely plain (1/1), twill (2/2) and satin were produced. Factors affecting the imparted functional properties such as weave structure and constituents of the finishing formulations including ether or ester cross-linker and catalyst type, silicone-micro-emulsion, water/oil repellent, Ag-NP(,)s and TiO2-NP(,)s were studied. The treated fabrics were found to have easy care property together with one or more of the imparted functional properties such as soft-handle, water/oil repellence, antibacterial, UV-protection and self cleaning. The effectiveness of the imparted properties is not seriously affected even after 10 washing cycles. Surface modifications as well as the composition of certain samples were confirmed by SEM images and EDX spectra. Mode of interactions was also suggested. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alternative to chrome in the aluminium surface finishing industry. Low environmental impact surface treatments; Alternativas al cromo en la industria del acabado superficial del aluminio. Tratamientos superficiales de bajo impacto ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aballe Villero, A.; Bethencourt Nunez, M.; Botana Pedemonte, F. J.; Marco Barcena, M.; Sanchez-Amaya, J. M.

    2001-07-01

    Chromates are one of the most commonly used compounds in anti corrosive protection systems because of its excellent rate efficiency/cost. In the case of aluminium alloys, these compounds are employed as inhibitors as well as in the anticorrosive pretreatments to develop protective films. However, chromates are highly toxic and its use involves a high risk for health and environment. Consequently, in the last years intensive efforts have been achieved in the surface treatment industry to find ecological alternatives to this kind of compounds. In this work, the main alternatives proposed in literature to substitute chromates in the surface treatments of aluminium alloys are reviewed. To begin with, the role of chromates in these systems and their environmental consequences has been briefly reviewed. (Author) 16 refs.

  3. Comparative study of NO removal in surface-plasma and volume-plasma reactors based on pulsed corona discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Arif; Kolb, Juergen F; Sun, Yaohong; Schoenbach, Karl H

    2011-12-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) conversion has been studied for two different types of atmospheric-pressure pulsed-corona discharges, one generates a surface-plasma and the other provides a volume-plasma. For both types of discharges the energy cost for NO removal increases with decreasing oxygen concentration and initial concentration of NO. However, the energy cost for volume plasmas for 50% NO removal, EC(50), from air was found to be 120 eV/molecule, whereas for the surface plasma, it was only 70 eV/molecule. A smaller difference in energy cost, but a higher efficiency for removal of NO was obtained in a pure nitrogen atmosphere, where NO formation is restricted due to the lack of oxygen. For the volume plasma, EC(50) in this case was measured at 50 eV/molecule, and for the surface plasma it was 40 eV/molecule. Besides the higher NO removal efficiency of surface plasmas compared to volume plasmas, the energy efficiency of surface-plasmas was found to be almost independent of the amount of electrical energy deposited in the discharge, whereas the efficiency for volume plasmas decreases considerably with increasing energy. This indicates the possibility of operating surface plasma discharges at high energy densities and in more compact reactors than conventional volume discharges. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. International innovations in optical finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2004-10-01

    Every few years new polishing technologies attempt to make the transition from the research laboratory into the commercial sector. Success awaits any process that is well controlled and predictable (e.g., deterministic), rapid, capable of smoothing to sub-nm rms roughness levels while removing damage from grinding, affordable, and easily implemented. Applicability to different optical materials and a variety of part sizes and shapes is extremely important, but may not be required for a new technology to succeed in a niche market. This paper reviews six innovations in polishing of precision optics: Canon"s Super-Smooth Polisher (CSSP) that uses a sub-aperture pitch lap - a relatively mature but important base-line technology; Nikon / Osaka University"s RF Plasma Chemical Vaporization Machining (CVM); Epion"s Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) Process; the IOM University of Leipzig / NTGL Ion Beam Finishing (IBF) Technology; Zeeko"s "Precessions" Process with a sub-aperture section of an inflatable pad; and QED Technology"s Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) with a magnetic fluid ribbon. The removal mechanism and some recent achievements for each process are discussed.

  5. Capillary pressure in a porous medium with distinct pore surface and pore volume fractal dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deinert, M R; Dathe, A; Parlange, J-Y; Cady, K B

    2008-02-01

    The relationship between capillary pressure and saturation in a porous medium often exhibits a power-law dependence. The physical basis for this relation has been substantiated by assuming that capillary pressure is directly related to the pore radius. When the pore space of a medium exhibits fractal structure this approach results in a power-law relation with an exponent of 3-D(v), where D(v) is the pore volume fractal dimension. However, larger values of the exponent than are realistically allowed by this result have long been known to occur. Using a thermodynamic formulation for equilibrium capillary pressure we show that the standard result is a special case of the more general exponent (3-D(v))(3-D(s)) where D(s) is the surface fractal dimension of the pores. The analysis reduces to the standard result when D(s)=2, indicating a Euclidean relationship between a pore's surface area and the volume it encloses, and allows for a larger value for the exponent than the standard result when D(s)>2 .

  6. Print Finishing: From Manual to Automated Print Finishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Ward

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Meeting the demand for faster turnrounds and shorter print runs goes beyond making the printing press easier to set up and change. There is little point in producing plates and then sheets from a press if the post press area does not change to keep abreast of developments in prepress and the print room. The greatest impact is going to come from JDF, the end to end production data format which is finding wide spread acceptance in print areas. To date finishing equipment manufacturers are not as well represented within the CIP4 organisation as prepress and press vendors, but the major manufacturers are members. All are working to the goal of complete connectivity.The idea of JDF is that if the format of a print product like a magazine is known during the creation phases, the information can be used to preset machinery that is going to be used to produce it, so avoiding input errors and saving manufacturing time.A second aspect to JDF is that information about performance and progress is gathered and can be retrieved from a central point or made available to a customer. Production scheduling and costing becomes more accurate and customer relationships are deepened. However JDF to its fullest extent is not yet in use in connecting the finishing area to the rest of the printing plant. Around the world different companies are testing the idea of JDF to connect saddle stitchers, guillotines and binders with frantic work underway to be able to show results soon.

  7. Fundamentals of figure control and fracture-'free' finishing for high aspect ratio laser optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suratwala, Tayyab [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The high level objectives of the this work were to: 1) scientifically understand critical phenomena affecting the surface figure during full aperture finishing; 2) utilize these fundamentals to more deterministically control the surface figure during finishing; 3) successfully polish under rogue particle-‘free’ environments during polishing by understanding/preventing key sources of rogue particles.

  8. A finite-volume HLLC-based scheme for compressible interfacial flows with surface tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrick, Daniel P. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States); Owkes, Mark [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT (United States); Regele, Jonathan D., E-mail: jregele@iastate.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Shock waves are often used in experiments to create a shear flow across liquid droplets to study secondary atomization. Similar behavior occurs inside of supersonic combustors (scramjets) under startup conditions, but it is challenging to study these conditions experimentally. In order to investigate this phenomenon further, a numerical approach is developed to simulate compressible multiphase flows under the effects of surface tension forces. The flow field is solved via the compressible multicomponent Euler equations (i.e., the five equation model) discretized with the finite volume method on a uniform Cartesian grid. The solver utilizes a total variation diminishing (TVD) third-order Runge–Kutta method for time-marching and second order TVD spatial reconstruction. Surface tension is incorporated using the Continuum Surface Force (CSF) model. Fluxes are upwinded with a modified Harten–Lax–van Leer Contact (HLLC) approximate Riemann solver. An interface compression scheme is employed to counter numerical diffusion of the interface. The present work includes modifications to both the HLLC solver and the interface compression scheme to account for capillary force terms and the associated pressure jump across the gas–liquid interface. A simple method for numerically computing the interface curvature is developed and an acoustic scaling of the surface tension coefficient is proposed for the non-dimensionalization of the model. The model captures the surface tension induced pressure jump exactly if the exact curvature is known and is further verified with an oscillating elliptical droplet and Mach 1.47 and 3 shock-droplet interaction problems. The general characteristics of secondary atomization at a range of Weber numbers are also captured in a series of simulations.

  9. FIBRIN-TYPE FIBRINOID IN HUMAN PLACENTA: A STEREOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF ITS ASSOCIATION WITH INTERVILLOUS VOLUME AND VILLOUS SURFACE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry M Mayhew

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Stereological methods were used to examine fibrin-type fibrinoid deposition in the intervillous spaces of human placentas collected during gestation (12-41 weeks and from term pregnancies at low (400 m and high (3.6 km altitude. The main aim was to test predictions about the relationships between fibrinoid deposits and either the volume of intervillous space or the surface area of (intermediate + terminal villi. Fields of view on Masson trichrome-stained paraffin sections were selected as part of a systematic sampling design which randomised section location and orientation. Relative and absolute volumes were estimated by test point counting and surfaces by intersection counting. Apparent differences were tested by analyses of variance and relationships by correlation and regression analysis. Fibrinoid volume increased during gestation and correlated positively with intervillous volume and villous surface area. However, relative to intervillous volume, the main increase in fibrinoid occurred towards term (36-41 weeks. At high altitude, placentas contained more intervillous space but less fibrinoid. At both altitudes, there were significant correlations between fibrinoid volume and villous surface area. In all cases, changes in fibrinoid volume were commensurate with changes in villous surface area. Whilst findings lend support to the notion that fibrinoid deposition during normal gestation is influenced by the quality of vascular perfusion, they also emphasise that the extent of the villous surface is a more generally important factor. The villous surface may influence the steady state between coagulation and fibrinolysis since some pro-coagulatory events operate at the trophoblastic epithelium. They occur notably at sites of trophoblast de-epithelialisation and these arise following trauma or during the extrusion phase of normal epithelial turnover.

  10. Phase contrast imaging reveals low lung volumes and surface areas in the developing marsupial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon J Simpson

    Full Text Available Marsupials are born with immature lungs when compared to eutherian mammals and rely, to various extents, on cutaneous gas exchange in order to meet metabolic requirements. Indeed, the fat-tailed dunnart is born with lungs in the canalicular stage of development and relies almost entirely on the skin for gas exchange at birth; consequently undergoing the majority of lung development in air. Plane radiographs and computed tomography data sets were acquired using phase contrast imaging with a synchrotron radiation source for two marsupial species, the fat-tailed dunnart and the larger tammar wallaby, during the first weeks of postnatal life. Phase contrast imaging revealed that only two lung sacs contain air after the first hour of life in the fat-tailed dunnart. While the lung of the tammar wallaby was comparatively more developed, both species demonstrated massive increases in air sac number and architectural complexity during the postnatal period. In addition, both the tammar wallaby and fat-tailed dunnart had lower lung volumes and parenchymal surface areas than were expected from morphometrically determined allometric equations relating these variables to body mass during the neonatal period. However, lung volume is predicted to scale with mass as expected after the neonatal marsupial reaches a body mass of ∼1 g and no longer relies on the skin for gas exchange. Decreased lung volume in the marsupial neonate further supports the maxim that cutaneous gas exchange occurs in the marsupial neonate because the respiratory apparatus is not yet capable of meeting the gas exchange requirements of the newborn.

  11. The relationship between epicuticular long-chained hydrocarbons and surface area - volume ratios in insects (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Adrian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are common components of the epicuticle of terrestrial arthropods. CHC serve as a protective barrier against environmental influences but also act as semiochemicals in animal communication. Regarding the latter aspect, species- or intra-functional group specific CHCs composition and variation are relatively well studied. However, comparative knowledge about the relationship of CHC quantity and their relation to surface area-volume ratios in the context of water loss and protection is fragmentary. Hence, we aim to study the taxon-specific relationship of the CHC amount and surface-area to volume ratio related to their functional role (e.g. in water loss). We focused on flower visiting insects and analyzed the CHC amounts of three insect orders (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We included 113 species from two grassland plots, quantified their CHCs, and measured their body mass and surface area. We found differences in the surface area, CHCs per body mass and the CHC density (= amount of CHCs per surface area) across the three insect taxa. Especially the Hymenoptera had a higher CHC density compared to Diptera and Lepidoptera. CHC density could be explained by surface area-volume ratios in Hymenoptera but not in Diptera and Lepidoptera. Unexpectedly, CHC density decreased with increasing surface area-volume ratios.

  12. Moving to 3D: relationships between coral planar area, surface area and volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Jenny E; Brambilla, Viviana; Bidaut, Luc M; Christie, Alec P; Pizarro, Oscar; Madin, Joshua S; Dornelas, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Coral reefs are a valuable and vulnerable marine ecosystem. The structure of coral reefs influences their health and ability to fulfill ecosystem functions and services. However, monitoring reef corals largely relies on 1D or 2D estimates of coral cover and abundance that overlook change in ecologically significant aspects of the reefs because they do not incorporate vertical or volumetric information. This study explores the relationship between 2D and 3D metrics of coral size. We show that surface area and volume scale consistently with planar area, albeit with morphotype specific conversion parameters. We use a photogrammetric approach using open-source software to estimate the ability of photogrammetry to provide measurement estimates of corals in 3D. Technological developments have made photogrammetry a valid and practical technique for studying coral reefs. We anticipate that these techniques for moving coral research from 2D into 3D will facilitate answering ecological questions by incorporating the 3rd dimension into monitoring.

  13. Gender differences in knee joint cartilage thickness, volume and articular surface areas: assessment with quantitative three-dimensional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, S.C.; Reiser, M.; Englmeier, K.H.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the cartilage thickness, volume, and articular surface areas of the knee joint between young healthy, non-athletic female and male individuals. Subjects and design. MR imaging was performed in 18 healthy subjects without local or systemic joints disease (9 female, age 22.3±2.4 years, and 9 male, age 22.2.±1.9 years), using a fat-suppressed FLASH 3D pulse sequence (TR=41 ms, TE=11 ms, FA=30 ) with sagittal orientation and a spatial resolution of 2x0.31x0.31 mm 3 . After three-dimensional reconstruction and triangulation of the knee joint cartilage plates, the cartilage thickness (mean and maximal), volume, and size of the articular surface area were quantified, independent of the original section orientation. Results and conclusions: Women displayed smaller cartilage volumes than men, the percentage difference ranging from 19.9% in the patella, to 46.6% in the medial tibia. The gender differences of the cartilage thickness were smaller, ranging from 2.0% in the femoral trochlea to 13.3% in the medial tibia for the mean thickness, and from 4.3% in the medial femoral condyle to 18.3% in the medial tibia for the maximal cartilage thickness. The differences between the cartilage surface areas were similar to those of the volumes, with values ranging from 21.0% in the femur to 33.4% in the lateral tibia. Gender differences could be reduced for cartilage volume and surface area when normalized to body weight and body weight x body height. The study demonstrates significant gender differences in cartilage volume and surface area of men and women, which need to be taken into account when retrospectively estimating articular cartilage loss in patients with symptoms of degenerative joint disease. Differences in cartilage volume are primarily due to differences in joint surface areas (epiphyseal bone size), not to differences in cartilage thickness. (orig.)

  14. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... not purchase taxpaid or tax determined beer from another brewer in bottles or cans which bear the name... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer...

  15. Evolution of surface area-to-volume ratio for a water meniscus evaporating between contacting silica spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, R E; Burns, S E

    2010-03-01

    An experimental investigation was performed under isothermal conditions to quantify the rate of evaporation of water from a receding pendular meniscus connecting two silica spheres. Optically based measurements were used to determine the relevant meniscus dimensions, and the meniscus was modeled using a toroidal approximation. The rate of change of meniscus surface area and volume was then predicted using mathematical modeling software. The results demonstrated that once the meniscus transitioned from a relatively flat surface to one with an increasing radius of curvature, the rate of change of the ratio of surface area-to-volume was relatively constant over the range of water contents that were observable using the optical investigation techniques implemented in this study. Comparison of the flux of water from the meniscus surface demonstrated that the evaporation of bound water was four orders of magnitude slower than evaporation from a free water surface. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrodynamic modelling of free water-surface constructed storm water wetlands using a finite volume technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zounemat-Kermani, Mohammad; Scholz, Miklas; Tondar, Mohammad-Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    One of the key factors in designing free water-surface constructed wetlands (FWS CW) is the hydraulic efficiency (λ), which depends primarily on the retention time of the polluted storm water. Increasing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) at various flow levels will increase λ of the overall constructed wetland (CW). The effects of characteristic geometric features that increase HRT were explored through the use of a two-dimensional depth-average hydrodynamic model. This numerical model was developed to solve the equations of continuity and motions on an unstructured triangular mesh using the Galerkin finite volume formulation and equations of the k-ε turbulence model. Eighty-nine diverse forms of artificial FWS CW with 11 different aspect ratios were numerically simulated and subsequently analysed for four scenarios: rectangular CW, modified rectangular CW with rounded edges, different inlet/outlet configurations of CW, and surface and submerged obstructions in front of the inlet part of the CW. Results from the simulations showed that increasing the aspect ratio has a direct influence on the enhancement of λ in all cases. However, the aspect ratio should be at least 9 in order to achieve an appropriate rate for λ in rectangular CW. Modified rounded rectangular CW improved λ by up to 23%, which allowed for the selection of a reduced aspect ratio. Simulation results showed that CW with low aspect ratios benefited from obstructions and optimized inlet/outlet configurations in terms of improved HRT.

  17. Magnetic field assisted finishing of ultra-lightweight and high-resolution MEMS x-ray micro-pore optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Raul E.; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Takagi, Utako; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kato, Fumiki; Sugiyama, Susumu; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2009-05-01

    In recent years, X-ray telescopes have been shrinking in both size and weight to reduce cost and volume on space flight missions. Current designs focus on the use of MEMS technologies to fabricate ultra-lightweight and high-resolution X-ray optics. In 2006, Ezoe et al. introduced micro-pore X-ray optics fabricated using anisotropic wet etching of silicon (110) wafers. These optics, though extremely lightweight (completed telescope weight 1 kg or less for an effective area of 1000 cm2), had limited angular resolution, as the reflecting surfaces were flat crystal planes. To achieve higher angular resolution, curved reflecting surfaces should be used. Both silicon dry etching and X-ray LIGA were used to create X-ray optics with curvilinear micro-pores; however, the resulting surface roughness of the curved micro-pore sidewalls did not meet X-ray reflection criteria of 10 nm rms in a 10 μm2 area. This indicated the need for a precision polishing process. This paper describes the development of an ultra-precision polishing process employing an alternating magnetic field assisted finishing process to polish the micro-pore side walls to a mirror finish (< 4 nmrms). The processing principle is presented, and a polishing machine is designed and fabricated to explore the feasibility of this polishing process as a possible method for processing MEMS X-ray optics to meet X-ray reflection specifications.

  18. Preliminary thermal and thermomechanical modeling for the near surface test facility heater experiments at Hanford. Volume II: Appendix D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.; Remer, J.S.

    1978-12-01

    Appendix D is a complete set of figures illustrating the detailed calculations necessary for designing the heater experiments at the Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF) at Hanford, Washington. The discussion of the thermal and thermomechanical modeling that yielded these calculations is presented in Volume 1. A summary of the figures and the models they illustrate is given in table D1. The most important figures have also been included in the discussion in Volume 1, and Table D2 lists the figure numbers in this volume that correspond to figure numbers used there

  19. FON: From Start to Finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakuliak, L. K.; Andruk, V. M.; Golovnia, V. V.; Shatokhina, S. V.; Yizhakevych, O. M.; Ivanov, G. A.; Yatsenko, A. I.; Sergeeva, T. P.

    Almost 40-year history of FON project ended with the creation of the whole northern sky catalog of objects down to B ≤ 16.5m. The idea of 4-fold overlapping of the northern sky with 6 wide-field astrographs has not been realized in full. For historical reasons it has been transformed into the 2-fold overlapping observational program of MAO NAS of Ukraine, resulted in three versions of the multimillion catalog of positions, proper motions, and B-magnitudes of stars. The first version of 1.2 million stars had been finished before the 2000s and is based on the AC object list. The measurements of plates were made by automatic measuring complex PARSEC, specially developed for massive photographic reviews. As the input list was limited by AC objects, the most part of stars on the FON plates remained unmeasured. Principles of workflow organization of such works formed the basis for the further development of the project using the latest IT-technologies. For the creation of the second and the third versions of the catalog, the list of objects was obtained as a result of total digitizing of plates and their image processing. The final third version contains 19.5 million stars and galaxies with the maximum possible for the photographic astrometry accuracy. The collection of plates, obtained in other observatories - participants of the project, are partially safe and can be used for the same astrometric tasks.

  20. Static allometry of unicellular green algae: scaling of cellular surface area and volume in the genus Micrasterias (Desmidiales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustupa, J

    2016-02-01

    The surface area-to-volume ratio of cells is one of the key factors affecting fundamental biological processes and, thus, fitness of unicellular organisms. One of the general models for allometric increase in surface-to-volume scaling involves fractal-like elaboration of cellular surfaces. However, specific data illustrating this pattern in natural populations of the unicellular organisms have not previously been available. This study shows that unicellular green algae of the genus Micrasterias (Desmidiales) have positive allometric surface-to-volume scaling caused by changes in morphology of individual species, especially in the degree of cell lobulation. This allometric pattern was also detected within most of the cultured and natural populations analysed. Values of the allometric S:V scaling within individual populations were closely correlated to the phylogenetic structure of the clade. In addition, they were related to species-specific cellular morphology. Individual populations differed in their allometric patterns, and their position in the allometric space was strongly correlated with the degree of allometric S:V scaling. This result illustrates that allometric shape patterns are an important correlate of the capacity of individual populations to compensate for increases in their cell volumes by increasing the surface area. However, variation in allometric patterns was not associated with phylogenetic structure. This indicates that the position of the populations in the allometric space was not evolutionarily conserved and might be influenced by environmental factors. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Cortical thickness, surface area and volume measures in Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Worker

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, Multiple System Atrophy (MSA and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP are neurodegenerative diseases that can be difficult to distinguish clinically. The objective of the current study was to use surface-based analysis techniques to assess cortical thickness, surface area and grey matter volume to identify unique morphological patterns of cortical atrophy in PD, MSA and PSP and to relate these patterns of change to disease duration and clinical features.High resolution 3D T1-weighted MRI volumes were acquired from 14 PD patients, 18 MSA, 14 PSP and 19 healthy control participants. Cortical thickness, surface area and volume analyses were carried out using the automated surface-based analysis package FreeSurfer (version 5.1.0. Measures of disease severity and duration were assessed for correlation with cortical morphometric changes in each clinical group.Results show that in PSP, widespread cortical thinning and volume loss occurs within the frontal lobe, particularly the superior frontal gyrus. In addition, PSP patients also displayed increased surface area in the pericalcarine. In comparison, PD and MSA did not display significant changes in cortical morphology.These results demonstrate that patients with clinically established PSP exhibit distinct patterns of cortical atrophy, particularly affecting the frontal lobe. These results could be used in the future to develop a useful clinical application of MRI to distinguish PSP patients from PD and MSA patients.

  2. Marketing Strategy Formulation for the Introduction of Eukula Strato German Wood Finishes in Local Market of Emerging Indian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Kushe Shekhar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood finishing relates to the process of embellishing or protecting the surface of the wood. The paper aimed at formulating a marketing strategy for introducing water borne German based Wood Finishes named Eukula Strato into local market of northern Kerala, India. Multiple cross sectional descriptive research with judgmental sampling technique elicited responses from Finishers, Furniture manufacturers and Interior designers. Findings revealed that Eukula Strato had a distinct advantage when compared to any other Wood Finish that was available in the local market. Findings and suggestions were reported as per 4P’s of marketing mix. Percentage analysis, Chi square analysis etc were used to interpret the results

  3. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brainstem Volumes, Plaques, and Surface Area in the Occipital Regions of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alper, F.; Kantarci, M.; Altunkaynak, E.; Varoglu, A. O.; Karaman, A.; Oral, E.; Okur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine brainstem volumes, number of plaques, and surface areas in the occipital lobes of patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), and to investigate whether there is any correlation between brainstem volume and the number/surface areas of plaque in the occipital lobes. Material and Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained on 14 relapsing-remitting (RR) and 13 secondary progressive (SP) MS patients and 26 female control subjects. The Cavalieri method was used by modern design stereology to measure brainstem volume. The point-counting grid was used to evaluate sclerotic plaque surface areas in the occipital lobe. The number of plaques in the imaging section was calculated. Results: Brainstem volumes for RR and SP with multiple sclerosis and control subjects were 3647 mm 3 , 3515 mm 3 , and 4517 mm 3 , respectively. Mean number of plaques in the right-left occipital lobe was found to be 2.7-3.4 in RR-MS and 5.2-2.8 in SP-MS. Mean plaque surface area in the right-left occipital lobe was determined to be 58.52-88.24 mm 2 in RR MS and 124.3-64.82 mm 2 in SP MS. Brainstem volumes were significantly reduced in both groups of patients with MS compared to controls ( P <0.01). Conclusion: Magnetic-resonance-estimated volume and surface area values in multiple sclerosis may facilitate our understanding of the clinical situation of patients and provide a simple index for evaluating therapeutic efficiency

  4. Characterization of the intragranular water regime within subsurface sediments: pore volume, surface area, and mass transfer limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Michael B.; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Davis, James A.; Zachara, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Although "intragranular" pore space within grain aggregates, grain fractures, and mineral surface coatings may contain a relatively small fraction of the total porosity within a porous medium, it often contains a significant fraction of the reactive surface area, and can thus strongly affect the transport of sorbing solutes. In this work, we demonstrate a batch experiment procedure using tritiated water as a high-resolution diffusive tracer to characterize the intragranular pore space. The method was tested using uranium-contaminated sediments from the vadose and capillary fringe zones beneath the former 300A process ponds at the Hanford site (Washington). Sediments were contacted with tracers in artificial groundwater, followed by a replacement of bulk solution with tracer-free groundwater and the monitoring of tracer release. From these data, intragranular pore volumes were calculated and mass transfer rates were quantified using a multirate first-order mass transfer model. Tritium-hydrogen exchange on surface hydroxyls was accounted for by conducting additional tracer experiments on sediment that was vacuum dried after reaction. The complementary ("wet" and "dry") techniques allowed for the simultaneous determination of intragranular porosity and surface area using tritium. The Hanford 300A samples exhibited intragranular pore volumes of ~1% of the solid volume and intragranular surface areas of ~20%–35% of the total surface area. Analogous experiments using bromide ion as a tracer yielded very different results, suggesting very little penetration of bromide into the intragranular porosity.

  5. Curling probe measurement of a large-volume pulsed plasma with surface magnetic confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A.; Tashiro, H.; Sakakibara, W.; Nakamura, K.; Sugai, H.

    2016-12-01

    A curling probe (CP) based on microwave resonance is applied to the measurement of electron density in a pulsed DC glow discharge under surface magnetic confinement (SMC) provided by a number of permanent magnets on a chamber wall. Owing to the SMC effects, a 1 m scale large-volume plasma is generated by a relatively low voltage (~1 kV) at low pressure (~1 Pa) in various gases (Ar, CH4, and C2H2). Temporal variation of the electron density is measured for pulse frequency f  =  0.5-25 kHz for various discharge-on times (T ON) with a high resolution time (~0.2 µs), using the on-point mode. In general, the electron density starts to increase at time t  =  0 after turn-on of the discharge voltage, reaches peak density at t  =  T ON, and then decreases after turn-off. The peak electron density is observed to increase with the pulse frequency f for constant T ON owing to the residual plasma. This dependence is successfully formulated using a semi-empirical model. The spatio-temporal evolution of the cathode sheath in the pulsed discharge is revealed by a 1 m long movable CP. The measured thickness of the high-voltage cathode fall in a steady state coincides with the value of the so-called Child-Langmuir sheath.

  6. Reliable nanomaterial classification of powders using the volume-specific surface area method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlleben, Wendel, E-mail: wendel.wohlleben@basf.com [Department of Material Physics, BASF SE (Germany); Mielke, Johannes [BAM–Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany); Bianchin, Alvise [MBN Nanomaterialia s.p.a (Italy); Ghanem, Antoine [R& I Centre Brussels, Solvay (Belgium); Freiberger, Harald [Department of Material Physics, BASF SE (Germany); Rauscher, Hubert [European Commission, Nanobiosciences Unit, Joint Research Centre (Italy); Gemeinert, Marion; Hodoroaba, Vasile-Dan, E-mail: dan.hodoroaba@bam.de [BAM–Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    The volume-specific surface area (VSSA) of a particulate material is one of two apparently very different metrics recommended by the European Commission for a definition of “nanomaterial” for regulatory purposes: specifically, the VSSA metric may classify nanomaterials and non-nanomaterials differently than the median size in number metrics, depending on the chemical composition, size, polydispersity, shape, porosity, and aggregation of the particles in the powder. Here we evaluate the extent of agreement between classification by electron microscopy (EM) and classification by VSSA on a large set of diverse particulate substances that represent all the anticipated challenges except mixtures of different substances. EM and VSSA are determined in multiple labs to assess also the level of reproducibility. Based on the results obtained on highly characterized benchmark materials from the NanoDefine EU FP7 project, we derive a tiered screening strategy for the purpose of implementing the definition of nanomaterials. We finally apply the screening strategy to further industrial materials, which were classified correctly and left only borderline cases for EM. On platelet-shaped nanomaterials, VSSA is essential to prevent false-negative classification by EM. On porous materials, approaches involving extended adsorption isotherms prevent false positive classification by VSSA. We find no false negatives by VSSA, neither in Tier 1 nor in Tier 2, despite real-world industrial polydispersity and diverse composition, shape, and coatings. The VSSA screening strategy is recommended for inclusion in a technical guidance for the implementation of the definition.

  7. Response of faults to climate-driven changes in ice and water volumes on Earth's surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Andrea; Hetzel, Ralf; Maniatis, Georgios

    2010-05-28

    Numerical models including one or more faults in a rheologically stratified lithosphere show that climate-induced variations in ice and water volumes on Earth's surface considerably affect the slip evolution of both thrust and normal faults. In general, the slip rate and hence the seismicity of a fault decreases during loading and increases during unloading. Here, we present several case studies to show that a postglacial slip rate increase occurred on faults worldwide in regions where ice caps and lakes decayed at the end of the last glaciation. Of note is that the postglacial amplification of seismicity was not restricted to the areas beneath the large Laurentide and Fennoscandian ice sheets but also occurred in regions affected by smaller ice caps or lakes, e.g. the Basin-and-Range Province. Our results do not only have important consequences for the interpretation of palaeoseismological records from faults in these regions but also for the evaluation of the future seismicity in regions currently affected by deglaciation like Greenland and Antarctica: shrinkage of the modern ice sheets owing to global warming may ultimately lead to an increase in earthquake frequency in these regions.

  8. Adsorption of charged and neutral polymer chains on silica surfaces: The role of electrostatics, volume exclusion, and hydrogen bonding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, Evan; Biesheuvel, P.M.; de Vos, Wiebe Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    We develop an off-lattice (continuum) model to describe the adsorption of neutral polymer chains and polyelectrolytes to surfaces. Our continuum description allows taking excluded volume interactions between polymer chains and ions directly into account. To implement those interactions, we use a

  9. Plutonium finishing plant dangerous waste training plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ENTROP, G.E.

    1999-01-01

    This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas

  10. The Adolescent Who Does Not Finish Anything.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiner, Sander J.

    1985-01-01

    Practical information for therapists who deal with adolescents who do not finish tasks is presented. The relationship of task incompletion to neurosis, psychosis, depression, homosexuality, and drug abuse is described, and techniques and guidelines for treatment are provided. (Author)

  11. Volume labeling with Alexa Fluor dyes and surface functionalization of highly sensitive fluorescent silica (SiO2) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Nallathamby, Prakash D; Foster, Carmen M; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Mortensen, Ninell P; Doktycz, Mitchel J; Gu, Baohua; Retterer, Scott T

    2013-11-07

    A new synthesis approach is described that allows the direct incorporation of fluorescent labels into the volume or body of SiO2 nanoparticles. In this process, fluorescent Alexa Fluor dyes with different emission wavelengths were covalently incorporated into the SiO2 nanoparticles during their formation by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane. The dye molecules were homogeneously distributed throughout the SiO2 nanoparticles. The quantum yields of the Alexa Fluor volume-labeled SiO2 nanoparticles were much higher than nanoparticles labeled using conventional organic dyes. The size of the resulting nanoparticles was controlled using microemulsion reaction media with sizes in the range of 20-100 nm and a polydispersity of <15%. In comparison with conventional surface tagged particles created by post-synthesis modification, this process maintains the physical and surface chemical properties that have the most pronounced effect on colloidal stability and interactions with their surroundings. These volume-labeled nanoparticles have proven to be extremely robust, showing excellent signal strength, negligible photobleaching, and minimal loss of functional organic components. The native or "free" surface of the volume-labeled particles can be altered to achieve a specific surface functionality without altering fluorescence. Their utility was demonstrated for visualizing the association of surface-modified fluorescent particles with cultured macrophages. Differences in particle agglomeration and cell association were clearly associated with differences in observed nanoparticle toxicity. The capacity to maintain particle fluorescence while making significant changes to surface chemistry makes these particles extremely versatile and useful for studies of particle agglomeration, uptake, and transport in environmental and biological systems.

  12. Scaling of Haversian canal surface area to secondary osteon bone volume in ribs and limb bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedros, John G; Knight, Alex N; Clark, Gunnar C; Crowder, Christian M; Dominguez, Victoria M; Qiu, Shijing; Mulhern, Dawn M; Donahue, Seth W; Busse, Björn; Hulsey, Brannon I; Zedda, Marco; Sorenson, Scott M

    2013-06-01

    Studies of secondary osteons in ribs have provided a great deal of what is known about remodeling dynamics. Compared with limb bones, ribs are metabolically more active and sensitive to hormonal changes, and receive frequent low-strain loading. Optimization for calcium exchange in rib osteons might be achieved without incurring a significant reduction in safety factor by disproportionally increasing central canal size with increased osteon size (positive allometry). By contrast, greater mechanical loads on limb bones might favor reducing deleterious consequences of intracortical porosity by decreasing osteon canal size with increased osteon size (negative allometry). Evidence of this metabolic/mechanical dichotomy between ribs and limb bones was sought by examining relationships between Haversian canal surface area (BS, osteon Haversian canal perimeter, HC.Pm) and bone volume (BV, osteonal wall area, B.Ar) in a broad size range of mature (quiescent) osteons from adult human limb bones and ribs (modern and medieval) and various adult and subadult non-human limb bones and ribs. Reduced major axis (RMA) and least-squares (LS) regressions of HC.Pm/B.Ar data show that rib and limb osteons cannot be distinguished by dimensional allometry of these parameters. Although four of the five rib groups showed positive allometry in terms of the RMA slopes, nearly 50% of the adult limb bone groups also showed positive allometry when negative allometry was expected. Consequently, our results fail to provide clear evidence that BS/BV scaling reflects a rib versus limb bone dichotomy whereby calcium exchange might be preferentially enhanced in rib osteons. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Variant of a volume-of-fluid method for surface tension-dominant two ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-27

    Dec 27, 2013 ... Abstract. The capabilities of the volume-of-fluid method for the calculation of sur- face tension-dominant two-phase flows are explained. The accurate calculation of the interface remains a problem for the volume-of-fluid method if the density ratios of the fluids in different phases are high. The simulations of ...

  14. Conversion of a Surface Model of a Structure of Interest into a Volume Model for Medical Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmad ISTEPHAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Volumetric medical image datasets contain vital information for noninvasive diagnosis, treatment planning and prognosis. However, direct and unlimited query of such datasets is hindered due to the unstructured nature of the imaging data. This study is a step towards the unlimited query of medical image datasets by focusing on specific Structures of Interest (SOI. A requirement in achieving this objective is having both the surface and volume models of the SOI. However, typically, only the surface model is available. Therefore, this study focuses on creating a fast method to convert a surface model to a volume model. Three methods (1D, 2D and 3D are proposed and evaluated using simulated and real data of Deep Perisylvian Area (DPSA within the human brain. The 1D method takes 80 msec for DPSA model; about 4 times faster than 2D method and 7.4 fold faster than 3D method, with over 97% accuracy. The proposed 1D method is feasible for surface to volume conversion in computer aided diagnosis, treatment planning and prognosis systems containing large amounts of unstructured medical images.

  15. Comparing the microbial characteristics of rainwater in two operating rainwater tanks with different surface-to-volume ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mikyeong; Bak, Gippeum; Han, Mooyoung

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the microbial characteristics of rainwater in two tanks with different surface-to-volume ratios were investigated and compared to determine how the internal design features of storage tanks affect water quality. The particle and nutrient parameters of the rainwater, including turbidity, suspended solids, total organic carbon, and total phosphate, were lower in Tank 2, which had a surface-to-volume ratio 7.5 times greater than that of Tank 1. In addition, although the rainwater was collected from the same catchment area, the water in Tank 1 had greater numbers of bacteria, and the bacterial communities in the water differed between the two storage tanks. It appears that the differences in the inside surface structures of the rainwater tanks affected the microbial ecosystems. Increasing the surface-to-volume ratio in rainwater tanks may affect rainwater quality, because this extends the area for biofilm development. Further study of the role of biofilm in rainwater tank is required precisely, and its function needs to be considered in the design and management of rainwater tanks.

  16. Microbial Adhesion to Processing Lines for Fish Fillets and Cooked Shrimp: Influence of Stainless Steel Surface Finish and Presence of Gram-Negative Bacteria on the Attachment of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjörleifur Einarsson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Microflora adhering to surfaces of processing lines in a shrimp factory and a fish processing plant was identified in situ and adhesion of mixed culture of Listeria monocytogenes and Gram-negative bacteria on stainless steel surfaces (untreated, polished and glass beaded was studied ex situ. The predominant genus attached to the surfaces was Pseudomonas spp. (66 % in the shrimp factory and Enterobacteriaceae (27 % in the fish factory. Shrimp juice was used as an enrichment broth during the study of adhered bacteria. Three different Gram-negative strains and a mixture of Pseudomonas spp. were selected to study their attachment together with L. monocytogenes to stainless steel surfaces. Highest numbers of the attached bacteria were obtained after the contamination with a mixed culture of L. monocytogenes and Serratia liquefaciens. A lower number of bacteria adhered to stainless steel surfaces when mixed cultures of L. monocytogenes and Pseudomonas fluorescens or Aeromonas spp. were tested. No significant differences (p<0.05 were observed in the bacteria attached to differently treated steel surfaces with different roughness (Ra=0.1–0.8 m. Bacterial adhesion increased with longer contact time. Colonisation of L. monocytogenes on stainless steel surfaces was significantly enhanced only in the presence of mixed Pseudomonas spp. These results indicate that smooth surfaces do not necessarily provide hygiene benefits over rougher surfaces.

  17. Volume 10 No. 4 April 2010 2427 PERFORMANCE OF FINISHER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2010-04-04

    Apr 4, 2010 ... randomised design comprising 5 treatments with 4 replicates each. Cowpea grains bought from ... methods have been developed to de-activate the ANFs including heat treatment. Cooking could be an easy ..... Steel RG and JH Torrie Principles and Procedures of Statistics, A. Biometrical Approach. 2 nd.

  18. Glazed Tiles as Floor Finish in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyin Emmanuel AKINDE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tile is no doubt rich in antiquity; its primordial  show, came as mosaic with primary prospect in sacred floor finish before its oblivion, courtesy of, later consciousness towards wall finish in banquets, kitchens, toilets, restaurants and even bars. Today, its renaissance as floor finish is apparent in private and public architectural structures with prevalence in residential, recreational, commercial, governmental and other spaces. In Nigeria, the use of glazed tiles as floor finish became apparent, supposedly in mid-twentieth century; and has since, witnessed ever increasing demands from all sundry; a development that is nascent and has necessitated its mass  production locally with pockets of firms in the country. The latter however, is a resultant response to taste cum glazed tiles affordability, whose divergent sophistication in design, colour, size and shape is believed preferred to terrazzo, carpet and floor flex tile. Accessible as glazed tile and production is, in recent times; its dearth of a holistic literature in Nigeria is obvious. In the light of the latter, this paper examine glazed tiles as floor finish in Nigeria, its advent, usage, production, challenge, benefit and prospect with the hope of opening further frontier in discipline specifics.

  19. Effects of diluents on soot surface temperature and volume fraction in diluted ethylene diffusion flames at pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Kailasanathan, Ranjith Kumar Abhinavam

    2014-05-20

    Soot surface temperature and volume fraction are measured in ethylene/air coflowing laminar diffusion flames at high pressures, diluted with one of four diluents (argon, helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide) using a two-color technique. Both temperature and soot measurements presented are line-of-sight averages. The results aid in understanding the kinetic and thermodynamic behavior of the soot formation and oxidation chemistry with changes in diluents, ultimately leading to possible methods of reducing soot emission from practical combustion hardware. The diluted fuel and coflow exit velocities (top-hat profiles) were matched at all pressures to minimize shear effects. In addition to the velocity-matched flow rates, the mass fluxes were held constant for all pressures. Addition of a diluent has a pronounced effect on both the soot surface temperature and volume fraction, with the helium diluted flame yielding the maximum and carbon dioxide diluted flame yielding minimum soot surface temperature and volume fraction. At low pressures, peak soot volume fraction exists at the tip of the flame, and with an increase in pressure, the location shifts lower to the wings of the flame. Due to the very high diffusivity of helium, significantly higher temperature and volume fraction are measured and explained. Carbon dioxide has the most dramatic soot suppression effect. By comparing the soot yield with previously measured soot precursor concentrations in the same flame, it is clear that the lower soot yield is a result of enhanced oxidation rates rather than a reduction in precursor formation. Copyright © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  20. Cortical thickness, surface area, and volume of the brain reward system in alcohol dependence: relationships to relapse and extended abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Tosun, Duygu; Buckley, Shannon; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Mon, Anderson; Fryer, Susanna L; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2011-06-01

    At least 60% of those treated for an alcohol use disorder will relapse. Empirical study of the integrity of the brain reward system (BRS) is critical to understanding the mechanisms of relapse as this collection of circuits is implicated in the development and maintenance of all forms of addictive disorders. This study compared thickness, surface area, and volume in neocortical components of the BRS among nonsmoking light-drinking controls (controls), individuals who remained abstinent and those who relapsed after treatment. Seventy-five treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals (abstinent for 7±3 days) and 43 controls completed 1.5T proton magnetic resonance imaging studies. Parcellated morphological data were obtained for following bilateral components of the BRS: rostral and caudal anterior cingulate cortex, insula, medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), rostral and caudal middle and superior frontal gyri, amygdala and hippocampus as well as for 26 other bilateral neocortical regions. Alcohol-dependent participants were followed over 12-months after baseline study and were classified as abstainers (no alcohol consumption; n=24) and relapsers (any alcohol consumption; n=51) at follow-up. Relapsers and abstainers demonstrated lower cortical thickness in the vast majority of BRS regions as well as lower global thickness compared to controls. Relapsers had lower total BRS surface area than both controls and abstainers, but abstainers were not significantly different from controls on any surface area measure. Relapsers demonstrated lower volumes than controls in the majority of regions, while abstainers showed lower volumes than controls in the superior frontal gyrus, insula, amygdala, and hippocampus, bilaterally. Relapsers exhibited smaller volumes than abstainers in the right rostral middle and caudal middle frontal gyri and the lateral OFC, bilaterally. In relapsers, lower baseline volumes and surface areas in multiple regions were associated with

  1. Idealized Shale Sorption Isotherm Measurements to Determine Pore Volume, Pore Size Distribution, and Surface Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, R.; Wang, B.; Aljama, H.; Rupp, E.; Wilcox, J.

    2014-12-01

    One method for mitigating the impacts of anthropogenic CO2-related climate change is the sequestration of CO2 in depleted gas and oil reservoirs, including shale. The accurate characterization of the heterogeneous material properties of shale, including pore volume, surface area, pore size distributions (PSDs) and composition is needed to understand the interaction of CO2 with shale. Idealized powdered shale sorption isotherms were created by varying incremental amounts of four essential components by weight. The first two components, organic carbon and clay, have been shown to be the most important components for CO2 uptake in shales. Organic carbon was represented by kerogen isolated from a Silurian shale, and clay groups were represented by illite from the Green River shale formation. The rest of the idealized shale was composed of equal parts by weight of SiO2 to represent quartz and CaCO3 to represent carbonate components. Baltic, Eagle Ford, and Barnett shale sorption measurements were used to validate the idealized samples. The idealized and validation shale sorption isotherms were measured volumetrically using low pressure N2 (77K) and CO2 (273K) adsorbates on a Quantachrome Autosorb IQ2. Gravimetric isotherms were also produced for a subset of these samples using CO2 and CH4adsorbates under subsurface temperature and pressure conditions using a Rubotherm magnetic suspension balance. Preliminary analyses were inconclusive in validating the idealized samples. This could be a result of conflicting reports of total organic carbon (TOC) content in each sample, a problem stemming from the heterogeneity of the samples and different techniques used for measuring TOC content. The TOC content of the validation samples (Eagle Ford and Barnett) was measured by Rock-Eval pyrolysis at Weatherford Laboratories, while the TOC content in the Baltic validation samples was determined by LECO TOC. Development of a uniform process for measuring TOC in the validation samples is

  2. Finishing of the cold mass assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 Technicians are putting in order the instrumentation wires. The prototype magnets were equipped with numerous sensors to monitor key parameters during the performance tests at cold conditions. Photo 2 The cold mass assembly is resting on special supports in order to allow the finishing operations. Technicians are putting in order the instrumentation wires. The prototype magnets were equipped with numerous sensors to monitor key parameters during the performance tests at cold conditions. Photo 3 View of the lyre-side end of the active part assembly. The extremity of the shrinking cylinder has been bevelled in view of welding the end cover. Photo 4 General view of the finishing station showing the special supporting structures (blue and yellow structures) needed for the geometric measurements and for the alignment operations. One can also see the light building surrounding the finishing station, which purpose is to isolate the laser measuring machines from disturbances. Photo 5 The extremity of the shri...

  3. Improvements in Sand Mold/Core Technology: Effects on Casting Finish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. John J. Lannutti; Prof. Carroll E. Mobley

    2005-08-30

    In this study, the development and impact of density gradients on metal castings were investigated using sand molds/cores from both industry and from in-house production. In spite of the size of the castings market, almost no quantitative information about density variation within the molds/cores themselves is available. In particular, a predictive understanding of how structure and binder content/chemistry/mixing contribute to the final surface finish of these products does not exist. In this program we attempted to bridge this gap by working directly with domestic companies in examining the issues of surface finish and thermal reclamation costs resulting from the use of sand molds/cores. We show that these can be substantially reduced by the development of an in-depth understanding of density variations that correlate to surface finish. Our experimental tools and our experience with them made us uniquely qualified to achieve technical progress.

  4. Estimation of the Cultured Cells’ Volume and Surface Area: Application of Stereological Methods on Vero Cells Infected by Rubella Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Noorafshan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Morphological changes of the cells infected with rubella virus cannot be observed easily. Estimation of the size of the cultured cells can be a valuable parameter in this condition. This study was conducted to find answers to the following questions: •\tHow much time after infection with rubella virus, the volume and surface area of the Vero cells and their nuclei get started to change? •\tHow is it possible to apply stereological methods to estimate the volume and surface area of the cultured cells using the invariator, nucleator, and surfactor techniques? Methods: The cultured Vero cells were infected with rubella virus. The cells of the control and experimental groups were harvested at 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours following the incubation period. The cells were processed and embedded in paraffin. Invariator, nucleator, and surfactor were applied to estimate the size of the Vero cells and their nuclei. Results: The cell volume was decreased by 15-24%, 48 hours after the infection in comparison to the non-infected cells. Besides, the cell surface area was decreased by 13%, 48 hours after the infection. However, no changes were detected in the nuclei. The values of the standard deviation and coefficient of variation of the cells, estimated by invariator, were lower compared to those measured by the nucleator or surfactor. Conclusion: In this study, the volume and surface area of the Vero cells were reduced by rubella virus 48 hours after infection. Invariator is a more precise method compared to nucleator or surfactor.

  5. Abrasive wear of resin composites as related to finishing and polishing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turssi, Cecilia P; Ferracane, Jack L; Serra, Mônica C

    2005-07-01

    Finishing and polishing procedures may cause topographical changes and introduce subsurface microcracks in dental composite restoratives. Since both of these effects may contribute toward the kinetics of wear, the purpose of this study was to assess and correlate the wear and surface roughness of minifilled and nanofilled composites finished and polished by different methods. Specimens (n=10) made of a minifilled and a nanofilled composite were finished and polished with one of the four sequences: (1) tungsten carbide burs plus Al(2)O(3)-impregnated brush (CbBr) or (2) tungsten carbide burs plus diamond-impregnated cup (CbCp), (3) diamond burs plus brush (DmBr) or (4) diamond burs plus cup (DmCp). As a control, abrasive papers were used. After surface roughness had been quantified, three-body abrasion was simulated using the OHSU wear machine. The wear facets were then scanned to measure wear depth and post-testing roughness. All sets of data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's tests (alpha=0.05). Pearson's correlation test was applied to check for the existence of a relationship between pre-testing roughness and wear. Significantly smoother surfaces were attained with the sequences CbBr and CbCp, whereas DmCp yielded the roughest surface. Regardless of the finishing/polishing technique, the nanofilled composite exhibited the lowest pre-testing roughness and wear. There was no correlation between the surface roughness achieved after finishing/polishing procedures and wear (p=0.3899). Nano-sized materials may have improved abrasive wear resistance over minifilled composites. The absence of correlation between wear and surface roughness produced by different finishing/polishing methods suggests that the latter negligibly influences material loss due to three-body abrasion.

  6. Finishing and polishing of a poly (fluoroalkoxyphosphazene) resilient denture liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loney, R W; Moulding, M B; Hacker, C H; Ritsco, R G

    1994-01-01

    A raised ridge of Novus resilient denture liner was removed from samples using one of three burs, three stones, or a coarse sandpaper disc. Samples were polished using pumice alone, tin oxide alone, or both agents. A flat, unfinished sample served as a control. Average surface roughness of control samples was 0.96 microns. Average surface roughness measurements for reduced samples ranged from 7.21 microns (sandpaper disc) to 3.34 microns (Prolastic wheel). Without polishing, sandpaper discs and serrated burs produced rougher surfaces than stones or the nonserrated bur. The sandpaper disc reduced the liner the quickest. There were no significant differences between treatments or controls after the use of pumice alone or after the use of a combination of pumice and tin oxide. An acceptable finishing protocol for this poly(fluoroalkoxyphosphazene) resilient liner appears to differ from that previously established for a silicone resilient denture liner.

  7. Volumetrically-Derived Global Navigation Satellite System Performance Assessment from the Earths Surface through the Terrestrial Service Volume and the Space Service Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Bryan W.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is participating in the International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) (ICG)'s efforts towards demonstrating the benefits to the space user from the Earth's surface through the Terrestrial Service Volume (TSV) to the edge of the Space Service Volume (SSV), when a multi-GNSS solution space approach is utilized. The ICG Working Group: Enhancement of GNSS Performance, New Services and Capabilities has started a three phase analysis initiative as an outcome of recommendations at the ICG-10 meeting, in preparation for the ICG-11 meeting. The first phase of that increasing complexity and fidelity analysis initiative was recently expanded to compare nadir-facing and zenith-facing user hemispherical antenna coverage with omnidirectional antenna coverage at different distances of 8,000 km altitude and 36,000 km altitude. This report summarizes the performance using these antenna coverage techniques at distances ranging from 100 km altitude to 36,000 km to be all encompassing, as well as the volumetrically-derived system availability metrics.

  8. Wood properties affecting finish service life

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam. Williams; Charles. Jourdain; George I. Daisey; Robert W. Springate

    2000-01-01

    Wood is a biological material that has widely different properties depending on species, geographic area where the tree grew, the growth conditions, size of the tree at harvest, sawing, and other manufacturing processes. Some of the more important wood properties as they relate to wood finishing are discussed, e.g., growth rate, density, knots, extractives, juvenile...

  9. Explosion hazards of aluminum finishing operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taveau, J.R.; Hochgreb, Simone; Lemkowitz, S.M.; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.

    2018-01-01

    Metal dust deflagrations have become increasingly common in recent years. They are also more devastating than deflagrations involving organic materials, owing to metals' higher heat of combustion, rate of pressure rise, explosion pressure and flame temperature. Aluminum finishing operations offer

  10. Textile finishing chemicals: an industrial guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flick, Ernest W

    1990-01-01

    ..., hand modifiers, antistatic agents, biocides, fixatives, scouring agents, leveling agents, dispersants, defoamers, anticracking agents, binders, lubricating agents, stiffeners, and sequestering agents. The chemicals may constitute a substantial portion of the finished textile. In many cases 10% or more of the fabric's final weight may derive fro...

  11. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for the PFP. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification

  12. Drywall Finishing Apprenticeship. Course Outline (C-6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengert, Gerald

    This course outline was prepard to help apprentice drywall installers and teachers of drywall finishing courses to learn or teach the skills necessary for the apprenticeship course in British Columbia. The course outline consists of 11 tracks (units) that cover the following topics: estimating, job inspection, safety, applying bead, filling…

  13. Pneumonia outbreaks in calves and finishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-19

    Pneumonia in calves and finishers. Ovarian tumour in a calf . Abortion associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 in a suckler herd. Parasitic gastroenteritis causing illthrift and death in sheep. Outbreaks of acute fasciolosis in sheep. These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for December 2015 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). British Veterinary Association.

  14. Performance characteristics and nutrient digestibility of Finisher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the performance characteristics, nutrient digestibility and blood chemistry of Finishing (84-112d) turkeys fed diets containing 100 g/kg MSP supplemented with varying combinations of enzyme and yeast. A total of 100 day-old, British United Turkeys (BUT) turkeys were reared for ...

  15. Verification and transfer of thermal pollution model. Volume 2: User's manual for 3-dimensional free-surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. S.; Sengupta, S.; Tuann, S. Y.; Lee, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    The six-volume report: describes the theory of a three-dimensional (3-D) mathematical thermal discharge model and a related one-dimensional (1-D) model, includes model verification at two sites, and provides a separate user's manual for each model. The 3-D model has two forms: free surface and rigid lid. The former, verified at Anclote Anchorage (FL), allows a free air/water interface and is suited for significant surface wave heights compared to mean water depth; e.g., estuaries and coastal regions. The latter, verified at Lake Keowee (SC), is suited for small surface wave heights compared to depth. These models allow computation of time-dependent velocity and temperature fields for given initial conditions and time-varying boundary conditions.

  16. Investigation of spin-reorientation phase transitions at surface and in volume of alpha-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 monocrystals

    CERN Document Server

    Kamzin, A S

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic structure of the surface layer and volume and the processes, observed by the spin-reorientation phase transition (SRPT), are studied in the direct comparison of the properties of the thin surface layer and the volume of the hematite (alpha-Fe sub 2 O sub 3) macroscopic crystals. The method of simultaneous gamma, X-ray and electron Moessbauer spectroscopy was used in the studies. The direct data on the existence of the transition layer on the hematite crystals surface are obtained. It is established, that the Morin-type SRPT in the sample volume occurs by a jump (the first-order phase transition). The SRPT in the surface layer as well as in the crystal volume is accompanied by formation of the intermediate state, wherein the low- and high-temperature phases coexist. The obtained experimental data on the SRPT mechanism in the surface layer agree well with the conclusions of the phenomenological theory

  17. Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR), Final Report. Volume 1. Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinette, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    The Civilian Americana and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR) project was a survey of the civilian populations of three countries representing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries...

  18. Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR). Volume II: Descriptions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blackwell, Sherri

    2002-01-01

    The Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR) project was a survey of the civilian populations of three countries representing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries...

  19. Cortical Thickness, Surface Area and Subcortical Volume Differentially Contribute to Cognitive Heterogeneity in Parkinson's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Niels J H M; van Loenhoud, Anita C; van den Berg, Stan F; Berendse, Henk W; Foncke, Elisabeth M J; Klein, Martin; Stoffers, Diederick; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; van den Heuvel, Odile A

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is often associated with cognitive deficits, although their severity varies considerably between patients. Recently, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to show that individual differences in gray matter (GM) volume relate to cognitive heterogeneity in PD. VBM does,

  20. Variant of a volume-of-fluid method for surface tension-dominant two ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-27

    Dec 27, 2013 ... water at near critical pressure for different degrees of superheat using combined level- set and volume-of fluid (CLSVOF) method. The effect of superheat on the frequency of bubble formation was analyzed. A deviation from the periodic bubble release is observed in the case of superheat of 20 K in water.

  1. Stick-Jump (SJ) Evaporation of Strongly Pinned Nanoliter Volume Sessile Water Droplets on Quick Drying, Micropatterned Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debuisson, Damien; Merlen, Alain; Senez, Vincent; Arscott, Steve

    2016-03-22

    We present an experimental study of stick-jump (SJ) evaporation of strongly pinned nanoliter volume sessile water droplets drying on micropatterned surfaces. The evaporation is studied on surfaces composed of photolithographically micropatterned negative photoresist (SU-8). The micropatterning of the SU-8 enables circular, smooth, trough-like features to be formed which causes a very strong pinning of the three phase (liquid-vapor-solid) contact line of an evaporating droplet. This is ideal for studying SJ evaporation as it contains sequential constant contact radius (CCR) evaporation phases during droplet evaporation. The evaporation was studied in nonconfined conditions, and forced convection was not used. Micropatterned concentric circles were defined having an initial radius of 1000 μm decreasing by a spacing ranging from 500 to 50 μm. The droplet evaporates, successively pinning and depinning from circle to circle. For each pinning radius, the droplet contact angle and volume are observed to decrease quasi-linearly with time. The experimental average evaporation rates were found to decrease with decreasing pining radii. In contrast, the experimental average evaporation flux is found to increase with decreasing droplet radii. The data also demonstrate the influence of the initial contact angle on evaporation rate and flux. The data indicate that the total evaporation time of a droplet depends on the specific micropattern spacing and that the total evaporation time on micropatterned surfaces is always less than on flat, homogeneous surfaces. Although the surface patterning is observed to have little effect on the average droplet flux-indicating that the underlying evaporation physics is not significantly changed by the patterning-the total evaporation time is considerably modified by patterning, up to a factor or almost 2 compared to evaporation on a flat, homogeneous surface. The closely spaced concentric circle pinning maintains a large droplet radius and

  2. The Importance of Aging in Gray Matter Changes Within Tinnitus Patients Shown in Cortical Thickness, Surface Area and Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hye Bin; De Ridder, Dirk; Vanneste, Sven

    2016-11-01

    Aging and sensorineural hearing loss are known to be involved in the development of chronic tinnitus. This study explores the structural changes of gray matter using surface base methods and focuses more specifically on changes in cortical thickness in 127 tinnitus patients. The linear relationships between cortical thickness and behavioral measures including aging, tinnitus loudness, tinnitus duration, tinnitus distress, and hearing loss were analyzed. Three dimensional T1-weighted MR images were acquired and cortical gray matter volumes were segmented using FreeSurfer on Talairach space. The results showed that cortical thickness and volume are negatively correlated to age in widespread regions of frontal cortices, and positively to bilateral entorhinal cortex and left rostral anterior cingulate cortex. The cortical thickness changes related to hearing loss overlap with those related to normal aging. The gray matter volumes of bilateral amygdalae, hippocampi, nuclei accumbens, and thalami are all significantly negatively correlated to age. Tinnitus-related distress level and subjective loudness were negatively correlated only to the thalamic volume. The results suggest that the primary factor of long-term structural changes in chronic tinnitus patients is age and age related hearing loss, rather than hearing loss per se. Tinnitus related factors such as subjective tinnitus loudness, tinnitus duration, and the level of chronic tinnitus related distress were not correlated to important morphometric changes in this study.

  3. Volume and surface photoemission from tungsten. I. Calculation of band structure and emission spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N. Egede; Feuerbacher, B.

    1974-01-01

    of photoemission spectra from W single crystals. The nondirect as well as the direct models for bulk photoemission processes are investigated. The emission from the three low-index surfaces (100), (110), and (111) exhibits strong dependence on direction and acceptance cone. According to the present band model...... there should essentially be no emission normal to the (110) face for photon energies between 9.4 and 10.6 eV. Experimental observation of emission in this gap, however, implies effects not included in the simple bulk models. In particular, effects arising from surface emission have been considered, i.......e., emission of those electrons which are excited in a single-step process from initial states near the surface to final states outside the crystal. The electrons that are emitted from the surface in directions perpendicular to the crystal planes carry information on the one-dimensional surface density...

  4. Flame retardant finishing of cotton fabric based on synergistic compounds containing boron and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kongliang; Gao, Aiqin; Zhang, Yongsheng

    2013-10-15

    Boric acid and compound containing nitrogen, 2,4,6-tri[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-HTAC) were used to finish cotton fabric. The flame retardant properties of the finished cotton fabrics and the synergetic effects of boron and nitrogen elements were investigated and evaluated by limited oxygen index (LOI) method. The mechanism of cross-linking reaction among cotton fiber, Tri-HTAC, and boric acid was discussed by FTIR and element analysis. The thermal stability and surface morphology of the finished cotton fabrics were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The finishing system of the mixture containing boron and nitrogen showed excellent synergistic flame retardancy for cotton fabric. The cotton fabric finished with mixture system had excellent flame retardancy. The LOI value of the treated cotton fabric increased over 27.5. Tri-HTAC could form covalent bonds with cellulose fiber and boric acid. The flame retardant cotton fabric showed a slight decrease in tensile strength and whiteness. The surface morphology of flame retardant cotton fiber was smooth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Advantages of modern collapsible systems for exterior finishing of buildings in urban areas in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolstova Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the method of finishing interior spaces, as well as exterior surfaces and architectural and structural elements of buildings and structures is widely used, when layers of building materials or finishing structures are applied in a strict sequence, allowing them to eventually form an unbroken whole - a “monolith”. This method of finishing, its technology and results not only depend significantly on the quality of the materials used and the mechanization of processes, but also require high qualification and specialization of construction workers. The execution of such a finish is more an art than a reproduced with a given level of quality of results by a technological process. An alternative to “monolith” is a variety of collapsible (they are also called “hinged” systems for finishing urban buildings, the elements of which are manufactured in the construction industry, requiring, as a rule, only installation and assembly in internal premises (the so-called “evroremont”, Or on the external surfaces of a building or structure.

  6. Effect of structural modifications on the drying kinetics of foods: changes in volume, surface area and product shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio De Michelis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Macro and micro-structural changes take place during food dehydration. Macro-structural changes encompass modifications in shape, area and volume. Studies of such changes are important because dehydration kinetics (essential for calculating industrial dryers may be highly influenced by changes in food shape and dimensions. The overall changes in volume, surface area (“shrinkage” and shape (Heywood factor, with provides a close description of food shape were determined experimentally, and the results were correlated with simple expressions. Hence, although dehydration kinetics can be modeled with simplified overall shrinkage expressions, the possibility of selecting a suitable geometry and predicting the characteristics dimensions will provide higher accuracy. An additional unresolved problem is the lack of a general model that predicts macro-structural changes for various foods and diverse geometries. In this work, based on experimental data of sweet and sour cherries, and rose hip fruits, a simplified general model to predict changes in volume and surface area are proposed. To estimate how the changes in characteristic dimensions affect the kinetic studies, experimental drying curves for the three fruits by means of a diffusional model considered the following variants for the characteristic dimensions: (i The radius of the fresh food, assumed constant; (ii The radius of the partially dehydrated product; (iii The radius predicted by the correlation for structural changes, especially volume, obtained in this work and generalized for the three fruits, and (iv to demonstrate the need to study the macro-structural changes for all dehydrated foods, also be present the case of a restructured food.

  7. Inhibitors of pendrin anion exchange identified in a small molecule screen increase airway surface liquid volume in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggie, Peter M; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Tan, Joseph-Anthony; Zlock, Lorna; Finkbeiner, Walter E; Verkman, A S

    2016-06-01

    Pendrin (SLC26A4) is a Cl(-)/anion exchanger expressed in the epithelium of inflamed airways where it is thought to facilitate Cl(-) absorption and HCO3 (-) secretion. Studies using pendrin knockout mice and airway epithelial cells from hearing-impaired subjects with pendrin loss of function suggest involvement of pendrin in inflammatory lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis (CF), perhaps by regulation of airway surface liquid (ASL) volume. Here we identified small-molecule pendrin inhibitors and demonstrated their efficacy in increasing ASL volume. A cell-based, functional high-throughput screen of ∼36,000 synthetic small molecules produced 3 chemical classes of inhibitors of human pendrin. After structure-activity studies, tetrahydropyrazolopyridine and pyrazolothiophenesulfonamide compounds reversibly inhibited pendrin-facilitated Cl(-) exchange with SCN(-), I(-), NO3 (-), and HCO3 (-) with drug concentration causing 50% inhibition down to ∼2.5 μM. In well-differentiated primary cultures of human airway epithelial cells from non-CF and CF subjects, treatment with IL-13, which causes inflammation with strong pendrin up-regulation, strongly increased Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange and the increase was blocked by pendrin inhibition. Pendrin inhibition significantly increased ASL depth (by ∼8 μm) in IL-13-treated non-CF and CF cells but not in untreated cells. These studies implicate the involvement of pendrin-facilitated Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) in the regulation of ASL volume and suggest the utility of pendrin inhibitors in inflammatory lung diseases, including CF.-Haggie, P. M., Phuan, P.-W., Tan, J.-A., Zlock, L., Finkbeiner, W. E., Verkman, A. S. Inhibitors of pendrin anion exchange identified in a small molecule screen increase airway surface liquid volume in cystic fibrosis. © FASEB.

  8. Economics of finishing Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle in feedlot and optimum finishing period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimwe, L.; Kimambo, A E; Laswai, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    in feedlot. Non-feed costs per kg extra meat were higher for short stays (4,500 TSh.) than long stays (2,630 TSh.) If meat prices were independent on finishing period length, high MEI was profitable with increment of (81%) profit per kg extra meat for an increase from 50 to 75 days in feedlot. Assuming a 10......% increase in meat price due to feedlot finishing regardless of finishing length, profit per animal carcass increased with increasing days in feedlot for high MEI from 71,800 TSh. in 25 days to 143,000 TSh. in 100 days in feedlot. Assuming meat price increased by 5% with each increase in feedlot finishing...... length of 25 days, higher profit per animal carcass was realized with long stays (100 days, 238,000 TSh.) than short stays (25 days, 37,600 TSh.). It was concluded that the high feeding level is the most profitable irrespective of meat price and finishing length. The optimum finishing length is between...

  9. Secondary ion emission from surface and volume with high and low energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deprun, C.; Della-Negra, S.; Le Beyec, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Secondary ion emission from fast ion impact (Cf252 fission fragments) of Langmuir-Blodgett films consisting of superposed two molecule layers with similar structure and mass (Cd stereate and Cd arachidate) was analyzed. Emission of deproton secondary ions of stereate and arachidate acids was studied for various target configurations. Results show that under the influence of high energy ions, secondary ion ejection comes from a conical volume of 200A depth [fr

  10. Effect of Surface Impulsive Thermal Loads on Fatigue Behavior of Constant Volume Propulsion Engine Combustor Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Dongming

    2004-01-01

    .... In this study, a simulated engine test rig has been established to evaluate thermal fatigue behavior of a candidate engine combustor material, Haynes 188, under superimposed CO2 laser surface impulsive thermal loads (30 to 100 Hz...

  11. Simulation of dissolution in porous media in three dimensions with lattice Boltzmann, finite-volume, and surface-rescaling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, F.; Cen, J.; Boek, E. S.

    2016-10-01

    We present a pore-scale dissolution model for the simulation of reactive transport in complex porous media such as those encountered in carbon-storage injection processes. We couple a lattice Boltzmann model for flow calculation with a finite-volume method for solving chemical transport equations, and allow the computational grid to change as mineral surfaces are dissolved according to first-order reaction kinetics. We appraise this scheme for use with high Péclet number flows in three-dimensional geometries and show how the popular first-order convection scheme is affected by severe numerical diffusion when grid Péclet numbers exceed unity, and confirm that this can be overcome relatively easily by using a second-order method in conjunction with a flux-limiter function. We then propose a surface rescaling method which uses parabolic elements to counteract errors in surface area exposed by the Cartesian grid and avoid the use of more complex embedded surface methods when surface reaction kinetics are incorporated. Finally, we compute dissolution in an image of a real porous limestone rock sample injected with HCl for different Péclet numbers and obtain dissolution patterns in concordance with theory and experimental observation. A low injection flow rate was shown to lead to erosion of the pore space concentrated at the face of the rock, whereas a high flow rate leads to wormhole formation.

  12. Clear exterior finishes : finding the balance between aesthetics and durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Daniel; Marc S. Hirsch; Ken McClelland; Alan S. Ross; R. Sam Williams

    2004-01-01

    Consumers can easily be confused by the abundance of choices to make when selecting a clear wood finish. There are many types of clear finishes with different characteristics and product claims. This article is designed to help consumers sort out the different finishes and effectively choose which product would be best for their purpose. First, we cover the causes and...

  13. Sequence finishing and mapping of Drosophila melanogasterheterochromatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoskins, Roger A.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Kennedy, Cameron; Acevedo,David; Evans-Holm, Martha; Frise, Erwin; Wan, Kenneth H.; Park, Soo; Mendez-Lago, Maria; Rossi, Fabrizio; Villasante, Alfredo; Dimitri,Patrizio; Karpen, Gary H.; Celniker, Susan E.

    2007-06-15

    Genome sequences for most metazoans are incomplete due tothe presence of repeated DNA in the pericentromeric heterochromatin. Theheterochromatic regions of D. melanogaster contain 20 Mb of sequenceamenable to mapping, sequence assembly and finishing. Here we describethe generation of 15 Mb of finished or improved heterochromatic sequenceusing available clone resources and assembly and mapping methods. We alsoconstructed a BAC-based physical map that spans approximately 13 Mb ofthe pericentromeric heterochromatin, and a cytogenetic map that positionsapproximately 11 Mb of BAC contigs and sequence scaffolds in specificchromosomal locations. The integrated sequence assembly and maps greatlyimprove our understanding of the structure and composition of this poorlyunderstood fraction of a metazoan genome and provide a framework forfunctional analyses.

  14. Erosion in radial inflow turbines. Volume 4: Erosion rates on internal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenger, W. B., Jr.; Tabakoff, W.

    1975-01-01

    An analytic study of the rate at which material is removed by ingested dust impinging on the internal surfaces of a typical radial inflow turbine is presented. Results show that there are several regions which experience very severe erosion loss, and other regions that experience moderate levels of erosion loss: (1) the greatest amount of material loss occurs on the trailing edges of the nozzle blades where very high velocity, moderate angle impacts occur. The tip regions of ductile materials are also subjected to serious levels of erosion loss; (2) moderate amounts of erosion occur near the end of the scroll and on a few of the nozzle blades near this location. Results are presented in the form of surface contours that exist on the scroll and blade surfaces after continuous particulate ingestion with time.

  15. Microstructure Optimization of Dual-Phase Steels Using a Representative Volume Element and a Response Surface Method: Parametric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgasam, Tarek M.; Zbib, Hussein M.

    2017-12-01

    Dual-phase (DP) steels have received widespread attention for their low density and high strength. This low density is of value to the automotive industry for the weight reduction it offers and the attendant fuel savings and emission reductions. Recent studies on developing DP steels showed that the combination of strength/ductility could be significantly improved when changing the volume fraction and grain size of phases in the microstructure depending on microstructure properties. Consequently, DP steel manufacturers are interested in predicting microstructure properties and in optimizing microstructure design. In this work, a microstructure-based approach using representative volume elements (RVEs) was developed. The approach examined the flow behavior of DP steels using virtual tension tests with an RVE to identify specific mechanical properties. Microstructures with varied martensite and ferrite grain sizes, martensite volume fractions, carbon content, and morphologies were studied in 3D RVE approaches. The effect of these microstructure parameters on a combination of strength/ductility of DP steels was examined numerically using the finite element method by implementing a dislocation density-based elastic-plastic constitutive model, and a Response surface methodology to determine the optimum conditions for a required combination of strength/ductility. The results from the numerical simulations are compared with experimental results found in the literature. The developed methodology proves to be a powerful tool for studying the effect and interaction of key microstructural parameters on strength and ductility and thus can be used to identify optimum microstructural conditions.

  16. Control software development for magnetorheological finishing of large aperture optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Nan; Li Haibo; Yuan Zhigang; Zhong Bo

    2011-01-01

    Based on the mechanism of magnetorheological finishing, the dwell time function was solved by Jansson-Van Cit-tert algorithm to accomplish the kernel module design. Then the software modularization programming, modular testing and integration testing were conducted. A verification experiment was carried out on a crystal element with full aperture of 500 mm and the element's surface achieved rapid and efficient convergence after the software controlled magnetorheological finishing. It is proved that the software could control the whole polishing process accurately. (authors)

  17. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 2. Interior Coal Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricoski, M. L.; Daniels, L. K.; Sobek, A. A.

    1979-08-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Interior Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references, including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographies. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  18. Constraints on geothermal reservoir volume change calculations from InSAR surface displacements and injection and production data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaven, J. Ole; Barbour, Andrew J.; Ali, Tabrez

    2017-04-01

    Continual production of geothermal energy at times leads to significant surface displacement that can be observed in high spatial resolution using InSAR imagery. The surface displacement can be analyzed to resolve volume change within the reservoir revealing the often-complicated patterns of reservoir deformation. Simple point source models of reservoir deformation in a homogeneous elastic or poro-elastic medium can be superimposed to provide spatially varying, kinematic representations of reservoir deformation. In many cases, injection and production data are known in insufficient detail; but, when these are available, the same Green functions can be used to constrain the reservoir deformation. Here we outline how the injection and production data can be used to constrain bounds on the solution by posing the inversion as a quadratic programming with inequality constraints and regularization rather than a conventional least squares solution with regularization. We apply this method to InSAR-derived surface displacements at the Coso and Salton Sea Geothermal Fields in California, using publically available injection and production data. At both geothermal fields the available surface deformation in conjunction with the injection and production data permit robust solutions for the spatially varying reservoir deformation. The reservoir deformation pattern resulting from the constrained quadratic programming solution is more heterogeneous when compared to a conventional least squares solution. The increased heterogeneity is consistent with the known structural controls on heat and fluid transport in each geothermal reservoir.

  19. Tool path planning of spiral bevel gear for digital finishing based on finger tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIAN Feng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper,the digital machining method of the free-form surface is chosen to do the tool track planning for the spiral bevel′s digital finishing.We use the finger milling-cutter,and choose processes as roughing,semi-finishing and finishing.Based on the CC path cross-section.Through the concrete analysis,we got the reasonable processing route,the position of the tool relative to work piece as well as tool pose.We have solved the interference problem between finger tool and arbor,and demonstrate the feasibility of this method through computer simulation and actual operation process.It can help to improve the spiral bevel gear′s manufacturing.

  20. Effect of finishing and polishing on the color stability of a composite resin immersed in staining solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Justo Polli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of finishing/polishing methods and staining solutions using different immersion periods on the color stability of a microhybrid composite resin. Materials and Methods: Ninety specimens were fabricated using a stainless steel mold and polyester strips. The samples were randomly divided into five groups according to the finishing and polishing performed: Control group (no surface treatment was performed, Diamond Pro group, Diamond burs group, Enhance group, and SiC paper group. After finishing and polishing, six samples from each group were immersed in coffee, red wine, or water for 30 days. The color measurements were obtained using digital photography before immersion and after 7, 15, and 30 days of immersion. The red, green, and blue values provided by the Adobe Photoshop software were converted into CIELab values. A three-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test were used for statistical analysis (P ≤ 0.05. Results: The finishing and polishing methods, staining solutions, immersion times, and their interaction had statistically significant effects on the color change (P = 0.00. Coffee and red wine caused intense staining. Among the polishing methods, the highest color change value was observed in the control group (P < 0.05 and the Diamond Pro disks provided the most stain-resistant surfaces (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The finishing and polishing method, staining solution, and immersion time influences the color stability. Finishing and polishing should be applied to obtain a more stain-resistant surface.

  1. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 14 Appendix M - Historical Surface Runoff.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  2. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 15 Appendix N - Forecast Surface Runoff.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Shannon M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Barry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  3. Surface reconstruction from volume data used for creating an adaptable functional brain atlas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurfjell, L.; Bohm, C.; Bengtsson, E.

    1995-01-01

    Functions for creating adaptable atlas structures from volume data have now been included in the Karolinska Computerized Brain Atlas (CBA) software system. The main objective is to allow the user to create functional structures based on data from brain activation studies with Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The new structures will be related to the anatomy of the CBA data base brain. Thus, when the atlas is adapted to the anatomy of an individual, the new functional structures will be affected by the same transformation and can therefore be selected and displayed in relation to the anatomy of the individual. In this paper, the different steps involved in the creation of new atlas structures are explained and algorithms and data representations are described. The methods have been tested on data from activation studies. Such a study is chosen to illustrate how the proposed approach can be used

  4. Stripping Paint From Exterior Wood Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark T. Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Removing paint and other film-forming finishes is a time consuming and often difficult process. In some cases, finishes need to be removed prior to repainting; for example, if the old surface is covered with severely peeled or blistered paint or if excessive paint buildup has caused cross-grain cracking. You must also remove the finish before applying a penetrating...

  5. Influence of Finishing and Polishing Techniques and Abrasion on Transmittance and Roughness of Composite Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Pma; Ramos, T M; de Azevedo, C S; de Lima, E; de Souza, Shj; Turbino, M L; Cesar, P F; Matos, A B

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of finishing and polishing systems and toothbrush abrasion on transmittance (T) and surface roughness (Ra) of three composite resins (Filtek Z350 XT, Tetric N-Ceram, and IPS Empress Direct). Eighteen resin disks (10 mm diameter × 2 mm thick) finished by polyester strips had initial surface smoothness recorded, representing phase 1 (P1). Specimens were divided into three groups (n=6) according to the finishing/polishing instrument used (OneGloss, TopGloss, and Sof-Lex) to compose phase 2 samples (P2). Then specimens were subjected to 514 cycles of toothbrush simulation using a toothpaste slurry, with a constant load applied to soft bristles, and were then washed (phase 3=P3). After each phase, the specimens were examined by an optical profiler and spectrophotometer to measure Ra and T. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, Tukey and Pearson tests. T values were statistically influenced by composite resin ( p=0.000) and phase of measurement ( p=0.000) factors, while the finishing/polishing system used ( p=0.741) did not affect T. On the other hand, Ra values were statistically affected by the factor finishing/polishing system ( p=0.000), but not by composite resin ( p=0.100) and phase of measurement ( p=0.451). Tetric N-Ceram and Empress Direct presented higher values of roughness when polished by OneGloss, while TopGloss and Sof-Lex showed a lower roughness. It can be concluded that composite resins transmitted more light after dental abrasion. Transmittance of composite resins was not modified by the distinct roughness created by finishing/polishing instruments.

  6. Percent recoveries of anthropogenic organic compounds with and without the addition of ascorbic acid to preserve finished-water samples containing free chlorine, 2004-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Bender, David A.; Price, Curtis V.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents finished-water matrix-spike recoveries of 270 anthropogenic organic compounds with and without the addition of ascorbic acid to preserve water samples containing free chlorine. Percent recoveries were calculated using analytical results from a study conducted during 2004-10 for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The study was intended to characterize the effect of quenching on finished-water matrix-spike recoveries and to better understand the potential oxidation and transformation of 270 anthropogenic organic compounds. The anthropogenic organic compounds studied include those on analytical schedules 1433, 2003, 2033, 2060, 2020, and 4024 of the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory. Three types of samples were collected from 34 NAWQA locations across the Nation: (1) quenched finished-water samples (not spiked), (2) quenched finished-water matrix-spike samples, and (3) nonquenched finished-water matrix-spike samples. Percent recoveries of anthropogenic organic compounds in quenched and nonquenched finished-water matrix-spike samples are presented. Comparisons of percent recoveries between quenched and nonquenched spiked samples can be used to show how quenching affects finished-water samples. A maximum of 18 surface-water and 34 groundwater quenched finished-water matrix-spike samples paired with nonquenched finished-water matrix-spike samples were analyzed. Percent recoveries for the study are presented in two ways: (1) finished-water matrix-spike samples supplied by surface-water or groundwater, and (2) by use (or source) group category for surface-water and groundwater supplies. Graphical representations of percent recoveries for the quenched and nonquenched finished-water matrix-spike samples also are presented.

  7. Tribological impact of the finishing technology onto meso- and microforming processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahn Stephan F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tribological conditions between workpiece and tool have a major impact onto forming processes. Besides lubrication, temperature, and material, they are mainly influenced by the tool surface characteristics, especially by its topography, which is a result of finishing technology. Thereby formed lubricant pockets are of prime importance for the tribosystem due to its ability to separate the tribopartners by storing lubricant. The influence of four different tool finishing processes and their according surface topographies onto frictional behaviour have been investigated and quantified by the barrel compression test, in dry and lubricated tribosystems. The tool steel surfaces were stochastically microstructured by grinding and spark erosion as well as deterministic structured with micro calottes, applied by jet electrochemical machining and compared to a polished reference tool. The allocation of open and closed lubricant pockets over tool surfaces before and after the forming process was analysed by a self-made MATLAB tool.

  8. Internal photoemission from plasmonic nanoparticles: comparison between surface and volume photoelectric effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, Alexander; Protsenko, Igor E.; Ikhsanov, Renat S.

    2014-01-01

    emission rate from a nanoparticle. Calculations have been carried out for a step potential at the surface of a spherical nanoparticle, and a simple model for the hot electron cooling has been used. We highlight the effect of the discontinuity of the dielectric permittivity at the nanoparticle boundary...... through the effect of the discontinuity of the dielectric permittivity at the nanoparticle boundary. The latter is stronger at relatively lower photon energies and correspondingly is more substantial for internal photoemission than for an external one. We show that in the general case, it is essential...

  9. Advanced surface technology a holistic view on the extensive and intertwined world of applied surface engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Moller, Per

    2013-01-01

    These two volumes serve as an inclusive and practical reference in manufacturing as well as a comprehensive text for university-level course work. Before delving into the variety of conventional and emerging surface finishing processes available to the 21st century practitioner, the authors cover the principles behind the processes, including wear and other mechanical properties, corrosion and electrochemistry. Throughout, the material also covers testing, property measurement and a generic introduction to basically all surface relevant characterization techniques, keyed to the specific process and application under discussion.

  10. Research on reducing the edge effect in magnetorheological finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Dai, Yifan; Peng, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jianmin

    2011-03-20

    The edge effect could not be avoided in most optical manufacturing methods based on the theory of computer controlled optical surfacing. The difference between the removal function at the workpiece edge and that inside it is also the primary cause for edge effect in magnetorheological finishing (MRF). The change of physical dimension and removal ratio of the removal function is investigated through experiments. The results demonstrate that the situation is different when MRF "spot" is at the leading edge or at the trailing edge. Two methods for reducing the edge effect are put into practice after analysis of the processing results. One is adopting a small removal function for dealing with the workpiece edge, and the other is utilizing the removal function compensation. The actual processing results show that these two ways are both effective on reducing the edge effect in MRF.

  11. Waste Volume Reduction Using Surface Characterization and Decontamination By Laser Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellin, Michael J.; Savina, Michael R.; Reed, Claude B.; Zhiyue, Xu; Yong, Wang

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's nuclear complex, a nation-wide system of facilities for research and production of nuclear materials and weapons, contains large amounts of radioactively contaminated concrete[1]. This material must be disposed of prior to the decommissioning of the various sites. Often the radioactive contaminants in concrete occupy only the surface and near-surface (∼3-6 mm deep) regions of the material. Since many of the structures such as walls and floors are 30 cm or more thick, it makes environmental and economic sense to try to remove and store only the thin contaminated layer rather than to treat the entire structure as waste. Current mechanical removal methods, known as scabbling, are slow and labor intensive, suffer from dust control problems, and expose workers to radiation fields. Improved removal methods are thus in demand[2-5]. Prior to decontamination, the surface must be characterized to determine the types and amounts of contaminants present i n order to decide on an appropriate cleaning strategy. Contamination occurs via exposure to air and water-borne radionuclides and by neutron activation. The radionuclides of greatest concern are (in order of abundance) [1]: 137Cs and 134Cs, 238U, 60Co, and 90Sr, followed by 3H, radioactive iodine, and a variety of Eu isotopes and transuranics. A system capable of on- line analysis is valuable since operators can determine the type of contaminants in real time and make more efficient use of costly sampling and characterization techniques. Likewise, the removed waste itself must be analyzed to insure that proper storage and monitoring techniques are used. The chemical speciation of radionuclides in concrete is largely unknown. Concrete is a complex material comprising many distinct chemical and physical phases on a variety of size scales[6-8]. Most studies of radionuclides in cements and concrete are for the most part restricted to phenomenological treatments of diffusion of ion s, particularly

  12. 3D Surface Reconstruction of Plant Seeds by Volume Carving: Performance and Accuracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Johanna; Geiger, Felix; Fischbach, Andreas; Jahnke, Siegfried; Scharr, Hanno

    2016-01-01

    We describe a method for 3D reconstruction of plant seed surfaces, focusing on small seeds with diameters as small as 200 μm. The method considers robotized systems allowing single seed handling in order to rotate a single seed in front of a camera. Even though such systems feature high position repeatability, at sub-millimeter object scales, camera pose variations have to be compensated. We do this by robustly estimating the tool center point from each acquired image. 3D reconstruction can then be performed by a simple shape-from-silhouette approach. In experiments we investigate runtimes, theoretically achievable accuracy, experimentally achieved accuracy, and show as a proof of principle that the proposed method is well sufficient for 3D seed phenotyping purposes.

  13. Using snowflake surface-area-to-volume ratio to model and interpret snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gergely

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The snowflake microstructure determines the microwave scattering properties of individual snowflakes and has a strong impact on snowfall radar signatures. In this study, individual snowflakes are represented by collections of randomly distributed ice spheres where the size and number of the constituent ice spheres are specified by the snowflake mass and surface-area-to-volume ratio (SAV and the bounding volume of each ice sphere collection is given by the snowflake maximum dimension. Radar backscatter cross sections for the ice sphere collections are calculated at X-, Ku-, Ka-, and W-band frequencies and then used to model triple-frequency radar signatures for exponential snowflake size distributions (SSDs. Additionally, snowflake complexity values obtained from high-resolution multi-view snowflake images are used as an indicator of snowflake SAV to derive snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures. The modeled snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures cover a wide range of triple-frequency signatures that were previously determined from radar reflectivity measurements and illustrate characteristic differences related to snow type, quantified through snowflake SAV, and snowflake size. The results show high sensitivity to snowflake SAV and SSD maximum size but are generally less affected by uncertainties in the parameterization of snowflake mass, indicating the importance of snowflake SAV for the interpretation of snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures.

  14. Coupled Finite Volume Methods and Extended Finite Element Methods for the Dynamic Crack Propagation Modelling with the Pressurized Crack Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyan Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We model the fluid flow within the crack as one-dimensional flow and assume that the flow is laminar; the fluid is incompressible and accounts for the time-dependent rate of crack opening. Here, we discretise the flow equation by finite volume methods. The extended finite element methods are used for solving solid medium with crack under dynamic loads. Having constructed the approximation of dynamic extended finite element methods, the derivation of governing equation for dynamic extended finite element methods is presented. The implicit time algorithm is elaborated for the time descritisation of dominant equation. In addition, the interaction integral method is given for evaluating stress intensity factors. Then, the coupling model for modelling hydraulic fracture can be established by the extended finite element methods and the finite volume methods. We compare our present numerical results with our experimental results for verifying the proposed model. Finally, we investigate the water pressure distribution along crack surface and the effect of water pressure distribution on the fracture property.

  15. Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Annual progress report, 1979-1980. Volume II. Data repository and reports published during fiscal year 1979-1980: regional structure, surface structure, surface fractures, hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negus-De Wys, J.; Dixon, J. M.; Evans, M. A.; Lee, K. D.; Ruotsala, J. E.; Wilson, T. H.; Williams, R. T.

    1980-10-01

    This volume comprises appendices giving regional structure data, surface structure data, surface fracture data, and hydrology data. The fracture data covers oriented Devonian shale cores from West Virginia, Ohio, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Kentucky. The subsurface structure of the Eastern Kentucky gas field is also covered. (DLC)

  16. Surface area and the seabed area, volume, depth, slope, and topographic variation for the world's seas, oceans, and countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Mark John; Cheung, Alan; De Hauwere, Nathalie

    2010-12-01

    Depth and topography directly and indirectly influence most ocean environmental conditions, including light penetration and photosynthesis, sedimentation, current movements and stratification, and thus temperature and oxygen gradients. These parameters are thus likely to influence species distribution patterns and productivity in the oceans. They may be considered the foundation for any standardized classification of ocean ecosystems and important correlates of metrics of biodiversity (e.g., species richness and composition, fisheries). While statistics on ocean depth and topography are often quoted, how they were derived is rarely cited, and unless calculated using the same spatial resolution the resulting statistics will not be strictly comparable. We provide such statistics using the best available resolution (1-min) global bathymetry, and open source digital maps of the world's seas and oceans and countries' Exclusive Economic Zones, using a standardized methodology. We created a terrain map and calculated sea surface and seabed area, volume, and mean, standard deviation, maximum, and minimum, of both depth and slope. All the source data and our database are freely available online. We found that although the ocean is flat, and up to 71% of the area has a ocean volume exceeds 1.3 billion km(3) (or 1.3 sextillion liters), and sea surface and seabed areas over 354 million km(2). We propose the coefficient of variation of slope as an index of topographic heterogeneity. Future studies may improve on this database, for example by using a more detailed bathymetry, and in situ measured data. The database could be used to classify ocean features, such as abyssal plains, ridges, and slopes, and thus provide the basis for a standards based classification of ocean topography.

  17. Surface quality finish in laser cutting using Taguchi design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sharma, V.; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Hloch, Sergej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2017), s. 15-19 ISSN 1330-3651 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : cutting speed * factorial design * laser pulse width * orthogonal array * pulse repetition rate (PRR) or pulse frequency Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools OBOR OECD: Mechanical engineering Impact factor: 0.723, year: 2016 http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=257818

  18. Detection of Protozoa in Surface and Finished Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humans are known to be the host to approximately 1500 infectious agents, out of which 66 are protozoa and 287 are helminths. Therefore, from a global perspective helminths and protozoan parasites account for approximately one fourth of the total infectious diseases of humans. A s...

  19. New trends for PWB surface finishes in mobile phone applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Würtz; Ambat, Rajan; Rasmussen, Anette Alsted

    2005-01-01

    resistance are heavily increasing to keep a high reliability of the terminal. A paradigm shift to avoid use of Immersion Ni/Au is ongoing nowadays because the thin and porous Imm. Ni/Au can't address these challenges in a satisfactory way. Already some years ago OSP has replaced Immersion Ni/Au on solder...

  20. Mixed polymer conductors for control of microwave reflectivity surfaces. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despotakis, A.

    1998-06-01

    The preparation and characterisation of polyaniline-silver-polymer electrolyte composite materials are described and their potential application as large area surfaces with microwave reflection/transmission controlled by application of an electric field ('microwave shutters') is investigated. The component polymer electrolyte (largely polyether-silver salt) and the polyaniline-silver salt mixtures have been separately investigated using a range of spectroscopic, microscopic and electrical impedance techniques. The redox behaviour of polyaniline versus silver in various cells incorporating polymer electrolytes have been studied in both ambient and 'dry' nitrogen environments using cyclic voltammetry and square wave potentiometry. It is proposed that the redox behaviour in dry nitrogen conditions involves the formation of leucoemeraldine-Ag + complex. This promotes the spontaneous reduction of emeraldine salt to leucoemeraldine by silver metal in contrast to the equilibrium status of the system in ambient conditions. In ambient conditions, the emeraldine undergoes an acid-base transition in the presence of silver salt (with(out) elemental silver). Furthermore, X-ray analysis has revealed that it is possible to chemically generate elemental silver after mixing its silver salt with the emeraldine (either salt or base form) in ambient conditions. Discs of various polyaniline-silver-polymer electrolyte compositions have been reported. Significant and rapid changes in microwave reflectivities have been observed. The mechanisms of electrochemical changes within the composites have been discussed and a 'cascade' process for the propagation of the switching effect across the areas of the discs has been proposed. (author)

  1. The role of mass balance equations in growth mechanics illustrated in surface and volume dissolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateshian, Gerard A

    2011-01-01

    Growth mechanics problems require the solution of mass balance equations that include supply terms and account for mass exchanges among constituents of a mixture. Though growth may often be accompanied by a variety of concomitant phenomena that increase modeling complexity, such as solid matrix deformation, evolving traction-free configurations, cell division, and active cell contraction, it is important to distinguish these accompanying phenomena from the fundamental growth process that consists of deposition or removal of mass from the solid matrix. Therefore, the objective of this study is to present a canonical problem of growth, namely, dissolution of a rigid solid matrix in a solvent. This problem illustrates a case of negative growth (loss of mass) of the solid in a mixture framework that includes three species, a solid, a solvent, and a solute, where the solute is the product of the solid dissolution. By analyzing both volumetric and surface dissolutions, the two fundamental modes of growth are investigated within the unified framework of mixture theory.

  2. Stability analysis and support study on surroundings of finishing cut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.; Miao, X.; Lu, A.; Xing, C. [CUMT, Jiangsu (China). College of Mineral and Energy Resources

    2003-09-01

    By means of finishing cut the trackless rubber-tried vehicle can directly go to the working face to remove the equipment. It can promote the efficiency in removing the equipment. Because of the finishing cut continuously affected by the dynamic pressure of face, it is important to find the reasonable position of the finishing cut and the proportion support. Based on the study of the ground pressure and the moving law of overlying strata during the terminal mining in sublevel caving face, the optimal position and the proportion support way of finishing cut were obtained using experiment with analog simulation and numerical simulation. This method can keep the stability for the surroundings of the finishing cut and lay the foundation for finishing the face quickly and safely. The engineering practice shows this technique is efficient and the significant social and economy benefit is obtained. 7 refs.,11 figs.

  3. Numerical Response Surfaces of Volume of Ablation and Retropulsion Amplitude by Settings of Ho:YAG Laser Lithotripter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian J. Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Although laser lithotripsy is now the preferred treatment option for urolithiasis due to shorter operation time and a better stone-free rate, the optimal laser settings for URS (ureteroscopic lithotripsy for less operation time remain unclear. The aim of this study was to look for quantitative responses of calculus ablation and retropulsion by performing operator-independent experiments to determine the best fit versus the pulse energy, pulse width, and the number of pulses. Methods. A lab-built Ho:YAG laser was used as the laser pulse source, with a pulse energy from 0.2 J up to 3.0 J and a pulse width of 150 μs up to 1000 μs. The retropulsion was monitored using a high-speed camera, and the laser-induced craters were evaluated with a 3-D digital microscope. The best fit to the experimental data is done by a design of experiment software. Results. The numerical formulas for the response surfaces of ablation speed and retropulsion amplitude are generated. Conclusions. The longer the pulse, the less the ablation or retropulsion, while the longer pulse makes the ablation decrease faster than the retropulsion. The best quadratic fit of the response surface for the volume of ablation varied nonlinearly with pulse duration and pulse number.

  4. Numerical Response Surfaces of Volume of Ablation and Retropulsion Amplitude by Settings of Ho:YAG Laser Lithotripter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Jonathan; Solomon, Metasebya; Cheng, Brian; Xuan, Jason R.; Gong, Jason; Yu, Honggang; Xia, Michael L. D.; Yang, Xirong; Hasenberg, Thomas; Curran, Sean

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Although laser lithotripsy is now the preferred treatment option for urolithiasis due to shorter operation time and a better stone-free rate, the optimal laser settings for URS (ureteroscopic lithotripsy) for less operation time remain unclear. The aim of this study was to look for quantitative responses of calculus ablation and retropulsion by performing operator-independent experiments to determine the best fit versus the pulse energy, pulse width, and the number of pulses. Methods A lab-built Ho:YAG laser was used as the laser pulse source, with a pulse energy from 0.2 J up to 3.0 J and a pulse width of 150 μs up to 1000 μs. The retropulsion was monitored using a high-speed camera, and the laser-induced craters were evaluated with a 3-D digital microscope. The best fit to the experimental data is done by a design of experiment software. Results The numerical formulas for the response surfaces of ablation speed and retropulsion amplitude are generated. Conclusions The longer the pulse, the less the ablation or retropulsion, while the longer pulse makes the ablation decrease faster than the retropulsion. The best quadratic fit of the response surface for the volume of ablation varied nonlinearly with pulse duration and pulse number.

  5. [Experimental analysis of finishing lines in ceramometal restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascón, F; Gil, J A; Fons, A; Badal, R

    1990-11-01

    The preparation is the first step of any tooth reconstruction. The biological integration of the protesis is depending on the marginal adaptation (finish line of the preparation), occlusal adaptation (occlusal reduction), longevity of the restoration (retention and luting) and esthetics. The effect the two finish line of the preparation is studied using experimental design. In porcelain-fused-to-metal the finish line of the preparation in chanfer is superior at the beveled shoulder, because proportioning better marginal adaptation.

  6. Atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of 1,3-butadiene for hydrophobic finishing of textile substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, Kartick K; Jassal, Manjeet; Agrawal, Ashwini K

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma processing of textile has both ecological and economical advantages over the wet-chemical processing. However, reaction in atmospheric pressure plasma has important challenges to be overcome before it can be successfully used for finishing applications in textile. These challenges are (i) generating stable glow plasma in presence liquid/gaseous monomer, and (ii) keeping the generated radicals active in the presence of contaminants such as oxygen and air. In this study, a stable glow plasma was generated at atmospheric pressure in the mixture of gaseous reactive monomer-1,3-butadiene and He and was made to react with cellulosic textile substrate. After 12 min of plasma treatment, the hydrophilic surface of the cellulosic substrate turned into highly hydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic finish was found to be durable to soap washing. After soap washing, a water drop of 37 μl took around 250 s to get absorbed in the treated sample compared to 0 . Both top and bottom sides of the fabric showed similar hydrophobic results in terms of water absorbency and contact angle. The results may be attributed to chemical reaction of butadiene with the cellulosic textile substrate. The surface characterization of the plasma modified samples under SEM and AFM revealed modification of the surface under <100 nm. The results showed that atmospheric pressure plasma can be successfully used for carrying out reaction of 1,3-butadiene with cellulosic textile substrates for producing hydrophobic surface finish.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF GLUTEN - FREE FLOURS ON THE QUALITY INDICATORS OF BISCUIT SEMI - FINISHED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. G. IORGACHOVA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of applicability of gluten-free flours from cereal crops and from by-products of cereal crop processing - ground crumbs sifted out in a process of flake production from rice, corn and millet during the production of biscuit semi-finished products. Taking into account that viscosity is an important technological characteristic of foam-like biscuit dough, as it determines foam strength and dispersed medium stability, the influence of gluten-free flours on the structural and rheological properties of biscuit dough was studied. It is determined that the substitution of wheat flour for cereal flours leads to viscosity reduction of the dough as a consequence of absence of gluten-forming proteins in them. A comparative analysis of changes in viscous properties of biscuit dough based on flour from flakes crumb while warming it up to 60°C with dough based on cereal flours and dough based on wheat flour was held. It is shown that the presence of partially gelatinized starch granules in flour from flake crumb, as a result of technological peculiarities of their extraction, promotes greater demonstration of thickening properties already at the initial stage of baking than in cereal flours. This leads to an increase of dough viscosity and formation of desired rheological characteristics, which provide the porous structure of finished products. To provide the high quality of gluten-free biscuit semi-finished products, the recipe composition of gluten-free biscuit semi-finished product, based on flour mixture from millet flakes crumb, corn and rice flour, was optimized by using the method of mathematical design of experiments.  The porosity indicator was chosen as the criteria for the evaluation of influence of proportion of gluten-free flours on the quality of biscuit semi-finished products. The response surfaces of dependency of biscuit porosity from mass ratio of recipe components in the composite mixture were

  8. Comparison Study of the Kinetics of Ceftizoxime Penetration into Extravascular Spaces with Known Surface Area/Volume Ratio In Vitro and In Vivo in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Van Etta, Linda L.; Fasching, Claudine E.; Peterson, Lance R.; Gerding, Dale N.

    1983-01-01

    The extravascular kinetics of ceftizoxime were studied both in an in vitro kinetic model and in an in vivo rabbit model. Visking tubing chambers were used in both models to provide extravascular spaces with large or small volumes and surface areas, but identical surface area/volume ratios. Four rabbits, each implanted with two large Visking chambers and four small chambers, received 50 mg of ceftizoxime per kg intramuscularly every 3 h for eight doses. In the in vitro model, 80 mg of ceftizox...

  9. Finishing of the cold mass assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 Zoom of the lyre-side end of the active part assembly. The extremity of the shrinking cylinder has been bevelled in view of welding the end cover. Photo 2 General view of the finishing station showing the special supporting structures (blue and yellow structures) needed for the geometric measurements and for the alignment operations. Photo 3 Zoom of the lyre-side end of the active part assembly. One can also see the auxiliary bus bars needed to power the corrector magnets that are installed in the dipole cold mass assembly. Photo 4 Technicians are putting in order the instrumentation wires. The prototype magnets were equipped with numerous sensors to monitor key parameters during the performance tests at cold conditions.

  10. Finishing of the cold mass assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 The connection-side end of the active part assembly. This view shows the electrical connections between the poles and the curved bus ended with flanges for the connection with the protection diode. Photo 2 The connection-side end of the active part assembly. This view shows the electrical connections between the poles, the auxiliary bus bars and the instrumentation wires. Photo 3 Lyre-side end of the active part assembly. One can see the mechanical support of the corretor magnets that are to be installed around the cold bore tubes. Photo 4 General view of the finishing station showing the special supporting structures (blue and yellow structures) needed for the geometric measurements and for the alignment operations. Around the magnet, there are datum points (on the tripodes) needed to build up the coordinates system for the measurements.

  11. Occurrence of neonicotinoid insecticides in finished drinking water and fate during drinking water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarich, Kathryn L.; Pflug, Nicholas C.; DeWald, Eden M.; Hladik, Michelle L.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Cwiertny, David M.; LeFevre, Gergory H.

    2017-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widespread in surface waters across the agriculturally-intensive Midwestern US. We report for the first time the presence of three neonicotinoids in finished drinking water and demonstrate their general persistence during conventional water treatment. Periodic tap water grab samples were collected at the University of Iowa over seven weeks in 2016 (May-July) after maize/soy planting. Clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam were ubiquitously detected in finished water samples and ranged from 0.24-57.3 ng/L. Samples collected along the University of Iowa treatment train indicate no apparent removal of clothianidin and imidacloprid, with modest thiamethoxam removal (~50%). In contrast, the concentrations of all neonicotinoids were substantially lower in the Iowa City treatment facility finished water using granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Batch experiments investigated potential losses. Thiamethoxam losses are due to base-catalyzed hydrolysis at high pH conditions during lime softening. GAC rapidly and nearly completely removed all three neonicotinoids. Clothianidin is susceptible to reaction with free chlorine and may undergo at least partial transformation during chlorination. Our work provides new insights into the persistence of neonicotinoids and their potential for transformation during water treatment and distribution, while also identifying GAC as an effective management tool to lower neonicotinoid concentrations in finished drinking water.

  12. A multicomponent tracer field experiment to measure the flow volume, surface area, and rectilinear spacing of fractures away from the wellbore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathles, L. M.; Sanford, W. E.; Hawkins, A.; Li, Y. V.

    2017-12-01

    The nature of flow in fractured porous media is important to almost all subsurface processes including oil and gas recovery, contaminant transport and remediation, CO2 sequestration, and geothermal heat extraction. One would like to know, under flowing conditions, the flow volume, surface area, effective aperture, and rectilinear spacing of fractures in a representative volume of rock away from the well bore, but no methods currently allow acquisition of this data. It could, however, be collected by deploying inert tracers with a wide range of aqueous diffusion constants (e.g., rapidly diffusing heat to non-diffusing nanoparticle) in the following fashion: The flow volume is defined by the heated volume measured by resistivity surveys. The fracture volume within this flow volume is indicate by the nanoparticle transit time. The average fracture spacing is indicated by the evolving thermal profile in the monitor and the production wells (measured by fiber optic cable), and by the retention of absorbing tracers. The average fracture aperture is determined by permeability measurements and the average fracture separation. We have proposed a field test to redundantly measure these fracture parameters in the fractured Dakota Sandstone where it approaches the surface in Ft Collins, Colorado. Five 30 m deep wells (an injection, production, and 3 monitor wells) cased to 20 m are proposed. The experiments will involve at least 9 different tracers. The planned field test and its potential significance will be described.

  13. The effects of the glass surface area/solution volume ratio on glass corrosion: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1995-03-01

    This report reviews and summarizes the present state of knowledge regarding the effects of the glass surface area/solution volume (SA/V) ratio on the corrosion behavior of borosilicate waste glasses. The SA/V ratio affects the rate of glass corrosion through the extent of dilution of corrosion products released from the glass into the leachate solution: glass corrosion products are diluted more in tests conducted at low SA/V ratios than they are in tests conducted at high SA/V ratios. Differences in the solution chemistries generated in tests conducted at different SA/V ratios then affect the observed glass corrosion behavior. Therefore, any testing parameter that affects the solution chemistry will also affect the glass corrosion rate. The results of static leach tests conducted to assess the effects of the SA/V are discussed with regard to the effects of SA/V on the solution chemistry. Test results show several remaining issues with regard to the long-term glass corrosion behavior: can the SA/V ratio be used as an accelerating parameter to characterize the advanced stages of glass corrosion relevant to long disposal times; is the alteration of the glass surface the same in tests conducted at different SA/V, and in tests conducted with monolithic and crushed glass samples; what are the effects of the SA/V and the extent of glass corrosion on the disposition of released radionuclides? These issues will bear on the prediction of the long-term performance of waste glasses during storage. The results of an experimental program conducted at ANL to address these and other remaining issues regarding the effects of SA/V on glass corrosion are described. 288 refs., 59 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. Performance and internal organ characteristics of finisher broilers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effect of replacing maize as a major source of energy with wild yam (Anchomanes difformis) meal (WYM) in the diets of finisher broiler. One hundred and eighty (180) finisher broilers were fed on five experimental diets formulated such that the maize in diet 1 (control) was ...

  15. Plutonium finishing plant safety systems and equipment list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergquist, G.G.

    1995-01-01

    The Safety Equipment List (SEL) supports Analysis Report (FSAR), WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021 and the Plutonium Finishing Plant Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs), WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010. The SEL is a breakdown and classification of all Safety Class 1, 2, and 3 equipment, components, or system at the Plutonium Finishing Plant complex

  16. Assessment of the Nutrient Contents of Finished Broiler Starter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess and compare the proximate composition and amino acid profile of six (6) finished broiler starter and finisher diets with recommendations of National Research Council (NRC) nutrient requirements table for the different physiological age growth stage. Four samples of each feed type were ...

  17. Performance and cost implication of finisher turkeys fed varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding varying levels of rice milling waste as a substitute on maize on the performance, nutrient utilization and the economics implication on finisher turkeys. Five turkey finisher diets were formulated by substituting maize with rice milling waste at 0%, 25%, 50%, ...

  18. Physiological evaluation of broiler finishers fed fermented bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological evaluation of broiler finishers fed fermented bovine blood and rumen digesta meal. ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... This study suggested that FBBRD meal when properly processed and at 10 % dietary level of inclusion, can be used in broiler finisher production without adverse effects on the ...

  19. Population dynamics of swine influenza virus in finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza virus infections in swine were first noticed in the US in 1918, during the human pandemic of the Spanish flu. In Europe, seroprevalences for the three most common swine influenza strains at the moment, H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2, range from 20-80% in finishing pigs at the end of the finishing

  20. Plutonium finishing plant safety systems and equipment list

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergquist, G.G.

    1995-01-06

    The Safety Equipment List (SEL) supports Analysis Report (FSAR), WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021 and the Plutonium Finishing Plant Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs), WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010. The SEL is a breakdown and classification of all Safety Class 1, 2, and 3 equipment, components, or system at the Plutonium Finishing Plant complex.

  1. Effect of Hoodia gordonii leaf meal supplementation at finisher stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A nutritional experiment was conducted to determine the effect of Hoodia gordonii leaf meal supplementation at finisher stage (30 to 42 days old) on productivity, carcass characteristics and meat sensory attributes of Ross 308 broiler chickens. The chickens were fed a finisher diet supplemented with 0 (H0), 200 (H200), 300 ...

  2. Facile spray-coating process for the fabrication of tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces with heterogeneous chemical compositions used for selective transportation of microdroplets with different volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Jing, Zhijiao; Zha, Fei; Yang, Yaoxia; Wang, Qingtao; Lei, Ziqiang

    2014-06-11

    In this paper, tunable adhesive superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces have been fabricated successfully by spraying ZnO nanoparticle (NP) suspensions onto desired substrates. We regulate the spray-coating process by changing the mass percentage of hydrophobic ZnO NPs (which were achieved by modifying hydrophilic ZnO NPs with stearic acid) in the hydrophobic/hydrophilic ZnO NP mixtures to control heterogeneous chemical composition of the ZnO surfaces. Thus, the water adhesion on the same superhydrophobic ZnO surface could be effectively tuned by controlling the surface chemical composition without altering the surface morphology. Compared with the conventional tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces, on which there were only three different water sliding angle values: lower than 10°, 90° (the water droplet is firmly pinned on the surface at any tilted angles), and the value between the two ones, the water adhesion on the superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces has been tuned effectively, on which the sliding angle is controlled from 2 ± 1° to 9 ± 1°, 21 ± 2°, 39 ± 3°, and 90°. Accordingly, the adhesive force can be adjusted from extremely low (∼2.5 μN) to very high (∼111.6 μN). On the basis of the different adhesive forces of the tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces, the selective transportation of microdroplets with different volumes was achieved, which has never been reported before. In addition, we demonstrated a proof of selective transportation of microdroplets with different volumes for application in the droplet-based microreactors via our tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces for the quantitative detection of AgNO3 and NaOH. The results reported herein realize the selective transportation of microdroplets with different volumes and we believe that this method would potentially be used in many important applications, such as selective water droplet transportation, biomolecular quantitative detection and droplet-based biodetection.

  3. Effect of finish line variants on marginal accuracy and fracture strength of ceramic optimized polymer/fiber-reinforced composite crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, LeeRa; Choi, JongMi; Yi, Yang Jin; Park, Chan Jin

    2004-06-01

    Ceramic optimized polymer (Ceromer)/fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) crowns have been promoted as alternatives to conventional crowns. However, little is known regarding the ideal tooth preparation for this type of crown. This in vitro study evaluated the marginal adaptation and fracture strength of ceromer/FRC crowns with respect to the various types of finish lines. Four metal dies with different finish lines (0.9-mm chamfer, 1.2-mm chamfer, 1.2-mm rounded shoulder, and 1.2-mm shoulder) were prepared. Forty (10 for each finish line) Targis/Vectris crowns were fabricated on duplicated base metal alloy dies. The restorations were stereoscopically evaluated at 56 points along the entire circumferential margin for measuring the margin adaptation before and after cementation with a resin luting agent. The specimens were then compressively loaded to failure using a universal testing machine. The marginal adaptation (microm) was analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test and post-hoc Dunnett test (alpha=.05). The fracture load (N) was analyzed with a 1-way analysis of the variance and the Scheffe adjustment (alpha=.05). The fractured surfaces of the crowns were examined with a scanning electron microscope to determine the mode of fracture. The marginal adaptation of crowns with a shoulder finish line was significantly better than crowns with a chamfer finish line before and after cementation (P<.001). The increased marginal gap after cementation was the lowest in the 1.2-mm rounded shoulder group. The fracture strength of the crowns with the 0.9-mm chamfer and crowns with 1.2-mm chamfer was significantly greater than those of the crowns with the 1.2-mm shoulder or rounded shoulder (P=.011, P=.049, respectively). The mean fracture load of all crowns, regardless of the finish line design, was 1646 N. The fractured surface of the crown revealed adhesive failure and 3 types of cohesive failure (fracture of the Targis and Vectris, Targis fracture with a crack in the Vectris layer

  4. Impact of Surface and Volume Modification of Nickel Superalloys IN-713C and MAR-247 on High Temperature Creep Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieśla M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Impact of surface and volume modification and double filtration during pouring the moulds on basic mechanical properties and creep resistance of nickel superalloys IN-713C and MAR-247 in conditions of accelerated creep of castings made of post-production scrap of these alloys is evaluated in this paper. The conditions of initiation and propagation of cracks in the specimens were analysed with consideration of stereological properties of material macro- and microstructure. It has been proven that in the conditions of hightemperature creep at 980°C and at stress σ = 150 MPa, creep resistance of superalloy MAR-247 is more than 10 times higher than the creep resistance of IN-713C alloy. In case of IN-713C alloy, the creep resistance negligibly depends on macrograin sizes. But, the macrograin size considerably affects the time to failure of specimens made of alloy MAR-247. Creep resistance of specimens made of coarse grain material was 20% higher than the resistance of fine grain materials.

  5. Investigation of the boundary layer during the transition from volume to surface dominated H⁻ production at the BATMAN test facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, C; Schiesko, L; Fantz, U

    2016-02-01

    BATMAN (Bavarian Test Machine for Negative ions) is a test facility equipped with a 18 scale H(-) source for the ITER heating neutral beam injection. Several diagnostics in the boundary layer close to the plasma grid (first grid of the accelerator system) followed the transition from volume to surface dominated H(-) production starting with a Cs-free, cleaned source and subsequent evaporation of caesium, while the source has been operated at ITER relevant pressure of 0.3 Pa: Langmuir probes are used to determine the plasma potential, optical emission spectroscopy is used to follow the caesiation process, and cavity ring-down spectroscopy allows for the measurement of the H(-) density. The influence on the plasma during the transition from an electron-ion plasma towards an ion-ion plasma, in which negative hydrogen ions become the dominant negatively charged particle species, is seen in a strong increase of the H(-) density combined with a reduction of the plasma potential. A clear correlation of the extracted current densities (j(H(-)), j(e)) exists with the Cs emission.

  6. Investigation of the boundary layer during the transition from volume to surface dominated H- production at the BATMAN test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, C.; Schiesko, L.; Fantz, U.

    2016-02-01

    BATMAN (Bavarian Test Machine for Negative ions) is a test facility equipped with a 1/8 scale H- source for the ITER heating neutral beam injection. Several diagnostics in the boundary layer close to the plasma grid (first grid of the accelerator system) followed the transition from volume to surface dominated H- production starting with a Cs-free, cleaned source and subsequent evaporation of caesium, while the source has been operated at ITER relevant pressure of 0.3 Pa: Langmuir probes are used to determine the plasma potential, optical emission spectroscopy is used to follow the caesiation process, and cavity ring-down spectroscopy allows for the measurement of the H- density. The influence on the plasma during the transition from an electron-ion plasma towards an ion-ion plasma, in which negative hydrogen ions become the dominant negatively charged particle species, is seen in a strong increase of the H- density combined with a reduction of the plasma potential. A clear correlation of the extracted current densities (jH-, je) exists with the Cs emission.

  7. Separation of surface, subsurface and volume fatigue damage effects in AISI 348 steel for power plant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Martin; Nowak, David; Walther, Frank [Technical Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Dept. of Materials Test Engineering (WPT); Starke, Peter [Saarland Univ., Saarbruecken (Germany). Chair of Non-Destructive Testing and Quality Assurance; Boller, Christian [Saarland Univ., Saarbruecken (Germany). Chair of Non-Destructive Testing and Quality Assurance; Fraunhofer IZFP, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    A wide range of industries including energy, chemistry, pharmacy, textiles, food and drink, pulp and paper, etc. is using stainless steels. Metastable austenitic steels such as used in power plants and chemical industry are subjected to cyclic mechanical and thermal loading in air as well as under the influence of corrosive media. This paper provides an overview on different nondestructive and electrochemical measurement techniques, which allow differentiating fatigue damage effects in total strain controlled multiple and constant amplitude tests with respect to damage appearance on surface, in subsurface area as well as in volume of specimens or components microstructure. In addition to conventional mechanical stress-strain hysteresis curves, electrical resistance, magnetic and open circuit potential measurements have been applied to characterize the cyclic deformation behavior of the metastable austenitic steel AISI 348 (X10CrNiNb18-9) in laboratory air and in distilled water. Based on these results obtained, the paper provides an outlook on the possibility for an efficient (remaining) fatigue life evaluation approach, which is adapted to the needs of the application areas.

  8. Generation of micro-droplet arrays by dip-coating of biphilic surfaces; the dependence of entrained droplet volume on withdrawal velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandsberg, Nikolaj Kofoed; Hansen, Ole; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    2017-01-01

    Droplet array chips were realized using an alignment-free fabrication process in silicon. The chips were textured with a homogeneous nano-scale surface roughness but were partially covered with a self-assembled monolayer of perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS), resulting in a super-biphilic surface......, the droplet volume achieved finite values even for vanishing speeds, while at higher speeds the volume was governed by fluid inertia. A simple 2D boundary layer model describes the behavior at high speeds well. Entrained droplet volume could be altered, post-fabrication, by more than a factor of 15, which...... opens up for more applications of the dip-coating technique due to the significant increase in versatility of the micro-droplet array platform....

  9. A Novel Volume CT With X-Ray on a Trough-Like Surface and Point Detectors on Circle-Plus-Arc Curve

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, H

    2001-01-01

    A novel imaging mode of cone-beam volume CT is proposed in this paper. It adopts a raster scanning x-ray source on a trough-like surface, and a group of point detectors distributing on a large circle plus an orthogonal arc...

  10. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE's independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91

  11. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE`s independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91.

  12. Effect of silicone finishes on the burning behavior of polyester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyon, Julien Xavier Eric

    Polyester fibers are widely used as filling in home applications such as pillows or comforters. Silicone finishes can be used to reduce friction between fibers during processing or as softeners to impart a pleasant down like hand on the fibers. However, it has been reported that these added silicone-based finishes may have a negative effect on the burning behavior of polyester. This research examined the possible mechanisms that can modify the response of polyester fibers when subjected to a flame source. In this study, a spunbond needled polyester nonwoven substrate was treated with different commercial silicone-based finishes. A vertical flame test was used to compare the effect of silicone finishes on the burning behavior of polyester to the inherent burning behavior of untreated polyester. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were performed on spunbond polyester fabric samples to investigate the influence of silicone finishes on the thermal degradation of polyester in air. Residues from TGA were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with elemental analysis. Vertical flammability testing showed that even at a low level, the application of silicone-based finishes on a polyester substrate resulted in a dramatic increase of the flame propagation by preventing its inherent response to heat. Thermograms suggested that the silicone finishes had little or no effect on the thermal degradation of polyester substrates.

  13. Ink-Jet Printing of Gluconobacter oxydans: Micropatterned Coatings As High Surface-to-Volume Ratio Bio-Reactive Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Fidaleo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We formulated a latex ink for ink-jet deposition of viable Gram-negative bacterium Gluconobacter oxydans as a model adhesive, thin, highly bio-reactive microstructured microbial coating. Control of G. oxydans latex-based ink viscosity by dilution with water allowed ink-jet piezoelectric droplet deposition of 30 × 30 arrays of two or three droplets/dot microstructures on a polyester substrate. Profilometry analysis was used to study the resulting dry microstructures. Arrays of individual dots with base diameters of ~233–241 µm were obtained. Ring-shaped dots with dot edges higher than the center, 2.2 and 0.9 µm respectively, were obtained when a one-to-four diluted ink was used. With a less diluted ink (one-to-two diluted, the microstructure became more uniform with an average height of 3.0 µm, but the ink-jet printability was more difficult. Reactivity of the ink-jet deposited microstructures following drying and rehydration was studied in a non-growth medium by oxidation of 50 g/L D-sorbitol to L-sorbose, and a high dot volumetric reaction rate was measured (~435 g·L−1·h−1. These results indicate that latex ink microstructures generated by ink-jet printing may hold considerable potential for 3D fabrication of high surface-to-volume ratio biocoatings for use as microbial biosensors with the aim of coating microbes as reactive biosensors on electronic devices and circuit chips.

  14. An overview of plastic optical fiber end finishers at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishina, M.; Lindenmeyer, C.; Korienek, J.

    1993-11-01

    Several years ago the need for equipment to precisely finish the ends of plastic optical fibers was recognized. Many high energy physics experiments use thousands of these fibers which must be polished on one or both ends. A fast, easy-to-operate machine yielding repeatable finishes was needed. Three types of machines were designed and constructed that are in daily use at Fermilab, all finish the fiber ends by flycutting with a diamond tool. Althrough diamond flycutting of plastic is not new, the size and fragility of plastic optical fibers present several challenges.

  15. Development of a compressive surface capturing formulation for modelling free-surface flow by using the volume-of-fluid approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyns, Johan A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available combines a blended higher resolution scheme with the addition of an artificial compressive term to the volume-of-fluid equation. This reduces the numerical smearing of the interface associated with explicit higher resolution schemes while limiting...

  16. Classification and storage of wastewater from floor finish removal operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Charles E. [Univ. of San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This study evaluates the wastewater generated from hard surface floor finish removal operations at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in order to determine if this wastewater is a hazardous waste, either by statistical evaluation, or other measurable regulatory guidelines established in California Regulations. This research also comparatively evaluates the 55 gallon drum and other portable tanks, all less than 1,000 gallons in size in order to determine which is most effective for the management of this waste stream at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The statistical methods in SW-846 were found to be scientifically questionable in their application to hazardous waste determination. In this statistical evaluation, the different data transformations discussed in the regulatory guidance document were applied along with the log transformation to the population of 18 samples from 55 gallon drums. Although this statistical evaluation proved awkward in its application, once the data is collected and organized on a spreadsheet this statistical analysis can be an effective tool which can aid the environmental manager in the hazardous waste classification process.

  17. Relevance of microbial finished product testing in food safety management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwietering, Marcel H.; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Membré, Jeanne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Management of microbiological food safety is largely based on good design of processes, products and procedures. Finished product testing may be considered as a control measure at the end of the production process. However, testing gives only very limited information on the safety status of a food......-active way by implementing an effective food safety management system. For verification activities in a food safety management system, finished product testing may however be useful. For three cases studies; canned food, chocolate and cooked ham, the relevance of testing both of finished products...... and the production environment is discussed. Since the level of control of different processes can be largely different it is beneficial if the frequency of sampling of finished products and production environments would be related to the associated human health risk, which can be assessed on the basis of risk...

  18. Role of alginate in antibacterial finishing of textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiwei; He, Jinmei; Huang, Yudong

    2017-01-01

    Antibacterial finishing of textiles has been introduced as a necessary process for various purposes especially creating a fabric with antimicrobial activities. Currently, the textile industry continues to look for textiles antimicrobial finishing process based on sustainable biopolymers from the viewpoints of environmental friendliness, industrialization, and economic concerns. This paper reviews the role of alginate, a sustainable biopolymer, in the development of antimicrobial textiles, including both basic physicochemical properties of alginate such as preparation, chemical structure, molecular weight, solubility, viscosity, and sol-gel transformation property. Then different processing routes (e.g. nanocomposite coating, ionic cross-linking coating, and Layer-by-Layer coating) for the antibacterial finishing of textiles by using alginate are revised in some detail. The achievements in this area have increased our knowledge of alginate application in the field of textile industry and promoted the development of green textile finishing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. CHARACTERISTICS OF KLEBSIELLA FROM TEXTILE FINISHING PLANT EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebsiella strains are found in abnormally high numbers in a stream receiving wastewater from a textile finishing plant. Representative strains are randomly selected to determine biochemical, serotype, and virulence patterns. All strains conform to the commonly accepted biochemic...

  20. Integrated shaping and finishing of polymer components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, P.J.; Winands, G.J.J.; Theelen, M.J.; Hovestad, A.

    2010-01-01

    Integration of multiple functions in single components is pursued in order to manufacture at less cost smaller and smarter polymer micro devices. A method to achieve this is surface activation, i.e. fully or patterned changing of the surface properties. Examples are moulded interconnect devices with

  1. Cortical and Subcortical Structural Plasticity Associated with the Glioma Volumes in Patients with Cerebral Gliomas Revealed by Surface-Based Morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Postlesional plasticity has been identified in patients with cerebral gliomas by inducing a large functional reshaping of brain networks. Although numerous non-invasive functional neuroimaging methods have extensively investigated the mechanisms of this functional redistribution in patients with cerebral gliomas, little effort has been made to investigate the structural plasticity of cortical and subcortical structures associated with the glioma volume. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the contralateral cortical and subcortical structures are able to actively reorganize by themselves in these patients. The compensation mechanism following contralateral cortical and subcortical structural plasticity is considered. We adopted the surface-based morphometry to investigate the difference of cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM volumes in a cohort of 14 healthy controls and 13 patients with left-hemisphere cerebral gliomas [including 1 patients with World Health Organization (WHO I, 8 WHO II, and 4 WHO III]. The glioma volume ranges from 5.1633 to 208.165 cm2. Compared to healthy controls, we found significantly increased GM volume of the right cuneus and the left thalamus, as well as a trend toward enlargement in the right globus pallidus in patients with cerebral gliomas. Moreover, the GM volumes of these regions were positively correlated with the glioma volumes of the patients. These results provide evidence of cortical and subcortical enlargement, suggesting the usefulness of surface-based morphometry to investigate the structural plasticity. Moreover, the structural plasticity might be acted as the compensation mechanism to better fulfill its functions in patients with cerebral gliomas as the gliomas get larger.

  2. Brief communication "Global glacier volumes and sea level – small but systematic effects of ice below the surface of the ocean and of new local lakes on land"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Haeberli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential contribution of glaciers and ice caps to sea level rise is usually calculated by comparing the estimated total ice volume with the surface area of the ocean. Part of this total ice volume, however, does not contribute to sea level rise because it is below the surface of the ocean or below the levels of future lakes on land. The present communication points to this so far overlooked phenomenon and provides a first order-of-magnitude estimate. It is shown that the effect is small (most likely about 1 to 6 cm sea level equivalent but systematic, could primarily affect earlier stages of global glacier vanishing, and should therefore be adequately considered. Now-available techniques of slope-related high-resolution glacier bed modelling have the potential to provide more detailed assessments in the future.

  3. Surface and Interface Characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    Surface physical analysis, i.e. topography characterisation, encompasses measurement, visualisation, and quantification. This is critical for both component form and for surface finish at macro-, micro- and nano-scales. The principal methods of surface topography measurement are stylus profilometry...

  4. A weakly compressible free-surface flow solver for liquid–gas systems using the volume-of-fluid approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyns, Johan A

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a weakly compressible volume-of-fluid formulation for modelling immiscible high density ratio two-fluid flow under low Mach number conditions. This follows findings of experimental analyses that concluded the compressibility...

  5. The influence of local volume forces on surface relaxation of pure metals and alloys: Applications to Ni, Al, Ni3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savino, E.J.; Farkas, D.

    1987-11-01

    We present an analysis of the relative influence of the interatomic potential, lattice structure and defect symmetry on the calculated and measured distortion for the free surfaces of alloys and pure metals. In particular, the effect of using local ''volume'' dependent interactions is studied, as opposed to simple pair interatomic forces. The dependence of the relaxation on the lattice structure is examined by comparing pure metals with ordered alloys. A Green function method for surface relaxation is presented and used for the above analysis as well as for studying the influence of different surface symmetries. Examples based on computer simulation of Ni, Al and Ni 3 Al for some surface orientations are presented. (author). 33 refs, 4 figs

  6. Measurement of the differential electron surface and volume excitation probability in Cu, CuO and Cu.sub.2./sub.O

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Werner, W. S. M.; Zemek, Josef; Jiříček, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 38, - (2006), s. 628-631 ISSN 0142-2421 Grant - others:Techn. Sci. Cooperation CR/AT(AT) 2005-16; FWF(AT) P15938-N02 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy * REELS * Cu * Cu 2 O * CuO * surface and volume inelastic electron excitations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.427, year: 2006

  7. Effect of exposed surface area, volume and environmental pH on the calcium ion release of three commercially available tricalcium silicate based dental cements

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasekharan, Sivaprakash; Vercruysse, Chris; Martens, Luc; Verbeeck, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    Tricalcium silicate cements (TSC) are used in dental traumatology and endodontics for their bioactivity which is mostly attributed to formation of calcium hydroxide during TSC hydration and its subsequent release of calcium and hydroxide ions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of volume (Vol), exposed surface area (ESA) and pH of surrounding medium on calcium ion release. Three commercially available hydraulic alkaline dental cements were mixed and condensed into cylindrical t...

  8. Comparison study of the kinetics of ceftizoxime penetration into extravascular spaces with known surface area/volume ratio in vitro and in vivo in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Etta, L L; Fasching, C E; Peterson, L R; Gerding, D N

    1983-01-01

    The extravascular kinetics of ceftizoxime were studied both in an in vitro kinetic model and in an in vivo rabbit model. Visking tubing chambers were used in both models to provide extravascular spaces with large or small volumes and surface areas, but identical surface area/volume ratios. Four rabbits, each implanted with two large Visking chambers and four small chambers, received 50 mg of ceftizoxime per kg intramuscularly every 3 h for eight doses. In the in vitro model, 80 mg of ceftizoxime was infused over 30 min every 3 h for eight doses. Intravascular and extravascular spaces were sampled in both models after the eighth dose. Ceftizoxime had similar intravascular kinetics in both models, i.e., the peak levels, the peak-to-trough fluctuations, and the half-life were comparable. The area under the curve (AUC) for the extravascular spaces was also similar in the two models. Large and small chambers having identical surface area/volume ratios demonstrated identical kinetics. The extravascular Visking chamber spaces achieved equilibrium with the intravascular spaces in both models, i.e., the AUC for the extravascular spaces was the same (P > 0.2) as that for the serum (rabbit model) or the test chamber (in vitro model). This study illustrates (i) that our modified in vitro model is a potentially valid model for studying extravascular kinetics; (ii) that extravascular spaces with identical surface area/volume ratios show similar penetration kinetics with a freely diffusible drug, such as ceftizoxime, despite differences in size; and (iii) that the Visking chamber extravascular-space model permits the free diffusion of the antimicrobial agent and reaches equilibrium (equivalent AUC) with the intravascular space.

  9. Chromium, CLA, and ractopamine for finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolla, C S; Holanda, D M; Ferreira, S V; Rocha, G C; Serão, N V L; Duarte, M S; Abreu, M L T; Saraiva, A

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium, CLA, and ractopamine on performance, carcass traits, and pork quality of finishing pigs slaughtered at 115 kg BW. Ninety-six crossbred barrows (initial BW = 70.21 ± 1.98 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments. There were 8 replicates per treatment (48 pens; 2 pigs/pen). A diet formulated according to the nutritional requirements was used as the control (CON). The other 5 diets were based on the CON and supplemented as follows: 0.4 mg/kg Cr yeast (CrY); 0.5% CLA; 0.4 mg/kg CrY and 0.5% CLA (CrY + CLA); 20 mg/kg ractopamine (RAC); 0.4 mg/kg CrY and 20 mg/kg RAC (CrY + RAC). Lysine levels on diets containing ractopamine were raised by 20% compared to CON to meet the greater requirements of pigs fed ractopamine. Pigs fed RAC and CrY + RAC were fed CON for the first 17 d, and then the respective diets for the last 28 d on trial. Data were analyzed in a model including the fixed effect of treatment (6 levels) and initial BW as a covariate for all characteristics, with the exception of carcass traits, in which final BW was used as a covariate. Least-squares means were separated using Tukey-Kramer's method. Differences were considered when probability values were lower than 0.05. Pigs fed RAC and CrY + RAC had the greatest ( 0.05) pork quality, except for color. No differences ( > 0.05) were observed for carcasses pH and temperature. The values for pigs fed RAC were greater ( = 0.01) than pigs fed other diets. Pigs fed RAC had lower ( < 0.01) values compared to pigs fed other experimental diets. Serum urea nitrogen concentration (SUN) was lower ( = 0.02) in pigs fed CrY + RAC than in pigs fed CON and RAC and similar to pigs fed the other feeding additives. In summary, it was demonstrated that, when combined, CrY and RAC increase LM area and carcass yield, and reduce SUN, suggesting that chromium could improve nutrient utilization by muscle cells in RAC-fed pigs. Additionally, the additives have

  10. The alterations of cortical volume, thickness, surface and density in the intermediate sporadic Parkinson's disease from the Han population of Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Deng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many symptoms of sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD can’t be completely explained by the lesion of simple typical extrapyramidal circuit between striatum and substantia nigra. Therefore, we investigated the alteration of cortical volume, thickness, surface and density in the intermediate sPD from the Han population of Mainland China in order to find the new pathological brain regions associated with the complex clinical manifestations of sPD. The cortical volume, thickness, surface and density were examined using the voxel-based cortical morphometry and corticometry on magnetic resonance image (MRI in 67 intermediate sPD and 35 controls, the multiple adjusted comparisons analysis of all MRI data were employed to assess the relationships between the cortical morphometric alteration in the specific brain regions and sPD. Results showed that a significantly shrunk volume, thinned thickness and enlarged or reduced surface of cortex in some specific brain regions were closely associated with sPD, but all cortical densities were not different. The majority of morphometric alteration of hemisphere cortex was symmetric, but that in the left hemisphere was more significant. The cortical morphometric alterations in the frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital and limbic lobe, cerebellum, caudate and thalamus were closely related to the clinical neural dysfunction (Clinical manifestations of sPD. Our data indicated that the deficits of extensive brain regions involved in the development of sPD, resulted in a series of correspondent complex clinical manifestations in the disease.

  11. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  12. [Analysis on influential factors in China's exports of primary and semi-finished products of traditional Chinese medicine to ASEAN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yun-Xu; Yang, Yue; Zhao, Wei; Bi, Kai-Shun

    2014-04-01

    Two regression models, based on panel data over the period of 2000-2011, are built and used to analyze what factors determine China's exports of primary and semi-finished products of traditional Chinese medicine to ASEAN. The results indicate that, China GDP, the ratio of ASEAN to China GDP per capita, average export price, the ratio of state-owned assets to total assets, have a significant positive influence on the export volumes of primary products of Chinese medicine. At the same time, RMB appreciation, the ratio of three kinds of foreign-invested assets to total assets, China-ASEAN Early Harvest Program, ASEAN-China Free Trade Area have a significant negative influence. In respect of the export volumes of semi-finished products of Chinese medicine, the significant influential factors are ASEAN GDP and the ratio of ASEAN to China GDP per capita. The former is positive and the latter is negative. In order to optimize the commodity composition of experts, it is needed to increase export volumes of both primary and semi-finished products of Chinese medicine. According to the analysis above, some proposals are put forward, such as, improving the performance of foreign capital, playing an exemplary and leading role in technological innovation by state-owned enterprises, taking advantage of bargaining power of suppliers, increasing outward foreign direct investment.

  13. Multi-Response Optimization of Resin Finishing by Using a Taguchi-Based Grey Relational Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Md Nahid; Shafiq, Faizan; Sarwar, Zahid; Jilani, Muhammad Munib; Cai, Yingjie

    2018-03-15

    In this study, the influence and optimization of the factors of a non-formaldehyde resin finishing process on cotton fabric using a Taguchi-based grey relational analysis were experimentally investigated. An L 27 orthogonal array was selected for five parameters and three levels by applying Taguchi's design of experiments. The Taguchi technique was coupled with a grey relational analysis to obtain a grey relational grade for evaluating multiple responses, i.e., crease recovery angle (CRA), tearing strength (TE), and whiteness index (WI). The optimum parameters (values) for resin finishing were the resin concentration (80 g·L -1 ), the polyethylene softener (40 g·L -1 ), the catalyst (25 g·L -1 ), the curing temperature (140 °C), and the curing time (2 min). The goodness-of-fit of the data was validated by an analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimized sample was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to better understand the structural details of the resin finishing process. The results showed an improved thermal stability and confirmed the presence of well deposited of resin on the optimized fabric surface.

  14. Multi-Response Optimization of Resin Finishing by Using a Taguchi-Based Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nahid Pervez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the influence and optimization of the factors of a non-formaldehyde resin finishing process on cotton fabric using a Taguchi-based grey relational analysis were experimentally investigated. An L27 orthogonal array was selected for five parameters and three levels by applying Taguchi’s design of experiments. The Taguchi technique was coupled with a grey relational analysis to obtain a grey relational grade for evaluating multiple responses, i.e., crease recovery angle (CRA, tearing strength (TE, and whiteness index (WI. The optimum parameters (values for resin finishing were the resin concentration (80 g·L−1, the polyethylene softener (40 g·L−1, the catalyst (25 g·L−1, the curing temperature (140 °C, and the curing time (2 min. The goodness-of-fit of the data was validated by an analysis of variance (ANOVA. The optimized sample was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and scanning electron microscope (SEM to better understand the structural details of the resin finishing process. The results showed an improved thermal stability and confirmed the presence of well deposited of resin on the optimized fabric surface.

  15. Minimal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Sauvigny, Friedrich; Jakob, Ruben; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    Minimal Surfaces is the first volume of a three volume treatise on minimal surfaces (Grundlehren Nr. 339-341). Each volume can be read and studied independently of the others. The central theme is boundary value problems for minimal surfaces. The treatise is a substantially revised and extended version of the monograph Minimal Surfaces I, II (Grundlehren Nr. 295 & 296). The first volume begins with an exposition of basic ideas of the theory of surfaces in three-dimensional Euclidean space, followed by an introduction of minimal surfaces as stationary points of area, or equivalently

  16. Orthodontic treatment outcomes obtained by application of a finishing protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Carvajal-Flórez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the results of a finishing protocol implemented in patients treated in the Orthodontics graduate program at Universidad de Antioquia. Evaluation was carried out by means of the criteria set by the Objective Grading System (OGS of the American Board of Orthodontics (ABO. Methods: Cast models and panoramic radiographs of 34 patients were evaluated. The intervention group (IG consisted of 17 patients (19.88 ± 4.4 years old treated under a finishing protocol. This protocol included training in finishing, application of a finishing guide, brackets repositioning and patient's follow-up. Results of the IG were compared to a control group of 17 patients (21.88 ± 7.0 years old selected by stratified randomization without finishing intervention (CG. Results: The scores for both CG and IG were 38.00 ± 9.0 and 31.41 ± 9.6 (p = 0.048, respectively. The score improved significantly in the IG group, mainly regarding marginal ridges (CG: 5.59 ± 2.2; IG: 3.65 ± 1.8 (p = 0.009 and root angulation (CG: 7.59 ± 2.8; IG: 4.88 ± 2.6 (p = 0.007. Criteria that did not improve, but had the highest scores were: alignment (CG: 6.35 ± 2.7; IG: 6.82 ± 2.8 (p = 0.62 and buccolingual inclination (CG: 3.6 ± 5.88; IG: 5.29 ± 3.9 (p = 0.65. Conclusions: Standardization and implementation of a finishing protocol contributed to improve clinical performance in the Orthodontics graduate program, as expressed by occlusal outcomes. Greater emphasis should be given on the finishing phase to achieve lower scores in the ABO grading system.

  17. Lunar Science Conference, 8th, Houston, Tex., March 14-18, 1977, Proceedings. Volume 1 - The moon and the inner solar system. Volume 2 - Petrogenetic studies of mare and highland rocks. Volume 3 - Planetary and lunar surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merril, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Solar system processes are considered along with the origin and evolution of the moon, planetary geophysics, lunar basins and crustal layering, lunar magnetism, the lunar surface as a planetary probe, remote observations of lunar and planetary surfaces, earth-based measurements, integrated studies, physical properties of lunar materials, and asteroids, meteorites, and the early solar system. Attention is also given to studies of mare basalts, the kinetics of basalt crystallization, topical studies of mare basalts, highland rocks, experimental studies of highland rocks, geochemical studies of highland rocks, studies of materials of KREEP composition, a consortium study of lunar breccia 73215, topical studies on highland rocks, Venus, and regional studies of the moon. Studies of surface processes, are reported, taking into account cratering mechanics and fresh crater morphology, crater statistics and surface dating, effects of exposure and gardening, and the chemistry of surfaces.

  18. Safety assessment methodologies for near surface disposal facilities. Results of a co-ordinated research project (ISAM). Volume 1: Review and enhancement of safety assessment approaches and tools. Volume 2: Test cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    the Safety Guide on 'Safety Assessment for Near Surface Disposal of Radioactive Waste' (Safety Standards Series No. WS-G- 1.1). The report of this CRP is presented in two volumes; Volume 1 contains a summary and a complete description of the ISAM project methodology and Volume 2 presents the application of the methodology to three hypothetical test cases

  19. Application of Compressible Volume of Fluid Model in Simulating the Impact and Solidification of Hollow Spherical ZrO2 Droplet on a Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Hadi; Emami, Mohsen Davazdah; Jazi, Hamidreza Salimi; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2017-12-01

    Applications of hollow spherical particles in thermal spraying process have been developed in recent years, accompanied by attempts in the form of experimental and numerical studies to better understand the process of impact of a hollow droplet on a surface. During such process, volume and density of the trapped gas inside droplet change. The numerical models should be able to simulate such changes and their consequent effects. The aim of this study is to numerically simulate the impact of a hollow ZrO2 droplet on a flat surface using the volume of fluid technique for compressible flows. An open-source, finite-volume-based CFD code was used to perform the simulations, where appropriate subprograms were added to handle the studied cases. Simulation results were compared with the available experimental data. Results showed that at high impact velocities ( U 0 > 100 m/s), the compression of trapped gas inside droplet played a significant role in the impact dynamics. In such velocities, the droplet splashed explosively. Compressibility effects result in a more porous splat, compared to the corresponding incompressible model. Moreover, the compressible model predicted a higher spread factor than the incompressible model, due to planetary structure of the splat.

  20. Persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes from sows to finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkegård, Anna Camilla; Halasa, Tariq; Folkesson, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in pigs has been under scrutiny for many years. However, many questions remain unanswered, including whether the initial antimicrobial resistance level of a pig will influence the antimicrobial resistance found at slaughter. Faecal samples from finishers pigs from 681 farms...... and from sows from 82 farms were collected, and levels of seven antimicrobial resistance genes, ermB, ermF, sulI, sulII, tet(M), tet(O), and tet(W), were quantified by high-capacity qPCR. There were 40 pairs of observations where the finishers were born in the farms of the sows. The objective of this study...... was to evaluate whether the levels of AMR genes found in finisher pigs at slaughter were associated with the levels in the farm where the finishers were born, and whether the levels of the AMR genes were equal in the sow and finisher pig populations. We found a significant positive correlation between the levels...

  1. Comparison of Aerosol Volume Size Distributions between Surface and Ground-based Remote Sensing Measurements Downwind of Seoul, Korea during MAPS-Seoul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, P.; Choi, Y.; Ghim, Y. S.

    2016-12-01

    Both sunphotometer (Cimel, CE-318) and skyradiometer (Prede, POM-02) were operated in May, 2015 as a part of the Megacity Air Pollution Studies-Seoul (MAPS-Seoul) campaign. These instruments were collocated at the Hankuk University of Foreign Studies (Hankuk_UFS) site of AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and the Yongin (YGN) site of SKYradiometer NETwork (SKYNET). The aerosol volume size distribution at the surface was measured using a wide range aerosol spectrometer (WRAS) system consisting of a scanning mobility particle sizer (Grimm, Model 5.416; 45 bins, 0.01-1.09 μm) and an optical particle counter (Grimm, Model 1.109; 31 bins, 0.27-34 μm). The measurement site (37.34oN, 127.27oE, 167 m above sea level) is located about 35 km southeast of downtown Seoul. To investigate the discrepancies in volume concentrations, effective diameters and fine mode volume fractions, we compared the volume size distributions from sunphotometer, skyradiometer, and WRAS system when the measurement time coincided within 5 minutes considering that the measurement intervals were different between instruments.

  2. [Comparison of different finishing methods for composites and compomers. Profilometric analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, E; Bonaccorso, A; Tripi, T R; Torrisi, L

    1999-05-01

    instrument used in the National Laboratory of Catania, called INFN, is able to graphitize the wrinkledness of a surface "survbeying" it with a diamond ultramicrometric point. All tested systems gradually produce the upper layers of the materials less suitable to resist the assault of plaque bacteria as time passed. The 3M coarse and medium grain Disks are very abrasive and for this reason the surface of the materials is ill-shaped. Those disks with fine and extra fine grain, smooth the tracks left by previous disks. As they have been always used according to their decreasing granulometry, the disks are used only for removing small composite pieces in excess and to improve micromorphology of the restauration. The "Gommini" are less abrasive than Disks. In a few minutes and often with only one step they produce a much regular and polished fillings surface. The "Gommini" have a preference when the last photopolymerization has left a regular layer, with a very good micromorphology. Actually, "Gommini" do not remove much material, but they continue to smooth the outline of the reconstruction. Disks are not classified as being of first quality in the finishing of composites and compomers.

  3. Application Techniques and Methods for Applying Fused Carbides on Non- Lubricated Wear Surfaces for High Volume Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-03

    is used to adhere the hard surfacing cloth to the article to be hard surfaced. Material is glued in place similar to the manner in which mucilage is... example , the frequency of inspection of this track shoe should be as specified in the present revision of the SQAP. The clause detailing what to do if

  4. Ultrasound measured testicular volume in Nigerian adults: Relationship of the three formulae with height, body weight, body-surface area, and body-mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madubogwu Chimezie Innocent

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measurement of testicular volume is one of the ways of assessing testicular function. Ultrasonography is an important and accurate radiological method for measurement of testicular volume. Objective: This study was aimed at evaluating the relationship of ultrasound measured testicular volume using the three formulae with the subjects' height, body weight, body surface area (BSA, and body mass index (BMI in adults. Methodology: One hundred twenty-five adult male subjects comprising staff and students of a University Teaching Hospital were recruited into the study. Height and body weight were measured while the BMI and BSA were calculated. Ultrasound measurement of the height, length, and width of both testes were done and used to calculate the volumes using the three formulae. Results: The subjects' age ranged from 19 to 29 years with a mean of 23.48 ± 2.26 yrs. The mean ultrasound measured volumes for the right and left testes were 15.38 ± 3.29 ml and 15.29 ± 3.89 ml using the prolate ellipsoid formula; 22.86 ± 5.43 ml and 23.54 ± 6.88 ml by the prolate spheroid formula; 21.20 ± 5.28 ml and 20.87 ± 5.35 ml by the Lambert formula, respectively. The calculated mean for height, body weight, BMI, and BSA were 174.64 ± 6.36 cm, 68.68 ± 8.25 kg, 22.48 ± 2.17 kg/m2, and 1.82 ± 0.13 m2, respectively. The right testes showed a negative correlation, while the left and combined testicular volumes showed a positive correlation with the subjects' height, body weight, BMI, and BSA for all the three formulae. Conclusion: The right testicular volume showed negative correlation, while the left and combined testicular volumes showed a positive correlation with the height, body weight, BSA, and BMI in Nigerian adults.

  5. Microwave remote sensing: Active and passive. Volume 2 - Radar remote sensing and surface scattering and emission theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Moore, R. K.; Fung, A. K.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamental principles of radar backscattering measurements are presented, including measurement statistics, Doppler and pulse discrimination techniques, and associated ambiguity functions. The operation of real and synthetic aperture sidelooking airborne radar systems is described, along with the internal and external calibration techniques employed in scattering measurements. Attention is given to the physical mechanisms responsible for the scattering emission behavior of homogeneous and inhomogeneous media, through a discussion of surface roughness, dielectric properties and inhomogeneity, and penetration depth. Simple semiempirical models are presented. Theoretical models involving greater mathematical sophistication are also given for extended ocean and bare soil surfaces, and the more general case of a vegetation canopy over a rough surface.

  6. Measuring surface-area-to-volume ratios in soft porous materials using laser-polarized xenon interphase exchange nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J. P.; Mair, R. W.; Hoffmann, D.; Hrovat, M. I.; Rogers, R. A.; Topulos, G. P.; Walsworth, R. L.; Patz, S.

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate a minimally invasive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique that enables determination of the surface-area-to-volume ratio (S/V) of soft porous materials from measurements of the diffusive exchange of laser-polarized 129Xe between gas in the pore space and 129Xe dissolved in the solid phase. We apply this NMR technique to porous polymer samples and find approximate agreement with destructive stereological measurements of S/V obtained with optical confocal microscopy. Potential applications of laser-polarized xenon interphase exchange NMR include measurements of in vivo lung function in humans and characterization of gas chromatography columns.

  7. Analysis of the Effect of Cooling Intensity Under Volume-Surface Hardening on Formation of Hardened Structures in Steel 20GL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseev, D. G.; Savrukhin, A. V.; Neklyudov, A. N.

    2018-01-01

    Computer simulation of the kinetics of thermal processes and structural and phase transformations in the wall of a bogie side frame produced from steel 20GL is performed with allowance for the differences in the cooling intensity under volume-surface hardening. The simulation is based on the developed method employing the diagram of decomposition of austenite at different cooling rates. The data obtained are used to make conclusion on the effect of the cooling intensity on propagation of martensite structure over the wall section.

  8. TUNG OIL AND LINSEED OIL AS TRADITIONAL FINISHING MATERIALS IMPORTANT FOR FURNITURE CONSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin You LIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tung oil and linseed oil are two representative traditional drying oils wich were commonly employed, for centuries, for wood finishing. Therefore, their study in terms of properties, chemical structure features and alterations by ageing is important for furniture conservation. This paper focusses on some comparative properties of Tung oil and linseed oil as wood finishing materials. For this purpose, test wooden samples of Chinese walnut (Juglans mandshurica Maxim. were coated with these materials by manual traditional techniques. Solids content of the oils was determined in order to approximate the thickness of the resulting film. The colour change brought about by coating of wood surfaces with these oils was measured in the CIELab system. Furthermore, an accelerated artificial ageing test under the action of temperature (100°C was performed in order to evaluate and compare the ageing resistance of the two types of oils. Ageing phenomena were investigated by colour measurements and FTIR - ATR spectrometry. Both uncoated and oils coated wood surfaces suffered colour changes observed as darkening and colour shade shifting to red and yellow, but these were obviously more evident for the oil coated samples. The overal colour changes were maximum for the samples finished with linseed oil, while tung oil semmed to be more resistant. FTIR investigations for two types of oils highlighted similarities and differences in their chemical composition, curing and aspects of the thermally induced ageing mechanism. The later proved to be mainly an oxidative degradation process leading to formation of free fatty acids and other carbonyl containing compounds, as suggested by the broader carbonyl (1740 cm-1 and hydroxyl bands (3400 cm-1 .

  9. Finishing and polishing of the ceromer material Targis. Lab-side and chair-side methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, M; Rosentritt, M; Leibrock, A; Schneider-Feyrer, S; Handel, G

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to check four lab-side and four chair-side methods for finishing and polishing the ceromer material Targis. Eighty bar-shaped specimens (20 mm x 10 mm x 2 mm) of Vectris were produced; 72 were covered with a 2 mm (thickness) layer of the Ceromer Targis and eight samples with the composite Tetric. All specimens were ground plane parallel with 320 Silicium carbide grit sandpaper in order to start with the same level of roughness. Then the specimens were finished and polished using the following methods: (1) Artglass toolkit, (2) pumice-stone and brushes/linen brush and polishing paste P3, (3) Robinson brush/Ivoclar Universal paste and wool brush, (4) Silicone wheel and rag wheel, (5) Shofu Rainbow set, (6) Sof-Lex discs, (7) Vivadent Politip set and (8) Nupro-pastes and brushes. The surface roughness was determined with a profilometer. The arithmetical roughness value Ra was calculated. From each group one specimen was randomly chosen and sputtered with gold in order to observe the surface with a scanning electron microscope to evaluate its smoothness. The methods were ranked as followed: 2, 3 and 5 with the lowest roughness, then 8, 6, 7, 4, 1. The best ranked chair-side method (5) and the best ranked lab-side methods (2, 3) did not differ significantly between the Ra values. No difference was observed between the composite Tetric and the ceromer Targis when these materials were polished using the same method. the lab-side-methods 2 and 3 and the chair-side-method 5 can be recommended for finishing and polishing the new ceromer material Targis.

  10. 21 CFR 106.30 - Finished product evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... analyzed by the manufacturer. (2) Periodic analysis. The manufacturer shall sample at least one newly...) Stability analysis. Using representative samples collected from finished product batches, the manufacturer... the biological quality of the protein. A protein biological quality analysis is not necessary for a...

  11. Performance, organ growth and economics of finisher broiler fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on the performance, organ growth and economics of finishing broilers. The harvested neem leaves were chopped and air dried under room temperature for ten days until they became crispy while retaining ...

  12. Comparison of triticale cultivars with maize grain for finishing lambs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of triticale cultivars with maize grain for finishing lambs. TS Brand, GD van der Merwe. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  13. Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on finisher pig growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Felistus

    2014-12-12

    Dec 12, 2014 ... 2 Department of Microbial Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State,. P.O. Box 339 ... finisher pig feed with no negative effect on feed conversion efficiency, carcass and meat quality traits, and ... Keywords: Moringa oleifera, anti-nutrient factors, fatty acid ratios, pork colour, pork odour.

  14. Response of finishing broiler chickens to supplemental Neem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight weeks feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding diets containing Neem Leaf Meal (NLM), Garlic Meal (GM) and their combinations (NLM +GM) on oocyst count, bacteria count and gut morphology of finishing broiler chickens. A total of 180 day-old Cobb broiler chickens were divided into twelve ...

  15. Serum biochemical indices of Finisher Broiler Chickens fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 4 week feeding trial was conducted using 180 five-week old Hubbard broiler chickens to determine the effect of feeding variously processed roselle(Hibiscus sabdariffa) seeds on serum biochemical indices with a view to determining the potential of roselle seed as an alternative to soybeans. Five broiler finisher diets were ...

  16. Response of finishing broiler chickens to diets containing rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty Arbor acres broiler chickens aged four weeks were used in determining the effect of fermented rice husk meal diets on the performance and nutrient digestibility of finisher broiler chickens. They were allotted into five dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 % rumen liquor fermented rice husk ...

  17. Assessment of the nutrient contents of broiler starter and finisher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While crude protein, arginine, isoleucine, methionine, lysine, threonine, methionine+cystein and phenylalanine contents were similar (P>0.05), leucine, valine, phenylalaline+thyrocine and glycine+serine values of the test finisher diets were significantly (P<0.05) different from NRC recommendation for broilers aged 3-6 ...

  18. Two-dimensional kinematic analysis of catch and finish positions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... enough to increase the frequency of drive. As the rowing distance got longer, rowers started to change their body angles and action. Performance could be improved by maintaining suitable rowing technique during competition. Keywords: Biomechanics; Rowing; Catch and finish positions; Concept IID rowing ergometer.

  19. Effect of finishing system on carcass characteristics and composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of finishing system on carcass characteristics and composition of Mubende goats and their Boer goat crossbreds. ... Dissectible lean and fat percentages varied in an ascending order of 66%, 72%, 72.6% and 8%, 14% and 16.5% for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. A reverse trend was observed for bone percentages with ...

  20. Performance and nutrient utilization of cockerel finishers fed graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RMW) on performance and nutrient utilization of cockerel finishers. One hundred and fifty 9-week old Black Harco cockerels were raised on five experimental diets where RMW replaced maize at graded levels and designated diet 1 (0% RMW); diet ...

  1. Course in Carpentry: Interior Finish. Workbook and Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazicich, Mirko, Ed.

    Designed for use in carpentry apprenticeship classes, this workbook contains nine units on carpentry skills in the area of interior finish, lists of recommended and required instructional materials, and nine unit tests. Each instructional unit includes a listing of performance statements and text covering skills addressed in individual performance…

  2. Fungal biodegradation of plantain peel for broiler finisher feeding: In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... protein, cholesterol and glucose were significantly (P<0.05) affected by the treatments. Fungal biodegradation of PPL using A.niger has the potential of enhancing feed intake, nutrient digestibility and the body weight gain of broiler finisher. Keywords: Aspergillus niger, biodegradation, nutrient enhancement and broilers.

  3. Response Of Finisher Broilers To Antibiotic and Enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28 – day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the response of finisher broilers to antibiotic (neocloxin) and enzyme (Roxazyme G) supplemented diets. Three experimental diets were formulated such that diet 1 had neither enzyme nor antibiotic supplementation. Diets 2 and 3 contained antibiotic and enzyme ...

  4. Prevalence of intestinal pathogens in Danish finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege, H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    finishing pig herds. A total of 79 herds was randomly selected and visited during 1998. From each herd, 20 faecal samples were collected from individual pigs weighing 30-50kg. Furthermore, 10 pooled pen samples were collected and examined for S. enterica. In total, 1580 faecal samples and 790 pen samples...

  5. Performance Of Growing Pigs And Finisher Broilers Housed Together

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance and cost of feeding young growing pigs and finisher broilers under integrated broiler/pig production system were investigated. Four young growing pigs (the control) were housed in pen A and fed 4% of their body weight as commercial growers feed. Another 4 were housed in pen B with broilers in ...

  6. Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on finisher pig growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on finisher pig growth performance, meat quality, shelf life and fatty acid composition of pork. ... Muscle, subcutaneous fat and feed samples were analysed for FA composition and health lipid indices of atherogenicity (AI) and thrombogenicity (IT) were calculated. A 10-day shelf-life study ...

  7. Relevance of microbial finished product testing in food safety management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwietering, M.H.; Jacxsens, L.; Membre, J.M.; Nauta, M.; Peterz, M.

    2016-01-01

    Management of microbiological food safety is largely based on good design of processes, products and procedures. Finished product testing may be considered as a control measure at the end of the production process. However, testing gives only very limited information on the safety status of a food.

  8. Accurate in situ measurement of near-surface volume dilatation in irradiated silica through capacitance monitoring of cantilever deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.B.; EerNisse, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    Irradiating a solid with short-range particle often induces a net volume change in the range zone which results in a shallow layer of stressed material. Micron-depth volume dilatations in the part-per-million range can be studied using cantilever mounting of a long, thin, metallized specimen, whose stress-induced bending perturbs the capacitance between the cantilever and a small counterelectrode mounted close to the unirradiated face. This approach has been used successfully by many workers for more than 20 yrs. Elsewhere we have reported the construction of a highly sensitive caltilever/capacitor apparatus and its application in the first accurate measurements of ionization dilatation phenomena in fused silica and grown SiO 2 at low-electron energies. In this paper we outline key details of apparatus design and experimental technique for successful cantilever/capacitor work. Many contrasts with the work of Primak and Monahan [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 544 (1983) (preceding paper)] are pointed out. We also highlight previous short-term annealing results which make it clear that the compaction of silica will appear to be significantly less in optical measurements made hours after irradiation than in our cantilever/capacitor measurements made minutes after irradiation

  9. Control and dynamics study for the satellite power system. Volume 1: MPTS/SPS collector dynamic analysis and surface deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. J.

    1980-01-01

    The basic dynamic properties and performance characteristics of the microwave power transmission satellite antenna were analyzed in an effort to develop criteria, requirements, and constraints for the control and structure design. The vibrational properties, the surface deformation, and the corresponding scan loss under the influence of disturbances are considered.

  10. Role of volume and surface spontaneous parametric down-conversion in the generation of photon pairs in layered media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Javůrek, D.; Peřina ml., Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 4 (2017), s. 1-13, č. článku 043828. ISSN 2469-9926 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : surface spontaneous * parametric down-conversion * photon pairs * layered media Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 2.925, year: 2016

  11. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 1. Eastern coal province. [More than 1300 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, N. E.; Sobek, A. A.; Streib, D. L.

    1977-11-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Eastern Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographices. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  12. Water/oil repellent property of polyester fabrics after supercritical carbon dioxide finishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yan-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The strong permeability and driving force of supercritical carbon dioxide renders it an ideal medium for fabrics finishing. This paper is to use supercritical carbon dioxide medium with a solution of organic fluorine to fabricate water/oil repellent polyester fabrics. A series of characterization methods including Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, energy dispersive spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy were carried out to evaluate the fabrics finishing. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry showed that the transmittance peak appeared at 1202.4 and 1147.4 cm-1, indicating the presence of -CF2- group on the surface of polyester fabrics. The results of energy dispersive spectrometer and scanning electron microscopy showed that the fluorine was evenly distributed on the fibers surface. In addition, a series of physical properties were detected, including contact angel, air permeability, breaking strength, and wearing resistance. The average water and hexadecane contact angles were 147.58° and 143.78°, respectively. Compared with the initial fabrics, the treated one has little change in air permeability, while its strength increased greatly. The treated fabrics gained good water/oil repellent properties while keeping good air permeability and improving mechanical property.

  13. Waterproof finishing of some textile fabrics by radiation and thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, S.S.

    2003-01-01

    Different synthetic fabrics have been treated by different methods and formulations to umpart waterproof finishing. These methods include surface coating with formulations based essentially on polydimethylsiloxane, together with styrene or methyl methacrylate monomers and their corresponding oligomers (polymers) under the effect of accelerated electrons. The other methods include the gamma radiation graft copolymerization of polydimethyllsiloxane / methyl methacrylate formulation and the commercial compound Wacker 290 onto the same synthetic fabrics polyester, nylon-6 and cotton/polyester blend. Also, the synthetic fabrics were treated with commercial compound Wacker 290 under the effect of thermal curing. Moreover, the effect of these treatments on the thermal stability, mechanical properties has been investigated. The results showed that the waterproof properties, in term of water repellency and absorption, of the different fabrics depend to a great extent, on the type and content of the formulation, method of treatment and the compatibility between the fabric and used formulation. It was found that polyester fabric displayed the highest water resistance regardless of the used silicone formulation. These treatment inpress the crease recovery and has a little effect on the dyeing and thermal properties. In comparison, electron surface coating is the most effective method to impart waterproof finishing, while graft copolymerization needs high dose levels to obtain such property

  14. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 4 Appendix C - Historical Maximum Near-Surface Air Temperature.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  15. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 18 Appendix Q - Historical Maximum Near-Surface Wind Speed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconom ic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  16. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 2 Appendix A - Historical Near-Surface Air Temperature.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  17. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 6 Appendix E - Historical Minimum Near-Surface Air Temperature.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  18. Surface density and volume density measurements of chloroplast thylakoids in maize ( Zea mays L.) under chilling conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubínová, Lucie; Kutík, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2007), s. 481-488 ISSN 0300-3604 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100110502; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA522/01/0846 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : stereology * surface area * thylakoid membranes Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.976, year: 2007

  19. The application of white radiation to residual stress analysis in the intermediate zone between surface and volume

    CERN Document Server

    Genzel, C; Wallis, B; Reimers, W

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical surface processing is known to give rise to complex residual stress fields in the near surface region of polycrystalline materials. Consequently, their analysis by means of non-destructive X-ray and neutron diffraction methods has become an important topic in materials science. However, there remains a gap with respect to the accessible near surface zone, which concerns a range between about 10 mu m and 1 mm, where the conventional X-ray methods are no longer and the neutron methods are not yet sensitive. In order to achieve the necessary penetration depth tau to perform residual stress analysis (RSA) in this region, advantageous use can be made of energy dispersive X-ray diffraction of synchrotron radiation (15-60 keV) in the reflection mode. Besides an example concerning the adaptation of methods applied so far in the angle dispersive RSA to the energy dispersive case, the concept of a new materials science beamline at BESSY II for residual stress and texture analysis is presented.

  20. Dental preparation with sonic vs high-speed finishing: analysis of microleakage in bonded veneer restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faus-Matoses, Ignacio; Solá-Ruiz, Fernanda

    2014-02-01

    To compare marginal microleakage in porcelain veneer restorations following dental finishing using two types of instruments to test the hypothesis that microleakage will be less when teeth are prepared with sonic oscillating burs than when prepared with high-speed rotating burs. Fifty-six extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected and divided randomly into two groups. Group 1 samples underwent dental finishing using high-speed rotating diamond burs, while group 2 used sonic oscillating diamond burs. Buccal chamfer preparation was carried out for both groups. Forty eight of the samples (24 per group) were restored using IPS Empress ceramic veneers. 2% methylene blue was used to evaluate microleakage at the tooth/composite veneer interface. Teeth were sectioned lengthwise into three parts and microleakage was measured at two points - cervical and incisal - on each section. Before bonding, four teeth per group underwent SEM examination. Evaluation of microleakage at the cervical dentin margin showed a value of 10.5% in group 1 and 6.6% in group 2, which was statistically significantly different (p microleakage was 1.3% for group 1 and 1.2% for group 2, which was not significantly different. SEM revealed different patterns of surface texture in both areas according to the instrument used. Group 1 exhibited parallel horizontal abrasion grooves with a milled effect and thick smear layers; group 2 showed abrasive erosion, discontinuous perpendicular depressions, and thin smear layers. Tooth preparations finished with sonic burs produced significantly less microleakage in the cervical dentin area of bonded veneer restorations. No differences were found in the incisal enamel area.

  1. Assessment of a potential agricultural application of Bangkok-digested sewage sludge and finished compost products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreesai, Siranee; Peapueng, Panadda; Tippayamongkonkun, Taninporn; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2013-09-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the levels of plant nutrients, heavy metals, parasites and fecal coliform bacteria in Bangkok-produced sewage sludge and finished compost products for potential agricultural application, as well as to compare the quality of compost under different composting conditions. The results indicated that digested sewage sludge had high fertilizing values for organic matter (19.01 ± 0.09%), total nitrogen (2.17 ± 0.07%), total phosphorus (2.06 ± 0.06%) and total potassium (1.16 ± 0.22%), but it was contaminated with human pathogens, including fecal coliform bacteria, viable helminthes egg and active forms of parasite cysts. Thus, fresh sewage sludge should not be disposed on land unless it has undergone pathogen reduction. It is proven that the quality of the sludge mixed with grass clippings at a ratio of 6:1 volume/volume after having passed a windrow composting process for 8 weeks can be classified as class A biosolids as the levels of remaining fecal coliforms were compost were 16.53 ± 1.25%, 1.39 ± 0.06%, 0.42 ± 0.10% and 1.53 ± 0.05% respectively. The total copper concentration was rather high (2291.31 ± 121.77 mg kg(-1)), but all heavy metal concentrations were also well below the United States Environmental Protection Agency pollutant limits for land application. The finished compost products can be considered as a soil conditioner as they have relatively low essential plant nutrient concentrations. It is recommended to be initially used for gardening and landscaping to ensure safety utilization.

  2. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Nylon 6,6 Fiber Finish and Oligomers

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Shelley Risch Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Quantitation of the amount of finish applied during fiber manufacturing is an important industrial quality control process. Finish levels that are too low result in excessive fiber and mechanical wear. On the other hand, overly high finish levels may cause residue buildup on the processing equipment. Removal of the finish has traditionally been done with solvents such as chloroform or Freon followed by gravimetric or spectroscopic analysis of the removed mate...

  3. The effect of finishing sealant augmented margins in class V cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlTahawi, Hamdi Mohammed

    1989-01-01

    Class V cavities in the buccal and tingual aspects of human posterior teeth were acid etched and restored in one of two ways. In the extended primer technique, the UV polymerized primer coat was extended 2-3 mm beyond the cavity, then finished back. In the butt-joint technique, the primer coat was extended to just below the cavosurface line angle. Eight specimens for each technique were prepared and tested. A surface micro-analyzer capable of detecting one microinch surface roughness was used to determine the variance in marginal smoothness margins were also examined using a scanning electron microscope. No statistical difference in smoothness was detected between the two techniques. (author)

  4. Cohesive silicone gel implants with smooth, textured or polyurethane-coated surface to restore volume in eviscerated sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cristiano; Yamashita, Seizo; Galindo-Ferreiro, Alicia; Modolo, Marilia; Pellizzon, Claudia H; Padovani, Carlos R; Marques, Mariangela E A; Schellini, Silvana A

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the three different surface coating on cohesive silicone gel implants in eviscerated rabbit eye sockets. Forty-five albino rabbits underwent right eye evisceration and received hemisphere-shaped cohesive silicone gel implants with smooth (Group 1), textured (Group 2), or polyurethane-coated surface (Group 3) in the socket. The animals were euthanized at 7, 30, and 90 days postoperatively. Computed tomography of the orbits was performed prior to euthanasia. Subsequently, the orbital contents were removed and underwent histologic and morphometric examination. Data were statistically analyzed. There were no adverse effects throughout the study. The majority of implants in the Group 1 exhibited 180° rotation. The Group 3 experienced an intense inflammatory reaction around the implant and implant deformation probably due to pseudocapsule contraction. Cohesive silicone gel implants had good integration into the scleral socket. Optimal results were obtained with cohesive silicone gel textured implants (Group 2). Smooth implants (Group 1) rotated significantly, whereas polyurethane (Group 3) coated implants precipitated an intense inflammatory reaction and were deformed postoperatively.

  5. 40 CFR 425.40 - Applicability; description of the retan-wet finish-sides subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the retan-wet finish-sides subcategory. 425.40 Section 425.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Retan-Wet Finish-Sides Subcategory § 425.40 Applicability; description of the retan-wet finish...

  6. Construction of a Dip Tank for Finishing Wood Siding or Decking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Dipping new siding or decking pieces before installation is faster than finishing after installation, and it gets finish on the backside and ends of the pieces, thereby extending their service life. This method is appropriate for any penetrating finish, such as waterrepellent preservatives or semitransparent stains. It may also be used to pre-treat siding with water-...

  7. Method and system for processing optical elements using magnetorheological finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menapace, Joseph Arthur; Schaffers, Kathleen Irene; Bayramian, Andrew James; Molander, William A

    2012-09-18

    A method of finishing an optical element includes mounting the optical element in an optical mount having a plurality of fiducials overlapping with the optical element and obtaining a first metrology map for the optical element and the plurality of fiducials. The method also includes obtaining a second metrology map for the optical element without the plurality of fiducials, forming a difference map between the first metrology map and the second metrology map, and aligning the first metrology map and the second metrology map. The method further includes placing mathematical fiducials onto the second metrology map using the difference map to form a third metrology map and associating the third metrology map to the optical element. Moreover, the method includes mounting the optical element in the fixture in an MRF tool, positioning the optical element in the fixture; removing the plurality of fiducials, and finishing the optical element.

  8. Recovery of Salmonella enterica from seropositive finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dahl, J.; van der Wolf, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the probability of detecting Salmonella from pen faecal samples in seropositive classified finishing pig herds. The study involved 77 herds from Denmark (20), The Netherlands (20), Greece (17) and Germany (20). The serological herd status was determined...... by the blood-sampling of 50 finishing pigs. Bacteriological sampling was performed by 20 pen faecal samples per herd. Over-all, 47% of the blood samples had an OD% larger than 10 and 23% larger than 40. Salmonella was isolated from 135 (9.3%) pen faecal samples in 32 herds (42%). Twenty-eight of these herds...... (87.5%) had a within-herd seroprevalence larger than 50% at sample cut-off OD% > 10. In our study, there was an increasing probability of recovering Salmonella with increasing within-herd seroprevalence. However, this was only a moderate correlation. A correlation coefficient of 0.62 was found between...

  9. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 2: Test Bed Performance Evaluation and Final AeroMACS Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Magner, James

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II (this document) describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  10. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 1: Concepts of Use, Initial System Requirements, Architecture, and AeroMACS Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Isaacs, James; Henriksen, Steve; Zelkin, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this document) is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  11. Ractopamine in diets for finishing pigs of different sexual categories

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Enrique da Trindade Barbosa; Carolina Teixeira Costa Silva; Vinícius de Souza Cantarelli; Márcio Gilberto Zangeronimo; Raimundo Vicente de Sousa; Cesar Augusto Pospissil Garbossa; Níkolas de Oliveira Amaral; Walmes Marques Zeviani

    2012-01-01

    Performance and carcass and cut yield of finishing pigs of three sexual categories fed diets with different levels of ractopamine were studied. Forty-eight hybrid animals (initial weight of 92.1±2.4 kg) were distributed in a completely randomised design in 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (three sexual categories: surgically castrated males, two females and immunologically castrated males - with or without 10 ppm of ractopamine), totalling six treatments and eight repetitions with one animal per e...

  12. Finishing procedures in Orthodontics: dental dimensions and proportions (microesthetics)

    OpenAIRE

    Brandão,Roberto Carlos Bodart; Brandão,Larissa Bustamente Capucho

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present article is to describe procedures that can be performed to achieve excellence in orthodontic treatment finishing. The content is limited to microesthetics, which comprises the concept of ideal dental dimensions and proportions (white esthetics) and its correlation with the periodontium (pink esthetics). Standards of normality are described both in their real dimensions (dental height and width), and in those effectively perceived by the observer, the vi...

  13. Prospects for Commercial Feedlot Finishing of Sheep in Zanzibar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of growth and carcass performance of sheep under two feedlot finishing diets was done in Zanzibar. Fifty-four sheep aged 9-12 months with initial body weight 18.9±0.6kg) were divided into three treatments T1, T2 and T3 each with three replicates. T2 and T3 sheep were assigned randomly to two concentrate ...

  14. Response of finishing broiler chickens fed three energy/protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the response of finishing broiler chicken to diets containing three metabolizable energy (ME)/crude protein (CP) combinations ( 3203.76 ME vs 19.90 %CP, 2884.15 ME vs 18.10%CP and 2566.42 ME vs 18.10 %CP) at fixed ME:CP ratio of 160:1. A total of 126 four weeks ...

  15. Uses of ANSI/HPS N13.12-1999, "Surface and Volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance" and Comparison with Existing Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stansbury, Paul S.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2001-04-30

    In August of 1999, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) approved a standard for clearance of materials contaminated with residual levels of radioactivity. "Clearance," as used in the standard, means the movement of material from the control of a regulatory agency to a use or disposition that has no further regulatory controls of any kind. The standard gives derived screening levels (DSLs) in Bq/g and Bq/cm2 for 50 radionuclides. Items or materials with residual surface and volume radioactivity levels below the DSLs can be cleared, that is, managed without regard to their residual radioactivity. Since federal agencies are to use voluntary, industry standards developed by the private sector whenever possible, the standard should play an important role in DOE's regulatory process. The thrust of this report is to explain the standard, make simple observations on its usefulness to DOE, and to explore uses of the standard within DOE facilities beyond the clearance of radioactive materials.

  16. Ageing of Dry Cement Mixes for Finishing Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronius VEKTARIS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dry building mixes, stored in the air, absorb water vapor and CO2 gas and ageing because properties of binding materials, mostly Portland cement, deteriorate after its prehydration and carbonation. In this paper the ageing singularities of dry cement mixes for finishing purposes and additives for retarding this process has been determinated. Ordinary and quickly hardening Portland cements absorb H2O and CO2 more than white cement – about 70 % – 75 % and 30 % – 38 % per month of innitial mass, respectively. White cement is more resistant to prehydration and carbonation, because it contains less C3A, C4AF and alkali, characterized initial activity. Dry mixes with white cement, although slower, but still worse after stored. Influence of routine dry mortar mixes ingredients and additives (methyl cellulose, pigments, sand and lime on prehydration properties of the mixes for finishing purpose is not substantial. Significant positive influence comes from the addition of fatty acid salts (zinc stearate or sodium oleate. The dry cement mixes for finishing purpose has been recomended to hydrophobisate with one of these additives, adding about 1 % by weight of cement during preducing mixes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.5243

  17. Ageing of Dry Cement Mixes for Finishing Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronius VEKTARIS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dry building mixes, stored in the air, absorb water vapor and CO2 gas and ageing because properties of binding materials, mostly Portland cement, deteriorate after its prehydration and carbonation. In this paper the ageing singularities of dry cement mixes for finishing purposes and additives for retarding this process has been determinated. Ordinary and quickly hardening Portland cements absorb H2O and CO2 more than white cement – about 70 % – 75 % and 30 % – 38 % per month of innitial mass, respectively. White cement is more resistant to prehydration and carbonation, because it contains less C3A, C4AF and alkali, characterized initial activity. Dry mixes with white cement, although slower, but still worse after stored. Influence of routine dry mortar mixes ingredients and additives (methyl cellulose, pigments, sand and lime on prehydration properties of the mixes for finishing purpose is not substantial. Significant positive influence comes from the addition of fatty acid salts (zinc stearate or sodium oleate. The dry cement mixes for finishing purpose has been recomended to hydrophobisate with one of these additives, adding about 1 % by weight of cement during preducing mixes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.5243

  18. Finishes and furnishings: considerations for critical care environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Misty; Bowman, Ken L

    2011-01-01

    When selecting finishes and furnishings within a critical care unit, multiple factors can ultimately affect patient outcomes, impact costs, and contribute to operational efficiencies. First, consider the culture of the regional location, operations of the specific facility, and the recent focus on patient-centered care. The intention is to create an appropriate familiarity and comfort level with the environment for the patient and family. Second, safety and infection control are of utmost concern, particularly for the critical care patient with limited mobility. The planning and design team must be acutely aware of the regulations and guidelines of various governing agencies, local codes, and best design practices that can directly affect choices of finishes and furnishings. Flooring, wall, and window finishes, lighting, art and color, as well as furniture and fabric selection should be considered. Issues to address include maintenance, durability, sustainability, infection control, aesthetics, safety, wayfinding, and acoustics. Balancing these issues with comfort, patient and staff satisfaction, accommodations for an aging population, increasing bariatric needs, efficient operations, and avoidance of "never events" requires team collaboration and communication, knowledge of product advancements, a keen awareness of how environmental stimuli are perceived, and utilization of the best available evidence to make informed design decisions.

  19. Dust control technology usage patterns in the drywall finishing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Corbett, Deborah E; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2009-06-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to quantify drywall finishing industry usage rates of dust control technology, identify barriers to technology adoption, and explore firm owner perception of risk. Industry use of the following technologies was described: wet methods, respiratory protection, pole sanders, ventilated sanders, and low-dust joint compound. A survey instrument composed of both Likert-type scaled items and open-ended items was developed and administered by telephone to the census population of the owners of member firms of trade associations: Finishing Contractors Association and Association of the Wall and Ceiling Industries. Of 857 firms, 264 interviews were completed. Along with descriptive statistics, results were analyzed to examine effects of firm size and union affiliation on responses. Responses to open-ended items were analyzed using content analysis procedures. Firm owners rated the risk of dust to productivity and customer satisfaction as low-moderate. Half rated the dust as having some impact on worker health, with higher impacts indicated by owners of small firms. Among the available control technologies, respiratory protection was used most frequently. Several barriers to implementation of the more effective control technologies were identified. Barriers associated with technology usability, productivity, and cost, as well as misperceptions of risk, should be addressed to improve dust control in the drywall finishing industry.

  20. Productive performance of Holstein calves finished in feedlot or pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARIA O. DIAS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of animals from dairy farms is an alternative to meat production since it provides an increment of total income for farmers. This study aims to evaluate the performance of Holstein calves finished in two feeding systems (feedlot or pasture. Forty-three animals with 58 days old and 57 kg were divided in two treatments: 23 animals finished in feedlot with corn silage plus concentrate based on corn and soybean meal (40:60; 20 animals kept in cultivated pastures according to the period of the year: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum with supplementation with the same feedlot-concentrate at 1% body weight. Animals were slaughtered with 200 kg. Dry matter and nutrient intake were determined, with the use of chromium oxide for estimating pasture intake. Feedlot animals had greater total intake and total digestible nutrients, resulting in higher average daily gain (0.949 vs 0.694 kg day-1. Crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber and feed conversion did not show significant differences. Holstein calves have improved performance when finished in feedlot.

  1. Effect of finishing and polishing procedures on the gap width between a denture base resin and two long-term, resilient denture liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesun, Igor J; Hodges, James; Lai, Juey H

    2002-03-01

    The junction between a long-term, resilient denture liner and the denture base is difficult to finish and polish due to differences in the hardness of the materials. Gaps tend to form during finishing and polishing procedures. This study measured the junctional gap between 2 long-term, resilient denture liners and a denture base material after different finishing and polishing procedures were performed. The surface smoothness of the 2 liner materials also was evaluated. Molloplast-B and an experimental, heat-polymerized methyl siloxane-resin-based denture liner were processed (according to the manufacturer's instructions) against Lucitone 199 acrylic resin. Control specimens (n = 20) were 2 mm thick and flat. Experimental specimens (n = 64) were fabricated with a raised center section: a 3- x 5- x 15-mm half-cylindrical ridge with a junction at the top of the cylinder between the liner material and acrylic resin. The specimens were finished with 1 of 6 types of burs and polished with different combinations of rubber-impregnated acrylic polishers, pumice, and tin oxide. The finished specimens were examined and photographed with a scanning electron microscope, and the largest gap along the liner/denture base junction on each specimen was measured. Three-way analysis of variance without replication (P<.05) and post-hoc t tests were used to analyze the data and compare groups. RESULTS; Averaged across finishing and polishing techniques, a larger gap was recorded for the experimental liner material (22 microm) than for Molloplast-B (14 microm) (P<.00005). Qualitative evaluation suggested that the experimental liner material polished better than Molloplast-B. The smoothest surfaces were obtained when specimens were finished with fine-tooth cross-cut carbide burs and polished with both pumice and tin oxide. A comparison between polished and unpolished specimens, averaged over materials and finishing techniques, revealed that polishing reduced gap size (P=.015). Within the

  2. Optimizing Organophosphorus Fire Resistant Finish for Cotton Fabric Using Box-Behnken Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, Y.; Parag, B.; Nemeshwaree, B.; Giorgio, R.

    2016-01-01

    N-methylol dimethyl phosphono propionamide (MDPA) is one of the most utilized fire resistant (FR) finishes for cotton fabrics, utilized as part of a formulation with trimethylol melamine (TMM) to acquire better crosslinking and enhanced FR properties. The system parameters of the finishing treatment were upgraded for better FR properties and low mechanical loss to the fabric by the response surface methodology utilizing Box-Behnken statistical designed experimental strategy. The impacts of concentration on the cotton fabric’s properties (fire resistance and mechanical properties) were assessed with the regression equations. The optimum conditions by predicting the FR reagents focusing intact mechanical properties of the fabric were additionally studied. It was found that the parameters of crosslinking agents in the FR formulation have a prime role in the general FR properties of the cotton fabrics. The R-squared estimations of the considerable number of responses were above 92%, demonstrating the level of relationship between the predicted values by the Box-Behnken frameworks and the real test results.

  3. A FMM-FFT accelerated hybrid volume surface integral equation solver for electromagnetic analysis of re-entry space vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Yücel, Abdulkadir C.

    2014-07-01

    Space vehicles that re-enter the atmosphere often experience communication blackout. The blackout occurs when the vehicle becomes engulfed in plasma produced by interactions between the vehicle surface and the atmosphere. The plasma often is concentrated in a relatively thin shell around the vehicle, with higher densities near its nose than rear. A less structured, sometimes turbulent plasma wake often trails the vehicle. The plasma shell severely affects the performance of side-mounted antennas as it alters their characteristics (frequency response, gain patterns, axial ratio, and impedance) away from nominal, free-space values, sometimes entirely shielding the antenna from the outside world. The plasma plume/turbulent wake similarly affect the performance of antennas mounted at the back of the vehicle. The electromagnetic characteristics of the thin plasma shell and plume/turbulent wake heavily depend on the type of re-entry trajectory, the vehicle\\'s speed, angles of attack, and chemical composition, as well as environmental conditions. To analyze the antennas\\' performance during blackout and to design robust communication antennas, efficient and accurate simulation tools for charactering the antennas\\' performance along the trajectory are called for.

  4. Advancements in the Interferometric Measurements of Real Time Finishing Birefringent Filter's Crystal Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Ma; Kushtal, Gi; Skomorovsky, Vi; Domyshev, Gn; Sadokhin, Vp

    2006-01-01

    The finishing of birefringent plates consists of two processes: polishing and evaluation of a surface, which have been performed separately till now. The purpose of this work is achieving of high accuracy of the evaluation and machining of the plane-parallel plates from birefringent crystals, in particular of crystal plates of birefringent filters during their finishing. The developed process combines evaluation and polishing in an interactive way. We have found modes of treatment, shape of polisher, have designed interferometer, with a mirror arranged in polisher. Visual checking of optical thickness comparatively with reference plate was carried out using the interference fringes of equal birefringence, and checking of an optical wedge - by interference rings of an equal inclination. The automated processing of TV camera interference fringes was impossible, because of gaps of interference fringes on polishing cells above the mirror. Therefore a special software was developed for processing of a complex fringe pattern interferogram. Software FastInterf uses furrier analysis technique which allows to process an interferogram with multiply gaps. Interferograms are registered by a high resolution TV camera (1280 x1024). Automatic processing of a fringe interferogram using FastInterf software takes less then one second. The influence of gaps is excluded, and the flat field is taken into account. Software provides full 3D surface and wavefront maps. Aberration analysis of a wavefront gives information on thickness of a plate comparatively with a reference one, optical wedge of plate and azimuth of an inclination of wave front. Moreover, software provides a control of surface quality. The measuring device, features of the software are described and process of interferometric evaluation during polishing is illustrated

  5. Surface Modification of Exfoliated Graphite Nano-Reinforcements, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I results showed that two surface treatments, oxidative plasma and reactive finishes, are effective means of modifying the surface chemistry of exfoliated...

  6. Dose-volume histogram and dose-surface histogram analysis for skin reactions to carbon ion radiotherapy for bone and soft tissue sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Takeshi; Kamada, Tadashi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Imai, Reiko; Serizawa, Itsuko; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the dose-volume histogram (DVH) and dose-surface histogram (DSH) as clinically relevant and available parameters that helped to identify bone and soft tissue sarcoma patients at risk of developing late skin reactions, including ulceration, when treated with carbon ion radiotherapy. Thirty-five patients with bone and soft tissue sarcoma treated with carbon ion beams were studied. The clinical skin reactions were evaluated. Some pretreatment variables were compared with the grade of late skin reactions. Average DVH and DSH were established in accordance with the grading of the skin reactions. Prescribed dose, the difference in depths between the skin surface and the proximal extent of the tumor, and some DVH/DSH parameters were correlated with late skin reaction (> or = grade 3) according to univariate analysis. Furthermore, the area irradiated with over 60 GyE (S(60)>20 cm(2)) on DSH was the most important factor by multivariate analysis. The area irradiated with over 60 GyE (S(60)>20 cm(2)) on DSH was found to be a parameter for use as a predictor of late skin reactions. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anatomic Relationships of the Distal and Proximal Radioulnar Joints Articulating Surface Areas and of the Radius and Ulna Bone Volumes - Implications for Biomechanical Studies of the Distal and Proximal Radioulnar Joints and Forearm Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Paul S C; Shaw, Oliver G; Lees, Vivien C

    2016-01-01

    Previous work from this laboratory has evidenced the biomechanical role of forearm osseoligamentous structures in load transfer of applied forces. It has shown that forces transmitted across the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) and proximal radioulnar joint (PRUJ) are similar, though not identical, under axial loading conditions. The purpose of the study was to assess the articulating surface areas of the radioulnar joints and the volumes of the forearm bones addressing the hypothesis that there may be anatomic adaptations that reflect the biomechanical function of the integrated forearm unit. The articulating surface areas of PRUJ and DRUJ were assessed using a laser scanner in 24 cadaver forearms. The articulating joint surfaces were additionally delineated from standardized photographs assessed by three observers. The surface areas of matched pairs of joints were compared on the null hypothesis that these were the same within a given forearm specimen. An additional 44 pairs of matched forearm bone volumes were measured using water displacement technique and again compared through statistical analysis (paired sample t-test and Bland-Altman analysis). The findings of this study are that the articulating surface areas of the DRUJ and PRUJ as well as the bone volumes are significantly different and, yet, strongly correlated. The paired sample t-test showed a significant difference between the surface areas of the DRUJ and PRUJ (p radius to ulna bone volume ratio of 0.81. When the olecranon was disregarded, radius volume was on average of 4% greater than ulna volume. This study demonstrates and defines the anatomical relationships between the two forearm bones and their articulating joints when matched for specimen. The data obtained are consistent with the theory of integrated forearm function generated from published biomechanical studies.

  8. Fluoroalkyl Siloxanes as Liquid-Repellent Fabric Finishes. Part 3. The Durability of the Copolymers and Comparisons with Commercially Available Finishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    of-the- art literature review of these finishes was presented. The finish currently in use is Zepel B (E.l. Dupont De Nemours & Co. (Inc.)). This and...short sumary of these tests has been included in ref. 10. PHOSPHAIE RESISTANCE TESI The resistance of treated fabrics to wetting by organo-phosphorus

  9. Large-volume constant-concentration sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for rapid on-site gas analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhan, Yisen; Huang, Yichun; Li, Gongke

    2017-08-01

    In this work, a portable large-volume constant-concentration (LVCC) sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed for the rapid on-site gas analysis based on suitable derivatization methods. LVCC sampling technique mainly consisted of a specially designed sampling cell including the rigid sample container and flexible sampling bag, and an absorption-derivatization module with a portable pump and a gas flowmeter. LVCC sampling technique allowed large, alterable and well-controlled sampling volume, which kept the concentration of gas target in headspace phase constant during the entire sampling process and made the sampling result more representative. Moreover, absorption and derivatization of gas target during LVCC sampling process were efficiently merged in one step using bromine-thiourea and OPA-NH4+ strategy for ethylene and SO2 respectively, which made LVCC sampling technique conveniently adapted to consequent SERS analysis. Finally, a new LVCC sampling-SERS method was developed and successfully applied for rapid analysis of trace ethylene and SO2 from fruits. It was satisfied that trace ethylene and SO2 from real fruit samples could be actually and accurately quantified by this method. The minor concentration fluctuations of ethylene and SO2 during the entire LVCC sampling process were proved to be < 4.3% and 2.1% respectively. Good recoveries for ethylene and sulfur dioxide from fruit samples were achieved in range of 95.0-101% and 97.0-104% respectively. It is expected that portable LVCC sampling technique would pave the way for rapid on-site analysis of accurate concentrations of trace gas targets from real samples by SERS.

  10. Large-volume constant-concentration sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for rapid on-site gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhan, Yisen; Huang, Yichun; Li, Gongke

    2017-08-05

    In this work, a portable large-volume constant-concentration (LVCC) sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed for the rapid on-site gas analysis based on suitable derivatization methods. LVCC sampling technique mainly consisted of a specially designed sampling cell including the rigid sample container and flexible sampling bag, and an absorption-derivatization module with a portable pump and a gas flowmeter. LVCC sampling technique allowed large, alterable and well-controlled sampling volume, which kept the concentration of gas target in headspace phase constant during the entire sampling process and made the sampling result more representative. Moreover, absorption and derivatization of gas target during LVCC sampling process were efficiently merged in one step using bromine-thiourea and OPA-NH 4 + strategy for ethylene and SO 2 respectively, which made LVCC sampling technique conveniently adapted to consequent SERS analysis. Finally, a new LVCC sampling-SERS method was developed and successfully applied for rapid analysis of trace ethylene and SO 2 from fruits. It was satisfied that trace ethylene and SO 2 from real fruit samples could be actually and accurately quantified by this method. The minor concentration fluctuations of ethylene and SO 2 during the entire LVCC sampling process were proved to be samples were achieved in range of 95.0-101% and 97.0-104% respectively. It is expected that portable LVCC sampling technique would pave the way for rapid on-site analysis of accurate concentrations of trace gas targets from real samples by SERS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural abnormalities in cortical volume, thickness, and surface area in 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome: Relationship with psychotic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Jonas, Rachel; Senturk, Damla; Patel, Arati; Chow, Carolyn; Green, Michael F; Bearden, Carrie E

    2013-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) represents one of the largest known genetic risk factors for psychosis, yet the neurobiological mechanisms underlying symptom development are not well understood. Here we conducted a cross-sectional study of 22q11DS to decompose cortical volume into its constituent parts, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), which are believed to have distinct neurodevelopmental origins. High-resolution T1-weighted scans were collected on 65 participants (31 22q11DS, 34 demographically comparable typically developing controls, 10-25 years old). Measures of cortical volume, CT, and SA were extracted from regions of interest using the FreeSurfer image analysis suite. Group differences and age-related trajectories in these structures, as well as their association with psychotic symptomatology, were assessed. Relative to controls, 22q11DS participants showed bilateral volumetric reductions in the inferior temporal cortex, fusiform gyrus, anterior cingulate, superior parietal cortex, and cuneus, which were driven by decreased SA in these regions. 22q11DS participants also had increased volumes, driven by increased CT, in bilateral insula regions. 22q11DS youth had increased CT in frontal regions, particularly middle frontal and medial orbitofrontal cortices. A pattern of age-associated cortical thinning was observed in typically developing controls in brain regions associated with visual and sensory information-processing (i.e., left pericalcarine cortex and fusiform gyrus, right lingual and postcentral cortices). However, this relationship was disrupted in 22q11DS participants. Finally, correlational analyses revealed that increased CT in right medial orbitofrontal cortex was associated with increased positive symptom severity in 22q11DS. Differential disruptions of CT and SA in distinct cortical regions in 22q11DS may indicate abnormalities in distinct developmental neural processes. Further, neuroanatomic abnormalities in medial frontal

  12. THE MOISTURE METER OF THE DOUGH SEMI-FINISHED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kvasnikov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In the article a new method and device of measuring of humidity of semi-finished products isoffered from a test which is based on measuring of free falling time of purveyance from a dough in an airenvironment under the action of gravity. The basic factors of external environment, influencing on humidityof purveyances of tests - pressure and temperature, are marked. By a mathematical design the analysis ofinfluencing of atmospheric pressure and temperature is conducted on humidity of purveyances from thedough.Keywords: humidity meters, oscillation transformer, products from a dough, simulation.

  13. Quantitative method of viral pollution determination for large volume of water using ferric hydroxide gel impregnated on the surface of glassfibre cartridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Homma

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative method of viral pollution determination for large volume of water using ferric hydroxide gel impregnated on the surface of glassfibre cartridge filter. The use of ferric hydroxide gel, impregnated on the surface of glassfibre cartridge filter enable us to recover 62.5% of virus (Poliomylitis type I, Lsc strain exsogeneously added to 400 liters of tap-water. The virus concentrator system consists of four cartridge filters, in which the three first one are clarifiers, where the contaminants are removed physically, without significant virus loss at this stage. The last cartridge filter is impregnated with ferric hydroxide gel, where the virus is adsorbed. After the required volume of water has been processed, the last filter is removed from the system and the viruses are recovered from the gel, using 1 liter of glycine/NaOH buffer, at pH 11. Immediately the eluate is clarified through series of cellulose acetate membranes mounted in a 142mm Millipore filter. For the second step of virus concentration, HC1 1N is added slowly to the eluate to achieve pH 3.5-4. MgC1, is added to give a final concentration of 0.05M and the viruses are readsorbed on a 0.45 , porosity (HA cellulose acetate membrane, mounted in a 90 mm Millipore filter. The viruses are recovered using the same eluent plus 10% of fetal calf serum, to a final volume of 3 ml. In this way, it was possible to concentrate virus from 400 liters of tap-water, into 1 liter in the first stage of virus concentration and just to 3 ml of final volume in a second step. The efficiency, simplicity and low operational cost, provded by the method, make it feasible to study viral pollution of recreational and tap-water sources.Relata-se o emprego de um concentrador portátil, o qual se mostrou capaz de recuperar 62,5% dos vírus (Polio I, amostra Lsc experimentalmente dispersos em 400 litros de água, os quais foram reduzidos a 3 ml. O sistema concentrador de vírus é composto de quatro

  14. Dietary starch types affect liver nutrient metabolism of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chen; Li, Yanjiao; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Guanghong; Gao, Feng

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different starch types on liver nutrient metabolism of finishing pigs. In all ninety barrows were randomly allocated to three diets with five replicates of six pigs, containing purified waxy maize starch (WMS), non-waxy maize starch (NMS) and pea starch (PS) (the amylose to amylopectin ratios were 0·07, 0·19 and 0·28, respectively). After 28 d of treatments, two per pen (close to the average body weight of the pen) were weighed individually, slaughtered and liver samples were collected. Compared with the WMS diet, the PS diet decreased the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 in liver (P0·05). Compared with the WMS diet, the PS diet reduced the expressions of glutamate dehydrogenase and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 in liver (Pinsulin receptor, and increased the expressions of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and ribosomal protein S6 kinase β-1 in liver compared with the WMS diet (Pinsulin/PI3K/protein kinase B signalling pathway in liver of finishing pigs.

  15. Establishing Trailer Ventilation (Boarding) Requirements for Finishing Pigs during Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, John; Sapkota, Avi; Johnson, Anna; Kephart, Rebecca

    2014-08-19

    Specifically, this study aimed to establish the effects on mortality and morbidity of boarding levels (amount of side-wall trailer ventilation) for finishing pigs in mild weather (8.80 ± 0.30 °C, 71.70% ± 1.12% humidity). Pigs from commercial finishing sites were transported in 302 pot-bellied trailers to commercial processing plants. Measures collected at the processing plant were rates of dead on arrival (DOA), non-ambulatory, non-injured (NANI), non-ambulatory, injured (NAI), and total dead and down (D&D). Boarding levels (% that side walls were closed off with inserted boards) were divided into 3 bins: low, medium, and high, and outside temperature was divided into 4 bins 15 °C. Average rates of DOA, NANI, NAI, and D&D were approximately 0.30%, 0.12%, 0.04%, and 0.46%, respectively. The D&D was highest when boarding level was low with temperatures boarding level (medium and high boarding) in the temperature range of 5.10 °C to 23.30 °C did not affect pig losses.

  16. TECHNOLOGY FORMING PRICE DISTRIBUTION OF FINISHED GOODS OF LOGISTICS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikova T. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern economics has developed a number of areas of the system for controlling the distribution of finished products. However, in domestic and foreign economic literature the mechanisms of logistics approach are not sufficient to provide higher sales of enterprise-producers, that have sales in remote areas. In this study, first, the importance of company-producers and end-users the methods of rational delivery of finished products is considered, and secondly, the approaches to defining the essence and content of the concept of «distribution» are given, in the third, the logistics processes of the distribution system ready products of a particular company-producer are described, fourthly, the technology of one price product delivery was developed and it was shown the economic efficiency (the possible results of the solution of the problem of distribution logistics of its application in the target company. The study showed that there is an opportunity, based on the development and implementation of technologies to reduce the final price of the goods, to develop the company and increase its competitiveness by minimizing costs and increasing return on investment. The results of research extend the knowledge of methodology of system logistics management in the enterprise.

  17. Characterization of solid surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kane, Philip F; Larrabee, Graydon B

    1974-01-01

    .... A comprehensive review of surface analysis, this important volume surveys both principles and techniques of surface characterization, describes instrumentation, and suggests the course of future research...

  18. Effect of Exposed Surface Area, Volume and Environmental pH on the Calcium Ion Release of Three Commercially Available Tricalcium Silicate Based Dental Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaprakash Rajasekharan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tricalcium silicate cements (TSC are used in dental traumatology and endodontics for their bioactivity which is mostly attributed to formation of calcium hydroxide during TSC hydration and its subsequent release of calcium and hydroxide ions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of volume (Vol, exposed surface area (ESA and pH of surrounding medium on calcium ion release. Three commercially available hydraulic alkaline dental cements were mixed and condensed into cylindrical tubes of varying length and diameter (n = 6/group. For the effect of ESA and Vol, tubes were immersed in 10 mL of deionized water. To analyze the effect of environmental pH, the tubes were randomly immersed in 10 mL of buffer solutions with varying pH (10.4, 7.4 or 4.4. The solutions were collected and renewed at various time intervals. pH and/or calcium ion release was measured using a pH glass electrode and atomic absorption spectrophotometer respectively. The change of pH, short-term calcium ion release and rate at which calcium ion release reaches maximum were dependent on ESA (p < 0.05 while maximum calcium ion release was dependent on Vol of TSC (p < 0.05. Maximum calcium ion release was significantly higher in acidic solution followed by neutral and alkaline solution (p < 0.05.

  19. Handbook of solar energy data for south-facing surfaces in the United States. Volume I. An insolation, array shadowing, and reflector augmentation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.H.

    1980-01-15

    This handbook provides estimates of average available solar insolation to fixed, flat-plate, south-facing collector surfaces at various array tilt angles at numerous sites in the US. This first volume contains average daily, total insolation estimates, by month, and annual totals for 235 locations. A model that estimates the direct, diffuse, and reflected components of total insolation on an hourly, daily, and monthly basis is presented. A shadow loss model and a reflector augmentation model providing estimates of the losses and gains associated with various fixed array geometries are also described. These models can be used with the insolation model provided or with other recorded data. A FORTRAN computer program with user's guide is presented. The program can be used to generate additional handbook values or to examine the effects of array shadowing and fixed reflector augmentation effects on a daily, monthly, or annual basis. Array shadowing depends on location, array size, array tilt, array separation, and time. The program can be used to examine trade-offs between array spacing and insolation losses due to shadowing. The reflector augmentation program can be used to examine trade-offs among array size and tilt, separation, and reflector tilt to determine the combination of design values that optimize the economic objectives or technical criteria of the system.

  20. Comments on the article by A. J. Lecloux (J Nanopart Res (2015) 17:447) regarding the use of volume-specific surface area (VSSA) to classify nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, Neil; Rauscher, Hubert; Roebben, Gert

    2016-01-01

    In November 2015, an article by A. J. Lecloux was published in this journal (J Nanopart Res, 17:447, 2015). The article focused on the use of volume-specific surface area (VSSA) for the implementation of the European Commission’s recommended definition of “nanomaterial”. In that paper, VSSA values were calculated for polydisperse particulate materials using a particle number-based averaging method which do not agree with earlier results of VSSA simulations of polydisperse materials reported in 2014 by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (EC). In this contribution, we explain the difference between traditional view of VSSA which was used by the JRC and the proposed model of Lecloux. Through the use of some simple examples for polydisperse materials, it is demonstrated that the latter produces values which neither correspond to the generally accepted definition of VSSA nor relate to the commonly used experimental methods for determining VSSA using gas adsorption. Lecloux’s model therefore does not constitute a basis for practical implementation of the EC’s definition of nanomaterial using gas adsorption techniques.

  1. Effects of excipients on the tensile strength, surface properties and free volume of Klucel® free films of pharmaceutical importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottnek, Mihály; Süvegh, Károly; Pintye-Hódi, Klára; Regdon, Géza

    2013-08-01

    The physicochemical properties of polymers planned to be applied as mucoadhesive films were studied. Two types of Klucel® hydroxypropylcellulose (LF and MF) were used as film-forming polymers. Hydroxypropylcellulose was incorporated in 2 w/w% with glycerol and xylitol as excipients and lidocaine base as an active ingredient at 5, 10 or 15 w/w% of the mass of the film-forming polymer. The free volume changes of the films were investigated by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, the mechanical properties of the samples were measured with a tensile strength tester and contact angles were determined to assess the surface properties of the films. It was found that the Klucel® MF films had better physicochemical properties than those of the LF films. Klucel® MF as a film-forming polymer with lidocaine base and both excipients at 5 w/w% exhibited physicochemical properties and good workability. The excipients proved to exert strong effects on the physicochemical properties of the tested systems and it is very important to study them intensively in preformulation studies in the pharmaceutical technology in order to utilise their benefits and to avoid any disadvantageous effects.

  2. Effect of Exposed Surface Area, Volume and Environmental pH on the Calcium Ion Release of Three Commercially Available Tricalcium Silicate Based Dental Cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekharan, Sivaprakash; Vercruysse, Chris; Martens, Luc; Verbeeck, Ronald

    2018-01-13

    Tricalcium silicate cements (TSC) are used in dental traumatology and endodontics for their bioactivity which is mostly attributed to formation of calcium hydroxide during TSC hydration and its subsequent release of calcium and hydroxide ions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of volume (Vol), exposed surface area (ESA) and pH of surrounding medium on calcium ion release. Three commercially available hydraulic alkaline dental cements were mixed and condensed into cylindrical tubes of varying length and diameter ( n = 6/group). For the effect of ESA and Vol, tubes were immersed in 10 mL of deionized water. To analyze the effect of environmental pH, the tubes were randomly immersed in 10 mL of buffer solutions with varying pH (10.4, 7.4 or 4.4). The solutions were collected and renewed at various time intervals. pH and/or calcium ion release was measured using a pH glass electrode and atomic absorption spectrophotometer respectively. The change of pH, short-term calcium ion release and rate at which calcium ion release reaches maximum were dependent on ESA ( p < 0.05) while maximum calcium ion release was dependent on Vol of TSC ( p < 0.05). Maximum calcium ion release was significantly higher in acidic solution followed by neutral and alkaline solution ( p < 0.05).

  3. Effect of Wood Flour Addition on the Pore Volume and BET Surface Area Properties of the Prepared Gamma Alumina (ɤ-Al2O3 Extrudates Used in Catalyst Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa D. Jawad Al-Bayati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Wood Flour addition to the gamma alumina powder used in the preparation of gamma alumina (ɤ-Al2O3 catalyst carrier extrudates on the pore volume and BET surface area physical properties was investigated. Two parameters which are size of wood flour particles and its quantity were studied. The sizes of wood flour particles used are 150 µm, 212 µm and 500 µm and the weight percentage added to the gamma alumina powder during the preparation of the extrudates are (1%, 3%, 5% and 10%. The results showed that the addition of wood flour to the gamma alumina powder in order to get gamma alumina extrudates used as catalyst carrier is one of the successful methods to improve the pore volume and BET surface area of the alumina extrudates. The size of wood flour particles and its quantity have main effect on the above texture properties. The smaller the size of wood flour leaded to higher BET surface area, where maximum BET surface area of 127.3 m2/g was got with addition 10% by weight wood flour of 150µm particle size. BET surface area for the same addition percentage of 10% resulted to 114.5m2/g and 105.2m2/g when adding wood flour of 212 µm and 500 µm particle sizes respectively. The weight percentage of wood flour addition has an effect on the BET surface area, where the 3% addition gives maximum BET surface area when the size of the wood flour particles is 500 µm. Regarding the pore volume property for the gamma alumina prepared extrudates, the results showed that the pore volume of the extrudates increased to 0.83 cm3/g and 1.0 cm3/g when 10% wood flour of 150 µm and 500 µm particle sizes were added respectively. The maximum BET surface area was reached when 10% wood flour of 150 µm particle size was added, and the maximum pore volume was reached when 10% wood flour of 500 µm particle size was added, the increase percentage for the BET surface area and pore volume is more than 40% and 400% respectively.

  4. Anatomic relationships of the distal and proximal radioulnar joints articulating surface areas, and of the radius and ulna bone volumes – implications for biomechanical studies of the distal and proximal radioulnar joints and forearm bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S C Malone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPrevious work from this laboratory has evidenced the biomechanical role of forearm osseoligamentous structures in load transfer of applied forces. It has shown that transmitted forces across the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ and proximal radioulnar joint (PRUJ are similar though not identical under axial loading conditions. The purpose of the study was to assess the articulating surface areas of the radioulnar joints and the volumes of the forearm bones addressing the hypothesis that there may be anatomic adaptations that reflect the biomechanical function of the integrated forearm unit.MethodsThe articulating surface areas of PRUJ and DRUJ were assessed using a laser scanner in 24 cadaver forearms. The articulating joint surfaces were additionally delineated from standardized photographs assessed by three observers. The surface areas of matched pairs of joints were compared on the null hypothesis that these were the same within a given forearm specimen. An additional 44 pairs of matched forearm bone volumes were measured using water displacement technique and again compared through statistical analysis (paired sample t-test, and Bland Altman analysis.ResultsThe findings of this study are that the articulating surface areas of the DRUJ and PRUJ as well as the bone volumes are significantly different and yet strongly correlated. The paired sample t-test showed a significant difference between the surface areas of the DRUJ and PRUJ (p<0.05. The PRUJ articulating surface area was marginally larger than the DRUJ with a PRUJ : DRUJ ratio of 1.02. Paired sample t-test showed a significant difference between the two bone volumes (p<0.01 with a radius to ulna bone volume ratio of 0.81. When the olecranon was disregarded, radius volume was on average 4% greater than ulna volume.ConclusionsThis study demonstrated defines the anatomical relationships between the two forearm bones and their articulating joints when matched for specimen. The data

  5. Assessment of left and right ventricular parameters in healthy Korean volunteers using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: change in ventricular volume and function based on age, gender and body surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sung-A; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Jang, Shin Yi; Kim, Sung Mok; Lee, Sang-Chol; Oh, Jae K

    2012-12-01

    The clinical utility of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is growing and is being used predominantly as a means of measuring ventricular function. The normal reference range of ventricular function may vary based on age, sex and ethnicity. At present, most CMR reference values for healthy individuals have been reported from Western countries. The intent of this study was to investigate the normal CMR reference range for left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) parameters in healthy Koreans. Healthy volunteers between the ages of 20-70 years without any history of cardiovascular disease or associated risk factors were prospectively recruited to be a part of this study. A total of 124 patients were recruited for this study. Steady-state free precession pulse sequences were used to obtain the cine images for LV and RV volume analysis. All parameters were analyzed based on age and gender, and normalized to body surface area (BSA). LV volume, mass and cardiac output were significantly greater in males than in females. However, all of these parameters which are associated with BSA and gender differences disappeared when corrected for BSA. RV volume was less in females even after the data was normalized for BSA. LV and RV volumes normalized for BSA gradually decreased with greater age, whereas the ejection fraction increased with age, thus maintaining the stroke volume index and cardiac index. LV and RV volumes, mass and function values for a healthy population largely depend on BSA and should be evaluated after normalization by BSA. LV parameters show no difference based on gender, but RV volume is less in the female. Greater age is associated with less ventricular volume, suggesting the possibility of volume sensitivity in the elderly.

  6. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nass, R. [Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  7. Radon exhalation from some finishing materials frequently used in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Raja, G.

    2009-01-01

    Building materials are one of the main radon sources in dwellings. Therefore, the determination of radon exhalation from these materials will help in prediction the existence of dwelling with potential radon risk. Ceramic tiles and marble samples were collected from Syrian local market. The correlation between radon exhalation from these materials and radium-226 content was studied. Results showed that there is no clear relation between radium content and radon exhalation rate, and the exhalation of radon did not exceed the permissible limits of American Environment Protection Agency (EPA). In addition, the additional annual dose from radon and gamma of the natural radioactivity in ceramic and marble when used as finishing materials in houses was also estimated and found to be not exceeding 20 μSv and 35 μSv from radon and gamma respectively.

  8. Thermal Properties of Anionic Polyurethane Composition for Leather Finishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga KOVTUNENKO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of anionic polyurethane composition mixed with collagen product and hydrophilic sodium form of montmorillonite for use in the finishing of leather were studied by thermogravimetric method. The thermal indices of processes of thermal and thermo-oxidative destruction depending on the polyurethane composition were determined. The influence of anionic polyurethane composition on thermal behavior of chromium tanned gelatin films that imitate the leather were studied. APU composition with natural compounds increases their thermal stability both in air and in nitrogen atmosphere due to the formation of additional bonds between active groups of APU, protein and chrome tanning agent as the result of chemical reactions between organic and inorganic parts with the new structure formation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.10043

  9. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J.; Nass, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage

  10. Plutonium Finishing Plant Transition Project mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courson, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    This report defines the mission for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Transition Project (PFPTP) using a systems engineering approach. This mission analysis will be the basis for the functional analysis which will further define and break down the mission statement into all of the detailed functions required to accomplish the mission. The functional analysis is then used to develop requirements, allocate those requirements to functions, and eventually be used to design the system. This report: presents the problem which will be addressed, defines PFP Transition Project, defines the overall mission statement, describes the existing, initial conditions, defines the desired, final conditions, identifies the mission boundaries and external interfaces, identifies the resources required to carry out the mission, describes the uncertainties and risks, and discusses the measures which will be used to determine success

  11. Nutrition behaviors, perceptions, and beliefs of recent marathon finishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick B

    2016-09-01

    To describe the nutrition behaviors, perceptions, and beliefs of marathoners. A survey-based study was conducted with 422 recent marathon finishers (199 men, 223 women). Participants reported their running background, demographics, diets followed, supplements used, and food/fluid intake during their most recent marathon (median 7 days prior), as well as beliefs about hydration, fueling, and sources of nutrition information. Median finishing times were 3:53 (3:26-4:35) and 4:25 (3:50-4:59) h:min for men and women during their most recent marathon. Most participants (66.1%) reported typically following a moderate-carbohydrate, moderate-fat diet, while 66.4% carbohydrate-loaded prior to their most recent marathon. Among 139 participants following a specific diet over the past year, the most common were vegetarian/vegan/pescatarian (n = 39), Paleolithic (n = 16), gluten-free (n = 15), and low-carbohydrate (n = 12). Roughly 35% of participants took a supplement intended to improve running performance over the past month. Women were more likely to follow specific diets (39.0% vs. 26.1%), while men were more likely to recently use performance-enhancing supplements (40.2% vs. 30.0%). Most participants (68.3%) indicated they were likely or very likely to rely on a structured plan to determine fluid intake, and 75% were confident in their ability to hydrate. At least 35.6% of participants thought they could improve marathon performance by 8% or more with nutrition interventions. Scientific journals ranked as the most reliable source of nutrition information, while running coaches ranked as the most likely source to be utilized. Findings from this investigation, such as diets and supplements utilized by marathoners, can be used by practitioners and researchers alike to improve the dissemination of scientifically-based information on nutrition and marathon running.

  12. Reduced Amygdala Volume Is Associated with Deficits in Inhibitory Control: A Voxel- and Surface-Based Morphometric Analysis of Comorbid PTSD/Mild TBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. Depue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant portion of previously deployed combat Veterans from Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND are affected by comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI. Despite this fact, neuroimaging studies investigating the neural correlates of cognitive dysfunction within this population are almost nonexistent, with the exception of research examining the neural correlates of diagnostic PTSD or TBI. The current study used both voxel-based and surface-based morphometry to determine whether comorbid PTSD/mTBI is characterized by altered brain structure in the same regions as observed in singular diagnostic PTSD or TBI. Furthermore, we assessed whether alterations in brain structures in these regions were associated with behavioral measures related to inhibitory control, as assessed by the Go/No-go task, self-reports of impulsivity, and/or PTSD or mTBI symptoms. Results indicate volumetric reductions in the bilateral anterior amygdala in our comorbid PTSD/mTBI sample as compared to a control sample of OEF/OIF Veterans with no history of mTBI and/or PTSD. Moreover, increased volume reduction in the amygdala predicted poorer inhibitory control as measured by performance on the Go/No-go task, increased self-reported impulsivity, and greater symptoms associated with PTSD. These findings suggest that alterations in brain anatomy in OEF/OIF/OND Veterans with comorbid PTSD/mTBI are associated with both cognitive deficits and trauma symptoms related to PTSD.

  13. Analysis of Failure to Finish a Race in a Cohort of Thoroughbred Racehorses in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Tanner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to describe the incidence of failure to finish a race in flat-racing Thoroughbreds in New Zealand as these are summary indicators of falls, injuries and poor performance. Retrospective data on six complete flat racing seasons (n = 188,615 race starts of all Thoroughbred flat race starts from 1 August 2005 to 31 July 2011 were obtained. The incidence of failure to finish events and binomial exact 95% confidence intervals were calculated per 1000 horse starts. The association between horse-, rider- and race-level variables with the outcomes failure to finish, pulled-up/fell and lost rider were examined with a mixed effects Poisson regression model. A total of 544 horses failed to finish in 188,615 race starts with an overall incidence of 2.88 per 1000 horse starts (95% CI 2.64–3.12. The incidence of failure to finish horses across each race year showed little variability. In the univariable analysis race distance, larger field size, season, and ratings bands showed association with failing to finish a race. The overall failure to finish outcome was associated with season, race distance and ratings bands (horse experience and success ranking criteria. In the multivariable analysis, race distance and ratings bands were associated with horses that pulled-up/fell; season, apprentice allowances and ratings bands were associated with the outcome lost rider. The failure to finish rate was lower than international figures for race day catastrophic injury. Racing and environmental variables were associated with failure to finish a race highlighting the multifactorial nature of race-day events. Further investigation of risk factors for failure to finish is required to better understand the reasons for a low failure to finish rate in Thoroughbred flat races in New Zealand.

  14. SU-F-J-22: Lung VolumeVariability Assessed by Bh-CBCT in 3D Surface Image Guided Deep InspirationBreath Hold (DIBH) Radiotherapy for Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, A; Stanley, D; Papanikolaou, N; Crownover, R [University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: With the increasing use of DIBH techniques for left-sided breast cancer, 3D surface-image guided DIBH techniques have improved patient setup and facilitated DIBH radiation delivery. However, quantification of the daily separation between the heart and left breast still presents a challenge. One method of assuring separation is to ensure consistent left lung filling. With this in mind, the aim of this study is to retrospectively quantify left lung volume from weekly breath hold-CBCTs (bh-CBCT) of left-sided breast patients treated using a 3D surface imaging system. Methods: Ten patients (n=10) previously treated to the left breast using the C-Rad CatalystHD system (C-RAD AG, Uppsala Sweden) were evaluated. Patients were positioned with CatalystHD and with bh-CBCT. bh-CBCTs were acquired at the validation date, first day of treatment and at subsequent weekly intervals. Total treatment courses spanned from 3 to 5 weeks. bh-CBCT images were exported to VelocityAI and the left lung volume was segmented. Volumes were recorded and analyzed. Results: A total of 41 bh-CBCTs were contoured in VelocityAI for the 10 patients. The mean left lung volume for all patients was 1657±295cc based on validation bh-CBCT. With the subsequent lung volumes normalized to the validation lung volume, the mean relative ratios for all patients were 1.02±0.11, 0.97±0.14, 0.98±0.11, 1.02±0.01, and 0.96±0.02 for week 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Overall, the mean left lung volume change was ≤4.0% over a 5-week course; however left lung volume variations of up to 28% were noted in a select patient. Conclusion: With the use of the C-RAD CatalystHD system, the mean lung volume variability over a 5-week course of DIBH treatments was ≤4.0%. By minimizing left lung volume variability, heart to left breast separation maybe more consistently maintained. AN Gutierrez has a research grant from C-RAD AG.

  15. Effects of roughage inclusion and particle size on performance and rumination behavior of finishing beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughage is mechanically processed to increase digestibility, and handling and mixing characteristics in finishing diets. Roughage is fed to promote rumen health and decrease digestive upset, but inclusion in finishing diets is limited due to the cost per unit of energy. Rumination behavior may be a...

  16. 76 FR 79221 - Penske Logistics, LLC, Customer Service Department General Motors and Tier Finished Goods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ..., Customer Service Department General Motors and Tier Finished Goods/Finished Goods Division; a Subsidiary of... September 1, 2010, applicable to workers of Penske Logistics, LLC, Customer Service Department, a subsidiary... Services and Manpower. The workers are engaged in the supply of customer service. The notice was published...

  17. The Effectiveness of Finishing School Programmes from the Perspectives of Graduates and Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Jamal; Eam, Lim Hock; Ismail, Russayani; Rahim, Fauziah Abdul; Isa, Filzah Md; Ismail, Ismi Arif

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effectiveness of Finishing School programmes in enhancing the employability of graduates from institutions of higher learning. The perceptions of the graduates and employers towards the effectiveness of the programmes were analyzed. The effectiveness of Finishing School programmes evaluated through a graduate…

  18. Relationship of glucocorticoids and hematological measures with feed intake, growth, and efficiency of finishing beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of glucocorticoids and markers for immune status in finishing beef steers and heifers with DMI, growth, and efficiency. Calves (n = 236) were individually fed a finishing ration for 84 d with BW measured every 21 d. Blood samples we...

  19. The effect of pheno-formaldehyde finishing on the properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the effect of catalyst concentration, curing time and temperature on a phenolformaldehyde finished direct dyed cotton. The grey cotton fabric was desized, scoured, bleached and dyed with chlorazol D, a direct dye. Sample of the dyed cotton were subjected to resin finishing using phenol: formaldehyde.

  20. "Miss! I'm Done!" Finishing Craft Assignments as a Situated Activity System in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deunk, Marjolein; Berenst, Jan; de Glopper, Kees

    2010-01-01

    We describe the Situated Activity System of finishing craft assignments in preschool: the specific, routinized way that child and teacher jointly close the child's craft assignment, employing a specific discourse pattern. We analyzed the interactions of 14 Dutch children between 2.1 and 3.10 years old while they were finishing their craft…

  1. Effects of time of change from broiler starter to broiler finisher diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of time of change from broiler starter ration (BSR) to broiler finisher ration (BFR) on growth performance and economy of gain of meat- type chickens. Six hundred Abor Acres broiler chickens were used in an 8-week study in which same starter and finisher diets were fed but at ...

  2. 40 CFR 427.80 - Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. 427.80 Section 427.80 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.80 Applicability; description...

  3. 40 CFR 410.40 - Applicability; description of the woven fabric finishing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the woven... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Woven Fabric Finishing Subcategory § 410.40 Applicability; description of the woven fabric finishing subcategory. The...

  4. MODIFICATION OF RECIPES USED IN THE BLEACHING SECTION OF THE FINISHING PLANT OF THE TEXTILE UNIT "DESEMBARCO DEL GRANMA”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cabrera Estada

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Textile Basic Unit (BU “Desembarco del Granma” of Villa Clara is one of the most important textile industries in Cuba, it is responsible for the provision of a wide variety of fabrics, threads and surgical gauze to various sectors of the country. In the finishing plant of the BU "Desembarco del Granma" a production that meets the parameters set is achieved, but this requires the use of large volumes of costly chemicals and with negative impacts on the environment. To solve this problem an investigation was carried out to evaluate the modification of some of the recipes used in the bleaching section of the finishing plant of the BU "Desembarco del Granma". The results obtained were processed with the Statgraphics software. When the caustic soda is decreased from 60g/L to 40g/L, and it is analyzed the capillarity of warp, it was confirmed that there is no significant difference between the average of the two samples, for a 95,0 % of confidence level; but there were differences between the variances; when analyzing the fabric capillarity it was found that there is no significant difference between the average and the variance of the two samples for a 95,0 % of confidence level. With such modification it is saved 241,4 $/day, by concept of decrease of soda used. The hydrogen peroxide cannot be reduced because it affects the white degree of the fabric.

  5. Evaluation of the susceptibility to corrosion by pites of supermartensitic stainless steel with different superficial finishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Mario Jose Bueno de Souza

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the susceptibility by pitting corrosion in a supermartensitic stainless steel (13%Cr) with different surface finishes, in an environment that simulates the conditions found in the range of the Brazilian marine subsoil before the dense layer of salt - the so-called pre-salt. In this study were conducted electrochemical tests of potentiodynamic anodic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in environment containing 35, 50 and 190 g/L of NaCl and dissolved oxygen concentrations <10, 100 and 500ppb. Were also used the techniques of Moessbauer spectroscopy and EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry) coupled to a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for microstructural characterization of 13%Cr steel. It was observed by the electrochemical tests, the increase in the concentration of chloride ions in solution makes the studied steel more susceptible to localized corrosion. It was also observed that the material showed less susceptibility to pitting corrosion when its surface was less rough. (author)

  6. Plasma-enhanced regenerable 5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DMH) antibacterial finishing for cotton fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chang-E.; Kan, Chi-Wai

    2015-02-01

    In this study, atmospheric pressure nitrogen plasma treatment was applied to cotton fabrics in the coating process of cotton fabric coated with 5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DMH) with the aim to enhance the adhesion of DMH and antibacterial property. Then chlorine was introduced into nitrogen-containing groups on the coated cotton fabrics in order to make it antibacterial by chlorination with sodium hypochlorite. The antibacterial property, rechargeability and stability of the coated cotton fabrics were investigated. FTIR, UV and SEM were used to evaluate the surface properties, including the existence of DMH on cotton fabrics, the content of DMH on cotton fabrics and the surface topography of cotton fabrics after modification. The results showed that nitrogen plasma treatment introduces nitrogen-containing groups into cotton fabrics and enhances the adhesion of DMH on the fabrics, and introduction of chlorine on the coated fabrics inhibits bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), effectively and the antibacterial property is regenerable. Therefore, the antibacterial finishing of cotton fabrics coated with DMH with the aid of nitrogen plasma treatment achieves good effect.

  7. A study on the applications of AI in finishing of additive manufacturing parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathima Patham, K.

    2017-06-01

    Artificial intelligent and computer simulation are the technological powerful tools for solving complex problems in the manufacturing industries. Additive Manufacturing is one of the powerful manufacturing techniques that provide design flexibilities to the products. The products with complex shapes are directly manufactured without the need of any machining and tooling using Additive Manufacturing. However, the main drawback of the components produced using the Additive Manufacturing processes is the quality of the surfaces. This study aims to minimize the defects caused during Additive Manufacturing with the aid of Artificial Intelligence. The developed AI system has three layers, each layer is trying to eliminate or minimize the production errors. The first layer of the AI system optimizes the digitization of the 3D CAD model of the product and hence reduces the stair case errors. The second layer of the AI system optimizes the 3D printing machine parameters in order to eliminate the warping effect. The third layer of AI system helps to choose the surface finishing technique suitable for the printed component based on the Degree of Complexity of the product and the material. The efficiency of the developed AI system was examined on the functional parts such as gears.

  8. Mortality on grower/finisher-only swine operations in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Losinger W.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available For 53 grower/finisher-only swine operations that participated in the United States National Animal Health Monitoring System 1995 National Swine Study, mortality among finisher pigs ranged from 0 to 12.0% over a 6-month period. Twenty-six (49.1% had 2% mortality. Nine (17.0% operations experienced >4% mortality. Fisher's exact test revealed that operations with all-in all-out management were significantly more likely to have 1 grower/finisher pig came from another source. Larger operations (where >900 pigs entered the grower/finisher phase practiced all-in, all-out management more frequently than smaller operations, and had a lower mean percent mortality than smaller operations. Diagnosis of Salmonella in finisher pigs performed at a laboratory or by a veterinarian in the 12 months prior to interview was associated with both increased percent mortality and increased percent mortality per day.

  9. Carcass and meat quality of finished and non-finished Limousin heifers from alpine livestock systems differing in altitudinal origin of the forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangnat, Isabelle D M; Kreuzer, Michael; McCormick, Andrea Clavijo; Leiber, Florian; Berard, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Effects of the alpine origin of the forage and of finishing on carcass and beef quality were quantified by modelling different alpine livestock system alternatives. Thirty-five Limousin heifers, initially weighing 383 ± 45 kg, were fed fresh grass at 400 or 2000 m above sea level, or a 1:1 mixture of alpine grass and lowland grass hay at 2000 m. After 9 weeks, the six heaviest and oldest animals per group were slaughtered. The remaining animals were finished for 8 weeks on a silage-concentrate diet in the lowlands to similar age and body weight as the first slaughtered group. Carcass and meat quality (M. longissimus thoracis) were assessed in various respects. The average daily gains achieved were of about 600 g/d and similar between forage-type groups. Dressing percentage was 53.5% in the alpine and 57.2% in the lowland group. Carcass conformation and fat cover scores did not differ between forage-type groups. The meat from the alpine groups had greater ultimate pH and smaller redness, yellowness and protein contents. Still, these differences were of minor practical relevance. There was no forage-type effect on water-holding capacity and shear force of the meat. The alpine systems enhanced the proportion of α-linolenic acid in intramuscular fat and decreased the levels of some volatile compounds in perirenal fat. Finishing resulted in compensatory growth, especially in the animals previously fed lowland grass. There was a trend for the finished compared with the non-finished groups towards greater carcass fat cover and intramuscular fat content. Additionally, ultimate pH was smaller and cooking loss was greater with than without finishing. Meat colour differences were also observed. Shear force was not affected by finishing. The finished animals had a smaller α-linolenic acid proportion in the intramuscular fat. In conclusion, the forage type had small effects on carcass and meat quality. Finishing did not substantially improve carcass and meat quality. The

  10. Advanced zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron particles for acidic magnetorheological finishing of chemical-vapor-deposited ZnS and other IR materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, S.; Giannechini, L. J.; Romanofsky, H. J.; Golini, N.; Taylor, B.; Jacobs, S. D.; Lambropoulos, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    We present a modified version of zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron (CI) particles that were invented at the University of Rochester in 2008. The amount of zirconia on the coating is increased to further protect the iron particles from corrosion when introduced to an acidic environment. Five low-pH, magnetorheological (MR) fluids were made with five acids: acetic, hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric, and hydrofluoric. All fluids were based on the modified zirconia-coated CI particles. Off-line viscosity and pH stability were measured for all acidic MR fluids to determine the ideal fluid composition for acidic MR finishing of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) zinc sulfide (ZnS) and other infrared (IR) optical materials, such as hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) ZnS, CVD zinc selenide (ZnSe), and magnesium fluoride (MgF2). Results show significant reduction in surface artifacts (millimeter-size, pebble-like structures on the finished surface) for several standard-grade CVD ZnS substrates and good surface roughness for the non-CVD MgF2 substrate when MR finished with our advanced acidic MR fluid.

  11. Household vacuum cleaners vs. the high-volume surface sampler for collection of carpet dust samples in epidemiologic studies of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buffler Patricia A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of pesticides and other compounds in carpet dust can be useful indicators of exposure in epidemiologic studies, particularly for young children who are in frequent contact with carpets. The high-volume surface sampler (HVS3 is often used to collect dust samples in the room in which the child had spent the most time. This method can be expensive and cumbersome, and it has been suggested that an easier method would be to remove dust that had already been collected with the household vacuum cleaner. However, the household vacuum integrates exposures over multiple rooms, some of which are not relevant to the child's exposure, and differences in vacuuming equipment and practices could affect the chemical concentration data. Here, we compare levels of pesticides and other compounds in dust from household vacuums to that collected using the HVS3. Methods Both methods were used in 45 homes in California. HVS3 samples were collected in one room, while the household vacuum had typically been used throughout the home. The samples were analyzed for 64 organic compounds, including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, using GC/MS in multiple ion monitoring mode; and for nine metals using conventional microwave-assisted acid digestion combined with ICP/MS. Results The methods agreed in detecting the presence of the compounds 77% to 100% of the time (median 95%. For compounds with less than 100% agreement, neither method was consistently more sensitive than the other. Median concentrations were similar for most analytes, and Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.60 or higher except for allethrin (0.15 and malathion (0.24, which were detected infrequently, and benzo(kfluoranthene (0.55, benzo(apyrene (0.55, PCB 105 (0.54, PCB 118 (0.54, and PCB 138 (0.58. Assuming that the HVS3 method is the "gold standard," the extent to which the household vacuum cleaner method yields relative risk

  12. The Effect of Different Finishing Lines on the Marginal Fitness of Full Contour Zirconia and Glass Ceramic CAD/CAM Crowns (An in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAK Al-Zubaidi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two gingival finishing lines (90° shoulder and deep chamfer on the marginal fitness of two types of full anatomic all-ceramic crowns; zirconia crowns (Zikonzhan and glass ceramic crowns (IPS e-max CAD milled with CAD/CAM system. Materials and Methods: Two dentoform teeth of left maxillary first molar were prepared with chamfer finishing line (CFL and shoulder finishing line (SFL, respectively and duplicated to Nickel-Chromium master dies. Thirty two crowns were fabricated and grouped as follows: Group I: 8 zirconia crowns on CFL; Group II: 8 zirconia crowns on SFL; Group III: 8 glass ceramic crowns on CFL and Group IV: 8 glass ceramic crowns on SFL. Marginal gaps were measured at 4 indentations, each one was at center of each tooth surface and collectively 16 points were measured by using stereomicroscope (160X. The data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA and student t-tests. Results: Group I produced the least marginal gap (73.55µm; followed by Group II (92.60µm, and Group III (151.45µm and the highest marginal gap was recorded by Group IV (162.34µm. Statistical analysis of the data showed that SFL produced significantly greater marginal gap on zirconia crowns in comparison with CFL. However, in glass ceramic crowns, CFL revealed less marginal gap compared to SFL but statistically was not significant. On the other hand, glass ceramic crowns significantly produced a greater marginal gap in comparison to zirconia crowns regardless type of finishing line. Conclusions: deep chamfer margin could be more preferable finishing line than 90° shoulder especially for zirconia full crowns. Furthermore, zirconia crowns could be more advisable than glass ceramic crowns in respect to marginal adaptation.

  13. Provenance of the oil in par-fried French fries after finish frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khusaibi, Mohammed; Gordon, Michael H; Lovegrove, Julie A; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2012-01-01

    Frozen par-fried French fries are finish-fried either by using the same type of oil used for par frying, or a different type. The nutritive quality of the final oil contained in the product depends on the relative amounts and the fatty acid (FA) composition of the oils used for par frying and finish frying. With the aim of understanding the provenance of the oil in the final product, par-fried French fries-either purchased ready or prepared in the laboratory-were finish fried in oils different from the ones used for par frying. The moisture content, oil content, and FA compositions of the par-fried and finish-fried products were experimentally determined, and the relative amounts of each of the oils present in the final product were calculated using the FAs as markers and undertaking a mass balance on each component FA. The results demonstrate that 89% to 93% of the total oil in the final product originates from the finish-frying step. The study also shows that a significant proportion of the oil absorbed during par frying is expelled from the product during finish frying. Further, the expulsion of par-frying oil was found to occur in the early stages of the finish-frying step. Experiments involving different combinations of par-frying and finish-frying oils showed that the relative proportions of the 2 oils did not depend on the individual fatty acid profiles. This study concludes that any positive health benefits of using an oil having a favorable FA profile for par frying, can potentially be lost, if the oil used for finish frying has a less favorable composition. This paper estimates the relative amounts of oil in French fries that have been fried in 2 stages-a par-frying step and a finish-frying step-which is commonly practiced in food service establishments as well as homes. The 2 key conclusions are: (1) nearly 90% of the oil content of the final product is the one used for finish frying; that is, a processor may use very good oil for par frying but if the

  14. Ractopamine in diets for finishing pigs of different sexual categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique da Trindade Barbosa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Performance and carcass and cut yield of finishing pigs of three sexual categories fed diets with different levels of ractopamine were studied. Forty-eight hybrid animals (initial weight of 92.1±2.4 kg were distributed in a completely randomised design in 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (three sexual categories: surgically castrated males, two females and immunologically castrated males - with or without 10 ppm of ractopamine, totalling six treatments and eight repetitions with one animal per experimental plot during 28 days. Ractopamine improved weight gain and feed conversion of all sexual categories. The best results were obtained with immunologically castrated males, which, in turn, had lower carcass yield and backfat thickness in the belly. In the absence of ractopamine, depth and loin eye area were higher in females but no differences in these variables were observed between categories when this additive was used. Ractopamine increased the sirloin yield in all sexual categories. There was no difference in bonus index. Ractopamine improves the performance of pigs of 92 to 125 kg. Immunologically castrated males have the best performance responses to ractopamine, but with losses in carcass yield, loin characteristics and backfat thickness of the belly.

  15. Finishing procedures in Orthodontics: dental dimensions and proportions (microesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carlos Bodart Brandão

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present article is to describe procedures that can be performed to achieve excellence in orthodontic treatment finishing. The content is limited to microesthetics, which comprises the concept of ideal dental dimensions and proportions (white esthetics and its correlation with the periodontium (pink esthetics. Standards of normality are described both in their real dimensions (dental height and width, and in those effectively perceived by the observer, the virtual dimensions. METHODS: The best scientific evidence was sought in the literature to support the clinical procedures that must guide the professional to obtain maximum esthetic quality on their treatments. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate what the other specialties in Dentistry expect from Orthodontics and, specially, what they have to offer. Clinical cases will be used to illustrate the dental movement that might maximize treatment outcome and to confront the ideal standards with the current state of the art. CONCLUSION: Treatment quality is directly related to the amount of procedures implemented by the orthodontist, associated with concepts and resources from Periodontics and Dental Prosthesis. Microesthetics cannot be seen in isolation, but rather as the key to establish a pleasant smile (miniesthetics in addition to a harmonious face (macroesthetics and a human being with high self-esteem (hyper-esthetics.

  16. Novel finishing concepts within BNFL'S advanced reprocessing programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, J.W.; Booth, R.; Lawson, S.; Parkes, P.

    2000-01-01

    New methods of converting actinide nitrate solutions to oxide and fabricating the products from the reprocessing of high burn up and MOX fuels are necessary for the next generation of fuel cycle facilities in order to meet dose criteria and cost reduction targets. Options to support this include never fully separating the plutonium from the uranium and reducing decontamination factors. The product stream from such a reprocessing plant will require a finishing route capable of significant levels of automation and dose minimization. Casting of molten uranyl nitrate into pellets followed by de-nitration under vacuum has been investigated as a novel way of manufacturing oxide fuel pellets. Pellets were successfully cast over a range of temperatures and de-nitrated. Incorporation of uranium oxide into the melt was investigated to increase the density of the cast pellet. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to produce extrudates from powder and molten magnesium nitrate mixtures. Results of a preliminary study of the flow behaviour during extrusion of magnesium nitrate simulant loaded with alumina powder are also discussed. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of different finish line designs in base metal alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghandeh R

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was performed according to the widespread application of base metal alloys"nand few articles published about the marginal integrity of restorations fabricated by these metals."nThree standard dies of a maxillary first premolar were prepared with a flat shoulder finish line in buccal"naspect and chamfer in palatal. One of them left with no change. On the buccal aspect of the second and"nthird dies 135?and 1607 bevel were added respectively"nUsing dual wax technique, nine wax patterns were formed on each die and casting procedure of selected"nnon precious alloy was performed by centrifugal method. Marginal gaps of each copping seated on dies"nwere measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM with X500 magnification. Measurements were"ndone on three areas of marked dies on buccal aspect. Measurement son palatal aspect was done on"nmarked midpalatal point as control."nResults and statistical analysis showed no significant difference among marginal gaps in lingual aspect."nBut on the buccal aspect there were statistically significant differences among the groups (P<0.001. Flat"nshoulder had the best marginal integrity (mean 4 micron. Shoulder with 160' bevel had the most marginal"ngap (mean 26.5 micron and shoulder with 1357 bevel was between two other groups (mean 15.7 micron.

  18. Microencapsulated citronella oil for mosquito repellent finishing of cotton textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specos, M M Miró; García, J J; Tornesello, J; Marino, P; Vecchia, M Della; Tesoriero, M V Defain; Hermida, L G

    2010-10-01

    Microcapsules containing citronella essential oil were prepared by complex coacervation and applied to cotton textiles in order to study the repellent efficacy of the obtained fabrics. Citronella released from treated textiles was indirectly monitored by the extractable content of its main components. Repellent activity was assessed by exposure of a human hand and arm covered with the treated textiles to Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Fabrics treated with microencapsulated citronella presented a higher and longer lasting protection from insects compared to fabrics sprayed with an ethanol solution of the essential oil, assuring a repellent effect higher than 90% for three weeks. Complex coacervation is a simple, low cost, scalable and reproducible method of obtaining encapsulated essential oils for textile application. Repellent textiles were achieved by padding cotton fabrics with microcapsules slurries using a conventional pad-dry method. This methodology requires no additional investment for textile finishing industries, which is a desirable factor in developing countries. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Factors influencing dust exposure: finishing activities in drywall construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Catherine E; Jones, Rachael M; Boelter, Fred W

    2011-05-01

    Sanding drywall joint compound is a dusty construction activity. We studied potential factors influencing exposure to respirable and total dust for sanders and bystanders in the area of drywall joint compound finishing in 17 test events within a room-scale isolation chamber. We found the air change rate to be negatively correlated with dust C(twa) both in the sander's personal breathing zone and surrounding area. We could not conclude that sanding tool type systematically influences dust C(twa), but the use of 80-grit abrasive was associated with the highest dust C(twa). We found respirable dusts were uniformly dispersed 1-8.2 m from sanding activities at a fixed location. As anticipated, both respirable and total dust C(twa) in the sander's personal breathing zone are higher than in the surrounding area. The respirable fraction of the total dust mass C(twa) was greater in the surrounding area than in the sander's personal breathing zone. Respirable dust concentrations measured in real time increased over the duration of sanding, exhibiting a temporal trend that is similar to that predicted by the well-mixed box model with contaminant removal by mechanical ventilation only, and continuous emission. Dust concentrations returned to pre-activity (background) levels 2-4 hr after cessation of the sanding activity.

  20. Fire hazard analysis for Plutonium Finishing Plant complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCKINNIS, D.L.

    1999-02-23

    A fire hazards analysis (FHA) was performed for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Complex at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The scope of the FHA focuses on the nuclear facilities/structures in the Complex. The analysis was conducted in accordance with RLID 5480.7, [DOE Directive RLID 5480.7, 1/17/94] and DOE Order 5480.7A, ''Fire Protection'' [DOE Order 5480.7A, 2/17/93] and addresses each of the sixteen principle elements outlined in paragraph 9.a(3) of the Order. The elements are addressed in terms of the fire protection objectives stated in paragraph 4 of DOE 5480.7A. In addition, the FHA also complies with WHC-CM-4-41, Fire Protection Program Manual, Section 3.4 [1994] and WHC-SD-GN-FHA-30001, Rev. 0 [WHC, 1994]. Objectives of the FHA are to determine: (1) the fire hazards that expose the PFP facilities, or that are inherent in the building operations, (2) the adequacy of the fire safety features currently located in the PFP Complex, and (3) the degree of compliance of the facility with specific fire safety provisions in DOE orders, related engineering codes, and standards.

  1. Maintenance implementation plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meldrom, C.A.

    1996-03-01

    This document outlines the Maintenance Implementation Plan (MIP) for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located at the Hanford site at Richland, Washington. This MIP describes the PFP maintenance program relative to DOE order 4330.4B. The MIP defines the key actions needed to meet the guidelines of the Order to produce a cost-effective and efficient maintenance program. A previous report identified the presence of significant quantities of Pu-bearing materials within PFP that pose risks to workers. PFP's current mission is to develop, install and operate processes which will mitigate these risks. The PFP Maintenance strategy is to equip the facility with systems and equipment able to sustain scheduled PFP operations. The current operating run is scheduled to last seven years. Activities following the stabilization operation will involve an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to determine future plant activities. This strategy includes long-term maintenance of the facility for safe occupancy and material storage. The PFP maintenance staff used the graded approach to dictate the priorities of the improvement and upgrade actions identified in Chapter 2 of this document. The MIP documents PFP compliance to the DOE 4330.4B Order. Chapter 2 of the MIP follows the format of the Order in addressing the eighteen elements. As this revision is a total rewrite, no sidebars are included to highlight changes

  2. Fire hazard analysis for Plutonium Finishing Plant complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCKINNIS, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    A fire hazards analysis (FHA) was performed for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Complex at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The scope of the FHA focuses on the nuclear facilities/structures in the Complex. The analysis was conducted in accordance with RLID 5480.7, [DOE Directive RLID 5480.7, 1/17/94] and DOE Order 5480.7A, ''Fire Protection'' [DOE Order 5480.7A, 2/17/93] and addresses each of the sixteen principle elements outlined in paragraph 9.a(3) of the Order. The elements are addressed in terms of the fire protection objectives stated in paragraph 4 of DOE 5480.7A. In addition, the FHA also complies with WHC-CM-4-41, Fire Protection Program Manual, Section 3.4 [1994] and WHC-SD-GN-FHA-30001, Rev. 0 [WHC, 1994]. Objectives of the FHA are to determine: (1) the fire hazards that expose the PFP facilities, or that are inherent in the building operations, (2) the adequacy of the fire safety features currently located in the PFP Complex, and (3) the degree of compliance of the facility with specific fire safety provisions in DOE orders, related engineering codes, and standards

  3. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  4. Electrochemical machining of internal built-up surfaces of large-sized vessels for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabchenko, N.N.; Pulin, V.Ya.

    1977-01-01

    Electrochemical machining (ECM) has been employed for finishing of mechanically processed inner surfaces of large lateral parts of construction bodies with welded 0Kh18N10T steel overlayer. The finishing technology developed reduces the surface roughness from 10 mcm to the standard 2.5 mcm at the efficiency of machining of 2-4 m 2 per hour

  5. Establishing Bedding Requirements during Transport and Monitoring Skin Temperature during Cold and Mild Seasons after Transport for Finishing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, John; Johnson, Anna; Sapkota, Avi; Kephart, Rebecca

    2014-05-21

    The broad aim of this study was to determine whether bedding level in the transport trailer influenced pig performance and welfare. Specifically, the objective was to define the bedding requirements of pigs during transportation in commercial settings during cold and mild weather. Animals (n = 112,078 pigs on 572 trailers) used were raised in commercial finishing sites and transported in trailers to commercial processing plants. Dead on arrival (DOA), non-ambulatory (NA), and total dead and down (D&D) data were collected and skin surface temperatures of the pigs were measured by infrared thermography. Data were collected during winter (Experiment 1) and fall/spring (Experiment 2). Total D&D percent showed no interaction between bedding level and outside air temperature in any experiments. Average skin surface temperature during unloading increased with outside air temperature linearly in both experiments (P transport.

  6. Experimental analysis on semi-finishing machining of Ti6Al4V additively manufactured by direct melting laser sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbrogno, Stano; Bordin, Alberto; Bruschi, Stefania; Umbrello, Domenico

    2016-10-01

    The Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques are particularly appealing especially for titanium aerospace and biomedical components because they permit to achieve a strong reduction of the buy-to-fly ratio. However, finishing machining operations are often necessary to reduce the uneven surface roughness and geometrics because of local missing accuracy. This work shows the influence of the cutting parameters, cutting speed and feed rate, on the cutting forces as well as on the thermal field observed in the cutting zone, during a turning operation carried out on bars made of Ti6Al4V obtained by the AM process called Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS). Moreover, the sub-surface microstructure alterations due to the process are also showed and commented.

  7. Design and Feasibility Testing of the truth FinishIt Tobacco Countermarketing Brand Equity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Rath, Jessica; Pitzer, Lindsay; Hair, Elizabeth C; Snider, Jeremy; Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna

    2016-07-01

    The original truth campaign was a branded, national smoking prevention mass media effort focused on at-risk youth ages 12-17. Today the truth brand focuses on the goal of finishing tobacco (truth FinishIt). There have been significant changes in the tobacco control landscape, leading FinishIt to focus on 15- to 21-year-olds. The present article reports on formative research and media monitoring data collected to pilot test a new truth FinishIt brand equity scale. The goals of this study were to (a) content analyze truth FinishIt mass media ads, (b) assess truth's social media and followers' perceptions of truth's digital brand identity, and (c) develop and feasibility test a new version of the truth FinishIt brand equity scale using data from an existing Truth Initiative media monitoring study. Through factor analysis, we identified a brand equity scale, as in previous research, consisting of 4 main constructs: brand loyalty, leadership/satisfaction, personality, and awareness. Targeted truth attitudes and beliefs about social perceptions, acceptability, and industry-related beliefs were regressed on the higher order factor and each of the 4 individual brand equity factors. Ordinary least squares regression models generally showed associations in the expected directions (positive for anti-tobacco and negative for pro-tobacco) between targeted attitudes/beliefs and truth FinishIt brand equity. This study succeeded in developing and validating a new truth FinishIt brand equity scale. The scale may be a valuable metric for future campaign evaluation. Future studies should examine the effects of truth FinishIt brand equity on tobacco use behavioral outcomes over time.

  8. Efficacy of 2 finishing protocols in the quality of orthodontic treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Gregory J; McNamara, James A; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2011-11-01

    The objectives of this prospective clinical study were to evaluate the quality of treatment outcomes achieved with a complex orthodontic finishing protocol involving serpentine wires and a tooth positioner, and to compare it with the outcomes of a standard finishing protocol involving archwire bends used to detail the occlusion near the end of active treatment. The complex finishing protocol sample consisted of 34 consecutively treated patients; 1 week before debonding, their molar bands were removed, and serpentine wires were placed; this was followed by active wear of a tooth positioner for up to 1 month after debonding. The standard finishing protocol group consisted of 34 patients; their dental arches were detailed with archwire bends and vertical elastics. The objective grading system of the American Board of Orthodontics was used to quantify the quality of the finish at each time point. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare changes in the complex finishing protocol; the Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare changes between groups. The complex finishing protocol group experienced a clinically significant improvement in objective grading system scores after treatment with the positioner. Mild improvement in posterior space closure was noted after molar band removal, but no improvement in the occlusion was observed after placement of the serpentine wires. Patients managed with the complex finishing protocol also had a lower objective grading system score (14.7) at the end of active treatment than did patients undergoing the standard finishing protocol (23.0). Tooth positioners caused a clinically significant improvement in interocclusal contacts, interproximal contacts, and net objective grading system score; mild improvement in posterior band space was noted after molar band removal 1 week before debond. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 40 CFR 425.10 - Applicability; description of the hair pulp, chrome tan, retan-wet finishing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pulp, chrome tan, retan-wet finishing subcategory. 425.10 Section 425.10 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Pulp, Chrome Tan, Retan-Wet Finish Subcategory § 425.10 Applicability; description of the hair pulp, chrome tan, retan-wet finishing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  10. 40 CFR 425.20 - Applicability; description of the hair save, chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... save, chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory. 425.20 Section 425.20 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Save, Chrome Tan, Retan-Wet Finish Subcategory § 425.20 Applicability; description of the hair save, chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  11. Magnetic finishing of titanium sheet. Jiki wo riyoshita chitanban no kyomen kenma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansai, M.; Sudo, T.; Nakagawa, T. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science); Endo, H. (Daido Steel Co. Ltd., Nagoya (Japan))

    1992-02-01

    The result of an experiment is reported, in which a pure titanium thin sheet made of non-magnetic material is finished magnetically using newly developed magnetic abrasives. The apparatus consists of a milling machine, an electric magnet, an iron core, and magnetic abrasives. A sheet steel or a permanent magnet is placed underneath a thin titanium sheet, whereas magnetic abrasives attracted to the magnet are absorbed from below, and given a processing pressure to grind the titanium sheet. The magnetic abrasives, which use carbonyl iron powder and SiC whiskers that had shown good result in a preliminary experiment as the raw materials, were developed by using a mechanical alloying process. What have been derived in the experiment include the relationship of the sheet thickness with the magnetic flux density (in a positive correlation with the grinding amount), the relationship of the rotation of the milling machine with the surface roughness, and the relationship in the change of the grinding amounts and the magnetic flux density due to difference in the grinding patterns. As a result of the experiment, it was clarified that a titanium plate surface having a roughness of 1{mu}m R{sub max} could be reduced to 0.3{mu}m R{sub max}. A reduction to 0.1{mu}m R{sub max} would be possible if the magnetic abrasives are devised properly, and the method would be applicable to curved surfaces and deformed pipes if the magnet is given different arrangements. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Moderate temperature-dependent surface and volume resistivity and low-frequency dielectric constant measurements of pure and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) doped polyvinyl alcohol thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Matthew; Guggilla, Padmaja; Reedy, Angela; Ijaz, Quratulann; Janen, Afef; Uba, Samuel; Curley, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Previously, we have reported measurements of temperature-dependent surface resistivity of pure and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNCT) doped amorphous Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) thin films. In the temperature range from 22 °C to 40 °C with humidity-controlled environment, we found the surface resistivity to decrease initially, but to rise steadily as the temperature continued to increase. Moreover, electric surface current density (Js) was measured on the surface of pure and MWCNT doped PVA thin films. In this regard, the surface current density and electric field relationship follow Ohm's law at low electric fields. Unlike Ohmic conduction in metals where free electrons exist, selected captive electrons are freed or provided from impurities and dopants to become conduction electrons from increased thermal vibration of constituent atoms in amorphous thin films. Additionally, a mechanism exists that seemingly decreases the surface resistivity at higher temperatures, suggesting a blocking effect for conducting electrons. Volume resistivity measurements also follow Ohm's law at low voltages (low electric fields), and they continue to decrease as temperatures increase in this temperature range, differing from surface resistivity behavior. Moreover, we report measurements of dielectric constant and dielectric loss as a function of temperature and frequency. Both the dielectric constant and dielectric loss were observed to be highest for MWCNT doped PVA compared to pure PVA and commercial paper, and with frequency and temperature for all samples.

  13. Mathematical model for the strip temperature evolution on a continuous finishing hot mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camurri, C.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this work is to construct a mathematical model to describe the strip temperature evolution at a continuous finishing hot rolling mill. the model predicts in a satisfactory way the strip temperature, with a finishing one (exit of stand 6) with a deviation of + 6,5 degree centigrade for a mean temperature drop of 150 degree centigrade at the continuous finishing hot mill and a mean error of 4.3 %. It also predicts a coiler temperature with a difference of + 9,2 degree centigrade a mean temperature drop of 240 degree centigrade in the cooling table and a mean error of 3.8%. (Author) 16 refs

  14. Interaction of dispersed polyvynil acetate with silicate in finishing materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runova, R. F.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the processes of interaction between calcium silicate hydrates and dispersed polyvinyl acetate in tight films with the aim of developing compounds meant for restoration and finishing works. The basis of this development relies on the concept concerning the determining role of the crystal-chemical factor of the silicate phase in the formation of organic-mineral compounds of increased durability. The characteristics of dispersed calcium silicate hydrates are portrayed. The preparation conditions, accounting for the synthesis of the product of submicrocrystalline structure, conforming with the stoichiometry CaO∙SiO2 =0.8-2.0 have been determined. The interaction has been studied for compounds achieved by mixing ingredients in a rapid whirling mixer, and subjected to hardening at T=20+2 T. With the aid of XRD, DTA and Infra-Red Spectrometry methods the formation process of the sophisticated polymer silicate phase in the material was observed for a period of 90 days. The properties of the film were investigated and its high resistance against the influence of external factors was established. On this basis a conclusion concerning the quite high effectiveness of substituting portland cement with dispersed calcium silicate hydrate in polymer cement compounds has been made. White colour and other various special properties determine the suitability for repair and finishing works on facades of buildings.

    Este artículo está orientado a estudiar los procesos de interacción entre los silicatos cálcicos hidratados y el acetato de polivinilo disperso en capas impermeables, con el objeto de desarrollar compuestos destinados para la restauración. El fundamento de estos estudios es determinar el papel que los factores cristaloquímicos de las fases silicato tienen en la formación de compuestos órganominerales de elevada durabilidad. Se han descrito las características de los silicatos cálcicos hidratados

  15. Co-extrusion of semi-finished aluminium-steel compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thürer, S. E.; Uhe, J.; Golovko, O.; Bonk, C.; Bouguecha, A.; Klose, C.; Behrens, B.-A.; Maier, H. J.

    2017-10-01

    The combination of light metals and steels allows for new lightweight components with wear-resistant functional surfaces. Within the Collaborative Research Centre 1153 novel process chains are developed for the manufacture of such hybrid components. Here, the production process of a hybrid bearing bushing made of the aluminium alloy EN AW-6082 and the case-hardened steel 20MnCr5 is developed. Hybrid semi-finished products are an attractive alternative to conventional ones resulting from massive forming processes where the individual components are joined after the forming process. The actual hybrid semi-finished products were manufactured using a lateral angular co-extrusion (LACE) process. The bearing bushings are subsequently produced by die forging. In the present study, a tool concept for the LACE process is described, which renders the continuous joining of a steel rod with an aluminium tube possible. During the LACE process, the rod is fed into the extrusion die at an angle of approx. 90°. Metallographic analysis of the hybrid profile showed that the mechanical bonding between the different materials begins about 75 mm after the edge of the aluminium sheath. In order to improve the bonding strength, the steel rod is to be preheated during extrusion. Systematic investigations using a dilatometer, considering the maximum possible co-extrusion process parameters, were carried out. The variable parameters for the dilatometer experiments were determined by numerical simulation. In order to form a bond between the materials, the oxide layer needs to be disrupted during the co-extrusion process. In an attempt to better understand this effect, a modified sample geometry with chamfered steel was developed for the dilatometer experiments. The influence of the process parameters on the formation of the intermetallic phase at the interface was analysed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. This article, which was originally published online on 16

  16. Evaluation of Human Enteric Viruses in Surface Water and Drinking Water Resources in Southern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Kristen E.; Opryszko, Melissa C.; Schissler, James T.; Guo, Yayi; Schwab, Kellogg J.

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 884 million people worldwide do not have access to an improved drinking water source, and the microbial quality of these sources is often unknown. In this study, a combined tangential flow, hollow fiber ultrafiltration (UF), and real-time PCR method was applied to large volume (100 L) groundwater (N = 4), surface water (N = 9), and finished (i.e., receiving treatment) drinking water (N = 6) samples for the evaluation of human enteric viruses and bacterial indicators. Human enteric viruses including norovirus GI and GII, adenovirus, and polyomavirus were detected in five different samples including one groundwater, three surface water, and one drinking water sample. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli assessed for each sample before and after UF revealed a lack of correlation between bacterial indicators and the presence of human enteric viruses. PMID:21212196

  17. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The machining of complex sculptured surfaces is a global technological topic in modern manufacturing with relevance in both industrialized and emerging in countries particularly within the moulds and dies sector whose applications include highly technological industries such as the automotive and aircraft industry. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces considers new approaches to the manufacture of moulds and dies within these industries. The traditional technology employed in the manufacture of moulds and dies combined conventional milling and electro-discharge machining (EDM) but this has been replaced with  high-speed milling (HSM) which has been applied in roughing, semi-finishing and finishing of moulds and dies with great success. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces provides recent information on machining of complex sculptured surfaces including modern CAM systems and process planning for three and five axis machining as well as explanations of the advantages of HSM over traditional methods ra...

  18. Fiber Finishes for Improving Galvanic Resistance of Imide-Based Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allred, R. E

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this program is the development and demonstration of galvanic corrosion resistant carbon/ BMI composites through the use of reactive finishes to form coatings that isolate the carbon...

  19. The Affordable Pre-Finishing of Silicon Carbide for Optical Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Creare proposes to develop a novel, laser-assisted, pre-finishing process for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) coated silicon-carbide ceramics. Our innovation will...

  20. Radiation technology in finishing process improves health, safety and environment (HSE) in the furniture manufacturing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Shakri Mat Seman

    1999-01-01

    In furniture manufacturing, processes like cross cutting, molding, planning, shaping, turning, assembling and finishing are involved. The most significant types of negative impact of these processes are such as dust emission, noise, hazardous work, health risk, emission of organic solvent, toxic chemicals emission and chemical waste. In the finishing process, a number of negative effects that will cause health, safety and environmental (HSE) performance. This article highlights the environmental problems in the furniture finishing processes and how the radiation technology can reduce these negative impacts. The drawbacks that hamper the manufacturers from adopting this technology are also discussed. The objective of the paper is to create the awareness among the industrialist and consumers on the HSE hazardous in furniture finishing and steps can be taken to improve

  1. Conservation of filtering in manufacturing systems with unreliable machines and finished goods buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2006-01-01

    nature of manufacturing systems, this law offers a tool for selecting the smallest, that is, lean, finished goods buffering, which is necessary and sufficient to ensure the desired level ofcustomer demand satisfaction.

  2. DESIGN OF FILL AND FINISH FACILITY FOR ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENTS (API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUUR LAILA KHAIRUDDIN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fill and finish operations continue to be one of the most heavily outsourced activities in the biopharmaceutical manufacturing market today. There are a few aspects that need to be consider in outsource activities like logistic, storage condition, facility certification and audit as regulations and standards which the manufacturer should adhere. Risk would be greater and extra care should be taken when outsource from foreign fill and finish facility. Thus, the internal aseptic fill and finish facility with audit checklist will help to minimize the risk during logistic and storage and also minimize the cost for outsource fill and finish facility. The data collections are through survey and conceptual design with simulation as the execution part.

  3. 77 FR 12227 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... on December 7, 2011, and focused on analytical methods for Cryptosporidium and the source water... attendance due to room and/or teleconference size limitations and therefore urges people to register early...

  4. Factors Influencing Material Removal And Surface Finish Of The Polishing Of Silica Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    SiO2), and several metal oxides, namely, ceria ( CeO2 ) and alumina (Al2O3). Abrasive particles for slurries can be obtained in several forms. One of...size and zeta potential measurements were made of three different commercial slurries ( CeO2 , m-ZrO2, and n- Al2O3) used in a slurry recirculation...particle pzc was closest to the slurry pH (i.e. pH 7 for CeO2 , pH 4 for ZrO2, and pH 10 for Al2O3). This seems to support the Cook model, but it was

  5. Low-Stress Silicon Cladding for Surface Finishing Large UVOIR Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I research, ZeCoat Corporation will develop an affordable, low-stress silicon cladding process which is super-polishable for large UVOIR mirrors. The...

  6. Biomaterial-Associated Infection: Locating the Finish Line in the Race for the Surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Henk J.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Subbiahdoss, Guruprakash; Jutte, Paul C.; van den Dungen, Jan J. A. M.; Zaat, Sebastian A. J.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Grainger, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Biomaterial-associated infections occur on both permanent implants and temporary devices for restoration or support of human functions. Despite increasing use of biomaterials in an aging society, comparatively few biomaterials have been designed that effectively reduce the incidence of

  7. Effects of surface finish and mechanical training on Ni-Ti sheets for elastocaloric cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Tusek, Jaka; Sanna, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Elastocaloric cooling has emerged as a promising alternative to vapor compression in recent years. Although the technology has the potential to be more efficient than current technologies, there are many technical challenges that must be overcome to realize devices with high performance and accep...

  8. Figure and finish characterization of high performance metal mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Church, E.L.

    1991-10-01

    Most metal mirrors currently used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beam lines to reflect soft x-rays are made of electroless nickel plate on an aluminum substrate. This material combination has allowed optical designers to incorporate exotic cylindrical aspheres into grazing incidence x-ray beam-handling systems by taking advantage of single-point diamond machining techniques. But the promise of high-quality electroless nickel surfaces has generally exceeded the performance. We will examine the evolution of electroless nickel surfaces through a study of the quality of mirrors delivered for use at the National Synchrotron Light Source over the past seven years. We have developed techniques to assess surface quality based on the measurement of surface roughness and figure errors with optical profiling instruments. It is instructive to see how the quality of the surface is related to the complexity of the machine operations required to produce it

  9. Monitoring and control of fine abrasive finishing processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarev, Ruslan

    signals were analysed in time-frequency domain and specific process features are extracted in relation to machining parameters and processed surface properties. Development and research of the process monitoring was done with background in evaluation of surface roughness parameters. The characterization...... of surface topography was essential part of engineering of new tools and machine elements. Therefore, the generation of surface texture should be indirectly monitored, and the machining parameters should be adjusted appropriately. Based on evaluating of the surface parameters, polishing process...... was segmented using discretization methods. The applied methodology was proposed for implementation as an on-line system and is considered to be a part of the next generation of STRECON NanoRAP machine....

  10. Drivers of Finished-Goods Inventory in the U.S. Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard P. Cachon; Marcelo Olivares

    2010-01-01

    Automobile manufacturers in the U.S. supply chain exhibit significant differences in their days of supply of finished vehicles (average inventory divided by average daily sales rate). For example, from 1995 to 2004, Toyota consistently carried approximately 30 fewer days of supply than General Motors. This suggests that Toyota's well-documented advantage in manufacturing efficiency, product design, and upstream supply chain management extends to their finished-goods inventory in their downstr...

  11. Effect of Fragrance Finish on Mechanical and Comfort Properties of Digitally Printed Fabric

    OpenAIRE

    AAMIR, Tabassum; ANWAAR, Muhammad; HUSSAIN, Ayesha; BHATTI, Nighat; JAVED, Zafar

    2015-01-01

    With the growing demands of fragrance finished fabrics especially in ladies wear, we have printed 100% cotton fabrics for both corresponding and non-corresponding prints. Digital printing technique has been used for these studies. We have already reported the positive and cost effective impact of corresponding printing along with the fragrance finishing on customer’s perception [1]. Along with the aesthetic properties of a fabric, some other properties of fabrics should be accounted for weari...

  12. EUROMET SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON - SURFACE TEXTURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koenders, L.; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    At the length meeting in Prague in Oct. 1999 a new comparison was suggested on surface texture. The last comparison on this field was finished in 1989. In the meantime the instrumentation, the standards and the written standards have been improved including some software filters. The pilot...... laboratories for this supplementary comparison on surface texture are the Centre for Geometrical Metrology at the Technical University of Denmark and the Micro- and Nanotopography laboratory at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany....

  13. Fused silica capillaries with two segments of different internal diameters and inner surface roughnesses prepared by etching with supercritical water and used for volume coupling electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal; Šlais, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38, 9-10 (2017), s. 1260-1267 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03749S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-29916A Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : fused silica capillary * supercritical water * volume coupling electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2016

  14. Thermal Pollution Mathematical Model. Volume 6; Verification of Three-Dimensional Free-Surface Model at Anclote Anchorage; [environment impact of thermal discharges from power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. S.; Sengupta, S.; Tuann, S. Y.; Lee, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    The free-surface model presented is for tidal estuaries and coastal regions where ambient tidal forces play an important role in the dispersal of heated water. The model is time dependent, three dimensional, and can handle irregular bottom topography. The vertical stretching coordinate is adopted for better treatment of kinematic condition at the water surface. The results include surface elevation, velocity, and temperature. The model was verified at the Anclote Anchorage site of Florida Power Company. Two data bases at four tidal stages for winter and summer conditions were used to verify the model. Differences between measured and predicted temperatures are on an average of less than 1 C.

  15. Heat transfer characteristics of UF6 in a container heated from outer surface. Pt. 1. Thermal hydraulic analysis method taking account of phase change and volume expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wataru, Masumi; Gomi, Yoshio; Yamakawa, Hidetsugu; Tsumune, Daisuke

    1995-01-01

    Natural UF6 is transported in a steel container from foreign countries to the enrichment plant in Japan. If the container meets fire accident, it is heated by fire (800degC) and rupture of the container may occur. For the safety point of view, it is necessary to know whether rupture occurs or not. Because UF6 has a radiological and chemical hazards, it is difficult to perform a demonstration test with UF6. So thermal calculation method has to be developed. The rupture is caused by UF6 gaseous pressure or volume expansion of liquid UF6. To know time history of internal pressure and temperature distribution in the container, it is important to evaluate thermal phenomena of UF6. When UF6 is heated, it changes from solid to liquid or gas at low temperature (64degC) and then its volume expands little by little. In this study, thermal calculation method has been developed taking phase change and thermal expansion of UF6 into account. In the calculation, a two-dimensional model is adopted and natural convection of liquid UF6 is analyzed. As a result of this study, numerical solutions have been obtained taking phase change and volume expansion into account. (author)

  16. Environmental report 1995. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual Environmental Report 1995. This volume is intended to support summary data from Volume 1 and is essentially a detailed data report that provides additional data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in Volume 2, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Volume 2 includes information in eight chapters on monitoring of air, air effluent, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation, as well as three chapters on ground water protection, compliance self-monitoring and quality assurance

  17. UltraForm Finisher Optical Mandrel Fabrication, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The requirements for cost effective manufacturing and metrology of normal incidence and grazing incidence X-Ray optical surfaces is instrumental for the success of...

  18. Free-Surface Modeling of Cryogenic Fluids Using a Higher-Order, Unstructured Grid Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) Method, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Accurate and efficient computational modeling of free-surface flows has numerous applications of current and future relevance to NASA. At present, NASA engineers use...

  19. Development of an economical thin, quiet, long-lasting, high friction surface layer for economical use in Illinois, volume 2 : field construction, field testing, and engineering benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This project provides techniques to improve hot-mix asphalt (HMA) overlays specifically through the use of : special additives and innovative surfacing technologies with aggregates that are locally available in Illinois. The : ultimate goal is to imp...

  20. An integrated approach to planning and rehabilitation for the future: proceedings of the 2. mining and the environment conference - Sudbury '99: volume two: ecosystems: health evaluation and restoration technologies, ground and surface water remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsack, D. [ed.] [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Centre in Mining and Mining Environment Research; Belzile, P. [ed.] [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Dept.of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Yearwood, P. [ed.] [Inco Ltd., Copper Cliff, ON (Canada). Environmental Control and Occupational Health; Hall, G. [ed.] [Falconbridge Ltd., Falconbridge, ON (Canada). Technology Centre

    1999-07-01

    Volume two of the symposium featured 27 papers under the general headings of ecosystems - health evaluation and restoration technologies; and ground and surface water remediation. Five papers are abstracted separately on the use of catchment liming for the improvement of drainage water quality from smelter-impacted lands, the effects of emission reductions from the smelters in Sudbury on recovery of lakes within the metal deposition zone, the effects of regional reductions in sulphur deposition on the recovery of biodiversity in lakes, the influence of drought-induced acidification on biotic recovery and the use of catchment liming for the improvement of drainage water quality from smelter-impacted lands.