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Sample records for surface finishes cleaner

  1. Implementing Cleaner Printed Wiring Board Technologies: Surface Finishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the problems, solutions, and time and effort involved in implementing alternative surface finish technologies, and this guide is produced as part of the DfE Printed Wiring Board Project

  2. Innovative Deterministic Optical Surface Finishing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Increasing the optical surface finishing precision and reducing surface roughness will greatly benefit astronomy telescope and other optical systems. Conventional...

  3. Development of a Modified Vacuum Cleaner for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lee, Steve A.; Edgerly, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to expand space exploration will return humans to the Moon with the goal of maintaining a long-term presence. One challenge that NASA will face returning to the Moon is managing the lunar regolith found on the Moon's surface, which will collect on extravehicular activity (EVA) suits and other equipment. Based on the Apollo experience, the issues astronauts encountered with lunar regolith included eye/lung irritation, and various hardware failures (seals, screw threads, electrical connectors and fabric contamination), which were all related to inadequate lunar regolith mitigation. A vacuum cleaner capable of detaching, transferring, and efficiently capturing lunar regolith has been proposed as a method to mitigate the lunar regolith problem in the habitable environment on lunar surface. In order to develop this vacuum, a modified "off-the-shelf' vacuum cleaner will be used to determine detachment efficiency, vacuum requirements, and optimal cleaning techniques to ensure efficient dust removal in habitable lunar surfaces, EVA spacesuits, and air exchange volume. During the initial development of the Lunar Surface System vacuum cleaner, systematic testing was performed with varying flow rates on multiple surfaces (fabrics and metallics), atmospheric (14.7 psia) and reduced pressures (10.2 and 8.3 psia), different vacuum tool attachments, and several vacuum cleaning techniques in order to determine the performance requirements for the vacuum cleaner. The data recorded during testing was evaluated by calculating particulate removal, relative to the retained simulant on the tested surface. In addition, optical microscopy was used to determine particle size distribution retained on the surface. The scope of this paper is to explain the initial phase of vacuum cleaner development, including historical Apollo mission data, current state-of-the-art vacuum cleaner technology, and vacuum cleaner testing that has

  4. Effect of Burnishing Parameters on Surface Finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirsat, Uddhav; Ahuja, Basant; Dhuttargaon, Mukund

    2017-08-01

    Burnishing is cold working process in which hard balls are pressed against the surface, resulting in improved surface finish. The surface gets compressed and then plasticized. This is a highly finishing process which is becoming more popular. Surface quality of the product improves its aesthetic appearance. The product made up of aluminum material is subjected to burnishing process during which kerosene is used as a lubricant. In this study factors affecting burnishing process such as burnishing force, speed, feed, work piece diameter and ball diameter are considered as input parameters while surface finish is considered as an output parameter In this study, experiments are designed using 25 factorial design in order to analyze the relationship between input and output parameters. The ANOVA technique and F-test are used for further analysis.

  5. Influence of the surface finishing on ultrasound velocity in wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Špaček

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive diagnostic methods are very useful for monumental buildings. This paper deals with one of these technique, namely with ultrasound testing and influence of surface finishing on ultrasound velocity measured by means of device the Arborsonic Decay Detector. Surface finishing (Primalex – thick synthetic film of the surface finishing, Luxol – Extra – thin synthetic film of the surface finishing and Impranal Profi SL – thick acryl film the surface finishing were selected and tested in this research. The transmittion time was measured and velocity was converted from it. This was compared before and after application of surface finishing.

  6. Standard Practice for Effects of Cleaners on Unpainted Aircraft Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes the procedure used to determine the effect of cleaners on unpainted aircraft surfaces. Visual observation is used for determining streaking or permanent stains which require polishing to remove. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  7. Solder flow over fine line PWB surface finishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, F.M.; Hernandez, C.L.

    1998-08-01

    The rapid advancement of interconnect technology has stimulated the development of alternative printed wiring board (PWB) surface finishes to enhance the solderability of standard copper and solder-coated surfaces. These new finishes are based on either metallic or organic chemistries. As part of an ongoing solderability study, Sandia National Laboratories has investigated the solder flow behavior of two azole-based organic solderability preservations, immersion Au, immersion Ag, electroless Pd, and electroless Pd/Ni on fine line copper features. The coated substrates were solder tested in the as-fabricated and environmentally-stressed conditions. Samples were processed through an inerted reflow machine. The azole-based coatings generally provided the most effective protection after aging. Thin Pd over Cu yielded the best wetting results of the metallic coatings, with complete dissolution of the Pd overcoat and wetting of the underlying Cu by the flowing solder. Limited wetting was measured on the thicker Pd and Pd over Ni finishes, which were not completely dissolved by the molten solder. The immersion Au and Ag finishes yielded the lowest wetted lengths, respectively. These general differences in solderability were directly attributed to the type of surface finish which the solder came in contact with. The effects of circuit geometry, surface finish, stressing, and solder processing conditions are discussed.

  8. Polishing Metal Mirrors to 0,025 Micron Surface Finish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, P. E.

    1978-01-01

    A research program undertaken by the Danish Atomic Energy Commission required the fabrication of metal mirrors measuring 1 m long by 53 mm wide, which had to be finished to extremely tight tolerances on thickness, plane-parallelism and surface characteristics. Progressively finer diamond compounds...... are employed to achieve a high gloss finish on the metal mirrors, which are used in polarized neutron experiments. This article describes the fabrication techniques developed at the Commission's Ris phi Central Workshop....

  9. Investigation of Floor Surface Finishes for Optimal Slip Resistance Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Ju Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing the slip resistance of floor surfaces would be desirable, but there is a lack of evidence on whether traction properties are linearly correlated with the topographic features of the floor surfaces or what scales of surface roughness are required to effectively control the slipperiness of floors. Objective: This study expands on earlier findings on the effects of floor surface finishes against slip resistance performance and determines the operative ranges of floor surface roughness for optimal slip resistance controls under different risk levels of walking environments. Methods: Dynamic friction tests were conducted among three shoes and nine floor specimens under wet and oily environments and compared with a soapy environment. Results: The test results showed the significant effects of floor surface roughness on slip resistance performance against all the lubricated environments. Compared with the floor-type effect, the shoe-type effect on slip resistance performance was insignificant against the highly polluted environments. The study outcomes also indicated that the oily environment required rougher surface finishes than the wet and soapy ones in their lower boundary ranges of floor surface roughness. Conclusion: The results of this study with previous findings confirm that floor surface finishes require different levels of surface coarseness for different types of environmental conditions to effectively manage slippery walking environments. Collected data on operative ranges of floor surface roughness seem to be a valuable tool to develop practical design information and standards for floor surface finishes to efficiently prevent pedestrian fall incidents. Keywords: floor surface finishes, operational levels of floor surface roughness, slip resistance, wet, soapy and oily environments

  10. Tool steel quality and surface finishing of plastic molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Agnelli Mesquita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic industry is today in a constant growth, demanding several products from other segments, which includes the plastic molds, mainly used in the injection molding process. Considering all the requirements of plastic molds, the surface finishing is of special interest, as the injected plastic part is able to reproduce any details (and also defects from the mold surface. Therefore, several aspects on mold finishing are important, mainly related to manufacturing conditions - machining, grinding, polishing and texturing, and also related to the tool steel quality, in relation to microstructure homogeneity and non-metallic inclusions (cleanliness. The present paper is then focused on this interrelationship between steel quality and manufacturing process, which are both related to the final quality of plastic mold surfaces. Examples are discussed in terms of surface finishing of plastic molds and the properties or the microstructure of mold steels.

  11. Analytical methods for the characterization of surface finishing in bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardini, I.; Zendri, E.; Biscontin, G.; Brunetin, A.

    2006-01-01

    The recent restoration works of Santo Stefano Church Facade (XV century) in Venice have shown traces variously saved of different kind of surface finishes. These finishes were found on the brick's surface both in the masonry and in the decorative elements. Different brick's surface and decorative tile samples were investigated using several techniques: optical microscopy, scanning electron-microscopy, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and reflectance Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. The evaluation of the reached results was used to understand the decorative techniques and to recognize the material employed

  12. Electrodeposition and surface finishing fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Djokic, Stojan

    2014-01-01

    This volume of Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry has contributions from significant individuals in electrochemistry. This 7 chapter book discusses electrodeposition and the characterization of alloys and composite materials, the mechanistic aspects of lead electrodeposition, electrophoretic deposition of ceramic materials onto metal surfaces and the fundamentals of metal oxides for energy conversion and storage technologies. This volume also has a chapter devoted to the anodization of aluminum, electrochemical aspects of chemical and mechanical polishing, and surface treatments prior to metal

  13. The importance of surface finish to energy performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Geoff B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Power generation in solar energy systems, thermal control in buildings and mitigation of the Urban Heat Island problem, are all sensitive to directional response to incoming radiation. The radiation absorption and emission profile also plays a crucial role in each system's response and depends strongly on surface finish. This important sensitivity needs wider recognition in materials data sheets, system modeling, plus in materials and environmental engineering. The impact of surface roughness on thermal response of natural and man-made external environments is examined. Important examples will be given of the role of surface finish within each class. Total emittance links to the way surface finish influences directional emittance E(θ. Smooth surface thermal emittance on PV module covers, many solar absorbers, some roof paints, polished concrete, and glass windows can be up to 15% different from insulator results based on fully diffuse models of the same material. Widespread evidence indicates smooth metals and low-E solar absorber surfaces cool faster, and smooth insulators slower than previously thought. Matt paint is cooler than low sheen paint under the same solar heating impacts and normal concrete cooler than polished. Emittance for water is the prime environmental example of oblique impacts as it reflects strongly at oblique incidence, which leads to a significant drop in E(θ. Ripples or waves however raise water's average emittance. A surprise in this work was the high sensitivity of total E and its angular components to roughness in the depth range of 0.1–0.8 μm, which are well under ambient thermal IR wavelengths of 3–30 μm but common in metal finishing. Parallel energy flows such as evaporation and convective cooling vary if emittance varies. Thermal image analysis can provide insights into angular radiative effects.

  14. Statistical Analysis of Magnetic Abrasive Finishing (MAF) On Surface Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givi, Mehrdad; Tehrani, Alireza Fadaei; Mohammadi, Aminollah

    2010-06-01

    Magnetic assisted finishing is one of the nontraditional methods of polishing that recently has been attractive for the researchers. This paper investigates the effects of some parameters such as rotational speed of the permanent magnetic pole, work gap between the permanent pole and the work piece, number of the cycles and the weight of the abrasive particles on aluminum surface plate finishing. The three levels full factorial method was used as the DOE technique (design of experiments) for studying the selected factors. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) has been used to determine significant factors and also to obtain an equation based on data regression. Experimental results indicate that for a change in surface roughness ΔRa, number of cycles and working gap are found to be the most significant parameters followed by rotational speed and then weight of powders.

  15. Surface profiling in mating parts by combined nonabrasive finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentsev, EV; Fedonin, ON; Smolentsev, VP

    2017-02-01

    Nonabrasive finishing of precision mating surfaces in locking devices with the use of a combined erosion-chemical process at the first stage of the processing and with the use of anodic dissolution by alternating low-voltage current at the final stage of a refinement operation till gapless joints obtaining is considered. It is shown that the application of electro-erosion, electrochemical and combined nonabrasive finishing in mating parts opens up a possibility to ensure stable impermeability in locking devices on a macro- and micro-level through the method of a substantiated purpose of technological modes. A procedure is created for the development of such modes, and on their basis technological processes for the obtaining of gapless mating surfaces meeting the performance requirements for locking devices are developed. For this purpose, qualitative devices resistant to hostile environment are manufactured that is urgent for the mechanical engineering including repetition work for the equipment of petrochemical industry, transport and household machinery.

  16. Non thermal plasma surface cleaner and method of use

    KAUST Repository

    Neophytou, Marios

    2017-09-14

    Described herein are plasma generation devices and methods of use of the devices. The devices can be used for the cleaning of various surfaces and/or for inhibiting or preventing the accumulation of particulates, such as dust, or moisture on various surfaces. The devices can be used to remove dust and other particulate contaminants from solar panels and windows, or to avoid or minimize condensation on various surfaces. In an embodiment a plasma generation device is provided. The plasma generation device can comprise: a pair of electrodes (1,2) positioned in association with a surface of a dielectric substrate (3). The pair of electrodes (1,2) can comprise a first electrode (1) and a second electrode (2). The first electrode and second electrode can be of different sizes, one of the electrodes being smaller than the other of the electrodes. The first electrode and second electrode can be separated by a distance and electrically connected to a voltage source (4,5).

  17. Polymer micromolds with near optical quality surface finishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Pun-Pang; Knopf, George K.; Nikumb, Suwas

    2012-03-01

    Disposable microfluidic systems are used to avoid sample contamination in a variety of medical and environmental monitoring applications. A contactless hot intrusion (HI) process for fabricating reusable polymer micromolds with near "optical quality" surface finishes is described in this paper. A metallic hot intrusion mask with the desired microchannels and related passive components is first machined using a tightly focused beam from a diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) laser. The polymer mold master is then created by pressing the 2D metallic mask onto a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrate. Since it is a contactless fabrication process the resultant 3D micro-reliefs have near optical quality surface finishes. Unfortunately, the desired micro-relief dimensions (height and width) are not easily related to the hot intrusion process parameters of pressure, temperature, and time exposure profile. A finite element model is introduced to assist the manufacturing engineer in predicting the behavior of the PMMA substrate material as it deforms under heat and pressure during micromold manufacture. The FEM model assumes that thermo-plastics like PMMA become "rubber like" when heated to a temperature slightly above the glass transition temperature. By controlling the material temperature and maintaining its malleable state, it is possible to use the stress-strain relationship to predict the profile dimensions of the imprinted microfeature. Examples of curved microchannels fabricated using PMMA mold masters are presented to illustrate the proposed methodology and verify the finite element model. In addition, the non-contact formation of the micro-reliefs simplifies the demolding process and helps to preserve the high quality surface finishes.

  18. Technology of magnetic abrasive finishing in machining of difficult-to-machine alloy complex surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujian MA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The technology of magnetic abrasive finishing is one of the important finishing technologies. Combining with low-frequency vibration and ultrasonic vibration, it can attain higher precision, quality and efficiency. The characteristics and the related current research of magnetic abrasive finishing, vibration assisted magnetic abrasive finishing and ultrasonic assisted magnetic abrasive finishing are introduced. According to the characteristics of the difficult-to-machine alloy's complex surface, the important problems for further study are presented to realize the finishing of complex surface with the technology of magnetic abrasive finishing, such as increasing the machining efficiency by enhancing the magnetic flux density of machining gap and compounding of magnetic energy and others, establishing of the control function during machining and the process planning method for magnetic abrasive finishing of complex surface under the space geometry restraint of complex surface on magnetic pole, etc.

  19. Deburring and surface finishing: The past ten years and projections for the next ten years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1990-09-01

    The 1970s were a decade of significant growth in deburring and surface finishing. In the 1980s progress was made in robotic finishing, burr formation models, surface finish measurement, new processes, equipment and tooling. The centers of burr and surface related research changed. The decade of the 1990s will bring greater competition, environmental restrictions, more processes, more automation, and better characterization and simulation of processes.

  20. Design Process Control for Improved Surface Finish of Metal Additive Manufactured Parts of Complex Build Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikdam Jamal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal additive manufacturing (AM is increasingly used to create complex 3D components at near net shape. However, the surface finish (SF of the metal AM part is uneven, with surface roughness being variable over the facets of the design. Standard post-processing methods such as grinding and linishing often meet with major challenges in finishing parts of complex shape. This paper reports on research that demonstrated that mass finishing (MF processes are able to deliver high-quality surface finishes (Ra and Sa on AM-generated parts of a relatively complex geometry (both internal features and external facets under select conditions. Four processes were studied in this work: stream finishing, high-energy (HE centrifuge, drag finishing and disc finishing. Optimisation of the drag finishing process was then studied using a structured design of experiments (DOE. The effects of a range of finishing parameters were evaluated and optimal parameters and conditions were determined. The study established that the proposed method can be successfully applied in drag finishing to optimise the surface roughness in an industrial application and that it is an economical way of obtaining the maximum amount of information in a short period of time with a small number of tests. The study has also provided an important step in helping understand the requirements of MF to deliver AM-generated parts to a target quality finish and cycle time.

  1. Proceedings of national executive management seminar on surface finishing by radiation curing technology: radiation curing for better finishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This book compiled the paper presented at this seminar. The papers discussed are 1. Incentives for investment in the manufacturing sector (in Malaysia) 2.Trends and prospect of surface finishing by radiation curing technology in Malaysia 3. Industrial application of radiation curing

  2. Surface morphology changes of acrylic resins during finishing and polishing phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucio Serra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The finishing and polishing phases are essential to improve smoothness and shining on the surface of acrylic resins used to make removable orthodontic appliances. A good surface finishing reduces roughness, which facilitates hygiene, prevents staining and provides greater comfort to the patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to analyze the changes on surface morphology of acrylic resins during finishing and polishing phases. METHODS: Thirty discs (10 mm in diameter and 5 mm in length were made with acrylic resin and randomly divided into ten groups. The control group did not receive any treatment while the other groups received gradual finishing and polishing. The last group received the entire finishing and polishing procedures. Surface morphology was qualitatively analyzed through scanning electron microscopy and quantitatively analyzed through a laser profilometer test. RESULTS: The acrylic resin surfaces without treatment showed bubbles which were not observed in the subsequent phases. Wearing out with multilaminated burs, finishing with wood sandpaper and finishing with water sandpaper resulted in surfaces with decreasing irregularities. The surfaces that were polished with pumice and with low abrasive liquids showed high superficial smoothness. CONCLUSION: Highly smooth acrylic resin surfaces can be obtained after mechanical finishing and polishing performed with multilaminated burs, wood sandpaper, water sandpaper, pumice and low abrasive liquids.

  3. Surface Finish and Residual Stresses Induced by Orthogonal Dry Machining of AA7075-T651.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Walid; Songmene, Victor; Bocher, Philippe

    2014-02-28

    The surface finish was extensively studied in usual machining processes (turning, milling, and drilling). For these processes, the surface finish is strongly influenced by the cutting feed and the tool nose radius. However, a basic understanding of tool/surface finish interaction and residual stress generation has been lacking. This paper aims to investigate the surface finish and residual stresses under the orthogonal cutting since it can provide this information by avoiding the effect of the tool nose radius. The orthogonal machining of AA7075-T651 alloy through a series of cutting experiments was performed under dry conditions. Surface finish was studied using height and amplitude distribution roughness parameters. SEM and EDS were used to analyze surface damage and built-up edge (BUE) formation. An analysis of the surface topography showed that the surface roughness was sensitive to changes in cutting parameters. It was found that the formation of BUE and the interaction between the tool edge and the iron-rich intermetallic particles play a determinant role in controlling the surface finish during dry orthogonal machining of the AA7075-T651 alloy. Hoop stress was predominantly compressive on the surface and tended to be tensile with increased cutting speed. The reverse occurred for the surface axial stress. The smaller the cutting feed, the greater is the effect of cutting speed on both axial and hoop stresses. By controlling the cutting speed and feed, it is possible to generate a benchmark residual stress state and good surface finish using dry machining.

  4. SURFACE FINISH WHEN THREADING TITANIUM-BASED ALLOY UNDER DRY MACHINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hartini Hamdan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the quality of surface finish when threading titanium-based alloy under dry condition. The quality of surface finish was studied at various cutting parameters and at the two extreme stages of the machining process, i.e. at the beginning and end of the process. The objective is to evaluate the effect of a worn-out tool on the quality of surface finish. PVD-coated carbide tools were used in this study. Experiments were conducted at two cutting speeds, 35 and 55 m/min, two depths of cut, 0.2 and 0.25 mm, and a constant pitch of 2.0 mm. The tool wear and the quality of surface finish were inspected visually by microscope. The tool’s flank wear was measured gradually and machining was stopped when the flank wear reached the rejection criterion of0.3 mm. The microstructure beneath the machined surface was also evaluated. It was found that, at the beginning of machining, there was only a feed mark on the surface finish. When the machining was prolonged until the tools reached the rejection criterion, a bad surface finish was produced. Metal debris, surface cavities and a boundary crack were observed. Results show that machining with a worn-out tool can cause microstructure alteration beneath the machined surface. The selection of cutting parameters and monitoring of tool wear are crucial in order to obtain a good surface finish. Characterization of the surface finish with respect to the threading process under a dry condition would ultimately help in the development of suitable parameters for machining titanium-based alloys. Surface finish, microstructure, dry machining

  5. Effect of finishing/polishing techniques and time on surface roughness of esthetic restorative materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanthi Sampath Madhyastha

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: It might be concluded that: (i Filtek P90 showed least Ra values followed by < Z100 < Dyract < GIC; (ii immediate (24 h finishing/polishing of materials is better than delayed; and (iii among all these polishing systems, diamond bur–Astropol and Astrobrush showed good surface finish.

  6. Surface finish effects on the high-cycle fatigue of Alloy 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korth, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    Load control high-cycle fatigue tests at 427 and 649 0 C were conducted on Alloy 718 specimens given various surface finishes. The standard surface preparation for fatigue specimens involves a low-stress grind to minimize the residual surface stresses. A low-stress grind surface was used for generating baseline data; various other surfaces that could be considered feasible for large components fabricated in commercial shops were produced on test specimens, and the high-cycle fatigue strength of each was compared. Surface finishes produced by belt sanding, grit blasting, fine machining, and electropolishing were examined. Surface roughness measurements were taken on typical specimens with each surface finish, and residual stress profiles were measured on three of the surface types. Results show little or no difference in fatigue life for the various surfaces and indicate that residual stress profile and grain size are more important factors than surface roughness in determining high-cycle fatigue strength. 12 figures, 5 tables

  7. Effects of Wet and Dry Finishing and Polishing on Surface Roughness and Microhardness of Composite Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Nasoohi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of wet and dry finishing and polishing on microhardness and roughness of microhybrid and nanohybrid composites.Materials and Methods: Thirty samples were fabricated of each of the Polofil Supra and Aelite Aesthetic All-Purpose Body microhybrid and Grandio and Aelite Aesthetic Enamel nanohybrid composite resins. Each group (n=30 was divided into three subgroups of D, W and C (n=10. Finishing and polishing were performed dry in group D and under water coolant in group W. Group C served as the control group and did not receive finishing and polishing. Surface roughness of samples was measured by a profilometer and their hardness was measured by a Vickers hardness tester. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA (P<0.05.Results: The smoothest surfaces with the lowest microhardness were obtained under Mylar strip without finishing/polishing for all composites (P<0.0001. The highest surface roughness was recorded for dry finishing/polishing for all composites (P<0.0001. Dry finishing/polishing increased the microhardness of all composites (P<0.0001.Conclusions: Dry finishing and polishing increases the microhardness and surface roughness of microhybrid and nanohybrid composite resins. Keywords: Composite Resins; Dental Polishing; Hardness

  8. Low-Stress Silicon Cladding for Surface Finishing Large UVOIR Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I research, ZeCoat Corporation demonstrated a low-stress silicon cladding process for surface finishing large UVOIR mirrors. A polishable cladding is...

  9. Surface Finish and Residual Stresses Induced by Orthogonal Dry Machining of AA7075-T651

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Jomaa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The surface finish was extensively studied in usual machining processes (turning, milling, and drilling. For these processes, the surface finish is strongly influenced by the cutting feed and the tool nose radius. However, a basic understanding of tool/surface finish interaction and residual stress generation has been lacking. This paper aims to investigate the surface finish and residual stresses under the orthogonal cutting since it can provide this information by avoiding the effect of the tool nose radius. The orthogonal machining of AA7075-T651 alloy through a series of cutting experiments was performed under dry conditions. Surface finish was studied using height and amplitude distribution roughness parameters. SEM and EDS were used to analyze surface damage and built-up edge (BUE formation. An analysis of the surface topography showed that the surface roughness was sensitive to changes in cutting parameters. It was found that the formation of BUE and the interaction between the tool edge and the iron-rich intermetallic particles play a determinant role in controlling the surface finish during dry orthogonal machining of the AA7075-T651 alloy. Hoop stress was predominantly compressive on the surface and tended to be tensile with increased cutting speed. The reverse occurred for the surface axial stress. The smaller the cutting feed, the greater is the effect of cutting speed on both axial and hoop stresses. By controlling the cutting speed and feed, it is possible to generate a benchmark residual stress state and good surface finish using dry machining.

  10. The effects of lubrication on the temperature rise and surface finish of amalgam and composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C S; Billington, R W; Pearson, G J

    2007-01-01

    It was thought that when finishing and polishing direct filling materials lubrication would affect the surface roughness and temperature rise in samples of amalgam and composite. Previous work by the authors has shown that there is an optimum load, speed and time that produced the smoothest surface when finishing amalgam and composite resin using each of four grades of a disc system. This work was undertaken to examine the effects on temperature rise in samples of amalgam and composite resin of finishing dry compared to finishing with different lubricants. The experiments all used these optimum loads, speeds and times. It also compares the surface finish produced using different lubricants. A high copper amalgam and a hybrid composite resin were finished using the four grades of abrasive discs. Samples produced were 25 mm long by 6 mm wide by 2 mm deep. A thermocouple was inserted 1 mm into the base of the samples. The thermocouple was connected via an electronic thermometer to a computer that permitted the display and recording of temperature against time. After roughening, the samples were finished and polished in a specially constructed jig that mimicked oral finishing. The pre-determined optimum loads, speeds and times were used sequentially for each of the four grades of disc. Five samples were tested for each method of finishing. Firstly, run dry, then in turn lubricated with water, walnut oil and petroleum jelly. After the use of each abrasive disc the surface roughness was measured. One of the five samples was selected at random and prepared for examination in the scanning electron microscope. All results were subjected to non-parametric statistically analyses. With both materials the temperature rise was greatest when run dry, followed by petroleum jelly, walnut oil and the least was when lubricated with water. With these two materials the surface roughness correlates negatively with the temperature rise. The smoothest surface being achieved when finished

  11. Proceedings of workshop on surface finishing by radiation curing technology: radiation curing for better finishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This book compiled the paper presented at this workshop. The papers discussed are 1. Introduction to radiation curing, 2. Radiation sources -ultraviolet and electron beams, 3. UV/EB curing of surface coating - wood and nonwood substrates, 4. Development of EPOLA (epoxidised palm oil products acrylate) and its application, 5. Development of radiation-curable resin based natural rubber

  12. Wavelet theory and belt finishing process, influence of wavelet shape on the surface roughness parameter values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawaja, Z; Mazeran, P-E; Bigerelle, M; Guillemot, G; Mansori, M El

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a multi-scale theory based on wavelet decomposition to characterize the evolution of roughness in relation with a finishing process or an observed surface property. To verify this approach in production conditions, analyses were developed for the finishing process of the hardened steel by abrasive belts. These conditions are described by seven parameters considered in the Tagushi experimental design. The main objective of this work is to identify the most relevant roughness parameter and characteristic length allowing to assess the influence of finishing process, and to test the relevance of the measurement scale. Results show that wavelet approach allows finding this scale.

  13. Multi-Parameter Analysis of Surface Finish in Electro-Discharge Machining of Tool Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Victoria Anghel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a multi- parameter analysis of surface finish imparted to tool-steel plates by electro-discharge machining (EDM is presented. The interrelationship between surface texture parameters and process parameters is emphasized. An increased number of parameters is studied including amplitude, spacing, hybrid and fractal parameters,, as well. The correlation of these parameters with the machining conditions is investigated. Observed characteristics become more pronounced, when intensifying machining conditions. Close correlation exists between certain surface finish parameters and EDM input variables and single and multiple statistical regression models are developed.

  14. Experimental analysis of surface finish in normal conducting cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrebini-Esfahani, A.; Aslaninejad, M.; Ristic, M.; Long, K.

    2017-10-01

    A normal conducting 805 MHz test cavity with an in built button shaped sample is used to conduct a series of surface treatment experiments. The button enhances the local fields and influences the likelihood of an RF breakdown event. Because of their smaller sizes, compared to the whole cavity surface, they allow practical investigations of the effects of cavity surface preparation in relation to RF breakdown. Manufacturing techniques and steps for preparing the buttons to improve the surface quality are described in detail. It was observed that even after the final stage of the surface treatment, defects on the surface of the cavities still could be found.

  15. Effect of machining parameters on surface finish of Inconel 718 in end milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Bapi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface finish is an important criteria in machining process and selection of proper machining parameters is important to obtain good surface finish. In the present work effects of the machining parameters in end milling of Inconel 718 were investigated. Central composite design was used to design the total number of experiments. A Mathematical model for surface roughness has been developed using response surface methodology. In this study, the influence of cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut on surface roughness was analyzed. The study includes individual effect of cutting parameters on surface roughness as well as their interaction. The analysis of variance (ANOVA was employed to find the validity of the developed model. The results show that depth of cut mostly affected the surface roughness. It is also observed that surface roughness values are comparable in both dry and wet machining conditions.

  16. Effect of surface finishing on the oxidation behaviour of a ferritic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardigo-Besnard, M.R., E-mail: maria-rosa.ardigo-besnard@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS—Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Popa, I.; Heintz, O.; Chassagnon, R. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS—Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Vilasi, M. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS—Université de Lorraine, Parc de Saurupt, 54011 Nancy (France); Herbst, F. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS—Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Girardon, P. [APERAM, Centre de Recherche, BP15, 62330 Isbergues (France); Chevalier, S. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS—Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Study of surface finishing effect on the corrosion behaviour of a stainless steel. • Mirror polished samples were compared to as-rolled material. • Two oxidation mechanisms were identified depending on the surface finishing. • Before oxidation, native chemical phases are identical for both samples. • Subsurface dislocations generated by the polishing process promote Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation. - Abstract: The corrosion behaviour and the oxidation mechanism of a ferritic stainless steel, K41X (AISI 441), were evaluated at 800 °C in water vapour hydrogen enriched atmosphere. Mirror polished samples were compared to as-rolled K41X material. Two different oxidation behaviours were observed depending on the surface finishing: a protective double (Cr,Mn){sub 3}O{sub 4}/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale formed on the polished samples whereas external Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and (Cr,Fe){sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides grew on the raw steel. Moreover, isotopic marker experiments combined with SIMS analyses revealed different growth mechanisms. The influence of surface finishing on the corrosion products and growth mechanisms was apprehended by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and residual stress analyses using XRD at the sample surfaces before ageing.

  17. Microgel-based surface modifying system for stimuli-responsive functional finishing of cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulkarni, A.N.; Tourrette, A.; Warmoeskerken, Marinus; Jocic, D.

    2010-01-01

    An innovative strategy for functional finishing of textile materials is based on the incorporation of a thin layer of surface modifying systems (SMS) in the form of stimuli-sensitive microgels or hydrogels. Since the copolymerization of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) with an ionizable polymer, such as

  18. Effects of surface finishing conditions on the biocompatibility of a nickel-chromium dental casting alloy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinley, Emma Louise

    2011-07-01

    To assess the effects of surface finishing condition (polished or alumina particle air abraded) on the biocompatibility of direct and indirect exposure to a nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) d.Sign®10 dental casting alloy on oral keratinocytes. Biocompatibility was performed by assessing cellular viability and morphology, metabolic activity, cellular toxicity and presence of inflammatory cytokine markers.

  19. Surface roughness and hardness of a composite resin: influence of finishing and polishing and immersion methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Botta Martins de Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the finishing and polishing effect on the surface roughness and hardness of the Filtek Supreme XT, in fluoride solutions. Specimens were prepared (n = 140 with half of the samples finished and polished with Super-Snap® disks. The experimental groups were divided according to the presence or absence of finishing and polishing and immersion solutions (artificial saliva, sodium fluoride solution at 0.05% - manipulated, Fluordent Reach, Oral B, Fluorgard. The specimens remained immersed in artificial saliva for 24 hours and were then subjected to initial analysis (baseline of surface roughness and Vickers microhardness. Next, they were immersed in different fluoride solutions for 1 min/day, for 60 days. Afterwards, a new surface roughness and microhardness reading was conducted. The data were submitted to a two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (5% significance level. For the comparison of mean roughness and hardness at baseline and after 60 days, the paired Student t test was used. The results showed that the surface roughness and microhardness of the Filtek Supreme XT were influenced by the finishing and polishing procedure, independently of the immersion methods.

  20. Effects of Wet and Dry Finishing and Polishing on Surface Roughness and Microhardness of Composite Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasoohi, Negin; Hoorizad, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of wet and dry finishing and polishing on microhardness and roughness of microhybrid and nanohybrid composites. Materials and Methods: Thirty samples were fabricated of each of the Polofil Supra and Aelite Aesthetic All-Purpose Body microhybrid and Grandio and Aelite Aesthetic Enamel nanohybrid composite resins. Each group (n=30) was divided into three subgroups of D, W and C (n=10). Finishing and polishing were performed dry in group D and under water coolant in group W. Group C served as the control group and did not receive finishing and polishing. Surface roughness of samples was measured by a profilometer and their hardness was measured by a Vickers hardness tester. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA (Pcomposites (Pcomposites (Pcomposites (Pcomposite resins. PMID:29104597

  1. Performance Improvement of Friction Stir Welds by Better Surface Finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Sam; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The as-welded friction stir weld has a cross section that may act as a stress concentrator. The geometry associated with the stress concentration may reduce the weld strength and it makes the weld challenging to inspect with ultrasound. In some cases, the geometry leads to false positive nondestructive evaluation (NDE) indications and, in many cases, it requires manual blending to facilitate the inspection. This study will measure the stress concentration effect and develop an improved phased array ultrasound testing (PAUT) technique for friction stir welding. Post-welding, the friction stir weld (FSW) tool would be fitted with an end mill that would machine the weld smooth, trimmed shaved. This would eliminate the need for manual weld preparation for ultrasonic inspections. Manual surface preparation is a hand operation that varies widely depending on the person preparing the welds. Shaving is a process that can be automated and tightly controlled.

  2. Microscopic observation of pattern attack by aggressive ions on finished surface of aluminium alloy sacrificial anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaifol Samsu; Muhammad Daud; Siti Radiah Mohd Kamarudin; Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Azali Muhammad; Mohd Shaari Ripin; Rusni Rejab; Mohd Shariff Sattar

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a microscopic observation on submerged finished surface of aluminium alloy sacrificial anode. Experimental tests were carried out on polished surface aluminium anode exposed to seawater containing aggressive ions in order to observe of pattern corrosion attack on corroding surface of anode. Results have shown, at least under the present testing condition, that surface of sacrificial anode were attack by an aggressive ion such as chloride along grain boundaries. In addition, results of microanalysis showed that the corrosion products on surface of aluminium alloy have Al, Zn and O element for all sample and within the pit was consists of Al, Zn, O and Cl element. (author)

  3. Surface finish in ultra-precision diamond turning of single-crystal silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayomoh, M.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.

    2015-10-01

    Silicon is an optical material widely used in the production of infrared optics. However, silicon as a brittle material exhibits some difficulties when ultra-precision machined by mono-crystalline single point diamond. Finish turning of silicon with mono- crystalline diamond inserts results in accelerated tool wear rates if the right combination of the machining parameters is not properly selected. In this study, we conducted a series of machining tests on an ultra-high precision machine tool using finish turning conditions when using mono-crystalline diamond inserts with negative rake angle and relatively big nose radius. The study yields some recommendations on the best combination of machining parameters that will result in maximum material removal rates with smallest possible surface finish. In this work, standard non-controlled waviness diamond inserts having nose radius of about 1.5 mm, rake angle of negative 25°, and clearance angle of 5° were used to produce flat surfaces on silicon disk. From the results, it has been established that feed rate has the most influential effect followed by the depth of cut and cutting speed.

  4. Surface chemistry of a pine-oil cleaner and other terpene mixtures with ozone on vinyl flooring tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jason E; Wells, J Raymond

    2011-04-01

    Indoor environments are dynamic reactors where consumer products (such as cleaning agents, deodorants, and air fresheners) emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can subsequently interact with indoor oxidants such as ozone (O(3)), hydroxyl radicals, and nitrate radicals. Typically, consumer products consist of mixtures of VOCs and semi-VOCs which can react in the gas-phase or on surfaces with these oxidants to generate a variety of oxygenated products. In this study, the reaction of a pine-oil cleaner (POC) with O(3) (100ppb) on a urethane-coated vinyl flooring tile was investigated at 5% and 50% relative humidity. These results were compared to previous α-terpineol+O(3) reactions on glass and vinyl surfaces. Additionally, other terpene and terpene alcohol mixtures were formulated to understand the emission profiles as seen in the POC data. Results showed that the α-terpineol+O(3) reaction products were the prominent species that were also observed in the POC/O(3) surface experiments. Furthermore, α-terpineol+O(3) reactions generate the largest fraction of oxygenated products even in equal mixtures of other terpene alcohols. This finding suggests that the judicial choice of terpene alcohols for inclusion in product formulations may be useful in reducing oxidation product emissions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Auto-recognition of surfaces and auto-generation of material removal volume for finishing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataraki, Pramod S.; Salman Abu Mansor, Mohd

    2018-03-01

    Auto-recognition of a surface and auto-generation of material removal volumes for the so recognised surfaces has become a need to achieve successful downstream manufacturing activities like automated process planning and scheduling. Few researchers have contributed to generation of material removal volume for a product but resulted in material removal volume discontinuity between two adjacent material removal volumes generated from two adjacent faces that form convex geometry. The need for limitation free material removal volume generation was attempted and an algorithm that automatically recognises computer aided design (CAD) model’s surface and also auto-generate material removal volume for finishing process of the recognised surfaces was developed. The surfaces of CAD model are successfully recognised by the developed algorithm and required material removal volume is obtained. The material removal volume discontinuity limitation that occurred in fewer studies is eliminated.

  6. Effects of cigarette smoke and denture cleaners on the surface roughness and color stability of different denture teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Elif Aydogan; Altintas, Subutay Han; Turgut, Sedanur

    2014-08-01

    Denture teeth have the most effect on the esthetics of complete dentures. However, extrinsic factors can change their roughness and color. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of smoking and denture cleaners on the roughness and color (CIE [Commission International de I'Eclairage] L*a*b*) of denture teeth. Maxillary central incisors made of acrylic resin, high-strength acrylic resin, and porcelain (Acrylux, SR, Orthosit PE-O, and Enta) were divided into 4 groups (n=10): control, denture cleaner, cigarette smoke, and cigarette smoke and denture cleaner. The dental cleaner group and cigarette smoke and dental cleaner group were immersed in denture cleaner (Protefix; Queisser Pharma) for 15 minutes; the cigarette smoke group and cigarette smoke and dental cleaner group were exposed to smoke from 20 cigarettes for 10 minutes per cigarette. The roughness was measured with a profilometer, and the color was measured with a colorimeter. The CIE L*a*b* values were recorded. The data were analyzed with a 3-way ANOVA and the Fisher least significant difference test (α=.05). The roughness of Acrylux, SR Orthosit PE-O (P<.001), and Enta (P<.01) was significantly higher in the cigarette smoke group and dental cleaner group than in the control group. Immersion in denture cleaner after exposure to cigarette smoke decreased the roughness of Acrylux, SR Orthosit PE-O (P<.001), and Enta (P<.01). The greatest color change (7.94) was observed in Acrylux in the cigarette smoke group, whereas the smallest color change (0.24) was in Enta in the control group. The color change of all of the teeth in the cigarette smoke group decreased after exposure to denture cleaner (P<.05). The L* decreased, and the a* and b* increased after exposure to smoke (P<.05). Smoking and denture cleaner increased the roughness and discolored the teeth, whereas denture cleaners after exposure to smoke decreased the roughness. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic

  7. The effects of surface finish and grain size on the strength of sintered silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y. H.; Kim, Y. W.; Lee, J. G.; Kim, C. H.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of surface treatment and microstructure, especially abnormal grain growth, on the strength of sintered SiC were studied. The surfaces of sintered SiC were treated with 400, 800 and 1200 grit diamond wheels. Grain growth was induced by increasing the sintering times at 2050 C. The beta to alpha transformation occurred during the sintering of beta-phase starting materials and was often accompanied by abnormal grain growth. The overall strength distributions were established using Weibull statistics. The strength of the sintered SiC is limited by extrinsic surface flaws in normal-sintered specimens. The finer the surface finish and grain size, the higher the strength. But the strength of abnormal sintering specimens is limited by the abnormally grown large tabular grains. The Weibull modulus increases with decreasing grain size and decreasing grit size for grinding.

  8. Machining the Integral Impeller and Blisk of Aero-Engines: A Review of Surface Finishing and Strengthening Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Youzhi; Gao, Hang; Wang, Xuanping; Guo, Dongming

    2017-05-01

    The integral impeller and blisk of an aero-engine are high performance parts with complex structure and made of difficult-to-cut materials. The blade surfaces of the integral impeller and blisk are functional surfaces for power transmission, and their surface integrity has significant effects on the aerodynamic efficiency and service life of an aero-engine. Thus, it is indispensable to finish and strengthen the blades before use. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of studies on finishing and strengthening technologies for the impeller and blisk of aero-engines. The review includes independent and integrated finishing and strengthening technologies and discusses advanced rotational abrasive flow machining with back-pressure used for finishing the integral impeller and blisk. A brief assessment of future research problems and directions is also presented.

  9. EVALUATION OF SURFACE CONDITION AFTER FINISHING AND POLISHING OF A FLOWABLE COMPOSITE MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan MUNTEANU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the surface condition, after finishing and polishing with 3 different systems, of a flowable composite material, starting from the microstructure experimentally analyzed by atomic force microscopy. Materials and method. The material tested in the present study was Filtek Ultimate Flowable Restorative (3M ESPE composite. 20 cylindrical samples, 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick, were prepared by using metallic molds. The samples were randomly divided into 4 groups: a group containing 5 control samples, not subjected to finishing and 3 groups formed, each, of 5 samples for each of the three finishing and polishing systems, respectively system 1: the two-step Sof-Lex (3M ESPE, system 2: multistep Super Snap (Shofu, Inc. Kyoto, Japan and system 3: multi-step OptiDisc (KerrHawe SA, Switzerland. The surfaces of the samples were analyzed by atomic force microscopy. For quantitative evaluations, the rugosity parameter (Ra, and the mean deviation of the determined profile were calculated. Results. All 3 polishing systems determined an increase of the Ra parameter, comparatively with the control samples; the highest mean Ra value, of 1.19 µm, was recorded for system 3, followed by system 2 (mean Ra value = 1.12 µm, while the lowest mean value, of 1.10 µm, was registered for system 1. Conclusions. All three systems under investigation induced increased rugosity on the surfaces of the samples prepared from the Filtek Ultimate Flowable Restorative (3M ESPE composite resin. The most abrasive system appears to be OptiDisc (KerrHawe SA, Switzerland, followed by the Super Snap (Shofu, Inc. Kyoto, Japan system, the one recording the lowest abrasion being SofLex (3M ESPE.

  10. The Effect of Finishing and Polishing Techniques on the Surface Roughness and the Color of Nanocomposite Resin Restorative Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsar, Aysun; Yuzbasioglu, Emir; Sarac, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    Rough, poorly polished surfaces contribute to staining, plaque accumulation, gingival irritation and recurrent caries. Finishing and polishing techniques are critical factors contributing to the longevity of the direct composite resin restorations. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of finishing and polishing systems on surface roughness of six nanocomposite restorative resins. Thirty specimens of each restorative material (n=180) were placed in a teflon mould (6 mm in diameter and 3 mm in depth) and cured with a LED curing unit. Six specimens from each of restorative material were randomly assigned to four groups for finishing and polishing (carbide burs, diamond burs, aluminium oxide discs, silicon rubber polisher) techniques. Mylar strip formed specimens were served as control group. After finishing and polishing procedures surface roughness was evaluated by a profilometer. The data was analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance and the Tukey HSD test (α=0.05). Significant differences were found between the groups in terms roughness (prestorative materials. Although mylar matrix strip formed surfaces presents lower surface roughness values, recountouring and polishing of resin restorations are often required in clinical situations. Aluminium oxide discs and carbide finishing burs are suitable for finishing and polishing procedures for nanocomposite restorative resins.

  11. Effect of different finishing techniques for restorative materials on surface roughness and bacterial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykent, Filiz; Yondem, Isa; Ozyesil, Atilla G; Gunal, Solen K; Avunduk, Mustafa C; Ozkan, Semiha

    2010-04-01

    The formation of biofilm and bacterial accumulation on dental materials may lead to the development of gingival inflammation and secondary caries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of different surface finishing and polishing methods on surface roughness and the adhesion of S. mutans bacteria to 2 new-generation indirect composite resins, 1 direct composite resin, and 1 ceramic material. Forty specimens (10 x 10 x 2 mm) of each material, indirect composite resins (SR Adoro, Estenia), direct composite resin (Tetric), and a ceramic material (VITABLOCS Mark II), were fabricated. Specimens were divided into 4 groups (n=10) that were treated with 1 of the following 4 surface finishing techniques: diamond rotary cutting instrument, sandpaper discs (Sof-Lex), silicone-carbide rubber points (Shofu), or a felt wheel with diamond paste. Surface roughness was measured with a profilometer. Test specimens were covered with artificial saliva and mucin to produce pellicle. Bacterial suspension (10(9) CFU/ml) was then added to the pellicle-coated specimens, and bacterial adhesion was determined using a confocal laser microscope and image analyzing program. Data were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey HSD test, Pearson correlation, and regression analysis (alpha=.05). The highest surface roughness values were recorded in SR Adoro and diamond rotary cutting instrument groups. The lowest vital S. mutans adhesion was seen in the ceramic group and in SR Adoro indirect composite resin (Padhesion to indirect composite resin materials differed from that to ceramic material after surface treatments. A positive correlation was observed between surface roughness and the vital S. mutans adhesion. Copyright 2010 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Union Spinning Mills - Cleaner Production option report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Schneider, Zsig

    In October and November 2002 meetings were held between Union Spinning Mills and external consultants from the South African – Danish Cleaner Textile Production Project. Project participants from USM were: • From USM: Operations Director Johan Ferreira, Finishing Manager Anrico (Andrej) Kritzinger...

  13. The effect of surface finishes on outdoor granite and limestone pavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Martínez, J.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Two types of ornamental stones, namely granite (Blanco Rafaela or Zarzalejo Granite and microcrystalline limestone (marble known commercially as Gris Pulpis, treated for different surface finishes, were tested for suitability as paving slabs. The finishes tested in both stones were polishing, hammering, honing and flaming, while acid treatment and abrasion were applied to limestone only and sawn finishes were only studied in granite.The stones were tested for the three physical properties that determine suitability for use as paving slabs; flexural strength under a concentrated load, and abrasion and slip resistance. Laboratory freeze-thaw cycle ageing tests were also conducted and flexural strength subsequently evaluated. Stone water sorption proved to be substantially unaltered by the type of finish employed. Finish barely affected flexural strength, except in the case of limestone flaming, where it was lower. Hammering was found to provide good slip resistance in both stones. The best slip performance for granite, however, was found for flamed specimens. Finish was shown to have no effect on abrasion resistance in either of the stone materials. Polished limestone suffered the least damage in freeze-thaw cycles, whereas freeze-thaw resistance was similar in all the granite specimens, regardless of the finish used.Se han estudiado, para su utilización como baldosas de pavimentos, granito (Blanco Rafaela o Granito de Zarzalejo y caliza microcristalina (mármol comercial Gris Pulpis con diferentes acabados. Estos acabados son: pulido, apomazado, abujardado y flameado en ambas rocas y además acabado al ácido y amolado en la caliza. Se han determinado mediante ensayos estandarizados las tres propiedades físicas de mayor interés para el uso de la piedra natural como baldosa en pavimentos de exteriores: resistencia a la flexión bajo carga concentrada, a la abrasión y al deslizamiento. Se han realizado ensayos de durabilidad por ciclos de hielo

  14. The Effect of Composition on the Surface Finish of PS400: A New High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Stanford, malcolm K.; Thomas, Fransua; Edmonds, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    A new composite, multi-constituent, solid lubricant coating, NASA PS400, developed for high temperature tribological applications, exhibits a smoother surface finish after grinding and polishing than its predecessors PS200 and PS300. In this paper, the baseline composition of PS400 is modified to investigate each individual constituent s role on the achievable surface finish through a series of coating deposition, grinding, and polishing experiments. Furthermore, to explore the limits of compositional tailoring for improved tribological performance, several PS400 coatings were doped with additional solid lubricants (graphite, MoS2 and BN) and tribologically tested. The test results clearly showed that, compared to PS300 coatings, PS400 achieves a smoother surface finish via a reduced lubricant content. Coatings prepared with higher than the baseline level (10 wt%) of lubricants exhibited higher final surface roughness than the earlier generation PS300 coatings. Reducing or eliminating the one or both lubricants (fluorides or silver) did not further improve the surface finish suggesting that the current composition of PS400 is near optimal with respect to surface finish. Lastly, attempts to improve the poor initial room temperature tribological behavior of PS400 via the addition of traditional solid lubricants were unsuccessful. Based upon this work and earlier results it is expected that future research will concentrate on developing methods to produce a lubricious glaze on the rubbing surface during break in to ensure that low friction and wear are rapidly achieved.

  15. Study on effect of tool electrodes on surface finish during electrical discharge machining of Nitinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Anshuman Kumar; Chatterjee, Suman; Nayak, Praveen Kumar; Sankar Mahapatra, Siba

    2018-03-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a non-traditional machining process which is widely used in machining of difficult-to-machine materials. EDM process can produce complex and intrinsic shaped component made of difficult-to-machine materials, largely applied in aerospace, biomedical, die and mold making industries. To meet the required applications, the EDMed components need to possess high accuracy and excellent surface finish. In this work, EDM process is performed using Nitinol as work piece material and AlSiMg prepared by selective laser sintering (SLS) as tool electrode along with conventional copper and graphite electrodes. The SLS is a rapid prototyping (RP) method to produce complex metallic parts by additive manufacturing (AM) process. Experiments have been carried out varying different process parameters like open circuit voltage (V), discharge current (Ip), duty cycle (τ), pulse-on-time (Ton) and tool material. The surface roughness parameter like average roughness (Ra), maximum height of the profile (Rt) and average height of the profile (Rz) are measured using surface roughness measuring instrument (Talysurf). To reduce the number of experiments, design of experiment (DOE) approach like Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array has been chosen. The surface properties of the EDM specimen are optimized by desirability function approach and the best parametric setting is reported for the EDM process. Type of tool happens to be the most significant parameter followed by interaction of tool type and duty cycle, duty cycle, discharge current and voltage. Better surface finish of EDMed specimen can be obtained with low value of voltage (V), discharge current (Ip), duty cycle (τ) and pulse on time (Ton) along with the use of AlSiMg RP electrode.

  16. Influence of the Cutting Conditions in the Surface Finishing of Turned Pieces of Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, M.; Arroyo, P.; Sánchez Carrilero, M.; Álvarez, M.; Salguero, J.; Marcos, M.

    2009-11-01

    Titanium is a material that, despite its high cost, is increasingly being introduced in the aerospace industry due to both, its weight, its mechanical properties and its corrosion potential, very close to that of carbon fiber based composite material. This fact allows using Ti to form Fiber Metal Laminates Machining operations are usually used in the manufacturing processes of Ti based aerospace structural elements. These elements must be machined under high surface finish requirements. Previous works have shown the relationship between the surface roughness and the tool changes in the first instants of turning processes. From these results, new tests have been performed in an aeronautical factory, in order to analyse roughness in final pieces.

  17. Interferometric And Microscopic Measurements Of Surface Finish Appearance Evaluations Of Ophthalmic Lens Edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, M.; Mezghani, S.; El Mansori, M.; Divo, F.

    2011-01-01

    Surface appearance and product material integrity are important features that will affect product functionality, reliability and customer confidence. Yet despite this, and perhaps surprisingly, lens surface inspection is still undertaken visually with undefined criteria, varying levels of quality expertise, and differing moods of inspectors. In this paper, an objective quality inspection method for the polished edge of ophthalmic lenses is developed. Four defect categorizes have been indentified on the machined edge of non-acceptable lenses: chatter marks, linear, creep and cracks. Chatter matters have an irregular surface with waviness. The linear defect has a linear defect along the lens' edge surface. Creep has deformation of the surface due to the material removal process. Cracks have cracks along the surface of the lens. The developed technique was applied to several ophthalmic lens materials (Polycarbonate, CR39, high index materials) that contain defects of diverse shapes and sizes in different locations. Results show the effectiveness of the developed inspection technique for ophthalmic lens quality assurance and defect identification. It was also found that there is a correlation between the scale-sensitive fractal dimension parameter and surface finish appearance.

  18. Optimization of surface finish of 8-m class ULE glass telescope mirror blanks for lifetime mechanical reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Suresh T.

    1996-08-01

    The mechanical reliability of 8 m class ULETM glass telescope mirror blanks is a key requirement for both the blank manufacturer and end-user. The massive monolithic blank experiences stresses during the various manufacturing steps including handling, grinding, sagging, and finishing. Likewise, it is subjected to vibrational loads and road shocks during transportation to end-user. And finally, it experiences transient stresses during installation and steady-state static stresses throughout its useful life in service. The large blank, which weighs nearly 35 tons, must have appropriate surface finish to sustain manufacturing, transportation, installation and service stresses with low probability of flaw initiation and propagation. This paper examines the critical stress/time histories the blanks experience during manufacturing and their ability to initiate slow crack growth from grinding flaws. Two different surface finishes, namely 120 grit and 270/325 grit, with and without acid etching are characterized with respect to strength, flaw, and fatigue behavior. These data show that the 270/325 grit finish with acid etching is appropriate for the sagging step which imposes a static stress of 750 psi in the center region of the mirror blank over a two-week sag period. Similarly, the 120 grit surface finish is adequate for grinding, packaging and transporting steps which impose a static stress of 435 psi in the support pad region for a three-month period. These predictions, based on Power law fatigue model, were verified by conducting static fatigue tests (at appropriate stress levels) on a large sample of 6' diameter ULETM discs (with appropriate surface finish) at 25 degree(s)C and 100% RH. Such a verification is imperative for selecting appropriate surface finishes for the mirror blanks to promote mechanical reliability during manufacturing and service.

  19. Effects of Delayed Finishing/Polishing on Surface Roughness, Hardness and Gloss of Tooth-Coloured Restorative Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, A. Ruya; Tuncer, Duygu; Antonson, Sibel; Onen, Alev; Kilinc, Evren

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of delayed finishing/polishing on the surface roughness, hardness and gloss of tooth-coloured restorative materials. Methods: Four different tooth-coloured restoratives: a flowable resin composite- Tetric Flow, a hybrid resin composite- Venus, a nanohybrid resin composite- Grandio, and a polyacid modified resin composite- Dyract Extra were used. 30 specimens were made for each material and randomly assigned into three groups. The first group was finished/polished immediately and the second group was finished/polished after 24 hours. The remaining 10 specimens served as control. The surface roughness of each sample was recorded using a laser profilometer. Gloss measurements were performed using a small-area glossmeter. Vickers microhardness measurements were performed from three locations on each specimen surface under 100g load and 10s dwell time. Data for surface roughness and hardness were analyzed by Kruskal Wallis test and data for gloss were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Tukey test (P Grandio samples showed significantly higher roughness than the delayed polished samples (P .05). The lowest hardness values were found under Mylar strip. Delayed finishing/polishing significantly increased the hardness of all materials. Conclusions: The effect of delayed finishing/polishing on surface roughness, gloss and hardness appears to be material dependent. PMID:20046480

  20. Effect of surface finishing and heat treatments on the mechanical strength of sintered alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lino, U.R.A.

    1982-04-01

    The effect of surface finishing on the mechanical strength of two pure aluminas, one of self-production and another a commercial one, is studied. Three types of finishings: as-sintered, as machined and as-machined with thermal treatment were studied. It was verified that the as-machined alumina is about 50 percent stronger than the as-sintered one, and that a thermal treatment increases even more the mechanical strength of the sintered alumina. The effect of the volume and pressing direction on mechanical strength was studied. The kinetics of crack healing was determined from a series of systematically selected thermal treatments with annealing temperatures between 1200 0 C and 1600 0 C. It was verified that a recently developed theoretical model for crack healing can describe the experimental results; using this model a value for the activation energy of the process of 715 kJ/mcl was obtained, which suggests that crack healing is promoted by volume diffusion. The material behavior under subcritical crack growth action was also studied, and a value of about 40 for the subcritical crack growth exponent N from dynamic loading tests in water was found. A fractographic study intended to localize and measure the flaws that originated the fracture of the tested specimens was performed; the measured flaw sizes were compared with the flaw size calculated from the values of the measured mechanical strength; in this comparison an excellent agreement was observed. (Author) [pt

  1. Surface Roughness, Microhardness, and Microleakage of a Silorane-Based Composite Resin after Immediate or Delayed Finishing/Polishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carvalho Rezende Lins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study evaluated the effect of immediate or delayed finishing/polishing using different systems on the surface roughness, hardness, and microleakage of a silorane-based composite. Material and Methods. Specimens were made with silorane-based composite (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE and assigned to the treatments: control (light-cured; aluminum oxide discs (Sof-Lex, 3M ESPE; diamond-impregnated silicone tips (Astropol, Ivoclar Vivadent; aluminum oxide-impregnated silicone tips (Enhance, Dentsply. Half of the specimens were finished/polished immediately and the rest after 7 days. Surface roughness (Ra, μm; n=20 and Vickers microhardness (50 g; 45 s; n=10 were measured. Cavities were prepared in bovine incisors and filled with Filtek P90. The fillings received immediate or delayed finishing/polishing (n=10 and were subjected to dye penetration test (0.5% basic fuchsin, 24 h. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Scheffe, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests (p<0.05. Results. The finishing/polishing system significantly influenced roughness and microhardness (p<0.0001. For enamel, microleakage was not affected by the finishing/polishing system (p=0.309. For dentin, Sof-Lex discs and Astropol points promoted greater microleakage than Enhance points (p=0.033. Conclusion. Considering roughness, microhardness, and microleakage together, immediate finishing/polishing of a silorane-based composite using aluminum oxide discs may be recommended.

  2. The effects of finishing and polishing techniques on surface roughness and color stability of nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönülol, Nihan; Yilmaz, Fikret

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of different finishing and polishing techniques on the surface roughness and color stability of nanocomposites. Two nanohybrid (Grandio, Aelite Aesthetic Enamel), two nanofill (Filtek Supreme XT Dentin and Translucent), and a microhybrid (Filtek Z250) composites were used. Two hundred and eighty disc-shaped specimens were cured under a mylar strip. Seven specimens of each resin composite were randomly assigned to one of the seven polishing systems. A profilometer was used for assessing surface roughness. ΔE was calculated with a colorimeter at baseline and 48 h after storage in a coffee solution. The results were analysed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test (α=0.05). Regression analysis was used to examine the correlation between surface roughness and color stability (α=0.01). There was no significant difference in R(a) values between mylar strips and Sof-Lex polishing discs (p>0.05). The highest ΔE and R(a) values were obtained from Grandio (pGrandio presented the highest surface roughness and staining susceptibility after storage in coffee solution. Aelite Aesthetic Enamel, which did not include TEGDMA in its composition, showed the least discoloration. The composites with smaller filler size did not necessarily show low surface roughness and discoloration. Staining of composite resins was dependent on monomer structure, as well as surface irregularities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Three-dimensional evaluation of surface roughness of resin composites after finishing and polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Veena S; Sainudeen, Shan; Padmanabhan, Prabeesh; Vijayashankar, L V; Sujathan, Unu; Pillai, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of finishing and polishing procedures on four novel resin composites using three-dimensional optical profilometer. Four composites classified according to their filler size, were selected: Filtek™ Z350 XT/Nanofill (3M™ ESPE™), Esthet-X HD/Hybrid (Dentsply Caulk), Te Econom/Microfill (Ivoclar Vivadent(®)), Tetric EvoCeram(®) /Nanohybrid (Ivoclar Vivadent(®)). Composite specimens were made in Plexiglass mold and polished with Soflex (3M ESPE), Enhance + Pogo (Dentsply Caulk). Both the systems were used according to the manufacturers' instructions, and the polished surfaces were assessed with an optical profilometer. Kruskal-Wallis test and further pairwise comparison were performed by Mann-Whitney test. The smoothest surfaces for all the resin composites tested were obtained from the Mylar strip; statistically significant differences were observed among them (P = 0.001). The order of composites was ranked from the lowest to highest surface roughness; Filtek Z350 XT Econom < Tetric EvoCeram < Esthet XHD. Pairwise multiple comparison with Mann-Whitney test showed Filtek Z350 to have the smoothest surface and the least with Teric EvoCeram. Among the polishing systems, Soflex showed the smoothest surface and was significantly different from Pogo (P = 0.046). The effectiveness of the polishing systems seems to be dependent on the material used, treatment modality and also on the filler particle size.

  4. Artificial evolutionary approaches to produce smoother surface in magnetic abrasive finishing of hardened AISI 52100 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teimouri, Reza; Baseri, Hamid [Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    In this work, two models of feed forward back-propagation neural network (FFBP-NN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) have been developed to predict the performance of magnetic abrasive finishing process, based on experimental data of literature. Input parameters of process are electromagnet's voltage, mesh number of abrasive particles, poles rotational speed and weight percent of abrasive particles, and also the output is percentage of surface roughness variation. In order to select the best model, a comparison between developed models has been done based on their mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE). Moreover, optimization methods based on simulated annealing (SA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms were used to maximize the percent of surface roughness variation and select the optimal process parameters. Results indicated that the models based on artificial intelligence predict much more precise values with respect to predictive regression model developed in main literature. Also, the ANFIS model had a lowest value of MAE and RMSE with respect to others. So it was used as an objective function to maximize the surface roughness variation by using SA and PSO. Comparison between the obtained optimal solutions and analysis of results in main literature indicated that SA and PSO could find the optimal answers logically and precisely.

  5. Artificial evolutionary approaches to produce smoother surface in magnetic abrasive finishing of hardened AISI 52100 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teimouri, Reza; Baseri, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    In this work, two models of feed forward back-propagation neural network (FFBP-NN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) have been developed to predict the performance of magnetic abrasive finishing process, based on experimental data of literature. Input parameters of process are electromagnet's voltage, mesh number of abrasive particles, poles rotational speed and weight percent of abrasive particles, and also the output is percentage of surface roughness variation. In order to select the best model, a comparison between developed models has been done based on their mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE). Moreover, optimization methods based on simulated annealing (SA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms were used to maximize the percent of surface roughness variation and select the optimal process parameters. Results indicated that the models based on artificial intelligence predict much more precise values with respect to predictive regression model developed in main literature. Also, the ANFIS model had a lowest value of MAE and RMSE with respect to others. So it was used as an objective function to maximize the surface roughness variation by using SA and PSO. Comparison between the obtained optimal solutions and analysis of results in main literature indicated that SA and PSO could find the optimal answers logically and precisely.

  6. Clinical and laboratory surface finishing procedures for zirconia on opposing human enamel wear: A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Bevan J; Thangavel, Arun K; Rolton, Shane B; Guazzato, Massimiliano; Klineberg, Iven J

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effect of laboratory and clinical finishing procedures for zirconia on antagonistic enamel wear. Forty-eight yttria-tetragonal partially stabilised zirconia (Y-TZP) specimens were prepared and divided into four groups according to their surface preparation: laboratory polished (LP); laboratory polished and glazed (G); clinically adjusted (CA); and clinically adjusted and repolished (CAR). Enamel opposing enamel was used as a control. Pre-testing surface roughness for each group was determined using contact profilometry. Two-body wear resistance tests were conducted using a masticatory simulator. Enamel specimens were subjected to 120,000 cycles in distilled water (frequency 1.6 Hz, loading force of 49 N). Volumetric and vertical enamel losses were measured by superimposition of pre- and post-testing images using a three-dimensional laser scanner and software analysis. Scanning electron microscopy was used for qualitative surface analysis of pre- and post-testing zirconia and enamel surfaces. One-way ANOVA and multiple comparisons with Bonferroni corrections were used for statistical analysis at a significance level of α=0.05. There was no statistical difference in volumetric and vertical enamel loss between CAR, G and LP. CAR produced statistically significantly less volumetric enamel loss compared with CA and control, and statistically significantly less vertical enamel loss compared with CA. Volumetric and vertical enamel loss were highly correlated in all groups. Enamel wear by clinically ground zirconia is comparable to that of opposing enamel surfaces and greater than clinically repolished zirconia. Repolishing of zirconia restorations following clinical adjustment with diamond burs is effective in reducing antagonistic enamel wear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Parameters Affecting Magnetic Abrasive Finishing on Concave Freeform Surface of Al Alloy via RSM Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Vahdati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The attempts of researchers in industries to obtain accurate and high quality surfaces led to the invention of new methods of finishing. Magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF is a relatively new type of finishing in which the magnetic field is used to control the abrasive tools. Applications such as the surface of molds are ones of the parts which require very high surface smoothness. Usually this type of parts has freeform surface. In this study, the effect of magnetic abrasive process parameters on freeform surfaces of parts made of aluminum is examined. This method is obtained through combination of magnetic abrasive process and Control Numerical Computer (CNC. The use of simple hemisphere for installation on the flat area of the magnets as well as magnets’ spark in curve form is a measure done during testing the experiments. The design of experiments is based on response surface methodology. The gap, the rotational speed of the spindle, and the feed rate are found influential and regression equations governing the process are also determined. The impact of intensity of the magnetic field is obtained using the finite element software of Maxwell. Results show that in concave areas of the surface, generally speaking, the surface roughness decreases to 0.2 μm from its initial 1.3 μm roughness. However, in some points the lowest surface roughness of 0.08 μm was measured.

  8. Improvement of the surface finish obtained by laser ablation with a Nd: YAG laser on pre-ablated tool steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface finish is an important requirement for tool and die makers and remains a challenge with conventional machining technologies. Nd: YAG lasers have been utilised for many years in the area of laser marking, engraving and micro machining...

  9. Comparison of Roller Burnishing Method with Other Hole Surface Finishing Processes Applied on AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkurt, Adnan

    2011-08-01

    Component surface quality and selection of the optimum material are the main factors determining the performance of components used in machine manufacturing. The level of hole surface quality can be evaluated by the measurements regarding surface roughness, micro-hardness, and cylindricity. In this study, data had been obtained for different hole drilling methods. The characteristics of materials obtained after applications were compared for different hole-finishing processes to identify best hole drilling method. AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel material was used. Surface finishing of holes were performed using drilling, turning, reaming, grinding, honing, and roller burnishing methods. The results of the study show that the roller burnishing method gives the best results for mechanical, metallurgical properties, and hole surface quality of the material. On the other hand, the worst characteristics were obtained in the drilling method.

  10. Residual stress evaluation of austenitic stainless steel with a finished surface by polychromatic X-ray method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibano, Jun-ichi; Ukai, Takayoshi; Tadano, Shigeru [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Todoh, Masahiro

    1995-11-01

    The residual stress in a subsurface layer of austenitic stainless steel with a finished surface was evaluated by the polychromatic X-ray method. A surface of austenitic stainless steel SUS316 plate was ground and lapped as the specimen. In this method, the relation between strain and depth was approximated with a linear function or an exponential function, and it was assumed that the plane stress state existed in each subsurface layer in the depth direction of the specimen. As a result, the residual strain which was estimated under the assumption of the exponential function showed more reasonable distribution than that of the linear function. In addition, the residual stress which was calculated from the strain distribution was maximum tension at the surface of the specimen, and maximum compression at a position 3 {mu}m below the surface. Therefore, the steep gradient of residual stress could be confirmed in a subsurface layer of the SUS316 with a finished surface. (author).

  11. 3D printed glass: surface finish and bulk properties as a function of the printing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Susanne; Avery, Michael P.; Richardson, Robert; Bartlett, Paul; Frei, Regina; Simske, Steven

    2015-03-01

    It is impossible to print glass directly from a melt, layer by layer. Glass is not only very sensitive to temperature gradients between different layers but also to the cooling process. To achieve a glass state the melt, has to be cooled rapidly to avoid crystallization of the material and then annealed to remove cooling induced stress. In 3D-printing of glass the objects are shaped at room temperature and then fired. The material properties of the final objects are crucially dependent on the frit size of the glass powder used during shaping, the chemical formula of the binder and the firing procedure. For frit sizes below 250 μm, we seem to find a constant volume of pores of less than 5%. Decreasing frit size leads to an increase in the number of pores which then leads to an increase of opacity. The two different binders, 2- hydroxyethyl cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt, generate very different porosities. The porosity of samples with 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose is similar to frit-only samples, whereas carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt creates a glass foam. The surface finish is determined by the material the glass comes into contact with during firing.

  12. An Overview of Surface Finishes and Their Role in Printed Circuit Board Solderability and Solder Joint Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianco, P.T.

    1998-10-15

    A overview has been presented on the topic of alternative surface finishes for package I/Os and circuit board features. Aspects of processability and solder joint reliability were described for the following coatings: baseline hot-dipped, plated, and plated-and-fused 100Sn and Sn-Pb coatings; Ni/Au; Pd, Ni/Pd, and Ni/Pd/Au finishes; and the recently marketed immersion Ag coatings. The Ni/Au coatings appear to provide the all-around best option in terms of solderability protection and wire bondability. Nickel/Pal ftishes offer a slightly reduced level of performance in these areas that is most likely due to variable Pd surface conditions. It is necessmy to minimize dissolved Au or Pd contents in the solder material to prevent solder joint embrittlement. Ancillary aspects that included thickness measurement techniques; the importance of finish compatibility with conformal coatings and conductive adhesives; and the need for alternative finishes for the processing of non-Pb bearing solders were discussed.

  13. Finishing of sliding surfaces with geometrically defined cutting edges: Presentation held at "Friction, Wear and Wear Protection", Symposium "TriboMan-Session", 26.- 28. Oct 2011, Karlsruhe

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, Andreas; Schmidt, Torsten; Schneider, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    The rising importance of friction reduction of parts and components, especially in the power train, leads to increasing demands on the finishing of sliding surfaces. In order to meet these new requirements, new methods have to be applied. A new approach for the surface finishing is, to generate an approximated run-in condition to the surface by the finishing process in order to obtain lower initial friction and a shorter run-in period. This requires specific surface properties to ensure the p...

  14. On the properties of two binary NiTi shape memory alloys. Effects of surface finish on the corrosion behaviour and in vitro biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Souni, Mohammed; Es-Souni, Martha; Fischer-Brandies, Helge

    2002-07-01

    The present paper compares the transformation behaviour and mechanical properties of two orthodontic wires of close chemical compositions. The effects of surface topography and surface finish residues on the potentiodynamic corrosion behaviour and biocompatibility are also reported. The cytotoxicity tests were performed on both alloys in fibroblast cell cultures from human gingiva using the MTT test. It is shown that the surface finish and the amounts of surface finish residues affect dramatically the corrosion resistance. Bad surface finish results in lower corrosion resistance. The in vitro biocompatibility, though not affected to the extent of corrosion resistance, is also reduced as the surface roughness and the amounts of residues increase. This is thought to be due to surface effects on corrosion and metallic ions release.

  15. Influence of substrate microstructure and surface finish on cracking and delamination response of TiN-coated cemented carbides

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jing; Odén, Magnus; Johansson-Joesaar, Mats P.; Llanes, L.

    2016-01-01

    The cracking and delamination of TiN-coated hardmetals (WC-Co cemented carbides) when subjected to Brale indentation were studied. Experimental variables were substrate microstructure related to low (6 wt% Co) and medium (13 wt% Co) binder content, and surface finishes associated with grinding and polishing stages before film deposition. Brale indentation tests were conducted on both coated and uncoated hardmetals. Emphasis has been placed on assessing substrate microstructure and subsurface ...

  16. Printed Circuit Board Surface Finish and Effects of Chloride Contamination, Electric Field, and Humidity on Corrosion Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    Corrosion reliability is a serious issue today for electronic devices, components, and printed circuit boards (PCBs) due to factors such as miniaturization, globalized manufacturing practices which can lead to process-related residues, and global usage effects such as bias voltage and unpredictable...... probability under condensing conditions. Leakage currents were measured on interdigitated comb test patterns with three different types of surface finish typically used in the electronics industry, namely gold, copper, and tin. Susceptibility to electrochemical migration was studied under droplet conditions...

  17. Surface tridimensional topography analysis of materials and finishing procedures after resinous infiltration of subsurface bovine enamel lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jan; Yang, Fan; Neumann, Konrad; Kielbassa, Andrej M

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of materials and finishing procedures on the surface roughness of infiltrated subsurface bovine enamel lesions. Eighty enamel specimens were prepared from 80 bovine incisors and partially varnished (control). The nonvarnished areas were demineralized (pH 4.95, 28 days) and etched with phosphoric acid gel (20%, 5 seconds). Specimens were randomly divided into two groups, which were each split into four subgroups (each n = 10): E1/E2 (Excite, Ivoclar Vivadent), F1/F2 (Fortify, Bisco), G1/G2 (Glaze and Bond, DMG), and I1/I2 (Icon, DMG). In group 1, resin materials were polymerized and polished using finishing strips by means of a polishing device; in group 2, excess material was removed with a rubber cup before polymerization (without polishing). The surface roughness (Sa) of control, demineralized, and treated surfaces were evaluated topometrically using a focus variation 3D scanning microscope. Demineralized surfaces were significantly rougher than sound enamel (P < .0005, t test). Etching increased Sa significantly to more than 450% of demineralization values (P < .0005). Surfaces of nonpolished infiltrated lesions were significantly rougher than demineralized enamel (P < .0005), while no significant differences could be found among infiltrated subgroups (P = .067), nor between polished and nonpolished groups (P = .359). Application of Glaze and Bond (G2) appeared to reduce Sa values of etched lesions (P < .0005), while with all other subgroups Sa values improved only marginally. Regarding surface roughness, the use of finishing strips after infiltration of subsurface lesions does not seem to be advantageous. Excess material should be removed before light curing, but surface quality of nonprocessed infiltrants seems to be perfectible.

  18. Finishes checklist : a guide to achieving optimum coating performance on exterior wood surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony Bonura; Steve Bussjeager; Lynne Christensen; George Daisey; Tom Daniels; Mark Hirsch; Charles J. Jourdain; D. Douglas Mall; Bob Springate; Louis E. Wagner; Warren Harry; R. Sam Williams

    2004-01-01

    When the time comes for a consumer to select the wood and finish types for a given outdoor project, there is a wide variety of sources of information, articles, and opinions available. Occasionally, these sources will conflict, mostly due to the data available at the time of publication, or practical experience based on a snapshot of conditions at a given time period....

  19. QFD analysis of RSRM aqueous cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Roy D.; Jones, Randy K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis of the final down-selected aqueous cleaners to be used on the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program. The new cleaner will replace solvent vapor degreasing. The RSRM Ozone Depleting Compound Elimination program is discontinuing the methyl chloroform vapor degreasing process and replacing it with a spray-in-air aqueous cleaning process. Previously, 15 cleaners were down-selected to two candidates by passing screening tests involving toxicity, flammability, cleaning efficiency, contaminant solubility, corrosion potential, cost, and bond strength. The two down-selected cleaners were further evaluated with more intensive testing and evaluated using QFD techniques to assess suitability for cleaning RSRM case and nozzle surfaces in preparation for adhesive bonding.

  20. Household vacuum cleaners vs. the high-volume surface sampler for collection of carpet dust samples in epidemiologic studies of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buffler Patricia A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of pesticides and other compounds in carpet dust can be useful indicators of exposure in epidemiologic studies, particularly for young children who are in frequent contact with carpets. The high-volume surface sampler (HVS3 is often used to collect dust samples in the room in which the child had spent the most time. This method can be expensive and cumbersome, and it has been suggested that an easier method would be to remove dust that had already been collected with the household vacuum cleaner. However, the household vacuum integrates exposures over multiple rooms, some of which are not relevant to the child's exposure, and differences in vacuuming equipment and practices could affect the chemical concentration data. Here, we compare levels of pesticides and other compounds in dust from household vacuums to that collected using the HVS3. Methods Both methods were used in 45 homes in California. HVS3 samples were collected in one room, while the household vacuum had typically been used throughout the home. The samples were analyzed for 64 organic compounds, including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, using GC/MS in multiple ion monitoring mode; and for nine metals using conventional microwave-assisted acid digestion combined with ICP/MS. Results The methods agreed in detecting the presence of the compounds 77% to 100% of the time (median 95%. For compounds with less than 100% agreement, neither method was consistently more sensitive than the other. Median concentrations were similar for most analytes, and Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.60 or higher except for allethrin (0.15 and malathion (0.24, which were detected infrequently, and benzo(kfluoranthene (0.55, benzo(apyrene (0.55, PCB 105 (0.54, PCB 118 (0.54, and PCB 138 (0.58. Assuming that the HVS3 method is the "gold standard," the extent to which the household vacuum cleaner method yields relative risk

  1. Effects of two surface finishes on the color of cemented and colored anatomic-contour zirconia crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Fang; Feng, Sheng-Wei; Lu, Yi-Jie; Wu, Hsin-Jui; Peng, Pei-Wen

    2016-08-01

    The esthetic appearance of anatomic-contour zirconia restorations is influenced by the shade of the coloring liquid and the optical properties of the luting cements. However, few studies are available on the effects of surface-finishing methods and luting cements on colored anatomic-contour zirconia restorations. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effects of surface finishing methods on the color distribution of colored anatomic-contour zirconia crowns before and after being cemented onto abutments. Implant-supported anatomic-contour zirconia premolar crowns were fabricated and immersed in A3-coloring liquid for 30 seconds. The colored zirconia crowns were separated into 3 groups according to the method of surface treatment: no treatment (N), polishing (P), and glazing (G). The zirconia crowns without coloring liquid application served as the control group. CIELab color coordinates were obtained, and color differences (ΔE) between shaded crowns were calculated with a spectrophotometer. The color stability of the crown before and after cement application was also investigated. Before cement application, the mean color difference between groups N and P was 2.85 ΔE units, whereas the mean ΔE value between groups N and G was 3.27. Mean ΔE values with and without cement application among groups ranged from 2.75 to 3.45 ΔE units. The color appearance of the colored zirconia crowns was strongly influenced by the surface-finishing methods and luting cement application. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the Effect of Surface Finish on High-Cycle Fatigue of SLM-IN718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    The surface finish of parts produced by additive manufacturing processes is much rougher than the surface finish generated by machining processes, and a rougher surface can reduce the fatigue strength of a part. This paper discusses an effort to quantify that reduction of strength in high-cycle fatigue for selective laser melt (SLM) coupons. A high-cycle fatigue (HCF) knockdown factor was estimated for Inconel 718, manufactured with the SLM process. This factor is the percentage reduction from the maximum stress in fatigue for low-stress ground (LSG) specimens to the maximum stress of those left with the original surface condition at the same fatigue life. Specimens were provided by a number of vendors, free to use their "best practice"; only one heat treat condition was considered; and several test temperatures were characterized, including room temperature, 800F, 1000F, and 1200F. The 1000F data had a large variance, and was omitted from consideration in this document. A first method used linear approximations extracted from the graphs, and only where data was available for both. A recommended knockdown factor of the as-built surface condition (average roughness of approximately 245 micro-inches/inch) versus low-stress ground condition (roughness no more than 4 micro-inches/inch) was established at approximately 1/3 or 33%. This is to say that for the as-built surface condition, a maximum stress of 2/3 of the stress for LSG can be expected to produce a similar life in the as-built surface condition. In this first evaluation, the knockdown factor did not appear to be a function of temperature. A second approach, the "KP method", incorporated the surface finish measure into a new parameter termed the pseudo-stress intensity factor, Kp, which was formulated to be similar to the fracture mechanics stress intensity factor. Using Kp, the variance seemed to be reduced across all sources, and knockdown factors were estimated using Kp over the range where data occurred. A

  3. Influence of finishing/polishing on color stability and surface roughness of composites submitted to accelerated artificial aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Da Col dos Santos Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the influence of finishing/polishing procedure on color stability (ΔE and surface roughness (Ra of composites (Heliomolar and Tetric - color A2 submitted to accelerated artificial aging (AAA. Materials and Methods : Sixty test specimens were made of each composite (12 mm × 2 mm and separated into six groups (n = 10, according to the type of finishing/polishing to which they were submitted: C, control; F, tip 3195 F; FF, tip 3195 FF; FP, tip 3195 F + diamond paste; FFP, tip 3195 FF + diamond paste; SF, Sof-Lex discs. After polishing, controlled by an electromechanical system, initial color (spectrophotometer PCB 6807 BYK GARDNER and Ra (roughness meter Surfcorder SE 1700, cut-off 0.25 mm readings were taken. Next, the test specimens were submitted to the AAA procedure (C-UV Comexim for 384 hours, and at the end of this period, new color readings and R a were taken. Results: Statistical analysis [2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Bonferroni, P < 0.05] showed that all composites demonstrated ΔE alteration above the clinically acceptable limits, with the exception of Heliomolar composite in FP. The greatest ΔE alteration occurred for Tetric composite in SF (13.38 ± 2.10 statistically different from F and FF (P < 0.05. For Ra , Group F showed rougher samples than FF with statistically significant difference (P < 0.05. Conclusion: In spite of the surface differences, the different finishing/polishing procedures were not capable of providing color stability within the clinically acceptable limits.

  4. Improvement of finishing antifriction treatment without abrasive of the rubbing parts surfaces of agricultural machineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Shepelenk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The wear of machines and mechanisms after rubbing is a major concern. The costs of manufacturing and restoration parts for agricultural machinery are enormous such as the trunnions pinions of hydraulic pumps. Finishing treatment antifriction without abrasive (FTAA is the existing method of manufacturing and restoration, but it has disadvantages like low work efficiency and the frequent replacement of the instrument. That is why a new method of FTAA parts type ''tree'' has been developed called vibratory finishing treatment antifriction without abrasive, (VFTAA method. The study was conducted at the laboratory of the State Technical University of Kirovograd (Ukraine where turn 16K20, the profilograph-profilometer "Talysurf-5", the scanning electron microscope REM-106I, friction machine MI-1M and the stand KI-28097-02M were used respectively for machining, study of micro relief before and after the VFTAA, microstructure, wear resistance and the determination of the break-in period of parts. The results showed that the VFTAA helped reduce the roughness Ra of the samples studied by half compared to the samples processed by polishing and 1.3 times compared to those treated with the FTAA, the break-in period has been reduced four times , this leads to an increase in the life of the hydraulic pump. This technology can be recommended for manufacturing and repair of hydraulic units of agricultural machineries.

  5. Specification of the surface figure and finish of optical elements in terms of system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1992-09-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory is the site of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); an electron synchrotron which is an intense source of hard and soft x-rays. Since there are no effective refracting elements for x rays, this radiation must be manipulated and focused by mirrors configured to give high reflectivity. This paper describes methods of predicting the degradation of the performance of a simple imaging system in terms of the statistics of the shape errors of the focusing element, and conversely, of specifying those statistics in terms of requirements on image quality. Results are illustrated for a normal-incidence x-ray mirrors having figure errors plus conventional and/or fractal finish errors

  6. Flat friction tests applied to austenic stainless steels with several surface finish. Analysis of adhesion conditions in friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coello, J.; Miguel, V.; Ferrer, C.; Calatatyd, A.; Martinez, A.

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the tribological behaviour of austenic stainless steels AISI 304 with bright surface finishing (B). The assays have been carried out in flat faced dies system with mineral oil of 200 cts viscosity, S 2 Mo grease and in dry conditions. The relationship between friction coefficient and pressure and velocity has been established for the mineral oil as lubricant. In these conditions, a strong adhesive tendency has been found in boundary lubrication regime. The results obtained here, show us that S 2 Mo grease leads to lowest values for the friction coefficient. A minor adhesive behaviour tendency for AISI 316 steel, harder than 304 grades, has been found. A relevant plowing phenomena has been observed for the more critical friction conditions tried out. A surface hardener is produced as a consequence of that. (Author) 19 refs

  7. Effect of surface finishing on friction and wear of Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone (PEEK under oil lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Fontoura de Andrade

    Full Text Available Abstract The tribological properties of poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK containing 30% of carbon fiber were studied in an oil-lubricated environment and different surface finishing of the metallic counterbody. Four different finishing processes, commonly used in the automotive industry, were chosen for this study: turning, grinding, honing and polishing. The test system used was tri-pin on disc with pins made of PEEK and counterbody made of steel; they were fully immersed in ATF Dexron VI oil. Some test parameters were held constant, such as the apparent pressure of 2 MPa, linear velocity of 2 m/s, oil temperature at 85 °C, and the time - 120 minutes. The lubrication regime for the apparent pressure of 1 MPa to 7 MPa range was also studied at different sliding speeds. A direct correlation was found between the wear rate, friction coefficient and the lubrication regime, wherein wear under hydrodynamic lubrication was, on average, approximately 5 times lower, and the friction coefficient 3 times lower than under boundary lubrication.

  8. Effect of finishing process on the surface quality of Co-Cr-Mo dental alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Klimecka -Tatar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Preparatory procedures for the material have a significant influence on the surface stereometry of the material. This study investigated the effect of the electropolishing process on the surface quality of metallic prosthetic constructions based on Co-Cr-Mo alloys. It has been found that the process of electropolishing prevents to excessive development of the surface of a material and consequently improves surface quality.

  9. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the metal cleaner, give them water or milk right away, unless a provider tells you not ...

  10. Effect of Binder and Mold parameters on Collapsibility and Surface Finish of Gray Cast Iron No-bake Sand Molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasulu Reddy, K.; Venkata Reddy, Vajrala; Mandava, Ravi Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Chemically bonded no-bake molds and cores have good mechanical properties and produce dimensionally accurate castings compared to green sand molds. Poor collapsibility property of CO2 hardened sodium silicate bonded sand mold and phenolic urethane no-bake (PUN) binder system, made the reclamation of the sands more important. In the present work fine silica sand is mixed with phenolic urethane no-bake binder and the sand sets in a very short time within few minutes. In this paper it is focused on optimizing the process parameters of PUN binder based sand castings for better collapsibility and surface finish of gray cast iron using Taguchi design. The findings were successfully verified through experiments.

  11. Analysis of the influence of process conditions on the surface finish of ceramic materials manufactured by EDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puertas-Arbizu, I.; Luis-Perez, C. J.

    2004-01-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is an emerging alternative versus some other manufacturing processes of conductive ceramic materials, such as: laser machining, electrochemical machining, abrasive water jet, ultrasonic machining and diamond wheel grinding. Due to its interest in the industrial field, in this work a study of the influence of process conditions on the surface aspect of three conductive ceramic materials: hot-pressed boron carbide (B 4 C), reaction-bonded silicon carbide (SiSiC) and cobalt-bonded tungsten carbide (WC-Co) is carried out. These materials are to be electrical discharge machined under different machining conditions and in the particular case of finish stages (Ra≤ 1 μm). (Author)

  12. Thermal cyclic test for Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu solders on high P Ni/Au and Ni/Pd/Au surface finishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Azmah Hanim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In electronic packaging, the reliability of the interconnection changes with the surface finish and the type of solders being used. Thermal cycling is one method of reliability assessment. In thermal cycling experiments, the strain state is simplified by soldering together regular shaped pieces of materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion and exposing the joint to repeated fluctuations of temperature within a certain range. Thus, this study focuses on the intermetallic evolution of Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu on Ni/Au and Ni/Pd/Au surface finishes with thermal cycling up to 1000 cycles with the range of temperature varying from 10 to 80 °C. Sandwich samples were prepared by placing solder balls of Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu between two substrates of two different surface finishes: Ni/Au and Ni/Pd/Au. Optical microscope and FESEM (Field emission scanning electron microscope were used to analyze the samples. From the study, it was observed that the intermetallic changes from (Cu, Ni6Sn5 to (Ni, Cu3Sn4 after 1000 thermal cycles for Ni/Au. These changes promote the formation of cracks at the solder joint because of the different mechanical properties between Ni-Sn based intermetallic and Cu-Sn intermetallics. However, for the Ni/Pd/Au surface finishes, no cracks formed after thermal cycling up to 1000 cycles. This shows that the reliability of the solder joint is higher for Ni/Pd/Au surface finishes in this experiment. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the reliability of the Ni/Pd/Au surface finishes with Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu solders is higher within the given condition of this research.

  13. Effect of tooth brushing and thermal cycling on a surface change of ceromers finished with different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, L-R; Yi, Y-J; Heo, S-J

    2002-09-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of tooth brushing and thermal cycling on the surface lustre and surface roughness of three ceromer systems treated with different surface finishing methods. The ceromers studied were: (1). Artglass, (2). Targis, (3). Sculpture and (4). the control group, Z 100. Half of the Targis and Sculpture groups were polished and the rest were coated with staining and glazing solution, respectively. All specimens were subjected to thermocycling 10000 times. Tooth brushing abrasion tests were performed in a customized tooth-brushing machine with 500 g weight applied on a back-and-forth cycle for 20000 repetitions. The lustre determined by measuring the light reflection area and the average roughness was compared between groups and between pre- and post-test values. All materials showed a lower lustre and rougher surface after thermocycling and tooth brushing (P ceromer specimens, except glazed Sculpture, showed a higher lustre and similar roughness to the control group. The post-brushing results revealed that glazed Sculpture presented discretely fallen out glaze coatings and had maximum change. However, stained Targis showed minimum change (P < 0.05) and polished Targis presented more changes than that of the staining treatment. It is therefore concluded that the glaze coatings for Sculpture don't exhibit long-term durability, while stain coatings for Targis acted like a protective layer.

  14. Evaluation of magnesium alloys with alternative surface finishing for the proliferation and chondro-differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, J; Arruebarrena, G; De Argandona, E Saenz; De Eguino, G Ruiz; Infante, A; RodrIguez, C I

    2010-01-01

    Articular cartilage has little capacity for self-repair. As a result, continuous mechanical stress can lead to the degradation of articular cartilage, culminating in progressive damage and joint degeneration. Tissue engineering has arisen as a promising therapeutic approach to cartilage repair. Magnesium alloys are one of the most important metallic biomaterials emerging in this area due to their biocompatibility, bio-absorbability and especially to their mechanical properties. These properties make magnesium alloys a promising biomaterial in the regeneration of cartilage tissue. Objective. This study was undertaken to analyze the influence of surface characteristics of magnesium alloys in the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Methods. Two commercial magnesium alloys (AZ31B and ZM21) were subjected to different treatments in order to obtain four different surfaces in each alloy. Human MSCs were seeded into the magnesium alloys and analyzed for their proliferation and chondrogenesis differentiation ability. Results. Human MSCs showed a greater proliferation and chondro-differentiation when cultured in the ZM21 magnesium alloy with a surface finishing of fine sanding, polishing, and etching.

  15. Influence of Oxidation Treatments and Surface Finishing on the Electrochemical Behavior of Ni-20Cr HVOF Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Luna, H.; Porcayo-Calderon, J.; Alvarado-Orozco, J. M.; Mora-García, A. G.; Martinez-Gomez, L.; Trápaga-Martínez, L. G.; Muñoz-Saldaña, J.

    2017-12-01

    The low-temperature electrochemical behavior of HVOF Ni-20Cr coatings was assessed. The coatings were evaluated in different conditions including as-sprayed, as-ground, and heat-treated in air and argon atmospheres. A detailed analysis of the coatings was carried out by means of XRD, SEM, and EPMA, prior and after the corrosion test. The corrosion rate was analyzed in a NaCl solution saturated with CO2. Results demonstrate that the use of a low-oxygen partial pressure favors the formation of a Cr2O3 layer on the surface of the coatings. According to the electrochemical results, the lower corrosion rates were obtained for the heat-treated coatings irrespective of the surface finishing, being the ground and argon heat-treated condition that shows the best corrosion performance. This behavior is due to the synergistic effect of the low-pressure heat treatment and the grinding processes. The grinding promotes a more homogeneous reaction area without surface heterogeneities such as voids, and the pre-oxidation treatment decreases the porosity content of the coating and also allows the growing of a Cr-rich oxide scale which acts as a barrier against the ions of the aqueous solution.

  16. Characterization of internal surface finishing of tubes for CAREM 25 fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, N.V; Juarez, G; Bianchi, D; Flores, A; Vizcaino, P

    2012-01-01

    One of the factors that ensure the good behavior of the fuel claddings of the nuclear power reactors is the internal surface quality. In the present work has been carried out a study of the internal surface of the tube after a cold rolling process developed in the Departamento de Tecnologia de Aleaciones de Circonio and applied by FAE-SA and PPFAE-CNEA in each rolling stage to obtain the fuel claddings for the reactor CAREM 25. The inner surface has been observed by scanning electron microscopy, SEM, being the objective of this study to verify not only the good internal surface but also infer about how starting from tubes of different initial diameter reduction the quality of the final product will be affected. The manufacturing process of the tubes for this new fuel went through modifications during the development, adding intermediate chemical pickling stages in order to improve the internal surface quality of the final product. From determinations made with ultrasound, the defects charts obtained made it possible to compare the observed signals more relevant and the micrographs in these areas in order to characterize possible defects (author)

  17. Drywall Finishing Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengert, Gerald

    This manual, a self-study guide for apprentices in the drywall finishing trade in British Columbia, attempts to establish standards for the trade. It tells how to produce a properly taped and filled drywall surface and describes what that surface should look like. The standards emphasize quality work that can be realistically achieved on the job.…

  18. The effect of finishing and polishing on surface roughness of a processed resilient denture liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loney, R W; Moulding, M B

    1993-01-01

    A raised ridge on a Molloplast-B sample was removed using one of three burs, four stones, or a coarse sandpaper disc. Samples were polished using pumice alone, tin oxide alone, or both agents. A flat, unfinished sample served as a control. The average surface roughness was measured after reductions and subsequent polishings. The length of time required for initial reduction was recorded. Average surface roughness measurements ranged from 16.0 to 1.4 microns, with the control measuring 0.66 micron. Without polishing, burs produced rougher surfaces than stones and required longer times for reduction. Bur samples also remained rougher than stone samples after pumicing. No significant differences were found between treatments or controls after the use of either a combination of pumice and tin oxide or tin oxide alone.

  19. Influence of the surface finishing on electrochemical corrosion characteristics of AISI 316L stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Dundeková

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steels from 316 group are very often and successfully uses for medical applications where the good mechanical and chemical properties in combination with non-toxicity of the material assure its safe and long term usage. Corrosion properties of AISI 361L stainless steel are strongly influenced by surface roughness and treatment of the engineering parts (specimens and testing temperature. Electrochemical characteristics of ground, mechanically polished and passivated AISI 316L stainless steel specimens were examined with the aim to identify the polarization resistance evolution due to the surface roughness decrease. Results obtained on mechanically prepared specimens where only natural oxide layer created due to the exposure of the material to the corrosion environment was protecting the materials were compared to the passivated specimens with artificial oxide layer. Also the influence of temperature and stabilization time before measurement were taken into account when discussing the obtained results. Positive influence of decreasing surface roughness was obtained as well as increase of polarization resistance due to the chemical passivation of the surface. Increase of the testing temperature and short stabilization time of the specimen in the corrosion environment were observed negatively influencing corrosion resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel.

  20. Influence of the surface finishing on electrochemical corrosion characteristics of AISI 316L stainless steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dundeková, S.; Hadzima, B.; Fintová, Stanislava

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2015), s. 77-84 ISSN 1335-0803 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : AISI 316L stainless steel * EIS * Corrosion Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials http://ojs.mateng.sk/index.php/Mateng/article/view/167/278

  1. Influence of the surface finishing on the corrosion behaviour of AISI 316L stainless steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dundeková, S.; Zatkalíková, V.; Fintová, Stanislava; Hadzima, B.; Škorík, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2015), s. 48-53 ISSN 1335-0803 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0063 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : AISI 316L stainless steel * Corrosion * Immersion test * Corrosion rate Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials http://ojs.mateng.sk/index.php/Mateng/article/view/166/251

  2. Superficial roughness on composite surface, composite enamel and composite dentin junctions after different finishing and polishing procedures. Part I: roughness after treatments with tungsten carbide vs diamond burs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Federico; Conti, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate different instruments for finishing composite restorations, as well as examining different surfaces and interfaces of the same restoration. The null hypothesis is represented by the fact that there are no significant differences on roughness of composite restorations finishing between tungsten carbide and diamond burs, furthermore the null hypothesis is that there are no significant differences on roughness between finishing on composite surfaces (C), compositeenamel (CE) and composite-dentin (CD) interfaces. The study was performed on 28 teeth, and class V cavities were prepared on the extracted teeth. Restorations were done in Filtek XTE nanofilled composite (3M Espe) in a standardized method, to then be finished. A comparison was made in the phase 1 between tungsten carbide burs (16 blades), diamond burs (46 μm), with a similar shape by the same manufacturer (Komet). Each surface received 5 bur applications. Consequently, an analysis with a profilometer was performed. Phase 2 involved further confrontation of ulterior finishing with ultrafine tungsten carbide burs (30 blades) and with extra and ultrafine diamond burs (25 and 8 μm) (the same shape as previously mentioned). A second analysis was then performed with a profilometer. All measurements were taken on C surfaces, CE and CD interfaces. Statistical analyses were carried out with c2 test (a = 0.05). The finishing procedures with fine grit or toothing burs gave a better smoothness with tungsten carbide burs compared to diamond burs. While with the ultrafine grit no significant differences were noted between tungsten carbide and diamond burs on the CE and CD interfaces, the diamond bur left less superficial roughness on the C surfaces. With regards to the superficial roughness of the different areas of restoration, it can be concluded that: minor roughness was detected on C surfaces, while the CD interface had the most superficial roughness, regardless of whether the

  3. Modeling of the integrity of machining surfaces: application to the case of 15-5 PH stainless steel finish turning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondelin, A.

    2012-01-01

    During machining, extreme conditions of pressure, temperature and strain appear in the cutting zone. In this thermo-mechanical context, the link between the cutting conditions (cutting speed, lubrication, feed rate, wear, tool coating...) and the machining surface integrity represents a major scientific target. This PhD study is a part of a global project called MIFSU (Modeling of the Integrity and Fatigue resistance of Machining Surfaces) and it focuses on the finish turning of the 15-5PH (a martensitic stainless steel used for parts of helicopter rotor). Firstly, material behavior has been studied in order to provide data for machining simulations. Stress-free dilatometry tests were conducted to obtain the austenitization kinetics of 15-5PH steel for high heating rates (up to 11,000 degrees C/s). Then, parameters of Leblond metallurgical model have been calibrated. In addition, dynamic compression tests (de/dt ranging from 0.01 to 80/s and e ≥ 1) have been performed to calibrate a strain-rate dependent elasto-plasticity model (for high strains). These tests also helped to highlight the dynamic recrystallization phenomena and their influence on the flow stress of the material. Thus, recrystallization model has also been implemented.In parallel, a numerical model for the prediction of machined surface integrity has been constructed. This model is based on a methodology called 'hybrid' (developed during the PhD thesis of Frederic Valiorgue for the AISI 304L steel). The method consists in replacing tool and chip modeling by equivalent loadings (obtained experimentally). A calibration step of these loadings has been carried out using orthogonal cutting and friction tests (with sensitivity studies of machining forces, friction and heat partition coefficients to cutting parameters variations).Finally, numerical simulations predictions of microstructural changes (austenitization and dynamic recrystallization) and residual stresses have been successfully compared with

  4. Process Optimization of Eco-Friendly Flame Retardant Finish for Cotton Fabric: a Response Surface Methodology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Sohail; Curti, Massimo; Behary, Nemeshwaree; Perwuelz, Anne; Giraud, Stephane; Rovero, Giorgio; Guan, Jinping; Chen, Guoqiang

    The n-methylol dimethyl phosphono propionamide (MDPA) flame retardant compounds are predominantly used for cotton fabric treatments with trimethylol melamine (TMM) to obtain better crosslinking and enhanced flame retardant properties. Nevertheless, such treatments are associated with a toxic issue of cancer-causing formaldehyde release. An eco-friendly finishing was used to get formaldehyde-free fixation of flame retardant to the cotton fabric. Citric acid as a crosslinking agent along with the sodium hypophosphite as a catalyst in the treatment was utilized. The process parameters of the treatment were enhanced for optimized flame retardant properties, in addition, low mechanical loss to the fabric by response surface methodology using Box-Behnken statistical design experiment methodology was achieved. The effects of concentrations on the fabric’s properties (flame retardancy and mechanical properties) were evaluated. The regression equations for the prediction of concentrations and mechanical properties of the fabric were also obtained for the eco-friendly treatment. The R-squared values of all the responses were above 0.95 for the reagents used, indicating the degree of relationship between the predicted values by the Box-Behnken design and the actual experimental results. It was also found that the concentration parameters (crosslinking reagents and catalysts) in the treatment formulation have a prime role in the overall performance of flame retardant cotton fabrics.

  5. Institutionalising cleaner production in China: the cleaner production promotion law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.; Liu Yi,

    2005-01-01

    During the 1990s, cleaner production was introduced in China, in the beginning especially via development aid projects. From 1992 to 1997 the focus was strongly on the introduction of cleaner production methodology, the training of personnel and the implementation of demonstration projects at the

  6. Evaluation of aqueous cleaners as alternatives to vapor degreasing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C. [and others

    1996-05-01

    As part of the preparation process during assembly of thermally activated batteries, the stainless steel piece parts are normally cleaned by vapor degreasing with trichloroethylene. Severe restrictions on the use of chlorinated and fluorinated hydrocarbons in recent years prompted the evaluation of a number of aqueous cleaners as a replacement technology for this application. A total of seven commercial aqueous degreasers was evaluated in this study at several dilution ratios and temperatures. One organic cleaner was also examined under ambient conditions. The effectiveness of the cleaner was determined by the use of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which is a surface analytical technique that is very sensitive to low levels of surface contaminants. A quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) that is immersed in the cleaning bath was evaluated as a tool for monitoring the bath cleanliness. The best overall cleaning results were obtained with Micro, Impro-Clean 3800, and Sonicor cleaners.

  7. Evaluation of aqueous cleaners as alternatives to vapor degreasing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C. [and others

    1996-02-01

    As part of the preparation process during assembly of thermally activated batteries, the stainless steel piece parts are normally cleaned by vapor degreasing with trichloroethylene. Severe restrictions on the use of chlorinated and fluorinated hydrocarbons in recent years prompted the evaluation of a number of aqueous cleaners as a replacement technology for this application. A total of seven commercial aqueous degreasers was evaluated in this study at several dilution ratios and temperatures. One organic cleaner was also examined under ambient conditions. The effectiveness of the cleaner was determined by the use of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which is a surface analytical technique that is very sensitive to low levels of surface contaminants. A quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) that is immersed in the cleaning bath was evaluated as a tool for monitoring the bath cleanliness. The best overall cleaning results were obtained with Micro, Impro-Clean 3800, and Sonicor cleaners.

  8. Concentration data for anthropogenic organic compounds in groundwater, surface water, and finished water of selected community water systems in the United States, 2002-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.; Delzer, Gregory C.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began implementing Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) in 2001 that focus on characterizing the quality of source water and finished water of aquifers and major rivers used by some of the larger community water systems in the United States. As used in SWQA studies, source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at the supply well before water treatment (for groundwater) or the raw (ambient) water collected from the river near the intake (for surface water), and finished water is the water that has been treated and is ready to be delivered to consumers. Finished-water samples are collected before the water enters the distribution system. The primary objective of SWQAs is to determine the occurrence of more than 250 anthropogenic organic compounds in source water used by community water systems, many of which currently are unregulated in drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A secondary objective is to understand recurrence patterns in source water and determine if these patterns also occur in finished water before distribution. SWQA studies were conducted in two phases for most studies completed by 2005, and in one phase for most studies completed since 2005. Analytical results are reported for a total of 295 different anthropogenic organic compounds monitored in source-water and finished-water samples collected during 2002-10. The 295 compounds were classified according to the following 13 primary use or source groups: (1) disinfection by-products; (2) fumigant-related compounds; (3) fungicides; (4) gasoline hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and oxygenate degradates; (5) herbicides and herbicide degradates; (6) insecticides and insecticide degradates; (7) manufacturing additives; (8) organic synthesis compounds; (9) pavement- and combustion-derived compounds; (10) personal-care and domestic-use products; (11) plant- or animal-derived biochemicals; (12) refrigerants and

  9. Metal-Detergent/Cleaner Compatibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hindin, Barry

    1994-01-01

    ...) such as CFC-1 13 or 1,1,1 Trichioroethane (TCA) in their cleaning and degreasing procedures. During the last few years, AGMC has been evaluating alternative, environmentally acceptable chemicals to replace their ODC cleaners...

  10. Configuration design and accuracy analysis of a novel magneto rheological finishing machine tool for concave surfaces with small radius of curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Henan; Chen, Mingjun; Yu, Bo; Zhen, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is a computer-controlled deterministic polishing technique that is widely used in the production of high-quality optics. In order to overcome the defects of existing MRF processes that are unable to achieve concave surfaces with small radius of curvature, a configuration method of a novel structured MRF machine tool using small ball-end permanent-magnet polishing head is proposed in this paper. The preliminary design focuses on the structural configuration of the machine, which includes the machine body, motion units and accessory equipment, and so on. Structural deformation and fabrication accuracy of the machine are analyzed theoretically, in which the reasonable structure sizes, manufacturing errors and assembly errors of main structural components are given for configuration optimization. Based on the theoretical analysis, a four-axes linkage MRF machine tool is developed. Preliminary experiments of spot polishing are carried out and the results indicate that the proposed MRF process can achieve stable polishing area which meets requirement of deterministic polishing. A typical small-bore complex component is polished on the developed device and fine surface quality is obtained with sphericity of the finished spherical surfaces 1.3 μm and surface roughness Ra less than 0.018 μm.

  11. Optimal set-up and surface finish characteristics in electrical discharge machining on Ti-5Al-2.5Sn using graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ashikur Rahman Khan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In electrical discharge machining (EDM process which is an advance and non-conventional technique, the selection of machining parameters for achieving high machining performance is an important; however, very problematic task. In the current manuscript it was aimed to ascertain optimal machining set-up of EDM process related with fine surface finish. The die-sinking EDM was carried out using the both polarities (positive and negative of graphite electrode. The microstructure of the workpiece surface was investigated by scanning electronic microscopy. The negative polarity produces, on average, nearly double surface roughness than that with positive polarity. The surface microstructure is deteriorated as the discharge energy level increases for both polarities.

  12. Develop of ceramic effects: surface finishes, through digital inject technology; Desarrollo de efectos ceramicos como acabados superficiales, mediante tecnologia de inyeccion digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Ferro Spain SA has tackled the practical viability of tile surfaces decoration by means of applying layers of reduced thickness by means of the use of digital injection technology by ink jet and, specifically, relating to effects and superficial finishes different from colouring. It has been studied several mechanisms which allow to get those effects and the influence of the main variables. It has also been assessed the obtained results dealing with the current regulations as in the case of non-slip effect. (Author)

  13. Optical behaviors of esthetic CAD-CAM restorations after different surface finishing and polishing procedures and UV aging: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Hamiyet; Turgut, Sedanur

    2018-01-05

    Esthetic computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) materials have various chemical compositions and can be prepared by using different finishing and polishing procedures. Their optical properties may change over time, depending on these factors. However, information about their stain resistance is still scarce. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the optical properties of esthetic CAD-CAM materials after different finishing and polishing procedures and ultraviolet (UV) aging. Lava Ultimate, Cerasmart, Vita Enamic, Vita Suprinity, and Vita Mark II materials were used. A total of 150 specimens (14×12×1 mm) were prepared (n=10). A spectrophotometer was used to measure color parameters after different finishing and polishing procedures (control, manual polishing, glazing) and ultraviolet (UV) aging. Lightness (L*), green-red (a*), blue-yellow (b*), chroma (Ch), and hue (h) parameters were recorded, and change in lightness (ΔE*) values were calculated. Statistical analyses were performed with 2-way ANOVA, the Fisher least significant difference test, and the paired samples t test (α=.05). Significant interactions were noted between the aging conditions, material type, and finishing and polishing procedures for all evaluated parameters (P<.001). Vita Suprinity and Vita Mark II glazing groups resulted in significantly higher L 1 * values (P<.05) after the first color measurements. The b 1 * and C 1 values of Vita Suprinity were higher than for other materials (P<.05). The highest ΔE* value was observed in the Lava Ultimate-glazing group (ΔE*=22.7) and the lowest in the Vita Mark II-control group (ΔE*=0.86). The optical properties of CAD-CAM materials can be affected by the material type and the applied surface finishing and polishing procedure. Manual polishing seems to be a better choice for Lava Ultimate and Cerasmart and glazing for Vita Enamic. For ceramic materials, manual polishing or glazing can be recommended in terms

  14. Inventory on cleaner production education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pöyry, Sirkka; Huisingh, Donald

    Analysis and presentation of the data from an international inventory on cleaner production education and training......Analysis and presentation of the data from an international inventory on cleaner production education and training...

  15. Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002743.htm Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers are substances used to ...

  16. Robot Vacuum Cleaner Personality and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriks, A.F.M.; Meerbeek, B.W.; Boess, S.; Pauws, S.C; Sonneveld, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report our study on the user experience of robot vacuum cleaner behavior. How do people want to experience this new type of cleaning appliance? Interviews were conducted to elicit a desired robot vacuum cleaner personality. With this knowledge in mind, behavior was designed for a future robot vacuum cleaner. A video prototype was used to evaluate how people experienced the behavior of this robot vacuum cleaner. The results indicate that people recognizedthe intended personali...

  17. Finishability of CCA pressure-treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Ross; Richard Carlson; William Feist; Steven Bussjaeger

    2000-01-01

    Thus, a need arose for the development of surface finishes for CCA-treated wood that could address the special requirements of this substrate and provide protection against the ravages of water, sunlight, mildew, and other aspects of weathering and wear. Initially, this need was not addressed, most wood preserving companies had little expertise in surface finishes and...

  18. Packaging Reliability Effect of ENIG and ENEPIG Surface Finishes in Board Level Thermal Test under Long-Term Aging and Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chaobo; Hai, Zhou; Zhao, Cong; Zhang, Jiawei; Evans, John L; Bozack, Michael J; Suhling, Jeffrey C

    2017-04-26

    This study illustrates test results and comparative literature data on the influence of isothermal aging and thermal cycling associated with Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC105) and Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) ball grid array (BGA) solder joints finished with ENIG and ENEPIG on the board side and ENIG on the package side compared with ImAg plating on both sides. The resulting degradation data suggests that the main concern for 0.4 mm pitch 10 mm package size BGA is package side surface finish, not board side. That is, ENIG performs better than immersion Ag for applications involving long-term isothermal aging. SAC305, with a higher relative fraction of Ag₃Sn IMC within the solder, performs better than SAC105. SEM and polarized light microscope analysis show cracks propagated from the corners to the center or even to solder bulk, which eventually causes fatigue failure. Three factors are discussed: IMC, grain structure, and Ag₃Sn particle. The continuous growth of Cu-Sn intermetallic compounds (IMC) and grains increase the risk of failure, while Ag₃Sn particles seem helpful in blocking the crack propagation.

  19. Robotic Water Blast Cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, M. H.; Roberts, M. L.; Hill, W. E.; Jackson, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    Water blasting system under development removes hard, dense, extraneous material from surfaces. High pressure pump forces water at supersonic speed through nozzle manipulated by robot. Impact of water blasts away unwanted material from workpiece rotated on air bearing turntable. Designed for removing thermal-protection material, system is adaptable to such industrial processes as cleaning iron or steel castings.

  20. Simulated studies of wear and friction in total hip prosthesis components with various ball sizes and surface finishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swikert, M. A.; Johnson, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on a newly designed total hip joint simulator. The apparatus closely simulates the complex motions and loads of the human hip in normal walking. The wear and friction of presently used appliance configurations and materials were determined. A surface treatment of the metal femoral ball specimens was applied to influence wear. The results of the investigation indicate that wear can be reduced by mechanical treatment of metal femoral ball surfaces. A metallographic examination and surface roughness measurements were made.

  1. Progressive tool flank wear and surface roughness when turning AISI 1017 mild steel using reduced thickness inserts in finishing cutting conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Saiful Anwar Che; Zakaria, Mohd Hafizu; Harun, Wan Sharuzi Wan; Ghazalli, Zakri

    2017-12-01

    Tool wear is a major aspect in metal cutting, especially during steel machining. This studies the capability of 1 mm thick uncoated tungsten carbide insert during the turning of AISI 1017 mild steel. The reduction of insert thickness will lead to a more economical and efficient use of material and energy during fabrication, operation, and disposal of the cutting insert. Axial machining trials have been performed using the finishing cutting conditions. Tool flank wear and workpiece surface roughness were analysed using an optical microscope and contact perthometer device, respectively. The data of flank wear and surface roughness achieved were used to analyse the capability of replacing 4 mm thick cutting inserts with 1 mm thick cutting inserts. The results showed that the flank wear and the surface roughness of conventional inserts performed better as compared to the 1 mm thick insert with a significant difference of 5.74 % and 1.57 %. Thus, the experimental study shows that the 1 mm thick insert performed as good as a conventional cutting insert in terms of tool life and surface roughness quality.

  2. First-principles study of the (0001)-MgB2 surface finished in Mg and B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura, Sully; Martínez, Jairo Arbey Rodríguez; Moreno-Armenta, María Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    We present a study based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) of the volume and two surfaces (0001) of MgB 2 , one of them terminated in Mg and the other one terminated in B. Each one of the surface was relaxed and their electronic properties were determined. From calculation of the enthalpy of formation we found that the Mg-terminated surface is energetically favored. The bands seem to present a formation similar to the Dirac's cone as that are presented in graphene, but in MgB 2 is above of the Fermi level. In the three cases, volume and the two surfaces, the behaviour is boron-metallic, because there are strong presence of B orbital's in the neighborhood of the Ferm level

  3. Cleaner Production in the mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto Martinez, Elias

    2004-01-01

    The control politics of the environmental contamination have substantially changed from the 80, toward new preventive tendencies that make the question. That we make with the residuals? What can we make for not generating residuals? On this position, the topic of clean production, it really indicates environmentally a production cleaner, to generate a more respectful final product with the environment, as a result of a process that incorporates in each one of the phases of the life cycle of products the best environmental practices. The national politics of cleaner production was approved in August of 1997 by the environmental national advice, it was formulated like an answer to the solution of the environmental problem of the productive sectors that looks for fundamentally to prevent the contamination in its origin, instead of treating her once generated, with significant results for the construction of the real possibilities of sustainability and competitiveness. Their implementation requires of the government like of the productive sectors, fundamentally, because the environmental problems have become very complex for its control, only through direct regulation, and because to reach the sustainable development of the productive activities implies to face the new challenges of the national and international competitiveness, considering that the environmental administration is a source of opportunities and not an obstacle. In the practice the application of the concept of cleaner production, so much in the current systems of production like in the products and services, it doesn't mean a substitution in strict sense for other different, but improving them continually, under the expert that the new technologies will be cleaner. Of here that production cleans it profiles as the goal that will be reached with the new investments, as long as the systematic search of the continuous improvement, corresponds to the concept of cleaner production that obeys a dynamic and

  4. Effect of Isothermal Aging on the Long-Term Reliability of Fine-Pitch Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Ag Solder Interconnects With and Without Board-Side Ni Surface Finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Kyu; Duh, Jeng-Gong

    2014-11-01

    The combined effects on long-term reliability of isothermal aging and chemically balanced or unbalanced surface finish have been investigated for fine-pitch ball grid array packages with Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) (wt.%) and Sn-3.5Ag (SnAg) (wt.%) solder ball interconnects. Two different printed circuit board surface finishes were selected to compare the effects of chemically balanced and unbalanced structure interconnects with and without board-side Ni surface finish. NiAu/solder/Cu and NiAu/solder/NiAu interconnects were isothermally aged and thermally cycled to evaluate long-term thermal fatigue reliability. Weibull plots of the combined effects of each aging condition and each surface finish revealed lifetime for NiAu/SAC305/Cu was reduced by approximately 40% by aging at 150°C; less degradation was observed for NiAu/SAC305/NiAu. Further reduction of characteristic life-cycle number was observed for NiAu/SnAg/NiAu joints. Microstructure was studied, focusing on its evolution near the board and package-side interfaces. Different mechanisms of aging were apparent under the different joint configurations. Their effects on the fatigue life of solder joints are discussed.

  5. High-temperature stability of Au/Pd/Cu and Au/Pd(P)/Cu surface finishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. E.; Hsieh, W. Z.; Lee, P. T.; Huang, Y. H.; Kuo, T. T.

    2018-03-01

    Thermal reliability of Au/Pd/Cu and Au/Pd(4-6 wt.% P)/Cu trilayers in the isothermal annealing at 180 °C were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The pure Pd film possessed a nanocrystalline structure with numerous grain boundaries, thereby facilitating the interdiffusion between Au and Cu. Out-diffusion of Cu through Pd and Au grain boundaries yielded a significant amount of Cu oxides (CuO and Cu2O) over the Au surface and gave rise to void formation in the Cu film. By contrast, the Pd(P) film was amorphous and served as a good diffusion barrier against Cu diffusion. The results of this study indicated that amorphous Pd(P) possessed better oxidation resistance and thermal reliability than crystalline Pd.

  6. Robot Vacuum Cleaner Personality and Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.F.M.; Meerbeek, B.W.; Boess, S.; Pauws, S.C; Sonneveld, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report our study on the user experience of robot vacuum cleaner behavior. How do people want to experience this new type of cleaning appliance? Interviews were conducted to elicit a desired robot vacuum cleaner personality. With this knowledge in mind, behavior was designed for a

  7. Evaluation of the cleaner technology programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    The report presents an independent evaluation of the Danish development programme for cleaner technology 1986-1989 and of the Action Plan for Cleaner Technology 1990-1992. The evaluation focuses on the results of technology development and implementation projects, on an examination of the dissemi......The report presents an independent evaluation of the Danish development programme for cleaner technology 1986-1989 and of the Action Plan for Cleaner Technology 1990-1992. The evaluation focuses on the results of technology development and implementation projects, on an examination...... of the dissemination of cleaner technology solutions achieved in six industrial branches, and on the overall programme and its effects, in particular environmental impacts, but also results in the form of employment, environmental export, strenghtening of Danish know-how etc....

  8. The drive to cleaner energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruebler, A.; McDonald, A.

    1995-12-31

    The world is not running out of energy, even with the global population expected to double by 2050 and to reach 12 billion by 2100. Indeed, there are enough potential resources, from oil and gas to coal and renewables, that the world will have choices. We will not need to push every resource to the limit just to keep up with population and economic growth. Which energy resources will predominate in the future will depend not on resource limits, but on which fuels can be most successfully tailored to match what consumers want. And what they want is clear: there is a continuing, pervasive and persistent trend in energy demand toward ever cleaner, more flexible, and more convenient energy end uses. 6 figs.

  9. Drivers for Cleaner Production in Malaysian Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    2003-01-01

    This working paper tries to piece together information on regulatory initiatives promoting cleaner production (CP) in Malaysian industry, as well as points of discussion on environmental performance in the sector. It draws upon initial data collection by the team of the research project ‘A Study...... on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production’, which is coordinated by Institute of Environmental and Resource Management, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia; the objective of this study...

  10. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector or...

  11. Plutonium Finishing Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Plutonium Finishing Plant, also known as PFP, represented the end of the line (the final procedure) associated with plutonium production at Hanford.PFP was also...

  12. Health disparities between immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B; Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Carneiro, Isabella G

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: It is unknown whether immigrants working in the cleaning industry have a poorer health and work ability than cleaners from the native population. The main aim was to investigate differences in objective and self-reported health measures between immigrant and Danish cleaners. METHODS: Three...... hundred and fifty-one cleaners, consisting of 166 Danes (88% women) and 179 immigrants (74% women) (6 with unknown ethnicity), from 9 workplaces in Denmark participated in the study. Health and work ability were obtained by objective (e.g., BMI and blood pressure) and self-reported measures (e.g., work...... ability, self-rated health, and musculoskeletal symptoms). In order to investigate differences between Danish and immigrant cleaners, logistic regression analyses and General Linear Models were performed. RESULTS: When controlling for age, sex, workplace, job seniority, and smoking, more Danish compared...

  13. Education and Manpower development for Cleaner Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    An overview of the needs for education and training for dissemination and implementation of cleaner production. Expericne from training in companies and training of officials from public authorities and from integration into engineering, business and management and social science curricula...

  14. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards and...

  15. Wall Finishes; Carpentry: 901895.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline is designed to provide instruction in selecting, preparing, and installing wall finishing materials. Prerequisites for the course include mastery of building construction plans, foundations and walls, and basic mathematics. Intended for use in grades 11 and 12, the course contains five blocks of study totaling 135 hours of…

  16. Biotechnology in biofuels -- a cleaner technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegannathan, K.R.; Chan, E.S.; Ravindra, P. [Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu (Malaysia). Centre of Materials and Minerals

    2011-07-01

    One quarter of the world's CO{sub 2} emissions are created by the transport sector which accounts for some 60% of the world's total oil consumption. Biofuel made from biomass has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels. By using cleaner technology, it is possible to enhance economic growth in industries all over the world while at the same time saving water, energy, raw materials and waste to minimize the environmental footprint. The cleaner technology involves the use of enzymes in an industrial process. Enzymes can be used to make fuels and chemical intermediates in more sustainable, environmentally friendly ways. The development of new enzymes, including through the production and purification of enzymes from genetically modified organisms, is a major driving force in the commercialization of cleaner technology products and processes.

  17. Measurement of flow inside a vacuum cleaner head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Ryotaro; Ban, Hisataka; Sakakibara, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Vacuum cleaner head with rotating brushes is widely used as a home appliance. Although it efficiently collects dusts from the floor, flow field of the air and motion of the dust inside the head have not been fully investigated. In this study, we performed 3D-PIV (particle tracking velocimetry) measurement of velocity field inside the head. Water was used as working fluid, which allows a use of fluorescent particle to reduce unwanted reflection from the brushes and inner surface of the head. Mean velocity field and turbulence statistics in the head with and without the brush will be presented.

  18. Research on the use of particles coming from almond husk as fillers for vinyl plastisols to manufacture hollow pieces with similar surface finishing than wood by using a rotational moulding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Amoros, Jose Enrique

    PVC pastes or plasticized PVC offer great possibilities in the industrial field in which this research work has been developed since they show great relevance in plastic processing. On one hand, it is important to study these materials from different points of view: quality improvement, wide range of performance, high versatility, low costs,.... On the other hand, most of the industrial fields that usually employ these polymeric materials are characterized by developing products on which aesthetic considerations and surface finishing acquire special relevance. These industrial fields include all those on which new designs require complex shapes and new and novelty surface finishing such as interior design (furniture, wood products,...) toys industry, houseware, shoe industry,.... The main aim of this work is to improve the use of PVC plastisols in these industrial fields by optimizing formulations with new additives (low toxicity plasticizers) and fillers (lignocellulosic wastes) to obtain new materials that minimize damages to environment. In this work, we have developed new plastisol formulations based on the use of low toxicity plasticizers to obtain more ecological plastisols. We have used a biodegradable plasticizer DINCH which is a derivative of a dicarboxilate as substitute of traditional plasticizers based on phthalates. As we are working with relatively new plasticizers (specially at industrial level) we have performed a whole study of its properties by using different experimental analysis techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamical-mechanical analysis (DMA) and espectrofotometric techniques (visible and infrared). Furthermore a complete mechanical characterization has been carried out to analyze the most important parameters that influence on materials properties such as processing parameters (temperature and time) and plastisol formulations (mainly plasticizer content). We have also performed a

  19. RELATION BETWEEN FUNCTION AND FORM IN VACUUM CLEANERS DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU Ștefan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses how robotic vacuum cleaner works, describing their cleaning capabilities and additional features. The paper illustrates advantages of using robotic vacuum cleaners that have intelligent programming and a vacuum cleaning system, the components of a robotic vacuum cleaner. The paper develops aspects concerning to create 2D scale models for the evaluation of specific features of the new components for a prototype robotic vacuum cleaner.

  20. Cleaner Technology in Denmark - support measures and regulatory efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2005-01-01

    Danish cleaner technology support policies have been successful in fostering innovations that reduce the invironmental impact of products and production. But the lack of enforcement support for cleaner technology in environmental permits has limited the overall impact.......Danish cleaner technology support policies have been successful in fostering innovations that reduce the invironmental impact of products and production. But the lack of enforcement support for cleaner technology in environmental permits has limited the overall impact....

  1. 7 CFR 2902.48 - General purpose household cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose household cleaners. 2902.48 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.48 General purpose household cleaners. (a) Definition. Products designed... procurement preference for qualifying biobased general purpose household cleaners. By that date, Federal...

  2. Finishing with invisalign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Trang; Kuo, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Finishing in orthodontics can be challenging and can involve use of various techniques and armamentarium. This article reports a study that evaluates a procedure for using a thicker Aligner at the end of treatment to aide in finishing and also to determine if this would reduce the need for additional "case refinement" Aligners at the end of treatment. Align Technology has developed the Invisalign System, which is a series of clear plastic appliances ("aligners") that move the patient's teeth in small increments from their original state to a final, treated state. The Invisalign System uses a computer as a tool to assist in creating a series of sequential movements to assure light and consistent forces on the patient's teeth.

  3. Cleaner products : new tools, players and relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne

    In connection with the establishment of the Product Oriented Environmental Initiative, the Environmental Protection Agency wished to undertake a subevaluation of the projects initiated under the cleaner technology action plan in relation to the sectors and areas which have been initially under fo...

  4. Breathing easier: Indonesia works towards cleaner air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael Amdi

    2015-01-01

    Indonesians can look forward to breathing cleaner air following upcoming changes in regulations introduced as a result of a study conducted using nuclear analytical techniques. Lead pollution and other fine particulate matter in the air is now, for the first time, being accurately monitored and is giving Indonesian officials a good understanding of their air pollution problem and how to manage it.

  5. Experimental investigation on shore hardness of barrel-finished ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Barrel finishing (BF) process is widely used to improve the surface finish and dimensional features of metallic and non-metallic parts using different types of media. As a matter of fact the change in shore hardness (SH) features of fused deposition modelling (FDM)-based master pattern is one of the important considerations ...

  6. Preliminary findings of the effect of surface finish and coatings on PuO2 contamination hold-up and ease of decontamination in aqueous and non-aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.T.; Chamberlain, H.E.; Turner, A.D.; Dawson, R.K.

    1984-11-01

    The application of temporary and permanent coatings for the reduction of α-activity hold-up and increased ease of decontamination has been reviewed and a variety of surface treatments and coatings identified as being worthy of investigation. A range of specimens have been prepared with hard coatings and smooth surfaces. A number of adhesive films, paints and lacquers have been applied to mild and stainless steel substrates. In order to compare the different surfaces, a standard contamination technique using a mechanical wiper has been developed to reproducibly contaminate the materials with PuO 2 . A standard decontamination test using water/Decon 75 or Arklone X is being used to compare the ease of decontamination. Preliminary experiments have shown that the smoothest surface finishes have the lowest activity hold-up and are more easily cleaned. Due to the superior level of micro-smoothness attainable on metals, these showed a significantly lower activity retention than the organic coatings examined to date. A comparison of the relative efficiency of cleaning in Decon 75 and Arklone X showed that generally speaking metal surfaces were cleaned equally well by both media, while the unaged organic surfaces were decontaminated more thoroughly in Arklone X, though the differences were somewhat marginal. (author)

  7. Nano finish grinding of brittle materials using electrolytic in-process ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    \\R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Recent developments in grinding have opened up new avenues for finishing of hard and brittle materials with nano-surface finish, high tolerance and accuracy. Grinding with superabrasive wheels is ... materials up to nano accuracy is a great challenge in the manufacturing industry. Finishing of micro components such as ...

  8. Chronicle of 65 years of wood finishing research at the Forest Products Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Gorman; William C. Feist

    1989-01-01

    For 65 years, the Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) in Madison, Wisconsin, has had a continuous and extensive program of research on finishing wood for outdoor use. The research has stressed the fundamental aspects of wood weathering and the interactions of pretreatments and finishes on wood surfaces. This report outlines the history of the FPL wood finishing research...

  9. The Infraordinary as Spatial Discourse: Tongue of the Dry Cleaner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen

    2014-01-01

    of perception, I interrogated a London dry cleaner as an (infra-ordinary) urban function: Tongue of the Dry Cleaner uses creative writing and critical spatial practice as tools for gaining insight. It moves through the elements of the space and production line of the dry cleaner, unfolding it bit by bit......Most of us pass along kiosks, pubs, dry cleaners, turn street corners, rise up stairways on a daily basis, in a sort of spatial anaesthesia. These spaces that facilitates our everyday existence are ‘worn half-invisible by use’, thereby not given due attention. Through his occupation with the infra...... onto the hangers of the dry cleaner, reintroducing the space to the users. The unheeded spaces and objects have ‘a function that is separate form their practical use.’2 A dry cleaner is not simply cleaning clothes, but a social vertex and interface through which events unfold, trajectories thickens...

  10. Parasite infestation increases on coral reefs without cleaner fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutter, A. S.; De Brauwer, M.; Bshary, R.; Cheney, K. L.; Cribb, T. H.; Madin, E. M. P.; McClure, E. C.; Meekan, M. G.; Sun, D.; Warner, R. R.; Werminghausen, J.; Sikkel, P. C.

    2018-03-01

    Mutualisms are pivotal in shaping ecological communities. Iconic images of cleaner fish entering the mouths of predatory fish clients to remove ectoparasites epitomize their mutual benefit. Experimental manipulations of cleaner wrasse reveal declines in fish size and growth, and population abundance and diversity of client fishes in the absence of cleaner wrasse. Fishes grow more slowly and are less abundant and diverse on reefs without cleaner wrasse, both for larger species that are regularly cleaned and have high ectoparasite loads ("attractive species"), and for those smaller species that are rarely cleaned and are rarely infested with parasites ("unattractive species"). We therefore considered whether these previously observed declines in individual and population parameters on reefs without cleaners were related to increased ectoparasite infestation using an attractive species ( Hemigymnus melapterus, Labridae) and an unattractive species ( Pomacentrus amboinensis, Pomacentridae). Traps with these fish as a form of bait were deployed to sample blood-sucking gnathiid ectoparasites (Gnathiidae: Isopoda) on reefs from which cleaners ( Labroides dimidiatus, Labridae) have been removed for 13 yr. Cleaner fish could not enter traps to access the clients/hosts, but gnathiids could enter the traps to infest hosts; thus, this method sampled the indirect effect of cleaners on gnathiid infestation of fish. Infestation was higher on reefs without cleaners than on those with them. The effect was only detected during the daytime when cleaners are active and only on the attractive species ( H. melapterus). Thus, cleaner presence indirectly reduced fish exposure to parasites in a species that is highly susceptible to parasites, but not in one that is rarely infested with parasites. This suggests that cleaner presence indirectly reduces exposure of a common fish species to harmful parasites, which may explain some observed benefits in fishes at this location.

  11. Psychosocial work environment among immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kasper; Carneiro, Isabella G; Jørgensen, Marie B

    2012-01-01

    Non-Western cleaners have been shown to have poorer health than their Danish colleagues. One reason could be a poorer psychosocial work environment. However, it is unknown if differences in self-reported psychosocial work environment exist between non-Western and Danish workers within the same...... social class. The aim of this study was to investigate such differences among cleaners with the hypothesis that the non-Western compared with Danish cleaners would report a generally poorer psychosocial work environment....

  12. Occupational exposures and health outcomes among Latina hotel cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Chin Jerrie; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Hatzudis, Kiki; Sönmez, Sevil

    2014-01-01

    The poor working conditions of Latina hotel cleaners render them particularly vulnerable to elevated occupational hazards that lead to adverse health outcomes. This article presents a comprehensive review of occupational risks (including physical, chemical, biological, and psychosocial risk factors) and health outcomes (including musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory diseases, dermatological diseases and allergies, and psychological disorders) for Latina hotel cleaners, within their unique sociocultural contexts. Preventive interventions for improving Latina hotel cleaners' work and health conditions are recommended.

  13. Corrosion protection and finishing of automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, S.T.

    2005-01-01

    one primer coat and a double finish coat. The two finishing coats are applied one immediately after the other, and both are baked simultaneously. An alternate system is to apply a red iron oxide epoxy primer followed by a gray epoxy primer and to bake the two coats at 200 degree C for about 35 minutes. The dry film thickness is about is about 1.5 mils. This coating is wet sanded, washed, and dried then top-coated with a double (wet-on-wet) coat of alkyd-amino resin enamel. The enamel is baked at 120 degree C for about 35 minutes. The lacquer system consists of one prime coat followed by several coats of lacquer finish. Number of coats depending on the price range of the car. All the efforts are made to make the metal surface as smooth as possible and free from rough places due to spot wielding and filing. This means a minimum of sanding on the primer, thus saving in labour cost but also makes possible less pigment in the primer resulting in better hold-out of the finish. However, the primer must be hard enough to sand easily, because rubbery primers tare slow sanding and tend to show scratch marks from the sand paper. All metal surfaces are given a passivating treatment before application of the primer. (author)

  14. Control of respirable particles and radon progeny with portable air cleaners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offermann, F.J.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.; Yater, J.

    1984-02-01

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles and radon progeny. Following injection of cigarette smoke and radon in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particles and radon progeny concentrations were measured with and without air cleaner operation. Particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size. In tests with no air cleaner the natural decay rate for cigarette smoke was observed to be 0.2 hr -1 . Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filters, a residential ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. The electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters tested had significant particle removal rates, and a HEPA-type filter was the most efficient air cleaner. The evaluation of radon progeny control produced similar results; the air cleaners which were effective in removing particles were also effective in removing radon progeny. At low particle concentrations plateout of the unattached radon progeny is an important removal mechanism. Based on data from these tests, the plateout rate for unattached progeny was found to be 15 hr -1 . The unattached fraction and the overall removal rate due to deposition of attached and unattached nuclides have been estimated for each radon decay product as a function of particle concentration. While air cleaning can be effective in reducing total radon progeny, concentrations of unattached radon progeny can increase with increasing air cleaning. 39 references, 26 figures, 9 tables

  15. Cleaner production technology for the NDT industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relunia, Estrella D.; Mateo, Alejandro J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses te wastes generated from the conduct of nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques and operations like NDT film processing and the systems to reduce water pollution and the film system quality control. Discussions on clean technology production concepts and philosophy is also discussed. A case study on cleaner production technology where a process and equipment modifications and a product substitution were implemented is presented. The equipment modification and product substitution eliminated the use of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in its cleaning operation. (Author)

  16. Berg River Textiles - Cleaner Production Option Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Schneider, Zsig

    In October and November 2002 meetings were held between Berg River Textiles, Mr. Juan Laubscher, and external consultants from the South African – Danish Cleaner Textile Production Project, Mr. Zsig Schneider and Mr. Henrik Wenzel. This team of people collected information on recipes and flow sch...... projects including milestone plans for their implementation was made. A saving potential of around 3 mill. R was identified with a pay-back period of around 0.2 years as average of the identified options. The company implemented a large number of the options right away....

  17. Vitrified metal finishing wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, P.A. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: p.a.bingham@sheffield.ac.uk; Hand, R.J. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-17

    Durable phosphate glasses were formed by vitrifying waste filter cakes from two metal finishing operations. Some melts formed crystalline components during cooling. Compositional analysis of dried, heat treated and vitrified samples was made using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy and Leco induction furnace combustion analysis. Hydrolytic dissolution, measured by an adapted product consistency test, was reduced by up to 3 orders of magnitude upon heat treatment or vitrification, surpassing the performance of borosilicate glass in some cases. This was attributed to the high levels of iron and zinc in the wastes, which greatly improve the durability of phosphate glasses. One of the wastes arose from a metal phosphating process and was particularly suitable for vitrification due to its high P{sub 2}O{sub 5} content and favourable melting behaviour. The other waste, which arose from a number of processes, was less suitable as it had a low P{sub 2}O{sub 5} content and during heating it emitted harmful corrosive gases and underwent violent reactions. Substantial volume reductions were obtained by heat treatment and vitrification of both wastes. Compositions and performances of some vitrified wastes were comparable with those of glasses which are under consideration for the immobilisation of toxic and nuclear wastes.

  18. The use of CaCl2 and other salts to improve surface finish and eliminate vacuoles in ICF microencapsulated shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuillan, B.W.; Elsner, F.H.; Stephens, R.B.; Brown, L.C.

    1999-01-01

    Polystyrene and poly(α-methylstyrene) (PAMS) shells made by microencapsulation are prone to having vacuoles in the walls and a concomitant surface roughness. These defects can be detrimental to the implosion required for ICF shots. The authors have found that adding sufficient salt (typically CaCl 2 or NH 4 Cl) to the exterior polyvinylalcohol (PVA) solution during the drying phase inhibits the formation of vacuoles and decreases the surface roughness of the shells. The use of such salts does affect other shell specifications, for which other process variables must be adjusted

  19. Automation in tube finishing bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Prateek; Satyadev, B.; Raghuraman, S.; Syama Sundara Rao, B.

    1997-01-01

    Automation concept in tube finishing bay, introduced after the final pass annealing of PHWR tubes resulted in integration of number of sub-systems in synchronisation with each other to produce final cut fuel tubes of specified length, tube finish etc. The tube finishing bay which was physically segregated into four distinct areas: 1. tube spreader and stacking area, 2. I.D. sand blasting area, 3. end conditioning, wad blowing, end capping and O.D. wet grinding area, 4. tube inspection, tube cutting and stacking area has been studied

  20. Workload of window cleaners using ladders differing in rung separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Looze, M.P. de; Kingma, I.; Reijneveld, K.C.N.; Korte, E.M. de; Grinten, M.P. van der; Dieën, J.H. van

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare energetic workload, perceived exertion, perceived discomfort, safety, and mechanical load at lower limb joints among window cleaners during usage of extension ladders with 30 and 35 cm rung separation. Eleven healthy male professional window cleaners

  1. Occupational exposures among domestic and industrial professional cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Ahmed A; Hughes, Patrick C; Delclos, George L

    2008-10-01

    Despite being a large part of the workforce, cleaners remain a relatively understudied occupational group in the USA. The aims of this focus group study were to identify and characterize occupational exposures, symptoms and job tasks among domestic and industrial professional cleaners. Twelve focus group sessions were conducted in Lubbock, TX, and Houston, TX. Participants were asked about their job tasks, type of products they use to clean, bodily symptoms, job training and work environment. Out of 99 attendees, 79 domestic and industrial cleaners participated actively in the focus group sessions. Three general themes emerged regarding cleaning professionals' work experiences: (i) job training, (ii) chemical exposure and use and (iii) competence. Domestic cleaners demonstrated significant skills deficit across each of these three themes as compared to industrial cleaners. Domestic cleaners reported more frequent exposure to respiratory irritants and sensitizers and also reported adverse respiratory symptoms as compared to industrial cleaners. The results from this qualitative study are consistent with earlier findings from quantitative studies placing domestic cleaners at risk of exposure to chemicals that are respiratory irritants and/or sensitizers.

  2. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for..., provided: (a) The quantity of contents is expressed in terms of numerical count of the bags; (b) A...

  3. Evaluation of ozone generation and indoor organic compounds removal by air cleaners based on chamber tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuo-Pin; Lee, Grace Whei-May; Hsieh, Ching-Pei; Lin, Chi-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Ozone can cause many health problems, including exacerbation of asthma, throat irritation, cough, chest ache, shortness of breath, and respiratory infections. Air cleaners are one of the sources of indoor ozone, and thus the evaluation of ozone generated by air cleaners is desired significant issue. Most evaluation methods proposed are based on chamber tests. However, the adsorption and desorption of ozone on the wall of test chamber and the deposition of ozone resulted from the surface reaction can influence the evaluation results. In this study, we developed a mass balance model that took the adsorption, desorption and deposition of ozone into consideration to evaluate the effective ozone emission rates of six selected air cleaners. The experiments were conducted in a stainless steel chamber with a volume of 11.3 m 3 at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity. The adsorption, desorption and deposition rate constants of ozone obtained by fitting the model to the experimental data were k a = 0.149 ± 0.052 m h -1, k d = 0.013 ± 0.007 h -1, and k r = 0.050 ± 0.020 h -1, respectively. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 1, 2, and 3 ranged between 13,400-24,500 μg h -1, 7190-10,400 μg h -1, and 4880-6560 μg h -1, respectively, which were more stable than those of No.4, 5, and 6. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 4, 5, and 6 increased with the time of operation which might be relevant to the decrease of ozone removal by the "aging" filter installed in these cleaners. The removal of toluene and formaldehyde by these six air cleaners were also evaluated and the clean air delivery rates (CADRs) of these two pollutants ranged from non-detectable to 0.42 ± 0.08 m 3 h -1, and from non-detectable to 0.75 ± 0.07 m 3 h -1, respectively. The CADRs showed an insignificant relationship with the effective ozone emission rates. Thus, the removal of toluene and formaldehyde might be resulted from the adsorption on the filters and the

  4. The Infraordinary as Spatial Discourse: Tongue of the Dry Cleaner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen

    2014-01-01

    onto the hangers of the dry cleaner, reintroducing the space to the users. The unheeded spaces and objects have ‘a function that is separate form their practical use.’2 A dry cleaner is not simply cleaning clothes, but a social vertex and interface through which events unfold, trajectories thickens...... of perception, I interrogated a London dry cleaner as an (infra-ordinary) urban function: Tongue of the Dry Cleaner uses creative writing and critical spatial practice as tools for gaining insight. It moves through the elements of the space and production line of the dry cleaner, unfolding it bit by bit...... to architects’ and planners’ often rational and reductive idea of function and programme....

  5. A Control Strategy for an Autonomous Robotic Vacuum Cleaner for Solar Panels

    OpenAIRE

    Aravind, G; Gautham, Vasan; Kumar, T. S. B Gowtham; Naresh, Balaji

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of dust on the surface of solar panels reduces the amount of radiation reaching it. This leads to loss in generated electric power and formation of hotspots which would permanently damage the solar panel. This project aims at developing an autonomous vacuum cleaning method which can be used on a regular basis to maximize the lifetime and efficiency of a solar panel. This system is implemented using two subsystems namely a Robotic Vacuum Cleaner and a Docking Station. The Robotic ...

  6. Teaching Professionals Environmental Management and Cleaner Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Thorsen, Nils

    -ters. The target groups are professional environmental managers working in businesses including consultants, governmental institutions and organizations. To get access to the education the students must have a technical/nature science competence at master level or bachelor level combined with relevant job...... the education and be aware of urgent competence and personal empowerment needs among academic professionals working with environmental man-agement and cleaner technology matters.......This paper is based on almost five years of experience from the post-graduate Master’s program for professionals in Environmental Management at the Technical University of Denmark. The curricu-lum equals a year full time study carried out as two years half-time study activities in four semes...

  7. Environmentally friendly antibacterial cotton textiles finished with siloxane sulfopropylbetaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiguo; Chen, Shaojun; Jiang, Song; Xiong, Meiling; Luo, Junxuan; Tang, Jiaoning; Ge, Zaochuan

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports a novel environmentally friendly antibacterial cotton textile finished with reactive siloxane sulfopropylbetaine(SSPB). The results show that SSPB can be covalently bound onto the cotton textile surface, imparting perdurable antibacterial activity. The textiles finished with SSPB have been investigated systematically from the mechanical properties, thermal stability, hydrophilic properties and antibacterial properties. It is found that the hydrophilicity and breaking strength are improved greatly after the cotton textiles are finished with SSPB. Additionally, the cotton textiles finished with SSPB exhibit good antibacterial activities against gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus, ATCC 6538), gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E.coli, 8099) and fungi Candida albicans (C.albicans, ATCC 10231). Moreover, SSPB is nonleachable from the textiles, and it does not induce skin stimulation and is nontoxic to animals. Thus, SSPB is ideal candidate for environmentally friendly antibacterial textile applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  8. Fatigue Crack Growth in Several 7050T7451 Aluminium Alloy Thick Section Plates with Aircraft Manufacturer's and Laboratory Surface Finishes Representing Some Regions of the F/A-18 Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barter, Simon

    2003-01-01

    ... of finished components has on service fatigue crack initiation and life. This report examines a series of fatigue test specimens that were cut from three different 7050 plates, including two aircraft manufacturers' plates...

  9. Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Church, E.L.

    1989-08-01

    Great improvement has been made in the past several years in the quality of optical components used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. Most of this progress has been the result of vastly improved metrology techniques and instrumentation permitting rapid and accurate measurement of the surface finish and figure on grazing incidence optics. A significant theoretical effort has linked the actual performance of components used as x-ray wavelengths to their topological properties as measured by surface profiling instruments. Next-generation advanced light sources will require optical components and systems to have sub-arc second surface figure tolerances. This paper will explore the consequences of these requirements in terms of manufacturing tolerances to see if the present manufacturing state-of-the-art is capable of producing the required surfaces. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Control of Respirable Particles in Indoor Air with Portable AirCleaners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offermann, F.J.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Grimsrud, D.T.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.; Yater, J.

    1984-10-01

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles using in situ chamber decay tests. Following injection of cigarette smoke in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size with and without air cleaner operation. The size distribution of the tobacco smoke particles was log normal with a count median diameter of 0.15 {micro}m and a geometric standard deviation of 2.0. Without air cleaner operation, the natural mass-averaged surface deposition rate of particles was observed to be 0.1 h{sup -1}. Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filter devices, a residential-sized ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. Electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters removed particles at substantial rates, and a HEPA-type filter was the most efficient air cleaner studied.

  11. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    an aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. METHODS: The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form....... The reference group (n = 59) received lectures, and the aerobic exercise group (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week). Levels of biomarkers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) were collected...... that an aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners leads to reduced levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and an unaltered level of fibrinogen. The aerobic exercise seems to improve inflammatory levels and lipoprotein profile among cleaners, with no signs...

  12. Fire Testing of Ethanol-Based Hand Cleaner

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marker, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    .... The waterless-type hand cleaner has a relatively low flash point, raising concern over its fire safety when in use in the galley area of commercial transport aircraft where radiant ovens are often located...

  13. Cleaner Coal in China [Chinese Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    China’s rapid economic growth has aroused intense interest around the world. Policy makers, industrialists, investors, environmentalists, researchers and others want to better understand the issues that this populous nation faces as it further develops an already thriving economy largely fuelled by coal. This study sheds light on the Chinese coal supply and transformation sectors. China’s rapid economic growth has aroused intense interest around the world. Policy makers, industrialists, investors, environmentalists, researchers and others want to better understand the issues that this populous nation faces as it further develops an already thriving economy largely fuelled by coal. This study sheds light on the Chinese coal supply and transformation sectors. China’s coal, mined locally and available at a relatively low cost, has brought enormous benefits to energy consumers in China and to those outside the country who enjoy the products of its coal-based economy. Yet from another perspective, China’s coal use has a high cost. Despite progress, health and safety in the thousands of small coal mines lag far behind the standards achieved in China’s modern, large mines. Environmental degradation is a real and pressing problem at all stages of coal production, supply and use. Adding to these burdens, emissions of carbon dioxide are of concern to the Chinese government as it embarks on its own climate protection strategy. Technology solutions are already transforming the way coal is used in China and elsewhere. This study explores the context in which the development and deployment of these technologies can be accelerated. Providing a large amount of new data, it describes in detail the situation in China as well as the experiences of other countries in making coal cleaner. Above all, the report calls for much greater levels of collaboration – existing bi-lateral and multi-lateral co-operation with China on coal is found lacking. China’s growing openness

  14. The Life, Work and Recreational Physical Activity of Female Cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena

    and employed different theories, they drew a coherent picture: the interviewees’ everyday lives as migrant cleaners in Denmark had a decisive influence on their opportunities to engage in recreational physical activity: most women struggled with the demands of a physically exhausting job and an extensive...... targeting cleaners or other marginalized groups of the population must pay specific attention to structural factors such as the organization of the labour market or to the gendered division of work....

  15. Nuclear vacuum-cleaner with decloggable filter for glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean Paul Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a new vacuum-cleaner designed with a decloggable filter and motorization fan shift on external. This development has been performed in partnership by AREVA recycling Business Unit, AREVA Cleanup Business Unit, MONDIATECH and ROBOTICS companies. This development improves ergonomics, performances and reduces the volume of wastes. Two patent applications have been filed on this new vacuum-cleaner. (author)

  16. The output mode cleaner of GEO 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prijatelj, M; Grote, H; Leong, J; Affeldt, C; Lück, H; Slutsky, J; Wittel, H; Strain, K; Danzmann, K; Degallaix, J; Hild, S

    2012-01-01

    The German-British interferometric gravitational wave detector GEO 600 is currently undergoing upgrades within the GEO-HF upgrade program. The goal of this program is to enhance the sensitivity of GEO 600, in particular at frequencies above 500 Hz. At these frequencies, the detector is limited by shot noise. An important element of the upgrade is the implementation of an output mode cleaner (OMC). This filtering cavity suppresses higher order spatial and temporal modes in the interferometer's output beam, thereby reducing the shot noise and enhancing sensitivity. Fully automated lock acquisition for the OMC was developed in order to ensure a high duty cycle of GEO 600. To maintain optimum sensitivity, the resonance condition of the OMC must be matched to the output beam from the interferometer. This requires continuous control of the resonance frequency of the OMC to the light, and alignment of the beam to the OMC. We describe the design and implementation of the OMC with special attention to the control techniques employed. We present results from the experience gained during the S6/VSR3 science run. Furthermore, we describe an upper limit measurement of the internal displacement noise of a piezoelectric actuator. (paper)

  17. Control of respirable particles and radon progeny with portable air cleaners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offermann, F.J.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.; Yater, J.

    1984-02-01

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles and radon progeny. Following injection of cigarette smoke and radon in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particles and radon progeny concentrations were measured with and without air cleaner operation. Particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size. In tests with no air cleaner the natural decay rate for cigarette smoke was observed to be 0.2 hr/sup -1/. Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filters, a residential ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. The electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters tested had significant particle removal rates, and a HEPA-type filter was the most efficient air cleaner. The evaluation of radon progeny control produced similar results; the air cleaners which were effective in removing particles were also effective in removing radon progeny. At low particle concentrations plateout of the unattached radon progeny is an important removal mechanism. Based on data from these tests, the plateout rate for unattached progeny was found to be 15 hr/sup -1/. The unattached fraction and the overall removal rate due to deposition of attached and unattached nuclides have been estimated for each radon decay product as a function of particle concentration. While air cleaning can be effective in reducing total radon progeny, concentrations of unattached radon progeny can increase with increasing air cleaning. 39 references, 26 figures, 9 tables.

  18. Analysis of magnetic abrasive finishing with slotted magnetic pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayswal, S. C.; Jain, V. K.; Dixit, P. M.

    2004-06-01

    Magnetic Abrasive Finishing (MAF) is relatively a new finishing process among the advanced finishing processes in which the workpiece is kept in the magnetic field created by two poles of an electromagnet. The working gap between the workpiece and the magnet is filled with magnetic abrasive particles. A flexible magnetic abrasive brush is formed, acting as a multipoint cutting tool, due to the effect of magnetic field in the working gap. This process is capable of producing the surface finish of nanometer range. Most of the researchers have been using the electromagnet having a slot in it to improve the performance of the process but hardly any information is available about its effect on the process performance. This paper deals with the effect of a slot made in the electromagnet on the forces and surface quality during MAF. An experimental set-up is designed and fabricated for the measurement of the magnetic field distribution in the working gap. The magnetic field is simulated using a finite element model of the process. The magnetic field is also measured experimentally to validate the theoretical results. It indicates a good agreement between the experimental results and simulated values. The finite element method is further used for the evaluation of the magnetic force and surface quality during MAF. To our surprise it is found that the force under the slot is negative, even then process performance is improved. MAF process removes a very small amount of material by indentation and rotation of the magnetic abrasive particles in the circular tracks. Due to rotation of the magnetic abrasive flexible brush, grooves are formed on the workpiece surface which decides the surface profile after MAF. Surface quality is determined on the basis of the surface profile achieved by equating the volume of groove produced. These results show an improvement in finishing rate while using a slotted pole surface.

  19. Effect of carbon nano tube (CNT) particles in magnetic abrasive finishing of Mg alloy bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Lida; Wang, Rui; Kim, Min Soo; Mun, Sang Don; Yang, Gyun Eui [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    The Magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) process is a surface finishing technique in which a magnetic field is used to control abrasive particles during surface finishing of a material. Because smooth surfaces are required for general use, the magnetic abrasive finishing process was developed for finishing surfaces. We studied the effect of CNT particles on the surface roughness of a workpiece. Magnesium alloy bars were used as the cylindrical workpiece and were finished using an MAF process at high workpiece revolution speeds of 1000, 5000, 10000 and 25000 rpm; diamond pastes with diameters of 0.5, 1, and 3 μ were used for comparison. The best value for surface roughness was equivalent to treatment at 0.02 μ m when 0.01 g of CNT particles was mixed together with the unbonded magnetic abrasive at 25000 rpm for 20 seconds. CNT particles were applied to the finishing process to improve the surface roughness of the material, because they have many advantageous properties such as very high strength, light weight, elasticity, and high thermal and air stability. CNT particles are particularly effective for the improvement of Mg alloy bar surface roughness in the MAF process.

  20. Abrasive properties of modified oxides for finish polishing of steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroleva, L. F.

    2017-12-01

    The study of modified chromium and aluminum oxides, demonstrates that finish polishing by modified hydroxocomplexes based on a solid solution of iron and aluminum oxides provide a surface nanoroughness of 0.02 to 0.005 µm for the hardened ShKh15 steel (American Standard AISI 52100).

  1. The Development Of Cleaner Production Practices Between Environmental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne; Mohamed, Maketab; Agamuthu, P.

    2003-01-01

    , presenting figures on the results achieved, and discussing the experiences gained. Reviewing the approach and results of the Centre, as well as the status of cleaner production (CP) in Malaysia, the paper outlines the challenges for national policy making, when moving from promotion by project intervention......Cleaner technologies (CT) have been introduced into the Malaysian SME-sector primarily by foreign donor supported project interventions. The establishment of the Environmental and Energy Technology Centre at SIRIM was funded by a grant from the Danish Co-operation for Environment and Development...... (DANCED), Ministry of Environment and Energy. Small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) were targeted within three sectors: Textile, food and electroplating industries. The paper illustrates the change process from the perspective of electroplating SMEs by reviewing the cleaner production options chosen...

  2. Opportunities application of cleaner production practices in paint industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Y. S. Y.

    2010-08-01

    There are releases of volatile organic compounds VOC from paint manufacturing process steps and from cleaning operations in El Mohandas Paint Factory. These emission can cause health, safety and productivity problems in the work area. Hence cleaner production application is necessary in this case. Some of the manufacturing processes and equipment used to accomplish these manufacturing are analyzed and generate cleaner production opportunities, implement some of cleaner production solutions of VOC emission control by some of the methods used by paint facilities in reducing emissions. It was found that there is no control available for emissions factors in paints manufacturing process, so that VOC emission based on raw material consumption rather than calculation emission from processes or equipment by alternative method. (Author)

  3. Comparison of soft toothbrush and new ultra-soft cleaner in ability to remove plaque from teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, William J; Gratzel, Kristen; Gearity, Erin J; Akerman, Meredith; Hill, Jennifer M

    2014-11-01

    In this single-blind, crossover study, the difference between a brushless tooth cleaner and a soft toothbrush was studied to compare plaque removal efficiency. The sample was composed of 15 human subjects who were categorized into two groups. Group 1 was composed of subjects randomly assigned to the brushless tooth cleaner for the first two weeks. Group 2 was composed of those randomly assigned to begin the study using the soft toothbrush. After two weeks of brushing with their assigned device, subjects returned to their normal modality to brush their teeth for one week. For the last two weeks of the study, subjects were told to brush with the opposite device they were originally assigned to at the beginning of the trial. Investigators recorded the subjects' gingival indices (based on probe depths) and Quigley scores (based on plaque indices using disclosing solution) at the beginning of week one, the end of week two, the end of week three and the end of week five. The main outcomes in this study were the Silness Loe Index (SLI) and the Quigley Hein Index (QHI). The SLI was assessed on the buccal, lingual, mesial and distal surfaces of six teeth, for a total of 24 surfaces. The QHI was assessed on the buccal and lingual surfaces of six teeth, for a total of 12 surfaces. Each index was measured at each visit by the sum total score divided by the total number of surfaces. The data were analyzed separately using a mixed-effects repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) for crossover designs. Results indicate that, according to the SLI, there is no significant difference between the two treatments after the first or second weeks. However, based on the QHI, statistically significant differences existed between the two treatments after week one and two. After week one, the soft toothbrush use had a higher QHI than the brushless tooth cleaner. After week two, the brushless tooth cleaner had a higher QHI than the soft toothbrush.

  4. Functional finishes of stretch cotton fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, N A; Amr, A; Eid, B M; Almetwally, A A; Mourad, M M

    2013-11-06

    Functionalized cotton cellulose/spandex woven fabrics with different structures namely plain (1/1), twill (2/2) and satin were produced. Factors affecting the imparted functional properties such as weave structure and constituents of the finishing formulations including ether or ester cross-linker and catalyst type, silicone-micro-emulsion, water/oil repellent, Ag-NP(,)s and TiO2-NP(,)s were studied. The treated fabrics were found to have easy care property together with one or more of the imparted functional properties such as soft-handle, water/oil repellence, antibacterial, UV-protection and self cleaning. The effectiveness of the imparted properties is not seriously affected even after 10 washing cycles. Surface modifications as well as the composition of certain samples were confirmed by SEM images and EDX spectra. Mode of interactions was also suggested. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Alternative to chrome in the aluminium surface finishing industry. Low environmental impact surface treatments; Alternativas al cromo en la industria del acabado superficial del aluminio. Tratamientos superficiales de bajo impacto ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aballe Villero, A.; Bethencourt Nunez, M.; Botana Pedemonte, F. J.; Marco Barcena, M.; Sanchez-Amaya, J. M.

    2001-07-01

    Chromates are one of the most commonly used compounds in anti corrosive protection systems because of its excellent rate efficiency/cost. In the case of aluminium alloys, these compounds are employed as inhibitors as well as in the anticorrosive pretreatments to develop protective films. However, chromates are highly toxic and its use involves a high risk for health and environment. Consequently, in the last years intensive efforts have been achieved in the surface treatment industry to find ecological alternatives to this kind of compounds. In this work, the main alternatives proposed in literature to substitute chromates in the surface treatments of aluminium alloys are reviewed. To begin with, the role of chromates in these systems and their environmental consequences has been briefly reviewed. (Author) 16 refs.

  6. Planning of the evaluation of cleaner production experiences in the CEPITA companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1998-01-01

    The report describes the theoretical and methodological background for the evaluation in 1998 of the cleaner production implementation in a nu,mber of Tanzanian companies taking part in a DANIDA financed cleaner production develeopment project in 1994-95......The report describes the theoretical and methodological background for the evaluation in 1998 of the cleaner production implementation in a nu,mber of Tanzanian companies taking part in a DANIDA financed cleaner production develeopment project in 1994-95...

  7. International innovations in optical finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2004-10-01

    Every few years new polishing technologies attempt to make the transition from the research laboratory into the commercial sector. Success awaits any process that is well controlled and predictable (e.g., deterministic), rapid, capable of smoothing to sub-nm rms roughness levels while removing damage from grinding, affordable, and easily implemented. Applicability to different optical materials and a variety of part sizes and shapes is extremely important, but may not be required for a new technology to succeed in a niche market. This paper reviews six innovations in polishing of precision optics: Canon"s Super-Smooth Polisher (CSSP) that uses a sub-aperture pitch lap - a relatively mature but important base-line technology; Nikon / Osaka University"s RF Plasma Chemical Vaporization Machining (CVM); Epion"s Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) Process; the IOM University of Leipzig / NTGL Ion Beam Finishing (IBF) Technology; Zeeko"s "Precessions" Process with a sub-aperture section of an inflatable pad; and QED Technology"s Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) with a magnetic fluid ribbon. The removal mechanism and some recent achievements for each process are discussed.

  8. Implementing Cleaner Technologies as a means of minimising waste production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This article gives an overview of how Cleaner Production methods may contribute to minimising waste formation as well as showing energy and resource savings. It introduces the tools and procedures used when working in this field. It also illustrates the theoretical approach by using examples from...

  9. On Cleaner Technologies in a Transboundary Pollution Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benchekroun, H.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2009-01-01

    We show that in a non-cooperative transboundary pollution game, a cleaner technology (i.e., a decrease in the emission to output ratio) induces each country to increase its emissions and ultimately can yield a higher level of pollution and reduce social welfare.

  10. Actual problems of municipal cleaner’s waste waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konko¾ová Patrícia

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In paper are evaluated social and economical changes in water economy with emphasis on complex evaluation of municipal cleaner’s waste waters with respect of legislative, position of ownerskip relationskips and financial security of public experiences of water economy.

  11. Psychosocial work factors and shoulder pain in hotel room cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgel, Barbara J; White, Mary C; Gillen, Marion; Krause, Niklas

    2010-07-01

    Hotel room cleaners have physically demanding jobs that place them at high risk for shoulder pain. Psychosocial work factors may also play a role in shoulder pain, but their independent role has not been studied in this group. Seventy-four percent (941 of 1,276) of hotel room cleaners from five Las Vegas hotels completed a 29-page survey assessing health status, working conditions, and psychosocial work factors. For this study, 493 of the 941 (52%) with complete data for 21 variables were included in multivariate logistic regression analyses. Fifty-six percent reported shoulder pain in the prior four weeks. Room cleaners with effort-reward imbalance (ERI) were three times as likely to report shoulder pain (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.95-4.59, P = 0.000) even after adjustment for physical workload and other factors. After adjustment for physical workload, job strain and iso-strain were not significantly associated with shoulder pain. ERI is independently associated with shoulder pain in hotel room cleaners even after adjustment for physical workload and other risk factors. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Print Finishing: From Manual to Automated Print Finishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Ward

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Meeting the demand for faster turnrounds and shorter print runs goes beyond making the printing press easier to set up and change. There is little point in producing plates and then sheets from a press if the post press area does not change to keep abreast of developments in prepress and the print room. The greatest impact is going to come from JDF, the end to end production data format which is finding wide spread acceptance in print areas. To date finishing equipment manufacturers are not as well represented within the CIP4 organisation as prepress and press vendors, but the major manufacturers are members. All are working to the goal of complete connectivity.The idea of JDF is that if the format of a print product like a magazine is known during the creation phases, the information can be used to preset machinery that is going to be used to produce it, so avoiding input errors and saving manufacturing time.A second aspect to JDF is that information about performance and progress is gathered and can be retrieved from a central point or made available to a customer. Production scheduling and costing becomes more accurate and customer relationships are deepened. However JDF to its fullest extent is not yet in use in connecting the finishing area to the rest of the printing plant. Around the world different companies are testing the idea of JDF to connect saddle stitchers, guillotines and binders with frantic work underway to be able to show results soon.

  13. Fundamentals of figure control and fracture-'free' finishing for high aspect ratio laser optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suratwala, Tayyab [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The high level objectives of the this work were to: 1) scientifically understand critical phenomena affecting the surface figure during full aperture finishing; 2) utilize these fundamentals to more deterministically control the surface figure during finishing; 3) successfully polish under rogue particle-‘free’ environments during polishing by understanding/preventing key sources of rogue particles.

  14. Toxicity comparison of the shoreline cleaners Accell Clean® and PES-51® in two life stages of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Sarah-Marie E; DeLorenzo, Marie E; Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Pisarski, Emily; Beckingham, Barbara; Fulton, Michael H

    2018-02-04

    Oil spills are a significant source of coastal pollution. Shoreline cleaners, used to remove oil from surfaces during spill response and remediation, may also act as toxins. Adult and larval grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were tested for lethal and sublethal impacts from two shoreline cleaners, Accell Clean SWA® and PES-51®, alone and in combination with crude oil using Chemically Enhanced Water Accommodated Fractions (CEWAFs). Median lethal toxicity values determined for the individual cleaners were similar. However, when tested in mixture with oil as CEWAFs, Accell Clean SWA resulted in greater hydrocarbon concentrations in the water column and greater toxicity than PES-51. Increased glutathione levels were observed for adult shrimp exposed to Accell Clean SWA, and glutathione was elevated in shrimp exposed to both CEWAFs. Larval shrimp development was delayed after exposure to both CEWAFs. These findings may have implications for managing and mitigating oil spills.

  15. Integrated Hydrologic Science and Environmental Engineering Observatory: CLEANER's Vision for the WATERS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, J. L.; Minsker, B. S.; Schnoor, J.; Haas, C.; Bonner, J.; Driscoll, C.; Eschenbach, E.; Finholt, T.; Glass, J.; Harmon, T.; Johnson, J.; Krupnik, A.; Reible, D.; Sanderson, A.; Small, M.; van Briesen, J.

    2006-05-01

    With increasing population and urban development, societies grow more and more concerned over balancing the need to maintain adequate water supplies with that of ensuring the quality of surface and groundwater resources. For example, multiple stressors such as overfishing, runoff of nutrients from agricultural fields and confined animal feeding lots, and pathogens in urban stormwater can often overwhelm a single water body. Mitigating just one of these problems often depends on understanding how it relates to others and how stressors can vary in temporal and spatial scales. Researchers are now in a position to answer questions about multiscale, spatiotemporally distributed hydrologic and environmental phenomena through the use of remote and embedded networked sensing technologies. It is now possible for data streaming from sensor networks to be integrated by a rich cyberinfrastructure encompassing the innovative computing, visualization, and information archiving strategies needed to cope with the anticipated onslaught of data, and to turn that data around in the form of real-time water quantity and quality forecasting. Recognizing this potential, NSF awarded $2 million to a coalition of 12 institutions in July 2005 to establish the CLEANER Project Office (Collaborative Large-Scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research; http://cleaner.ncsa.uiuc.edu). Over the next two years the project office, in coordination with CUAHSI (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc.; http://www.cuahsi.org), will work together to develop a plan for a WATer and Environmental Research Systems Network (WATERS Network), which is envisioned to be a collaborative scientific exploration and engineering analysis network, using high performance tools and infrastructure, to transform our scientific understanding of how water quantity, quality, and related earth system processes are affected by natural and human-induced changes to the environment

  16. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... not purchase taxpaid or tax determined beer from another brewer in bottles or cans which bear the name... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer...

  17. Cleaner Production: A Growing Movement in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cleaner Production (CP is gaining emphasis in both world and Brazilian production sectors. Nature’s warnings indicating the exhaustion of any capacity to absorb and regenerate waste, stricter legislation regarding pollution emitters, market competitiveness associated with environmental and social responsibility cause concerns and lead to actions to reduce aggressions against the environment. This paper shows evidence of this concern and presents cases in which a large automotive industry, acting as a partner to suppliers, promotes changes in how it delivers its products, eliminating large cardboard, plastic and wood packaging. A small company had a similar initiative, reducing the use of cardboard and plastic packaging. More important is the revelation of a widely dispersed, yet growing and incremental movement of responsibilities among companies.The benefits of cleaner production implementation were evaluated by confronting environmental and financial assessment. For the ambient evaluation, it will be used methodology of Material Intensity (Wuppertal Institute, a.

  18. Employee participation and cleaner technology: learning processes in environmental teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Lorentzen, Børge

    2000-01-01

    in the Implementation of Cleaner Technology” was to develop a more active role for employees in the environmental activities of companies. Based on practical experiments in five Danish firms within different industrial sectors, the project concluded that employee participation can have a strong effect on changing......The approach to pollution prevention in Danish industries in the late-1980s and in the beginning of the 1990s met criticism, because the cleaner technology projects focused too narrowly on technical solutions implemented by experts. The objective of the project “Employee Participation...... working routines, affecting behaviour and increasing environmental consciousness. The project found that the firms' employees had a comprehensive understanding of environmental problems and solutions, including health and safety aspects. Furthermore, the employees in the environmental teams were able...

  19. Cleaner production - a tool for sustainable environmental development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Batool, S.

    2005-01-01

    Industrial Development and Production with no regard for environmental impacts creates water and air pollution, soil degradation, and large-scale global impacts such as acid rain, global warming and ozone depletion. To create more sustainable methods of industrial production, there needs to be a shift in attitudes away from control towards pollution prevention and management. Cleaner Production (CP) refers to a management process that seeks out and eliminates the causes of pollution, waste generation and resource consumption at their source through input reductions or substitutions, pollution prevention, internal recycling and more efficient production technology and processes for sustainable environmental development. The objective of cleaner production is to avoid generating pollution in the first place, which frequently cuts costs, reduces risks associated with liability, and identifies new market opportunities. Introducing cleaner production has become a goal to improve the competitiveness through increased eco-efficiency. CP is a business strategy for enhancing productivity and environmental performance for overall socio-economic development. The environmental and economic benefits can only be achieved by implementing cleaner production tools. The CP assessment methodology is used to systematically identify and evaluate the waste minimization opportunities and facilitate their implementation in industries. It refers to how goods and services are produced with the minimum environmental impact under present technological and economic limits. CP shares characteristics with many environmental management tools such as Environmental Assessment or Design for Environment by including them among the technological options for reducing material and energy intensiveness in production, as well as facilitating ruse trough remanufacturing and recycling. It is thus an extension of the total quality management process. The CP program has been successfully implemented in

  20. Trochanteric Stress Fracture in a Female Window Cleaner

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bong-Jin; Song, Jyewon

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures may occur at various sites in the femur including the head, neck, shaft, supracondylar and condylar regions. To the best of our knowledge, stress fracture occurring in the trochanteric region has not been previously reported. We report here a case of trochanteric stress fracture in a 53-year-old female window cleaner treated with hip nailing without adverse consequences. Careful consideration of this entity is needed when evaluating patients who have repetitive jumping up and...

  1. Primary DNA Damage in Dry Cleaners with Perchlorethylene Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Azimi; Mohammad Reza Bahrami; Vida Rezaei Hachesu; Javad Zavar Reza; Hamideh Mihanpour; Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi; Mehrdad Mostaghaci

    2017-01-01

    Background: Perchloroethylene is a halogenated solvent widely used in dry cleaning. International agency of research on cancer classified this chemical as a probable human carcinogen. Objective: To evaluate the extent of primary DNA damage in dry cleaner workers who were exposed to perchloroethylene as compared to non-exposed subjects. The effect of exposure modifying factors such as use of personal protective equipment, perceived risk, and reported safe behaviors on observed DNA damage w...

  2. FON: From Start to Finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakuliak, L. K.; Andruk, V. M.; Golovnia, V. V.; Shatokhina, S. V.; Yizhakevych, O. M.; Ivanov, G. A.; Yatsenko, A. I.; Sergeeva, T. P.

    Almost 40-year history of FON project ended with the creation of the whole northern sky catalog of objects down to B ≤ 16.5m. The idea of 4-fold overlapping of the northern sky with 6 wide-field astrographs has not been realized in full. For historical reasons it has been transformed into the 2-fold overlapping observational program of MAO NAS of Ukraine, resulted in three versions of the multimillion catalog of positions, proper motions, and B-magnitudes of stars. The first version of 1.2 million stars had been finished before the 2000s and is based on the AC object list. The measurements of plates were made by automatic measuring complex PARSEC, specially developed for massive photographic reviews. As the input list was limited by AC objects, the most part of stars on the FON plates remained unmeasured. Principles of workflow organization of such works formed the basis for the further development of the project using the latest IT-technologies. For the creation of the second and the third versions of the catalog, the list of objects was obtained as a result of total digitizing of plates and their image processing. The final third version contains 19.5 million stars and galaxies with the maximum possible for the photographic astrometry accuracy. The collection of plates, obtained in other observatories - participants of the project, are partially safe and can be used for the same astrometric tasks.

  3. Integrated Technology Air Cleaners (ITAC): Design and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Cohn, Sebastian; Destaillats, Hugo; Henzel, Victor; Sidheswaran, Meera; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2013-09-13

    The primary objective of this project was to design, build, and test an air cleaner for residential use with the potential to substantially improve indoor air quality, or maintain indoor air quality unchanged, when outdoor air ventilation rates are reduced to save energy. Two air cleaners were designed and fabricated. The design targets for airflow rate, fan power, and projected cost were met. In short term laboratory studies, both units performed as expected; however, during field studies in homes, the formaldehyde removal performance of the air cleaners was much lower than expected. In subsequent laboratory studies, incomplete decomposition of some indoor air volatile organic compounds, with formaldehyde as a product of partial decomposition of volatile organic compounds, was confirmed as the explanation for the poor formaldehyde removal performance in the field studies. The amount of formaldehyde produced per unit of decomposition of other volatile organic compounds was substantially diminished by increasing the amount of catalyst on the filter and also by decreasing the air velocity. Together, these two measures reduced formaldehyde production, per unit destruction of other volatile organic compounds, by a factor of four, while increasing the removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds by a factor of 1.4. A company with a southern California office is conducting studies in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with the goal of incorporating the ITAC catalytic air cleaning technology in their future commercial products.

  4. Primary DNA Damage in Dry Cleaners with Perchlorethylene Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Mohammad; Bahrami, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei Hachesu, Vida; Zavar Reza, Javad; Mihanpour, Hamideh; Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad

    2017-10-01

    Perchloroethylene is a halogenated solvent widely used in dry cleaning. International agency of research on cancer classified this chemical as a probable human carcinogen. To evaluate the extent of primary DNA damage in dry cleaner workers who were exposed to perchloroethylene as compared to non-exposed subjects. The effect of exposure modifying factors such as use of personal protective equipment, perceived risk, and reported safe behaviors on observed DNA damage were also studied. 59 exposed and non-exposed workers were selected from Yazd, Iran. All the 33 exposed workers had work history at least 3 months in the dry cleaning shops. Peripheral blood sampling was performed. Microscope examination was performed under fluorescent microscope (400×). Open comet software was used for image analysis. All biological analysis was performed in one laboratory. Primary DNA damage to leukocytes in dry cleaners was relatively high. The median tail length, %DNA in tail, and tail moment in exposed group were significantly higher than those in non-exposed group. There was no significant difference between smokers and nonsmokers in terms of tail length, tail moment, and %DNA in tail. There was no significant correlation between duration of employment in dry cleaning and observed DNA damage in terms of tail length, tail moment and %DNA in tail. Stratified analysis based on exposed and nonexposed category showed no significant relationship between age and observed DNA damage. Occupationally exposure to perchloroethylene can cause early DNA damage in dry cleaners.

  5. Primary DNA Damage in Dry Cleaners with Perchlorethylene Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Azimi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perchloroethylene is a halogenated solvent widely used in dry cleaning. International agency of research on cancer classified this chemical as a probable human carcinogen. Objective: To evaluate the extent of primary DNA damage in dry cleaner workers who were exposed to perchloroethylene as compared to non-exposed subjects. The effect of exposure modifying factors such as use of personal protective equipment, perceived risk, and reported safe behaviors on observed DNA damage were also studied. Methods: 59 exposed and non-exposed workers were selected from Yazd, Iran. All the 33 exposed workers had work history at least 3 months in the dry cleaning shops. Peripheral blood sampling was performed. Microscope examination was performed under fluorescent microscope (400×. Open comet software was used for image analysis. All biological analysis was performed in one laboratory. Results: Primary DNA damage to leukocytes in dry cleaners was relatively high. The median tail length, %DNA in tail, and tail moment in exposed group were significantly higher than those in non-exposed group. There was no significant difference between smokers and nonsmokers in terms of tail length, tail moment, and %DNA in tail. There was no significant correlation between duration of employment in dry cleaning and observed DNA damage in terms of tail length, tail moment and %DNA in tail. Stratified analysis based on exposed and nonexposed category showed no significant relationship between age and observed DNA damage. Conclusion: Occupationally exposure to perchloroethylene can cause early DNA damage in dry cleaners.

  6. Marketing Strategy Formulation for the Introduction of Eukula Strato German Wood Finishes in Local Market of Emerging Indian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Kushe Shekhar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood finishing relates to the process of embellishing or protecting the surface of the wood. The paper aimed at formulating a marketing strategy for introducing water borne German based Wood Finishes named Eukula Strato into local market of northern Kerala, India. Multiple cross sectional descriptive research with judgmental sampling technique elicited responses from Finishers, Furniture manufacturers and Interior designers. Findings revealed that Eukula Strato had a distinct advantage when compared to any other Wood Finish that was available in the local market. Findings and suggestions were reported as per 4P’s of marketing mix. Percentage analysis, Chi square analysis etc were used to interpret the results

  7. UV air cleaners and upper-room air ultraviolet germicidal irradiation for controlling airborne bacteria and fungal spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujundzic, Elmira; Matalkah, Fatimah; Howard, Cody J; Hernandez, Mark; Miller, Shelly L

    2006-10-01

    In-room air cleaners (ACs) and upper-room air ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) are engineering control technologies that can help reduce the concentrations of airborne bacteria and fungal spores in the indoor environment. This study investigated six different types of ACs and quantified their ability to remove and/or inactivate airborne bacteria and fungal spores. Four of the air cleaners incorporated UV lamp(s) into their flow path. In addition, the efficacy of combining ACs with upper-room air UVGI was investigated. With the ventilation system providing zero or six air changes per hour, the air cleaners were tested separately or with the upper-room air UVGI system in operation in an 87-m3 test room. Active bacteria cells and fungal spores were aerosolized into the room such that their numbers and physiologic state were comparable both with and without air cleaning and upper-room air UVGI. In addition, the disinfection performance of a UV-C lamp internal to one of the ACs was evaluated by estimating the percentage of airborne bacteria cells and fungal spores captured on the air filter medium surface that were inactivated with UV exposure. Average airborne microbial clean air delivery rates (CADRm) varied between 26-981 m3 hr-1 depending on the AC, and between 1480-2370 m3 hr-1, when using air cleaners in combination with upper-room air UVGI. Culturing, direct microscopy, and optical particle counting revealed similar CADRm. The ACs performed similarly when challenged with three different microorganisms. Testing two of the ACs showed that no additional air cleaning was provided with the operation of an internal UV-C lamp; the internal UV-C lamps, however, inactivated 75% of fungal spores and 97% of bacteria cells captured in the air filter medium within 60 min.

  8. Plutonium finishing plant dangerous waste training plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ENTROP, G.E.

    1999-01-01

    This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas

  9. The Adolescent Who Does Not Finish Anything.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiner, Sander J.

    1985-01-01

    Practical information for therapists who deal with adolescents who do not finish tasks is presented. The relationship of task incompletion to neurosis, psychosis, depression, homosexuality, and drug abuse is described, and techniques and guidelines for treatment are provided. (Author)

  10. A decrease in the abundance and strategic sophistication of cleaner fish after environmental perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triki, Zegni; Wismer, Sharon; Levorato, Elena; Bshary, Redouan

    2018-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are declining worldwide and under foreseeable threat due to climate change, resulting in significant changes in reef communities. It is unknown, however, how such community changes impact interspecific interactions. Recent extreme weather events affecting the Great Barrier Reef, that is, consecutive cyclones and the 2016 El Niño event, allowed us to explore potential consequences in the mutualistic interactions involving cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus (hereafter "cleaner"). After the perturbations, cleaner densities were reduced by 80%, disproportionally compared to the variety of reef fish clients from which cleaners remove ectoparasites. Consequently, shifts in supply and demand yielded an increase in the clients' demand for cleaning. Therefore, clients became less selective toward cleaners, whereas cleaners were able to choose from a multitude of partners. In parallel, we found a significant decline in the ability of cleaners to manage their reputation and to learn to prioritize ephemeral food sources to maximize food intake in laboratory experiments. In other words, cleaners failed to display the previously documented strategic sophistication that made this species a prime example for fish intelligence. In conclusion, low population densities may cause various effects on individual behavior, and as a consequence, interspecific interactions. At the same time, our data suggest that a recovery of population densities would cause a recovery of previously described interaction patterns and cleaner strategic sophistication within the lifetime of individuals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Ultrafine particle removal and generation by portable air cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Michael S.; Siegel, Jeffrey A.; Corsi, Richard L.

    Portable air cleaners can both remove and generate pollutants indoors. To investigate these phenomena, we conducted a two-phase investigation in a 14.75 m 3 stainless steel chamber. In the first phase, particle size-resolved (12.6-514 nm diameter) clean air delivery rates (CADR) and efficiencies were determined, as were ozone emission rates, for two high-efficiency particle arresting (HEPA) filters, one electrostatic precipitator with a fan, and two ion generators without fans. The two HEPA air cleaners had count average CADR (standard deviation) of 188 (30) and 324 (44) m 3 h -1; the electrostatic precipitator 284 (62) m 3 h -1; and the two ion generators 41 (11) and 35 (13) m 3 h -1. The electrostatic precipitator emitted ozone at a rate of 3.8±0.2 mg h -1, and the two ion generators 3.3±0.2 and 4.3±0.2 mg h -1. Ozone initiates reactions with certain unsaturated organic compounds that produce ultrafine and fine particles, carbonyls, other oxidized products, and free radicals. During the second phase, five different ion generators were operated separately in the presence of a plug-in liquid or solid air freshener, representing a strong terpene source. For air exchange rates of between 0.49 and 0.96 h -1, three ion generators acted as steady-state net particle generators in the entire measured range of 4.61-157 nm, and two generated particles in the range of approximately 10 to 39-55 nm. Terpene and aldehyde concentrations were also sampled for one ion generator, and concentrations of terpenes decreased and formaldehyde increased. Given these results, the pollutant removal benefits of ozone-generating air cleaners may be outweighed by the generation of indoor pollution.

  12. A new cleaner process to prepare pressing-powder

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Zheng; Monfort Gimeno, Eliseo; García Ten, Francisco Javier; Zhou, Jiaji; Amorós Albaro, José Luis; Wang, Yong-Xu

    2011-01-01

    An alternative cleaner process of pressing-powder preparation, based on filter-pressing and a novel granulation method, is presented to substitute the existing spray-drying process. In the new process, about two-thirds of wet-milled slurry is filterpressed, dried and milled into dry fine powder. The other one-third of the slurry and the as-obtained dry fine powder are spray-mixed in a tower, where the slurry droplets adsorb the dry powder to form granules which are then rolled and dried into ...

  13. A new cleaner process to prepare pressing-powder

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Z.; Monfort, E.

    2011-01-01

    An alternative cleaner process of pressing-powder preparation, based on filter-pressing and a novel granulation method, is presented to substitute the existing spray-drying process. In the new process, about two-thirds of wet-milled slurry is filterpressed, dried and milled into dry fine powder. The other one-third of the slurry and the as-obtained dry fine powder are spray-mixed in a tower, where the slurry droplets adsorb the dry powder to form granules which are then rolled and dr...

  14. Transition to an intelligent use of cleaner biomass stoves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Vicent, Estela D.

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, inappropriate user behaviours in the operation of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) results in substantial energy losses where fireplaces and conventional stoves are major contributors to undue emissions of health damaging fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The design and adoption of cleaner WBSs...... and their contribution to residential heating. Laboratory and energy simulations were performed to study their thermal efficiency, PM2.5 emissions and the influence of their usage on the indoor climate. This work shows that the operation of enclosed stoves in uninsulated Iberian homes emit more PM2.5 than the Ecodesign...

  15. Microbial Adhesion to Processing Lines for Fish Fillets and Cooked Shrimp: Influence of Stainless Steel Surface Finish and Presence of Gram-Negative Bacteria on the Attachment of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjörleifur Einarsson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Microflora adhering to surfaces of processing lines in a shrimp factory and a fish processing plant was identified in situ and adhesion of mixed culture of Listeria monocytogenes and Gram-negative bacteria on stainless steel surfaces (untreated, polished and glass beaded was studied ex situ. The predominant genus attached to the surfaces was Pseudomonas spp. (66 % in the shrimp factory and Enterobacteriaceae (27 % in the fish factory. Shrimp juice was used as an enrichment broth during the study of adhered bacteria. Three different Gram-negative strains and a mixture of Pseudomonas spp. were selected to study their attachment together with L. monocytogenes to stainless steel surfaces. Highest numbers of the attached bacteria were obtained after the contamination with a mixed culture of L. monocytogenes and Serratia liquefaciens. A lower number of bacteria adhered to stainless steel surfaces when mixed cultures of L. monocytogenes and Pseudomonas fluorescens or Aeromonas spp. were tested. No significant differences (p<0.05 were observed in the bacteria attached to differently treated steel surfaces with different roughness (Ra=0.1–0.8 m. Bacterial adhesion increased with longer contact time. Colonisation of L. monocytogenes on stainless steel surfaces was significantly enhanced only in the presence of mixed Pseudomonas spp. These results indicate that smooth surfaces do not necessarily provide hygiene benefits over rougher surfaces.

  16. Environmental Technology Verification: Supplement to Test/QA Plan for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners; Bioaerosol Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Air Cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center has selected general ventilation air cleaners as a technology area. The Generic Verification Protocol for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners is on the Environmental Technology Verification we...

  17. A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production. Progress Report 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    This Progress Report presents the initial findings of the research project 'A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production. Progress Report' funded...

  18. Glazed Tiles as Floor Finish in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyin Emmanuel AKINDE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tile is no doubt rich in antiquity; its primordial  show, came as mosaic with primary prospect in sacred floor finish before its oblivion, courtesy of, later consciousness towards wall finish in banquets, kitchens, toilets, restaurants and even bars. Today, its renaissance as floor finish is apparent in private and public architectural structures with prevalence in residential, recreational, commercial, governmental and other spaces. In Nigeria, the use of glazed tiles as floor finish became apparent, supposedly in mid-twentieth century; and has since, witnessed ever increasing demands from all sundry; a development that is nascent and has necessitated its mass  production locally with pockets of firms in the country. The latter however, is a resultant response to taste cum glazed tiles affordability, whose divergent sophistication in design, colour, size and shape is believed preferred to terrazzo, carpet and floor flex tile. Accessible as glazed tile and production is, in recent times; its dearth of a holistic literature in Nigeria is obvious. In the light of the latter, this paper examine glazed tiles as floor finish in Nigeria, its advent, usage, production, challenge, benefit and prospect with the hope of opening further frontier in discipline specifics.

  19. Design and development of automatic sharia compliant wheelchair wheels cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaari, Muhammad Farid; Rasli, Ibrahim Ismail Mohammad; Jamaludin, M. Z. Z. Wan; Isa, W. A. Mohamad; M., H.; Rashid, A. H. Abdul

    2017-04-01

    Sharia compliant wheelchair wheel cleaner was developed in order to assist the muslim Person with Disabilities (PWD) to pray in the mosque without leaving their wheelchair because of the filthy wheels. Though there are many wheelchair wheel cleaning system in the market, it is very rare to find sharia compliant cleaning system that applies sertu concept which is one of the cleaning and purification technique in Islamic practice. The sertu concept is based on 6:1 ratio that refers to the six times pipe water cleaning and one time soiled water cleaning. The development process consists of design stage, fabrication and system installation stage and followed by testing stage. During the design stage, the proposed prototype underwent design brainstorming, operation programming and structural simulation analysis. Once fabricated, the cleaner prototype underwent was tested. The results showed that the prototype can cater load up to 100kg with 1.31×10-6 mm shaft bending displacement. The water ejection timing varied approximately 3% compared to the program.

  20. Optimal alignment sensing of a readout mode cleaner cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Lefebvre, N; Ballmer, S; Evans, M; Waldman, S; Kawabe, K; Frolov, V; Mavalvala, N

    2011-11-15

    Critically coupled resonant optical cavities are often used as mode cleaners in optical systems to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a signal that is encoded as an amplitude modulation of a laser beam. Achieving the best SNR requires maintaining the alignment of the mode cleaner relative to the laser beam on which the signal is encoded. An automatic alignment system that is primarily sensitive to the carrier field component of the beam will not, in general, provide optimal SNR. We present an approach that modifies traditional dither alignment sensing by applying a large amplitude modulation on the signal field, thereby producing error signals that are sensitive to the signal sideband field alignment. When used in conjunction with alignment actuators, this approach can improve the detected SNR; we demonstrate a factor of 3 improvement in the SNR of a kilometer-scale detector of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory. This approach can be generalized to other types of alignment sensors.

  1. Applying real options analysis to assess cleaner energy development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ching-Tsung; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lin, Tyrone T.

    2011-01-01

    The energy industry, accounts for the largest portion of CO 2 emissions, is facing the issue of compliance with the national clean energy policy. The methodology for evaluating the energy mix policy is crucial because of the characteristics of lead time embedded with the power generation facilities investment and the uncertainty of future electricity demand. In this paper, a modified binomial model based on sequential compound options, which may account for the lead time and uncertainty as a whole is established, and a numerical example on evaluating the optional strategies and the strategic value of the cleaner energy policy is also presented. It is found that the optimal decision at some nodes in the binomial tree is path dependent, which is different from the standard sequential compound option model with lead time or time lag concept. The proposed modified binomial sequential compound real options model can be generalized and extensively applied to solve the general decision problems that deal with the long lead time of many government policies as well as capital intensive investments. - Highlights: → Introducing a flexible strategic management approach for government policy making. → Developing a modified binomial real options model based on sequential compound options. → Proposing an innovative model for managing the long term policy with lead time. → Applying to evaluate the options of various scenarios of cleaner energy strategies.

  2. Ultra-Stable, New Generation Q-Switched Monolithic Laser Cleaners for Fine Art Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioschi, F.; Salvadeo, P.

    The increasing use of laser cleaners in fine art conservation boosts the demand on improvements of the laser performances. More power and more wavelengths are required by the current applications, while laser should be more reliable, rugged and compact. The characteristics and performances of a new generation of laser cleaners are presented as a result of a dedicated research and development program.

  3. A 24-h assessment of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among female hospital cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Korshøj; Krustrup, Peter; Jespersen, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of methods for objective 24-h sampling of physical activity among cleaners. Twenty cleaners participated in three 24-h measurements. Amount of steps, heart rate (HR), cardio-respiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were me...

  4. Back to Office Report. Mission no.1 to Tanzania as counterpart institution to Cleaner Production Centre of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania......A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania...

  5. Finishing of the cold mass assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 Technicians are putting in order the instrumentation wires. The prototype magnets were equipped with numerous sensors to monitor key parameters during the performance tests at cold conditions. Photo 2 The cold mass assembly is resting on special supports in order to allow the finishing operations. Technicians are putting in order the instrumentation wires. The prototype magnets were equipped with numerous sensors to monitor key parameters during the performance tests at cold conditions. Photo 3 View of the lyre-side end of the active part assembly. The extremity of the shrinking cylinder has been bevelled in view of welding the end cover. Photo 4 General view of the finishing station showing the special supporting structures (blue and yellow structures) needed for the geometric measurements and for the alignment operations. One can also see the light building surrounding the finishing station, which purpose is to isolate the laser measuring machines from disturbances. Photo 5 The extremity of the shri...

  6. Improvements in Sand Mold/Core Technology: Effects on Casting Finish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. John J. Lannutti; Prof. Carroll E. Mobley

    2005-08-30

    In this study, the development and impact of density gradients on metal castings were investigated using sand molds/cores from both industry and from in-house production. In spite of the size of the castings market, almost no quantitative information about density variation within the molds/cores themselves is available. In particular, a predictive understanding of how structure and binder content/chemistry/mixing contribute to the final surface finish of these products does not exist. In this program we attempted to bridge this gap by working directly with domestic companies in examining the issues of surface finish and thermal reclamation costs resulting from the use of sand molds/cores. We show that these can be substantially reduced by the development of an in-depth understanding of density variations that correlate to surface finish. Our experimental tools and our experience with them made us uniquely qualified to achieve technical progress.

  7. Associations between psychosocial work environment and hypertension among non-Western immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kasper Vinther; Carneiro, Isabella G; Jørgensen, Marie B

    2012-01-01

    was assessed by the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). In each population, multivariate logistic regressions were applied testing for an association between each of the COPSOQ scales and hypertension. RESULTS: Models adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoking, workplace and physical work exertion showed......INTRODUCTION: Non-Western cleaners have reported better psychosocial work environment but worse health compared with their Danish colleagues. The aim of this study was to compare the association between psychosocial work environment and hypertension among non-Western immigrant cleaners and Danish...... cleaners. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty-five cleaners from nine workplaces in Denmark participated in this cross-sectional study. The cleaners were identified as non-Western immigrants (n = 137) or Danes (n = 148). Blood pressure was measured in a seated position, and psychosocial work environment...

  8. A new laser cleaner development for decontamination of the nuclear power plants and other related facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke J.

    2012-01-01

    A new laser decontamination device has been developed to evaporate instantly with almost no temperature rise and to clean up the radioisotope (RI) contaminated stainless steel components, devices and major structural objects of nuclear power station, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, accelerator facilities and the related ones. The laser decontamination device delivers the tightly focused laser light of GW/cm 2 just on the surface to clean up RI contained rust mold on and inside the stress corrosion cracks and corrosion pitting in the stainless steel-made components, devices and objects. The decontamination device is newly designed to measure 3-dimensional surface map very quickly, and successfully to peel the 3-dimensional irregular surface according to the measured map using the 3 dimensional fast scanner, displacement meter and laser system. In the cold tests, the device performed to peel off the surface of cans and multi-stepped plates very precisely, very uniformly and very quickly. A prototype of the new laser cleaner for the nuclear decontamination has firstly been developed to demonstrate the high decontamination capability. (author)

  9. Abrasive wear of resin composites as related to finishing and polishing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turssi, Cecilia P; Ferracane, Jack L; Serra, Mônica C

    2005-07-01

    Finishing and polishing procedures may cause topographical changes and introduce subsurface microcracks in dental composite restoratives. Since both of these effects may contribute toward the kinetics of wear, the purpose of this study was to assess and correlate the wear and surface roughness of minifilled and nanofilled composites finished and polished by different methods. Specimens (n=10) made of a minifilled and a nanofilled composite were finished and polished with one of the four sequences: (1) tungsten carbide burs plus Al(2)O(3)-impregnated brush (CbBr) or (2) tungsten carbide burs plus diamond-impregnated cup (CbCp), (3) diamond burs plus brush (DmBr) or (4) diamond burs plus cup (DmCp). As a control, abrasive papers were used. After surface roughness had been quantified, three-body abrasion was simulated using the OHSU wear machine. The wear facets were then scanned to measure wear depth and post-testing roughness. All sets of data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's tests (alpha=0.05). Pearson's correlation test was applied to check for the existence of a relationship between pre-testing roughness and wear. Significantly smoother surfaces were attained with the sequences CbBr and CbCp, whereas DmCp yielded the roughest surface. Regardless of the finishing/polishing technique, the nanofilled composite exhibited the lowest pre-testing roughness and wear. There was no correlation between the surface roughness achieved after finishing/polishing procedures and wear (p=0.3899). Nano-sized materials may have improved abrasive wear resistance over minifilled composites. The absence of correlation between wear and surface roughness produced by different finishing/polishing methods suggests that the latter negligibly influences material loss due to three-body abrasion.

  10. Finishing and polishing of a poly (fluoroalkoxyphosphazene) resilient denture liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loney, R W; Moulding, M B; Hacker, C H; Ritsco, R G

    1994-01-01

    A raised ridge of Novus resilient denture liner was removed from samples using one of three burs, three stones, or a coarse sandpaper disc. Samples were polished using pumice alone, tin oxide alone, or both agents. A flat, unfinished sample served as a control. Average surface roughness of control samples was 0.96 microns. Average surface roughness measurements for reduced samples ranged from 7.21 microns (sandpaper disc) to 3.34 microns (Prolastic wheel). Without polishing, sandpaper discs and serrated burs produced rougher surfaces than stones or the nonserrated bur. The sandpaper disc reduced the liner the quickest. There were no significant differences between treatments or controls after the use of pumice alone or after the use of a combination of pumice and tin oxide. An acceptable finishing protocol for this poly(fluoroalkoxyphosphazene) resilient liner appears to differ from that previously established for a silicone resilient denture liner.

  11. Wood properties affecting finish service life

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam. Williams; Charles. Jourdain; George I. Daisey; Robert W. Springate

    2000-01-01

    Wood is a biological material that has widely different properties depending on species, geographic area where the tree grew, the growth conditions, size of the tree at harvest, sawing, and other manufacturing processes. Some of the more important wood properties as they relate to wood finishing are discussed, e.g., growth rate, density, knots, extractives, juvenile...

  12. Explosion hazards of aluminum finishing operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taveau, J.R.; Hochgreb, Simone; Lemkowitz, S.M.; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.

    2018-01-01

    Metal dust deflagrations have become increasingly common in recent years. They are also more devastating than deflagrations involving organic materials, owing to metals' higher heat of combustion, rate of pressure rise, explosion pressure and flame temperature. Aluminum finishing operations offer

  13. Textile finishing chemicals: an industrial guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flick, Ernest W

    1990-01-01

    ..., hand modifiers, antistatic agents, biocides, fixatives, scouring agents, leveling agents, dispersants, defoamers, anticracking agents, binders, lubricating agents, stiffeners, and sequestering agents. The chemicals may constitute a substantial portion of the finished textile. In many cases 10% or more of the fabric's final weight may derive fro...

  14. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for the PFP. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification

  15. Drywall Finishing Apprenticeship. Course Outline (C-6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengert, Gerald

    This course outline was prepard to help apprentice drywall installers and teachers of drywall finishing courses to learn or teach the skills necessary for the apprenticeship course in British Columbia. The course outline consists of 11 tracks (units) that cover the following topics: estimating, job inspection, safety, applying bead, filling…

  16. Pneumonia outbreaks in calves and finishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-19

    Pneumonia in calves and finishers. Ovarian tumour in a calf . Abortion associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 in a suckler herd. Parasitic gastroenteritis causing illthrift and death in sheep. Outbreaks of acute fasciolosis in sheep. These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for December 2015 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). British Veterinary Association.

  17. Performance characteristics and nutrient digestibility of Finisher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the performance characteristics, nutrient digestibility and blood chemistry of Finishing (84-112d) turkeys fed diets containing 100 g/kg MSP supplemented with varying combinations of enzyme and yeast. A total of 100 day-old, British United Turkeys (BUT) turkeys were reared for ...

  18. Radiation technology helps China’s industries make water cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawerth, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    China is pursuing the use of radiation technology as part of its wastewater treatment methods to further efforts to manage industrial waste in an environmentally friendly way. “Treating the water that comes from our industries is very important, so we have been doing this for a long time. Now we want to become better at making our water cleaner,” said Jianlong Wang, Vice-President of the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) at Tsinghua University in Beijing. “We are receiving a lot of support from the IAEA to use electron beam based technologies to help us get rid of various water pollutants that the other methods cannot do on their own.”

  19. Cleaner production at pharmaceutical industry: first steps assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilaine Conceição Rezende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cleaner Production (CP is an environmental management system effective to comply the environmental obligations and promote sustainable development of enterprises. In this study, the implementing possibilities of CP practices were evaluated to pharmaceutical industry, through prior identification procedures for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices. The study was conducted in a scientific and health care institution, which produces pharmaceutical drugs and makes assistance for public health. The production process was evaluated and made a survey of the main points of waste and sewage generations in each stage, in order to diagnose the measures of CP established and propose new actions. Thus, by using this tool, it was possible to demonstrate the reduction of environmental impacts associated with pharmaceutical production. The Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices also contributed to the implementation of measures CP, preserving the final product quality, and generating environmental and economic benefits.

  20. Structural optimization of Beach-Cleaner snatch mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Lian-ge; Wei, Qin-rui; Zhou, Shui-ting; Peng, Qian; Zhao, Yuan-jiang; Wang, Fang

    2017-12-01

    In the working process of one Beach-Cleaner snatch institution, the second knuckle arm angular speed was too high, which resulted in the pick-up device would crash into the basic arm in the fold process. The rational position of joint to reduce the second knuckle arm angular speed and the force along the axis direction of the most dangerous point can be obtained from the kinematics simulation of snatch institution in the code of Automatic Dynamic Analysis off Mechanical Systems (ADAAMS). The feasible of scheme was validated by analyzing the optimized model in the software of ANSYS. The analysis results revealed: the open angle between the basic arm and the second knuckle arm improved from 125.0° too 135.24°, thee second knuckle arm angular speed decreased from 990.74rad/s to 58.53 rad/s, Not only improved work efficiency of snatch institution, but also prolonged its operation smoothness.

  1. Bacterial and fungal aerosols in the work environment of cleaners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Gołofit-Szymczak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cleaning services are carried out in almost all sectors and branches of industry. Due to the above, cleaners are exposed to various harmful biological agents, depending on the tasks performed and the commercial sector involved. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of cleaning workers to biological agents based on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of airborne microflora. Material and methods: A six-stage Andersen sampler was used to collect bioaerosols during the cleaning activities in different workplaces, including schools, offices, car services, healthy services and shops. Standard Petri dishes filled with blood trypticase soy agar and malt extract agar were used for bacterial and fungal sampling, respectively. Results: The bioaerosol concentration values obtained during testing of selected workposts of cleaners were lower than the Polish recommended threshold limit values for microorganisms concentrations in public service. The most prevalent bacterial species in studied places were Gram-positive cocci (mainly of genera Micrococcus, Staphylococcus and endospore-forming Gram-positive rods (mainly of genera Bacillus. Among the most common fungal species were those from genera Penicillium and Aspergillus. The size distribution analysis revealed that bioaerosols present in the air of workposts at shops, schools and car services may be responsible for nose and eye mucosa irritation and allergic reactions in the form of asthma or allergic inflammation in the cleaning workers. Conclusions: The study shows that occupational activities of cleaning workers are associated with exposure to airborne biological agents classified into risk groups, 1. and 2., according to their level of infection risk, posing respiratory hazard. Med Pr 2015;66(6:779–791

  2. Cleaner shrimp use a rocking dance to advertise cleaning service to clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Justine H A; Curtis, Lynda M; Grutter, Alexandra S

    2005-04-26

    Signals transmit information to receivers about sender attributes, increase the fitness of both parties, and are selected for in cooperative interactions between species to reduce conflict [1, 2]. Marine cleaning interactions are known for stereotyped behaviors [3-6] that likely serve as signals. For example, "dancing" and "tactile dancing" in cleaner fish may serve to advertise cleaning services to client fish [7] and manipulate client behavior [8], respectively. Cleaner shrimp clean fish [9], yet are cryptic in comparison to cleaner fish. Signals, therefore, are likely essential for cleaner shrimp to attract clients. Here, we show that the yellow-beaked cleaner shrimp [10] Urocaridella sp. c [11] uses a stereotypical side-to-side movement, or "rocking dance," while approaching potential client fish in the water column. This dance was followed by a cleaning interaction with the client 100% of the time. Hungry cleaner shrimp, which are more willing to clean than satiated ones [12], spent more time rocking and in closer proximity to clients Cephalopholis cyanostigma than satiated ones, and when given a choice, clients preferred hungry, rocking shrimp. The rocking dance therefore influenced client behavior and, thus, appears to function as a signal to advertise the presence of cleaner shrimp to potential clients.

  3. Flame retardant finishing of cotton fabric based on synergistic compounds containing boron and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kongliang; Gao, Aiqin; Zhang, Yongsheng

    2013-10-15

    Boric acid and compound containing nitrogen, 2,4,6-tri[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-HTAC) were used to finish cotton fabric. The flame retardant properties of the finished cotton fabrics and the synergetic effects of boron and nitrogen elements were investigated and evaluated by limited oxygen index (LOI) method. The mechanism of cross-linking reaction among cotton fiber, Tri-HTAC, and boric acid was discussed by FTIR and element analysis. The thermal stability and surface morphology of the finished cotton fabrics were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The finishing system of the mixture containing boron and nitrogen showed excellent synergistic flame retardancy for cotton fabric. The cotton fabric finished with mixture system had excellent flame retardancy. The LOI value of the treated cotton fabric increased over 27.5. Tri-HTAC could form covalent bonds with cellulose fiber and boric acid. The flame retardant cotton fabric showed a slight decrease in tensile strength and whiteness. The surface morphology of flame retardant cotton fiber was smooth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Advantages of modern collapsible systems for exterior finishing of buildings in urban areas in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolstova Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the method of finishing interior spaces, as well as exterior surfaces and architectural and structural elements of buildings and structures is widely used, when layers of building materials or finishing structures are applied in a strict sequence, allowing them to eventually form an unbroken whole - a “monolith”. This method of finishing, its technology and results not only depend significantly on the quality of the materials used and the mechanization of processes, but also require high qualification and specialization of construction workers. The execution of such a finish is more an art than a reproduced with a given level of quality of results by a technological process. An alternative to “monolith” is a variety of collapsible (they are also called “hinged” systems for finishing urban buildings, the elements of which are manufactured in the construction industry, requiring, as a rule, only installation and assembly in internal premises (the so-called “evroremont”, Or on the external surfaces of a building or structure.

  5. Economics of finishing Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle in feedlot and optimum finishing period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimwe, L.; Kimambo, A E; Laswai, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    in feedlot. Non-feed costs per kg extra meat were higher for short stays (4,500 TSh.) than long stays (2,630 TSh.) If meat prices were independent on finishing period length, high MEI was profitable with increment of (81%) profit per kg extra meat for an increase from 50 to 75 days in feedlot. Assuming a 10......% increase in meat price due to feedlot finishing regardless of finishing length, profit per animal carcass increased with increasing days in feedlot for high MEI from 71,800 TSh. in 25 days to 143,000 TSh. in 100 days in feedlot. Assuming meat price increased by 5% with each increase in feedlot finishing...... length of 25 days, higher profit per animal carcass was realized with long stays (100 days, 238,000 TSh.) than short stays (25 days, 37,600 TSh.). It was concluded that the high feeding level is the most profitable irrespective of meat price and finishing length. The optimum finishing length is between...

  6. Research on Duct Flow Field Optimisation of a Robot Vacuum Cleaner

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Xiao-bo; Wang, Hai-shun; Liu, Hua-shan

    2011-01-01

    The duct of a robot vacuum cleaner is the length of the flow channel between the inlet of the rolling brush blower and the outlet of the vacuum blower. To cope with the pressure drop problem of the duct flow field in a robot vacuum cleaner, a method based on Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operators (PRISO) algorithm is introduced and the optimisation design of the duct flow field is implemented. Firstly, the duct structure in a robot vacuum cleaner is taken as a research object, with the...

  7. Reactions of dairy cows during the operation of a robotic slat cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stülpner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During manure removal, robotic slat cleaners move in close proximity to dairy cows. The present study investigated the influence of a robotic cleaner on the animals by video recording and analysing their reactions. As most important influence factors concerning individual animal reactions, the small proportion of 8 % of marked reactions by cows to the slat robot as well as the actual distance between the cows and the slat robot, indicated a good adaption of dairy cows to the equipment. Observation of the complete herd of cows demonstrated that animals increased their movement from lying area to feeding area while the robotic slat cleaner was operating.

  8. The ecological significance of juvenile Diplodus sargus as ectoparasite fish cleaners in the north-eastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Neto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cleaning behaviour was recently described for the omnivorous species Diplodus sargus. Although previous studies have reported the existence of ectoparasites in the stomach contents of some individuals this commercially important fish was never considered a cleaner species. Here we make the first characterization of this behaviour based on field observations. This behaviour was exclusively performed by juvenile D. sargus and, until now, was only observed in confined or semi-confined areas such as coastal lagoons or harbours. Unexpectedly, cleaning rates and the number of individuals performing this behaviour largely exceeds the ones described for a sympatric cleaner fish (13.98 cleaning events/individual/hour compared to 5.08 in Centrolabrus exoletus. Clients belong to several fish families (e.g. Mugilidae, Sparidae and Labridae that include some of the most common species in coastal habitats. Frequently, clients request cleaning by tilting their body or remaining motionless near the surface while being cleaned (40% however, in most cases, the interaction ends because clients flee (46%. This could mean that D. sargus is also feeding on mucus and/or living tissue. These shifts between exploitation and cooperation have been frequently described for tropical reef species. Our results support cooperative behaviour, with a clear correlation between the number of nips per cleaning event or the number of nips to which the client reacted positively and cleaning event duration (n=552; Spearman correlation r=0.79, p<0.001; r=0.76, p<0.001, respectively. Furthermore, no correlation was detected between the number of jolts by the client fish and the cleaning event duration (n=552; Spearman correlation r=0.07, p=0.105 meaning that jolting does not increase with increased interaction time. In the future, the evaluation of the ecological importance of D. sargus as a cleaner species in the North-Eastern Atlantic, should proceed with field observations in

  9. Clear exterior finishes : finding the balance between aesthetics and durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Daniel; Marc S. Hirsch; Ken McClelland; Alan S. Ross; R. Sam Williams

    2004-01-01

    Consumers can easily be confused by the abundance of choices to make when selecting a clear wood finish. There are many types of clear finishes with different characteristics and product claims. This article is designed to help consumers sort out the different finishes and effectively choose which product would be best for their purpose. First, we cover the causes and...

  10. Sequence finishing and mapping of Drosophila melanogasterheterochromatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoskins, Roger A.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Kennedy, Cameron; Acevedo,David; Evans-Holm, Martha; Frise, Erwin; Wan, Kenneth H.; Park, Soo; Mendez-Lago, Maria; Rossi, Fabrizio; Villasante, Alfredo; Dimitri,Patrizio; Karpen, Gary H.; Celniker, Susan E.

    2007-06-15

    Genome sequences for most metazoans are incomplete due tothe presence of repeated DNA in the pericentromeric heterochromatin. Theheterochromatic regions of D. melanogaster contain 20 Mb of sequenceamenable to mapping, sequence assembly and finishing. Here we describethe generation of 15 Mb of finished or improved heterochromatic sequenceusing available clone resources and assembly and mapping methods. We alsoconstructed a BAC-based physical map that spans approximately 13 Mb ofthe pericentromeric heterochromatin, and a cytogenetic map that positionsapproximately 11 Mb of BAC contigs and sequence scaffolds in specificchromosomal locations. The integrated sequence assembly and maps greatlyimprove our understanding of the structure and composition of this poorlyunderstood fraction of a metazoan genome and provide a framework forfunctional analyses.

  11. [Acroosteolysis in PVC autoclave cleaners: history of an occupational disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchetti, C; Osculati, A; Colosio, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the history of an occupational disease which has now disappeared: acroosteolysis of manual tank cleaners in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which is a rare disease characterized by destructive alterations of the distal phalanges of the hands. All the available literature on this disease was examined. The history of acroosteolysis was studied within the general framework of the history of the discovery of adverse health effects of exposure to vinyl chloride, and this history was studied up to the end of the 1960's. The disease was observed for the first time in mid-1963 in Belgium (Jemeppe) in a chemical plant operated by Solvay, and affected two workers whose job was the manual cleaning of vessels used for the polymerization of vinyl chloride; similar cases occurred in almost all PVC production plants all over the world, but not in the plants where the main activity was the production of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). Little more than one hundred cases are described in the scientific literature, and this number increases by a few dozen if we consider known but unpublished cases. These figures confirm the rarity of the disease, which peaked at the end of the 1960's and disappeared during the 1970's, probably due to the complete elimination of manual reactor cleaning. Observation of the disease lasted no more than fifteen years and the disease was not replicated in experimental conditions on animals. The disease was clinically characterized, had a short latency (from several months to several years), was rare and unequivocally linked to the manual cleaning of PVC polymerization tanks. However many questions still remain open: the period when the disease first appeared (many years after the start of PVC production in the world), the etiology of the disease (the most accredited hypothesis considers three concomitant factors: a chemical factor--one of the many substances used during polymerization, and particularly vinyl chloride monomer

  12. Analytical investigation of relative motion of contamination particles in gravitational cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Терьохін

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical investigation of relative motion of contamination particles in liquids when cleaned in gravitation cleaner is practically absent, i.e. the transmission power inertia F™ is balanced by horizontal constituent of Stoke's resistance power

  13. IMPACT OF COSOLVENT FLUSHING ON SUBSURFACE MICROBIAL ECOLOGY AT THE FORMER SAGE'S DRY CLEANER SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was evaluated at the former Sage's Dry Cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL where an area of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) contamination was identified. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site rest...

  14. Control software development for magnetorheological finishing of large aperture optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Nan; Li Haibo; Yuan Zhigang; Zhong Bo

    2011-01-01

    Based on the mechanism of magnetorheological finishing, the dwell time function was solved by Jansson-Van Cit-tert algorithm to accomplish the kernel module design. Then the software modularization programming, modular testing and integration testing were conducted. A verification experiment was carried out on a crystal element with full aperture of 500 mm and the element's surface achieved rapid and efficient convergence after the software controlled magnetorheological finishing. It is proved that the software could control the whole polishing process accurately. (authors)

  15. Pairs of cleaner fish prolong interaction duration with client reef fish by increasing service quality

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Gingins; Redouan Bshary

    2015-01-01

    Few biological examples of cooperation seem to precisely fit the assumptions of an iterated prisoner’s dilemma. In an attempt to increase biological validity, one model altered the assumption that cooperating is an all-or-nothing decision to a situation where benefits are a function of interaction duration, which in turn is a function of the levels of cooperation. A potential application involves pairs of cleaner fish coinspecting a client fish. In this mutualism, clients visit cleaners to ha...

  16. Tool path planning of spiral bevel gear for digital finishing based on finger tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIAN Feng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper,the digital machining method of the free-form surface is chosen to do the tool track planning for the spiral bevel′s digital finishing.We use the finger milling-cutter,and choose processes as roughing,semi-finishing and finishing.Based on the CC path cross-section.Through the concrete analysis,we got the reasonable processing route,the position of the tool relative to work piece as well as tool pose.We have solved the interference problem between finger tool and arbor,and demonstrate the feasibility of this method through computer simulation and actual operation process.It can help to improve the spiral bevel gear′s manufacturing.

  17. Arginine vasotocin reduces levels of cooperative behaviour in a cleaner fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Sónia C; Paitio, José R; Oliveira, Rui F; Bshary, Redouan; Soares, Marta C

    2015-02-01

    Cooperation between unrelated individuals usually involves investments that often mean a decrease in immediate payoffs, but ensure future benefits. Here we investigated the potential role of the neuropeptides Arginine-vasotocin (AVT) and Isotocin (IT) as proximate agents affecting individuals' cooperative levels in the Indo-pacific bluestreak cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus. Their 'client' reef fish partners only benefit from interacting if cleaners eat ectoparasites and refrain from gleaning preferred client mucus. Thus, cleaners must control their impulse to eat according to their preference, and eat less preferred items to maintain ongoing interactions and avoid clients' leaving or punishing. We found that solely the experimental transient higher dosage of AVT led to a decrease of cleaners' willingness to feed against their preference, while IT and AVT antagonists had no significant effects. The sole effect of AVT on cleaner's performance may imply a link between AVT's influence and a potential activation of a stress response. Our results confirm the importance of the AVT/AVP system as an agent affecting levels of cooperation, offering a potential mechanistic pathway for the reported flexible service quality that cleaners provide their clients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of finishing and polishing on the color stability of a composite resin immersed in staining solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Justo Polli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of finishing/polishing methods and staining solutions using different immersion periods on the color stability of a microhybrid composite resin. Materials and Methods: Ninety specimens were fabricated using a stainless steel mold and polyester strips. The samples were randomly divided into five groups according to the finishing and polishing performed: Control group (no surface treatment was performed, Diamond Pro group, Diamond burs group, Enhance group, and SiC paper group. After finishing and polishing, six samples from each group were immersed in coffee, red wine, or water for 30 days. The color measurements were obtained using digital photography before immersion and after 7, 15, and 30 days of immersion. The red, green, and blue values provided by the Adobe Photoshop software were converted into CIELab values. A three-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test were used for statistical analysis (P ≤ 0.05. Results: The finishing and polishing methods, staining solutions, immersion times, and their interaction had statistically significant effects on the color change (P = 0.00. Coffee and red wine caused intense staining. Among the polishing methods, the highest color change value was observed in the control group (P < 0.05 and the Diamond Pro disks provided the most stain-resistant surfaces (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The finishing and polishing method, staining solution, and immersion time influences the color stability. Finishing and polishing should be applied to obtain a more stain-resistant surface.

  19. A new cleaner process to prepare pressing-powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Z.; Monfort, E.; Garcia-Ten, J.; Zhou, J.; Amoros, J. L.; Wang, Y.

    2011-07-01

    An alternative cleaner process of pressing-powder preparation, based on filter-pressing and a novel granulation method, is presented to substitute the existing spray-drying process. In the new process, about two-thirds of wet-milled slurry is filter pressed, dried and milled into dry fine powder. The other one-third of the slurry and the as-obtained dry fine powder are spray-mixed in a tower, where the slurry droplets adsorb the dry powder to form granules which are then rolled and dried into a usable pressing-powder for tile pressing. The key stages, filter-pressing and granulation (consisting of spray-mixing and rolling treatment), are specially studied. The pressing-powder properties and pressing/firing behavior, and, energy/water consumption and pollution emission data are presented, and a comparison between the new process and the existing spray-drying process is made. This new process has been found to be feasible and provides a pressing-powder with suitable properties, together with lower energy/water consumption and pollution emission (particulate matter and CO{sub 2}). (Author) 28 refs.

  20. Interactions between cleaner-birds and ungulates are personality dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Found, Rob

    2017-11-01

    While a growing body of literature explores the ecological implications of consistent individual variation in the behaviour of wildlife, few studies have looked at the reciprocal influences of personality within interspecific interactions, despite the potentially significant impacts on biodiversity. Here I used two species involved in cleaner-bird behaviour-black-billed magpies ( Pica pica ) and Rocky mountain elk ( Cervus canadensis )-to show that the exhibition of mutualistic behaviour can depend on the personality of the individual involved. I recorded suites of correlated behaviours in both elk and magpies to derive personality gradients from 'shy' to 'bold', which I compared with observations of interspecific interactions. I measured each half of this mutualistic relationship separately. I found that bold elk were more likely to aggressively reject magpie landings, while shy elk allowed magpies to land and groom them. Contrastingly, I found it was bold magpies that were willing to risk landings, while shy magpies rarely attempted landings. These results show that the exhibition of interspecific behaviour is predicated on the personality of the individuals, and thus likely contributes to the selection and maintenance of personality variation within populations. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Quality care means valuing care assistants, porters, and cleaners too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toynbee, P

    2003-12-01

    All too often, the focus of the very clever strategy papers produced in the upper reaches of the health department is on the next grand plan. Some of these reforms have been catastrophic for the quality of service that patients experience at ward level. Of these, the contracting out culture introduced in the 1980s and the 1990s has been the worst. Researching my book, Hard work-life in low pay Britain, I took six jobs at around the minimum wage, including work as a hospital porter, as a hospital cleaner, and as a care assistant. These are jobs at the sharp end, up close and very personal to the patients, strongly influencing their experiences of the services they were using. Yet they are low paid, undervalued jobs that fall below the radar of the policy makers. In hospitals they need to be brought back in-house and integrated into a team ethos. Paying these people more would cost more, but it would also harvest great rewards by using their untapped commitment.

  2. Risk of musculoskeletal injury among cleaners during vacuuming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Alison F; Steele, Julie R

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the risk of work-related upper-limb musculoskeletal disorders in cleaning workers during the work task of vacuuming. In total, 24 cleaning workers were observed while they performed vacuum cleaning tasks in the normal course of their employment in government schools, hospitality and commercial office space sectors. Risk of upper-limb musculoskeletal disorders were rated using three observational assessment tools: Manual Task Risk Assessment (ManTRA); Quick Exposure Check (QEC); the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA). Mean results (e.g. ManTRA wrist/hand cumulative wrist score 18.67 ± 1.27, QEC neck score 13 ± 1.77, RULA score 6.54 ± 0.509) demonstrated that cleaning workers who perform the task of vacuum cleaning are at risk of work-related upper-limb musculoskeletal injury, regardless of whether they use a back-pack or canister machine. Government school cleaners experienced greater risk of work-related upper-limb musculoskeletal disorders than workers in either the hospitality or commercial office space sectors. Cleaning workers in Australia are mostly female, ageing and of non-English-speaking backgrounds and involved in repetitive manual tasks. Their occupation is low status. This research confirms that vacuuming tasks are a risk for cleaning workers and highlights the need for further research to improve conditions for these workers.

  3. Miraflow, Soft Contact Lens Cleaner: Activity Against Acanthamoeba Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Higuchi-Watanabe, Narumi; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Uno, Toshihiko; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2015-07-01

    Miraflow is a cleaner for soft contact lens which contains 20% isopropyl alcohol. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity against Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts for Miraflow. In addition, to determine the activity of combined Miraflow and multipurpose solutions (MPSs) against Acanthamoeba cysts. Two simulated-use studies were conducted. The significance in the log reduction in the number of trophozoites and cysts of A. castellanii strains ATCC 50514 and ATCC 50370 or A. polyphaga ATCC 30461 after exposure to Miraflow alone was determined by the Spearman-Karber method. To examine the activity against Acanthamoeba of combined Miraflow and an MPS, the log reduction in the number of cysts after a 1-min exposure to Miraflow followed by a 4-hr exposure to MPS (ReNu fresh) was also determined. Short-time exposure of 30 sec to Miraflow demonstrated activity against the Acanthamoeba trophozoites. However, a 1-min treatment was only relatively effective (1.1 log reduction) against the cysts of A. castellanii ATCC 50514, but no statistically significant reduction was observed for the cysts of the other 2 strains. The combined use with Miraflow and MPS demonstrated activity against the cysts, and a 3.0, 1.0, or 1.5 log reduction in the numbers was obtained for A. castellanii ATCC 50514, A. castellanii ATCC 50370, and A. polyphaga ATCC 30461, respectively. Exposure to combined Miraflow and MPS resulted in reductions in the number of Acanthamoeba cysts.

  4. Stripping Paint From Exterior Wood Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark T. Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Removing paint and other film-forming finishes is a time consuming and often difficult process. In some cases, finishes need to be removed prior to repainting; for example, if the old surface is covered with severely peeled or blistered paint or if excessive paint buildup has caused cross-grain cracking. You must also remove the finish before applying a penetrating...

  5. Evaluation of a Combined Ultraviolet Photocatalytic Oxidation(UVPCO)/Chemisorbent Air Cleaner for Indoor Air Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Destaillats, Hugo; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Fisk,William J.

    2007-02-01

    We previously reported that gas-phase byproducts of incomplete oxidation were generated when a prototype ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaner was operated in the laboratory with indoor-relevant mixtures of VOCs at realistic concentrations. Under these conditions, there was net production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two important indoor air toxicants. Here, we further explore the issue of byproduct generation. Using the same UVPCO air cleaner, we conducted experiments to identify common VOCs that lead to the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde and to quantify their production rates. We sought to reduce the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde to acceptable levels by employing different chemisorbent scrubbers downstream of the UVPCO device. Additionally, we made preliminary measurements to estimate the capacity and expected lifetime of the chemisorbent media. For most experiments, the system was operated at 680-780 m{sup 3}/h (400-460 cfm). A set of experiments was conducted with common VOCs introduced into the UVPCO device individually and in mixture. Compound conversion efficiencies and the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were determined by comparison of compound concentrations upstream and downstream of the reactor. There was general agreement between compound conversions efficiencies determined individually and in the mixture. This suggests that competition among compounds for active sites on the photocatalyst surface will not limit the performance of the UVPCO device when the total VOC concentration is low. A possible exception was the very volatile alcohols, for which there were some indications of competitive adsorption. The results also showed that formaldehyde was produced from many commonly encountered VOCs, while acetaldehyde was generated by specific VOCs, particularly ethanol. The implication is that formaldehyde concentrations are likely to increase when an effective UVPCO air cleaner is used in

  6. Influence of Finishing and Polishing Techniques and Abrasion on Transmittance and Roughness of Composite Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Pma; Ramos, T M; de Azevedo, C S; de Lima, E; de Souza, Shj; Turbino, M L; Cesar, P F; Matos, A B

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of finishing and polishing systems and toothbrush abrasion on transmittance (T) and surface roughness (Ra) of three composite resins (Filtek Z350 XT, Tetric N-Ceram, and IPS Empress Direct). Eighteen resin disks (10 mm diameter × 2 mm thick) finished by polyester strips had initial surface smoothness recorded, representing phase 1 (P1). Specimens were divided into three groups (n=6) according to the finishing/polishing instrument used (OneGloss, TopGloss, and Sof-Lex) to compose phase 2 samples (P2). Then specimens were subjected to 514 cycles of toothbrush simulation using a toothpaste slurry, with a constant load applied to soft bristles, and were then washed (phase 3=P3). After each phase, the specimens were examined by an optical profiler and spectrophotometer to measure Ra and T. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, Tukey and Pearson tests. T values were statistically influenced by composite resin ( p=0.000) and phase of measurement ( p=0.000) factors, while the finishing/polishing system used ( p=0.741) did not affect T. On the other hand, Ra values were statistically affected by the factor finishing/polishing system ( p=0.000), but not by composite resin ( p=0.100) and phase of measurement ( p=0.451). Tetric N-Ceram and Empress Direct presented higher values of roughness when polished by OneGloss, while TopGloss and Sof-Lex showed a lower roughness. It can be concluded that composite resins transmitted more light after dental abrasion. Transmittance of composite resins was not modified by the distinct roughness created by finishing/polishing instruments.

  7. Percent recoveries of anthropogenic organic compounds with and without the addition of ascorbic acid to preserve finished-water samples containing free chlorine, 2004-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Bender, David A.; Price, Curtis V.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents finished-water matrix-spike recoveries of 270 anthropogenic organic compounds with and without the addition of ascorbic acid to preserve water samples containing free chlorine. Percent recoveries were calculated using analytical results from a study conducted during 2004-10 for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The study was intended to characterize the effect of quenching on finished-water matrix-spike recoveries and to better understand the potential oxidation and transformation of 270 anthropogenic organic compounds. The anthropogenic organic compounds studied include those on analytical schedules 1433, 2003, 2033, 2060, 2020, and 4024 of the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory. Three types of samples were collected from 34 NAWQA locations across the Nation: (1) quenched finished-water samples (not spiked), (2) quenched finished-water matrix-spike samples, and (3) nonquenched finished-water matrix-spike samples. Percent recoveries of anthropogenic organic compounds in quenched and nonquenched finished-water matrix-spike samples are presented. Comparisons of percent recoveries between quenched and nonquenched spiked samples can be used to show how quenching affects finished-water samples. A maximum of 18 surface-water and 34 groundwater quenched finished-water matrix-spike samples paired with nonquenched finished-water matrix-spike samples were analyzed. Percent recoveries for the study are presented in two ways: (1) finished-water matrix-spike samples supplied by surface-water or groundwater, and (2) by use (or source) group category for surface-water and groundwater supplies. Graphical representations of percent recoveries for the quenched and nonquenched finished-water matrix-spike samples also are presented.

  8. Tribological impact of the finishing technology onto meso- and microforming processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahn Stephan F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tribological conditions between workpiece and tool have a major impact onto forming processes. Besides lubrication, temperature, and material, they are mainly influenced by the tool surface characteristics, especially by its topography, which is a result of finishing technology. Thereby formed lubricant pockets are of prime importance for the tribosystem due to its ability to separate the tribopartners by storing lubricant. The influence of four different tool finishing processes and their according surface topographies onto frictional behaviour have been investigated and quantified by the barrel compression test, in dry and lubricated tribosystems. The tool steel surfaces were stochastically microstructured by grinding and spark erosion as well as deterministic structured with micro calottes, applied by jet electrochemical machining and compared to a polished reference tool. The allocation of open and closed lubricant pockets over tool surfaces before and after the forming process was analysed by a self-made MATLAB tool.

  9. Research on reducing the edge effect in magnetorheological finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Dai, Yifan; Peng, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jianmin

    2011-03-20

    The edge effect could not be avoided in most optical manufacturing methods based on the theory of computer controlled optical surfacing. The difference between the removal function at the workpiece edge and that inside it is also the primary cause for edge effect in magnetorheological finishing (MRF). The change of physical dimension and removal ratio of the removal function is investigated through experiments. The results demonstrate that the situation is different when MRF "spot" is at the leading edge or at the trailing edge. Two methods for reducing the edge effect are put into practice after analysis of the processing results. One is adopting a small removal function for dealing with the workpiece edge, and the other is utilizing the removal function compensation. The actual processing results show that these two ways are both effective on reducing the edge effect in MRF.

  10. Screening for Common Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse among Temporary Hired Cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate

    OpenAIRE

    RA Abbas; RAM Hammam; SS El-Gohary; LME Sabik; MS Hunter

    2012-01-01

    Background: Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egyp...

  11. Surface quality finish in laser cutting using Taguchi design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sharma, V.; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Hloch, Sergej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2017), s. 15-19 ISSN 1330-3651 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : cutting speed * factorial design * laser pulse width * orthogonal array * pulse repetition rate (PRR) or pulse frequency Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools OBOR OECD: Mechanical engineering Impact factor: 0.723, year: 2016 http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=257818

  12. Detection of Protozoa in Surface and Finished Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humans are known to be the host to approximately 1500 infectious agents, out of which 66 are protozoa and 287 are helminths. Therefore, from a global perspective helminths and protozoan parasites account for approximately one fourth of the total infectious diseases of humans. A s...

  13. New trends for PWB surface finishes in mobile phone applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Würtz; Ambat, Rajan; Rasmussen, Anette Alsted

    2005-01-01

    resistance are heavily increasing to keep a high reliability of the terminal. A paradigm shift to avoid use of Immersion Ni/Au is ongoing nowadays because the thin and porous Imm. Ni/Au can't address these challenges in a satisfactory way. Already some years ago OSP has replaced Immersion Ni/Au on solder...

  14. Stability analysis and support study on surroundings of finishing cut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.; Miao, X.; Lu, A.; Xing, C. [CUMT, Jiangsu (China). College of Mineral and Energy Resources

    2003-09-01

    By means of finishing cut the trackless rubber-tried vehicle can directly go to the working face to remove the equipment. It can promote the efficiency in removing the equipment. Because of the finishing cut continuously affected by the dynamic pressure of face, it is important to find the reasonable position of the finishing cut and the proportion support. Based on the study of the ground pressure and the moving law of overlying strata during the terminal mining in sublevel caving face, the optimal position and the proportion support way of finishing cut were obtained using experiment with analog simulation and numerical simulation. This method can keep the stability for the surroundings of the finishing cut and lay the foundation for finishing the face quickly and safely. The engineering practice shows this technique is efficient and the significant social and economy benefit is obtained. 7 refs.,11 figs.

  15. [Experimental analysis of finishing lines in ceramometal restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascón, F; Gil, J A; Fons, A; Badal, R

    1990-11-01

    The preparation is the first step of any tooth reconstruction. The biological integration of the protesis is depending on the marginal adaptation (finish line of the preparation), occlusal adaptation (occlusal reduction), longevity of the restoration (retention and luting) and esthetics. The effect the two finish line of the preparation is studied using experimental design. In porcelain-fused-to-metal the finish line of the preparation in chanfer is superior at the beveled shoulder, because proportioning better marginal adaptation.

  16. Atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of 1,3-butadiene for hydrophobic finishing of textile substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, Kartick K; Jassal, Manjeet; Agrawal, Ashwini K

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma processing of textile has both ecological and economical advantages over the wet-chemical processing. However, reaction in atmospheric pressure plasma has important challenges to be overcome before it can be successfully used for finishing applications in textile. These challenges are (i) generating stable glow plasma in presence liquid/gaseous monomer, and (ii) keeping the generated radicals active in the presence of contaminants such as oxygen and air. In this study, a stable glow plasma was generated at atmospheric pressure in the mixture of gaseous reactive monomer-1,3-butadiene and He and was made to react with cellulosic textile substrate. After 12 min of plasma treatment, the hydrophilic surface of the cellulosic substrate turned into highly hydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic finish was found to be durable to soap washing. After soap washing, a water drop of 37 μl took around 250 s to get absorbed in the treated sample compared to 0 . Both top and bottom sides of the fabric showed similar hydrophobic results in terms of water absorbency and contact angle. The results may be attributed to chemical reaction of butadiene with the cellulosic textile substrate. The surface characterization of the plasma modified samples under SEM and AFM revealed modification of the surface under <100 nm. The results showed that atmospheric pressure plasma can be successfully used for carrying out reaction of 1,3-butadiene with cellulosic textile substrates for producing hydrophobic surface finish.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF GLUTEN - FREE FLOURS ON THE QUALITY INDICATORS OF BISCUIT SEMI - FINISHED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. G. IORGACHOVA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of applicability of gluten-free flours from cereal crops and from by-products of cereal crop processing - ground crumbs sifted out in a process of flake production from rice, corn and millet during the production of biscuit semi-finished products. Taking into account that viscosity is an important technological characteristic of foam-like biscuit dough, as it determines foam strength and dispersed medium stability, the influence of gluten-free flours on the structural and rheological properties of biscuit dough was studied. It is determined that the substitution of wheat flour for cereal flours leads to viscosity reduction of the dough as a consequence of absence of gluten-forming proteins in them. A comparative analysis of changes in viscous properties of biscuit dough based on flour from flakes crumb while warming it up to 60°C with dough based on cereal flours and dough based on wheat flour was held. It is shown that the presence of partially gelatinized starch granules in flour from flake crumb, as a result of technological peculiarities of their extraction, promotes greater demonstration of thickening properties already at the initial stage of baking than in cereal flours. This leads to an increase of dough viscosity and formation of desired rheological characteristics, which provide the porous structure of finished products. To provide the high quality of gluten-free biscuit semi-finished products, the recipe composition of gluten-free biscuit semi-finished product, based on flour mixture from millet flakes crumb, corn and rice flour, was optimized by using the method of mathematical design of experiments.  The porosity indicator was chosen as the criteria for the evaluation of influence of proportion of gluten-free flours on the quality of biscuit semi-finished products. The response surfaces of dependency of biscuit porosity from mass ratio of recipe components in the composite mixture were

  18. Finishing of the cold mass assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 Zoom of the lyre-side end of the active part assembly. The extremity of the shrinking cylinder has been bevelled in view of welding the end cover. Photo 2 General view of the finishing station showing the special supporting structures (blue and yellow structures) needed for the geometric measurements and for the alignment operations. Photo 3 Zoom of the lyre-side end of the active part assembly. One can also see the auxiliary bus bars needed to power the corrector magnets that are installed in the dipole cold mass assembly. Photo 4 Technicians are putting in order the instrumentation wires. The prototype magnets were equipped with numerous sensors to monitor key parameters during the performance tests at cold conditions.

  19. Finishing of the cold mass assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 The connection-side end of the active part assembly. This view shows the electrical connections between the poles and the curved bus ended with flanges for the connection with the protection diode. Photo 2 The connection-side end of the active part assembly. This view shows the electrical connections between the poles, the auxiliary bus bars and the instrumentation wires. Photo 3 Lyre-side end of the active part assembly. One can see the mechanical support of the corretor magnets that are to be installed around the cold bore tubes. Photo 4 General view of the finishing station showing the special supporting structures (blue and yellow structures) needed for the geometric measurements and for the alignment operations. Around the magnet, there are datum points (on the tripodes) needed to build up the coordinates system for the measurements.

  20. Cleaner Production Practices, Environmental Management and National Policy Development in Malaysia for Electroplating Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne; Mohamed, Maketab; Agamuthu, P.

    2004-01-01

    figures on the results achieved, and discussing the experiences gained. Reviewing the approach and results of the Centre, as well as the status of cleaner production (CP) in Malaysia, the paper outlines the challenges for national policy making, when moving from promotion by project intervention towards......Cleaner technologies (CT) have been introduced into the Malaysian Small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) sector primarily by foreign donor supported project interventions. The establishment of the Environmental and Energy Technology Centre at SIRIM was funded by a grant from the Danish Co......-operation for Environment and Development (DANCED), Ministry of Environment and Energy. SMEs were targeted within three sectors: Textile, food and electroplating industries. The paper illustrates the change process from the perspective of electroplating SMEs by reviewing the cleaner production options chosen, presenting...

  1. A randomised controlled trial among cleaners--effects on strength, balance and kinesiophobia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Ektor-Andersen, John; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2011-01-01

    Cleaners constitute a job group with poor health and low socioeconomic resources. Therefore, there is a great need for scientifically documented health promoting initiatives for cleaners. However, both workplace initiatives and high quality intervention studies are lacking. The aim of this study...... training (PCT, n = 95), Cognitive behavioural theory-based training (CBTr, n = 99) and Reference group (REF, n = 100). Interventions were conducted during work hours for an average of 1 hour/week. Muscle strength was measured by maximal voluntary contractions in trunk/extension, and shoulder abduction......, and kinesiophobia from CBTr. The improved strength, postural balance and kinesiophobia may improve the cleaners' tolerance for high physical work demands. Future studies should investigate the potential in the combination of PCT and CBTr in a workplace intervention. Current controlled trials ISRCTN96241850....

  2. What characterizes cleaners sustaining good musculoskeletal health after years with physically heavy work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, A; Blangsted, A K; Christensen, H

    2009-01-01

    reported severe symptoms in the low back, neck shoulders or upper limbs. The groups were of matching age, height, body weight and seniority (19 years). Muscular strength was recorded by isometric maximal voluntary contractions on a day without pain. Exposure to physical risk factors at work, psychosocial......OBJECTIVES: The aim of this case-control study was to investigate characteristics of cleaners with good musculoskeletal health after years with physically heavy work. METHODS: One hundred and 41 female seniority cleaners participated. Twenty-five reported no musculoskeletal symptoms, whereas 83...... work factors, and leisure time physical activity were assessed by a postal questionnaire. RESULTS: Cleaners with good musculoskeletal health were not reporting different exposure to physical risk factors at work or leisure time physical activity, but had higher muscular strength and reported higher...

  3. A Case Study of Air Cleaner by the Intelligent Interaction and Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huai; Sun, Yuwen

    2018-02-01

    The pure and fresh air can not only contribute to our physical and mental health, but also can be beneficial to ease the pressure and relax the mood. The vertical intelligent air cleaner can remove the harmful gases from the air and absorb the suspended particles in the air, especially all kinds of the bacteria and viruses. The air cleaner is good for improving the air quality of the indoor and maintaining the health of the people. The designing of the vertical air cleaner is as follows: The designing of the vertical intelligent make full use of the developed air purification technology. The smart home is inserted into the work. Simultaneously, in the aspect of the design of intelligent products, the intelligent interactive processes are scientifically planned. Moreover, the emotional design and the user experience are fully considered, which can enhance the comprehensive design ability.

  4. Efficiency Enhancement of a Low-Voltage Automotive Vacuum Cleaner Using a Switched Reluctance Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Geol Seon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A recent increase in the number of diverse leisure activities and family outdoor activities has increased the need for the automobile-embedded vacuum cleaner. To date, this technology has not been applied in Korea and development efforts are not underway. Many of the existing portable cleaners connecting to the lighter jack of the vehicle use a direct current motor (DC motor. However, they do not have sufficient suction power to satisfy consumers; moreover, they have low durability and efficiency. In this paper, we therefore propose a technology for increasing the efficiency of the low-voltage automobile vacuum cleaner by replacing the existing DC motor with a switched reluctance motor (SRM, which has superior durability and efficiency.

  5. Evaluation of heat stress in dry cleaner units:A case study in Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Malakouti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Nowadays, heat stress is one of the most harmful physical agents in workplaces. According to the consequences of heat stress and have no information about it in Qom dry cleaner units, Iran, this study have been designed to evaluate the heat stress among workers of dry cleaner units in Qom province of Iran, in Jul-Aug 2011. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 113 units of active dry cleaner units. WBGT (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index was selected for heat stress evaluation. In order to measure the requisite parameters, WBGT meter made of Casella Company had been used according to ISO 7243. Data had been analyzed according to Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs with SPSS V.16, using analysis of variance, independent T and LSD tests. Results: The average of WBGT index in Qom dry cleaner units of Iran were 28.98±1.64 °C. The average of WBGT index in 66.4% of units was up to 28°C. The average of relative humidity was 42.86%, the average of wet bulb temperature and globe temperature were 25.56°C and 36.72°C, respectively. The findings showed a significant correlation between the average of WBGT index and the standard recommendation level (p<0.0001. In dry cleaner units with less than 10 m2 area, heat stress was higher than other units  significantly (p<0.05. Conclusions: Heat stress in many dry cleaner units in Qom, Iran, was more than recommended OELs. Because of wet bulb and globe temperature in units were high value, the most important measures to heat controls, are technical engineering controls such as  radiation shield, insulation on boilers and modify the cooling systems.

  6. Occurrence of neonicotinoid insecticides in finished drinking water and fate during drinking water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarich, Kathryn L.; Pflug, Nicholas C.; DeWald, Eden M.; Hladik, Michelle L.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Cwiertny, David M.; LeFevre, Gergory H.

    2017-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widespread in surface waters across the agriculturally-intensive Midwestern US. We report for the first time the presence of three neonicotinoids in finished drinking water and demonstrate their general persistence during conventional water treatment. Periodic tap water grab samples were collected at the University of Iowa over seven weeks in 2016 (May-July) after maize/soy planting. Clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam were ubiquitously detected in finished water samples and ranged from 0.24-57.3 ng/L. Samples collected along the University of Iowa treatment train indicate no apparent removal of clothianidin and imidacloprid, with modest thiamethoxam removal (~50%). In contrast, the concentrations of all neonicotinoids were substantially lower in the Iowa City treatment facility finished water using granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Batch experiments investigated potential losses. Thiamethoxam losses are due to base-catalyzed hydrolysis at high pH conditions during lime softening. GAC rapidly and nearly completely removed all three neonicotinoids. Clothianidin is susceptible to reaction with free chlorine and may undergo at least partial transformation during chlorination. Our work provides new insights into the persistence of neonicotinoids and their potential for transformation during water treatment and distribution, while also identifying GAC as an effective management tool to lower neonicotinoid concentrations in finished drinking water.

  7. Participation of Danish and immigrant cleaners in a 1-year worksite intervention preventingphysical deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Jørgensen, Marie B; Carneiro, Isabella G

    2012-01-01

    Worksite health promotion is seldom offered to workers who are low-educated and multi-ethnic, possibly due to an assumption that they are more reluctant to participate. Furthermore, little has been done to promote health at female-dominated workplaces. The main aim of this study was to investigate...... differences in participation among immigrant and Danish cleaners throughout a 1-year randomised controlled study tailored to cleaners and carried out in predominantly female workplaces. No significant differences in ethnicity were found in consent and participation throughout the 1-year intervention. Dropout...

  8. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F.; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%–44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%–109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (< 1% in 2020). However, if the WEEE directive did not exist, then the impacts would be 2%–21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%–20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should

  9. Simultaneous Blind Separation and Recognition of Speech Mixtures Using Two Microphones to Control a Robot Cleaner

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Heungkyu

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for the simultaneous separation and recognition of speech mixtures in noisy environments using two-channel based independent vector analysis (IVA) on a home-robot cleaner. The issues to be considered in our target application are speech recognition at a distance and noise removal to cope with a variety of noises, including TV sounds, air conditioners, babble, and so on, that can occur in a house, where people can utter a voice command to control a robot cleaner at...

  10. Evaluation of cleaner production options in dyeing and printing industry: Using combination weighting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong; Zhang, Yun; Hou, Haochen; Sun, Xiaoyang; Qin, Chenglu

    2018-03-01

    The textile industry has a high environmental impact so that implementing cleaner production audit is an effective way to achieve energy conservation and emissions reduction. But the evaluation method in current cleaner production audit divided the evaluation of CPOs into two parts: environment and economy. The evaluation index system was constructed from three criteria of environment benefits, economy benefits and product performance; weights of five indicators were determined by combination weights of entropy method and factor weight sorting method. Then efficiencies were evaluated comprehensively. The results showed that the best alkali recovery option was the nanofiltration membrane method (S=0.80).

  11. The Urban Function of the Infraordinary: Dry Cleaners as Social Vertexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen

    2015-01-01

    of social coexistence that has ‘a function that is separate from their practical use’ (Jorn 1954). A London dry cleaner serves as testing ground, employing critical spatial practices and creative writing as research tools. The dry cleaner does not simply clean clothes, but is a social vertex and physical...... through allowing for occupation, inhabitation and co-authoring. Hence, these latent qualities and spatial materiality of the infraordinary form vital components of the social dimension of the city and points towards a recalibration of current urban practices....

  12. Level of self-reported neck/shoulder pain and biomechanical workload in cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madeleine, Pascal; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between self-reported pain, muscular activity and postural load during cleaning tasks. Eighteen cleaners performed usual cleaning tasks in both a laboratory and a lecture room. The level of perceived pain in the neck-shoulder region...... erector spinae muscles (P≤0.08). Cleaners with low pain level exhibited higher muscular activity during cleaning. Pain played or tended to play a significant role on PE of left and right erector spinae muscles (P≤0.08). Pain played a significant role on the 10th, 50th and 90th percentile (P...

  13. The association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Isabella G.; Rasmussen, Charlotte D. N.; Jørgensen, Marie B.

    2013-01-01

    related to high occurrence of sickness absence. Among Danish cleaners, high blood pressure was related to high occurrence of sickness absence. Among non-Western immigrant cleaners, total body pain and having one or more diagnosed chronic disease were related to high occurrence of sickness absence...

  14. Screening for common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, R A; Hammam, R A M; El-Gohary, S S; Sabik, L M E; Hunter, M S

    2013-01-01

    Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health. To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egypt. All participants were invited to complete a structured questionnaire through a semi-structured interview which included the self-reporting questionnaire 20 items (SRQ-20) and the work stress scale. Assessment of drug use included urine-based screening tests for common substances abused. The prevalence of job stress, common mental disorders and substance abuse, particularly tramadol and cannabis (Bango), was significantly higher in the studied temporary cleaners compared to permanent cleaners. Risk factors associated with increased susceptibility of the temporary cleaners to common mental disorders were family history of substance abuse, high crowding index, history of physical illness, low educational level, and smoking; while being unmarried, male sex, family history of mental disorder, age ≥40 years, smoking, and length of service ≥8 years, were associated with substance abuse among the same group. Temporary hired hospital cleaners suffered from impaired mental health more than permanent cleaners. Therefore, expanding the coverage of current laws and occupational safety and health standards to cover workers in the informal sector especially in developing countries is recommended.

  15. Performance and internal organ characteristics of finisher broilers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effect of replacing maize as a major source of energy with wild yam (Anchomanes difformis) meal (WYM) in the diets of finisher broiler. One hundred and eighty (180) finisher broilers were fed on five experimental diets formulated such that the maize in diet 1 (control) was ...

  16. Plutonium finishing plant safety systems and equipment list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergquist, G.G.

    1995-01-01

    The Safety Equipment List (SEL) supports Analysis Report (FSAR), WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021 and the Plutonium Finishing Plant Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs), WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010. The SEL is a breakdown and classification of all Safety Class 1, 2, and 3 equipment, components, or system at the Plutonium Finishing Plant complex

  17. Assessment of the Nutrient Contents of Finished Broiler Starter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess and compare the proximate composition and amino acid profile of six (6) finished broiler starter and finisher diets with recommendations of National Research Council (NRC) nutrient requirements table for the different physiological age growth stage. Four samples of each feed type were ...

  18. Performance and cost implication of finisher turkeys fed varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding varying levels of rice milling waste as a substitute on maize on the performance, nutrient utilization and the economics implication on finisher turkeys. Five turkey finisher diets were formulated by substituting maize with rice milling waste at 0%, 25%, 50%, ...

  19. Physiological evaluation of broiler finishers fed fermented bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological evaluation of broiler finishers fed fermented bovine blood and rumen digesta meal. ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... This study suggested that FBBRD meal when properly processed and at 10 % dietary level of inclusion, can be used in broiler finisher production without adverse effects on the ...

  20. Population dynamics of swine influenza virus in finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza virus infections in swine were first noticed in the US in 1918, during the human pandemic of the Spanish flu. In Europe, seroprevalences for the three most common swine influenza strains at the moment, H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2, range from 20-80% in finishing pigs at the end of the finishing

  1. Plutonium finishing plant safety systems and equipment list

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergquist, G.G.

    1995-01-06

    The Safety Equipment List (SEL) supports Analysis Report (FSAR), WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021 and the Plutonium Finishing Plant Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs), WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010. The SEL is a breakdown and classification of all Safety Class 1, 2, and 3 equipment, components, or system at the Plutonium Finishing Plant complex.

  2. Effect of Hoodia gordonii leaf meal supplementation at finisher stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A nutritional experiment was conducted to determine the effect of Hoodia gordonii leaf meal supplementation at finisher stage (30 to 42 days old) on productivity, carcass characteristics and meat sensory attributes of Ross 308 broiler chickens. The chickens were fed a finisher diet supplemented with 0 (H0), 200 (H200), 300 ...

  3. Effect of finish line variants on marginal accuracy and fracture strength of ceramic optimized polymer/fiber-reinforced composite crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, LeeRa; Choi, JongMi; Yi, Yang Jin; Park, Chan Jin

    2004-06-01

    Ceramic optimized polymer (Ceromer)/fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) crowns have been promoted as alternatives to conventional crowns. However, little is known regarding the ideal tooth preparation for this type of crown. This in vitro study evaluated the marginal adaptation and fracture strength of ceromer/FRC crowns with respect to the various types of finish lines. Four metal dies with different finish lines (0.9-mm chamfer, 1.2-mm chamfer, 1.2-mm rounded shoulder, and 1.2-mm shoulder) were prepared. Forty (10 for each finish line) Targis/Vectris crowns were fabricated on duplicated base metal alloy dies. The restorations were stereoscopically evaluated at 56 points along the entire circumferential margin for measuring the margin adaptation before and after cementation with a resin luting agent. The specimens were then compressively loaded to failure using a universal testing machine. The marginal adaptation (microm) was analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test and post-hoc Dunnett test (alpha=.05). The fracture load (N) was analyzed with a 1-way analysis of the variance and the Scheffe adjustment (alpha=.05). The fractured surfaces of the crowns were examined with a scanning electron microscope to determine the mode of fracture. The marginal adaptation of crowns with a shoulder finish line was significantly better than crowns with a chamfer finish line before and after cementation (P<.001). The increased marginal gap after cementation was the lowest in the 1.2-mm rounded shoulder group. The fracture strength of the crowns with the 0.9-mm chamfer and crowns with 1.2-mm chamfer was significantly greater than those of the crowns with the 1.2-mm shoulder or rounded shoulder (P=.011, P=.049, respectively). The mean fracture load of all crowns, regardless of the finish line design, was 1646 N. The fractured surface of the crown revealed adhesive failure and 3 types of cohesive failure (fracture of the Targis and Vectris, Targis fracture with a crack in the Vectris layer

  4. A new cleaner process to prepare pressing-powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu, Z.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An alternative cleaner process of pressing-powder preparation, based on filter-pressing and a novel granulation method, is presented to substitute the existing spray-drying process. In the new process, about two-thirds of wet-milled slurry is filterpressed, dried and milled into dry fine powder. The other one-third of the slurry and the as-obtained dry fine powder are spray-mixed in a tower, where the slurry droplets adsorb the dry powder to form granules which are then rolled and dried into a useable pressing-powder for tile pressing. The key stages, filter-pressing and granulation (consisting of spray-mixing and rolling treatment, are specially studied. The pressing-powder properties and pressing/firing behavior, and, energy/water consumption and pollution emission data are presented, and a comparison between the new process and the existing spray-drying process is made. This new process has been found to be feasible and provides a pressing-powder with suitable properties, together with lower energy/water consumption and pollution emission (particulate matter and CO2.

    En ese trabajo se presenta un proceso alternativo y más ecológico para la preparación de polvo de prensas por molienda vía húmeda de las materias primas. En este proceso la eliminación del agua de la suspensión obtenida en la etapa de molienda, en vez de realizarse por secado por atomización, se lleva a cabo en dos etapas, en una primera etapa dos tercios de esta suspensión se filtro-prensan, posteriormente se secan y molturan hasta obtener un polvo seco micronizado. Este material seco se introduce por la parte superior de una torre granuladora, en la que se pulveriza el tercio de la suspensión restante por la parte inferior, de forma que las gotas adsorben sobre su superficie las partículas secas formando gránulos, que posteriormente se compactan por rodamiento (“rolling”, y finalmente se secan hasta la humedad requerida para el prensado. En

  5. The catalogCleaner: Separating the Sheep from the Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, K.; Hankin, S. C.; Schweitzer, R.; Koyuk, H.

    2012-12-01

    possible. However, it quickly became obvious, through the sheer volume of data servers available, that the manual process of building a master catalog was not scalable. Thus, the idea for the catalogCleaner tool was born. The goal of this tool is to automatically crawl a remote OPeNDAP or THREDDS server, and from the information in the server build a "clean" catalog of data that will be: a) served through uniform access services; b) have CF compliant metadata; c) directly link the data to common visualization tools thereby allowing users to immediately begin exploring actual data. In addition, the UAF-generated clean catalog can then be used to drive data discovery tools such as Geoportal, GI-CAT, etc. This presentation will further explore the motivation of creating this tool, the implementation of this tool, as well as the myriad of challenges and difficulties there were encountered along the way.

  6. Visibility and social recognition as psychosocial work environment factors among cleaners in a multi-ethnic workplace intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hviid, Kirsten; Smith, Louise Hardman; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2012-12-24

    This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants' low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called "Make a Difference" designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom's "readiness for cleaning", and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners' psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners' experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered.

  7. Effect of an Air Cleaner with Electrostatic Filter on the Removal of Airborne House Dust Mite Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Santosh Rani; Kim, Hak-Joon; Lee, Yong Won; Sohn, Jung-Ho; Lee, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Lee, Sung-Hwa; Hong, Chein-Soo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The effects of air cleaners on the removal of airborne indoor allergens, especially house dust mites (HDM), are still controversial. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of an air cleaner with an electrostatic filter on the removal of airborne mite allergens. Materials and Methods A dried HDM culture medium that contained mite body particles and excretions was dispersed in a chamber equipped with an electrostatic air cleaner. The number of airborne particles was recorded continuously by a dust spectrometer for 60 minutes. Airborne particles in the chamber were collected on a sampling filter at a flow rate of 10 L/min and the Der f 1 concentration in the filter extracts was measured by two-site ELISA. Results The air cleaner efficiently removed airborne HDM particles. The air cleaner removed airborne HDM particles (size 2-12.5 µm) 11.4 ± 2.9 fold (cleaner operating for 15 minutes), 5.4 ± 0.7 fold (cleaner operating for 30 minutes), and 2.4 ± 0.2 fold (cleaner operating for 60 minutes) more than the removal of HDM particles by natural settle down. Removal kinetics differed according to the particle size of the airborne particles. The air cleaner decreased the concentration of Der f 1 in the extraction of airborne particles collected on the air sampling filter by 60.3%. Conclusion The electrostatic air cleaner can remove airborne HDM allergens and may be useful as a supplementary environmental control tool for HDM sensitized respiratory allergic patients. PMID:20879060

  8. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE's independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91

  9. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE`s independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91.

  10. Cleaning products and short-term respiratory effects among female cleaners with asthma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vizcaya, D.; Mirabelli, M.C.; Gimeno, D.; Antó, J.M.; Delclos, G.L.; Rivera, M.; Orriols, R.; Arjona, L.; Burgos, F.; Zock, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the short-term effects of exposure to cleaning products on lung function and respiratory symptoms among professional cleaning women. Methods: Twenty-one women with current asthma and employed as professional cleaners participated in a 15-day panel study. During 312

  11. Short-term respiratory effects of cleaning exposures in female domestic cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Ramón, M; Zock, J P; Kogevinas, M; Sunyer, J; Basagaña, X; Schwartz, J; Burge, P S; Moore, V; Antó, J M

    2006-06-01

    Symptoms of obstructive lung disease in domestic cleaners have been related to the use of bleach and other irritant cleaning products. The short-term effects of cleaning exposures on respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were investigated in domestic cleaners with respiratory disorders. In a panel study, 43 female domestic cleaners with a recent history of asthma and/or chronic bronchitis completed a 2-week diary, collecting information on respiratory symptoms, PEF and cleaning exposures. Mixed regression models were used to assess daily changes in symptoms and PEF associated with specific cleaning exposures. The probability of having work-related asthma was individually assessed by a computerised diagnostic system and an occupational asthma expert. Lower respiratory tract symptoms were more common on working days and were predominantly associated with exposure to diluted bleach, degreasing sprays/atomisers and air fresheners. Associations with upper respiratory tract symptoms and PEF were less apparent. Eleven (30%) subjects scored positively for work-related asthma. It is concluded that exposure to certain irritant cleaning products aggravates lower respiratory tract symptoms in female domestic cleaners with asthma or chronic bronchitis.

  12. FRACTIONAL AEROSOL FILTRATION EFFICIENCY OF IN-DUCT VENTILATION AIR CLEANERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The filtration efficiency of ventilation air cleaners is highly particle-size dependent over the 0.01 to 3 μm diameter size range. Current standardized test methods, which determine only overall efficiencies for ambient aerosol or other test aerosols, provide data of limited util...

  13. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners: effects of a worksite intervention RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas; Hansen, Åse Marie; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Blue-collar workers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, elevated levels of biomarkers related to risk of cardiovascular disease, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein, have been observed among blue-collar workers. The objective was to examine whether an aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form. The reference group (n = 59) received lectures, and the aerobic exercise group (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week). Levels of biomarkers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) were collected at baseline and after 4 months. A repeated-measure, multi-adjusted, mixed-model intention-to-treat analysis was applied to compare between-group differences. The study was registered as ISRCTN86682076. Significant (p aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners leads to reduced levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and an unaltered level of fibrinogen. The aerobic exercise seems to improve inflammatory levels and lipoprotein profile among cleaners, with no signs of cardiovascular overload.

  14. Cleaner Production and Workplace Health and Safety: A combined approach. A case study from South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    Environmental goals may be pursued narrow-mindedly with no attention paid to the workplace. This book examines combined approaches in cleaner production projects. It explores two main avenues. First, integration into the project specification. The planning tools in use by assistance agencies are ...

  15. Workshop on Indian Chemical Industry: perspectives on safety, cleaner production and environment production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    A Workshop on "Indian Chemical Industry: Perspectives on Safety, Cleaner Production and Environmental Protection" was held on 3, 4 and 5 January 1996, in Bombay, India. The main objective of the workshop, which was organised jointly by the Government of India, UNIDO/UNDP and the Indian Chemical

  16. Research on Duct Flow Field Optimisation of a Robot Vacuum Cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-bo Lai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The duct of a robot vacuum cleaner is the length of the flow channel between the inlet of the rolling brush blower and the outlet of the vacuum blower. To cope with the pressure drop problem of the duct flow field in a robot vacuum cleaner, a method based on Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operators (PRISO algorithm is introduced and the optimisation design of the duct flow field is implemented. Firstly, the duct structure in a robot vacuum cleaner is taken as a research object, with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD theories adopted; a three-dimensional fluid model of the duct is established by means of the FLUENT solver of the CFD software. Secondly, with the k-∊ turbulence model of three-dimensional incompressible fluid considered and the PRISO pressure modification algorithm employed, the flow field numerical simulations inside the duct of the robot vacuum cleaner are carried out. Then, the velocity vector plots on the arbitrary plane of the duct flow field are obtained. Finally, an investigation of the dynamic characteristics of the duct flow field is done and defects of the original duct flow field are analysed, the optimisation of the original flow field has then been conducted. Experimental results show that the duct flow field after optimisation can effectively reduce pressure drop, the feasibility as well as the correctness of the theoretical modelling and optimisation approaches are validated.

  17. Research on Duct Flow Field Optimisation of a Robot Vacuum Cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-bo Lai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The duct of a robot vacuum cleaner is the length of the flow channel between the inlet of the rolling brush blower and the outlet of the vacuum blower. To cope with the pressure drop problem of the duct flow field in a robot vacuum cleaner, a method based on Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operators (PRISO algorithm is introduced and the optimisation design of the duct flow field is implemented. Firstly, the duct structure in a robot vacuum cleaner is taken as a research object, with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD theories adopted; a three‐dimensional fluid model of the duct is established by means of the FLUENT solver of the CFD software. Secondly, with the k‐ε turbulence model of three‐ dimensional incompressible fluid considered and the PRISO pressure modification algorithm employed, the flow field numerical simulations inside the duct of the robot vacuum cleaner are carried out. Then, the velocity vector plots on the arbitrary plane of the duct flow field are obtained. Finally, an investigation of the dynamic characteristics of the duct flow field is done and defects of the original duct flow field are analysed, the optimisation of the original flow field has then been conducted. Experimental results show that the duct flow field after optimisation can effectively reduce pressure drop, the feasibility as well as the correctness of the theoretical modelling and optimisation approaches are validated.

  18. Study of a cleaner extraction of pyruvic acid from fermentation broth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new cleaner technology for extracting pyruvic acid (PA) from fermentative broth was explored. This process involves recycling waste residue combined with small amount of dispersant added to extract PA. Limited amount of dispersant in the process of rectification under vacuum (1.5 kPa) was found to inhibit the ...

  19. Physical Fitness of Cleaners in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, November 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Wibisono Sulistijo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cleaning is an occupation that is carried out worldwide in many different environments. Cleaning workers (cleaners often have low occupational skills and belong to the less advantaged educational and socioeconomic groups. Because of the high physical work demands and low cardiorespiratory fitness, cleaners have the risk to have cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to measure the 5 components of physical fitness (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength, flexibility and body composition of cleaners in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out to all cleaners (31 persons of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran in November 2012. The subjects were tested for cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength, flexibility and body composition. The results were categorized using the standard of Ministry of Health Republic Indonesia. Results: From 31 subjects, cardiorespiratory endurance was in poor category (50%. Shoulder and hand muscle endurance was in poor category (54.8% and stomach muscle endurance was in very poor category (67.7%. Hand−grip muscular strength was in very poor category: right hand (80.7% and left hand (87.1%. Back muscle strength was in poor category (58.1%. Leg muscular strength was in very poor category (48.4%. Flexibility was in a very good category (97% and body composition was also in a good category (54.8%. Conclusions: From 5 components of cleaners’ physical fitness, 3 components (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance and muscular strength are in poor and very poor category.

  20. [Case of dyspnea due to toilet cleaner containing nitric acid for household use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Youichi; Matsukawa, Takehisa; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Hirano, Yohei; Ri, Tetsunari; Aihara, Koichiro; Iba, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    A 40-year-old male tried to clean a urinal at his home storing 900 mL of a toilet cleaner containing 9.8% nitric acid to remove calcium deposit, and clean the toilet floor for twenty minutes. Immediately after using the cleaner, he experienced eye irritation. He washed out the toilet cleaner. However, he thereafter experienced dyspnea, a compressive sensation in his chest, and chest and back pain about 40 minutes after the cleaning the toilet. He monitored his symptoms overnight and found them to gradually improve. However, the symptoms still remained the next morning and therefore he came to our department on foot. He had no particular past or family history. On arrival, his physiological findings and chest computed tomography scan were negative for any abnormalities. His arterial blood gas analysis revealed a mild abnormality of oxygenation. Observation without any drugs revealed that a complete remission of his symptoms occurred after approximately 4 weeks. Based on the results of the experiments, contact with the mucosal membrane and nitric acid gas produced by any accidentally coexisting metals or contact with moisture, including nitric acid produced by a reaction between CaCO3 and cleaner, may have been the mechanism of occurrence for the symptoms observed in this case. This is the first reported case of nitric acid poisoning due to the use of a toilet cleanser intended for household use.

  1. Clinical effects of air cleaners in homes of asthmatic children sensitized to pet allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, S.; van Aalderen, W. M.; Kauffman, H. F.; Dubois, A. E.; de Monchy, J. G.

    1999-01-01

    Exposure to cat and dog allergens is very common in the Western World and is a serious cause of asthma in sensitized subjects. We sought to study the clinical effects of air cleaners in living rooms and bedrooms of asthmatic children sensitized to cat or dog allergens. Twenty asthmatic children

  2. Clinical effects of air cleaners in homes of asthmatic children sensitized to pet allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, S; van Aalderen, WMC; Kauffman, HF; Dubois, AEJ; de Monchy, JGR

    Background: Exposure to cat and dog allergens is very common in the Western World and is a serious cause of asthma in sensitized subjects. Objective: We sought to study the clinical effects of air cleaners in living rooms and bedrooms of asthmatic children sensitized to cat or dog allergens.

  3. Effect of silicone finishes on the burning behavior of polyester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyon, Julien Xavier Eric

    Polyester fibers are widely used as filling in home applications such as pillows or comforters. Silicone finishes can be used to reduce friction between fibers during processing or as softeners to impart a pleasant down like hand on the fibers. However, it has been reported that these added silicone-based finishes may have a negative effect on the burning behavior of polyester. This research examined the possible mechanisms that can modify the response of polyester fibers when subjected to a flame source. In this study, a spunbond needled polyester nonwoven substrate was treated with different commercial silicone-based finishes. A vertical flame test was used to compare the effect of silicone finishes on the burning behavior of polyester to the inherent burning behavior of untreated polyester. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were performed on spunbond polyester fabric samples to investigate the influence of silicone finishes on the thermal degradation of polyester in air. Residues from TGA were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with elemental analysis. Vertical flammability testing showed that even at a low level, the application of silicone-based finishes on a polyester substrate resulted in a dramatic increase of the flame propagation by preventing its inherent response to heat. Thermograms suggested that the silicone finishes had little or no effect on the thermal degradation of polyester substrates.

  4. An overview of plastic optical fiber end finishers at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishina, M.; Lindenmeyer, C.; Korienek, J.

    1993-11-01

    Several years ago the need for equipment to precisely finish the ends of plastic optical fibers was recognized. Many high energy physics experiments use thousands of these fibers which must be polished on one or both ends. A fast, easy-to-operate machine yielding repeatable finishes was needed. Three types of machines were designed and constructed that are in daily use at Fermilab, all finish the fiber ends by flycutting with a diamond tool. Althrough diamond flycutting of plastic is not new, the size and fragility of plastic optical fibers present several challenges.

  5. 7 CFR 2902.35 - Bathroom and spa cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... tubs and spas, shower stalls, shower doors, shower curtains, and bathroom walls, floors, doors, and counter and sink tops. Products in this item may be designed to be applied to a specific type of surface...

  6. A 24-h assessment of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among female hospital cleaners: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jespersen, Tobias; Søgaard, Karen; Skotte, Jørgen H; Holtermann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of methods for objective 24-h sampling of physical activity among cleaners. Twenty cleaners participated in three 24-h measurements. Amount of steps, heart rate (HR), cardio-respiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were measured. The methods were feasible for the objective 24-h sampling of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among cleaners. Measurements showed that the cleaners walked 20,198 ± 4,627 steps per day. During working hours, the average cardio-respiratory load was 25 ± 6% of heart rate reserve (HRR). The cleaners had a low estimated cardio-respiratory fitness (34 mlO2/kg/min), a high BMI (50%, >25 kg/m(2)) and blood pressure (50%, >120/>80 mmHg). The high amount of steps, the relatively high cardiovascular load at work and low cardio-respiratory fitness illustrate the need for further investigation of the relationship between physical activity at work and in leisure, and cardiovascular health in this population. This study evaluated the feasibility of methods for objective 24-h sampling of physical activity among cleaners; the methods used were found to be feasible. The cleaners had a high cardiovascular load at work and low cardio-respiratory fitness, suggesting that there is a need for further investigations.

  7. Classification and storage of wastewater from floor finish removal operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Charles E. [Univ. of San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This study evaluates the wastewater generated from hard surface floor finish removal operations at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in order to determine if this wastewater is a hazardous waste, either by statistical evaluation, or other measurable regulatory guidelines established in California Regulations. This research also comparatively evaluates the 55 gallon drum and other portable tanks, all less than 1,000 gallons in size in order to determine which is most effective for the management of this waste stream at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The statistical methods in SW-846 were found to be scientifically questionable in their application to hazardous waste determination. In this statistical evaluation, the different data transformations discussed in the regulatory guidance document were applied along with the log transformation to the population of 18 samples from 55 gallon drums. Although this statistical evaluation proved awkward in its application, once the data is collected and organized on a spreadsheet this statistical analysis can be an effective tool which can aid the environmental manager in the hazardous waste classification process.

  8. Relevance of microbial finished product testing in food safety management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwietering, Marcel H.; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Membré, Jeanne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Management of microbiological food safety is largely based on good design of processes, products and procedures. Finished product testing may be considered as a control measure at the end of the production process. However, testing gives only very limited information on the safety status of a food......-active way by implementing an effective food safety management system. For verification activities in a food safety management system, finished product testing may however be useful. For three cases studies; canned food, chocolate and cooked ham, the relevance of testing both of finished products...... and the production environment is discussed. Since the level of control of different processes can be largely different it is beneficial if the frequency of sampling of finished products and production environments would be related to the associated human health risk, which can be assessed on the basis of risk...

  9. Role of alginate in antibacterial finishing of textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiwei; He, Jinmei; Huang, Yudong

    2017-01-01

    Antibacterial finishing of textiles has been introduced as a necessary process for various purposes especially creating a fabric with antimicrobial activities. Currently, the textile industry continues to look for textiles antimicrobial finishing process based on sustainable biopolymers from the viewpoints of environmental friendliness, industrialization, and economic concerns. This paper reviews the role of alginate, a sustainable biopolymer, in the development of antimicrobial textiles, including both basic physicochemical properties of alginate such as preparation, chemical structure, molecular weight, solubility, viscosity, and sol-gel transformation property. Then different processing routes (e.g. nanocomposite coating, ionic cross-linking coating, and Layer-by-Layer coating) for the antibacterial finishing of textiles by using alginate are revised in some detail. The achievements in this area have increased our knowledge of alginate application in the field of textile industry and promoted the development of green textile finishing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF KLEBSIELLA FROM TEXTILE FINISHING PLANT EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebsiella strains are found in abnormally high numbers in a stream receiving wastewater from a textile finishing plant. Representative strains are randomly selected to determine biochemical, serotype, and virulence patterns. All strains conform to the commonly accepted biochemic...

  11. Integrated shaping and finishing of polymer components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, P.J.; Winands, G.J.J.; Theelen, M.J.; Hovestad, A.

    2010-01-01

    Integration of multiple functions in single components is pursued in order to manufacture at less cost smaller and smarter polymer micro devices. A method to achieve this is surface activation, i.e. fully or patterned changing of the surface properties. Examples are moulded interconnect devices with

  12. Surface and Interface Characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    Surface physical analysis, i.e. topography characterisation, encompasses measurement, visualisation, and quantification. This is critical for both component form and for surface finish at macro-, micro- and nano-scales. The principal methods of surface topography measurement are stylus profilometry...

  13. The role of surface chemical analysis in a study to select replacement processes for TCA vapor degreasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesley, Michael W.; Davis, Lawrence E.; Moulder, John F.; Carlson, Brad A.

    1995-01-01

    The role of surface-sensitive chemical analysis (ESCA, AES, and SIMS) in a study to select a process to replace 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane (TCA) vapor degreasing as a steel and aluminum bonding surface preparation method is described. The effort was primarily concerned with spray-in-air cleaning processes involving aqueous alkaline and semi-aqueous cleaners and a contamination sensitive epoxy-to-metal bondline. While all five cleaners tested produced bonding strength results equal to or better than those produced by vapor degreasing, the aqueous alkaline cleaners yielded results which were superior to those produced by the semi-aqueous cleaners. The main reason for the enhanced performance appears to be a silicate layer left behind by the aqueous alkaline cleaners. The silicate layer increases the polarity of the surface and enhances epoxy-to-metal bonding. On the other hand, one of the semi-aqueous cleaners left a nonpolar carbonaceous residue which appeared to have a negative effect on epoxy-to-metal bonding. Differences in cleaning efficiency between cleaners/processes were also identified. These differences in surface chemistry, which were sufficient to affect bonding, were not detected by conventional chemical analysis techniques.

  14. Chromium, CLA, and ractopamine for finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolla, C S; Holanda, D M; Ferreira, S V; Rocha, G C; Serão, N V L; Duarte, M S; Abreu, M L T; Saraiva, A

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium, CLA, and ractopamine on performance, carcass traits, and pork quality of finishing pigs slaughtered at 115 kg BW. Ninety-six crossbred barrows (initial BW = 70.21 ± 1.98 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments. There were 8 replicates per treatment (48 pens; 2 pigs/pen). A diet formulated according to the nutritional requirements was used as the control (CON). The other 5 diets were based on the CON and supplemented as follows: 0.4 mg/kg Cr yeast (CrY); 0.5% CLA; 0.4 mg/kg CrY and 0.5% CLA (CrY + CLA); 20 mg/kg ractopamine (RAC); 0.4 mg/kg CrY and 20 mg/kg RAC (CrY + RAC). Lysine levels on diets containing ractopamine were raised by 20% compared to CON to meet the greater requirements of pigs fed ractopamine. Pigs fed RAC and CrY + RAC were fed CON for the first 17 d, and then the respective diets for the last 28 d on trial. Data were analyzed in a model including the fixed effect of treatment (6 levels) and initial BW as a covariate for all characteristics, with the exception of carcass traits, in which final BW was used as a covariate. Least-squares means were separated using Tukey-Kramer's method. Differences were considered when probability values were lower than 0.05. Pigs fed RAC and CrY + RAC had the greatest ( 0.05) pork quality, except for color. No differences ( > 0.05) were observed for carcasses pH and temperature. The values for pigs fed RAC were greater ( = 0.01) than pigs fed other diets. Pigs fed RAC had lower ( < 0.01) values compared to pigs fed other experimental diets. Serum urea nitrogen concentration (SUN) was lower ( = 0.02) in pigs fed CrY + RAC than in pigs fed CON and RAC and similar to pigs fed the other feeding additives. In summary, it was demonstrated that, when combined, CrY and RAC increase LM area and carcass yield, and reduce SUN, suggesting that chromium could improve nutrient utilization by muscle cells in RAC-fed pigs. Additionally, the additives have

  15. Effects of 12 months aerobic exercise intervention on work ability, need for recovery, productivity and rating of exertion among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Mark; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study assessed the effects of a worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners on: work ability, need for recovery, productivity, and rating of exertion. METHODS: In a monocentric randomised controlled trial in Denmark, 116, of 250 invited, cleaners were cluster-randomised (w......PURPOSE: This study assessed the effects of a worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners on: work ability, need for recovery, productivity, and rating of exertion. METHODS: In a monocentric randomised controlled trial in Denmark, 116, of 250 invited, cleaners were cluster......-reported data on outcomes and sociodemographic information were collected at baseline, and at 4 and 12 month follow-up. All outcomes were analysed in a linear repeated-measures 2 × 2 mixed-model by an intention-to-treat analysis approach. RESULTS: Drop-out was 26 and 33% at 4 and 12 months, respectively...

  16. Blood cleaner on-chip design for artificial human kidney manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanpayak, N; Jalil, MA; Aziz, MS; Ismail, FD; Ali, J; Yupapin, PP

    2011-01-01

    A novel design of a blood cleaner on-chip using an optical waveguide known as a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. By controlling some suitable parameters, the optical vortices (gradient optical fields/wells) can be generated and used to form the trapping tools in the same way as optical tweezers. In operation, the trapping force is formed by the combination between the gradient field and scattering photons by using the intense optical vortices generated within the PANDA ring resonator. This can be used for blood waste trapping and moves dynamically within the blood cleaner on-chip system (artificial kidney), and is performed within the wavelength routers. Finally, the blood quality test is exploited by the external probe before sending to the destination. The advantage of the proposed kidney on-chip system is that the unwanted substances can be trapped and filtered from the artificial kidney, which can be available for blood cleaning applications. PMID:21720507

  17. Sustainability in pelletizing iron ore through the Industrial Ecology and Cleaner Production Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Farias Coelho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the practices of a pelletizing iron ore industry with respect to adoption of pollution prevention measures, suggested by applying the concepts of Cleaner Production and Material Flow Analysis. The technical procedure adopted was the case study, the data collection was done through direct observation, with field research and literature review. The main results were obtained from analysis of company reports available to the public, but require a more detailed quantification of data. The study concludes that the identification of environmental opportunities is possible through the proposed implementation of Cleaner Production program, which provides better results when combined with the precepts of the industrial ecology tool, the Material Flow Analysis.

  18. Blood cleaner on-chip design for artificial human kidney manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanpayak, N; Jalil, M A; Aziz, M S; Ismail, F D; Ali, J; Yupapin, P P

    2011-01-01

    A novel design of a blood cleaner on-chip using an optical waveguide known as a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. By controlling some suitable parameters, the optical vortices (gradient optical fields/wells) can be generated and used to form the trapping tools in the same way as optical tweezers. In operation, the trapping force is formed by the combination between the gradient field and scattering photons by using the intense optical vortices generated within the PANDA ring resonator. This can be used for blood waste trapping and moves dynamically within the blood cleaner on-chip system (artificial kidney), and is performed within the wavelength routers. Finally, the blood quality test is exploited by the external probe before sending to the destination. The advantage of the proposed kidney on-chip system is that the unwanted substances can be trapped and filtered from the artificial kidney, which can be available for blood cleaning applications.

  19. Upper-limit on the Advanced Virgo output mode cleaner cavity length noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnand, R.; Ducrot, M.; Gouaty, R.; Marion, F.; Masserot, A.; Mours, B.; Pacaud, E.; Rolland, L.; Was, M.

    2017-09-01

    The Advanced Virgo detector uses two monolithic optical cavities at its output port to suppress higher order modes and radio frequency sidebands from the carrier light used for gravitational wave detection. These two cavities in series form the output mode cleaner. We present a measured upper limit on the length noise of these cavities that is consistent with the thermo-refractive noise prediction of 8×10-16~m~Hz-1/2 at 15 Hz. The cavity length is controlled using Peltier cells and piezo-electric actuators to maintain resonance on the incoming light. A length lock precision of 3.5×10-13 m is achieved. These two results are combined to demonstrate that the broadband length noise of the output mode cleaner in the 10-60 Hz band is at least a factor 10 below other expected noise sources in the Advanced Virgo detector design configuration.

  20. Incorporation of occupational health and safety in cleaner production projects in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to reveal ways in which occupational health and safety can be integrated in environmental cleaner production projects. Of particular interest are those cleaner production projects that are run by the Danish government's environmental assistance agency, Danced......, in South Africa.The study explores two main avenues of integration. First, integrating through better planning, focussing at the tools and procedures in use by Danced for project management -- integrating occupational health and safety into the project specification, so to speak.Second, integrating...... occupational health and safety into the environmental activities that take place at company level. Two ways of doing so are explored, the main distinction being company size. For large companies, integration of management systems may be attractive. For small companies, integration into a less formal network...

  1. Evaluating The Operation Of Three Air Cleaners Working Individually In A Clean Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    The use of portable air cleaners is becoming increasingly popular in many countries including Denmark. Portable air cleaners are known for not only removing but also generating particles and gases. To clarify this, three air cleaning technologies were evaluated. They were nonthermal plasma......, photochemical air purifier and corona discharge ionizer. The concentrations of ultrafine particles, ozone and total volatile organic compounds were measured both in a duct and in a clean room. It was found that the studied air cleaning technologies increased the ozone level in the clean room and the duct....... The increase of ozone level in the clean room was more than that was measured in the duct. Additionally, it was found that the number of ultrafine particles in the room increased due to the generated ozone. The number of generated particles changed with the season. The study leads to the recommendation...

  2. What drives successful implementation of pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategy? The role of innovative capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupendra, Kumar Verma; Sangle, Shirish

    2015-05-15

    Firms that are dynamic and prepared to implement environmental strategies have a potential competitive advantage over their industry counterparts. Therefore, it is important to understand, what capabilities are required to implement proactive environmental strategies. The paper discusses the attributes of innovative capability required by firms in order to adopt pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategies. Empirical results show that process and behavioral innovativeness are required by firms to implement a pollution prevention strategy. In addition to process and behavioral innovativeness, firms need a top management with high risk-taking ability as well as market, product, and strategic innovativeness to implement a cleaner technology strategy. The paper proposes some important managerial implications on the basis of the above research findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2012-01-01

    and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work......Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase...... the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine...

  4. Playing after work? Opportunities and challenges of a physical activity programme for female cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2016-01-01

    experience with sport and exercise and struggled with the high demands at work and a “second shift” at home. As a consequence, most participants found the training too time- and energy-consuming. We conclude that exercise programmes should preferably be conducted at the workplace and during working hours.......The workplace is regarded as an ideal setting for health promotion, not least because large sections of the population, including “high risk groups”, can be reached. One group which is reportedly in great demand of health promotion is that of female (migrant) cleaners – the participants in our...... factors constrained and which supported participation. The interviews revealed a high degree of appreciation for the training but also pointed to a number of constraints which were embedded into the participants’ biographies and everyday lives as migrant cleaners in Denmark. Most women had no previous...

  5. Visibility and Social Recognition as Psychosocial Work Environment Factors among Cleaners in a Multi-Ethnic Workplace Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hviid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants’ low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called “Make a Difference” designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom’s “readiness for cleaning”, and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners’ psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners’ experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered.

  6. Determination and ranking cleaner production criteria by using analytic hierarchy process (Case study: Latif paper products company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghob Asadizadeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cleaner production process is an environmentally friendly approach that attempts to reduce waste and energy consumption then reduce environmental pollutions of industrial processes to provide the possibility of sustainable production in industrial units. To achieve this goal and alignment with cleaner production strategies, paper industries should consider reducing wastes of production processes and irregular consumption of energy as a priority in their programs. In this research Analytic Hierarchy Process has been applied and a three level hierarchy model was structured to facilitate the cleaner production process in Latif paper products firm. Using a literature review and field study, the proposed model provided a framework for cleaner production implementation in the firm. Results showed priorities of the main criteria of cleaner production are process change, product modification, implementation of preventive maintenance system, resititution and man force capitals respectively. Process change criterion allocated 40 percent of the total weighing value and has the highest priority in implementation of cleaner production strategy. Existence of industrial automation and its technology level which is a sub criterion of process change has the highest priority among 31 sub criteria. Also some of higher priority sub criteria such as use of higher quality inclusion and implementation of calibration system are related to process change. Therefore, to achieve cleaner production goals and implementation of its strategic objectives it is necessary to pay more attention to this criterion. Inconsistency ratio of the research is 0.06 which indicates the results are compatible. The results of this research can be used to accelerate the implementation of cleaner production process in Iran’s pulp and paper industry.

  7. Multi-Response Optimization of Resin Finishing by Using a Taguchi-Based Grey Relational Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Md Nahid; Shafiq, Faizan; Sarwar, Zahid; Jilani, Muhammad Munib; Cai, Yingjie

    2018-03-15

    In this study, the influence and optimization of the factors of a non-formaldehyde resin finishing process on cotton fabric using a Taguchi-based grey relational analysis were experimentally investigated. An L 27 orthogonal array was selected for five parameters and three levels by applying Taguchi's design of experiments. The Taguchi technique was coupled with a grey relational analysis to obtain a grey relational grade for evaluating multiple responses, i.e., crease recovery angle (CRA), tearing strength (TE), and whiteness index (WI). The optimum parameters (values) for resin finishing were the resin concentration (80 g·L -1 ), the polyethylene softener (40 g·L -1 ), the catalyst (25 g·L -1 ), the curing temperature (140 °C), and the curing time (2 min). The goodness-of-fit of the data was validated by an analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimized sample was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to better understand the structural details of the resin finishing process. The results showed an improved thermal stability and confirmed the presence of well deposited of resin on the optimized fabric surface.

  8. Multi-Response Optimization of Resin Finishing by Using a Taguchi-Based Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nahid Pervez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the influence and optimization of the factors of a non-formaldehyde resin finishing process on cotton fabric using a Taguchi-based grey relational analysis were experimentally investigated. An L27 orthogonal array was selected for five parameters and three levels by applying Taguchi’s design of experiments. The Taguchi technique was coupled with a grey relational analysis to obtain a grey relational grade for evaluating multiple responses, i.e., crease recovery angle (CRA, tearing strength (TE, and whiteness index (WI. The optimum parameters (values for resin finishing were the resin concentration (80 g·L−1, the polyethylene softener (40 g·L−1, the catalyst (25 g·L−1, the curing temperature (140 °C, and the curing time (2 min. The goodness-of-fit of the data was validated by an analysis of variance (ANOVA. The optimized sample was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and scanning electron microscope (SEM to better understand the structural details of the resin finishing process. The results showed an improved thermal stability and confirmed the presence of well deposited of resin on the optimized fabric surface.

  9. Fish mucus versus parasitic gnathiid isopods as sources of energy and sunscreens for a cleaner fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Maxi; Dove, Sophie; Siebeck, Ulrike E.; Grutter, Alexandra S.

    2015-09-01

    The cleaning behaviour of the bluestreak cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus is extensively used as a model system for understanding cooperation. It feeds mainly on blood-sucking gnathiid isopods and also on the epidermal mucus of client fish; the nutritional quality of these foods, however, is unknown. The epidermal mucus of reef fish contains ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (mycosporine-like amino acids, MAAs), which are only obtained via the diet; nevertheless, while La. dimidiatus has high amounts of MAAs in its mucus, their source is unknown. Therefore, the energetic value (calories and protein estimated using carbon and nitrogen) and MAA level in gnathiids and mucus from several clients [parrotfishes, wrasses (Labridae), and a snapper (Lutjanidae)] were determined. The energetic value of mucus and gnathiids varied among fishes. Overall, carbon, nitrogen, calories, and protein per dry weight were higher in the mucus of most client species compared to gnathiids. Thus, depending on the client species, mucus may be energetically more advantageous for cleaner wrasse to feed on than gnathiids. UV absorbance, a confirmed proxy for MAA levels, indicated high MAA levels in mucus, whereas gnathiids had no detectable MAAs. This suggests that La. dimidiatus obtain MAAs from mucus but not from gnathiids. Hence, in addition to energy, the mucus of some clients also provides La. dimidiatus with the added bonus of UV-absorbing compounds. This may explain why cleaner fish prefer to feed on mucus over gnathiid isopods. The likely costs and benefits to clients of the removal of UV protecting mucus and parasitic gnathiids, respectively, and the variation in benefits gained by cleaner fish from feeding on these foods may explain some variation in cooperation levels in cleaning interactions.

  10. Orthodontic treatment outcomes obtained by application of a finishing protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Carvajal-Flórez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the results of a finishing protocol implemented in patients treated in the Orthodontics graduate program at Universidad de Antioquia. Evaluation was carried out by means of the criteria set by the Objective Grading System (OGS of the American Board of Orthodontics (ABO. Methods: Cast models and panoramic radiographs of 34 patients were evaluated. The intervention group (IG consisted of 17 patients (19.88 ± 4.4 years old treated under a finishing protocol. This protocol included training in finishing, application of a finishing guide, brackets repositioning and patient's follow-up. Results of the IG were compared to a control group of 17 patients (21.88 ± 7.0 years old selected by stratified randomization without finishing intervention (CG. Results: The scores for both CG and IG were 38.00 ± 9.0 and 31.41 ± 9.6 (p = 0.048, respectively. The score improved significantly in the IG group, mainly regarding marginal ridges (CG: 5.59 ± 2.2; IG: 3.65 ± 1.8 (p = 0.009 and root angulation (CG: 7.59 ± 2.8; IG: 4.88 ± 2.6 (p = 0.007. Criteria that did not improve, but had the highest scores were: alignment (CG: 6.35 ± 2.7; IG: 6.82 ± 2.8 (p = 0.62 and buccolingual inclination (CG: 3.6 ± 5.88; IG: 5.29 ± 3.9 (p = 0.65. Conclusions: Standardization and implementation of a finishing protocol contributed to improve clinical performance in the Orthodontics graduate program, as expressed by occlusal outcomes. Greater emphasis should be given on the finishing phase to achieve lower scores in the ABO grading system.

  11. Effect of an aerobic exercise intervention on cardiac autonomic regulation: A worksite RCT among cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, David M; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter; Kristiansen, Jesper; Korshøj, Mette

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to determine whether aerobic exercise during work hours affects cardiac autonomic regulation in cleaners characterized by high levels of occupational physical activity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness. Eligible cleaners (n=116) were randomized to an aerobic exercise group (n=59) or a reference group (n=57) with lectures. The intervention group received two 30-min sessions per week of supervised aerobic exercise over 4months. Diurnal measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) and physical activity (accelerometry) were obtained at baseline and at 4-month follow-up. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were derived during work, leisure time and sleep to evaluate cardiac autonomic regulation. Linear mixed models were used to determine the effect of the intervention on HRV indices, with adjustment for age, gender and daily use of antihypertensive and/or heart medication. Compared with the reference group, the exercise group increased all HRV indices apart from a reduction in LF/HF ratio from baseline to follow-up both during work (psleep, the HRV indices tended to decrease in the exercise group compared with the reference group from baseline to follow-up, being significant for the HF spectral component (p=0.03). Among cleaners, a worksite aerobic exercise intervention improved cardiac autonomic regulation during work and leisure, but not during sleep. The health effect of this contrasting change in autonomic regulation needs further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the efficacy of vacuum cleaners for the integrated control of brown spider Loxosceles intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Ramires

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some venomous spiders of the genus Loxosceles can reach high population densities inside and around houses. In Brazil, most spider accidents are related to Loxosceles intermedia. Control of loxoscelism should utilize integrated pest management tools, such as vacuum cleaners, to eliminate egg sacs, webs and spiders. The present study tested the efficacy of one type of vacuum cleaner (for professional and domestic use in the control of L. intermedia populations. Cockroaches (Pycnoscelus surinamensis were used in some tests for comparison. Vacuuming using standard accessories or a paper tube resulted in the death of all female (n=60, male (n=60, young (n=60 and just-hatched (n=60 L. intermedia, and all egg sacs (n=5 were destroyed. The removal of the plastic plate present at the bottom of the vacuuming tube inside the machine allowed some spiders to survive the vacuuming process. When kept inside a vacuum bag full of dust and debris, adult females (n=10 survived for 10 days; however, significant mortality was observed among male (n=10 and young individuals (n=10. Addition of cornstarch to the vacuum bag did not affect the spiders (n=20. Vacuum cleaners, such as the one used in the present investigation, are promising tools for integrated management of L. intermedia and other spiders in domestic environments.

  13. TagCleaner: Identification and removal of tag sequences from genomic and metagenomic datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Yan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequencing metagenomes that were pre-amplified with primer-based methods requires the removal of the additional tag sequences from the datasets. The sequenced reads can contain deletions or insertions due to sequencing limitations, and the primer sequence may contain ambiguous bases. Furthermore, the tag sequence may be unavailable or incorrectly reported. Because of the potential for downstream inaccuracies introduced by unwanted sequence contaminations, it is important to use reliable tools for pre-processing sequence data. Results TagCleaner is a web application developed to automatically identify and remove known or unknown tag sequences allowing insertions and deletions in the dataset. TagCleaner is designed to filter the trimmed reads for duplicates, short reads, and reads with high rates of ambiguous sequences. An additional screening for and splitting of fragment-to-fragment concatenations that gave rise to artificial concatenated sequences can increase the quality of the dataset. Users may modify the different filter parameters according to their own preferences. Conclusions TagCleaner is a publicly available web application that is able to automatically detect and efficiently remove tag sequences from metagenomic datasets. It is easily configurable and provides a user-friendly interface. The interactive web interface facilitates export functionality for subsequent data processing, and is available at http://edwards.sdsu.edu/tagcleaner.

  14. Blood cleaner on-chip design for artificial human kidney manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwanpayak N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available N Suwanpayak1, MA Jalil2, MS Aziz3, FD Ismail3, J Ali3, PP Yupapin11Nanoscale Science and Engineering Research Alliance (N'SERA, Advanced Research Center for Photonics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology, Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Ibnu Sina Institute of Fundamental Science Studies (IIS, 3Institute of Advanced Photonics Science, Nanotechnology Research Alliance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, MalaysiaAbstract: A novel design of a blood cleaner on-chip using an optical waveguide known as a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. By controlling some suitable parameters, the optical vortices (gradient optical fields/wells can be generated and used to form the trapping tools in the same way as optical tweezers. In operation, the trapping force is formed by the combination between the gradient field and scattering photons by using the intense optical vortices generated within the PANDA ring resonator. This can be used for blood waste trapping and moves dynamically within the blood cleaner on-chip system (artificial kidney, and is performed within the wavelength routers. Finally, the blood quality test is exploited by the external probe before sending to the destination. The advantage of the proposed kidney on-chip system is that the unwanted substances can be trapped and filtered from the artificial kidney, which can be available for blood cleaning applications.Keywords: optical trapping, blood dialysis, blood cleaner, human kidney manipulation

  15. EVALUATION AND ACTIONS OF CLEANER PRODUCTION IN GALVANIC INDUSTRY OF THE VILLA CLARA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra G. Velazco Pedroso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the assessment results accomplished in different processes of the galvanic industry are presented and it is taking into account the application of good practices and measures of Cleaner Production. The main critical points in the processes of metallic coating were identified; and the characterization of the effluents generated by the installation is done. A number of technological changes in the processes are proposed, as well as the introduction of cleaner production measures which contribute to increase the efficiency and safety of processes, reduce risks and improvements to internal operations. It provides advantages of economic, environmental and social nature for the galvanic industry due to the minimizing of the impacts on environment, because the sewage and its pollutant load are reduced. Besides, we can save water, energy and raw materials. The economic evaluation showed the feasibility of applying the Cleaner Production (PML measures proposed with a Net Present Value (NPV of $109 696.26, and an Internal Rate of Return (IRR of 64 % value and payback period lower than two years.

  16. Simultaneous Blind Separation and Recognition of Speech Mixtures Using Two Microphones to Control a Robot Cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heungkyu Lee

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for the simultaneous separation and recognition of speech mixtures in noisy environments using two-channel based independent vector analysis (IVA on a home-robot cleaner. The issues to be considered in our target application are speech recognition at a distance and noise removal to cope with a variety of noises, including TV sounds, air conditioners, babble, and so on, that can occur in a house, where people can utter a voice command to control a robot cleaner at any time and at any location, even while a robot cleaner is moving. Thus, the system should always be in a recognition-ready state to promptly recognize a spoken word at any time, and the false acceptance rate should be lower. To cope with these issues, the keyword spotting technique is applied. In addition, a microphone alignment method and a model-based real-time IVA approach are proposed to effectively and simultaneously process the speech and noise sources, as well as to cover 360-degree directions irrespective of distance. From the experimental evaluations, we show that the proposed method is robust in terms of speech recognition accuracy, even when the speaker location is unfixed and changes all the time. In addition, the proposed method shows good performance in severely noisy environments.

  17. The association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Isabella G; Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Jørgensen, Marie B; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Olesen, Kasper; Madeleine, Pascal; Ekner, Dorte; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark. This study is based on a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 2007 to 2008. The study population includes 276 cleaners, 144 Danish and 132 non-Western immigrant cleaners. Cumulative sickness absences during a 6-month period from administrative records were subdivided into no sickness absence (0 days), low occurrence of sickness absence (1-10 days) and high occurrence of sickness absence (over 10 days). Measures of health consisted of self-report and objective assessments. The relationship between sickness absence and health was analyzed through multinomial logistic regression, stratified by immigrant status. For both Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners, poor self-reported health was significantly related to high occurrence of sickness absence. Among Danish cleaners, high blood pressure was related to high occurrence of sickness absence. Among non-Western immigrant cleaners, total body pain and having one or more diagnosed chronic disease were related to high occurrence of sickness absence. No association between health and low occurrence of sickness absence was found. The findings confirm the importance of health for high occurrence of sickness absence, in both ethnic groups. Moreover, low occurrence of sickness absence was not related to the health conditions investigated.

  18. Persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes from sows to finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkegård, Anna Camilla; Halasa, Tariq; Folkesson, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in pigs has been under scrutiny for many years. However, many questions remain unanswered, including whether the initial antimicrobial resistance level of a pig will influence the antimicrobial resistance found at slaughter. Faecal samples from finishers pigs from 681 farms...... and from sows from 82 farms were collected, and levels of seven antimicrobial resistance genes, ermB, ermF, sulI, sulII, tet(M), tet(O), and tet(W), were quantified by high-capacity qPCR. There were 40 pairs of observations where the finishers were born in the farms of the sows. The objective of this study...... was to evaluate whether the levels of AMR genes found in finisher pigs at slaughter were associated with the levels in the farm where the finishers were born, and whether the levels of the AMR genes were equal in the sow and finisher pig populations. We found a significant positive correlation between the levels...

  19. [Comparison of different finishing methods for composites and compomers. Profilometric analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, E; Bonaccorso, A; Tripi, T R; Torrisi, L

    1999-05-01

    instrument used in the National Laboratory of Catania, called INFN, is able to graphitize the wrinkledness of a surface "survbeying" it with a diamond ultramicrometric point. All tested systems gradually produce the upper layers of the materials less suitable to resist the assault of plaque bacteria as time passed. The 3M coarse and medium grain Disks are very abrasive and for this reason the surface of the materials is ill-shaped. Those disks with fine and extra fine grain, smooth the tracks left by previous disks. As they have been always used according to their decreasing granulometry, the disks are used only for removing small composite pieces in excess and to improve micromorphology of the restauration. The "Gommini" are less abrasive than Disks. In a few minutes and often with only one step they produce a much regular and polished fillings surface. The "Gommini" have a preference when the last photopolymerization has left a regular layer, with a very good micromorphology. Actually, "Gommini" do not remove much material, but they continue to smooth the outline of the reconstruction. Disks are not classified as being of first quality in the finishing of composites and compomers.

  20. Catalysts for cleaner combustion of coal, wood and briquettes sulfur dioxide reduction options for low emission sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.V. [Global Environmental Solutions, Inc., Morton Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Coal fired, low emission sources are a major factor in the air quality problems facing eastern European cities. These sources include: stoker-fired boilers which feed district heating systems and also meet local industrial steam demand, hand-fired boilers which provide heat for one building or a small group of buildings, and masonary tile stoves which heat individual rooms. Global Environmental Systems is marketing through Global Environmental Systems of Polane, Inc. catalysts to improve the combustion of coal, wood or fuel oils in these combustion systems. PCCL-II Combustion Catalysts promotes more complete combustion, reduces or eliminates slag formations, soot, corrosion and some air pollution emissions and is especially effective on high sulfur-high vanadium residual oils. Glo-Klen is a semi-dry powder continuous acting catalyst that is injected directly into the furnace of boilers by operating personnel. It is a multi-purpose catalyst that is a furnace combustion catalyst that saves fuel by increasing combustion efficiency, a cleaner of heat transfer surfaces that saves additional fuel by increasing the absorption of heat, a corrosion-inhibiting catalyst that reduces costly corrosion damage and an air pollution reducing catalyst that reduces air pollution type stack emissions. The reduction of sulfur dioxides from coal or oil-fired boilers of the hand fired stoker design and larger, can be controlled by the induction of the Glo-Klen combustion catalyst and either hydrated lime or pulverized limestone.

  1. The local implementation of clean(er) fuels policies in Europe. A Handbook with guidelines. Final version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, F.; Amara, Sliman Abu; Uustal, M.; Pelkmans, L.; Devriendt, N.; Rogulska, M.; Defranceschi, P.

    2009-05-01

    This handbook aims to guide the local/regional governments all over Europe who are involved in implementing clean(er) fuel policies in transport. The general challenge these governments are facing is how local policies on clean(er) fuels and vehicles can be made operational. Hence, how can the step be made from a vision on the strategic policy level, to a vision on the implementation of these policies. A local/regional policy on clean(er) fuels and vehicles is commonly part of the larger category 'sustainable transport policy', which in itself is part of a broader local environmental policy. The encompassing local/regional sustainable mobility policy will in most cases be based on the three well known main policy aims in this area: CO2 reduction; Improving the local air quality; and Improving the security of supply (locally often less stressed). This handbook will focus on the actual implementation of a clean(er) fuels and vehicles policy. It will describe the main challenges and how these can be overcome. It will describe how the market conditions for clean(er) fuels and vehicles can be created by establishing the vital market elements and which process is required to do so. And it will show how local enterprises can be involved and what the role of the local governments in this process can be. In order to identify the local success factors in overcoming the main challenges for implementation, case studies have been carried out in three European cities, namely Stockholm (Sweden), Graz (Austria) and Lille (France). The choice of these cities was based on their successes in implementing clean(er) fuel policies (although they followed different paths) and the fact that they managed to achieve ambitious clean(er) fuel/ clean(er) vehicle targets. These cities may thus be considered as ?good practice examples?. The case studies are based on existing literature, on multiple stakeholders? interviews in all three cities, and on two small surveys. The objectives of this

  2. Standard Test Method for Effects of Cleaning and Chemical Maintenance Materials on Painted Aircraft Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers determination of the effects of cleaning solutions and liquid cleaner concentrates on painted aircraft surfaces (Note 1). Streaking, discoloration, and blistering may be determined visually. Softening is determined with a series of specially prepared pencils wherein determination of the softest pencil to rupture the paint film is made. Note 1—This test method is applicable to any paint film that is exposed to cleaning materials. MIL-PRF-85285 has been selected as a basic example. When other paint finishes are used, refer to the applicable material specification for panel preparation and system curing prior to testing. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user ...

  3. Air cleaners used in the paper industry. January, 1972-August, 1981 (Citations from the Institute of Paper Chemistry Data Base). Report for Jan 72-Aug 81

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning cleaners used in the paper industry. The techniques and technology relating the fabrication and applications of various types of air to air cleaners and air filter materials and media are covered, not only from the manufacturing point of view, but also from that of pollution control. Properties and performance for specific types of air cleaners are also considered. (Contains 66 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  4. TUNG OIL AND LINSEED OIL AS TRADITIONAL FINISHING MATERIALS IMPORTANT FOR FURNITURE CONSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin You LIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tung oil and linseed oil are two representative traditional drying oils wich were commonly employed, for centuries, for wood finishing. Therefore, their study in terms of properties, chemical structure features and alterations by ageing is important for furniture conservation. This paper focusses on some comparative properties of Tung oil and linseed oil as wood finishing materials. For this purpose, test wooden samples of Chinese walnut (Juglans mandshurica Maxim. were coated with these materials by manual traditional techniques. Solids content of the oils was determined in order to approximate the thickness of the resulting film. The colour change brought about by coating of wood surfaces with these oils was measured in the CIELab system. Furthermore, an accelerated artificial ageing test under the action of temperature (100°C was performed in order to evaluate and compare the ageing resistance of the two types of oils. Ageing phenomena were investigated by colour measurements and FTIR - ATR spectrometry. Both uncoated and oils coated wood surfaces suffered colour changes observed as darkening and colour shade shifting to red and yellow, but these were obviously more evident for the oil coated samples. The overal colour changes were maximum for the samples finished with linseed oil, while tung oil semmed to be more resistant. FTIR investigations for two types of oils highlighted similarities and differences in their chemical composition, curing and aspects of the thermally induced ageing mechanism. The later proved to be mainly an oxidative degradation process leading to formation of free fatty acids and other carbonyl containing compounds, as suggested by the broader carbonyl (1740 cm-1 and hydroxyl bands (3400 cm-1 .

  5. Finishing and polishing of the ceromer material Targis. Lab-side and chair-side methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, M; Rosentritt, M; Leibrock, A; Schneider-Feyrer, S; Handel, G

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to check four lab-side and four chair-side methods for finishing and polishing the ceromer material Targis. Eighty bar-shaped specimens (20 mm x 10 mm x 2 mm) of Vectris were produced; 72 were covered with a 2 mm (thickness) layer of the Ceromer Targis and eight samples with the composite Tetric. All specimens were ground plane parallel with 320 Silicium carbide grit sandpaper in order to start with the same level of roughness. Then the specimens were finished and polished using the following methods: (1) Artglass toolkit, (2) pumice-stone and brushes/linen brush and polishing paste P3, (3) Robinson brush/Ivoclar Universal paste and wool brush, (4) Silicone wheel and rag wheel, (5) Shofu Rainbow set, (6) Sof-Lex discs, (7) Vivadent Politip set and (8) Nupro-pastes and brushes. The surface roughness was determined with a profilometer. The arithmetical roughness value Ra was calculated. From each group one specimen was randomly chosen and sputtered with gold in order to observe the surface with a scanning electron microscope to evaluate its smoothness. The methods were ranked as followed: 2, 3 and 5 with the lowest roughness, then 8, 6, 7, 4, 1. The best ranked chair-side method (5) and the best ranked lab-side methods (2, 3) did not differ significantly between the Ra values. No difference was observed between the composite Tetric and the ceromer Targis when these materials were polished using the same method. the lab-side-methods 2 and 3 and the chair-side-method 5 can be recommended for finishing and polishing the new ceromer material Targis.

  6. 21 CFR 106.30 - Finished product evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... analyzed by the manufacturer. (2) Periodic analysis. The manufacturer shall sample at least one newly...) Stability analysis. Using representative samples collected from finished product batches, the manufacturer... the biological quality of the protein. A protein biological quality analysis is not necessary for a...

  7. Performance, organ growth and economics of finisher broiler fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on the performance, organ growth and economics of finishing broilers. The harvested neem leaves were chopped and air dried under room temperature for ten days until they became crispy while retaining ...

  8. Comparison of triticale cultivars with maize grain for finishing lambs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of triticale cultivars with maize grain for finishing lambs. TS Brand, GD van der Merwe. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  9. Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on finisher pig growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Felistus

    2014-12-12

    Dec 12, 2014 ... 2 Department of Microbial Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State,. P.O. Box 339 ... finisher pig feed with no negative effect on feed conversion efficiency, carcass and meat quality traits, and ... Keywords: Moringa oleifera, anti-nutrient factors, fatty acid ratios, pork colour, pork odour.

  10. Response of finishing broiler chickens to supplemental Neem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight weeks feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding diets containing Neem Leaf Meal (NLM), Garlic Meal (GM) and their combinations (NLM +GM) on oocyst count, bacteria count and gut morphology of finishing broiler chickens. A total of 180 day-old Cobb broiler chickens were divided into twelve ...

  11. Serum biochemical indices of Finisher Broiler Chickens fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 4 week feeding trial was conducted using 180 five-week old Hubbard broiler chickens to determine the effect of feeding variously processed roselle(Hibiscus sabdariffa) seeds on serum biochemical indices with a view to determining the potential of roselle seed as an alternative to soybeans. Five broiler finisher diets were ...

  12. Response of finishing broiler chickens to diets containing rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty Arbor acres broiler chickens aged four weeks were used in determining the effect of fermented rice husk meal diets on the performance and nutrient digestibility of finisher broiler chickens. They were allotted into five dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 % rumen liquor fermented rice husk ...

  13. Assessment of the nutrient contents of broiler starter and finisher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While crude protein, arginine, isoleucine, methionine, lysine, threonine, methionine+cystein and phenylalanine contents were similar (P>0.05), leucine, valine, phenylalaline+thyrocine and glycine+serine values of the test finisher diets were significantly (P<0.05) different from NRC recommendation for broilers aged 3-6 ...

  14. Two-dimensional kinematic analysis of catch and finish positions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... enough to increase the frequency of drive. As the rowing distance got longer, rowers started to change their body angles and action. Performance could be improved by maintaining suitable rowing technique during competition. Keywords: Biomechanics; Rowing; Catch and finish positions; Concept IID rowing ergometer.

  15. Effect of finishing system on carcass characteristics and composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of finishing system on carcass characteristics and composition of Mubende goats and their Boer goat crossbreds. ... Dissectible lean and fat percentages varied in an ascending order of 66%, 72%, 72.6% and 8%, 14% and 16.5% for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. A reverse trend was observed for bone percentages with ...

  16. Performance and nutrient utilization of cockerel finishers fed graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RMW) on performance and nutrient utilization of cockerel finishers. One hundred and fifty 9-week old Black Harco cockerels were raised on five experimental diets where RMW replaced maize at graded levels and designated diet 1 (0% RMW); diet ...

  17. Course in Carpentry: Interior Finish. Workbook and Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazicich, Mirko, Ed.

    Designed for use in carpentry apprenticeship classes, this workbook contains nine units on carpentry skills in the area of interior finish, lists of recommended and required instructional materials, and nine unit tests. Each instructional unit includes a listing of performance statements and text covering skills addressed in individual performance…

  18. Fungal biodegradation of plantain peel for broiler finisher feeding: In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... protein, cholesterol and glucose were significantly (P<0.05) affected by the treatments. Fungal biodegradation of PPL using A.niger has the potential of enhancing feed intake, nutrient digestibility and the body weight gain of broiler finisher. Keywords: Aspergillus niger, biodegradation, nutrient enhancement and broilers.

  19. Response Of Finisher Broilers To Antibiotic and Enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28 – day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the response of finisher broilers to antibiotic (neocloxin) and enzyme (Roxazyme G) supplemented diets. Three experimental diets were formulated such that diet 1 had neither enzyme nor antibiotic supplementation. Diets 2 and 3 contained antibiotic and enzyme ...

  20. Prevalence of intestinal pathogens in Danish finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege, H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    finishing pig herds. A total of 79 herds was randomly selected and visited during 1998. From each herd, 20 faecal samples were collected from individual pigs weighing 30-50kg. Furthermore, 10 pooled pen samples were collected and examined for S. enterica. In total, 1580 faecal samples and 790 pen samples...

  1. Performance Of Growing Pigs And Finisher Broilers Housed Together

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance and cost of feeding young growing pigs and finisher broilers under integrated broiler/pig production system were investigated. Four young growing pigs (the control) were housed in pen A and fed 4% of their body weight as commercial growers feed. Another 4 were housed in pen B with broilers in ...

  2. Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on finisher pig growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on finisher pig growth performance, meat quality, shelf life and fatty acid composition of pork. ... Muscle, subcutaneous fat and feed samples were analysed for FA composition and health lipid indices of atherogenicity (AI) and thrombogenicity (IT) were calculated. A 10-day shelf-life study ...

  3. Relevance of microbial finished product testing in food safety management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwietering, M.H.; Jacxsens, L.; Membre, J.M.; Nauta, M.; Peterz, M.

    2016-01-01

    Management of microbiological food safety is largely based on good design of processes, products and procedures. Finished product testing may be considered as a control measure at the end of the production process. However, testing gives only very limited information on the safety status of a food.

  4. Cleaner Production Applied in a Small Furniture Industry in Brazil: Addressing Focused Changes in Design to Reduce Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mario Gutiérrez Aguilar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The wood industry is known for being among the biggest resource consumers, having a relatively low yield. The wood furniture industry as part of the wood industry also remains a big generator of residues and a big consumer of resources. Diverse solutions and technologies have been developed to deal with the residues generated, but those technologies are mostly applied at the end of the production chain with limited results. Cleaner production represents a program based on continuous strategies applied to a more sustainable use of materials and energy, minimizing waste and pollution. This paper presents a case study of a cleaner production program developed in a small furniture industry in Salvador de Bahia, Brazil, applying the concepts of cleaner production with parameters of ecodesign developed for the furniture industry. The object of study was the production of a wooden chair made from eucalyptus wood. The application of the cleaner production program and ecodesign parameters allowed a detailed characterization of the waste, resulting in opportunities for a reduction of the use of raw material by 30%, a reduction in waste by 49% and allowing a reduction in energy by 36% due to simplification of the productive process. Among the strategies applied were reshaping pieces, redesigning, and the substitution of materials. The results suggest that despite the existence of more complex environmental methods and approaches, the application of cleaner production plus ecodesign parameters could be more achievable for micro and small furniture industries.

  5. Aeroacoustic characteristics and noise reduction of a centrifugal fan for a vacuum cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Wan Ho; Rew, Ho Seon; Kim, Chang Joon

    2004-01-01

    The aeroacoustic characteristics of a centrifugal fan for a vacuum cleaner and its noise reduction method are studied in this paper. The major noise source of a vacuum cleaner is the centrifugal fan. The impeller of the fan rotates at over 30000 rpm, and generates very high-level noise. It was revealed that the dominant noise source is the aerodynamic interaction between the rotating impeller and stationary diffuser. The directivity of acoustic pressure showed that most of the noise propagates backward direction of the fan-motor assembly. In order to reduce the high tonal sound generated from the aerodynamic interaction, unevenly pitched impeller and diffuser, and tapered impeller designs were proposed and experiments were performed. Uneven pitch design of the impeller changes the sound quality while the overall Sound Power Level (SPL) and the performance remains similar. The effect of the tapered design of impeller was evaluated. The trailing edge of the tapered fan is inclined. This reduces the flow interaction between the rotating impeller and the stationary diffuser because of some phase shifts. The static efficiency of the new impeller design is slightly lower than the previous design. However, the overall SPL is reduced by about 4 dB(A). The SPL of the fundamental Blade Passing Frequency (BPF) is reduced by about 6 dB(A) and the 2 nd BPF is reduced about 20 dB(A). The vacuum cleaner with the tapered impeller design produces lower noise level than the previous one, and the strong tonal sound was dramatically reduced

  6. Airborne exposures associated with the typical use of an aerosol brake cleaner during vehicle repair work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Michael; Williams, Pamela R D; Ovesen, Jerald; Maier, Andrew

    2018-04-19

    Many petroleum-based products are used for degreasing and cleaning purposes during vehicle maintenance and repairs. Although prior studies have evaluated chemical exposures associated with this type of work, most of these have focused on gasoline and exhaust emissions, with few samples collected solely during the use of an aerosol cleaning product. In this case study, we assess the type of airborne exposures that would be expected from the typical use of an aerosol brake cleaner during vehicle repair work. Eight exposure scenarios were evaluated over a two-day study in which the benzene content of the brake cleaner and potential for dilution ventilation and air flow varied. Both short-term (15 min) and task-based (≥1 hr) charcoal tube samples were collected in the breathing zone and adjacent work area and analyzed for total hydrocarbons (THCs), toluene, and benzene. The majority of personal (N = 48) and area (N = 47) samples had detectable levels of THC and toluene, but no detections of benzene were found. For the personal short-term samples, average airborne concentrations ranged from 3.1 - 61.5 ppm (13.8-217.5 mg/m 3 ) for THC and 2.2 - 44.0 ppm (8.2-162.5 mg/m 3 ) for toluene, depending on the scenario. Compared to the personal short-term samples, average concentrations were generally 2 to 3 times lower for the personal task-based samples and 2 to 5 times lower for the area short-term samples. The highest exposures occurred when the garage bay doors were closed, floor fan was turned off, or greatest amount of brake cleaner was used. These findings add to the limited dataset on this topic and can be used to bound or approximate worker or consumer exposures from use of aerosol cleaning products with similar compositions and use patterns.

  7. Source investigation methods to determine PCE transport pathways to groundwater at dry cleaners in Chicao, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.; Venus, T.; Lubke, R.; Graydon, J.; Riddle, G.

    1992-01-01

    Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) contamination of groundwater underlying Chico, California has caused the closure of 5 public water supply wells, degraded the water quality in 23 private wells, and rendered up to 32,000 acre-ft of groundwater non-potable. The principal source of the PCE is believed to be waste disposal from dry cleaning operations. The investigative tools employed to characterize the distribution of PCE in the vadose zone and shallow groundwater at dry cleaner sites included: soil gas surveys; soil core sampling; depth-discrete groundwater sampling using the HydroPunch II sampler; groundwater samples obtained from monitoring wells; soil gas samples obtained from vapor monitoring wells; and dye-testing, video surveying, and high-pressure flush sampling of sanitary sewer lines. Quantitative results of field gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of soil vapor, groundwater, sanitary sewer flow, and soil samples compared favorably with concentrations reported from split samples analyzed by a California-certified laboratory. Results from the field GC analyses were used to guide the selection of monitoring well location, depth, and screened interval, and reduced the number of samples submitted to the laboratory. Results show that while modest levels of PCE (10-100 ppb) were found in soil and shallow groundwater at the sites, substantial concentrations (up to 0.1%) were found in sewer flush samples taken downstream from one of the active sites. PCE in sewer lines is believed to originate from the disposal of PCE-saturated wastewaters from the dry cleaners. This study indicates that employing several methods of contaminant detection increases the potential for source confirmation and determination of contaminant transport pathways. The high concentrations of PCE found in sewer lines downstream from dry cleaners in this study indicate that priority should be given early in the project to investigations of sanitary sewers

  8. Too tired for exercise? The work and leisure of female cleaners in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2017-01-01

    on the relevant literature on women’s work–life balance and (migrant) women’s participation in LTPA, we approached their work and leisure from an intersectionality perspective and explored if and how female cleaners engaged in LTPA and which constraints impeded their involvement. The interviewees’ narratives...... revealed that their everyday lives as unskilled migrant workers had a decisive influence on their opportunities of engaging in LTPA: most women struggled with the demands of a physically exhausting job and an extensive ‘second shift’ at home and therefore had great difficulty finding the time and energy...

  9. Playing after work? Opportunities and challenges of a physical activity programme for female cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The workplace is regarded as an ideal setting for health promotion, not least because large sections of the population, including “high risk groups”, can be reached. One group which is reportedly in great demand of health promotion is that of female (migrant) cleaners – the participants in our...... experience with sport and exercise and struggled with the high demands at work and a “second shift” at home. As a consequence, most participants found the training too time- and energy-consuming. We conclude that exercise programmes should preferably be conducted at the workplace and during working hours....

  10. Health state of children-descendants of Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etsko, L.; Stratulat, P.; Vasilos, L.; Arameh, M.

    2007-01-01

    The frequency analysis of stochastic clinical effects of ionizing radiation - malignant neoplasms, endocrine abnormalities and congenital malformations was performed. For revealing dependence of prevalence marker pathology from various environmental factors, morbidity of children-descendants of the cleaners of Chernobyl NPP accident consequences was compared to those in Moldavian children (under official data) and children from ecologically adverse areas of the republic. The comparative analysis has shown that the pathology at these children does not differ from those at other children from the republic and may be consider as ecopathology. (authors)

  11. Cleaner metallurgical industry in Serbia: a road to the sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Panias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the sustainable development has been a global and fundamental objecttive, a metallurgical industrial sector faces some of the most difficult sustainability challenges of any industrial sector. On the other hand, the metallurgical production in Serbia is a very important part of the economy. Due to present facilities and technologies, metallurgical companies face a great challenge to fulfill the requirements introduced by legislature referring to the cleaner production and sustainable development. The state of art in the production, facilities, pollution with some answers to imposed challenges is presented.

  12. Cleaner Technology in the Hard Disk Drive Manufacturing Industry: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolla, Premchai; Chompu-inwai, Rungchat

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this research are to improve raw material and energy consumption efficiency, as well as reduce defects and the use of chemicals in the arm coil assembly process of hard disk drive manufacturing in the case study company by applying the Cleaner Technology concepts. The four main sequential steps used in this research were: (1) pre-assessment, (2) assessment, (3) feasibility study, and (4) implementation. In the first step, raw data, such as process flows, raw material usage and defects data were collected. In the second step, the loss during production and causes of loss were analyzed. Opportunities to reduce raw material, chemical and energy wastage could then be recommended. The next step was to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefits of a particular Cleaner Technology opportunity. Finally, in the last step, after a thorough evaluation and implementation of the opportunities to apply Cleaner Technology, the results showed that arm coil defects could be reduced by improving the production process using the ECRS technique. ECRS stands for Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange and Simplify. This improvement reduced arm coil defect rates from 0.48% to 0.15%, thus saving approximately 139,638 Thai Baht per month. In addition, production stoppage decision made by workers was used to increase employee involvement in defect detection. Allowing workers to participate in such a decision was an effective way to reduce defect rate and could motivate workers to produce a better quality job. This resulted in arm coil defects reducing from 0.41% to 0.025%, with about 74,562 Thai Baht per month saving. Additionally, an increase in the efficiency of electricity consumption occurred, by increasing the speed of the infrared oven conveyor belt, improving average productivity from 533 pieces/hour to 560 pieces/hour, without adversely affecting product costs and quality, thus producing products of up to the value of 206,242 Thai Baht per month. Furthermore, the new

  13. A study on the sound quality evaluation model of mechanical air-cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ih, Jeong-Guon; Jang, Su-Won; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2009-01-01

    and subjective analyses. Sound signals from various aircleaners were recorded and they were edited by increasing or decreasing the loudness at three wide specific-loudness bands: 20-400 Hz (0-3.8 barks), 400-1250 Hz (3.8-10 barks), and 1.25- 12.5 kHz bands (10-22.8 barks). Subjective tests using the edited...... perceptive descriptor. Annoyance and performance indices of air-cleaners were modeled from the subjective responses of the juries and the measured sound quality metrics: loudness, sharpness, roughness, and fluctuation strength. The multiple regression method was employed to generate sound quality evaluation...

  14. EVOTECH® endoscope cleaner and reprocessor (ECR simulated-use and clinical-use evaluation of cleaning efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeGagne Pat

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to perform simulated-use testing as well as a clinical study to assess the efficacy of the EVOTECH® Endoscope Cleaner and Reprocessor (ECR cleaning for flexible colonoscopes, duodenoscopes, gastroscopes and bronchoscopes. The main aim was to determine if the cleaning achieved using the ECR was at least equivalent to that achieved using optimal manual cleaning. Methods Simulated-use testing consisted of inoculating all scope channels and two surface sites with Artificial Test Soil (ATS containing 108 cfu/mL of Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Duodenoscopes, colonoscopes, and bronchoscopes (all Olympus endoscopes were included in the simulated use testing. Each endoscope type was tested in triplicate and all channels and two surface sites were sampled for each scope. The clinical study evaluated patient-used duodenoscopes, bronchoscopes, colonoscopes, and gastroscopes (scopes used for emergency procedures were excluded that had only a bedside flush prior to being processed in the ECR (i.e. no manual cleaning. There were 10 to 15 endoscopes evaluated post-cleaning and to ensure the entire ECR cycle was effective, 5 endoscopes were evaluated post-cleaning and post-high level disinfection. All channels and two external surface locations were sampled to evaluate the residual organic and microbial load. Effective cleaning of endoscope surfaces and channels was deemed to have been achieved if there was 2 of residual protein, 2 of residual hemoglobin and 10 viable bacteria/cm2. Published data indicate that routine manual cleaning can achieve these endpoints so the ECR cleaning efficacy must meet or exceed these to establish that the ECR cleaning cycle could replace manual cleaning Results In the clinical study 75 patient-used scopes were evaluated post cleaning and 98.8% of surfaces and 99.7% of lumens met or surpassed the cleaning endpoints set for protein

  15. Water/oil repellent property of polyester fabrics after supercritical carbon dioxide finishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yan-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The strong permeability and driving force of supercritical carbon dioxide renders it an ideal medium for fabrics finishing. This paper is to use supercritical carbon dioxide medium with a solution of organic fluorine to fabricate water/oil repellent polyester fabrics. A series of characterization methods including Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, energy dispersive spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy were carried out to evaluate the fabrics finishing. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry showed that the transmittance peak appeared at 1202.4 and 1147.4 cm-1, indicating the presence of -CF2- group on the surface of polyester fabrics. The results of energy dispersive spectrometer and scanning electron microscopy showed that the fluorine was evenly distributed on the fibers surface. In addition, a series of physical properties were detected, including contact angel, air permeability, breaking strength, and wearing resistance. The average water and hexadecane contact angles were 147.58° and 143.78°, respectively. Compared with the initial fabrics, the treated one has little change in air permeability, while its strength increased greatly. The treated fabrics gained good water/oil repellent properties while keeping good air permeability and improving mechanical property.

  16. Waterproof finishing of some textile fabrics by radiation and thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, S.S.

    2003-01-01

    Different synthetic fabrics have been treated by different methods and formulations to umpart waterproof finishing. These methods include surface coating with formulations based essentially on polydimethylsiloxane, together with styrene or methyl methacrylate monomers and their corresponding oligomers (polymers) under the effect of accelerated electrons. The other methods include the gamma radiation graft copolymerization of polydimethyllsiloxane / methyl methacrylate formulation and the commercial compound Wacker 290 onto the same synthetic fabrics polyester, nylon-6 and cotton/polyester blend. Also, the synthetic fabrics were treated with commercial compound Wacker 290 under the effect of thermal curing. Moreover, the effect of these treatments on the thermal stability, mechanical properties has been investigated. The results showed that the waterproof properties, in term of water repellency and absorption, of the different fabrics depend to a great extent, on the type and content of the formulation, method of treatment and the compatibility between the fabric and used formulation. It was found that polyester fabric displayed the highest water resistance regardless of the used silicone formulation. These treatment inpress the crease recovery and has a little effect on the dyeing and thermal properties. In comparison, electron surface coating is the most effective method to impart waterproof finishing, while graft copolymerization needs high dose levels to obtain such property

  17. Effects on musculoskeletal pain, work ability and sickness absence in a 1-year randomised controlled trial among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B.; Faber, Anne; Hansen, Jørgen V.

    2011-01-01

    Only a few workplace initiatives among cleaners have been reported, even though they constitute a job group in great need of health promotion. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of either physical coordination training or cognitive behavioural training on musculoskeletal pain......, work ability and sickness absence among cleaners. A cluster-randomised controlled trial was conducted among 294 female cleaners allocated to either physical coordination training (PCT), cognitive behavioural training (CBTr) or a reference group (REF). Questionnaires about musculoskeletal pain and work...... ability were completed at baseline and after one year's intervention. Sickness absence data were obtained from the managers' records. Analyses were performed according to the intention-to-treat-principle (ITT). No overall reduction in musculoskeletal pain, work ability or sickness absence from either PCT...

  18. Analysis of the potentiality for implementing of the cleaner production and adopting a sustainable consumption in the Cuban entrepreneurial system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortosa Ferrer, Barbara Ivette; Orue Valdes, Sonia; Mena Ulecia, Karel

    2007-01-01

    The world economic development has conduced to increase the worsening of the environment as result of the natural resources pollution. The tendency has been toward the unsustainable exploitation of natural resources, to increasing of the goods and services production, as well as, to elevated consumption. In this sense, many countries have planed environmental policies addressed to reducing of pollution introducing cleaner production practices and promoting the adoption of responsible consumption. This article shows the existing potentiality in a selected Cuban companies group for introducing and applying of the cleaner production, as well as, the adoption of a sustainable consumption start from analysis of the obtained results in short-term assessments (quick scans) carried out by the Cuban Environment Agency Focal Point of the National Cleaner Production Network in the period between 2004 and 2007

  19. Cleaner Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Osmotek, Inc. developed the Direct Osmosis treatment system through SBIR funding from Ames Research Center. Using technology originally developed for flight aboard the Space Station, the company brought it to their commercial water purification treatment system, Direct Osmosis. This water purification system uses a direct osmosis process followed by a reverse osmosis treatment. Because the product extracts water from a waste product, Osmotek is marketing the unit for use in landfills. The system can treat leachate (toxic chemicals leached into a water source), by filtering the water and leaving behind the leahcate. The leachate then becomes solidified into substance that can not seep into water.

  20. Drainpipe cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause breathing difficulty) BLOOD Severe change in acid level of blood (pH balance), which leads to damage in all of ... by a health care provider. Do not give water or milk if the ... or a decreased level of alertness) that make it hard to swallow. ...

  1. Jewelry cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care professional. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider.

  2. A replacement solvent cleaner/degreaser study at Duffy Electric and Machine Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, J. Jr. [Risk Reduction Engineering Lab., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Sass, B. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Duffy Electric & Machine Company repairs and rebuilds electric motors. The company overhauls large electric motors (AC and DC with greater than 15 hp output). The company also overhauls small electric motors. The process involves gross cleaning of electromechanical devices to achieve a level of cleanliness that facilitates inspection, repair, and testing. The cleaner used in this study, Petroferm BIOACT{trademark} 285, was selected because it is representative of its class of material. BIOACT{trademark} is a mixture of high molecular-weight aliphatic esters and can be categorized as a semi-aqueous fluid. The cleaner is meant to be used without dilution and must be rinsed with alcohol, such as IPA, rather than with water. The alcohol is a technical grade that is at least 98% IPA, with the remainder being water. The IPA rinse is completely miscible with the ester solvent. The IPA evaporates rapidly due to its high vapor pressure (3 mm Hg @ 68{degrees}F).This report describes the performance of the ester and alcohol cleansers with regard to pollution abatement and health hazards as well as cleaning performance.

  3. Cleaner production analysis in a company of the red ceramic segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanna dos Santos Costa Maciel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study had as objective to analyze the productive process of a red ceramic segment industry in relation to the Cleaner Production (CP, based on the theoretical model proposed by National Center of Clean Technologies (CTNL, 2003b. As for the methodology, is classified as exploratory and descriptive, using the case study method. For this purpose, data was collected primary and secondary, the primers were obtained through semi-structured interviews with the owner and manager of production and a questionnaire administered to the owner. As for the secondary data, they were obtained through the company's environmental license, reports, documents, audits, standards and web searches, among others. As results were found in a waste around 10% of manufactured products (bricks, tiles and blocks;  Emission of pollutants such as ash and gases (CO2; High consumption of natural resources such as clay, water, electricity and firewood. This situation is being modified in the function of actions which are taken to obtain a cleaner production.

  4. Taxation on vehicle fuels: its impacts on switching to cleaner fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, W.-T.

    2006-01-01

    Vehicular consumption of fossil fuel contributes over 90% of air pollution in Hong Kong. A key strategy to improve Hong Kong's air quality is to discourage dirty fuels (e.g., leaded petrol and high-sulphur diesel) and to promote the use of clean fuels (e.g., low-sulphur diesel and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)). This paper presents the empirical evidence on the effectiveness of the Government's clean fuel programs that offer tax subsidy to lower the consumption cost of such fuels. For the cases of unleaded petrol and ultra-low-sulphur diesel, lower fuel duties were offered so that the prices of these fuels were below those of leaded petrol and conventional diesel. Conventional petrol and diesel were phased out. In order to decide on the level of fuel duty concessions required to introduce LPG for taxis and bio-diesel for other vehicles, various Government-run trial programs were introduced to obtain cost estimates of using these alternative cleaner fuels. LPG using vehicles were subsequently exempted from the fuel duty in order to attract taxi and light bus operators to switch to LPG. It is apparent that the higher the subsidy, the faster is the rate at which switching to cleaner fuels takes place

  5. IMPLEMENTING CLEANER PRODUCTION IN ROMANIAN INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES IN TERMS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL BOGDAN ZAMFIR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I propose to emphasize the necessity of implementation cleaner production in industrial enterprises from our country in the contemporary context of sustainable development through extensive use of renewable resources. On this backgroung it is important to note that in accordance with recent scientific studies and research in the field of analyzed phenomenon it is suggested the idea that obtaining a cleaner production by industrial enterprises becomes a sine qua non condition in the achievement process of sustainable development objectives. Moreover, it is obvious that the integration of Romanian industrial enterprises into the paradigm of sustainable development is essentially possible in obtaining a clean production through evacuation into the natural environment of minimum quantity of waste and pollutants. In this paper the scientific argumentation is achieved by using the specific methods of research elaborated in the area of analysis theme such as: methods of quantitative measurement and qualitative analysis. Also in the strucure of this paper are inserted some current statistical data that show the adaptation level of Romanian industry to sustainable development objectives. Finally it is important to emphansize that all results of economic research and major conclusions which are presented in this article are based on a series of specialized studies and official documents among that are highlighted in the content of this scientific approach such as : Europe 2020 Strategy, National Sustainable Development Strategy Romania 2013–2020–2030, National Strategy of Waste Management 2014- 2020.

  6. Vocational training courses as an intervention on change of work practice among immigrant cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Flemming W; Frydendall, Karen B; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how knowledge and skills from vocational training courses on working techniques modified for immigrant cleaners are applied in practice and to identify factors that influence the implementation. The modifications of the standard course included language support with possibilities for translation and an extension of the duration of the course. The study is a prospective intervention study based on qualitative data. Data were collected as structured interviews and observations were carried out at the workplaces before and after the course. The study population included 31 immigrant cleaners from five different workplaces. Changes were observed in the use of working techniques (i.e., positioning of hands when using the floor mop). In some cases the use of the taught techniques was incorrect, partial, or only used part of the time. Interactions between individual factors (i.e., knowledge, awareness, capability, or work orientation) and environmental factors (i.e., equipment, time, workload, or physical surroundings) influenced the use of the techniques in practice. The course provided the participants with new working techniques through which some were able to reduce work related pain. However, with regard to incorrect and partial use of the working techniques, follow-up and post-training support is recommended. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Dental preparation with sonic vs high-speed finishing: analysis of microleakage in bonded veneer restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faus-Matoses, Ignacio; Solá-Ruiz, Fernanda

    2014-02-01

    To compare marginal microleakage in porcelain veneer restorations following dental finishing using two types of instruments to test the hypothesis that microleakage will be less when teeth are prepared with sonic oscillating burs than when prepared with high-speed rotating burs. Fifty-six extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected and divided randomly into two groups. Group 1 samples underwent dental finishing using high-speed rotating diamond burs, while group 2 used sonic oscillating diamond burs. Buccal chamfer preparation was carried out for both groups. Forty eight of the samples (24 per group) were restored using IPS Empress ceramic veneers. 2% methylene blue was used to evaluate microleakage at the tooth/composite veneer interface. Teeth were sectioned lengthwise into three parts and microleakage was measured at two points - cervical and incisal - on each section. Before bonding, four teeth per group underwent SEM examination. Evaluation of microleakage at the cervical dentin margin showed a value of 10.5% in group 1 and 6.6% in group 2, which was statistically significantly different (p microleakage was 1.3% for group 1 and 1.2% for group 2, which was not significantly different. SEM revealed different patterns of surface texture in both areas according to the instrument used. Group 1 exhibited parallel horizontal abrasion grooves with a milled effect and thick smear layers; group 2 showed abrasive erosion, discontinuous perpendicular depressions, and thin smear layers. Tooth preparations finished with sonic burs produced significantly less microleakage in the cervical dentin area of bonded veneer restorations. No differences were found in the incisal enamel area.

  8. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Nylon 6,6 Fiber Finish and Oligomers

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Shelley Risch Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Quantitation of the amount of finish applied during fiber manufacturing is an important industrial quality control process. Finish levels that are too low result in excessive fiber and mechanical wear. On the other hand, overly high finish levels may cause residue buildup on the processing equipment. Removal of the finish has traditionally been done with solvents such as chloroform or Freon followed by gravimetric or spectroscopic analysis of the removed mate...

  9. The effect of finishing sealant augmented margins in class V cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlTahawi, Hamdi Mohammed

    1989-01-01

    Class V cavities in the buccal and tingual aspects of human posterior teeth were acid etched and restored in one of two ways. In the extended primer technique, the UV polymerized primer coat was extended 2-3 mm beyond the cavity, then finished back. In the butt-joint technique, the primer coat was extended to just below the cavosurface line angle. Eight specimens for each technique were prepared and tested. A surface micro-analyzer capable of detecting one microinch surface roughness was used to determine the variance in marginal smoothness margins were also examined using a scanning electron microscope. No statistical difference in smoothness was detected between the two techniques. (author)

  10. The unattached fraction of radon decay products: Potential effects of in-home air cleaners on lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Radon decay products are a factor in the development of lung cancer. Because of their efficient deposition within the lung, the fraction of decay products not attached to particulate (i.e., the unattached fraction) is very important in lung dosimetry. This study simulated the use of two in-home air cleaning devices to reduce airborne particulate concentrations, measure the effect on the unattached fraction, and estimate the radon lung cancer risk. Radon was released into a chamber having a volume-to-surface-area ratio similar to a small home. At radon-decay product equilibrium, radon and airborne particle concentrations were measured, and the concentration of the unattached fraction was estimated. The effect of particle concentration on the unattached fraction was then determined. The average unattached fractions corresponding to the particle concentration ranges expected for the air cleaning devices were used to calculate the annual alpha radiation dose and annual radon lung cancer for men, women and children at rest and under light activity. The annual doses and related risks were compared to those used in the models published by the Environmental Protection Agency. For particulate concentrations of a home with no particulate generating activities (e.g., smoking, cooking), the electronic air cleaner is predicted to reduce the unattached fraction from seven percent (the value used by the NCRP and confirmed in this study) to four percent. These conditions represent the maximum reduction in the unattached fraction. The decrease in the unattached fraction is tentatively attributed to an increase in plateout. Based on these results, a reduction of less than ten percent in the calculated annual lung cancer risk is found in all cases

  11. 40 CFR 425.40 - Applicability; description of the retan-wet finish-sides subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the retan-wet finish-sides subcategory. 425.40 Section 425.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Retan-Wet Finish-Sides Subcategory § 425.40 Applicability; description of the retan-wet finish...

  12. Construction of a Dip Tank for Finishing Wood Siding or Decking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Dipping new siding or decking pieces before installation is faster than finishing after installation, and it gets finish on the backside and ends of the pieces, thereby extending their service life. This method is appropriate for any penetrating finish, such as waterrepellent preservatives or semitransparent stains. It may also be used to pre-treat siding with water-...

  13. Removal of lead contaminated dusts from hard surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Roger D; Condoor, Sridhar; Batek, Joe; Ong, Kee Hean; Backer, Denis; Sterling, David; Siria, Jeff; Chen, John J; Ashley, Peter

    2006-01-15

    Government guidelines have widely recommended trisodium phosphate (TSP) or "lead-specific" cleaning detergents for removal of lead-contaminated dust (LCD) from hard surfaces, such as floors and window areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if low-phosphate, non-lead-specific cleaners could be used to efficiently remove LCD from 3 types of surfaces (vinyl flooring, wood, and wallpaper). Laboratory methods were developed and validated for simulating the doping, embedding, and sponge cleaning of the 3 surface types with 4 categories of cleaners: lead-specific detergents, nonionic cleaners, anionic cleaners, and trisodium phosphate (TSP). Vinyl flooring and wood were worn using artificial means. Materials were ashed, followed by ultrasound extraction, and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). One-way analysis of variance approach was used to evaluate the surface and detergent effects. Surface type was found to be a significant factor in removal of lead (p < 0.001). Vinyl flooring cleaned better than wallpaper by over 14% and wood cleaned better than wallpaper by 13%. There was no difference between the cleaning action of vinyl flooring and wood. No evidence was found to support the use of TSP or lead-specific detergents over all-purpose cleaning detergents for removal of lead-contaminated dusts. No-phosphate, non-lead-specific detergents are effective in sponge cleaning of lead-contaminated hard surfaces and childhood lead prevention programs should consider recommending all-purpose household detergents for removal of lead-contaminated dust after appropriate vacuuming.

  14. Method and system for processing optical elements using magnetorheological finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menapace, Joseph Arthur; Schaffers, Kathleen Irene; Bayramian, Andrew James; Molander, William A

    2012-09-18

    A method of finishing an optical element includes mounting the optical element in an optical mount having a plurality of fiducials overlapping with the optical element and obtaining a first metrology map for the optical element and the plurality of fiducials. The method also includes obtaining a second metrology map for the optical element without the plurality of fiducials, forming a difference map between the first metrology map and the second metrology map, and aligning the first metrology map and the second metrology map. The method further includes placing mathematical fiducials onto the second metrology map using the difference map to form a third metrology map and associating the third metrology map to the optical element. Moreover, the method includes mounting the optical element in the fixture in an MRF tool, positioning the optical element in the fixture; removing the plurality of fiducials, and finishing the optical element.

  15. Recovery of Salmonella enterica from seropositive finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dahl, J.; van der Wolf, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the probability of detecting Salmonella from pen faecal samples in seropositive classified finishing pig herds. The study involved 77 herds from Denmark (20), The Netherlands (20), Greece (17) and Germany (20). The serological herd status was determined...... by the blood-sampling of 50 finishing pigs. Bacteriological sampling was performed by 20 pen faecal samples per herd. Over-all, 47% of the blood samples had an OD% larger than 10 and 23% larger than 40. Salmonella was isolated from 135 (9.3%) pen faecal samples in 32 herds (42%). Twenty-eight of these herds...... (87.5%) had a within-herd seroprevalence larger than 50% at sample cut-off OD% > 10. In our study, there was an increasing probability of recovering Salmonella with increasing within-herd seroprevalence. However, this was only a moderate correlation. A correlation coefficient of 0.62 was found between...

  16. Ractopamine in diets for finishing pigs of different sexual categories

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Enrique da Trindade Barbosa; Carolina Teixeira Costa Silva; Vinícius de Souza Cantarelli; Márcio Gilberto Zangeronimo; Raimundo Vicente de Sousa; Cesar Augusto Pospissil Garbossa; Níkolas de Oliveira Amaral; Walmes Marques Zeviani

    2012-01-01

    Performance and carcass and cut yield of finishing pigs of three sexual categories fed diets with different levels of ractopamine were studied. Forty-eight hybrid animals (initial weight of 92.1±2.4 kg) were distributed in a completely randomised design in 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (three sexual categories: surgically castrated males, two females and immunologically castrated males - with or without 10 ppm of ractopamine), totalling six treatments and eight repetitions with one animal per e...

  17. Finishing procedures in Orthodontics: dental dimensions and proportions (microesthetics)

    OpenAIRE

    Brandão,Roberto Carlos Bodart; Brandão,Larissa Bustamente Capucho

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present article is to describe procedures that can be performed to achieve excellence in orthodontic treatment finishing. The content is limited to microesthetics, which comprises the concept of ideal dental dimensions and proportions (white esthetics) and its correlation with the periodontium (pink esthetics). Standards of normality are described both in their real dimensions (dental height and width), and in those effectively perceived by the observer, the vi...

  18. Prospects for Commercial Feedlot Finishing of Sheep in Zanzibar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of growth and carcass performance of sheep under two feedlot finishing diets was done in Zanzibar. Fifty-four sheep aged 9-12 months with initial body weight 18.9±0.6kg) were divided into three treatments T1, T2 and T3 each with three replicates. T2 and T3 sheep were assigned randomly to two concentrate ...

  19. Response of finishing broiler chickens fed three energy/protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the response of finishing broiler chicken to diets containing three metabolizable energy (ME)/crude protein (CP) combinations ( 3203.76 ME vs 19.90 %CP, 2884.15 ME vs 18.10%CP and 2566.42 ME vs 18.10 %CP) at fixed ME:CP ratio of 160:1. A total of 126 four weeks ...

  20. Ageing of Dry Cement Mixes for Finishing Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronius VEKTARIS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dry building mixes, stored in the air, absorb water vapor and CO2 gas and ageing because properties of binding materials, mostly Portland cement, deteriorate after its prehydration and carbonation. In this paper the ageing singularities of dry cement mixes for finishing purposes and additives for retarding this process has been determinated. Ordinary and quickly hardening Portland cements absorb H2O and CO2 more than white cement – about 70 % – 75 % and 30 % – 38 % per month of innitial mass, respectively. White cement is more resistant to prehydration and carbonation, because it contains less C3A, C4AF and alkali, characterized initial activity. Dry mixes with white cement, although slower, but still worse after stored. Influence of routine dry mortar mixes ingredients and additives (methyl cellulose, pigments, sand and lime on prehydration properties of the mixes for finishing purpose is not substantial. Significant positive influence comes from the addition of fatty acid salts (zinc stearate or sodium oleate. The dry cement mixes for finishing purpose has been recomended to hydrophobisate with one of these additives, adding about 1 % by weight of cement during preducing mixes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.5243

  1. Ageing of Dry Cement Mixes for Finishing Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronius VEKTARIS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dry building mixes, stored in the air, absorb water vapor and CO2 gas and ageing because properties of binding materials, mostly Portland cement, deteriorate after its prehydration and carbonation. In this paper the ageing singularities of dry cement mixes for finishing purposes and additives for retarding this process has been determinated. Ordinary and quickly hardening Portland cements absorb H2O and CO2 more than white cement – about 70 % – 75 % and 30 % – 38 % per month of innitial mass, respectively. White cement is more resistant to prehydration and carbonation, because it contains less C3A, C4AF and alkali, characterized initial activity. Dry mixes with white cement, although slower, but still worse after stored. Influence of routine dry mortar mixes ingredients and additives (methyl cellulose, pigments, sand and lime on prehydration properties of the mixes for finishing purpose is not substantial. Significant positive influence comes from the addition of fatty acid salts (zinc stearate or sodium oleate. The dry cement mixes for finishing purpose has been recomended to hydrophobisate with one of these additives, adding about 1 % by weight of cement during preducing mixes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.5243

  2. Finishes and furnishings: considerations for critical care environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Misty; Bowman, Ken L

    2011-01-01

    When selecting finishes and furnishings within a critical care unit, multiple factors can ultimately affect patient outcomes, impact costs, and contribute to operational efficiencies. First, consider the culture of the regional location, operations of the specific facility, and the recent focus on patient-centered care. The intention is to create an appropriate familiarity and comfort level with the environment for the patient and family. Second, safety and infection control are of utmost concern, particularly for the critical care patient with limited mobility. The planning and design team must be acutely aware of the regulations and guidelines of various governing agencies, local codes, and best design practices that can directly affect choices of finishes and furnishings. Flooring, wall, and window finishes, lighting, art and color, as well as furniture and fabric selection should be considered. Issues to address include maintenance, durability, sustainability, infection control, aesthetics, safety, wayfinding, and acoustics. Balancing these issues with comfort, patient and staff satisfaction, accommodations for an aging population, increasing bariatric needs, efficient operations, and avoidance of "never events" requires team collaboration and communication, knowledge of product advancements, a keen awareness of how environmental stimuli are perceived, and utilization of the best available evidence to make informed design decisions.

  3. Dust control technology usage patterns in the drywall finishing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Corbett, Deborah E; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2009-06-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to quantify drywall finishing industry usage rates of dust control technology, identify barriers to technology adoption, and explore firm owner perception of risk. Industry use of the following technologies was described: wet methods, respiratory protection, pole sanders, ventilated sanders, and low-dust joint compound. A survey instrument composed of both Likert-type scaled items and open-ended items was developed and administered by telephone to the census population of the owners of member firms of trade associations: Finishing Contractors Association and Association of the Wall and Ceiling Industries. Of 857 firms, 264 interviews were completed. Along with descriptive statistics, results were analyzed to examine effects of firm size and union affiliation on responses. Responses to open-ended items were analyzed using content analysis procedures. Firm owners rated the risk of dust to productivity and customer satisfaction as low-moderate. Half rated the dust as having some impact on worker health, with higher impacts indicated by owners of small firms. Among the available control technologies, respiratory protection was used most frequently. Several barriers to implementation of the more effective control technologies were identified. Barriers associated with technology usability, productivity, and cost, as well as misperceptions of risk, should be addressed to improve dust control in the drywall finishing industry.

  4. Productive performance of Holstein calves finished in feedlot or pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARIA O. DIAS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of animals from dairy farms is an alternative to meat production since it provides an increment of total income for farmers. This study aims to evaluate the performance of Holstein calves finished in two feeding systems (feedlot or pasture. Forty-three animals with 58 days old and 57 kg were divided in two treatments: 23 animals finished in feedlot with corn silage plus concentrate based on corn and soybean meal (40:60; 20 animals kept in cultivated pastures according to the period of the year: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum with supplementation with the same feedlot-concentrate at 1% body weight. Animals were slaughtered with 200 kg. Dry matter and nutrient intake were determined, with the use of chromium oxide for estimating pasture intake. Feedlot animals had greater total intake and total digestible nutrients, resulting in higher average daily gain (0.949 vs 0.694 kg day-1. Crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber and feed conversion did not show significant differences. Holstein calves have improved performance when finished in feedlot.

  5. A novel surface cleaning method for chemical removal of fouling lead layer from chromium surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, Kh.; Khosravi, M.; Hosseini, S. G.; Fathollahi, M.

    2010-10-01

    Most products especially metallic surfaces require cleaning treatment to remove surface contaminations that remain after processing or usage. Lead fouling is a general problem which arises from lead fouling on the chromium surfaces of bores and other interior parts of systems which have interaction with metallic lead in high temperatures and pressures. In this study, a novel chemical solution was introduced as a cleaner reagent for removing metallic lead pollution, as a fouling metal, from chromium surfaces. The cleaner aqueous solution contains hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) as oxidizing agent of lead layer on the chromium surface and acetic acid (CH 3COOH) as chelating agent of lead ions. The effect of some experimental parameters such as acetic acid concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration and temperature of the cleaner solution during the operation on the efficiency of lead cleaning procedure was investigated. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that using this procedure, the lead pollution layer could be completely removed from real chromium surfaces without corrosion of the original surface. Finally, the optimum conditions for the complete and fast removing of lead pollution layer from chromium surfaces were proposed. The experimental results showed that at the optimum condition (acetic acid concentration 28% (V/V), hydrogen peroxide 8% (V/V) and temperature 35 °C), only 15-min time is needed for complete removal of 3 g fouling lead from a chromium surface.

  6. Effect of finishing and polishing procedures on the gap width between a denture base resin and two long-term, resilient denture liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesun, Igor J; Hodges, James; Lai, Juey H

    2002-03-01

    The junction between a long-term, resilient denture liner and the denture base is difficult to finish and polish due to differences in the hardness of the materials. Gaps tend to form during finishing and polishing procedures. This study measured the junctional gap between 2 long-term, resilient denture liners and a denture base material after different finishing and polishing procedures were performed. The surface smoothness of the 2 liner materials also was evaluated. Molloplast-B and an experimental, heat-polymerized methyl siloxane-resin-based denture liner were processed (according to the manufacturer's instructions) against Lucitone 199 acrylic resin. Control specimens (n = 20) were 2 mm thick and flat. Experimental specimens (n = 64) were fabricated with a raised center section: a 3- x 5- x 15-mm half-cylindrical ridge with a junction at the top of the cylinder between the liner material and acrylic resin. The specimens were finished with 1 of 6 types of burs and polished with different combinations of rubber-impregnated acrylic polishers, pumice, and tin oxide. The finished specimens were examined and photographed with a scanning electron microscope, and the largest gap along the liner/denture base junction on each specimen was measured. Three-way analysis of variance without replication (P<.05) and post-hoc t tests were used to analyze the data and compare groups. RESULTS; Averaged across finishing and polishing techniques, a larger gap was recorded for the experimental liner material (22 microm) than for Molloplast-B (14 microm) (P<.00005). Qualitative evaluation suggested that the experimental liner material polished better than Molloplast-B. The smoothest surfaces were obtained when specimens were finished with fine-tooth cross-cut carbide burs and polished with both pumice and tin oxide. A comparison between polished and unpolished specimens, averaged over materials and finishing techniques, revealed that polishing reduced gap size (P=.015). Within the

  7. Optimizing Organophosphorus Fire Resistant Finish for Cotton Fabric Using Box-Behnken Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, Y.; Parag, B.; Nemeshwaree, B.; Giorgio, R.

    2016-01-01

    N-methylol dimethyl phosphono propionamide (MDPA) is one of the most utilized fire resistant (FR) finishes for cotton fabrics, utilized as part of a formulation with trimethylol melamine (TMM) to acquire better crosslinking and enhanced FR properties. The system parameters of the finishing treatment were upgraded for better FR properties and low mechanical loss to the fabric by the response surface methodology utilizing Box-Behnken statistical designed experimental strategy. The impacts of concentration on the cotton fabric’s properties (fire resistance and mechanical properties) were assessed with the regression equations. The optimum conditions by predicting the FR reagents focusing intact mechanical properties of the fabric were additionally studied. It was found that the parameters of crosslinking agents in the FR formulation have a prime role in the general FR properties of the cotton fabrics. The R-squared estimations of the considerable number of responses were above 92%, demonstrating the level of relationship between the predicted values by the Box-Behnken frameworks and the real test results.

  8. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Prescott, Eva; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper; Skotte, Jørgen Henrik; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2012-08-13

    Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise "60 min per week". Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12 months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect the cardiovascular health, and additionally decrease the objectively

  9. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korshøj Mette

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods/design A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise “60 min per week”. Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12 months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Discussion Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect

  10. Energy access and transition to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies in Sri Lanka: Issues and policy limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, Anoja

    2011-01-01

    Easy energy access is a trigger for human, social, and economic development. A research project was undertaken in Sri Lanka to broaden the understanding of human dimension of energy access and technologies. A questionnaire survey, covering 2269 households, gathered data on socio-economic contexts and issues influencing a transition towards clean cooking facilities. The findings reveal that the transition is impeded by four factors: the lack of motivation and the pressure for switching over to cleaner facilities, the lack of modern energy technology options, the financial risks, and the lack of financing and other support. The paper describes the delicate two-way interrelation between women earning wages and the transitions to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies. The findings suggest the need for a policy framework involving the stakeholders, financing and standardised technologies. To make a change it is proposed to introduce a national, integrated policy incorporating financing and energy governance. - Highlights: ► Households in Sri Lanka lack access to modern energy technology options for cooking. ► Cooking with fuel wood and residues is the norm in Sri Lanka, particularly in rural households. ► A survey of rural households revealed that most cannot afford to switch to cleaner cooking options. ► Most households have little awareness of the health impacts of biomass cooking. ► Women in regular formal employment are more likely to value cleaner cooking options that save time.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF OZONE EMISSIONS FROM AIR CLEANERS EQUIPPED WITH OZONE GENERATORS AND SENSOR AND FEEDBACK CONTROL CIRCUITRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper give results of a characterization of ozone emissions from air cleaners equipped with ozone generators and sensor and feedback control circuitry. Ozone emission rates of several consumer appliances, marketed as indoor air treatment or air purification systems, were det...

  12. IMPACT OF AN OZONE GENERATOR AIR CLEANER ON STYRENE CONCENTRATIONS IN AN INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH CHAMBER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the impact of an ozone generator air cleaner on vapor-phase styrene concentrations in a full-scale indoor air quality test chamber. The time history of the concentrations of styrene and ozone is well predicted by a simulation model u...

  13. Advancements in the Interferometric Measurements of Real Time Finishing Birefringent Filter's Crystal Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Ma; Kushtal, Gi; Skomorovsky, Vi; Domyshev, Gn; Sadokhin, Vp

    2006-01-01

    The finishing of birefringent plates consists of two processes: polishing and evaluation of a surface, which have been performed separately till now. The purpose of this work is achieving of high accuracy of the evaluation and machining of the plane-parallel plates from birefringent crystals, in particular of crystal plates of birefringent filters during their finishing. The developed process combines evaluation and polishing in an interactive way. We have found modes of treatment, shape of polisher, have designed interferometer, with a mirror arranged in polisher. Visual checking of optical thickness comparatively with reference plate was carried out using the interference fringes of equal birefringence, and checking of an optical wedge - by interference rings of an equal inclination. The automated processing of TV camera interference fringes was impossible, because of gaps of interference fringes on polishing cells above the mirror. Therefore a special software was developed for processing of a complex fringe pattern interferogram. Software FastInterf uses furrier analysis technique which allows to process an interferogram with multiply gaps. Interferograms are registered by a high resolution TV camera (1280 x1024). Automatic processing of a fringe interferogram using FastInterf software takes less then one second. The influence of gaps is excluded, and the flat field is taken into account. Software provides full 3D surface and wavefront maps. Aberration analysis of a wavefront gives information on thickness of a plate comparatively with a reference one, optical wedge of plate and azimuth of an inclination of wave front. Moreover, software provides a control of surface quality. The measuring device, features of the software are described and process of interferometric evaluation during polishing is illustrated

  14. Surface Modification of Exfoliated Graphite Nano-Reinforcements, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I results showed that two surface treatments, oxidative plasma and reactive finishes, are effective means of modifying the surface chemistry of exfoliated...

  15. UNIDO/Institute of Energy workshop on cleaner use of lower grade coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Volume 1 (entitled 'proceedings') contains the welcoming addresses and the country presentations on coal utilisation in developing countries. The countries concerned are Bulgaria, Chile, China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Mozambique, Poland, Vietnam, and Yugoslavia. Project proposals on the cleaner use of low-grade coals, one for each of these developing countries are given, including a proposal by the UK on a database of low-grade coal statistics. Volume 2 (entitled 'visits and technology papers') contains the papers presented at the visits to the Coal Research Establishment (Stoke Orchard) and Point of Ayr liquefaction plant, British Gas (Westfield) and Babcock Energy Ltd (Renfrew). Finally, the workshop participant's technological papers are included.

  16. NASA Rocket Propulsion Test Replacement Effort for Oxygen System Cleaner - Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) 225

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt Burns, H.; Mitchell, Mark A.; Lowrey, Nikki M.; Farner, Bruce R.; Ross, H. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous and liquid oxygen are extremely reactive materials used in bipropellant propulsion systems. Both flight and ground oxygen systems require a high level of cleanliness to support engine performance, testing, and prevent mishaps. Solvents used to clean and verify the cleanliness of oxygen systems and supporting test hardware must be compatible with the system's materials of construction and effective at removing or reducing expected contaminants to an acceptable level. This paper will define the philosophy and test approach used for evaluating replacement solvents for the current Marshall Space Flight Center/Stennis Space Center baseline HCFC-225 material that will no longer be available for purchase after 2014. MSFC/SSC applications in cleaning / sampling oxygen propulsion components, support equipment, and test system were reviewed then candidate replacement cleaners and test methods selected. All of these factors as well as testing results will be discussed.

  17. Politics design of cleaner production in the electric sector for the energy scenarios of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa P, Woody; Smith Q, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    Cleaner production (PML) in Colombia has been implemented as an agreement of wills between the companies of different productive sectors and the Colombian environment ministry. In the electric sector, the agreement of PML has been implemented with successes and difficulties. A concern that exists today among the companies of the electric sector involved in the agreement is about its long-term viability. Supported in the planning tool of scenarios, an analysis of the possible futures of PML in the Colombian electric sector, using the energy scenarios for Colombia (UPME, 2000), is made. PML policies are designed that will allow to analyze its long-term implementation. This work seeks to contribute in the long-term analysis about the evolution and tendencies of PML in the Colombian electric sector, according with the markets dynamics, trends and competitiveness that are gaining space in the international community

  18. Design study and prototype experiment of the KAGRA output mode-cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Kazushiro; Kumeta, Ayaka; Somiya, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Japanese gravitational-wave detector KAGRA is limited mainly by quantum noise. In order to reduce the quantum noise level, KAGRA employs an output mode-cleaner (OMC), which filters out junk light to clean up the signal and the reference light at the signal extraction port. The proper design of the OMC is a key to achieve the target sensitivity of KAGRA. In this proceeding, we present two results. One is the final result of numerical simulations, from which we determined the optical parameters of the OMC. The other is the latest results of our prototype experiment, the goal of which is to establish the control scheme of the OMC. (paper)

  19. Pollution prevention for cleaner air: EPA's air and energy engineering research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribute to air quality problems. The Laboratory has successfully developed and demonstrated cost-effective sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate control technologies for fossil fuel combustion sources. More recently, it has expanded its research activities to include indoor air quality, radon, organic control, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global warming. AEERL also develops inventories of air emissions of many types. Over the last several years, it has made substantial efforts to expand research on pollution prevention as the preferred choice for air emissions reduction

  20. Ultraviolet-B wavelengths regulate changes in UV absorption of cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus mucus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill P Zamzow

    Full Text Available High-energy wavelengths in the ultraviolet-B (UVB, 280-315 nm and the UVA (315-400-nm portion of the spectrum are harmful to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Interestingly, UVA is also involved in the repair of UV induced damage. Organisms living in shallow coral reef environments possess UV absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids, to protect them from UV radiation. While it has been demonstrated that exposure to UV (280-400 nm affects the UV absorbance of fish mucus, whether the effects of UV exposure vary between UVB and UVA wavelengths is not known. Therefore, we investigated whether the UVB, UVA, or photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm portions of the spectrum affected the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus and Fulton's body condition index of the cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus. We also compared field-measured UV absorbance with laboratory based high-performance liquid chromatography measurements of mycosporine-like amino acid concentrations. After 1 week, we found that the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus was higher in the UVB+UVA+PAR treatment compared with the UVA+PAR and PAR only treatments; after 2 and 3 weeks, however, differences between treatments were not detected. After 3 weeks, Fulton's body condition index was lower for fish in the UVB+UVA+PAR compared with PAR and UVA+PAR treatments; furthermore, all experimentally treated fish had a lower Fulton's body condition index than did freshly caught fish. Finally, we found a decrease with depth in the UV absorbance of mucus of wild-caught fish. This study suggests that the increase in UV absorbance of fish mucus in response to increased overall UV levels is a function of the UVB portion of the spectrum. This has important implications for the ability of cleaner fish and other fishes to adjust their mucus UV protection in response to variations in environmental UV exposure.

  1. Saving oiled mangroves using a new non-dispersing shoreline cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teas, H.J.; Lessard, R.R.; Canevari, G.P.; Brown, C.D.; Glenn, R.

    1993-01-01

    Mangroves are ranked as one of the most sensitive marine environments. If mangroves are oiled and no further action is taken, the probability of mortality to the trees is high. One of the ways that viscous spilled oil can kill mangroves is by covering the breathing ports, called lenticels (red mangroves) and pneumatophores (black mangroves), and asphyxiating them by preventing flow of oxygen from the atmosphere into the roots. Mangroves can also be killed by continuous inundation of their prop roots or pneumatophores for a period of ten days to two weeks, but they can survive lenticel covering by water for a few hours at high tide - so there appears to be some grace period during which lenticels can be nonfunctional and the plant can still survive once lenticel function is restored. This suggests that if oil is removed from the breathing ports during the early days after a spill, the lenticels may be able to restore oxygen delivery to the roots and spare the mangroves. Such oils are poorly removed by the washing of tidal waters or by water sprays alone. So a new shoreline cleaner (Corexit 9580), which was specially developed during the cleanup of the Valdez spill in Alaska, was tested to determine its ability to help loosen the oil so it can be washed away with water. Laboratory experiments using excised prop roots of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) were initially conducted to determine the feasibility of the approach. Subsequently experiments were carried out using about a hundred potted red mangroves at a test site in Florida. The prop roots, including the lenticels, were coated with a heavy oil (bunker C). After various periods of time, groups of oiled trees were treated with the shoreline cleaner to loosen and remove the oil deposit and then washed with seawater. The results showed that oiled trees could be saved by cleaning within seven days after oiling, indicating that the grace period after oiling extends for about one week

  2. Ultraviolet-B Wavelengths Regulate Changes in UV Absorption of Cleaner Fish Labroides dimidiatus Mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamzow, Jill P.; Siebeck, Ulrike E.; Eckes, Maxi J.; Grutter, Alexandra S.

    2013-01-01

    High-energy wavelengths in the ultraviolet-B (UVB, 280-315 nm) and the UVA (315-400-nm) portion of the spectrum are harmful to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Interestingly, UVA is also involved in the repair of UV induced damage. Organisms living in shallow coral reef environments possess UV absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids, to protect them from UV radiation. While it has been demonstrated that exposure to UV (280-400 nm) affects the UV absorbance of fish mucus, whether the effects of UV exposure vary between UVB and UVA wavelengths is not known. Therefore, we investigated whether the UVB, UVA, or photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) portions of the spectrum affected the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus and Fulton’s body condition index of the cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus. We also compared field-measured UV absorbance with laboratory based high-performance liquid chromatography measurements of mycosporine-like amino acid concentrations. After 1 week, we found that the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus was higher in the UVB+UVA+PAR treatment compared with the UVA+PAR and PAR only treatments; after 2 and 3 weeks, however, differences between treatments were not detected. After 3 weeks, Fulton’s body condition index was lower for fish in the UVB+UVA+PAR compared with PAR and UVA+PAR treatments; furthermore, all experimentally treated fish had a lower Fulton’s body condition index than did freshly caught fish. Finally, we found a decrease with depth in the UV absorbance of mucus of wild-caught fish. This study suggests that the increase in UV absorbance of fish mucus in response to increased overall UV levels is a function of the UVB portion of the spectrum. This has important implications for the ability of cleaner fish and other fishes to adjust their mucus UV protection in response to variations in environmental UV exposure. PMID:24143264

  3. Preservatives in Personal Hygiene and Cosmetic Products, Topical Medications, and Household Cleaners in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Nieto, María Antonia; Alcántara-Nicolás, Francisco; Melgar-Molero, Virginia; Pérez-Mesonero, Raquel; Vergara-Sánchez, Aránzazu; Martín-Fuentes, Adriana; González-Muñoz, Patricia; de Eusebio-Murillo, Ester

    2017-10-01

    Preservatives are added to cosmetic, household cleaning, and other industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Unfortunately, exposure to these substances can cause sensitization. Between January and June 2015, we analyzed the ingredients of 2300 products commercially available in Spain to identify the frequency of a wide variety of preservatives in different product categories. We analyzed 1093 skin care and cosmetic products sold exclusively in pharmacies (dermocosmetics), 458 household cleaning and personal hygiene and cosmetic products sold in supermarkets, 636 topical medications, and 113 cosmetic products sold in a herbal shop. Phenoxyethanol, citric acid, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate were very common in all the cosmetic product categories. Parabens were present in 16.1% of dermocosmetic products, 14.45% of cosmetic products available in supermarkets, 0.88% of cosmetic products available in the herbal shop, 5.18% of topical medications, and in none of the cleaning products. Isothiazolinones were identified in 2.56% of dermocosmetic products, 18% of cosmetic products in supermarkets, 7.9% of cosmetic products in the herbal shop, 63.63% of household cleaners, and in none of the topical medications. Formaldehyde releasers were detected in 5.76% of dermocosmetic products, 6.42% of cosmetic products sold in supermarkets, 7.96% of cosmetic products sold in the herbal shop, 3.93% of topical medications, and 16.74% of household cleaners. Evaluation of the presence of preservatives in everyday products allows us to indirectly estimate exposure levels to each one. Measures restricting the use of the most problematic preservatives need to be strengthened. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Identifying and Prioritizing Cleaner Production Strategies in Raw Materials’ Warehouse of Yazdbaf Textile Company in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cleaner productions in textile industry is achieved by reducing water and chemicals’ consumption, saving energy, reducing production of air pollution and solid wastes, reducing toxicity and noise pollution through many solutions. The purpose of the present research was to apply Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT and Quality Systems Planning Matrix (QSPM techniques in identifying and prioritizing production in raw materials’ warehouse of Yazdbaf Textile Factory. Materials and Methods: In this research, effective internal and external factors in cleaner production were identified by providing the required information through field visit and interview with industry managers and supervisors of raw materials’ warehouse. Finally, To form matrix of internal and external factors 17 important internal factors and 7 important external factors were identified and selected respectively.Then, QSPM matrix was formed to determine the attractiveness and priority of the selected strategies by using results of internal and external factors and SWOT matrixes. Results: According to the results, the total score of raw materials’ warehouse in Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE matrix is equal to 2.90 which shows the good situation of warehouse than the internal factors. However, the total score in External Factor Evaluation (EFE matrix is 2.14 and indicates the relative weak situation of warehouse than the external factors. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, continuity, monitor, and improvement of the general plan of qualitative control (QC of raw materials and laboratory as well as more emphasis on quality indexes according to its importance in the production processes were selected as the most important strategies. 

  5. Fluoroalkyl Siloxanes as Liquid-Repellent Fabric Finishes. Part 3. The Durability of the Copolymers and Comparisons with Commercially Available Finishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    of-the- art literature review of these finishes was presented. The finish currently in use is Zepel B (E.l. Dupont De Nemours & Co. (Inc.)). This and...short sumary of these tests has been included in ref. 10. PHOSPHAIE RESISTANCE TESI The resistance of treated fabrics to wetting by organo-phosphorus

  6. THE MOISTURE METER OF THE DOUGH SEMI-FINISHED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kvasnikov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In the article a new method and device of measuring of humidity of semi-finished products isoffered from a test which is based on measuring of free falling time of purveyance from a dough in an airenvironment under the action of gravity. The basic factors of external environment, influencing on humidityof purveyances of tests - pressure and temperature, are marked. By a mathematical design the analysis ofinfluencing of atmospheric pressure and temperature is conducted on humidity of purveyances from thedough.Keywords: humidity meters, oscillation transformer, products from a dough, simulation.

  7. China and Cleaner Coal. A marriage of necessity destined for failure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaman, John

    2012-04-01

    For China, coal is a crucial source of abundant, indigenous and affordable energy and is a pillar of economic and social stability. From a logic of energy security, and because the industry itself maintains a formidable political presence through the sheer fact of its history and size, this resource will continue to play a central role in the country's energy mix. But in order to respond to the growing need to reduce the burden of coal use on the environment and the Chinese population, and to prevent catastrophic climate change, both Chinese leaders and the industry itself have faced a certain reality - coal must become cleaner. This has led to a tenuous compromise between those in China advocating for the use of coal as a matter of economic necessity and social stability (security of supply, reliable and cheap electricity, and indigenous energy technologies) and those who strive for more environmentally sustainable growth (and thus emphasize 'clean' coal). The convergence of these two concepts has spurred a major shift towards newer, more efficient, though still highly polluting technologies - notably larger scale, hotter burning supercritical and ultra-supercritical coal-fired plants. But it has also spawned a number of demonstration-scale projects in various cutting-edge technologies to include coal gasification and carbon capture and storage (CCS), which promise vast improvements in CO 2 and other, toxic emissions if widely adopted. Indeed, mitigating climate change while continuing to rely heavily on coal will only be possible if carbon can successfully be captured and stored on a broad scale. The push to develop new coal technologies opens doors for both foreign and Chinese businesses to work together, potentially creating new market opportunities at home and abroad. Chinese companies can receive much-needed capital and expertise, while foreign companies and researchers are given the chance to test and develop technologies at a level of speed

  8. Dietary starch types affect liver nutrient metabolism of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chen; Li, Yanjiao; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Guanghong; Gao, Feng

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different starch types on liver nutrient metabolism of finishing pigs. In all ninety barrows were randomly allocated to three diets with five replicates of six pigs, containing purified waxy maize starch (WMS), non-waxy maize starch (NMS) and pea starch (PS) (the amylose to amylopectin ratios were 0·07, 0·19 and 0·28, respectively). After 28 d of treatments, two per pen (close to the average body weight of the pen) were weighed individually, slaughtered and liver samples were collected. Compared with the WMS diet, the PS diet decreased the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 in liver (P0·05). Compared with the WMS diet, the PS diet reduced the expressions of glutamate dehydrogenase and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 in liver (Pinsulin receptor, and increased the expressions of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and ribosomal protein S6 kinase β-1 in liver compared with the WMS diet (Pinsulin/PI3K/protein kinase B signalling pathway in liver of finishing pigs.

  9. Establishing Trailer Ventilation (Boarding) Requirements for Finishing Pigs during Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, John; Sapkota, Avi; Johnson, Anna; Kephart, Rebecca

    2014-08-19

    Specifically, this study aimed to establish the effects on mortality and morbidity of boarding levels (amount of side-wall trailer ventilation) for finishing pigs in mild weather (8.80 ± 0.30 °C, 71.70% ± 1.12% humidity). Pigs from commercial finishing sites were transported in 302 pot-bellied trailers to commercial processing plants. Measures collected at the processing plant were rates of dead on arrival (DOA), non-ambulatory, non-injured (NANI), non-ambulatory, injured (NAI), and total dead and down (D&D). Boarding levels (% that side walls were closed off with inserted boards) were divided into 3 bins: low, medium, and high, and outside temperature was divided into 4 bins 15 °C. Average rates of DOA, NANI, NAI, and D&D were approximately 0.30%, 0.12%, 0.04%, and 0.46%, respectively. The D&D was highest when boarding level was low with temperatures boarding level (medium and high boarding) in the temperature range of 5.10 °C to 23.30 °C did not affect pig losses.

  10. TECHNOLOGY FORMING PRICE DISTRIBUTION OF FINISHED GOODS OF LOGISTICS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikova T. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern economics has developed a number of areas of the system for controlling the distribution of finished products. However, in domestic and foreign economic literature the mechanisms of logistics approach are not sufficient to provide higher sales of enterprise-producers, that have sales in remote areas. In this study, first, the importance of company-producers and end-users the methods of rational delivery of finished products is considered, and secondly, the approaches to defining the essence and content of the concept of «distribution» are given, in the third, the logistics processes of the distribution system ready products of a particular company-producer are described, fourthly, the technology of one price product delivery was developed and it was shown the economic efficiency (the possible results of the solution of the problem of distribution logistics of its application in the target company. The study showed that there is an opportunity, based on the development and implementation of technologies to reduce the final price of the goods, to develop the company and increase its competitiveness by minimizing costs and increasing return on investment. The results of research extend the knowledge of methodology of system logistics management in the enterprise.

  11. Cleaner drive - Obstacles in the way of a market for a new generation of vehicles; Cleaner Drive. Hindernisse fuer die Markteinfuehrung von neuen Fahrzeug-Generationen. Bericht ueber die Beteiligung von e'mobile am EU-Projekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwegler, U. [e' mobile, der Schweizerische Verband fuer elektrische und effiziente Strassenfahrzeuge, Berne (Switzerland); Domeniconi, R. [AssoVEL2, Mendrisio (Switzerland); Kaufmann, J. [Kaufmann Consulting, Berne (Switzerland); Werfeli, A. [Verband der Schweizerischen Gasindustrie, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Association of Swiss Traffic Engineers describes work done within the framework of the fifth European Research Framework Programme involving the development of tools to speed up the introduction of a new generations of vehicles. This report lists the work done by the Swiss e'mobil organisation and discusses the limitations placed on the work by its international framework. The report presents the 'Cleaner Drive' environmental evaluation methods used for vehicles. This considers greenhouse-gas emissions and external costs. Factors not considered, noise and bio-fuels, are mentioned. A data-base based decision-support tool is introduced. The development of the 'Cleaner Drive' web site is described. A further chapter takes a look at efforts being made in the area of filling stations for gaseous fuels.

  12. Barriers towards cleaner production for optimizing energy use and pollution control for foundry sector in Howrah, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, D.P. [Central Pollution Control Board, Kolkata (India)

    2011-02-15

    The most pressing environmental problems of casting production in small-scale foundry sector are gaseous emission and utilization of energy. Promotion of clean technology towards cleaner production has achieved significant improvement. But that technology was not widely accepted due to different barriers. However, incremental innovation with the existing technology got preference. For realization of the scenario, operational performances of cupola and pollution control system were evaluated in 12 units and 15 units, respectively. The study revealed that foundry sector, as a whole, could not ensure proper utilization of the energy and the control of emission. The parameters governing the efficiency of these technologies varied remarkably, which questions its consistency and reliability. This study focused the major barriers towards cleaner production with an aim to define the strategies to overcome the eco-friendly casting production. (orig.)

  13. Early retirement among Danish female cleaners and shop assistants according to work environment characteristics and upper extremity complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde; Christensen, Michael Victor

    2016-01-01

    pain HR: 1.41 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.94) and symptoms of nerve entrapment of the hand HR: 1.58 (95% CI 1.14 to 2.20). Predictors of voluntary early retirement were persistent shoulder pain HR: 1.40 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.67) and floor mopping for more than 10 h per week HR: 1.20 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.40). CONCLUSION......: Cleaners have a twofold higher risk of disability pension compared to the control group. Risk factors for disability pension among cleaners were persistent shoulder and elbow pain together with symptoms of nerve entrapment of the hand. The findings of specific health related predictors of early retirement...

  14. Mold Occurring on the Air Cleaner High-Efficiency Particulate Air Filters Used in the Houses of Child Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seong Hwan; Ahn, Geum Ran; Son, Seung Yeol; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Yun, Yeo Hong

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are the known sources of irritation associated with atopic diseases (e.g., asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema). To quantitatively estimate their presence in the indoor environment of atopic dermatitis-inflicted child patient's houses (ADCPHs), the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters installed inside the air cleaners of three different ADCPHs were investigated for the presence of mold. The air cleaner HEPA filters obtained from the three different ADCPHs w...

  15. Joint Production of Safer, Cleaner and Animal Friendlier Beef: Do Consumers Join it Too? - Insights from Focus Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas, Ines; Santos, Jose Manuel Lima; Fontes, Magda Aguiar

    2011-01-01

    Consumers’ motivations and behaviour towards food safety, animal welfare and the environment in beef production and beef products were discussed in several focus groups, within a broader research program aiming at determining Portuguese consumers’ willingness to pay for safer, cleaner and animal friendlier beef. Regarding the supply context, food safety, animal welfare and environmental protection are, to some extent, jointly produced within beef production systems. From the demand perspectiv...

  16. Ocean cleaning stations under a changing climate: biological responses of tropical and temperate fish-cleaner shrimp to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rui; Lopes, Ana Rita; Pimentel, Marta; Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Trübenbach, Katja; Narciso, Luis; Dionísio, Gisela; Pegado, Maria Rita; Repolho, Tiago; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário

    2014-10-01

    Cleaning symbioses play an important role in the health of certain coastal marine communities. These interspecific associations often occur at specific sites (cleaning stations) where a cleaner organism (commonly a fish or shrimp) removes ectoparasites/damaged tissue from a 'client' (a larger cooperating fish). At present, the potential impact of climate change on the fitness of cleaner organisms remains unknown. This study investigated the physiological and biochemical responses of tropical (Lysmata amboinensis) and temperate (L. seticaudata) cleaner shrimp to global warming. Specifically, thermal limits (CTMax), metabolic rates, thermal sensitivity, heat shock response (HSR), lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration], lactate levels, antioxidant (GST, SOD and catalase) and digestive enzyme activities (trypsin and alkaline phosphatase) at current and warming (+3 °C) temperature conditions. In contrast to the temperate species, CTMax values decreased significantly from current (24-27 °C) to warming temperature conditions (30 °C) for the tropical shrimp, where metabolic thermal sensitivity was affected and the HSR was significantly reduced. MDA levels in tropical shrimp increased dramatically, indicating extreme cellular lipid peroxidation, which was not observed in the temperate shrimp. Lactate levels, GST and SOD activities were significantly enhanced within the muscle tissue of the tropical species. Digestive enzyme activities in the hepatopancreas of both species were significantly decreased by warmer temperatures. Our data suggest that the tropical cleaner shrimp will be more vulnerable to global warming than the temperate Lysmata seticaudata; the latter evolved in a relatively unstable environment with seasonal thermal variations that may have conferred greater adaptive plasticity. Thus, tropical cleaning symbioses may be challenged at a greater degree by warming-related anthropogenic forcing, with potential cascading effects on the health

  17. Microbial contents of vacuum cleaner bag dust and emitted bioaerosols and their implications for human exposure indoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillette, Marc; Knibbs, Luke D; Pelletier, Ariane; Charlebois, Remi; Blais Lecours, Pascale; He, Congrong; Morawska, Lidia; Duchaine, Caroline

    2013-10-01

    Vacuum cleaners can release large concentrations of particles, both in their exhaust air and from resuspension of settled dust. However, the size, variability, and microbial diversity of these emissions are unknown, despite evidence to suggest they may contribute to allergic responses and infection transmission indoors. This study aimed to evaluate bioaerosol emission from various vacuum cleaners. We sampled the air in an experimental flow tunnel where vacuum cleaners were run, and their airborne emissions were sampled with closed-face cassettes. Dust samples were also collected from the dust bag. Total bacteria, total archaea, Penicillium/Aspergillus, and total Clostridium cluster 1 were quantified with specific quantitative PCR protocols, and emission rates were calculated. Clostridium botulinum and antibiotic resistance genes were detected in each sample using endpoint PCR. Bacterial diversity was also analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), image analysis, and band sequencing. We demonstrated that emission of bacteria and molds (Penicillium/Aspergillus) can reach values as high as 1E5 cell equivalents/min and that those emissions are not related to each other. The bag dust bacterial and mold content was also consistent across the vacuums we assessed, reaching up to 1E7 bacterial or mold cell equivalents/g. Antibiotic resistance genes were detected in several samples. No archaea or C. botulinum was detected in any air samples. Diversity analyses showed that most bacteria are from human sources, in keeping with other recent results. These results highlight the potential capability of vacuum cleaners to disseminate appreciable quantities of molds and human-associated bacteria indoors and their role as a source of exposure to bioaerosols.

  18. Strategies to overcome barriers for cleaner generation technologies in small developing power systems: Sri Lanka case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijayatunga, Priyantha D.C.; Siriwardena, Kanchana; Fernando, W.J.L.S.; Shrestha, Ram M.; Attalage, Rahula A.

    2006-01-01

    The penetration of cleaner and energy efficient technologies in small power systems such as the one in Sri Lanka has encountered many problems. This has caused major concerns among the policy makers, mainly in the context of the growing need to reduce harmful emissions in the electricity supply industry from the point of view of both local environmental pollution as well as the global warming concerns. This paper presents the outcome of a study involved in identifying and ranking the barriers to the promotion of cleaner and energy efficient technologies and strategies to overcome these barriers in Sri Lanka. Barriers for renewable energy based systems such as wind and wood fuel fired plants (dendro thermal power) and cleaner technologies such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) fired combined cycle and IGCC (coal) were identified based on a survey. A direct assessment multi-criteria decision making method called Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank the barriers. The most effective strategies are proposed to address the three major barriers for each of these technologies based on extensive discussions with all the stakeholders in the electricity industry. It was found that lack of financing instruments, high initial cost and lack of assurance of resource supply or availability are the main barriers for renewable technologies. As for cleaner fuel and technology options associated with conventional generation systems, the lack of a clear government policy, uncertainty of fuel supplies and their prices and the reliability of the technologies themselves are the major barriers. Strategies are identified to overcome the above barriers. Establishment of a proper feed in tariff, geographical diversification of installations and capacity building in commercial banks are suggested for wind power. Investment incentives, streamlining of wood production and research on site identification are proposed for wood fuel fired plants. Also the study suggests delayed

  19. Vacuum-cleaner noise and acute stress responses in female C57BL/6 mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kelly; Hahn, Nina E; Palme, Rupert; Saxton, Katherine; Francis, Darlene D

    2010-05-01

    Audiogenic stress is a well-documented phenomenon in laboratory rodents. Despite the recommendation in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals to consider noise a concern in the animal facility, only a small body of literature empirically addresses the effects of facility noise on laboratory rodents, particularly mice. The objective of this study was to determine whether facility noise generated by a vacuum cleaner induces an acute stress response in a commonly used strain of laboratory mouse under common housing conditions. In each of 2 experiments, 10 young adult, female C57BL/6Cr mice were exposed for 1 h to noise produced by a vacuum cleaner, and 10 control mice were not. In the first experiment, fecal samples were collected to measure concentrations of fecal corticosterone metabolites just before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, 24, and 32 h after noise exposure. In the second experiment, stress-sensitive behavioral tests were performed 2 d before, immediately after, and 24 h after noise exposure. Physiologic and behavioral measurements indicated that vacuum cleaner noise did not cause an acute stress response in the noise-exposed mice but may have affected the diurnal variation of their corticosterone levels. These findings could contribute to the development of best practices in noise-control protocols for animal facilities.

  20. Residual Perchloroethylene in Dry-Cleaned Acetate: The Effect of Pressing and Extent of Inter-Dry-Cleaner Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Kevin P; Jang, Christine J; Park, Ju-Hyeong; Serrano, Paulina I; Weker, Robert A; Lee, Kiyoung; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    1999-02-01

    Measurements of residual perchloroethylene (PCE), a dry-cleaning solvent associated with human health effects, were made in dry-cleaned acetate cloth to enable improved characterizations of both occupational and environmental exposure. A limited sample size (25 acetate cloths) was used to explore the extent of inter-dry-cleaner variability in residual PCE and to characterize the effect of the pressing operation on residual PCE. A new method, which uses carbon-disulfide as the direct extracting agent, proved effective in the analysis of residual PCE, with a recovery-efficiency ≈ 75%. Inter-dry-cleaner variability of residual PCE, although marginally statistically significant, was relatively low, showing only a fourfold range compared to a 5-order-of-magnitude range obtained from Kawauchi and Nishiyama 1 . Pairwise comparison of residual PCE in nonpressed versus pressed acetate samples revealed a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.008), which amounted to a consistent (among dry-cleaners) pressing-related removal efficiency of 75 ± 4%. A preliminary assessment of the source term associated with the pressing operation (mass PCE liberated per kg cloth dry-cleaned, S PCE ≈ 30 mg/kg) indicates a minor contribution to the average ambient air concentrations within dry-cleaning establishments.

  1. Rancang Bangun Vacuum Cleaner Dengan Pengendali Nirkabel Menggunakan Modul Rf Data Transceiver Ys-1020ub Berbasis Mikrokontroler At89s52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGAP Raka Agung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Kebersihan merupakan hal yang sangat penting untuk menjaga kesehatan kita, khususnya kebersihan rumah. Rumah yang bersih sangat mempengaruhi kesehatan para penghuninya. Debu adalah kotoran yang paling sering mengotori rumah kita terutama pada bagian lantai. Setiap hari kita harus membersihkan rumah dari debu yang ada pada lantai untuk menjaga kebersihan sekaligus kesehatan kita. Dalam membersihkan lantai rumah dari  debu sering menyita banyak waktu dan tenaga. Vacuum cleaner terkendali nirkabel menggunakan Modul RF Data Transceiver YS-1020UB berbasis mikrokontroler AT89S52 merupakan salah satu solusi untuk membersihkan lantai rumah dari kotoran debu.  Vacuum cleaner ini menggunakan enam buah motor DC yaitu dua motor DC penyedot debu, dua motor DC penentu arah maju, mundur, belok kanan, dan belok kiri, serta dua motor DC penentu arah geser kanan dan geser kiri.  Vacuum cleaner ini dapat dikendalikan dengan dua mode operasi yaitu mode manual dan otomatis. Pada mode manual vacuum cleaner ini dikendalikan menggunakan remote control, dengan tranmisi nirkabel memakai transceiver YS-1020UB. Sedangkan pada mode otomatis  vacuum cleaner ini menggunakan empat buah sensor jarak untuk menghindari tabrakan pada dinding.  Vacuum cleaner dengan pengendali nirkabel menggunakan modul RF Data Transceiver YS-1020UB berbasis mikrokontroler AT89S52 sudah bisa membersihkan debu lantai sehingga lantai bersih dari debu.

  2. Magnetic field assisted finishing of ultra-lightweight and high-resolution MEMS x-ray micro-pore optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Raul E.; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Takagi, Utako; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kato, Fumiki; Sugiyama, Susumu; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2009-05-01

    In recent years, X-ray telescopes have been shrinking in both size and weight to reduce cost and volume on space flight missions. Current designs focus on the use of MEMS technologies to fabricate ultra-lightweight and high-resolution X-ray optics. In 2006, Ezoe et al. introduced micro-pore X-ray optics fabricated using anisotropic wet etching of silicon (110) wafers. These optics, though extremely lightweight (completed telescope weight 1 kg or less for an effective area of 1000 cm2), had limited angular resolution, as the reflecting surfaces were flat crystal planes. To achieve higher angular resolution, curved reflecting surfaces should be used. Both silicon dry etching and X-ray LIGA were used to create X-ray optics with curvilinear micro-pores; however, the resulting surface roughness of the curved micro-pore sidewalls did not meet X-ray reflection criteria of 10 nm rms in a 10 μm2 area. This indicated the need for a precision polishing process. This paper describes the development of an ultra-precision polishing process employing an alternating magnetic field assisted finishing process to polish the micro-pore side walls to a mirror finish (< 4 nmrms). The processing principle is presented, and a polishing machine is designed and fabricated to explore the feasibility of this polishing process as a possible method for processing MEMS X-ray optics to meet X-ray reflection specifications.

  3. Application of cleaner production tools and failure modes and effects analysis in pig slaughterhourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Fonseca

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cleaner production programs (CP and Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA are tools used to improve the sustainability of industries, ensuring greater profitability, quality, reliability and safety of their products and services. The meat industry is among the most polluting industries because of the large amounts of organic waste produced during meat processing. The objective of this study was to combine the CP and FMEA tools and to apply them in a pig slaughterhouse in order to detect critical points along the production chain that have a major environmental impact and to establish corrective and preventive actions that could minimize these problems. The results showed that water is the most consumed resource by the industry and also the main producer of waste due to microbiological contamination with animal feces and blood and meat residues. All impacts were found to be real due to their daily occurrence in the industry. Their severity, occurrence, detection and coverage were classified as moderate and high, high, low and moderate, and moderate and high, respectively. The application of the CP and FMEA tools was efficient in identifying and evaluating the environmental impacts caused by the slaughter and processing of pork carcasses. Liquid slaughter effluents and solid wastes (blood and bones are the factors that pose the greatest risks to the environment. The substitution of treatment plant chemicals with decomposing microorganisms, composting, and the production of animal meal and feed from solid waste are appropriate measures the industry could adopt to minimize the contamination of water resources and soil.

  4. Optical design and suspension system of the KAGRA output mode-cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Junko; Winterflood, John; Li, Ju; Somiya, Kentaro

    2018-02-01

    KAGRA is a Japanese large scale, underground, cryogenic gravitational telescope which is under construction in the Kamioka mine. For using cryogenic test masses, the sensitivity of KAGRA is limited mainly by quantum noise. In order to reduce quantum noise, KAGRA employs an output mode-cleaner (OMC) at the output port that filters out junk light but allows the gravitational wave signal to go through. The requirement of the KAGRA OMC is even more challenging than other telescopes in the world since KAGRA plans to tune the signal readout phase so that the signal-to-noise ratio for our primary target source can be maximized. A proper selection of optical parameters and anti-vibration devices is required for the robust operation of the OMC. In this proceeding, we show our final results of modal-model simulations, in which we downselected the cavity length, the round-trip Gouy phase shift, the finesse, and the seismic isolation ratio for the suspended optics.

  5. Water Quality Improvement of Media Culture for Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with Cleaner Production Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeruddin; Supriharyono; Febrianto, S.

    2018-02-01

    The tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), is known as a high adaptability and brackish water tolerance fish. This fish is also has a meat with high protein content, that ranges about 65 -75%. Generally the tilapia is cultured using a conventional system with high density. It is caused degradation of water quality of media culture, and finally increase mortality rate of fish cultured. The application of tilapia cultivation with cleaner production method by giving enzyme into the feed to upgrade the efficiency of feed utilization, presumed that could improve the water quality of cultivation media. It is due to the lower of feed and feces residues. Therefore the concentration of toxic compounds, such as ammonia, nitrite and sulfide, will be lower. The experiments were conducted for 35 days with a completely factorial randomized design. The first factor was the dosage of enzyme in the feed, consisting of 4 dosages, and the second factor was the duration of the test fish maintenance (5 weeks). Water quality variables examined included ammonia, nitrite and sulfide. The results showed that enzyme dosage had no significantly impact on ammonia, nitrite and sulfide concentrations in the test media culture. However, the feeding with enzyme in low dosage, resulted less concentration of ammonia, nitrite and sulfide than it was without enzyme). The duration of fish cultured has significantly effect on the concentration of ammonia, nitrite and sulfide in the test media. While it is no significantly correlation between dosage and duration of maintenance.

  6. Cleaner fuels for ships provide public health benefits with climate tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofiev, Mikhail; Winebrake, James J; Johansson, Lasse; Carr, Edward W; Prank, Marje; Soares, Joana; Vira, Julius; Kouznetsov, Rostislav; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Corbett, James J

    2018-02-06

    We evaluate public health and climate impacts of low-sulphur fuels in global shipping. Using high-resolution emissions inventories, integrated atmospheric models, and health risk functions, we assess ship-related PM 2.5 pollution impacts in 2020 with and without the use of low-sulphur fuels. Cleaner marine fuels will reduce ship-related premature mortality and morbidity by 34 and 54%, respectively, representing a ~ 2.6% global reduction in PM 2.5 cardiovascular and lung cancer deaths and a ~3.6% global reduction in childhood asthma. Despite these reductions, low-sulphur marine fuels will still account for ~250k deaths and ~6.4 M childhood asthma cases annually, and more stringent standards beyond 2020 may provide additional health benefits. Lower sulphur fuels also reduce radiative cooling from ship aerosols by ~80%, equating to a ~3% increase in current estimates of total anthropogenic forcing. Therefore, stronger international shipping policies may need to achieve climate and health targets by jointly reducing greenhouse gases and air pollution.

  7. The theory of inventive problem solving integrated to the cleaner production: theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Issao Kubota

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Efforts towards to reduction of environmental impact by enterprises are a solving problem process, which often need inventive solutions that generate environmental, technical and economic benefits. Hence, this research aimed to verify, through literature, and discuss the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ integration to cleaner production (CP strategies, in order to structure a new methodology for inventive solutions focused on reduction of effluents, waste and emissions. To perform this study, we proceeded a qualitative and descriptive research, with documentary data collection strategy. The results show predominance of CP level 1 researches, with greater focus on product improvement, a smaller quantity of process modification studies (level 1 and internal recycling (level 2, and no evidence of TRIZ utilization was obtained on level 3 (external recycling and biogenic cycles. The proposed integration is promising, since both methodologies aim ideal situation and problems’ reduction. At the end, opportunities were detected for application of TRIZ in production processes, by means of functional analysis and Ideal Final Result (IFR, being possible to direct teams towards optimization of technical systems.

  8. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nass, R. [Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  9. Radon exhalation from some finishing materials frequently used in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Raja, G.

    2009-01-01

    Building materials are one of the main radon sources in dwellings. Therefore, the determination of radon exhalation from these materials will help in prediction the existence of dwelling with potential radon risk. Ceramic tiles and marble samples were collected from Syrian local market. The correlation between radon exhalation from these materials and radium-226 content was studied. Results showed that there is no clear relation between radium content and radon exhalation rate, and the exhalation of radon did not exceed the permissible limits of American Environment Protection Agency (EPA). In addition, the additional annual dose from radon and gamma of the natural radioactivity in ceramic and marble when used as finishing materials in houses was also estimated and found to be not exceeding 20 μSv and 35 μSv from radon and gamma respectively.

  10. Thermal Properties of Anionic Polyurethane Composition for Leather Finishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga KOVTUNENKO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of anionic polyurethane composition mixed with collagen product and hydrophilic sodium form of montmorillonite for use in the finishing of leather were studied by thermogravimetric method. The thermal indices of processes of thermal and thermo-oxidative destruction depending on the polyurethane composition were determined. The influence of anionic polyurethane composition on thermal behavior of chromium tanned gelatin films that imitate the leather were studied. APU composition with natural compounds increases their thermal stability both in air and in nitrogen atmosphere due to the formation of additional bonds between active groups of APU, protein and chrome tanning agent as the result of chemical reactions between organic and inorganic parts with the new structure formation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.10043

  11. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J.; Nass, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage

  12. Plutonium Finishing Plant Transition Project mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courson, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    This report defines the mission for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Transition Project (PFPTP) using a systems engineering approach. This mission analysis will be the basis for the functional analysis which will further define and break down the mission statement into all of the detailed functions required to accomplish the mission. The functional analysis is then used to develop requirements, allocate those requirements to functions, and eventually be used to design the system. This report: presents the problem which will be addressed, defines PFP Transition Project, defines the overall mission statement, describes the existing, initial conditions, defines the desired, final conditions, identifies the mission boundaries and external interfaces, identifies the resources required to carry out the mission, describes the uncertainties and risks, and discusses the measures which will be used to determine success

  13. Nutrition behaviors, perceptions, and beliefs of recent marathon finishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick B

    2016-09-01

    To describe the nutrition behaviors, perceptions, and beliefs of marathoners. A survey-based study was conducted with 422 recent marathon finishers (199 men, 223 women). Participants reported their running background, demographics, diets followed, supplements used, and food/fluid intake during their most recent marathon (median 7 days prior), as well as beliefs about hydration, fueling, and sources of nutrition information. Median finishing times were 3:53 (3:26-4:35) and 4:25 (3:50-4:59) h:min for men and women during their most recent marathon. Most participants (66.1%) reported typically following a moderate-carbohydrate, moderate-fat diet, while 66.4% carbohydrate-loaded prior to their most recent marathon. Among 139 participants following a specific diet over the past year, the most common were vegetarian/vegan/pescatarian (n = 39), Paleolithic (n = 16), gluten-free (n = 15), and low-carbohydrate (n = 12). Roughly 35% of participants took a supplement intended to improve running performance over the past month. Women were more likely to follow specific diets (39.0% vs. 26.1%), while men were more likely to recently use performance-enhancing supplements (40.2% vs. 30.0%). Most participants (68.3%) indicated they were likely or very likely to rely on a structured plan to determine fluid intake, and 75% were confident in their ability to hydrate. At least 35.6% of participants thought they could improve marathon performance by 8% or more with nutrition interventions. Scientific journals ranked as the most reliable source of nutrition information, while running coaches ranked as the most likely source to be utilized. Findings from this investigation, such as diets and supplements utilized by marathoners, can be used by practitioners and researchers alike to improve the dissemination of scientifically-based information on nutrition and marathon running.

  14. Analysis of Failure to Finish a Race in a Cohort of Thoroughbred Racehorses in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Tanner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to describe the incidence of failure to finish a race in flat-racing Thoroughbreds in New Zealand as these are summary indicators of falls, injuries and poor performance. Retrospective data on six complete flat racing seasons (n = 188,615 race starts of all Thoroughbred flat race starts from 1 August 2005 to 31 July 2011 were obtained. The incidence of failure to finish events and binomial exact 95% confidence intervals were calculated per 1000 horse starts. The association between horse-, rider- and race-level variables with the outcomes failure to finish, pulled-up/fell and lost rider were examined with a mixed effects Poisson regression model. A total of 544 horses failed to finish in 188,615 race starts with an overall incidence of 2.88 per 1000 horse starts (95% CI 2.64–3.12. The incidence of failure to finish horses across each race year showed little variability. In the univariable analysis race distance, larger field size, season, and ratings bands showed association with failing to finish a race. The overall failure to finish outcome was associated with season, race distance and ratings bands (horse experience and success ranking criteria. In the multivariable analysis, race distance and ratings bands were associated with horses that pulled-up/fell; season, apprentice allowances and ratings bands were associated with the outcome lost rider. The failure to finish rate was lower than international figures for race day catastrophic injury. Racing and environmental variables were associated with failure to finish a race highlighting the multifactorial nature of race-day events. Further investigation of risk factors for failure to finish is required to better understand the reasons for a low failure to finish rate in Thoroughbred flat races in New Zealand.

  15. Effects of roughage inclusion and particle size on performance and rumination behavior of finishing beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughage is mechanically processed to increase digestibility, and handling and mixing characteristics in finishing diets. Roughage is fed to promote rumen health and decrease digestive upset, but inclusion in finishing diets is limited due to the cost per unit of energy. Rumination behavior may be a...

  16. 76 FR 79221 - Penske Logistics, LLC, Customer Service Department General Motors and Tier Finished Goods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ..., Customer Service Department General Motors and Tier Finished Goods/Finished Goods Division; a Subsidiary of... September 1, 2010, applicable to workers of Penske Logistics, LLC, Customer Service Department, a subsidiary... Services and Manpower. The workers are engaged in the supply of customer service. The notice was published...

  17. The Effectiveness of Finishing School Programmes from the Perspectives of Graduates and Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Jamal; Eam, Lim Hock; Ismail, Russayani; Rahim, Fauziah Abdul; Isa, Filzah Md; Ismail, Ismi Arif

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effectiveness of Finishing School programmes in enhancing the employability of graduates from institutions of higher learning. The perceptions of the graduates and employers towards the effectiveness of the programmes were analyzed. The effectiveness of Finishing School programmes evaluated through a graduate…

  18. Relationship of glucocorticoids and hematological measures with feed intake, growth, and efficiency of finishing beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of glucocorticoids and markers for immune status in finishing beef steers and heifers with DMI, growth, and efficiency. Calves (n = 236) were individually fed a finishing ration for 84 d with BW measured every 21 d. Blood samples we...

  19. The effect of pheno-formaldehyde finishing on the properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the effect of catalyst concentration, curing time and temperature on a phenolformaldehyde finished direct dyed cotton. The grey cotton fabric was desized, scoured, bleached and dyed with chlorazol D, a direct dye. Sample of the dyed cotton were subjected to resin finishing using phenol: formaldehyde.

  20. "Miss! I'm Done!" Finishing Craft Assignments as a Situated Activity System in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deunk, Marjolein; Berenst, Jan; de Glopper, Kees

    2010-01-01

    We describe the Situated Activity System of finishing craft assignments in preschool: the specific, routinized way that child and teacher jointly close the child's craft assignment, employing a specific discourse pattern. We analyzed the interactions of 14 Dutch children between 2.1 and 3.10 years old while they were finishing their craft…

  1. Effects of time of change from broiler starter to broiler finisher diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of time of change from broiler starter ration (BSR) to broiler finisher ration (BFR) on growth performance and economy of gain of meat- type chickens. Six hundred Abor Acres broiler chickens were used in an 8-week study in which same starter and finisher diets were fed but at ...

  2. 40 CFR 427.80 - Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. 427.80 Section 427.80 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.80 Applicability; description...

  3. 40 CFR 410.40 - Applicability; description of the woven fabric finishing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the woven... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Woven Fabric Finishing Subcategory § 410.40 Applicability; description of the woven fabric finishing subcategory. The...

  4. Evaluation of the susceptibility to corrosion by pites of supermartensitic stainless steel with different superficial finishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Mario Jose Bueno de Souza

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the susceptibility by pitting corrosion in a supermartensitic stainless steel (13%Cr) with different surface finishes, in an environment that simulates the conditions found in the range of the Brazilian marine subsoil before the dense layer of salt - the so-called pre-salt. In this study were conducted electrochemical tests of potentiodynamic anodic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in environment containing 35, 50 and 190 g/L of NaCl and dissolved oxygen concentrations <10, 100 and 500ppb. Were also used the techniques of Moessbauer spectroscopy and EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry) coupled to a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for microstructural characterization of 13%Cr steel. It was observed by the electrochemical tests, the increase in the concentration of chloride ions in solution makes the studied steel more susceptible to localized corrosion. It was also observed that the material showed less susceptibility to pitting corrosion when its surface was less rough. (author)

  5. Plasma-enhanced regenerable 5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DMH) antibacterial finishing for cotton fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chang-E.; Kan, Chi-Wai

    2015-02-01

    In this study, atmospheric pressure nitrogen plasma treatment was applied to cotton fabrics in the coating process of cotton fabric coated with 5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DMH) with the aim to enhance the adhesion of DMH and antibacterial property. Then chlorine was introduced into nitrogen-containing groups on the coated cotton fabrics in order to make it antibacterial by chlorination with sodium hypochlorite. The antibacterial property, rechargeability and stability of the coated cotton fabrics were investigated. FTIR, UV and SEM were used to evaluate the surface properties, including the existence of DMH on cotton fabrics, the content of DMH on cotton fabrics and the surface topography of cotton fabrics after modification. The results showed that nitrogen plasma treatment introduces nitrogen-containing groups into cotton fabrics and enhances the adhesion of DMH on the fabrics, and introduction of chlorine on the coated fabrics inhibits bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), effectively and the antibacterial property is regenerable. Therefore, the antibacterial finishing of cotton fabrics coated with DMH with the aid of nitrogen plasma treatment achieves good effect.

  6. A study on the applications of AI in finishing of additive manufacturing parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathima Patham, K.

    2017-06-01

    Artificial intelligent and computer simulation are the technological powerful tools for solving complex problems in the manufacturing industries. Additive Manufacturing is one of the powerful manufacturing techniques that provide design flexibilities to the products. The products with complex shapes are directly manufactured without the need of any machining and tooling using Additive Manufacturing. However, the main drawback of the components produced using the Additive Manufacturing processes is the quality of the surfaces. This study aims to minimize the defects caused during Additive Manufacturing with the aid of Artificial Intelligence. The developed AI system has three layers, each layer is trying to eliminate or minimize the production errors. The first layer of the AI system optimizes the digitization of the 3D CAD model of the product and hence reduces the stair case errors. The second layer of the AI system optimizes the 3D printing machine parameters in order to eliminate the warping effect. The third layer of AI system helps to choose the surface finishing technique suitable for the printed component based on the Degree of Complexity of the product and the material. The efficiency of the developed AI system was examined on the functional parts such as gears.

  7. Mortality on grower/finisher-only swine operations in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Losinger W.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available For 53 grower/finisher-only swine operations that participated in the United States National Animal Health Monitoring System 1995 National Swine Study, mortality among finisher pigs ranged from 0 to 12.0% over a 6-month period. Twenty-six (49.1% had 2% mortality. Nine (17.0% operations experienced >4% mortality. Fisher's exact test revealed that operations with all-in all-out management were significantly more likely to have 1 grower/finisher pig came from another source. Larger operations (where >900 pigs entered the grower/finisher phase practiced all-in, all-out management more frequently than smaller operations, and had a lower mean percent mortality than smaller operations. Diagnosis of Salmonella in finisher pigs performed at a laboratory or by a veterinarian in the 12 months prior to interview was associated with both increased percent mortality and increased percent mortality per day.

  8. Carcass and meat quality of finished and non-finished Limousin heifers from alpine livestock systems differing in altitudinal origin of the forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangnat, Isabelle D M; Kreuzer, Michael; McCormick, Andrea Clavijo; Leiber, Florian; Berard, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Effects of the alpine origin of the forage and of finishing on carcass and beef quality were quantified by modelling different alpine livestock system alternatives. Thirty-five Limousin heifers, initially weighing 383 ± 45 kg, were fed fresh grass at 400 or 2000 m above sea level, or a 1:1 mixture of alpine grass and lowland grass hay at 2000 m. After 9 weeks, the six heaviest and oldest animals per group were slaughtered. The remaining animals were finished for 8 weeks on a silage-concentrate diet in the lowlands to similar age and body weight as the first slaughtered group. Carcass and meat quality (M. longissimus thoracis) were assessed in various respects. The average daily gains achieved were of about 600 g/d and similar between forage-type groups. Dressing percentage was 53.5% in the alpine and 57.2% in the lowland group. Carcass conformation and fat cover scores did not differ between forage-type groups. The meat from the alpine groups had greater ultimate pH and smaller redness, yellowness and protein contents. Still, these differences were of minor practical relevance. There was no forage-type effect on water-holding capacity and shear force of the meat. The alpine systems enhanced the proportion of α-linolenic acid in intramuscular fat and decreased the levels of some volatile compounds in perirenal fat. Finishing resulted in compensatory growth, especially in the animals previously fed lowland grass. There was a trend for the finished compared with the non-finished groups towards greater carcass fat cover and intramuscular fat content. Additionally, ultimate pH was smaller and cooking loss was greater with than without finishing. Meat colour differences were also observed. Shear force was not affected by finishing. The finished animals had a smaller α-linolenic acid proportion in the intramuscular fat. In conclusion, the forage type had small effects on carcass and meat quality. Finishing did not substantially improve carcass and meat quality. The

  9. Cleaner shipping. Trade off between air pollution, costs and refinery CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wilde, H.P.J.; Kroon, P.

    2008-05-01

    Still subject to final approval in October 2008, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) agreed on a maximum sulphur content of 0.5% for shipping fuels in 2020. This target will induce major changes in the global refinery industry. We have estimated the impact on the Dutch refinery industry, which annually produces about 8 million tons of heavy fuel oil for sea shipping, with refinery residues as main component. It is technically possible to convert all residues, although this process will cause an additional energy use of about one million tons of crude oil and a related CO2 emission of about 4 million tons. The investment costs for these major changes in the Dutch refinery industry are estimated at about 1.5 tot 2 billion euros. The recent IMO agreement enables a gradual introduction of cleaner shipping fuels, which will reduce market disruptions and peak prices. Nevertheless, Rotterdam may not necessarily be able to develop a similar position in import, export and bunkering of future low sulphur fuels, compared to its present strong position in the market of heavy marine bunkers. Extrapolation of our national study to the global scale suggests that the deep conversion of 350 million tons of heavy fuel oil for shipping would require refinery investments in the order of 70-100 billion euros. The associated CO2 emissions would amount up to 175 Mton. The net additional CO2 emission, however, would be smaller since lighter shipping fuels result in less CO2 emissions at sea. On balance, we expect that the improvements in fuel economy, driven by the expensive low-carbon shipping fuels, will decrease CO2 emissions more than the increase in CO2 emissions from additional desulphurization in the refineries. Nevertheless CO2 emissions from sea shipping will continue to increase since marine transport is rapidly growing

  10. Car 'organ-transplant': anticipating energy and environmental benefits of cleaner technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Filipe; Viegas, Jose Manuel (CESUR/Inst. Superior Tecnico (Portugal))

    2009-07-01

    The transport sector faces multiple challenges including the accommodation of increasing fuel prices and environmental pressures. These hurdles become more important in road transport where cars hold a larger share of final energy consumption and emissions. Although not solved, the situation is improving in general and the question of accelerating the transition to new technologies is dominant, yet not sufficient. Technological turnover of car fleets is determined by the replacement of older vehicles by new models. Depending on the diffusion of new cars and driving forces for technological change, the total displacement of older technologies can last 10 to more than 40 years. Car Organ Transplant (COT) is explored here as a complementary alternative to conventional technological turnover of fleets by which potential benefits are delayed as obsolete technologies continue to pollute at preceding levels. COT corresponds to replacing obsolete powertrain and ancillary equipments with cleaner technologies. Consequently, car's service time is extended with upgraded and fully functional technologies. We analyzed lifecycle environmental and economic benefits of COT by comparing different car-ownership approaches over 20 years: keeping car, buying new car, buying remarketed-car; buying transplanted-car or transplanting own car. We concluded that COT is potentially attractive for owners while improving energy and environmental performance of automobility. Additionally, we estimated the pervasiveness of COT in the Portuguese car fleet and corresponding impacts. We concluded that COT potentially yields significant energy and environmental benefits for society. Barriers and implications of COT for the automotive industry were identified. Importantly, increased standardization, modularity-in-design and modularity-in-production are necessary. Lastly, new relationships between car makers and customers may arise like 'evolutionary car selling' by which planned COT

  11. The effect of various frequencies of ultrasonic cleaner in reducing residual monomer in acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charasseangpaisarn, Taksid; Wiwatwarrapan, Chairat

    2015-12-01

    Monomer remaining in denture base acrylic can be a major problem because it may cause adverse effects on oral tissue and on the properties of the material. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of various ultrasonic cleaner frequencies on the amount of residual monomer in acrylic resin after curing. Forty-two specimens each of Meliodent heat-polymerized acrylic resin (M) and Unifast Trad Ivory auto-polymerized acrylic resin (U) were prepared according to their manufacturer's instructions and randomly divided into seven groups: Negative control (NC); Positive control (PC); and five ultrasonic treatment groups: 28 kHz (F1), 40 kHz (F2), 60 kHz (F3) (M=10 min, U=5 min), and 28 kHz followed by 60 kHz (F4: M=5 min per frequency, U=2.5 min per frequency, and F5: M=10 min followed by 5 min per frequency, U=5 min followed by 2.5 min per frequency). Residual monomer was determined by HPLC following ISO 20795-1. The data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD. There was significantly less residual monomer in the auto-polymerized acrylic resin in all ultrasonic treatment groups and the PC group than that of the NC group (pacrylic resin (p>0.05). The amount of residual monomer in heat-polymerized acrylic resin was significantly lower than that of auto-polymerized acrylic resin. In conclusion, ultrasonic treatment at low frequencies is recommended to reduce the residual monomer in auto-polymerized acrylic resin and this method is more practical in a clinical situation than previously recommended methods because of reduced chairside time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Advanced zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron particles for acidic magnetorheological finishing of chemical-vapor-deposited ZnS and other IR materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, S.; Giannechini, L. J.; Romanofsky, H. J.; Golini, N.; Taylor, B.; Jacobs, S. D.; Lambropoulos, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    We present a modified version of zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron (CI) particles that were invented at the University of Rochester in 2008. The amount of zirconia on the coating is increased to further protect the iron particles from corrosion when introduced to an acidic environment. Five low-pH, magnetorheological (MR) fluids were made with five acids: acetic, hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric, and hydrofluoric. All fluids were based on the modified zirconia-coated CI particles. Off-line viscosity and pH stability were measured for all acidic MR fluids to determine the ideal fluid composition for acidic MR finishing of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) zinc sulfide (ZnS) and other infrared (IR) optical materials, such as hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) ZnS, CVD zinc selenide (ZnSe), and magnesium fluoride (MgF2). Results show significant reduction in surface artifacts (millimeter-size, pebble-like structures on the finished surface) for several standard-grade CVD ZnS substrates and good surface roughness for the non-CVD MgF2 substrate when MR finished with our advanced acidic MR fluid.

  13. The Effect of Different Finishing Lines on the Marginal Fitness of Full Contour Zirconia and Glass Ceramic CAD/CAM Crowns (An in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAK Al-Zubaidi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two gingival finishing lines (90° shoulder and deep chamfer on the marginal fitness of two types of full anatomic all-ceramic crowns; zirconia crowns (Zikonzhan and glass ceramic crowns (IPS e-max CAD milled with CAD/CAM system. Materials and Methods: Two dentoform teeth of left maxillary first molar were prepared with chamfer finishing line (CFL and shoulder finishing line (SFL, respectively and duplicated to Nickel-Chromium master dies. Thirty two crowns were fabricated and grouped as follows: Group I: 8 zirconia crowns on CFL; Group II: 8 zirconia crowns on SFL; Group III: 8 glass ceramic crowns on CFL and Group IV: 8 glass ceramic crowns on SFL. Marginal gaps were measured at 4 indentations, each one was at center of each tooth surface and collectively 16 points were measured by using stereomicroscope (160X. The data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA and student t-tests. Results: Group I produced the least marginal gap (73.55µm; followed by Group II (92.60µm, and Group III (151.45µm and the highest marginal gap was recorded by Group IV (162.34µm. Statistical analysis of the data showed that SFL produced significantly greater marginal gap on zirconia crowns in comparison with CFL. However, in glass ceramic crowns, CFL revealed less marginal gap compared to SFL but statistically was not significant. On the other hand, glass ceramic crowns significantly produced a greater marginal gap in comparison to zirconia crowns regardless type of finishing line. Conclusions: deep chamfer margin could be more preferable finishing line than 90° shoulder especially for zirconia full crowns. Furthermore, zirconia crowns could be more advisable than glass ceramic crowns in respect to marginal adaptation.

  14. Provenance of the oil in par-fried French fries after finish frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khusaibi, Mohammed; Gordon, Michael H; Lovegrove, Julie A; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2012-01-01

    Frozen par-fried French fries are finish-fried either by using the same type of oil used for par frying, or a different type. The nutritive quality of the final oil contained in the product depends on the relative amounts and the fatty acid (FA) composition of the oils used for par frying and finish frying. With the aim of understanding the provenance of the oil in the final product, par-fried French fries-either purchased ready or prepared in the laboratory-were finish fried in oils different from the ones used for par frying. The moisture content, oil content, and FA compositions of the par-fried and finish-fried products were experimentally determined, and the relative amounts of each of the oils present in the final product were calculated using the FAs as markers and undertaking a mass balance on each component FA. The results demonstrate that 89% to 93% of the total oil in the final product originates from the finish-frying step. The study also shows that a significant proportion of the oil absorbed during par frying is expelled from the product during finish frying. Further, the expulsion of par-frying oil was found to occur in the early stages of the finish-frying step. Experiments involving different combinations of par-frying and finish-frying oils showed that the relative proportions of the 2 oils did not depend on the individual fatty acid profiles. This study concludes that any positive health benefits of using an oil having a favorable FA profile for par frying, can potentially be lost, if the oil used for finish frying has a less favorable composition. This paper estimates the relative amounts of oil in French fries that have been fried in 2 stages-a par-frying step and a finish-frying step-which is commonly practiced in food service establishments as well as homes. The 2 key conclusions are: (1) nearly 90% of the oil content of the final product is the one used for finish frying; that is, a processor may use very good oil for par frying but if the

  15. Ractopamine in diets for finishing pigs of different sexual categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique da Trindade Barbosa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Performance and carcass and cut yield of finishing pigs of three sexual categories fed diets with different levels of ractopamine were studied. Forty-eight hybrid animals (initial weight of 92.1±2.4 kg were distributed in a completely randomised design in 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (three sexual categories: surgically castrated males, two females and immunologically castrated males - with or without 10 ppm of ractopamine, totalling six treatments and eight repetitions with one animal per experimental plot during 28 days. Ractopamine improved weight gain and feed conversion of all sexual categories. The best results were obtained with immunologically castrated males, which, in turn, had lower carcass yield and backfat thickness in the belly. In the absence of ractopamine, depth and loin eye area were higher in females but no differences in these variables were observed between categories when this additive was used. Ractopamine increased the sirloin yield in all sexual categories. There was no difference in bonus index. Ractopamine improves the performance of pigs of 92 to 125 kg. Immunologically castrated males have the best performance responses to ractopamine, but with losses in carcass yield, loin characteristics and backfat thickness of the belly.

  16. Finishing procedures in Orthodontics: dental dimensions and proportions (microesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carlos Bodart Brandão

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present article is to describe procedures that can be performed to achieve excellence in orthodontic treatment finishing. The content is limited to microesthetics, which comprises the concept of ideal dental dimensions and proportions (white esthetics and its correlation with the periodontium (pink esthetics. Standards of normality are described both in their real dimensions (dental height and width, and in those effectively perceived by the observer, the virtual dimensions. METHODS: The best scientific evidence was sought in the literature to support the clinical procedures that must guide the professional to obtain maximum esthetic quality on their treatments. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate what the other specialties in Dentistry expect from Orthodontics and, specially, what they have to offer. Clinical cases will be used to illustrate the dental movement that might maximize treatment outcome and to confront the ideal standards with the current state of the art. CONCLUSION: Treatment quality is directly related to the amount of procedures implemented by the orthodontist, associated with concepts and resources from Periodontics and Dental Prosthesis. Microesthetics cannot be seen in isolation, but rather as the key to establish a pleasant smile (miniesthetics in addition to a harmonious face (macroesthetics and a human being with high self-esteem (hyper-esthetics.

  17. Novel finishing concepts within BNFL'S advanced reprocessing programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, J.W.; Booth, R.; Lawson, S.; Parkes, P.

    2000-01-01

    New methods of converting actinide nitrate solutions to oxide and fabricating the products from the reprocessing of high burn up and MOX fuels are necessary for the next generation of fuel cycle facilities in order to meet dose criteria and cost reduction targets. Options to support this include never fully separating the plutonium from the uranium and reducing decontamination factors. The product stream from such a reprocessing plant will require a finishing route capable of significant levels of automation and dose minimization. Casting of molten uranyl nitrate into pellets followed by de-nitration under vacuum has been investigated as a novel way of manufacturing oxide fuel pellets. Pellets were successfully cast over a range of temperatures and de-nitrated. Incorporation of uranium oxide into the melt was investigated to increase the density of the cast pellet. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to produce extrudates from powder and molten magnesium nitrate mixtures. Results of a preliminary study of the flow behaviour during extrusion of magnesium nitrate simulant loaded with alumina powder are also discussed. (authors)

  18. Evaluation of different finish line designs in base metal alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghandeh R

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was performed according to the widespread application of base metal alloys"nand few articles published about the marginal integrity of restorations fabricated by these metals."nThree standard dies of a maxillary first premolar were prepared with a flat shoulder finish line in buccal"naspect and chamfer in palatal. One of them left with no change. On the buccal aspect of the second and"nthird dies 135?and 1607 bevel were added respectively"nUsing dual wax technique, nine wax patterns were formed on each die and casting procedure of selected"nnon precious alloy was performed by centrifugal method. Marginal gaps of each copping seated on dies"nwere measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM with X500 magnification. Measurements were"ndone on three areas of marked dies on buccal aspect. Measurement son palatal aspect was done on"nmarked midpalatal point as control."nResults and statistical analysis showed no significant difference among marginal gaps in lingual aspect."nBut on the buccal aspect there were statistically significant differences among the groups (P<0.001. Flat"nshoulder had the best marginal integrity (mean 4 micron. Shoulder with 160' bevel had the most marginal"ngap (mean 26.5 micron and shoulder with 1357 bevel was between two other groups (mean 15.7 micron.

  19. Microencapsulated citronella oil for mosquito repellent finishing of cotton textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specos, M M Miró; García, J J; Tornesello, J; Marino, P; Vecchia, M Della; Tesoriero, M V Defain; Hermida, L G

    2010-10-01

    Microcapsules containing citronella essential oil were prepared by complex coacervation and applied to cotton textiles in order to study the repellent efficacy of the obtained fabrics. Citronella released from treated textiles was indirectly monitored by the extractable content of its main components. Repellent activity was assessed by exposure of a human hand and arm covered with the treated textiles to Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Fabrics treated with microencapsulated citronella presented a higher and longer lasting protection from insects compared to fabrics sprayed with an ethanol solution of the essential oil, assuring a repellent effect higher than 90% for three weeks. Complex coacervation is a simple, low cost, scalable and reproducible method of obtaining encapsulated essential oils for textile application. Repellent textiles were achieved by padding cotton fabrics with microcapsules slurries using a conventional pad-dry method. This methodology requires no additional investment for textile finishing industries, which is a desirable factor in developing countries. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. Factors influencing dust exposure: finishing activities in drywall construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Catherine E; Jones, Rachael M; Boelter, Fred W

    2011-05-01

    Sanding drywall joint compound is a dusty construction activity. We studied potential factors influencing exposure to respirable and total dust for sanders and bystanders in the area of drywall joint compound finishing in 17 test events within a room-scale isolation chamber. We found the air change rate to be negatively correlated with dust C(twa) both in the sander's personal breathing zone and surrounding area. We could not conclude that sanding tool type systematically influences dust C(twa), but the use of 80-grit abrasive was associated with the highest dust C(twa). We found respirable dusts were uniformly dispersed 1-8.2 m from sanding activities at a fixed location. As anticipated, both respirable and total dust C(twa) in the sander's personal breathing zone are higher than in the surrounding area. The respirable fraction of the total dust mass C(twa) was greater in the surrounding area than in the sander's personal breathing zone. Respirable dust concentrations measured in real time increased over the duration of sanding, exhibiting a temporal trend that is similar to that predicted by the well-mixed box model with contaminant removal by mechanical ventilation only, and continuous emission. Dust concentrations returned to pre-activity (background) levels 2-4 hr after cessation of the sanding activity.