WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface features related

  1. Mapping stellar surface features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noah, P.V.

    1987-01-01

    New photometric and spectroscopic observations of the RS Canum Venaticorum binaries Sigma Geminorum and UX Arietis are reported along with details of the Doppler-imaging program SPOTPROF. The observations suggest that the starspot activity on Sigma Gem has decreased to 0.05 magnitude in two years. A photometric spot model for September 1984 to January 1985 found that a single spot covering 2% of the surface and 1000 K cooler than the surrounding photosphere could model the light variations. Equivalent-width observations contemporaneous with the photometric observations did not show any significant variations. Line-profile models from SPOTPROF predict that the variation of the equivalent width of the 6393 A Fe I line should be ∼ 1mA. Photometric observations of UX Ari from January 1984 to March 1985 show an 0.3 magnitude variation indicating a large spot group must cover the surface. Contemporaneous spectroscopic observations show asymmetric line profiles. The Doppler imaging and the photometric light-curve models were used in an iterative method to describe the stellar surface-spot distribution and successfully model both the photometric and the spectroscopic variations

  2. Challenges related to flotation cleaning of oil shales. Issues due to compositional and surface features and post-grinding surface behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altun N. Emre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil shale is an important energy resource alternative. Despite its recognition as an unconventional oil source, oil shale is also considered as an important solid fossil fuel alternative to coal and lignites due to the solid form and remarkable extent of organic content. Utilization possibilites, similar to coal and lignites, have been considered in the past decades and direct use of oil shales in thermal power production has been possible in countries like Estonia and China. In the perspective of utilization of oil shales in a similar manner to coal and lignites, problems and restrictions related to the inorganic ash-making and potentially pollutant constituents are applied. In this respect, cleaning of this important energy source through mineral processing methods, particularly by flotation, is an outstanding option. However, on the basis of unique features and distinctive characteristics, treatment of oil shales like a type of coal is a big perception and may be highly misleading. This paper discusses specific challenges regarding flotation behavior of oil shales with reference to the surface characteristics and behavior of oil shale entities – probably the most important aspect that determines the efficiency and success of the flotation based cleaning process.

  3. [Age-related characteristics of the surface bioelectrical potential of human, canine and rat teeth and features of its distribution over the surface of the crown].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donskiĭ, G I; Pavliuchenko, O N; Palamarchuk, Iu N; Makarova, N Ia

    1989-01-01

    Using a digital electron voltmeter, bioelectrical potentials (BEPs) of dental crowns have been recorded in 180 patients, 36 dogs, and 93 white non-inbred rats. It has been established that the surface BEP is a marker of dental enamel maturation and does not depend on the species of mammals. On the other hand maturation processes differ in their rate on the cutting edge, equator, and neck: with advancing age algebraic difference between the magnitudes of surface BEPs decreases in humans and increases in dogs and rats.

  4. Features Related to Faunal Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, M.J.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Soil fauna plays an important role in transporting and altering various soil components, in particular the decomposition of organic matter and the development of soil structure. Fauna-induced features are found in all types of soils and can be so abundant that they determine the nature and intensity

  5. Dome shaped features on Europa's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Solid State Imaging system aboard the spacecraft Galileo took this image of the surface of Europa on February 20, 1997 during its sixth orbit around Jupiter. The image is located near 16 North, 268 West; illumination is from the lower-right. The area covered is approximately 48 miles (80 kilometers) by 56 miles (95 kilometers) across. North is toward the top of the image.This image reveals that the icy surface of Europa has been disrupted by ridges and faults numerous times during its past. These ridges have themselves been disrupted by the localized formation of domes and other features that may be indicative of thermal upwelling of water from beneath the crust. These features provide strong evidence for the presence of subsurface liquid during Europa's recent past.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  6. Robust Features Of Surface Electromyography Signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, M I; Miskon, M F; Yaacob, M R

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, application of robotics in human life has been explored widely. Robotics exoskeleton system are one of drastically areas in recent robotic research that shows mimic impact in human life. These system have been developed significantly to be used for human power augmentation, robotics rehabilitation, human power assist, and haptic interaction in virtual reality. This paper focus on solving challenges in problem using neural signals and extracting human intent. Commonly, surface electromyography signal (sEMG) are used in order to control human intent for application exoskeleton robot. But the problem lies on difficulty of pattern recognition of the sEMG features due to high noises which are electrode and cable motion artifact, electrode noise, dermic noise, alternating current power line interface, and other noise came from electronic instrument. The main objective in this paper is to study the best features of electromyography in term of time domain (statistical analysis) and frequency domain (Fast Fourier Transform).The secondary objectives is to map the relationship between torque and best features of muscle unit activation potential (MaxPS and RMS) of biceps brachii. This project scope use primary data of 2 male sample subject which using same dominant hand (right handed), age between 20–27 years old, muscle diameter 32cm to 35cm and using single channel muscle (biceps brachii muscle). The experiment conduct 2 times repeated task of contraction and relaxation of biceps brachii when lifting different load from no load to 3kg with ascending 1kg The result shows that Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) has less error than mean value of reading compare to root mean square (RMS) value. Thus, Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) show the linear relationship against torque experience by elbow joint to lift different load. As the conclusion, the best features is MaxPS because it has the lowest error than other features and

  7. Robust Features Of Surface Electromyography Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, M. I.; Miskon, M. F.; Yaacob, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, application of robotics in human life has been explored widely. Robotics exoskeleton system are one of drastically areas in recent robotic research that shows mimic impact in human life. These system have been developed significantly to be used for human power augmentation, robotics rehabilitation, human power assist, and haptic interaction in virtual reality. This paper focus on solving challenges in problem using neural signals and extracting human intent. Commonly, surface electromyography signal (sEMG) are used in order to control human intent for application exoskeleton robot. But the problem lies on difficulty of pattern recognition of the sEMG features due to high noises which are electrode and cable motion artifact, electrode noise, dermic noise, alternating current power line interface, and other noise came from electronic instrument. The main objective in this paper is to study the best features of electromyography in term of time domain (statistical analysis) and frequency domain (Fast Fourier Transform).The secondary objectives is to map the relationship between torque and best features of muscle unit activation potential (MaxPS and RMS) of biceps brachii. This project scope use primary data of 2 male sample subject which using same dominant hand (right handed), age between 20-27 years old, muscle diameter 32cm to 35cm and using single channel muscle (biceps brachii muscle). The experiment conduct 2 times repeated task of contraction and relaxation of biceps brachii when lifting different load from no load to 3kg with ascending 1kg The result shows that Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) has less error than mean value of reading compare to root mean square (RMS) value. Thus, Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) show the linear relationship against torque experience by elbow joint to lift different load. As the conclusion, the best features is MaxPS because it has the lowest error than other features and show

  8. Airborne laser: a tool to study landscape surface features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.C.; Jackson, T.J.; Everitt, J.H.; Escobar, D.E.; Murphey, J.B.; Grissinger, E.H.

    1992-01-01

    Landscape surface features related to erosion and hydrology were measured using an airborne laser profiler. The airborne laser profiler made 4,000 measurements per second with a recording accuracy of 5 cm (1.9 inches) on a single measurement. Digital data from the laser are recorded and analyzed with a personal computer. These airborne laser profiles provide information on surface landscape features. Topography and canopy heights, cover, and distribution of natural vegetation were determined in studies in South Texas. Laser measurements of shrub cover along flightlines were highly correlated (R 2 = 0.98) with ground measurements made with line-intercept methods. Stream channel cross sections on Goodwin Creek in Mississippi were measured quickly and accurately with airborne laser data. Airborne laser profile data were used to measure small gullies in a level fallow field and in field with mature soybeans. While conventional ground-based techniques can be used to make these measurements, airborne laser profiler techniques allow data to be collected quickly, at a high density, and in areas that are essentially inaccessible for ground surveys. Airborne laser profiler data can quantify landscape features related to erosion and runoff, and the laser proler has the potential to be a useful tool for providing other data for studying and managing natural resources

  9. Spatial Relation Predicates in Topographic Feature Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.; Caro, Holly K.

    2013-01-01

    Topographic data are designed and widely used for base maps of diverse applications, yet the power of these information sources largely relies on the interpretive skills of map readers and relational database expert users once the data are in map or geographic information system (GIS) form. Advances in geospatial semantic technology offer data model alternatives for explicating concepts and articulating complex data queries and statements. To understand and enrich the vocabulary of topographic feature properties for semantic technology, English language spatial relation predicates were analyzed in three standard topographic feature glossaries. The analytical approach drew from disciplinary concepts in geography, linguistics, and information science. Five major classes of spatial relation predicates were identified from the analysis; representations for most of these are not widely available. The classes are: part-whole (which are commonly modeled throughout semantic and linked-data networks), geometric, processes, human intention, and spatial prepositions. These are commonly found in the ‘real world’ and support the environmental science basis for digital topographical mapping. The spatial relation concepts are based on sets of relation terms presented in this chapter, though these lists are not prescriptive or exhaustive. The results of this study make explicit the concepts forming a broad set of spatial relation expressions, which in turn form the basis for expanding the range of possible queries for topographical data analysis and mapping.

  10. An ontology design pattern for surface water features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Gaurav; Mark, David; Kolas, Dave; Varanka, Dalia; Romero, Boleslo E.; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Usery, E. Lynn; Liebermann, Joshua; Sorokine, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Surface water is a primary concept of human experience but concepts are captured in cultures and languages in many different ways. Still, many commonalities exist due to the physical basis of many of the properties and categories. An abstract ontology of surface water features based only on those physical properties of landscape features has the best potential for serving as a foundational domain ontology for other more context-dependent ontologies. The Surface Water ontology design pattern was developed both for domain knowledge distillation and to serve as a conceptual building-block for more complex or specialized surface water ontologies. A fundamental distinction is made in this ontology between landscape features that act as containers (e.g., stream channels, basins) and the bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes) that occupy those containers. Concave (container) landforms semantics are specified in a Dry module and the semantics of contained bodies of water in a Wet module. The pattern is implemented in OWL, but Description Logic axioms and a detailed explanation is provided in this paper. The OWL ontology will be an important contribution to Semantic Web vocabulary for annotating surface water feature datasets. Also provided is a discussion of why there is a need to complement the pattern with other ontologies, especially the previously developed Surface Network pattern. Finally, the practical value of the pattern in semantic querying of surface water datasets is illustrated through an annotated geospatial dataset and sample queries using the classes of the Surface Water pattern.

  11. Cross-cutting Relationships of Surface Features on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This image of Jupiter's moon Europa shows a very complex terrain of ridges and fractures. The absence of large craters and the low number of small craters indicates that this surface is geologically young. The relative ages of the ridges can be determined by using the principle of cross-cutting relationships; i.e. older features are cross-cut by younger features. Using this principle, planetary geologists are able to unravel the sequence of events in this seemingly chaotic terrain to unfold Europa's unique geologic history.The spacecraft Galileo obtained this image on February 20, 1997. The area covered in this image is approximately 11 miles (18 kilometers) by 8.5 miles (14 kilometers) across, near 15 North, 273 West. North is toward the top of the image, with the sun illuminating from the right.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  12. Definitions of engineered safety features and related features for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In light water moderated, light water cooled nuclear power plants, definitions are given of engineered safety features which are designed to suppress or prevent dispersion of radioactive materials due to damage etc. of fuel at the times of power plant failures, and of related features which are designed to actuate or operate the engineered safety features. Contents are the following: scope of engineered safety features and of related features; classification of engineered safety features (direct systems and indirect systems) and of related features (auxiliaries, emergency power supply, and protective means). (Mori, K.)

  13. Dissociation between Features and Feature Relations in Infant Memory: Effects of Memory Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    Four experiments examined effects of the number of features and feature relations on learning and long-term memory in 3-month olds. Findings suggested that memory load size selectively constrained infants' long-term memory for relational information, suggesting that in infants, features and relations are psychologically distinct and that memory…

  14. Feature Surfaces in Symmetric Tensor Fields Based on Eigenvalue Manifold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Jonathan; Yeh, Harry; Wang, Wenping; Zhang, Yue; Laramee, Robert S; Sharma, Ritesh; Schultz, Thomas; Zhang, Eugene

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional symmetric tensor fields have a wide range of applications in solid and fluid mechanics. Recent advances in the (topological) analysis of 3D symmetric tensor fields focus on degenerate tensors which form curves. In this paper, we introduce a number of feature surfaces, such as neutral surfaces and traceless surfaces, into tensor field analysis, based on the notion of eigenvalue manifold. Neutral surfaces are the boundary between linear tensors and planar tensors, and the traceless surfaces are the boundary between tensors of positive traces and those of negative traces. Degenerate curves, neutral surfaces, and traceless surfaces together form a partition of the eigenvalue manifold, which provides a more complete tensor field analysis than degenerate curves alone. We also extract and visualize the isosurfaces of tensor modes, tensor isotropy, and tensor magnitude, which we have found useful for domain applications in fluid and solid mechanics. Extracting neutral and traceless surfaces using the Marching Tetrahedra method can cause the loss of geometric and topological details, which can lead to false physical interpretation. To robustly extract neutral surfaces and traceless surfaces, we develop a polynomial description of them which enables us to borrow techniques from algebraic surface extraction, a topic well-researched by the computer-aided design (CAD) community as well as the algebraic geometry community. In addition, we adapt the surface extraction technique, called A-patches, to improve the speed of finding degenerate curves. Finally, we apply our analysis to data from solid and fluid mechanics as well as scalar field analysis.

  15. An Ontology Design Pattern for Surface Water Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Gaurav [Ohio University; Mark, David [University at Buffalo (SUNY); Kolas, Dave [Raytheon BBN Technologies; Varanka, Dalia [U.S. Geological Survey, Rolla, MO; Romero, Boleslo E [University of California, Santa Barbara; Feng, Chen-Chieh [National University of Singapore; Usery, Lynn [U.S. Geological Survey, Rolla, MO; Liebermann, Joshua [Tumbling Walls, LLC; Sorokine, Alexandre [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Surface water is a primary concept of human experience but concepts are captured in cultures and languages in many different ways. Still, many commonalities can be found due to the physical basis of many of the properties and categories. An abstract ontology of surface water features based only on those physical properties of landscape features has the best potential for serving as a foundational domain ontology. It can then be used to systematically incor-porate concepts that are specific to a culture, language, or scientific domain. The Surface Water ontology design pattern was developed both for domain knowledge distillation and to serve as a conceptual building-block for more complex surface water ontologies. A fundamental distinction is made in this on-tology between landscape features that act as containers (e.g., stream channels, basins) and the bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes) that occupy those containers. Concave (container) landforms semantics are specified in a Dry module and the semantics of contained bodies of water in a Wet module. The pattern is imple-mented in OWL, but Description Logic axioms and a detailed explanation is provided. The OWL ontology will be an important contribution to Semantic Web vocabulary for annotating surface water feature datasets. A discussion about why there is a need to complement the pattern with other ontologies, es-pecially the previously developed Surface Network pattern is also provided. Fi-nally, the practical value of the pattern in semantic querying of surface water datasets is illustrated through a few queries and annotated geospatial datasets.

  16. Automatic selective feature retention in patient specific elastic surface registration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jansen van Rensburg, GJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy with which a recent elastic surface registration algorithm deforms the complex geometry of a skull is examined. This algorithm is then coupled to a line based algorithm as is frequently used in patient specific feature registration...

  17. Analysis of iris surface features in populations of diverse ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Melissa; Cha, David; Krithika, S.; Johnson, Monique; Parra, Esteban J.

    2016-01-01

    There are many textural elements that can be found in the human eye, including Fuchs’ crypts, Wolfflin nodules, pigment spots, contraction furrows and conjunctival melanosis. Although iris surface features have been well-studied in populations of European ancestry, the worldwide distribution of these traits is poorly understood. In this paper, we develop a new method of characterizing iris features from photographs of the iris. We then apply this method to a diverse sample of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. All five iris features showed significant differences in frequency between the three populations, indicating that iris features are largely population dependent. Although none of the features were correlated with each other in the East and South Asian groups, Fuchs’ crypts were significantly correlated with contraction furrows and pigment spots and contraction furrows were significantly associated with pigment spots in the European group. The genetic marker SEMA3A rs10235789 was significantly associated with Fuchs’ crypt grade in the European, East Asian and South Asian samples and a borderline association between TRAF3IP1 rs3739070 and contraction furrow grade was found in the European sample. The study of iris surface features in diverse populations may provide valuable information of forensic, biomedical and ophthalmological interest. PMID:26909168

  18. Stereoscopic Feature Tracking System for Retrieving Velocity of Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga Zamalloa, C. C.; Landry, B. J.

    2017-12-01

    The present work is concerned with the surface velocity retrieval of flows using a stereoscopic setup and finding the correspondence in the images via feature tracking (FT). The feature tracking provides a key benefit of substantially reducing the level of user input. In contrast to other commonly used methods (e.g., normalized cross-correlation), FT does not require the user to prescribe interrogation window sizes and removes the need for masking when specularities are present. The results of the current FT methodology are comparable to those obtained via Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry while requiring little to no user input which allowed for rapid, automated processing of imagery.

  19. Orienting in virtual environments: How are surface features and environmental geometry weighted in an orientation task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Debbie M; Bischof, Walter F

    2008-10-01

    We investigated how human adults orient in enclosed virtual environments, when discrete landmark information is not available and participants have to rely on geometric and featural information on the environmental surfaces. In contrast to earlier studies, where, for women, the featural information from discrete landmarks overshadowed the encoding of the geometric information, Experiment 1 showed that when featural information is conjoined with the environmental surfaces, men and women encoded both types of information. Experiment 2 showed that, although both types of information are encoded, performance in locating a goal position is better if it is close to a geometrically or featurally distinct location. Furthermore, although features are relied upon more strongly than geometry, initial experience with an environment influences the relative weighting of featural and geometric cues. Taken together, these results show that human adults use a flexible strategy for encoding spatial information.

  20. Guilt by Association: The 13 micron Dust Feature in Circumstellar Shells and Related Spectral Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, G. C.; Kraemer, K. E.; Goebel, J. H.; Price, S. D.

    A study of spectra from the SWS on ISO of optically thin oxygen-rich dust shells shows that the strength of the 13 micron dust emission feature is correlated with the CO2 bands (13--17 microns) and dust emission features at 19.8 and 28.1 microns. SRb variables tend to show stronger 13 micron features than Mira variables, suggesting that the presence of the 13 micron and related features depends on pulsation mode and mass-loss rate. The absence of any correlation to dust emission features at 16.8 and 32 microns makes spinel an unlikely carrier. The most plausible carrier of the 13 micron feature remains crystalline alumina, and we suggest that the related dust features may be crystalline silicates. When dust forms in regions of low density, it may condense into crystalline grain structures.

  1. Electrocardiographic features of patients with earthquake related posttraumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlhan, Erkan; Kaplan, Abdullah; Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Biteker, Murat; Karabulut, Evindar; Işıklı, Serhan

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To analyze electrocardiographic features of patients diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the Van-Erciş earthquake, with a shock measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale that took place in Turkey in October 2011. METHODS: Surface electrocardiograms of 12 patients with PTSD admitted to Van Erciş State Hospital (Van, Turkey) from February 2012 to May 2012 were examined. Psychiatric interviews of the sex and age matched control subjects, who had experienced the earthquake, confirmed the absence of any known diagnosable psychiatric conditions in the control group. RESULTS: A wide range of electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters, such as P-wave dispersion, QT dispersion, QT interval, Tpeak to Tend interval, intrinsicoid deflection durations and other traditional parameters were similar in both groups. There was no one with an abnormal P wave axis, short or long PR interval, long or short QT interval, negative T wave in lateral leads, abnormal T wave axis, abnormal left or right intrinsicoid deflection duration, low voltage, left bundle branch block, right bundle branch block, left posterior hemiblock, left or right axis deviation, left ventricular hypertrophy, right or left atrial enlargement and pathological q(Q) wave in either group. CONCLUSION: The study showed no direct effect of earthquake related PTSD on surface ECG in young patients. So, we propose that PTSD has no direct effect on surface ECG but may cause electrocardiographic changes indirectly by triggering atherosclerosis and/or contributing to the ongoing atherosclerotic process. PMID:23538549

  2. Touching Textured Surfaces: Cells in Somatosensory Cortex Respond Both to Finger Movement and to Surface Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darian-Smith, Ian; Sugitani, Michio; Heywood, John; Karita, Keishiro; Goodwin, Antony

    1982-11-01

    Single neurons in Brodmann's areas 3b and 1 of the macaque postcentral gyrus discharge when the monkey rubs the contralateral finger pads across a textured surface. Both the finger movement and the spatial pattern of the surface determine this discharge in each cell. The spatial features of the surface are represented unambiguously only in the responses of populations of these neurons, and not in the responses of the constituent cells.

  3. Land surface and climate parameters and malaria features in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Y. A.; Anh, N. K.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface parameters may affect local microclimate, which in turn alters the development of mosquito habitats and transmission risks (soil-vegetation-atmosphere-vector borne diseases). Forest malaria is a chromic issue in Southeast Asian countries, in particular, such as Vietnam (in 1991, approximate 2 million cases and 4,646 deaths were reported (https://sites.path.org)). Vietnam has lowlands, sub-tropical high humidity, and dense forests, resulting in wide-scale distribution and high biting rate of mosquitos in Vietnam, becoming a challenging and out of control scenario, especially in Vietnamese Central Highland region. It is known that Vietnam's economy mainly relies on agriculture and malaria is commonly associated with poverty. There is a strong demand to investigate the relationship between land surface parameters (land cover, soil moisture, land surface temperature, etc.) and climatic variables (precipitation, humidity, evapotranspiration, etc.) in association with malaria distribution. GIS and remote sensing have been proven their powerful potentials in supporting environmental and health studies. The objective of this study aims to analyze physical attributes of land surface and climate parameters and their links with malaria features. The outcomes are expected to illustrate how remotely sensed data has been utilized in geohealth applications, surveillance, and health risk mapping. In addition, a platform with promising possibilities of allowing disease early-warning systems with citizen participation will be proposed.

  4. Contributions of feature shapes and surface cues to the recognition of facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormaz, Mladen; Young, Andrew W; Andrews, Timothy J

    2016-10-01

    Theoretical accounts of face processing often emphasise feature shapes as the primary visual cue to the recognition of facial expressions. However, changes in facial expression also affect the surface properties of the face. In this study, we investigated whether this surface information can also be used in the recognition of facial expression. First, participants identified facial expressions (fear, anger, disgust, sadness, happiness) from images that were manipulated such that they varied mainly in shape or mainly in surface properties. We found that the categorization of facial expression is possible in either type of image, but that different expressions are relatively dependent on surface or shape properties. Next, we investigated the relative contributions of shape and surface information to the categorization of facial expressions. This employed a complementary method that involved combining the surface properties of one expression with the shape properties from a different expression. Our results showed that the categorization of facial expressions in these hybrid images was equally dependent on the surface and shape properties of the image. Together, these findings provide a direct demonstration that both feature shape and surface information make significant contributions to the recognition of facial expressions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Extract the Relational Information of Static Features and Motion Features for Human Activities Recognition in Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Both static features and motion features have shown promising performance in human activities recognition task. However, the information included in these features is insufficient for complex human activities. In this paper, we propose extracting relational information of static features and motion features for human activities recognition. The videos are represented by a classical Bag-of-Word (BoW model which is useful in many works. To get a compact and discriminative codebook with small dimension, we employ the divisive algorithm based on KL-divergence to reconstruct the codebook. After that, to further capture strong relational information, we construct a bipartite graph to model the relationship between words of different feature set. Then we use a k-way partition to create a new codebook in which similar words are getting together. With this new codebook, videos can be represented by a new BoW vector with strong relational information. Moreover, we propose a method to compute new clusters from the divisive algorithm’s projective function. We test our work on the several datasets and obtain very promising results.

  6. Replication of surface features from a master model to an amorphous metallic article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William L.; Bakke, Eric; Peker, Atakan

    1999-01-01

    The surface features of an article are replicated by preparing a master model having a preselected surface feature thereon which is to be replicated, and replicating the preselected surface feature of the master model. The replication is accomplished by providing a piece of a bulk-solidifying amorphous metallic alloy, contacting the piece of the bulk-solidifying amorphous metallic alloy to the surface of the master model at an elevated replication temperature to transfer a negative copy of the preselected surface feature of the master model to the piece, and separating the piece having the negative copy of the preselected surface feature from the master model.

  7. Feature-based morphometry: discovering group-related anatomical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Matthew; Wells, William; Collins, D Louis; Arbel, Tal

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents feature-based morphometry (FBM), a new fully data-driven technique for discovering patterns of group-related anatomical structure in volumetric imagery. In contrast to most morphometry methods which assume one-to-one correspondence between subjects, FBM explicitly aims to identify distinctive anatomical patterns that may only be present in subsets of subjects, due to disease or anatomical variability. The image is modeled as a collage of generic, localized image features that need not be present in all subjects. Scale-space theory is applied to analyze image features at the characteristic scale of underlying anatomical structures, instead of at arbitrary scales such as global or voxel-level. A probabilistic model describes features in terms of their appearance, geometry, and relationship to subject groups, and is automatically learned from a set of subject images and group labels. Features resulting from learning correspond to group-related anatomical structures that can potentially be used as image biomarkers of disease or as a basis for computer-aided diagnosis. The relationship between features and groups is quantified by the likelihood of feature occurrence within a specific group vs. the rest of the population, and feature significance is quantified in terms of the false discovery rate. Experiments validate FBM clinically in the analysis of normal (NC) and Alzheimer's (AD) brain images using the freely available OASIS database. FBM automatically identifies known structural differences between NC and AD subjects in a fully data-driven fashion, and an equal error classification rate of 0.80 is achieved for subjects aged 60-80 years exhibiting mild AD (CDR=1). Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Consistency relations for sharp inflationary non-Gaussian features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooij, Sander; Palma, Gonzalo A.; Panotopoulos, Grigoris [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); Soto, Alex, E-mail: sander.mooij@ing.uchile.cl, E-mail: gpalmaquilod@ing.uchile.cl, E-mail: gpanotop@ing.uchile.cl, E-mail: gatogeno@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Ñuñoa, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-09-01

    If cosmic inflation suffered tiny time-dependent deviations from the slow-roll regime, these would induce the existence of small scale-dependent features imprinted in the primordial spectra, with their shapes and sizes revealing information about the physics that produced them. Small sharp features could be suppressed at the level of the two-point correlation function, making them undetectable in the power spectrum, but could be amplified at the level of the three-point correlation function, offering us a window of opportunity to uncover them in the non-Gaussian bispectrum. In this article, we show that sharp features may be analyzed using only data coming from the three point correlation function parametrizing primordial non-Gaussianity. More precisely, we show that if features appear in a particular non-Gaussian triangle configuration (e.g. equilateral, folded, squeezed), these must reappear in every other configuration according to a specific relation allowing us to correlate features across the non-Gaussian bispectrum. As a result, we offer a method to study scale-dependent features generated during inflation that depends only on data coming from measurements of non-Gaussianity, allowing us to omit data from the power spectrum.

  9. Consistency relations for sharp inflationary non-Gaussian features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooij, Sander; Palma, Gonzalo A.; Panotopoulos, Grigoris; Soto, Alex

    2016-01-01

    If cosmic inflation suffered tiny time-dependent deviations from the slow-roll regime, these would induce the existence of small scale-dependent features imprinted in the primordial spectra, with their shapes and sizes revealing information about the physics that produced them. Small sharp features could be suppressed at the level of the two-point correlation function, making them undetectable in the power spectrum, but could be amplified at the level of the three-point correlation function, offering us a window of opportunity to uncover them in the non-Gaussian bispectrum. In this article, we show that sharp features may be analyzed using only data coming from the three point correlation function parametrizing primordial non-Gaussianity. More precisely, we show that if features appear in a particular non-Gaussian triangle configuration (e.g. equilateral, folded, squeezed), these must reappear in every other configuration according to a specific relation allowing us to correlate features across the non-Gaussian bispectrum. As a result, we offer a method to study scale-dependent features generated during inflation that depends only on data coming from measurements of non-Gaussianity, allowing us to omit data from the power spectrum.

  10. Attachment insecurity and perceived importance of relational features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, D.; Arriaga, X.B.; Mahan, E.R.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic attachment insecurity can affect the outlook people have on relationships. This research examines how attachment insecurity relates to perceived importance of various features in a romantic relationship (e.g., intimacy, independence). Consistent with predictions, the results from Studies 1–3

  11. Causal Relations and Feature Similarity in Children's Inductive Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K.; Thompson, Susan P.

    2007-01-01

    Four experiments examined the development of property induction on the basis of causal relations. In the first 2 studies, 5-year-olds, 8-year-olds, and adults were presented with triads in which a target instance was equally similar to 2 inductive bases but shared a causal antecedent feature with 1 of them. All 3 age groups used causal relations…

  12. Upwelling filaments are cold, typically narrow features in surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    They are defined by strong ... transporting coastally upwelled water to the deep ... surface temperature anomaly up to 2°C. The cool temperature signal was restricted to a shallow surface ... towards the important process of exchanges between.

  13. Closed-Loop Surface Related Multiple Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Angarita, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Surface-related multiple elimination (SRME) is one of the most commonly used methods for suppressing surface multiples. However, in order to obtain an accurate surface multiple estimation, dense source and receiver sampling is required. The traditional approach to this problem is performing data

  14. Structural features of the adsorption layer of pentacene on the graphite surface and the PMMA/graphite hybrid surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeeva, A. I.; Gorbunov, V. A.; Litunenko, T. A.

    2017-08-01

    Using the molecular dynamics and the Monte Carlo methods, we have studied the structural features and growth mechanism of the pentacene film on graphite and polymethylmethacrylate /graphite surfaces. Monolayer capacity and molecular area, optimal angles between the pentacene molecules and graphite and PMMA/graphite surfaces as well as the characteristic angles between the neighboring pentacene molecules in the adsorption layer were estimated. It is shown that the orientation of the pentacene molecules in the film is determined by a number of factors, including the surface concentration of the molecules, relief of the surface, presence or absence of the polymer layer and its thickness. The pentacene molecules adsorbed on the graphite surface keep a horizontal position relative to the long axis at any surface coverage/thickness of the film. In the presence of the PMMA layer on the graphite, the increase of the number of pentacene molecules as well as the thickness of the PMMA layer induce the change of molecular orientation from predominantly horizontal to vertical one. The reason for such behavior is supposed to be the roughness of the PMMA surface.

  15. Extracted facial feature of racial closely related faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liewchavalit, Chalothorn; Akiba, Masakazu; Kanno, Tsuneo; Nagao, Tomoharu

    2010-02-01

    Human faces contain a lot of demographic information such as identity, gender, age, race and emotion. Human being can perceive these pieces of information and use it as an important clue in social interaction with other people. Race perception is considered the most delicacy and sensitive parts of face perception. There are many research concerning image-base race recognition, but most of them are focus on major race group such as Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloid. This paper focuses on how people classify race of the racial closely related group. As a sample of racial closely related group, we choose Japanese and Thai face to represents difference between Northern and Southern Mongoloid. Three psychological experiment was performed to study the strategies of face perception on race classification. As a result of psychological experiment, it can be suggested that race perception is an ability that can be learn. Eyes and eyebrows are the most attention point and eyes is a significant factor in race perception. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to extract facial features of sample race group. Extracted race features of texture and shape were used to synthesize faces. As the result, it can be suggested that racial feature is rely on detailed texture rather than shape feature. This research is a indispensable important fundamental research on the race perception which are essential in the establishment of human-like race recognition system.

  16. Cloud and surface textural features in polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Ronald M.; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Sengupta, Sailes K.

    1990-01-01

    The study examines the textural signatures of clouds, ice-covered mountains, solid and broken sea ice and floes, and open water. The textural features are computed from sum and difference histogram and gray-level difference vector statistics defined at various pixel displacement distances derived from Landsat multispectral scanner data. Polar cloudiness, snow-covered mountainous regions, solid sea ice, glaciers, and open water have distinguishable texture features. This suggests that textural measures can be successfully applied to the detection of clouds over snow-covered mountains, an ability of considerable importance for the modeling of snow-melt runoff. However, broken stratocumulus cloud decks and thin cirrus over broken sea ice remain difficult to distinguish texturally. It is concluded that even with high spatial resolution imagery, it may not be possible to distinguish broken stratocumulus and thin clouds from sea ice in the marginal ice zone using the visible channel textural features alone.

  17. Chemical-induced disease relation extraction with various linguistic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jinghang; Qian, Longhua; Zhou, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relations between chemicals and diseases is crucial in various biomedical tasks such as new drug discoveries and new therapy developments. While manually mining these relations from the biomedical literature is costly and time-consuming, such a procedure is often difficult to keep up-to-date. To address these issues, the BioCreative-V community proposed a challenging task of automatic extraction of chemical-induced disease (CID) relations in order to benefit biocuration. This article describes our work on the CID relation extraction task on the BioCreative-V tasks. We built a machine learning based system that utilized simple yet effective linguistic features to extract relations with maximum entropy models. In addition to leveraging various features, the hypernym relations between entity concepts derived from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)-controlled vocabulary were also employed during both training and testing stages to obtain more accurate classification models and better extraction performance, respectively. We demoted relation extraction between entities in documents to relation extraction between entity mentions. In our system, pairs of chemical and disease mentions at both intra- and inter-sentence levels were first constructed as relation instances for training and testing, then two classification models at both levels were trained from the training examples and applied to the testing examples. Finally, we merged the classification results from mention level to document level to acquire final relations between chemicals and diseases. Our system achieved promisingF-scores of 60.4% on the development dataset and 58.3% on the test dataset using gold-standard entity annotations, respectively. Database URL:https://github.com/JHnlp/BC5CIDTask. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Memory for surface features of unfamiliar melodies: independent effects of changes in pitch and tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Stalinski, Stephanie M; Marks, Bradley M

    2014-01-01

    A melody's identity is determined by relations between consecutive tones in terms of pitch and duration, whereas surface features (i.e., pitch level or key, tempo, and timbre) are irrelevant. Although surface features of highly familiar recordings are encoded into memory, little is known about listeners' mental representations of melodies heard once or twice. It is also unknown whether musical pitch is represented additively or interactively with temporal information. In two experiments, listeners heard unfamiliar melodies twice in an initial exposure phase. In a subsequent test phase, they heard the same (old) melodies interspersed with new melodies. Some of the old melodies were shifted in key, tempo, or key and tempo. Listeners' task was to rate how well they recognized each melody from the exposure phase while ignoring changes in key and tempo. Recognition ratings were higher for old melodies that stayed the same compared to those that were shifted in key or tempo, and detrimental effects of key and tempo changes were additive in between-subjects (Experiment 1) and within-subjects (Experiment 2) designs. The results confirm that surface features are remembered for melodies heard only twice. They also imply that key and tempo are processed and stored independently.

  19. Event-related potentials reveal the relations between feature representations at different levels of abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Samuel D; Shedden, Judith M; Brooks, Lee R; Grundy, John G

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we use behavioural methods and event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the relations between informational and instantiated features, as well as the relation between feature abstraction and rule type. Participants are trained to categorize two species of fictitious animals and then identify perceptually novel exemplars. Critically, two groups are given a perfectly predictive counting rule that, according to Hannah and Brooks (2009. Featuring familiarity: How a familiar feature instantiation influences categorization. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale, 63, 263-275. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.1037/a0017919), should orient them to using abstract informational features when categorizing the novel transfer items. A third group is taught a feature list rule, which should orient them to using detailed instantiated features. One counting-rule group were taught their rule before any exposure to the actual stimuli, and the other immediately after training, having learned the instantiations first. The feature-list group were also taught their rule after training. The ERP results suggest that at test, the two counting-rule groups processed items differently, despite their identical rule. This not only supports the distinction that informational and instantiated features are qualitatively different feature representations, but also implies that rules can readily operate over concrete inputs, in contradiction to traditional approaches that assume that rules necessarily act on abstract inputs.

  20. FEATURES OF GEODEFORMATION CHANGES OF NEAR SURFACE SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Larionov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the deformation process in the near surface sedimentary rocks, which has been carried out in a seismically active region of Kamchatka peninsular since 2007,are presented. The peculiarity of the experiments on the registration of geodeformations is the application of a laser deformograph-interferometer constructed according to the Michelson interferometer scheme.

  1. Oceanic whitecaps: Sea surface features detectable via satellite that ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    experiments that the air-sea gas transfer coefficient for each of a wide range of gases, including carbon dioxide and .... generators with which the basin was equipped, the .... whitecaps in air-sea gas exchange; Gas Transfer at Water. Surfaces ...

  2. Engineered biomimicry: polymeric replication of surface features found on insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsifer, Drew P.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Pantano, Carlo G.

    2011-04-01

    By combining the modified conformal-evaporated-film-by-rotation (M-CEFR) technique with nickel electroforming, we have produced master negatives of nonplanar biotemplates. An approximately 250-nm-thick conformal coating of nanocrystaline nickel is deposited on a surface structure of interest found in class Insecta, and the coating is then reinforced with a roughly 60-μm-thick structural layer of nickel by electroforming. This structural layer endows the M-CEFR coating with the mechanical robustness necessary for casting or stamping multiple polymer replicas of the biotemplate. We have made master negatives of blowfly corneas, beetle elytrons, and butterfly wings.

  3. Feature-based handling of surface faults in compact disc players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a novel method called feature-based control is presented. The method is designed to improve compact disc players’ handling of surface faults on the discs. The method is based on a fault-tolerant control scheme, which uses extracted features of the surface faults to remove those from...... the detector signals used for control during the occurrence of surface faults. The extracted features are coefficients of Karhunen–Loève approximations of the surface faults. The performance of the feature-based control scheme controlling compact disc players playing discs with surface faults has been...... validated experimentally. The proposed scheme reduces the control errors due to the surface faults, and in some cases where the standard fault handling scheme fails, our scheme keeps the CD-player playing....

  4. Hippocampal sleep features: relations to human memory function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eFerrara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent spread of intracranial EEG recordings techniques for presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant epileptic patients is providing new information on the activity of different brain structures during both wakefulness and sleep. The interest has been mainly focused on the medial temporal lobe, and in particular the hippocampal formation, whose peculiar local sleep features have been recently described, providing support to the idea that sleep is not a spatially global phenomenon. The study of the hippocampal sleep electrophysiology is particularly interesting because of its central role in the declarative memory formation. Recent data indicate that sleep contributes to memory formation. Therefore, it is relevant to understand whether specific pattern of activity taking place during sleep are related to memory consolidation processes. Fascinating similarities between different states of consciousness (wakefulness, REM sleep, NREM sleep in some electrophysiological mechanisms underlying cognitive processes have been reported. For instance, large-scale synchrony in gamma activity is important for waking memory and perception processes, and its changes during sleep may be the neurophysiological substrate of sleep-related deficits of declarative memory. Hippocampal activity seems to specifically support memory consolidation during sleep, through specific coordinated neurophysiological events (slow waves, spindles, ripples that would facilitate the integration of new information into the pre-existing cortical networks. A few studies indeed provided direct evidence that rhinal ripples as well as slow hippocampal oscillations are correlated with memory consolidation in humans. More detailed electrophysiological investigations assessing the specific relations between different types of memory consolidation and hippocampal EEG features are in order. These studies will add an important piece of knowledge to the elucidation of the ultimate sleep

  5. Hippocampal Sleep Features: Relations to Human Memory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Michele; Moroni, Fabio; De Gennaro, Luigi; Nobili, Lino

    2012-01-01

    The recent spread of intracranial electroencephalographic (EEG) recording techniques for presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant epileptic patients is providing new information on the activity of different brain structures during both wakefulness and sleep. The interest has been mainly focused on the medial temporal lobe, and in particular the hippocampal formation, whose peculiar local sleep features have been recently described, providing support to the idea that sleep is not a spatially global phenomenon. The study of the hippocampal sleep electrophysiology is particularly interesting because of its central role in the declarative memory formation. Recent data indicate that sleep contributes to memory formation. Therefore, it is relevant to understand whether specific patterns of activity taking place during sleep are related to memory consolidation processes. Fascinating similarities between different states of consciousness (wakefulness, REM sleep, non-REM sleep) in some electrophysiological mechanisms underlying cognitive processes have been reported. For instance, large-scale synchrony in gamma activity is important for waking memory and perception processes, and its changes during sleep may be the neurophysiological substrate of sleep-related deficits of declarative memory. Hippocampal activity seems to specifically support memory consolidation during sleep, through specific coordinated neurophysiological events (slow waves, spindles, ripples) that would facilitate the integration of new information into the pre-existing cortical networks. A few studies indeed provided direct evidence that rhinal ripples as well as slow hippocampal oscillations are correlated with memory consolidation in humans. More detailed electrophysiological investigations assessing the specific relations between different types of memory consolidation and hippocampal EEG features are in order. These studies will add an important piece of knowledge to the elucidation of the ultimate

  6. Analysis of radiological features relative to pathology in pelvic chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianjun; Ding Jianguo; Wang Jianhua; Zeng Mengsu; Yan Fuhua; Zhou Kangrong; Ji Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To Explore the imaging features relative to pathology of pelvic chondrosarcoma and to evaluate the clinical value. Methods: All 12 cases patients with primary pelvic chondrosarcoma confirmed by pathological examination underwent radiography, spiral CT plain scanning, MR SE-T 1 WI, FSE-T 2 WI and SE-T 1 WI enhancement scanning before operation. The imaging data was reviewed and analyzed retrospectively to compare with surgical and pathological results. Results: Eleven conventional chondrosarcoma and one dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma were located in different parts of pelvis. The diameters of the tumors ranged from 4.7 to 17.0 cm with one case less than 5.0 cm, 6 cases being 5.0-10.0 cm and 5 cases more than 10.0 cm. The CT value of 5 eases was identical or inferior to muscle with mild to moderate 'ring-and-arc' mineralization and soft mass. MR imaging depict the high water content of these lesions as very high signal intensity was detected on T 2 WI. Six cases showed typical 'ting- and-arc' fibrous tissue which enhanced persistently. Aggressive features of deep endosteal scalloping and soft-tissue extension was also found in these cases. Conclusions: Radiographic findings can suggest the diagnosis of pelvic chondrosarcoma when there is typical 'ring-and-arc' fibrous tissue, mineralization, aggressive features of deep endosteal scalloping and large soft-tissue extension. MR imaging reflect directly this pathologic structure, superior to that of CT and radiography. CT is optimal to detect the matrix mineralization, particularly when it is subtle or when the lesion is located in anatomically complex pelvic areas. (authors)

  7. Effective Detection of Sub-Surface Archeological Features from Laser Scanning Point Clouds and Imagery Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryskowska, A.; Kedzierski, M.; Walczykowski, P.; Wierzbicki, D.; Delis, P.; Lada, A.

    2017-08-01

    The archaeological heritage is non-renewable, and any invasive research or other actions leading to the intervention of mechanical or chemical into the ground lead to the destruction of the archaeological site in whole or in part. For this reason, modern archeology is looking for alternative methods of non-destructive and non-invasive methods of new objects identification. The concept of aerial archeology is relation between the presence of the archaeological site in the particular localization, and the phenomena that in the same place can be observed on the terrain surface form airborne platform. One of the most appreciated, moreover, extremely precise, methods of such measurements is airborne laser scanning. In research airborne laser scanning point cloud with a density of 5 points/sq. m was used. Additionally unmanned aerial vehicle imagery data was acquired. Test area is located in central Europe. The preliminary verification of potentially microstructures localization was the creation of digital terrain and surface models. These models gave an information about the differences in elevation, as well as regular shapes and sizes that can be related to the former settlement/sub-surface feature. The paper presents the results of the detection of potentially sub-surface microstructure fields in the forestry area.

  8. EFFECTIVE DETECTION OF SUB-SURFACE ARCHEOLOGICAL FEATURES FROM LASER SCANNING POINT CLOUDS AND IMAGERY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fryskowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The archaeological heritage is non-renewable, and any invasive research or other actions leading to the intervention of mechanical or chemical into the ground lead to the destruction of the archaeological site in whole or in part. For this reason, modern archeology is looking for alternative methods of non-destructive and non-invasive methods of new objects identification. The concept of aerial archeology is relation between the presence of the archaeological site in the particular localization, and the phenomena that in the same place can be observed on the terrain surface form airborne platform. One of the most appreciated, moreover, extremely precise, methods of such measurements is airborne laser scanning. In research airborne laser scanning point cloud with a density of 5 points/sq. m was used. Additionally unmanned aerial vehicle imagery data was acquired. Test area is located in central Europe. The preliminary verification of potentially microstructures localization was the creation of digital terrain and surface models. These models gave an information about the differences in elevation, as well as regular shapes and sizes that can be related to the former settlement/sub-surface feature. The paper presents the results of the detection of potentially sub-surface microstructure fields in the forestry area.

  9. Clinical features of IgG4-related rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Machiko; Kammisawa, Terumi; Koizumi, Satomi; Kuruma, Sawako; Chiba, Kazuro; Kikuyama, Masataka; Shirakura, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Taro; Hishima, Tsunekazu

    2017-09-01

    IgG4-related disease is a systemic disease that affects various organs of the body. Aim of this study is to elucidate the clinical characteristics of IgG4-related rhinosinusitis. Clinical features, laboratory findings, radiological and endoscopic findings, associated disease, treatment and prognosis were retrospectively examined in 10 patients with IgG4-related rhinosinusitis. The age was 59.1±11.3 years old and male-to-female ratio was 1:1. The chief nasal complaints were hyposmia (n=4), nasal obstruction (n=3), and nothing (n=3). Serum IgG4 levels were elevated in all patients and the value was 740.4±472.4mg/dl. Other IgG4-related diseases were associated in all 10 patients, including IgG4-related sialadenitis (n=6), IgG4-related dacryoadenitis (n=5), and autoimmune pancreatitis (n=5). Imaging findings on CT/MRI were obstruction of the way of elimination (n=10), thickening of the sinus mucous membrane (n=10), and fluid in the sinus (n=6). All of the cases had bilateral findings. Nasal endoscopic findings were chiefly deviated nasal septum (n=5), polyps (n=4), edema of the mucous membrane (n=3). Histologically, abundant infiltration of IgG4 positive plasma cell and lymphocyte and an elevated IgG4+/IgG+ cell ration was detected in all 8 patients and 5 patients, respectively. Endoscopic sinus surgery was performed in 8 patients. Eight patients were treated with steroid therapy for other associated IgG4-related diseases. Symptoms improved in all 6 patients after an initial treatment (endoscopic surgery (n=5) and steroids (n=1)), but one patient suffered relapse. IgG4-related rhinosinusitis is a distinct entity of IgG4-related disease, and is associated in patients with multiple IgG4-related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Popular Nutrition-Related Mobile Apps: A Feature Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rodrigo Zenun; Fallaize, Rosalind; Lovegrove, Julie A; Hwang, Faustina

    2016-08-01

    A key challenge in human nutrition is the assessment of usual food intake. This is of particular interest given recent proposals of eHealth personalized interventions. The adoption of mobile phones has created an opportunity for assessing and improving nutrient intake as they can be used for digitalizing dietary assessments and providing feedback. In the last few years, hundreds of nutrition-related mobile apps have been launched and installed by millions of users. This study aims to analyze the main features of the most popular nutrition apps and to compare their strategies and technologies for dietary assessment and user feedback. Apps were selected from the two largest online stores of the most popular mobile operating systems-the Google Play Store for Android and the iTunes App Store for iOS-based on popularity as measured by the number of installs and reviews. The keywords used in the search were as follows: calorie(s), diet, diet tracker, dietician, dietitian, eating, fit, fitness, food, food diary, food tracker, health, lose weight, nutrition, nutritionist, weight, weight loss, weight management, weight watcher, and ww calculator. The inclusion criteria were as follows: English language, minimum number of installs (1 million for Google Play Store) or reviews (7500 for iTunes App Store), relation to nutrition (ie, diet monitoring or recommendation), and independence from any device (eg, wearable) or subscription. A total of 13 apps were classified as popular for inclusion in the analysis. Nine apps offered prospective recording of food intake using a food diary feature. Food selection was available via text search or barcode scanner technologies. Portion size selection was only textual (ie, without images or icons). All nine of these apps were also capable of collecting physical activity (PA) information using self-report, the global positioning system (GPS), or wearable integrations. Their outputs focused predominantly on energy balance between dietary

  11. Associations between motor unit action potential parameters and surface EMG features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Alessandro; Negro, Francesco; Felici, Francesco; Farina, Dario

    2017-10-01

    The surface interference EMG signal provides some information on the neural drive to muscles. However, the association between neural drive to muscle and muscle activation has long been debated with controversial indications due to the unavailability of motor unit population data. In this study, we clarify the potential and limitations of interference EMG analysis to infer motor unit recruitment strategies with an experimental investigation of several concurrently active motor units and of the associated features of the surface EMG. For this purpose, we recorded high-density surface EMG signals during linearly increasing force contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle, up to 70% of maximal force. The recruitment threshold (RT), conduction velocity (MUCV), median frequency (MDF MU ), and amplitude (RMS MU ) of action potentials of 587 motor units from 13 individuals were assessed and associated with features of the interference EMG. MUCV was positively associated with RT ( R 2 = 0.64 ± 0.14), whereas MDF MU and RMS MU showed a weaker relation with RT ( R 2 = 0.11 ± 0.11 and 0.39 ± 0.24, respectively). Moreover, the changes in average conduction velocity estimated from the interference EMG predicted well the changes in MUCV ( R 2 = 0.71), with a strong association to ankle dorsiflexion force ( R 2 = 0.81 ± 0.12). Conversely, both the average EMG MDF and RMS were poorly associated with motor unit recruitment. These results clarify the limitations of EMG spectral and amplitude analysis in inferring the neural strategies of muscle control and indicate that, conversely, the average conduction velocity could provide relevant information on these strategies. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The surface EMG provides information on the neural drive to muscles. However, the associations between EMG features and neural drive have been long debated due to unavailability of motor unit population data. Here, by using novel highly accurate decomposition of the EMG, we related motor unit

  12. Local-Scale Simulations of Nucleate Boiling on Micrometer Featured Surfaces: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitaraman, Hariswaran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moreno, Gilberto [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dede, Ercan M. [Toyota Research Institute of North America; Joshi, Shailesh N. [Toyota Research Institute of North America; Zhou, Feng [Toyota Research Institute of North America

    2017-08-03

    A high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based model for bubble nucleation of the refrigerant HFE7100 on micrometer-featured surfaces is presented in this work. The single-fluid incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, along with energy transport and natural convection effects are solved on a featured surface resolved grid. An a priori cavity detection method is employed to convert raw profilometer data of a surface into well-defined cavities. The cavity information and surface morphology are represented in the CFD model by geometric mesh deformations. Surface morphology is observed to initiate buoyancy-driven convection in the liquid phase, which in turn results in faster nucleation of cavities. Simulations pertaining to a generic rough surface show a trend where smaller size cavities nucleate with higher wall superheat. This local-scale model will serve as a self-consistent connection to larger device scale continuum models where local feature representation is not possible.

  13. Local-Scale Simulations of Nucleate Boiling on Micrometer-Featured Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitaraman, Hariswaran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moreno, Gilberto [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dede, Ercan M. [Toyota Research Institute of North America; Joshi, Shailesh N. [Toyota Research Institute of North America; Zhou, Feng [Toyota Research Institute of North America

    2017-07-12

    A high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based model for bubble nucleation of the refrigerant HFE7100 on micrometer-featured surfaces is presented in this work. The single-fluid incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, along with energy transport and natural convection effects are solved on a featured surface resolved grid. An a priori cavity detection method is employed to convert raw profilometer data of a surface into well-defined cavities. The cavity information and surface morphology are represented in the CFD model by geometric mesh deformations. Surface morphology is observed to initiate buoyancy-driven convection in the liquid phase, which in turn results in faster nucleation of cavities. Simulations pertaining to a generic rough surface show a trend where smaller size cavities nucleate with higher wall superheat. This local-scale model will serve as a self-consistent connection to larger device scale continuum models where local feature representation is not possible.

  14. Measurements of land surface features using an airborne laser altimeter: the HAPEX-Sahel experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.C.; Menenti, M.; Weltz, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    An airborne laser profiling altimeter was used to measure surface features and properties of the landscape during the HAPEX-Sahel Experiment in Niger, Africa in September 1992. The laser altimeter makes 4000 measurements per second with a vertical resolution of 5 cm. Airborne laser and detailed field measurements of vegetation heights had similar average heights and frequency distribution. Laser transects were used to estimate land surface topography, gully and channel morphology, and vegetation properties ( height, cover and distribution). Land surface changes related to soil erosion and channel development were measured. For 1 km laser transects over tiger bush communities, the maximum vegetation height was between 4-5 and 6-5 m, with an average height of 21 m. Distances between the centre of rows of tiger bush vegetation averaged 100 m. For two laser transects, ground cover for tiger bush was estimated to be 225 and 301 per cent for vegetation greater than 0-5m tall and 190 and 25-8 per cent for vegetation greater than 10m tall. These values are similar to published values for tiger bush. Vegetation cover for 14 and 18 km transects was estimated to be 4 per cent for vegetation greater than 0-5 m tall. These cover values agree within 1-2 per cent with published data for short transects (⩾ 100 m) for the area. The laser altimeter provided quick and accurate measurements for evaluating changes in land surface features. Such information provides a basis for understanding land degradation and a basis for management plans to rehabilitate the landscape. (author)

  15. Thermal Infrared Spectra of Microcrystalline Sedimentary Phases: Effects of Natural Surface Roughness on Spectral Feature Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardgrove, C.; Rogers, A. D.

    2012-03-01

    Thermal infrared spectral features of common microcrystalline phases (chert, alabaster, micrite) are presented. Spectra are sensitive to mineralogy and micron-scale (~1-25 µm) surface roughness. Roughness is on the scale of the average crystal size.

  16. Imagiologic features and the relative imaging factors in hepatolenticular degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Wenqing; Liu Pengcheng; Huang Rong; Yan Weiqiang; Zhao Yan; Liu Yuanjian; Luo Lili; Zou Liqiu; Liu Hanqiao

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT, MR and ultrasound features of hepatolenticular degeneration (HLD), and investigate relative factors affecting the imaging manifestations. Methods: Fifty-four HLD were reported, and the 35 male and 19 female patients ranged in the age from 3 to 40 years. CT was performed in 29 patients, MR in 11, both CT and MR in 5, ultrasound in 26. Six cases were hospitalized for 3 times, and 9 for twice. Results: (1) The putamen was affected on MR in all cases (100%), the caudate nucleus in 8. The thalami in 5, the globus pallidum in 2, the red nucleus in 2, the substantia nigra in 3, the midbrain in 1, the pons in 2, the white matter of frontal lobi in 1. According to the different basal ganglia involved in brain, resembling 'woodpecker' or 'butterfly spreading the wing' in appearance were showed on the MR images respectively. (2) Positive signs were found by CT scans in 18 cases (72%), but negative in 7 cases (28%). It is important manifestation that low density in brain occurred bilaterally and symmetrically. (3) The sonographic changes of chronic liver disease were showed on US in all 26 cases. Among the number, 12 cases were regarded as cirrhosis at the same time. Conclusion: (1) T 2 signal intensity and CT density changes are often not parallel to the clinical symptoms. T 1 WI is suitable for the follow-up, but quantitative analysis is still difficult. (2) Damage of liver occurs almost in all HLD, and earlier than that of brain. On the early stage, the liver damage is reversible, the brain lesions are symmetric. Moderately, the liver damage changes static. Lately, the brain presents atrophic. (3) The investigation suggests that there are 4 factors affecting CT and MR imaging features: the systemic disease resulting from metabolic disorder and the selected affinity caused by gene defect, deposition of copper together with cellular damage, endogenous and autonomous discharge of copper and histiocyte repaired, and extro-generate expelled copper

  17. Influence of the relative rotational speed on component features in micro rotary swaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishkina Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro rotary swaging is a cold forming process for production of micro components with determined geometry and surface. It is also possible to change the microstructure of wires and hence the material properties. Swaging dies revolve around the work piece with an overlaid radial oscillation. Newly developed tools (Flat Surface Dies, FSD feature plain surfaces and do not represent the geometry of the formed part as in conventional swaging. Using these tools allows for producing wires with triangle geometry (cross section as well as a circular shape. To test the influence of FSD on material properties by micro swaging a new method is investigated: the variation of the relative speed between the specimen and dies in infeed rotary swaging. During this specific process copper (C11000 and steel (304 Alloy wires with diameter d0 = 1 mm are formed. It is noticed that the mechanical characteristics such as ductility and strength differ from the characteristics after conventional swaging. Moreover this approach enables new possibilities to influence the geometry and the surface quality of wires. The impact of the relative speed on the processed wire features is described in this paper.

  18. Age-related distance esotropia: Clinical features and therapeutic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez de Liaño Sánchez, P; Olavarri González, G; Merino Sanz, P; Escribano Villafruela, J C

    2016-12-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of a group of patients with age-related distance esotropia (ARDE). A retrospective study was conducted on a consecutive case series of 16 adult patients diagnosed with ARDE between 2008 and 2015. The clinical features evaluated included mean age and gender, primary position deviations at distance and near, measured in prism dioptres (pd), treatment offered in each case, and post-surgical deviations. Ductions and versions were full, with no evidence of lateral rectus paresis. None of these patients had any obvious underlying neurological disorder, such as, high myopia or thyroid disease. A good result is considered to be the disappearance of diplopia in all positions of gaze. A total of 16 patients (11 females [68.8%]) were identified. The mean age at diagnosis was 78.19±6.77 years. The mean initial esodeviation was 2.25±3.08 pd at near (-4 to +8 pd) and 9.5±4.18 pd at distance (2 to 18 pd). Treatment was not necessary in 5 cases because the symptoms were intermittent or well-tolerated. Of the 11 patients with symptoms, one was corrected with an external base therapeutic prism. Botulinum toxin was administered in another patient, without satisfactory results. Unilateral medial rectus muscle recession was performed on one patient, and unilateral lateral rectus plication on 7 patients, indicating prisms before surgery. One patient refused surgery despite continuous diplopia in far vision. After a mean follow-up of 16.5 months, all operated patients were asymptomatic. Not all patients with ARDE require treatment, as the tolerance to diplopia varies from one subject to another. Both medial rectus weakening and lateral rectus strengthening provides excellent results. Crown Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrocardiographic features of patients with earthquake related posttraumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    İlhan, Erkan; Kaplan, Abdullah; Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Biteker, Murat; Karabulut, Evindar; Işıklı, Serhan

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To analyze electrocardiographic features of patients diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the Van-Erciş earthquake, with a shock measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale that took place in Turkey in October 2011.

  20. Thin plate spline feature point matching for organ surfaces in minimally invasive surgery imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bingxiong; Sun, Yu; Qian, Xiaoning

    2013-03-01

    Robust feature point matching for images with large view angle changes in Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is a challenging task due to low texture and specular reflections in these images. This paper presents a new approach that can improve feature matching performance by exploiting the inherent geometric property of the organ surfaces. Recently, intensity based template image tracking using a Thin Plate Spline (TPS) model has been extended for 3D surface tracking with stereo cameras. The intensity based tracking is also used here for 3D reconstruction of internal organ surfaces. To overcome the small displacement requirement of intensity based tracking, feature point correspondences are used for proper initialization of the nonlinear optimization in the intensity based method. Second, we generate simulated images from the reconstructed 3D surfaces under all potential view positions and orientations, and then extract feature points from these simulated images. The obtained feature points are then filtered and re-projected to the common reference image. The descriptors of the feature points under different view angles are stored to ensure that the proposed method can tolerate a large range of view angles. We evaluate the proposed method with silicon phantoms and in vivo images. The experimental results show that our method is much more robust with respect to the view angle changes than other state-of-the-art methods.

  1. Oscillospira and related bacteria - from metagenomics species to metabolic features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gophna, Uri; Konikoff, Tom; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    and manual metabolic pathway curation to decipher key metabolic features of this intriguing bacterial genus. We infer that Oscillospira species are butyrate producers, and at least some of them have the ability to utilize glucuronate, a common animal-derived sugar that is both produced by the human host...

  2. Fundus Autofluorescence Features of Optic Disc Pit Related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chorioretinopathy, retina telangiectasia and diffuse and macula retina dystrophies.[1,3‑8] These features give useful clinical and prognostic information, making FAF a desired day‑to‑day clinical tool. Fundus autoflorescence signals can be detected using 3 different systems, the Delori's fundus. Fundus Autofluorescence ...

  3. Investigation of selected surface integrity features of duplex stainless steel (DSS after turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Krolczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents surface roughness profiles and Abbott - Firestone curves with vertical and amplitude parameters of surface roughness after turning by means of a coated sintered carbide wedge with a coating with ceramic intermediate layer. The investigation comprised the influence of cutting speed on the selected features of surface integrity in dry machining. The material under investigation was duplex stainless steel with two-phase ferritic-austenitic structure. The tests have been performed under production conditions during machining of parts for electric motors and deep-well pumps. The obtained results allow to draw conclusions about the characteristics of surface properties of the machined parts.

  4. Remote sensing of coastal sea-surface features off northern British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, I.D.; Thomson, K.A.; LeBlond, P.H.; Foreman, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents an overview of surface oceanographic features identified by AVHRR imagery in Hecate Strait and adjacent waters surrounding the Queen Charlotte Islands, Canada, an area still poor in in situ observations. The observed features and their temporal variability are interpreted in terms of meteorological and hydrological forcing. The effects of tidal mixing are discussed through the application of a finite element numerical model

  5. Thermal measurements of dark and bright surface features on Vesta as derived from Dawn/VIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Federico; Capria, Maria Teresa; De Sanctis, M.C.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Zambon, F.; Nathues, A.; Schröder, S.E.; Li, J.-Y.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Blewett, D.T.; Denevi, B.W.; Palmer, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Ammannito, E.; Titus, Timothy N.; Mittlefehldt, D.W.; Sunshine, J.M.; Russell, C.T.; Raymond, C.A.; Dawn/VIR Team,

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing data acquired during Dawn’s orbital mission at Vesta showed several local concentrations of high-albedo (bright) and low-albedo (dark) material units, in addition to spectrally distinct meteorite impact ejecta. The thermal behavior of such areas seen at local scale (1-10 km) is related to physical properties that can provide information about the origin of those materials. We use Dawn’s Visible and InfraRed (VIR) mapping spectrometer hyperspectral data to retrieve surface temperatures and emissivities, with high accuracy as long as temperatures are greater than 220 K. Some of the dark and bright features were observed multiple times by VIR in the various mission phases at variable spatial resolution, illumination and observation angles, local solar time, and heliocentric distance. This work presents the first temperature maps and spectral emissivities of several kilometer-scale dark and bright material units on Vesta. Results retrieved from the infrared data acquired by VIR show that bright regions generally correspond to regions with lower temperature, while dark regions correspond to areas with higher temperature. During maximum daily insolation and in the range of heliocentric distances explored by Dawn, i.e. 2.23-2.54 AU, the warmest dark unit found on Vesta rises to a temperature of 273 K, while bright units observed under comparable conditions do not exceed 266 K. Similarly, dark units appear to have higher emissivity on average compared to bright units. Dark-material units show a weak anticorrelation between temperature and albedo, whereas the relation is stronger for bright material units observed under the same conditions. Individual features may show either evanescent or distinct margins in the thermal images, as a consequence of the cohesion of the surface material. Finally, for the two categories of dark and bright materials, we were able to highlight the influence of heliocentric distance on surface temperatures, and estimate an

  6. Comparing experts and novices in Martian surface feature change detection and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlaw, Jessica; Sprinks, James; Houghton, Robert; Muller, Jan-Peter; Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Bamford, Steven; Marsh, Stuart

    2018-02-01

    Change detection in satellite images is a key concern of the Earth Observation field for environmental and climate change monitoring. Satellite images also provide important clues to both the past and present surface conditions of other planets, which cannot be validated on the ground. With the volume of satellite imagery continuing to grow, the inadequacy of computerised solutions to manage and process imagery to the required professional standard is of critical concern. Whilst studies find the crowd sourcing approach suitable for the counting of impact craters in single images, images of higher resolution contain a much wider range of features, and the performance of novices in identifying more complex features and detecting change, remains unknown. This paper presents a first step towards understanding whether novices can identify and annotate changes in different geomorphological features. A website was developed to enable visitors to flick between two images of the same location on Mars taken at different times and classify 1) if a surface feature changed and if so, 2) what feature had changed from a pre-defined list of six. Planetary scientists provided ;expert; data against which classifications made by novices could be compared when the project subsequently went public. Whilst no significant difference was found in images identified with surface changes by expert and novices, results exhibited differences in consensus within and between experts and novices when asked to classify the type of change. Experts demonstrated higher levels of agreement in classification of changes as dust devil tracks, slope streaks and impact craters than other features, whilst the consensus of novices was consistent across feature types; furthermore, the level of consensus amongst regardless of feature type. These trends are secondary to the low levels of consensus found, regardless of feature type or classifier expertise. These findings demand the attention of researchers who

  7. A statistical-textural-features based approach for classification of solid drugs using surface microscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Fahima; Fahiem, Muhammad Abuzar

    2014-01-01

    The quality of pharmaceutical products plays an important role in pharmaceutical industry as well as in our lives. Usage of defective tablets can be harmful for patients. In this research we proposed a nondestructive method to identify defective and nondefective tablets using their surface morphology. Three different environmental factors temperature, humidity and moisture are analyzed to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Multiple textural features are extracted from the surface of the defective and nondefective tablets. These textural features are gray level cooccurrence matrix, run length matrix, histogram, autoregressive model and HAAR wavelet. Total textural features extracted from images are 281. We performed an analysis on all those 281, top 15, and top 2 features. Top 15 features are extracted using three different feature reduction techniques: chi-square, gain ratio and relief-F. In this research we have used three different classifiers: support vector machine, K-nearest neighbors and naïve Bayes to calculate the accuracies against proposed method using two experiments, that is, leave-one-out cross-validation technique and train test models. We tested each classifier against all selected features and then performed the comparison of their results. The experimental work resulted in that in most of the cases SVM performed better than the other two classifiers.

  8. Surface features on Sahara soil dust particles made visible by atomic force microscope (AFM phase images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Andreae

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We show that atomic force microscopy (AFM phase images can reveal surface features of soil dust particles, which are not evident using other microscopic methods. The non-contact AFM method is able to resolve topographical structures in the nanometer range as well as to uncover repulsive atomic forces and attractive van der Waals' forces, and thus gives insight to surface properties. Though the method does not allow quantitative assignment in terms of chemical compound description, it clearly shows deposits of distinguishable material on the surface. We apply this technique to dust aerosol particles from the Sahara collected over the Atlantic Ocean and describe micro-features on the surfaces of such particles.

  9. Surface features on Sahara soil dust particles made visible by atomic force microscope (AFM) phase images

    OpenAIRE

    G. Helas; M. O. Andreae

    2008-01-01

    We show that atomic force microscopy (AFM) phase images can reveal surface features of soil dust particles, which are not evident using other microscopic methods. The non-contact AFM method is able to resolve topographical structures in the nanometer range as well as to uncover repulsive atomic forces and attractive van der Waals' forces, and thus gives insight to surface properties. Though the method does not allow quantitative assignment in terms of chemical compound description, it clearly...

  10. Shape based automated detection of pulmonary nodules with surface feature based false positive reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Y.; Itoh, H.; Masutani, Y.; Ohtomo, K.; Maeda, E.; Yoshikawa, T.; Hayashi, N.

    2007-01-01

    We proposed a shape based automated detection of pulmonary nodules with surface feature based false positive (FP) reduction. In the proposed system, the FP existing in internal of vessel bifurcation is removed using extracted surface of vessels and nodules. From the validation with 16 chest CT scans, we find that the proposed CAD system achieves 18.7 FPs/scan at 90% sensitivity, and 7.8 FPs/scan at 80% sensitivity. (orig.)

  11. New SCALE-4 features related to cross-section processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, L.M.; Landers, N.F.; Greene, N.M.; Parks, C.V.

    1991-01-01

    The SCALE code system has a standardized scheme for processing problem-dependent cross section from problem-independent waste libraries. Some improvements and new capabilities in the processing scheme have been incorporated into the new Version 4 release of the SCALE system. The new features include the capability to consider annular cylindrical and spherical unit cells, and improved Dancoff factor formulation, and changes to the NITAWL-II module to perform resonance self-shielding with reference to infinite dilute values. A review of these major changes in the cross-section processing scheme for SCALE-4 is presented in this paper

  12. Surface feature congruency effects in the object-reviewing paradigm are dependent on task memory demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Pirkner, Yossef

    2014-08-01

    Perception of object continuity depends on establishing correspondence between objects viewed across disruptions in visual information. The role of spatiotemporal information in guiding object continuity is well documented; the role of surface features, however, is controversial. Some researchers have shown an object-specific preview benefit (OSPB)-a standard index of object continuity-only when correspondence could be based on an object's spatiotemporal information, whereas others have found color-based OSPB, suggesting that surface features can also guide object continuity. This study shows that surface feature-based OSPB is dependent on the task memory demands. When the task involved letters and matching just one target letter to the preview ones, no color congruency effect was found under spatiotemporal discontinuity and spatiotemporal ambiguity (Experiments 1-3), indicating that the absence of feature-based OSPB cannot be accounted for by salient spatiotemporal discontinuity. When the task involved complex shapes and matching two target shapes to the preview ones, color-based OSPB was obtained. Critically, however, when a visual working memory task was performed concurrently with the matching task, the presence of a nonspatial (but not a spatial) working memory load eliminated the color-based OSPB (Experiments 4 and 5). These results suggest that the surface feature congruency effects that are observed in the object-reviewing paradigm (with the matching task) reflect memory-based strategies that participants use to solve a memory-demanding task; therefore, they are not reliable measures of online object continuity and cannot be taken as evidence for the role of surface features in establishing object correspondence.

  13. Fusion of geometric and texture features for finger knuckle surface recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Usha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hand-based biometrics plays a significant role in establishing security for real-time environments involving human interaction and is found to be more successful in terms of high speed and accuracy. This paper investigates on an integrated approach for personal authentication using Finger Back Knuckle Surface (FBKS based on two methodologies viz., Angular Geometric Analysis based Feature Extraction Method (AGFEM and Contourlet Transform based Feature Extraction Method (CTFEM. Based on these methods, this personal authentication system simultaneously extracts shape oriented feature information and textural pattern information of FBKS for authenticating an individual. Furthermore, the proposed geometric and textural analysis methods extract feature information from both proximal phalanx and distal phalanx knuckle regions (FBKS, while the existing works of the literature concentrate only on the features of proximal phalanx knuckle region. The finger joint region found nearer to the tip of the finger is called distal phalanx region of FBKS, which is a unique feature and has greater potentiality toward identification. Extensive experiments conducted using newly created database with 5400 FBKS images and the obtained results infer that the integration of shape oriented features with texture feature information yields excellent accuracy rate of 99.12% with lowest equal error rate of 1.04%.

  14. Study of Dynamic Features of Surface Plasma in High-Power Disk Laser Welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Teng; Gao Xiangdong; Seiji, Katayama; Jin, Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    High-speed photography was used to obtain the dynamic changes in the surface plasma during a high-power disk laser welding process. A color space clustering algorithm to extract the edge information of the surface plasma region was developed in order to improve the accuracy of image processing. With a comparative analysis of the plasma features, i.e., area and height, and the characteristics of the welded seam, the relationship between the surface plasma and the stability of the laser welding process was characterized, which provides a basic understanding for the real-time monitoring of laser welding.

  15. Dynamics of Soil Deflation Features in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland Revealed by Variations in Lichen Diameters on Exposed Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, R. C.; Kelly, M. A.; Virginia, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about the pervasive soil deflation features in the Kangerlussuaq region, West Greenland, an area deglaciated between ~6,800 and 150 years ago. While the majority of the landscape is vegetated with low-lying shrubs and graminoids, wind erosion has removed loess and vegetation from distinct patches ranging in size from a few to tens of meters across, leaving the underlying glacial till or bedrock exposed. Although previous work has considered aeolian landforms and regional loess deposition along the Watson River Valley, these deflation features have not been investigated in detail. We aim to determine both the timing and mechanisms of formation of the deflation features and will examine whether these mechanisms were related to regional climatic conditions, such as increased aridity, to fluctuations in the Greenland Ice Sheet, or to other factors. Our ongoing research investigating these features includes geomorphic mapping using field observations and satellite imagery, lichenometry of the exposed surfaces, and cosmogenic nuclide dating of boulders and bedrock within and near the deflation features. Here we present initial results from our lichenometry studies. During the summer of 2013, we measured maximum lichen (Rhizocarpon sp.) diameters on boulder and bedrock surfaces in 15 soil deflation features located between Kangerlussuaq and the ice sheet margin. Lichen diameters vary from only a few millimeters at the outer margins of deflation features to multiple centimeters (maximum ~50 mm) in the centers of the unvegetated patches. This distinct pattern suggests that the outer margins of the soil deflation features are currently active. Based on a previously established lichen growth curve for Rhizocarpon sp. in West Greenland, our results indicate that the features are expanding at a rate of ~1.5 m per 100 yrs. In addition, the large lichen diameters (~40-50 mm) that occur in the centers of deflation features suggest that the formation mechanism has

  16. Signs of helicity in solar prominences and related features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S.

    This review illustrates several ways to identify the chirality (handedness) of solar prominences (filaments) from their structure and the structure of their surrounding magnetic fields in the chromosphere and corona. For prominences, these structural elements include the axial magnetic field direction, orientation of barbs, and direction of the prominence fine structure. The surrounding structures include the pattern of fibrils beneath the prominences and the pattern of coronal loops above the prominences. These ways of identifying chirality are then interpreted in terms of the formal definitions of helicity to yield a consistent set of one-to-one helicity relationships for all features. The helicity of some prominences can also be independently determined during their eruption by their fine structure, apparent crossings in the line-of-sight of different parts of the same prominence, and by large- scale twist of the prominence structure. Unlike observations of prominences (filaments) observed prior to eruption, in some cases evidence of both signs of helicity are found within the same erupting prominence. This indicates the continued application of forces on the prominences during the eruption process or the possible introduction of force(s) not present during earlier stages of their evolution.

  17. Curvilinear ridges and related features in southwest Cydonia Mensae, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Schneeberger, Dale M.; Pieri, David C.; Saunders, R. Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Examined is a region on Mars in southwest Cydonia Mensae (32 deg lat., 17 deg long.) just northwest of the lowland/upland boundary escarpment. The dominant morphological features in this region are the clusters of large massifs and plateau outliers (PI), knobby material (K), and smooth lowland plains (Ps). Surrounding the clusters and linking many isolated knobs is a system of curvilinear ridges and arcuate terrain boundaries which tend to separate the massifs and knobs from the smooth plains. Curvilinear ridges are arcuate to nearly linear and smoother in plan than wrinkle ridges and show no apparent correlation with regional structural grain. They are typically 5 to 10 km long but can range from as little as 2 or 3 km to greater than 50 km long. The widths vary from about 100 m to as much as 2 km. Curvilinear ridges are most numerous within 100 km of the lowland/upland boundary escarpment and are associated with massifs and knobby terrain. Arcuate terrain boundaries appear between units of different apparent albedo or arcuate breaks in slope.

  18. The relation between rumination and temporal features of emotion intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Résibois, Maxime; Kalokerinos, Elise K; Verleysen, Gregory; Kuppens, Peter; Van Mechelen, Iven; Fossati, Philippe; Verduyn, Philippe

    2018-03-01

    Intensity profiles of emotional experience over time have been found to differ primarily in explosiveness (i.e. whether the profile has a steep vs. a gentle start) and accumulation (i.e. whether intensity increases over time vs. goes back to baseline). However, the determinants of these temporal features remain poorly understood. In two studies, we examined whether emotion regulation strategies are predictive of the degree of explosiveness and accumulation of negative emotional episodes. Participants were asked to draw profiles reflecting changes in the intensity of emotions elicited either by negative social feedback in the lab (Study 1) or by negative events in daily life (Study 2). In addition, trait (Study 1 & 2), and state (Study 2) usage of a set of emotion regulation strategies was assessed. Multilevel analyses revealed that trait rumination (especially the brooding component) was positively associated with emotion accumulation (Study 1 & 2). State rumination was also positively associated with emotion accumulation and, to a lesser extent, with emotion explosiveness (Study 2). These results provide support for emotion regulation theories, which hypothesise that rumination is a central mechanism underlying the maintenance of negative emotions.

  19. Features of projectile motion in the special theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, Ghassan Y

    2006-01-01

    A relativistic projectile motion in a vacuum is examined by means of elementary consequences of special relativity. Exact analytical expressions were found for the kinematics variables using basic mathematical tools. The trajectory equation was established and the area under the trajectory traversed by the relativistic projectile was determined. It was found that, unlike non-relativistic projectile motion, the launching angles that maximize both the horizontal range as well as the area under the trajectory are functions of the initial speed. It is anticipated that this paper will be consistent with the intuition of students and serve as a resource for further problems usually encountered in the special theory of relativity

  20. Fundus autofluorescence features of optic disc pit related maculopathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fundus autoflorescence (FAF) is a new investigational tool used to identify lipofuscin distribution in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell monolayer. It has recently been used to analyze age‑related macular degeneration, central serous chorioretinopathy, retina telangiectasia and diffuse and macula retina dystrophies.

  1. FEATURES OF UKRAINE’S PARTICIPATION IN INTERNATIONAL CONTRACTUAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Melnyk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights theoretical and practical aspects of economic rivalry escalation between countries in the process of deepening international economic relations, which are not mediated by investments. The purpose of the research is to summarize the empirical data and theoretical developments of the determinants, macroeconomic effects, and peculiarities of the countries’ participation in international production and marketing cooperation through the format of non-investment contractual relations and investigate their potential for Ukrainian enterprises. The subject of the research is contractual relations as an instrument for incorporating the country’s enterprises into global value chains. Methodology. Assessment of competitive advantages of countries integrated into the international subordinate production was carried out using the techniques of Vollrath T.L. and G. Lafay. Results. Based on the generalization of empirical data and theoretical studies on the latest trends in deepening economic rivalry among participants in international cooperative relations, there were found out factors of activation of non-investment forms of external expansion by TNCs, in particular, the exhaustibility of the extensive way of cross-border production development and investment, and the increased level of investment risks caused by permanent economic crises, political instability, corruption of local elites in the countries where TNC units are localized, regional military conflicts. Estimation of the level of comparative advantages according to Vollrath T.L. and G. Lafay approaches made it possible to identify the competitive positions of the producers of individual countries in the system of international cooperation. Estimation shows that among 41 tested countries, the most significant index of the identified comparative advantages in production under contract was demonstrated by the following countries: Bangladesh, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina

  2. Predicting the Occurrence of Cave-Inhabiting Fauna Based on Features of the Earth Surface Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Mary C; Doctor, Daniel H; Niemiller, Matthew L; Weary, David J; Young, John A; Zigler, Kirk S; Culver, David C

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging fauna to study in situ is the obligate cave fauna because of the difficulty of sampling. Cave-limited species display patchy and restricted distributions, but it is often unclear whether the observed distribution is a sampling artifact or a true restriction in range. Further, the drivers of the distribution could be local environmental conditions, such as cave humidity, or they could be associated with surface features that are surrogates for cave conditions. If surface features can be used to predict the distribution of important cave taxa, then conservation management is more easily obtained. We examined the hypothesis that the presence of major faunal groups of cave obligate species could be predicted based on features of the earth surface. Georeferenced records of cave obligate amphipods, crayfish, fish, isopods, beetles, millipedes, pseudoscorpions, spiders, and springtails within the area of Appalachian Landscape Conservation Cooperative in the eastern United States (Illinois to Virginia and New York to Alabama) were assigned to 20 x 20 km grid cells. Habitat suitability for these faunal groups was modeled using logistic regression with twenty predictor variables within each grid cell, such as percent karst, soil features, temperature, precipitation, and elevation. Models successfully predicted the presence of a group greater than 65% of the time (mean = 88%) for the presence of single grid cell endemics, and for all faunal groups except pseudoscorpions. The most common predictor variables were latitude, percent karst, and the standard deviation of the Topographic Position Index (TPI), a measure of landscape rugosity within each grid cell. The overall success of these models points to a number of important connections between the surface and cave environments, and some of these, especially soil features and topographic variability, suggest new research directions. These models should prove to be useful tools in predicting the

  3. Magnetoencephalographic--features related to mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püregger, E; Walla, P; Deecke, L; Dal-Bianco, P

    2003-12-01

    We recorded changes of brain activity from 10 MCI patients and 10 controls related to shallow (nonsemantic) and deep (semantic) word encoding using a whole-head MEG. During the following recognition tasks, all participants had to recognize the previously encoded words, which were presented again together with new words. In both groups recognition performance significantly varied as a function of depth of processing. No significant differences were found between the groups. Reaction times related to correctly classified new words (correct rejections) and incorrectly classified repetitions (misses) of MCI patients showed a strong tendency toward prolongation compared to controls, although no statistically significant differences occurred. Strikingly, in patients the neurophysiological data associated with nonsemantic and semantic word encoding differed significantly between 250 and 450 ms after stimulus onset mainly over left frontal and left temporal sensors. They showed higher electrophysiological activation during shallow encoding as compared to deep encoding. No such significant differences were found in controls. The present results might reflect a dysfunction with respect to shallow encoding of visually presented verbal information. It is interpreted that additional neural activation is needed to compensate for neurodegeneration. This finding is suggested to be an additional tool for MCI diagnosis.

  4. Analyzing surface features on icy satellites using a new two-layer analogue model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, K. M.; Leonard, E. J.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Yin, A.

    2017-12-01

    The appearance of similar surface morphologies across many icy satellites suggests potentially unified formation mechanisms. Constraining the processes that shape the surfaces of these icy worlds is fundamental to understanding their rheology and thermal evolution—factors that have implications for potential habitability. Analogue models have proven useful for investigating and quantifying surface structure formation on Earth, but have only been sparsely applied to icy bodies. In this study, we employ an innovative two-layer analogue model that simulates a warm, ductile ice layer overlain by brittle surface ice on satellites such as Europa and Enceladus. The top, brittle layer is composed of fine-grained sand while the ductile, lower viscosity layer is made of putty. These materials were chosen because they scale up reasonably to the conditions on Europa and Enceladus. Using this analogue model, we investigate the role of the ductile layer in forming contractional structures (e.g. folds) that would compensate for the over-abundance of extensional features observed on icy satellites. We do this by simulating different compressional scenarios in the analogue model and analyzing whether the resulting features resemble those on icy bodies. If the resulting structures are similar, then the model can be used to quantify the deformation by calculating strain. These values can then be scaled up to Europa or Enceladus and used to quantity the observed surface morphologies and the amount of extensional strain accommodated by certain features. This presentation will focus on the resulting surface morphologies and the calculated strain values from several analogue experiments. The methods and findings from this work can then be expanded and used to study other icy bodies, such as Triton, Miranda, Ariel, and Pluto.

  5. Prediction and Migration of Surface-related Resonant Multiples

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen; Schuster, Gerard T.; Huang, Yunsong

    2015-01-01

    Surface-related resonant multiples can be migrated to achieve better resolution than migrating primary reflections. We now derive the formula for migrating surface-related resonant multiples, and show its super-resolution characteristics. Moreover

  6. Supplementary Microstructural Features Induced During Laser Surface Melting of Thermally Sprayed Inconel 625 Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nauman; Voisey, K. T.; McCartney, D. G.

    2014-02-01

    Laser surface melting of thermally sprayed coatings has the potential to enhance their corrosion properties by incorporating favorable microstructural changes. Besides homogenizing the as-sprayed structure, laser melting may induce certain microstructural modifications (i.e., supplementary features) in addition to those that directly improve the corrosion performance. Such features, being a direct result of the laser treatment process, are described in this paper which is part of a broader study in which high velocity oxy-fuel sprayed Inconel 625 coatings on mild-steel substrates were treated with a diode laser and the modified microstructure characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The laser treated coating features several different zones, including a region with a microstructure in which there is a continuous columnar dendritic structure through a network of retained oxide stringers.

  7. Surface features of central North America: a synoptic view from computer graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    A digital shaded-relief image of the 48 contiguous United States shows the details of large- and small-scale landforms, including several linear trends. The features faithfully reflect tectonism, continental glaciation, fluvial activity, volcanism, and other surface-shaping events and processes. The new map not only depicts topography accurately and in its true complexity, but does so in one synoptic view that provides a regional context for geologic analysis unobscured by clouds, culture, vegetation, or artistic constraints. -Author

  8. Surface and morphological features of laser-irradiated silicon under vacuum, nitrogen and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, Asma, E-mail: asmahayat@gcu.edu.pk; Bashir, Shazia; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Iqbal, Muhammad Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Laser irradiation effects on Si surface have been explored. • An Excimer Laser was used as a source. • SEM analysis was performed to explore surface morphology. • Raman spectroscopy analysis was carried out to find crystallographical alterations. - Abstract: Laser-induced surface and structural modification of silicon (Si) has been investigated under three different environments of vacuum, nitrogen (100 Torr) and ethanol. The interaction of 1000 pulses of KrF (λ ≈ 248 nm, τ ≈ 18 ns, repetition rate ≈ 30 Hz) Excimer laser at two different fluences of 2.8 J/cm{sup 2} and 4 J/cm{sup 2} resulted in formation of various kinds of features such as laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), spikes, columns, cones and cracks. Surface morphology has been observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Whereas, structural modification of irradiated targets is explored by Raman spectroscopy. SEM analysis exhibits a non-uniform distribution of micro-scale pillars and spikes at the central ablated regime of silicon irradiated at low laser fluence of 2.8 J/cm{sup 2} under vacuum. Whereas cones, pits, cavities and ripples like features are seen at the boundaries. At higher fluence of 4 J/cm{sup 2}, laser induced periodic structures as well as micro-columns are observed. In the case of ablation in nitrogen environment, melting, splashing, self-organized granular structures and cracks along with redeposition are observed at lower fluence. Such types of small scaled structures in nitrogen are attributed to confinement and shielding effects of nitrogen plasma. Whereas, a crater with multiple ablative layers is formed in the case of ablation at higher fluence. Significantly different surface morphology of Si is observed in the case of ablation in ethanol. It reveals the formation of cavities along with small scale pores and less redeposition. These results reveal that the growth of surface and morphological features of irradiated Si are strongly

  9. Surface and morphological features of laser-irradiated silicon under vacuum, nitrogen and ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, Asma; Bashir, Shazia; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Iqbal, Muhammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser irradiation effects on Si surface have been explored. • An Excimer Laser was used as a source. • SEM analysis was performed to explore surface morphology. • Raman spectroscopy analysis was carried out to find crystallographical alterations. - Abstract: Laser-induced surface and structural modification of silicon (Si) has been investigated under three different environments of vacuum, nitrogen (100 Torr) and ethanol. The interaction of 1000 pulses of KrF (λ ≈ 248 nm, τ ≈ 18 ns, repetition rate ≈ 30 Hz) Excimer laser at two different fluences of 2.8 J/cm 2 and 4 J/cm 2 resulted in formation of various kinds of features such as laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), spikes, columns, cones and cracks. Surface morphology has been observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Whereas, structural modification of irradiated targets is explored by Raman spectroscopy. SEM analysis exhibits a non-uniform distribution of micro-scale pillars and spikes at the central ablated regime of silicon irradiated at low laser fluence of 2.8 J/cm 2 under vacuum. Whereas cones, pits, cavities and ripples like features are seen at the boundaries. At higher fluence of 4 J/cm 2 , laser induced periodic structures as well as micro-columns are observed. In the case of ablation in nitrogen environment, melting, splashing, self-organized granular structures and cracks along with redeposition are observed at lower fluence. Such types of small scaled structures in nitrogen are attributed to confinement and shielding effects of nitrogen plasma. Whereas, a crater with multiple ablative layers is formed in the case of ablation at higher fluence. Significantly different surface morphology of Si is observed in the case of ablation in ethanol. It reveals the formation of cavities along with small scale pores and less redeposition. These results reveal that the growth of surface and morphological features of irradiated Si are strongly dependent upon the

  10. Observation of surface features on an active landslide, and implications for understanding its history of movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parise

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface features are produced as a result of internal deformation of active landslides, and are continuously created and destroyed by the movement. Observation of their presence and distribution, and surveying of their evolution may provide insights for the zonation of the mass movement in sectors characterized by different behaviour. The present study analyses and describes some example of surface features observed on an active mass movement, the Slumgullion earthflow, in the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado. The Slumgullion earthflow is one of the most famous and spectacular landslides in the world; it consists of a younger, active part which moves on and over an older, much larger, inactive part. Total length of the earthflow is 6.8 km, with an estimated volume of 170 × 10 6 m 3 . Its nearly constant rate of movement (ranging from about 2 m per year at the head, to a maximum of 6–7 m per year at its narrow and central part, to values between 1.3 and 2 m per year at the active toe, and the geological properties of moving material, are well suited for the observation of the development and evolution of surface features. In the last 11 years, repeated surveying at the Slumgullion site has been performed through recognition of surface features, measurements of their main characteristics, and detailed mapping. In this study, two sectors of the Slumgullion earthflow are analysed through comparison of the features observed in this time span, and evaluation of the changes occurred: they are the active toe and an area located at the left flank of the landslide. Choice of the sectors was dictated in the first case, by particular activity of movement and the nearby presence of elements at risk (highway located only 250 m downhill from the toe; and in the second case, by the presence of many surface features, mostly consisting of several generations of flank ridges. The active toe of the landslide is characterized by continuous movement

  11. Contributions of feature shapes and surface cues to the recognition and neural representation of facial identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Timothy J; Baseler, Heidi; Jenkins, Rob; Burton, A Mike; Young, Andrew W

    2016-10-01

    A full understanding of face recognition will involve identifying the visual information that is used to discriminate different identities and how this is represented in the brain. The aim of this study was to explore the importance of shape and surface properties in the recognition and neural representation of familiar faces. We used image morphing techniques to generate hybrid faces that mixed shape properties (more specifically, second order spatial configural information as defined by feature positions in the 2D-image) from one identity and surface properties from a different identity. Behavioural responses showed that recognition and matching of these hybrid faces was primarily based on their surface properties. These behavioural findings contrasted with neural responses recorded using a block design fMRI adaptation paradigm to test the sensitivity of Haxby et al.'s (2000) core face-selective regions in the human brain to the shape or surface properties of the face. The fusiform face area (FFA) and occipital face area (OFA) showed a lower response (adaptation) to repeated images of the same face (same shape, same surface) compared to different faces (different shapes, different surfaces). From the behavioural data indicating the critical contribution of surface properties to the recognition of identity, we predicted that brain regions responsible for familiar face recognition should continue to adapt to faces that vary in shape but not surface properties, but show a release from adaptation to faces that vary in surface properties but not shape. However, we found that the FFA and OFA showed an equivalent release from adaptation to changes in both shape and surface properties. The dissociation between the neural and perceptual responses suggests that, although they may play a role in the process, these core face regions are not solely responsible for the recognition of facial identity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reduced adhesion of macrophages on anodized titanium with select nanotube surface features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Amancherla Rajyalakshmi1, Batur Ercan2,3, K Balasubramanian1, Thomas J Webster2,31Non-Ferrous Materials Technology Development Centre, Hyderabad, India; 2School of Engineering, 3Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: One of the important prerequisites for a successful orthopedic implant apart from being osteoconductive is the elicitation of a favorable immune response that does not lead to the rejection of the implant by the host tissue. Anodization is one of the simplest surface modification processes used to create nanotextured and nanotubular features on metal oxides which has been shown to improve bone formation. Anodization of titanium (Ti leads to the formation of TiO2 nanotubes on the surface, and the presence of these nanotubes mimics the natural nanoscale features of bone, which in turn contributes to improved bone cell attachment, migration, and proliferation. However, inflammatory cell responses on anodized Ti remains to be tested. It is hypothesized that surface roughness and surface feature size on anodized Ti can be carefully manipulated to control immune cell (specifically, macrophages responses. Here, when Ti samples were anodized at 10 V in the presence of 1% hydrofluoric acid (HF for 1 minute, nanotextured (nonnanotube surfaces were created. When anodization of Ti samples was carried out with 1% HF for 10 minutes at 15 V, nanotubes with 40–50 nm diameters were formed, whereas at 20 V with 1% HF for 10 minutes, nanotubes with 60–70 nm diameters were formed. In this study, a reduced density of macrophages was observed after 24 hours of culture on nanotextured and nanotubular Ti samples which were anodized at 10, 15, and 20 V, compared with conventional unmodified Ti samples. This in vitro study thus demonstrated a reduced density of macrophages on anodized Ti, thereby providing further evidence of the greater efficacy of anodized Ti for orthopedic applications.Keywords: anodization, titanium

  13. LSAH: a fast and efficient local surface feature for point cloud registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rongrong; Zhu, Feng; Wu, Qingxiao; Kong, Yanzi

    2018-04-01

    Point cloud registration is a fundamental task in high level three dimensional applications. Noise, uneven point density and varying point cloud resolutions are the three main challenges for point cloud registration. In this paper, we design a robust and compact local surface descriptor called Local Surface Angles Histogram (LSAH) and propose an effectively coarse to fine algorithm for point cloud registration. The LSAH descriptor is formed by concatenating five normalized sub-histograms into one histogram. The five sub-histograms are created by accumulating a different type of angle from a local surface patch respectively. The experimental results show that our LSAH is more robust to uneven point density and point cloud resolutions than four state-of-the-art local descriptors in terms of feature matching. Moreover, we tested our LSAH based coarse to fine algorithm for point cloud registration. The experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm is robust and efficient as well.

  14. In vitro bioactivity of micro metal injection moulded stainless steel with defined surface features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Brose

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Micrometre- and nanometre-scale surface structuring with ordered topography features may dramatically enhance orthopaedic implant integration. In this study we utilised a previously optimised micron metal injection moulding (µ-MIM process to produce medical grade stainless steel surfaces bearing micrometre scale, protruding, hemispheres of controlled dimensions and spatial distribution. Additionally, the structured surfaces were characterised by the presence of submicrometre surface roughness resulting from metal grain boundary formation. Following cytocompatibility (cytotoxicity evaluation using 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line, the effect on primary human cell functionality was assessed focusing on cell attachment, shape and cytoskeleton conformation. In this respect, and by day 7 in culture, significant increase in focal adhesion size was associated with the microstructured surfaces compared to the planar control. The morphological conformation of the seeded cells, as revealed by fluorescence cytoskeleton labelling, also appeared to be guided in the vertical dimension between the hemisphere bodies. Quantitative evaluation of this guidance took place using live cytoplasm fluorescence labelling and image morphometry analysis utilising both, compactness and elongation shape descriptors. Significant increase in cell compactness was associated with the hemisphere arrays indicating collective increase in focused cell attachment to the hemisphere bodies across the entire cell population. Micrometre-scale hemisphere array patterns have therefore influenced cell attachment and conformation. Such influence may potentially aid in enhancing key cellular events such as, for example, neo-osteogenesis on implanted orthopaedic surfaces.

  15. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students' Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of…

  16. Surface Rupture Effects on Earthquake Moment-Area Scaling Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yingdi; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Miyakoshi, Ken; Irikura, Kojiro

    2017-09-01

    Empirical earthquake scaling relations play a central role in fundamental studies of earthquake physics and in current practice of earthquake hazard assessment, and are being refined by advances in earthquake source analysis. A scaling relation between seismic moment ( M 0) and rupture area ( A) currently in use for ground motion prediction in Japan features a transition regime of the form M 0- A 2, between the well-recognized small (self-similar) and very large (W-model) earthquake regimes, which has counter-intuitive attributes and uncertain theoretical underpinnings. Here, we investigate the mechanical origin of this transition regime via earthquake cycle simulations, analytical dislocation models and numerical crack models on strike-slip faults. We find that, even if stress drop is assumed constant, the properties of the transition regime are controlled by surface rupture effects, comprising an effective rupture elongation along-dip due to a mirror effect and systematic changes of the shape factor relating slip to stress drop. Based on this physical insight, we propose a simplified formula to account for these effects in M 0- A scaling relations for strike-slip earthquakes.

  17. Linear and Nonlinear Gait Features in Older Adults Walking on Inclined Surfaces at Different Speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Marcus Fraga; Rodrigues, Fábio Barbosa; de Sá E Souza, Gustavo Souto; Magnani, Rina Márcia; Lehnen, Georgia Cristina; Andrade, Adriano O

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated linear and nonlinear gait features in healthy older adults walking on inclined surfaces at different speeds. Thirty-seven active older adults (experimental group) and fifty young adults (control group) walked on a treadmill at 100% and ±20% of their preferred walking speed for 4 min under horizontal (0%), upward (UP) (+8%), and downward (DOWN) (-8%) conditions. Linear gait variability was assessed using the average standard deviation of trunk acceleration between strides (VAR). Gait stability was assessed using the margin of stability (MoS). Nonlinear gait features were assessed by using the maximum Lyapunov exponent, as a measure of local dynamic stability (LDS), and sample entropy (SEn), as a measure of regularity. VAR increased for all conditions, but the interaction effects between treadmill inclination and age, and speed and age were higher for young adults. DOWN conditions showed the lowest stability in the medial-lateral MoS, but not in LDS. LDS was smaller in UP conditions. However, there were no effects of age for either MoS or LDS. The values of SEn decreased almost linearly from the DOWN to the UP conditions, with significant interaction effects of age for anterior-posterior SEn. The overall results supported the hypothesis that inclined surfaces modulate nonlinear gait features and alter linear gait variability, particularly in UP conditions, but there were no significant effects of age for active older adults.

  18. Virtual laparoscopy: Initial experience with three-dimensional ultrasonography to characterize hepatic surface features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Tadashi; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Kondo, Takayuki; Shimada, Taro; Takahashi, Masanori; Yokosuka, Osamu; Otsuka, Masayuki; Miyazaki, Masaru; Mine, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the potential utility of 3D-reconstructed sonograms to distinguish cirrhotic from non-cirrhotic livers by demonstrating hepatic surface characteristics. Materials and methods: A preliminary phantom study was performed to examine the potential resolution of 3D images, recognizing surface irregularities as a difference in height. In a prospective clinical study of 31 consecutive patients with ascites (21 cirrhosis, 10 non-cirrhosis), liver volume data were acquired by transabdominal mechanical scanning. The hepatic surface features of cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients were compared by 2 independent reviewers. Intra- and inter-operator/reviewer agreements were also examined. Results: The phantom study revealed that 0.4 mm was the minimum recognizable difference in height on the 3D sonograms. The hepatic surface image was successfully visualized in 74% patients (23/31). Success depended on the amount of ascites; visualization was 100% with ascites of 10 mm or more between the hepatic surface and abdominal wall. The images showed irregularity of the hepatic surface in all cirrhotic patients. The surface appearance was confirmed as being very similar in 3 patients who had both 3D sonogram and liver resection for transplantation. The ability to distinguish cirrhotic liver from non-cirrhotic liver improved with the use of combination of 2D- and 3D-imaging versus 2D-imaging alone (sensitivity, p = 0.02; accuracy, p = 0.02) or 3D-imaging alone (sensitivity, p = 0.03). Intra-/inter-operator and inter-reviewer agreement were excellent (κ = 1.0). Conclusion: 3D-based sonographic visualization of the hepatic surface showed high reliability and reproducibility, acting as a virtual laparoscopy method, and the technique has the potential to improve the diagnosis of cirrhosis

  19. The effects of droplet characteristics on the surface features in a rain field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R.; Brown, H.; Liu, X.; Duncan, J. H.

    2013-11-01

    The characteristics of the shape of a water surface in response to the impact of simulated raindrops are studied experimentally in a 1.22-m-by-1.22-m water pool with a water depth of 0.3 m. A rain generator consisting of an open-surface water tank with an array of 22-gauge hypodermic needles (typical needle-to-needle spacing of about L0 = 3 . 5 cm) attached to holes in the tank bottom is mounted 2 m above the water pool. The tank is connected to a 2D translation stage to provide a small-radius (volumetric flow rate (nπd3 / 6) through control of the water depth in the generator tank. The water surface features, including the crown, stalk and ring waves, due to the impacts of the drops are measured with a cinematic laser-induced- fluorescence (LIF) technique. The dependence of these features on the rain characteristics are discussed. The support of the National Science Foundation, Division of Ocean Sciences, and the assistance of Mr. Larry Gong are gratefully acknowledged.

  20. The Impact of Solid Surface Features on Fluid-Fluid Interface Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, J. B.; Brusseau, M. L. L.

    2017-12-01

    Pore-scale fluid processes in geological media are critical for a broad range of applications such as radioactive waste disposal, carbon sequestration, soil moisture distribution, subsurface pollution, land stability, and oil and gas recovery. The continued improvement of high-resolution image acquisition and processing have provided a means to test the usefulness of theoretical models developed to simulate pore-scale fluid processes, through the direct quantification of interfaces. High-resolution synchrotron X-ray microtomography is used in combination with advanced visualization tools to characterize fluid distributions in natural geologic media. The studies revealed the presence of fluid-fluid interface associated with macroscopic features on the surfaces of the solids such as pits and crevices. These features and respective fluid interfaces, which are not included in current theoretical or computational models, may have a significant impact on accurate simulation and understanding of multi-phase flow, energy, heat and mass transfer processes.

  1. An algorithm for analytical solution of basic problems featuring elastostatic bodies with cavities and surface flaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkov, V. B.; Levina, L. V.; Novikova, O. S.; Shulmin, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    Herein we propose a methodology for structuring a full parametric analytical solution to problems featuring elastostatic media based on state-of-the-art computing facilities that support computerized algebra. The methodology includes: direct and reverse application of P-Theorem; methods of accounting for physical properties of media; accounting for variable geometrical parameters of bodies, parameters of boundary states, independent parameters of volume forces, and remote stress factors. An efficient tool to address the task is the sustainable method of boundary states originally designed for the purposes of computerized algebra and based on the isomorphism of Hilbertian spaces of internal states and boundary states of bodies. We performed full parametric solutions of basic problems featuring a ball with a nonconcentric spherical cavity, a ball with a near-surface flaw, and an unlimited medium with two spherical cavities.

  2. Surface Features and Cathodoluminescence (CL) Characteristics of Corundum Gems from Eastern of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsoong, A.

    2017-12-01

    Thailand has long been well known as a supplier of gemstones and also one of the world's color stone centers for decades. The principal gemstones are corundum, garnet and zircon. The corundum deposits of Chanthaburi-Trat Provinces form the most significant ruby-sapphire concentration in Thailand. Corundums are commonly found in secondary deposits (alluvium, elluvial, residual-soil and colluvium deposits as well as stream sediments) with the thickness of the gem-bearing layer varying from 10-100cm and the thickness of the overburden ranging up to 15m. A number of corundum samples were collected from each of the twenty-nine corundum deposits in the Chanthaburi-Trat gem fields, eastern of Thailand. Corundum varies in colour across the region with colours associated with three geographic zones; a western zone, characterized by blue, green and yellow sapphires; a middle zone with blue, green sapphires plus rubies; and an eastern zone yielding mainly rubies. This project has aim to study surface features and characterize the Cathodoluminescence (CL) of corundum gems in the Chanthaburi-Trat gem fields, Thailand. Surfaces of the corundums under a scanning electron microscope show triangular etch features and randomly oriented needle-like patterns. These reveal that the corundums have interacted with the magma during their ascent to the Earth's surface. Surface features attributable to transport and weathering processes are scratches, conchoidal fractures and a spongy surface appearance. Clay minerals and Fe-Ti oxide minerals deposited on the spongy surfaces of some corundums also indicate that these grains experienced chemical weathering or reacted with the soil solution while they were in the alluvium. Cathodoluminescence shows some blue sapphires to exhibit dull blue luminescence. The main cause of the CL appearance of sapphires is likely to be a quench centre, Fe2+ in their structure. The bright red luminescence in corundum reflects a high Cr3+ content and is always

  3. Surface tension and related thermodynamic quantities of aqueous electrolyte solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Matubayasi, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Surface tension provides a thermodynamic avenue for analyzing systems in equilibrium and formulating phenomenological explanations for the behavior of constituent molecules in the surface region. While there are extensive experimental observations and established ideas regarding desorption of ions from the surfaces of aqueous salt solutions, a more successful discussion of the theory has recently emerged, which allows the quantitative calculation of the distribution of ions in the surface region. Surface Tension and Related Thermodynamic Quantities of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions provides a d

  4. CosmoQuest - Mapping Surface Features Across the Inner Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Jennifer A.; Richardson, Matthew; Gay, Pamela L.; Lehan, Cory; Owens, Ryan; Robbins, Stuart J.; DellaGiustina, Daniella; Bennett, Carina; Runco, Susan; Graff, Paige

    2017-10-01

    The CosmoQuest Virtual Research Facility allows research scientists to work together with citizen scientists in ‘big data’ investigations. Some research requires the examination of vast numbers of images - partnering with engaged and trained citizen scientists allows for that research to be completed in a thorough and timely manner. The techniques used by CosmoQuest to collect impact crater data have been validated to ensure robustness (Robbins et al., 2014), and include software tools that accurately identify crater clusters, and multiple crater identifications. CosmoQuest has current or up-and-coming projects that span much of the inner solar system. “Moon Mappers” gives the public a chance to learn about the importance of cratered surfaces, and investigate factors that effect the identification and measurement of impact craters such as incidence angle. In the “Mars Mappers” program citizens map small craters in valley networks. These will be used to estimate times of ancient water flow. In “Mercury Mappers” the public learns about other issues related to crater counting, such as secondaries. On Mercury, secondaries appear to dominate counts up to 10km. By mapping these craters, we will be able to better understand the maximum diameter of secondaries relative to the parent primary. The public encounters Vesta in “Vesta Mappers,” a project that contributes data to the overall crater counting efforts on that body. Asteroid investigations do not end there - the OSIRIS-REx team is collaborating with CosmoQuest to create a science campaign to generate boulder and crater counting datasets of the asteroid Bennu. This “Bennu Mappers” project will inform the final selection of the sample return site. The Earth is the target for the “Image Detective” project, which uses the 2 million images returned from crewed space flight. These images are rich in information about our changing Earth, as well as phenomena like aurora. Citizens tag these images

  5. HYDROLOGIC AND FEATURE-BASED SURFACE ANALYSIS FOR TOOL MARK INVESTIGATION ON ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kovács

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of detailed surface documentation methods provides unique tool mark-study opportunities in the field of archaeological researches. One of these data collection techniques is short-range laser scanning, which creates a digital copy of the object’s morphological characteristics from high-resolution datasets. The aim of our work was the accurate documentation of a Bronze Age sluice box from Mitterberg, Austria with a spatial resolution of 0.2 mm. Furthermore, the investigation of the entirely preserved tool marks on the surface of this archaeological find was also accomplished by these datasets. The methodology of this tool mark-study can be summarized in the following way: At first, a local hydrologic analysis has been applied to separate the various patterns of tools on the finds’ surface. As a result, the XYZ coordinates of the special points, which represent the edge lines of the sliding tool marks, were calculated by buffer operations in a GIS environment. During the second part of the workflow, these edge points were utilized to manually clip the triangle meshes of these patterns in reverse engineering software. Finally, circle features were generated and analysed to determine the different sections along these sliding tool marks. In conclusion, the movement of the hand tool could be reproduced by the spatial analysis of the created features, since the horizontal and vertical position of the defined circle centre points indicated the various phases of the movements. This research shows an exact workflow to determine the fine morphological structures on the surface of the archaeological find.

  6. The Polyakov relation for the sphere and higher genus surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menotti, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The Polyakov relation, which in the sphere topology gives the changes of the Liouville action under the variation of the position of the sources, is also related in the case of higher genus to the dependence of the action on the moduli of the surface. We write and prove such a relation for genus 1 and for all hyperelliptic surfaces. (paper)

  7. Opening the Learning Process: The Potential Role of Feature Film in Teaching Employment Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, George

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of feature film to encourage more inclusive, participatory and open learning in the area of employment relations. Evaluations of student responses in a single postgraduate course over a five-year period revealed how feature film could encourage participatory learning processes in which students reexamined their…

  8. Prediction and Migration of Surface-related Resonant Multiples

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen

    2015-08-19

    Surface-related resonant multiples can be migrated to achieve better resolution than migrating primary reflections. We now derive the formula for migrating surface-related resonant multiples, and show its super-resolution characteristics. Moreover, a method is proposed to predict surface-related resonant multiples with zero-offset primary reflections. The prediction can be used to indentify and extract the true resonant multiple from other events. Both synthetic and field data are used to validate this prediction.

  9. Decoding subtle forearm flexions using fractal features of surface electromyogram from single and multiple sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Sridhar Poosapadi; Kumar, Dinesh Kant

    2010-10-21

    Identifying finger and wrist flexion based actions using a single channel surface electromyogram (sEMG) can lead to a number of applications such as sEMG based controllers for near elbow amputees, human computer interface (HCI) devices for elderly and for defence personnel. These are currently infeasible because classification of sEMG is unreliable when the level of muscle contraction is low and there are multiple active muscles. The presence of noise and cross-talk from closely located and simultaneously active muscles is exaggerated when muscles are weakly active such as during sustained wrist and finger flexion. This paper reports the use of fractal properties of sEMG to reliably identify individual wrist and finger flexion, overcoming the earlier shortcomings. SEMG signal was recorded when the participant maintained pre-specified wrist and finger flexion movements for a period of time. Various established sEMG signal parameters such as root mean square (RMS), Mean absolute value (MAV), Variance (VAR) and Waveform length (WL) and the proposed fractal features: fractal dimension (FD) and maximum fractal length (MFL) were computed. Multi-variant analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to determine the p value, indicative of the significance of the relationships between each of these parameters with the wrist and finger flexions. Classification accuracy was also computed using the trained artificial neural network (ANN) classifier to decode the desired subtle movements. The results indicate that the p value for the proposed feature set consisting of FD and MFL of single channel sEMG was 0.0001 while that of various combinations of the five established features ranged between 0.009 - 0.0172. From the accuracy of classification by the ANN, the average accuracy in identifying the wrist and finger flexions using the proposed feature set of single channel sEMG was 90%, while the average accuracy when using a combination of other features ranged between 58% and 73

  10. Decoding subtle forearm flexions using fractal features of surface electromyogram from single and multiple sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Dinesh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying finger and wrist flexion based actions using a single channel surface electromyogram (sEMG can lead to a number of applications such as sEMG based controllers for near elbow amputees, human computer interface (HCI devices for elderly and for defence personnel. These are currently infeasible because classification of sEMG is unreliable when the level of muscle contraction is low and there are multiple active muscles. The presence of noise and cross-talk from closely located and simultaneously active muscles is exaggerated when muscles are weakly active such as during sustained wrist and finger flexion. This paper reports the use of fractal properties of sEMG to reliably identify individual wrist and finger flexion, overcoming the earlier shortcomings. Methods SEMG signal was recorded when the participant maintained pre-specified wrist and finger flexion movements for a period of time. Various established sEMG signal parameters such as root mean square (RMS, Mean absolute value (MAV, Variance (VAR and Waveform length (WL and the proposed fractal features: fractal dimension (FD and maximum fractal length (MFL were computed. Multi-variant analysis of variance (MANOVA was conducted to determine the p value, indicative of the significance of the relationships between each of these parameters with the wrist and finger flexions. Classification accuracy was also computed using the trained artificial neural network (ANN classifier to decode the desired subtle movements. Results The results indicate that the p value for the proposed feature set consisting of FD and MFL of single channel sEMG was 0.0001 while that of various combinations of the five established features ranged between 0.009 - 0.0172. From the accuracy of classification by the ANN, the average accuracy in identifying the wrist and finger flexions using the proposed feature set of single channel sEMG was 90%, while the average accuracy when using a combination

  11. A Novel Feature Optimization for Wearable Human-Computer Interfaces Using Surface Electromyography Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The novel human-computer interface (HCI using bioelectrical signals as input is a valuable tool to improve the lives of people with disabilities. In this paper, surface electromyography (sEMG signals induced by four classes of wrist movements were acquired from four sites on the lower arm with our designed system. Forty-two features were extracted from the time, frequency and time-frequency domains. Optimal channels were determined from single-channel classification performance rank. The optimal-feature selection was according to a modified entropy criteria (EC and Fisher discrimination (FD criteria. The feature selection results were evaluated by four different classifiers, and compared with other conventional feature subsets. In online tests, the wearable system acquired real-time sEMG signals. The selected features and trained classifier model were used to control a telecar through four different paradigms in a designed environment with simple obstacles. Performance was evaluated based on travel time (TT and recognition rate (RR. The results of hardware evaluation verified the feasibility of our acquisition systems, and ensured signal quality. Single-channel analysis results indicated that the channel located on the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU performed best with mean classification accuracy of 97.45% for all movement’s pairs. Channels placed on ECU and the extensor carpi radialis (ECR were selected according to the accuracy rank. Experimental results showed that the proposed FD method was better than other feature selection methods and single-type features. The combination of FD and random forest (RF performed best in offline analysis, with 96.77% multi-class RR. Online results illustrated that the state-machine paradigm with a 125 ms window had the highest maneuverability and was closest to real-life control. Subjects could accomplish online sessions by three sEMG-based paradigms, with average times of 46.02, 49.06 and 48.08 s

  12. Surface phase separation, dewetting feature size, and crystal morphology in thin films of polystyrene/poly(ε-caprolactone) blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng; He, Zhoukun; Li, Yuhan; Chen, Feng; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Qing; Deng, Hua; Fu, Qiang

    2012-12-01

    Thin films of polystyrene (PS)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) blends were prepared by spin-coating and characterized by tapping mode force microscopy (AFM). Effects of the relative concentration of PS in polymer solution on the surface phase separation and dewetting feature size of the blend films were systematically studied. Due to the coupling of phase separation, dewetting, and crystallization of the blend films with the evaporation of solvent during spin-coating, different size of PS islands decorated with various PCL crystal structures including spherulite-like, flat-on individual lamellae, and flat-on dendritic crystal were obtained in the blend films by changing the film composition. The average distance of PS islands was shown to increase with the relative concentration of PS in casting solution. For a given ratio of PS/PCL, the feature size of PS appeared to increase linearly with the square of PS concentration while the PCL concentration only determined the crystal morphology of the blend films with no influence on the upper PS domain features. This is explained in terms of vertical phase separation and spinodal dewetting of the PS rich layer from the underlying PCL rich layer, leading to the upper PS dewetting process and the underlying PCL crystalline process to be mutually independent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Which features are important for effectiveness of sport- and health-related apps?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joan Dallinga; Marije Baart de la Faille-Deutekom; Mark Janssen; Steven Vos

    2017-01-01

    In this presentation we presented the results of expert meetings. The aim was to identify which features in sport- and health-related apps contribute to effectiveness of apps. A nominal group technique was used.

  14. Beliefs about unmet interpersonal needs mediate the relation between conflictual family relations and borderline personality features in young adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpakci, Allison; Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Central to most theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is the notion that the family environment interacts with genetically-based vulnerabilities to influence the development of BPD, with particular attention given to risk conferred by conflictual familial relations. However, the extent to which family conflict may relate to the development of BPD via related interpersonal beliefs is currently unknown. This study sought to test the hypothesis that the concurrent relation between conflictual family relations and borderline features in female college students is explained by beliefs associated with real or perceived unmet interpersonal needs (captured by Joiner's [2005] Interpersonal Psychological Theory, specifically thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness). The sample included 267 female undergraduates ages 18-25 years (M = 20.86; SD = 1.80). Level of borderline personality features, unmet interpersonal needs, and family conflict were assessed. Bivariate analyses revealed significant relations between both thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, conflictual family relations, and borderline features. Multivariate analyses revealed that thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness both mediated the relation between family conflict and borderline personality features, thus supporting a multiple mediation model. This cross-sectional study is a preliminary step towards confirming the broad theoretical hypothesis that conflictual family relations relate to beliefs about thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, which, in turn, relate to borderline personality pathology. Limitations and areas of future research are discussed.

  15. Mining for diagnostic information in body surface potential maps: A comparison of feature selection techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCullagh Paul J

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In body surface potential mapping, increased spatial sampling is used to allow more accurate detection of a cardiac abnormality. Although diagnostically superior to more conventional electrocardiographic techniques, the perceived complexity of the Body Surface Potential Map (BSPM acquisition process has prohibited its acceptance in clinical practice. For this reason there is an interest in striking a compromise between the minimum number of electrocardiographic recording sites required to sample the maximum electrocardiographic information. Methods In the current study, several techniques widely used in the domains of data mining and knowledge discovery have been employed to mine for diagnostic information in 192 lead BSPMs. In particular, the Single Variable Classifier (SVC based filter and Sequential Forward Selection (SFS based wrapper approaches to feature selection have been implemented and evaluated. Using a set of recordings from 116 subjects, the diagnostic ability of subsets of 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 32 electrocardiographic recording sites have been evaluated based on their ability to correctly asses the presence or absence of Myocardial Infarction (MI. Results It was observed that the wrapper approach, using sequential forward selection and a 5 nearest neighbour classifier, was capable of choosing a set of 24 recording sites that could correctly classify 82.8% of BSPMs. Although the filter method performed slightly less favourably, the performance was comparable with a classification accuracy of 79.3%. In addition, experiments were conducted to show how (a features chosen using the wrapper approach were specific to the classifier used in the selection model, and (b lead subsets chosen were not necessarily unique. Conclusion It was concluded that both the filter and wrapper approaches adopted were suitable for guiding the choice of recording sites useful for determining the presence of MI. It should be noted however

  16. Stream/Bounce Event Perception Reveals a Temporal Limit of Motion Correspondence Based on Surface Feature over Space and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuke Kawachi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined how stream/bounce event perception is affected by motion correspondence based on the surface features of moving objects passing behind an occlusion. In the stream/bounce display two identical objects moving across each other in a two-dimensional display can be perceived as either streaming through or bouncing off each other at coincidence. Here, surface features such as colour (Experiments 1 and 2 or luminance (Experiment 3 were switched between the two objects at coincidence. The moment of coincidence was invisible to observers due to an occluder. Additionally, the presentation of the moving objects was manipulated in duration after the feature switch at coincidence. The results revealed that a postcoincidence duration of approximately 200 ms was required for the visual system to stabilize judgments of stream/bounce events by determining motion correspondence between the objects across the occlusion on the basis of the surface feature. The critical duration was similar across motion speeds of objects and types of surface features. Moreover, controls (Experiments 4a–4c showed that cognitive bias based on feature (colour/luminance congruency across the occlusion could not fully account for the effects of surface features on the stream/bounce judgments. We discuss the roles of motion correspondence, visual feature processing, and attentive tracking in the stream/bounce judgments.

  17. Age-related X-ray feature of the spine in patients with achondroplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevtsov, V.I.; D'yachkova, G.V.; Novikova, O.S.

    1999-01-01

    Age-related X-ray features of the spine in patients with achondroplasia are studied. It gives the time course of changes in the shape of vertebrae, the specific features of apophyseal ossification, provides a quantitative account of the shorter caudal lumbar vertebral arch root distance symptom. The time course of changes in the size of the lumbosacral angle was examined. The findings suggest that there are not only considerable static changes in the spine of patients with achondroplasia, but also significant age-related features of vertebral tissue growth and differentiation [ru

  18. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder related features in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustelin, Linda; Bulik, Cynthia M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is associated with high levels of obesity and psychological suffering, but little is known about 1) the distribution of features of BED in the general population and 2) their consequences for weight development and psychological distress in young adulthood. We investigated the prevalence of features of BED and their association with body mass index (BMI) and psychological distress among men (n = 2423) and women (n = 2825) from the longitudinal community-based FinnTwin16 cohort (born 1975-1979). Seven eating-related cognitions and behaviors similar to the defining features of BED were extracted from the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and were assessed at a mean age of 24. BMI and psychological distress, measured with the General Health Questionnaire, were assessed at ages 24 and 34. We assessed prevalence of the features and their association with BMI and psychological distress cross-sectionally and prospectively. More than half of our participants reported at least one feature of BED; clustering of several features in one individual was less common, particularly among men. The most frequently reported feature was 'stuffing oneself with food', whereas the least common was 'eating or drinking in secrecy'. All individual features of BED and their clustering particularly were associated with higher BMI and more psychological distress cross-sectionally. Prospectively, the clustering of features of BED predicted increase in psychological distress but not additional weight gain when baseline BMI was accounted for. In summary, although some features of BED were common, the clustering of several features in one individual was not. The features were cumulatively associated with BMI and psychological distress and predicted further increase in psychological distress over ten years of follow-up. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Short term memory for single surface features and bindings in ageing: A replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isella, Valeria; Molteni, Federica; Mapelli, Cristina; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    In the present study we replicated a previous experiment investigating visuo-spatial short term memory binding in young and older healthy individuals, in the attempt to verify the pattern of impairment that can be observed in normal elderly for short term memory for single items vs short term memory for bindings. Assessing a larger sample size (25 young and 25 older subjects), using a more appropriate measure of accuracy for a change detection task (A'), and adding the evaluation of speed of performance, we confirmed that old normals show a decline in short term memory for bindings of shape and colour that is of comparable extent, and not major, to the decline in memory for single shapes and single colours. The absence of a specific deficit of short term memory for conjunctions of surface features seems to distinguish cognitive ageing from Alzheimer's Disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Crystal surface analysis using matrix textural features classified by a Probabilistic Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, C.R.; Quach, V.T.; Nason, D.; van den Berg, L.

    1991-01-01

    A system is under development in which surface quality of a growing bulk mercuric iodide crystal is monitored by video camera at regular intervals for early detection of growth irregularities. Mercuric iodide single crystals are employed in radiation detectors. A microcomputer system is used for image capture and processing. The digitized image is divided into multiple overlappings subimage and features are extracted from each subimage based on statistical measures of the gray tone distribution, according to the method of Haralick [1]. Twenty parameters are derived from each subimage and presented to a Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) [2] for classification. This number of parameters was found to be optimal for the system. The PNN is a hierarchical, feed-forward network that can be rapidly reconfigured as additional training data become available. Training data is gathered by reviewing digital images of many crystals during their growth cycle and compiling two sets of images, those with and without irregularities. 6 refs., 4 figs

  1. Staphylococcus cohnii--resident of hospital environment: cell-surface features and resistance to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, E M; Rózalska, M

    2000-01-01

    Staphylococcus cohnii strains dominated in the environment of investigated hospitals. We isolated 420 strains of the species mainly from hospitals environments, but also from infants--Intensive Care Units patients, its medical staff and non-hospital environments. S. cohnii subspecies cohnii was seen to dominate (361 strains). Seventy seven percent of these strains expressed cell-surface hydrofobicity, most of them were slime producers (61%) and this feature was correlated with their methicillin resistance. Among S. cohnii ssp. cohnii strains isolated from ICU environment 90% were resistant to methicillin, 43% expressed high-level resistance to mupirocin and high percentages were resistant to many other antibiotics. These strains may constitute a dangerous reservoir of resistance genes in a hospital.

  2. Surface Replication of Molded Products with Microneedle Features in Injection Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiumi, Kazuyasu; Takayama, Tetsuo; Ito, Hiroshi; Inou, Akinori

    Micro-molding of microneedle features was conducted using several injection-molding techniques. Injection compression molding and injection molding were performed with supercritical carbon dioxide fluid and with or without vacuum processing inside the mold cavity. Effects of process parameters on processability and surface replication of the molded parts were evaluated. The height replication ratio for microneedles was improved using injection compression molding. At a shorter compression stroke, the needle height was improved, and the influence of compression delay time was also small. Moreover, the effects of vacuum processing inside the mold cavity under the filling process were slight. The height replication ratio for microneedles showed the highest values using injection molding using supercritical carbon dioxide fluid with vacuum inside the mold cavity.

  3. A novel relational regularization feature selection method for joint regression and classification in AD diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaofeng; Suk, Heung-Il; Wang, Li; Lee, Seong-Whan; Shen, Dinggang

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we focus on joint regression and classification for Alzheimer's disease diagnosis and propose a new feature selection method by embedding the relational information inherent in the observations into a sparse multi-task learning framework. Specifically, the relational information includes three kinds of relationships (such as feature-feature relation, response-response relation, and sample-sample relation), for preserving three kinds of the similarity, such as for the features, the response variables, and the samples, respectively. To conduct feature selection, we first formulate the objective function by imposing these three relational characteristics along with an ℓ 2,1 -norm regularization term, and further propose a computationally efficient algorithm to optimize the proposed objective function. With the dimension-reduced data, we train two support vector regression models to predict the clinical scores of ADAS-Cog and MMSE, respectively, and also a support vector classification model to determine the clinical label. We conducted extensive experiments on the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Our experimental results showed the efficacy of the proposed method in enhancing the performances of both clinical scores prediction and disease status identification, compared to the state-of-the-art methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Specific Features of Chip Making and Work-piece Surface Layer Formation in Machining Thermal Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Yaroslavtsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of unique engineering structural and performance properties inherent in metallic composites characterizes wear- and erosion-resistant high-temperature coatings made by thermal spraying methods. This allows their use both in manufacturing processes to enhance the wear strength of products, which have to operate under the cyclic loading, high contact pressures, corrosion and high temperatures and in product renewal.Thermal coatings contribute to the qualitative improvement of the technical level of production and product restoration using the ceramic composite materials. However, the possibility to have a significantly increased product performance, reduce their factory labour hours and materials/output ratio in manufacturing and restoration is largely dependent on the degree of the surface layer quality of products at their finishing stage, which is usually provided by different kinds of machining.When machining the plasma-sprayed thermal coatings, a removing process of the cut-off layer material is determined by its distinctive features such as a layered structure, high internal stresses, low ductility material, high tendency to the surface layer strengthening and rehardening, porosity, high abrasive properties, etc. When coatings are machined these coating properties result in specific characteristics of chip formation and conditions for formation of the billet surface layer.The chip formation of plasma-sprayed coatings was studied at micro-velocities using an experimental tool-setting microscope-based setup, created in BMSTU. The setup allowed simultaneous recording both the individual stages (phases of the chip formation process and the operating force factors.It is found that formation of individual chip elements comes with the multiple micro-cracks that cause chipping-off the small particles of material. The emerging main crack in the cut-off layer of material leads to separation of the largest chip element. Then all the stages

  5. Polarization controlled deep sub-wavelength periodic features written by femtosecond laser on nanodiamond thin film surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Kuntumalla, Mohan; Srikanth, Vadali V. S. S., E-mail: vvsssse@uohyd.ernet.in [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Rajamudili, Kuladeep; Rao Desai, Narayana [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2014-04-21

    Deep sub-wavelength (Λ/λ = ∼0.22) periodic features are induced uniformly on a nanodiamond (ND) thin film surface using femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation (pulse duration = ∼110 fs and central wavelength of ∼800 nm). The topography of the surface features is controlled by the laser polarization. Orientation of features is perpendicular to laser polarization. Periodicity (spatial periodicity of < λ/4) of the surface features is less than the laser wavelength. This work gives an experimental proof of polarization controlled surface plasmon-fs laser coupling mechanism prompting the interaction between fs laser and solid matter (here ND thin film) which in turn is resulting in the periodic surface features. Scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with micro Raman scattering, X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy are carried out to extract surface morphology and phase information of the laser irradiated regions. This work demonstrates an easy and efficient surface fabrication technique.

  6. Feature-Specific Event-Related Potential Effects to Action- and Sound-Related Verbs during Visual Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Margot; Trumpp, Natalie M; Kiefer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Grounded cognition theories suggest that conceptual representations essentially depend on modality-specific sensory and motor systems. Feature-specific brain activation across different feature types such as action or audition has been intensively investigated in nouns, while feature-specific conceptual category differences in verbs mainly focused on body part specific effects. The present work aimed at assessing whether feature-specific event-related potential (ERP) differences between action and sound concepts, as previously observed in nouns, can also be found within the word class of verbs. In Experiment 1, participants were visually presented with carefully matched sound and action verbs within a lexical decision task, which provides implicit access to word meaning and minimizes strategic access to semantic word features. Experiment 2 tested whether pre-activating the verb concept in a context phase, in which the verb is presented with a related context noun, modulates subsequent feature-specific action vs. sound verb processing within the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, ERP analyses revealed a differential ERP polarity pattern for action and sound verbs at parietal and central electrodes similar to previous results in nouns. Pre-activation of the meaning of verbs in the preceding context phase in Experiment 2 resulted in a polarity-reversal of feature-specific ERP effects in the lexical decision task compared with Experiment 1. This parallels analogous earlier findings for primed action and sound related nouns. In line with grounded cognitions theories, our ERP study provides evidence for a differential processing of action and sound verbs similar to earlier observation for concrete nouns. Although the localizational value of ERPs must be viewed with caution, our results indicate that the meaning of verbs is linked to different neural circuits depending on conceptual feature relevance.

  7. Processing of word stress related acoustic information: A multi-feature MMN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honbolygó, Ferenc; Kolozsvári, Orsolya; Csépe, Valéria

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, we investigated the processing of word stress related acoustic features in a word context. In a passive oddball multi-feature MMN experiment, we presented a disyllabic pseudo-word with two acoustically similar syllables as standard stimulus, and five contrasting deviants that differed from the standard in that they were either stressed on the first syllable or contained a vowel change. Stress was realized by an increase of f0, intensity, vowel duration or consonant duration. The vowel change was used to investigate if phonemic and prosodic changes elicit different MMN components. As a control condition, we presented non-speech counterparts of the speech stimuli. Results showed all but one feature (non-speech intensity deviant) eliciting the MMN component, which was larger for speech compared to non-speech stimuli. Two other components showed stimulus related effects: the N350 and the LDN (Late Discriminative Negativity). The N350 appeared to the vowel duration and consonant duration deviants, specifically to features related to the temporal characteristics of stimuli, while the LDN was present for all features, and it was larger for speech than for non-speech stimuli. We also found that the f0 and consonant duration features elicited a larger MMN than other features. These results suggest that stress as a phonological feature is processed based on long-term representations, and listeners show a specific sensitivity to segmental and suprasegmental cues signaling the prosodic boundaries of words. These findings support a two-stage model in the perception of stress and phoneme related acoustical information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Glazed ceramic roof tiles: influence of surface features in the solar reflectance index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoli, Leitcia Silva de; Stapait, Camila Cristina; Marinoski, Deivis Luis; Fredel, Marcio Celso; Schabbach, Luciana M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study the influence of surface features of ceramic roof tiles in the solar reflectance index were evaluated. Two glazed ceramic roof tiles (type stoneware) with the same color (ivory) but with different appearance (matte and brilliant) were the focus of the analysis. The Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of the roofs tiles were determined by the solar reflectance values (UV-VIS-NIR) and emittance, measured in laboratory. The samples showed SRI> 39 in accordance with LEED certification criteria (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), contributing to minimizing the Heat Island Effects. Although the matte roof tile shows a slightly higher SRI value (82) than the brilliant one (78), the results for the variables that composes the SRI value (reflectance and emittance) were very similar. Analysis of XRD, SEM and EDS performed on the surfaces of the two roofs indicated for the matte glaze the presence of microcrystals (with barium and zinc) that can contribute to the slightly highest value of SRI. The roughness (optical interferometer white light) and the brightness (brightness meter) of the samples were also measured. (author)

  9. Parenting, relational aggression, and borderline personality features: associations over time in a Russian longitudinal sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David A; Coyne, Sarah M; Swanson, Savannah M; Hart, Craig H; Olsen, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    Crick, Murray-Close, and Woods (2005) encouraged the study of relational aggression as a developmental precursor to borderline personality features in children and adolescents. A longitudinal study is needed to more fully explore this association, to contrast potential associations with physical aggression, and to assess generalizability across various cultural contexts. In addition, parenting is of particular interest in the prediction of aggression or borderline personality disorder. Early aggression and parenting experiences may differ in their long-term prediction of aggression or borderline features, which may have important implications for early intervention. The currrent study incorporated a longitudinal sample of preschool children (84 boys, 84 girls) living in intact, two-parent biological households in Voronezh, Russia. Teachers provided ratings of children's relational and physical aggression in preschool. Mothers and fathers also self-reported their engagement in authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and psychological controlling forms of parenting with their preschooler. A decade later, 70.8% of the original child participants consented to a follow-up study in which they completed self-reports of relational and physical aggression and borderline personality features. The multivariate results of this study showed that preschool relational aggression in girls predicted adolescent relational aggression. Preschool aversive parenting (i.e., authoritarian, permissive, and psychologically controlling forms) significantly predicted aggression and borderline features in adolescent females. For adolescent males, preschool authoritative parenting served as a protective factor against aggression and borderline features, whereas authoritarian parenting was a risk factor for later aggression.

  10. Impact of load-related neural processes on feature binding in visuospatial working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Kochan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The capacity of visual working memory (WM is substantially limited and only a fraction of what we see is maintained as a temporary trace. The process of binding visual features has been proposed as an adaptive means of minimising information demands on WM. However the neural mechanisms underlying this process, and its modulation by task and load effects, are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neural correlates of feature binding and its modulation by WM load during the sequential phases of encoding, maintenance and retrieval. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 18 young healthy participants performed a visuospatial WM task with independent factors of load and feature conjunction (object identity and position in an event-related functional MRI study. During stimulus encoding, load-invariant conjunction-related activity was observed in left prefrontal cortex and left hippocampus. During maintenance, greater activity for task demands of feature conjunction versus single features, and for increased load was observed in left-sided regions of the superior occipital cortex, precuneus and superior frontal cortex. Where these effects were expressed in overlapping cortical regions, their combined effect was additive. During retrieval, however, an interaction of load and feature conjunction was observed. This modulation of feature conjunction activity under increased load was expressed through greater deactivation in medial structures identified as part of the default mode network. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The relationship between memory load and feature binding qualitatively differed through each phase of the WM task. Of particular interest was the interaction of these factors observed within regions of the default mode network during retrieval which we interpret as suggesting that at low loads, binding processes may be 'automatic' but at higher loads it becomes a resource-intensive process leading to disengagement of activity in this

  11. Texture-based segmentation with Gabor filters, wavelet and pyramid decompositions for extracting individual surface features from areal surface topography maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senin, Nicola; Leach, Richard K; Pini, Stefano; Blunt, Liam A

    2015-01-01

    Areal topography segmentation plays a fundamental role in those surface metrology applications concerned with the characterisation of individual topography features. Typical scenarios include the dimensional inspection and verification of micro-structured surface features, and the identification and characterisation of localised defects and other random singularities. While morphological segmentation into hills or dales is the only partitioning operation currently endorsed by the ISO specification standards on surface texture metrology, many other approaches are possible, in particular adapted from the literature on digital image segmentation. In this work an original segmentation approach is introduced and discussed, where topography partitioning is driven by information collected through the application of texture characterisation transforms popular in digital image processing. Gabor filters, wavelets and pyramid decompositions are investigated and applied to a selected set of test cases. The behaviour, performance and limitations of the proposed approach are discussed from the viewpoint of the identification and extraction of individual surface topography features. (paper)

  12. Some Syntactic Features of Relative Constructions in the Greek New Testament

    OpenAIRE

    Herman C du Toit

    2016-01-01

    In the Greek New Testament, relative sentences that are introduced by relative pronouns alone, apart from the adverbial uses, are the most frequent subordinate sentence type. The research reported on in this paper aimed to investigate and describe a number of syntactic features of relative constructions in the Greek New Testament, taking account, among others, of some typological parameters that have been developed in the general linguistics literature for these constructions.The results indi...

  13. Influences of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features on characteristics of music-induced movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Birgitta; Thompson, Marc R; Luck, Geoff; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri

    2013-01-01

    Music makes us move. Several factors can affect the characteristics of such movements, including individual factors or musical features. For this study, we investigated the effect of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features as well as tempo on movement characteristics. Sixty participants were presented with 30 musical stimuli representing different styles of popular music, and instructed to move along with the music. Optical motion capture was used to record participants' movements. Subsequently, eight movement features and four rhythm- and timbre-related musical features were computationally extracted from the data, while the tempo was assessed in a perceptual experiment. A subsequent correlational analysis revealed that, for instance, clear pulses seemed to be embodied with the whole body, i.e., by using various movement types of different body parts, whereas spectral flux and percussiveness were found to be more distinctly related to certain body parts, such as head and hand movement. A series of ANOVAs with the stimuli being divided into three groups of five stimuli each based on the tempo revealed no significant differences between the groups, suggesting that the tempo of our stimuli set failed to have an effect on the movement features. In general, the results can be linked to the framework of embodied music cognition, as they show that body movements are used to reflect, imitate, and predict musical characteristics.

  14. Influences of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features on characteristics of music-induced movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta eBurger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Music makes us move. Several factors can affect the characteristics of such movements, including individual factors or musical features. For this study, we investigated the effect of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features as well as tempo on movement characteristics. Sixty participants were presented with 30 musical stimuli representing different styles of popular music, and instructed to move along with the music. Optical motion capture was used to record participants’ movements. Subsequently, eight movement features and four rhythm- and timbre-related musical features were computationally extracted from the data, while the tempo was assessed in a perceptual experiment. A subsequent correlational analysis revealed that, for instance, clear pulses seemed to be embodied with the whole body, i.e., by using various movement types of different body parts, whereas spectral flux and percussiveness were found to be more distinctly related to certain body parts, such as head and hand movement. A series of ANOVAs with the stimuli being divided into three groups of five stimuli each based on the tempo revealed no significant differences between the groups, suggesting that the tempo of our stimuli set failed to have an effect on the movement features. In general, the results can be linked to the framework of embodied music cognition, as they show that body movements are used to reflect, imitate, and predict musical characteristics.

  15. An age-related deficit in spatial-feature reference memory in homing pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Vincent J; Flaim, Mary E; Carney, Samantha N; Bingman, Verner P

    2015-03-01

    Age-related memory decline in mammals has been well documented. By contrast, very little is known about memory decline in birds as they age. In the current study we trained younger and older homing pigeons on a reference memory task in which a goal location could be encoded by spatial and feature cues. Consistent with a previous working memory study, the results revealed impaired acquisition of combined spatial-feature reference memory in older compared to younger pigeons. Following memory acquisition, we used cue-conflict probe trials to provide an initial assessment of possible age-related differences in cue preference. Both younger and older pigeons displayed a similarly modest preference for feature over spatial cues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Common and divergent structural features of a series of corticotropin releasing factor-related peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Christy Rani R; Perrin, Marilyn H; Cantle, Jeffrey P; Vale, Wylie W; Rivier, Jean E; Riek, Roland

    2007-12-26

    Members of the corticoliberin family include the corticotropin releasing factors (CRFs), sauvagine, the urotensins, and urocortin 1 (Ucn1), which bind to both the CRF receptors CRF-R1 and CRF-R2, and the urocortins 2 (Ucn2) and 3 (Ucn3), which are selective agonists of CRF-R2. Structure activity relationship studies led to several potent and long-acting analogues with selective binding to either one of the receptors. NMR structures of six ligands of this family (the antagonists astressin B and astressin2-B, the agonists stressin1, and the natural ligands human Ucn1, Ucn2, and Ucn3) were determined in DMSO. These six peptides show differences in binding affinities, receptor-selectivity, and NMR structure. Overall, their backbones are alpha-helical, with a small kink or a turn around residues 25-27, resulting in a helix-loop-helix motif. The C-terminal helices are of amphipathic nature, whereas the N-terminal helices vary in their amphipathicity. The C-terminal helices thereby assume a conformation very similar to that of astressin bound to the ECD1 of CRF-R2 recently reported by our group.1 On the basis of an analysis of the observed 3D structures and relative potencies of [Ala]-substituted analogues, it is proposed that both helices could play a crucial role in receptor binding and selectivity. In conclusion, the C-terminal helices may interact along their hydrophobic faces with the ECD1, whereas the entire N-terminal helical surface may be involved in receptor activation. On the basis of the common and divergent features observed in the 3D structures of these ligands, multiple binding models are proposed that may explain their plurality of actions.

  17. Accessible surface area of proteins from purely sequence information and the importance of global features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraggi, Eshel; Zhou, Yaoqi; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    We present a new approach for predicting the accessible surface area of proteins. The novelty of this approach lies in not using residue mutation profiles generated by multiple sequence alignments as descriptive inputs. Rather, sequential window information and the global monomer and dimer compositions of the chain are used. We find that much of the lost accuracy due to the elimination of evolutionary information is recouped by the use of global features. Furthermore, this new predictor produces similar results for proteins with or without sequence homologs deposited in the Protein Data Bank, and hence shows generalizability. Finally, these predictions are obtained in a small fraction (1/1000) of the time required to run mutation profile based prediction. All these factors indicate the possible usability of this work in de-novo protein structure prediction and in de-novo protein design using iterative searches. Funded in part by the financial support of the National Institutes of Health through Grants R01GM072014 and R01GM073095, and the National Science Foundation through Grant NSF MCB 1071785.

  18. Image simulation and surface reconstruction of undercut features in atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoping; Villarrubia, John; Tian, Fenglei; Dixson, Ronald

    2007-03-01

    CD-AFMs (critical dimension atomic force microscopes) are instruments with servo-control of the tip in more than one direction. With appropriately "boot-shaped" or flared tips, such instruments can image vertical or even undercut features. As with any AFM, the image is a dilation of the sample shape with the tip shape. Accurate extraction of the CD requires a correction for the tip effect. Analytical methods to correct images for the tip shape have been available for some time for the traditional (vertical feedback only) AFMs, but were until recently unavailable for instruments with multi-dimensional feedback. Dahlen et al. [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B23, pp. 2297-2303, (2005)] recently introduced a swept-volume approach, implemented for 2-dimensional (2D) feedback. It permits image simulation and sample reconstruction, techniques previously developed for the traditional instruments, to be extended for the newer tools. We have introduced [X. Qian and J. S. Villarrubia, Ultramicroscopy, in press] an alternative dexel-based method, that does the same in either 2D or 3D. This paper describes the application of this method to sample shapes of interest in semiconductor manufacturing. When the tip shape is known (e.g., by prior measurement using a tip characterizer) a 3D sample surface may be reconstructed from its 3D image. Basing the CD measurement upon such a reconstruction is shown here to remove some measurement artifacts that are not removed (or are incompletely removed) by the existing measurement procedures.

  19. Some specific features of a surface-screw plasma instability in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavaev, G.F.; Tsipivka, Yu.I.

    1976-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the dispersion relation has been carried out, which enables to discover some new peculiarities in the behaviour of the surface helical instability (SHI) of a semiconductor plasma. To simplify the dispersion relation a semiconductor with nearly equal electron and hole mobilities has been considered. The dependences of threshold characteristics of SHI on a magnetic field H for different angular harmonics are represented graphically. A comparison of the formulas obtained shows that the approximation of truncated series yields an incorrect qualitative dependence of the wavelength on H, whereas asymptotic formulas in the range of strong magnetic fields yield not only a correct qualitative dependence of the threshold characteristics on H, but also a good quantitative agreement

  20. Biopsychosocial impact of the voice in relation to the psychological features in female student teachers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroek, L.F.P.; Thomas, G.; Kooijman, P.G.C.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess biopsychosocial impact of the voice in relation to the psychological features in female student teachers. METHODS: This research was a cross-sectional study in 755 student teachers using general questionnaires, the Voice Handicap Inventory (VHI), Type D

  1. External and internal facial features modulate processing of vertical but not horizontal spatial relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Günter; Kurbel, David; Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana; Persike, Malte

    2018-03-22

    Some years ago an asymmetry was reported for the inversion effect for horizontal (H) and vertical (V) relational face manipulations (Goffaux & Rossion, 2007). Subsequent research examined whether a specific disruption of long-range relations underlies the H/V inversion asymmetry (Sekunova & Barton, 2008). Here, we tested how detection of changes in interocular distance (H) and eye height (V) depends on cardinal internal features and external feature surround. Results replicated the H/V inversion asymmetry. Moreover, we found very different face cue dependencies for both change types. Performance and inversion effects did not depend on the presence of other face cues for detecting H changes. In contrast, accuracy for detecting V changes strongly depended on internal and external features, showing cumulative improvement when more cues were added. Inversion effects were generally large, and larger with external feature surround. The cue independence in detecting H relational changes indicates specialized local processing tightly tuned to the eyes region, while the strong cue dependency in detecting V relational changes indicates a global mechanism of cue integration across different face regions. These findings suggest that the H/V asymmetry of the inversion effect rests on an H/V anisotropy of face cue dependency, since only the global V mechanism suffers from disruption of cue integration as the major effect of face inversion. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Using activity-related behavioural features towards more effective automatic stress detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Giakoumis

    Full Text Available This paper introduces activity-related behavioural features that can be automatically extracted from a computer system, with the aim to increase the effectiveness of automatic stress detection. The proposed features are based on processing of appropriate video and accelerometer recordings taken from the monitored subjects. For the purposes of the present study, an experiment was conducted that utilized a stress-induction protocol based on the stroop colour word test. Video, accelerometer and biosignal (Electrocardiogram and Galvanic Skin Response recordings were collected from nineteen participants. Then, an explorative study was conducted by following a methodology mainly based on spatiotemporal descriptors (Motion History Images that are extracted from video sequences. A large set of activity-related behavioural features, potentially useful for automatic stress detection, were proposed and examined. Experimental evaluation showed that several of these behavioural features significantly correlate to self-reported stress. Moreover, it was found that the use of the proposed features can significantly enhance the performance of typical automatic stress detection systems, commonly based on biosignal processing.

  3. Steam generator thermal hydraulic design & functional architecture features and related operational and reliability issues requiring consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klarner, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    Proper thermal hydraulic design and functional architecture are critical to successful steam generator operation and long term reliability. The evolution of steam generators has been a gradual learning process that has benefited from continuous industry operational experience (OPEX). Inadequate thermal hydraulic design can lead to numerous degradation mechanisms such as excessive deposition, corrosion, flow and level instabilities, fluid-elastic instabilities and tube wear. The functional architecture determines the health of the tube bundle and the other internals during manufacturing, handling and operation. It also determines thermal performance as well as establishing global thermal-hydraulic characteristics such as water level shrink and swell response. This paper discusses the range of operational and reliability issues and relates them to the thermal hydraulic attributes and functional architecture of steam generators (many SG reliability issues are further discussed in other presentations at this conference). In pursuing such issues, the paper focuses on the four major features of the equipment, identifying in each case the goals and requirements such features must meet. Typical approaches and the means by which such requirements are addressed in current equipment are discussed. The four features are: 1. Tubing Material and Tube Bundle Heat Transfer Performance; a. Two materials are in current use – Alloy 690 TT and Alloy 800. Both are good materials with excellent performance records which serve their owners very well (the reliability attributes of Alloy 800 and 690 are discussed in other papers at this conference). Caution is advised in the supply of any material: – material quality is only assured by what is specified to material suppliers in procurement specifications – i.e. - all the knowledge and research in the world assures nothing if its findings are not reflected in procurement requirements. b. Heat transfer performance in addition to being

  4. Music preferences based on audio features, and its relation to personality

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have summarized reported music preferences by genre into four broadly defined categories, which relate to various personality characteristics. Other research has indicated that genre classification is ambiguous and inconsistent. This ambiguity suggests that research relating personality to music preferences based on genre could benefit from a more objective definition of music. This problem is addressed by investigating how music preferences linked to objective audio features r...

  5. Finding Combination of Features from Promoter Regions for Ovarian Cancer-related Gene Group Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Olayan, Rawan S.

    2012-12-01

    In classification problems, it is always important to use the suitable combination of features that will be employed by classifiers. Generating the right combination of features usually results in good classifiers. In the situation when the problem is not well understood, data items are usually described by many features in the hope that some of these may be the relevant or most relevant ones. In this study, we focus on one such problem related to genes implicated in ovarian cancer (OC). We try to recognize two important OC-related gene groups: oncogenes, which support the development and progression of OC, and oncosuppressors, which oppose such tendencies. For this, we use the properties of promoters of these genes. We identified potential “regulatory features” that characterize OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors promoters. In our study, we used 211 oncogenes and 39 oncosuppressors. For these, we identified 538 characteristic sequence motifs from their promoters. Promoters are annotated by these motifs and derived feature vectors used to develop classification models. We made a comparison of a number of classification models in their ability to distinguish oncogenes from oncosuppressors. Based on 10-fold cross-validation, the resultant model was able to separate the two classes with sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 100% with the complete set of features. Moreover, we developed another recognition model where we attempted to distinguish oncogenes and oncosuppressors as one group from other OC-related genes. That model achieved accuracy of 82%. We believe that the results of this study will help in discovering other OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors not identified as yet.

  6. Finding Combination of Features from Promoter Regions for Ovarian Cancer-related Gene Group Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Olayan, Rawan S.

    2012-01-01

    In classification problems, it is always important to use the suitable combination of features that will be employed by classifiers. Generating the right combination of features usually results in good classifiers. In the situation when the problem is not well understood, data items are usually described by many features in the hope that some of these may be the relevant or most relevant ones. In this study, we focus on one such problem related to genes implicated in ovarian cancer (OC). We try to recognize two important OC-related gene groups: oncogenes, which support the development and progression of OC, and oncosuppressors, which oppose such tendencies. For this, we use the properties of promoters of these genes. We identified potential “regulatory features” that characterize OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors promoters. In our study, we used 211 oncogenes and 39 oncosuppressors. For these, we identified 538 characteristic sequence motifs from their promoters. Promoters are annotated by these motifs and derived feature vectors used to develop classification models. We made a comparison of a number of classification models in their ability to distinguish oncogenes from oncosuppressors. Based on 10-fold cross-validation, the resultant model was able to separate the two classes with sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 100% with the complete set of features. Moreover, we developed another recognition model where we attempted to distinguish oncogenes and oncosuppressors as one group from other OC-related genes. That model achieved accuracy of 82%. We believe that the results of this study will help in discovering other OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors not identified as yet.

  7. The relation between intercultural competence, personality features and students’ intellectual development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gridunova Marina V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the light of globalisation processes accompanied by an increase in interethnic tensions, the research on personality features that contribute to a more efficient functioning in the intercultural context has become fairly topical. The aim of the conducted research was to explore the relation between intercultural competence, personality features and the level of intellectual development of students (N=121, 45% male students of a general education secondary school in Moscow. Bennett’s developmental model of intercultural sensitivity was used as the basis for studying intercultural competence, while the Scale of intercultural sensitivity was used as a diagnostic instrument. Personality features were defined in accordance with the Five Factor Model and diagnosed via the shorter version of the Five Factors questionnaire. The level of mental (intellectual development was measured using the normative School test of intellectual development (STID-2. Based on research results, it has been established that personality features such as conscientiousness, extraversion and neuroticism are related to the indicators of intercultural competence in the examined students, whereby the intensity of the relations is by far higher in the group of students with the lower level of intellectual development. At the same time, the students whose level of intellectual development is higher are more inclined towards accepting cultural differences, while those with the lower level of intellectual development tend to absolutise them.

  8. Using Relational Histogram Features and Action Labelled Data to Learn Preconditions for Means-End Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichtl, Severin; Kraft, Dirk; Krüger, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of many complex manipulation ac- tions is contingent on the spatial relationships among pairs of objects, e.g. if an object is “inside” or “on top” of another. Recognising these spatial relationships requires a vision system which can extract appropriate features from the vision input...... that capture and represent the spatial relationships in an easily accessible way. We are interested in learning to predict the success of “means end” actions that manipulate two objects at once, from exploratory actions, and the observed sensorimo- tor contingencies. In this paper, we use relational histogram...... features and illustrate their effect on learning to predict a variety of “means end” actions’ outcomes. The results show that our vision features can make the learning problem significantly easier, leading to increased learning rates and higher maximum performance. This work is in particular important...

  9. Some Syntactic Features of Relative Constructions in the Greek New Testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman C du Toit

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Greek New Testament, relative sentences that are introduced by relative pronouns alone, apart from the adverbial uses, are the most frequent subordinate sentence type. The research reported on in this paper aimed to investigate and describe a number of syntactic features of relative constructions in the Greek New Testament, taking account, among others, of some typological parameters that have been developed in the general linguistics literature for these constructions.The results indicate that relative constructions in the Greek New Testament have a variety of features, all of which have counterparts in some modern (or other ancient languages, despite the differences. The relative sentence in the Greek New Testament is mostly postnominal, and the relative pronoun-type is used in those cases for encoding the role of the coreferential element in the relative sentence. Phrases expressing a variety of syntactic functions in a sentence (e.g. subject, direct object, etc. are accessible to relativisation, that is, they can be represented by relative pronouns. Nominal elements serve mostly as antecedents of relative sentences, although sentences appear in that function as well.A variety of syntactic types of relative sentences can be distinguished, including the prenominal participial, postnominal finite/participial, circumnominal, free relative, adverbial, prejoined, postjoined, sentential and conjoined types. These can be linked in a systematic way to the four functions of relative sentences in the New Testament, i.e. identifying, appositive, adverbial and continuative.Relative sentences also play a role in communicative strategies. Prejoined relative sentences, for example, are most suitable for exposition and theme-building, especially in the correlative diptych construction.

  10. Features of development process displacement of earth’s surface when dredging coal in Eastern Donbas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posylniy, Yu V.; Versilov, S. O.; Shurygin, D. N.; Kalinchenko, V. M.

    2017-10-01

    The results of studies of the process of the earth’s surface displacement due to the influence of the adjacent longwalls are presented. It is established that the actual distributions of soil subsidence in the fall and revolt of the reservoir with the same boundary settlement processes differ both from each other and by the distribution of subsidence, recommended by the rules of structures protection. The application of the new boundary criteria - the relative subsidence of 0.03 - allows one to go from two distributions to one distribution, which is also different from the sedimentation distribution of protection rules. The use of a new geometrical element - a virtual point of the mould - allows one to transform the actual distribution of subsidence in the model distribution of rules of constructions protection. When transforming the curves of subsidence, the boundary points vary and, consequently, the boundary corners do.

  11. Human Papillomavirus-related Carcinoma with Adenoid Cystic-like Features of the Sinonasal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Bishop, J; Hansen, T V O

    2017-01-01

    with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a rare and aggressive carcinoma originating in the minor salivary glands. Termed HPV-related carcinoma with ACC-like features, only 9 cases have been reported. To clarify the occurrence of these tumours we screened a large material for presence of HPV-related ACC....... For the distinction between ACC and HPV-related ACC-like carcinoma, p16, MYB immunohistochemistry, or investigation of MYB, MYBL1, and NFIB gene status are valuable. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  12. Assessing environmental features related to mental health: a reliability study of visual streetscape images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Nash, Paul; Barnes, Linda E; Minett, Thais; Matthews, Fiona E; Jones, Andy; Brayne, Carol

    2014-10-22

    An association between depressive symptoms and features of built environment has been reported in the literature. A remaining research challenge is the development of methods to efficiently capture pertinent environmental features in relevant study settings. Visual streetscape images have been used to replace traditional physical audits and directly observe the built environment of communities. The aim of this work is to examine the inter-method reliability of the two audit methods for assessing community environments with a specific focus on physical features related to mental health. Forty-eight postcodes in urban and rural areas of Cambridgeshire, England were randomly selected from an alphabetical list of streets hosted on a UK property website. The assessment was conducted in July and August 2012 by both physical and visual image audits based on the items in Residential Environment Assessment Tool (REAT), an observational instrument targeting the micro-scale environmental features related to mental health in UK postcodes. The assessor used the images of Google Street View and virtually "walked through" the streets to conduct the property and street level assessments. Gwet's AC1 coefficients and Bland-Altman plots were used to compare the concordance of two audits. The results of conducting the REAT by visual image audits generally correspond to direct observations. More variations were found in property level items regarding physical incivilities, with broad limits of agreement which importantly lead to most of the variation in the overall REAT score. Postcodes in urban areas had lower consistency between the two methods than rural areas. Google Street View has the potential to assess environmental features related to mental health with fair reliability and provide a less resource intense method of assessing community environments than physical audits.

  13. Terrestrial Analogs for Surface Properties Associated with Impact Cratering on the Moon - Self-secondary Impact Features at Kings Bowl, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiella Novak, M. A.; Zanetti, M.; Neish, C.; Kukko, A.; Fan, K.; Heldmann, J.; Hughes, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Kings Bowl (KB) eruptive fissure and lava field, located in the southern end of Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho, is an ideal location for planetary analogue field studies of surface properties related to volcanic and impact processes. Here we look at possible impact features present in the KB lava field near the main vent that resulted in squeeze-ups of molten lava from beneath a semi-solid lava lake crust. These may have been caused by the ejection of blocks during the phreatic eruption that formed the Kings Bowl pit, and their subsequent impact into a partially solidified lava pond. We compare and contrast these features with analogous self-secondary impact features, such as irregular, rimless secondary craters ("splash craters") observed in lunar impact melt deposits, to better understand how self-secondary impacts determine the surface properties of volcanic and impact crater terrains. We do this by analyzing field measurements of these features, as well as high-resolution DEM data collected through the Kinematic LiDAR System (KLS), both of which give us feature dimensions and distributions. We then compare these data with self-secondary impact features on the Moon and related surface roughness constrained through Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter observations (Mini-RF and LROC NACs). Possible self-secondary impact features can be found in association with many lunar impact craters. These are formed when ballistic ejecta from the crater falls onto the ejecta blanket and melt surrounding the newly formed crater. Self-secondary impact features involving impact melt deposits are particularly useful to study because the visibly smooth melt texture serves to highlight the impact points in spacecraft imagery. The unusual morphology of some of these features imply that they formed when the melt had not yet completely solidified, strongly suggesting a source of impactors from the primary crater itself. We will also discuss ongoing efforts to integrate field

  14. Correlation between the histological features of corneal surface pannus following ocular surface burns and the final outcome of cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sati, Alok; Basu, Sayan; Sangwan, Virender S; Vemuganti, Geeta K

    2015-04-01

    To report the influence of histological features of corneal surface pannus following ocular surface burn on the outcome of cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET). On retrospectively reviewing the medical records of the patients who underwent autologous CLET from April 2002 to June 2012 at L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India, we could trace the histological reports in only 90 records. These 90 records, besides clinical parameters, were reviewed for the influence of various histological features on the final outcome of CLET. The histological features include epithelial hyperplasia (21.1%), surface ulceration (2.2%), goblet cells (62.2%), squamous metaplasia (11.1%), active fibrosis (31.1%), severe inflammation (8.9%), multinucleated giant cells (3.3%), stromal calcification (8.9%) and active proliferating vessels (5.6%). Among these histological features, patients with either hyperplasia or calcification in their excised corneal pannus show an unfavourable outcome compared with patients without hyperplasia (p=0.003) or calcification (p=0.018). A similar unfavourable outcome was not seen with other histological features and various clinical parameters. Presence of either calcific deposits or hyperplasia in the excised corneal pannus provides poor prognostication; hence, a proper counselling of such patients is mandatory along with a close follow-up. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Spatial analysis of geologic and hydrologic features relating to sinkhole occurrence in Jefferson County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Doctor, Katarina Z.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the influence of geologic features related to sinkhole susceptibility was analyzed and the results were mapped for the region of Jefferson County, West Virginia. A model of sinkhole density was constructed using Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) that estimated the relations among discrete geologic or hydrologic features and sinkhole density at each sinkhole location. Nine conditioning factors on sinkhole occurrence were considered as independent variables: distance to faults, fold axes, fracture traces oriented along bedrock strike, fracture traces oriented across bedrock strike, ponds, streams, springs, quarries, and interpolated depth to groundwater. GWR model parameter estimates for each variable were evaluated for significance, and the results were mapped. The results provide visual insight into the influence of these variables on localized sinkhole density, and can be used to provide an objective means of weighting conditioning factors in models of sinkhole susceptibility or hazard risk.

  16. Multiple song features are related to paternal effort in common nightingales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Conny; Weiss, Michael; Kipper, Silke

    2015-06-18

    Sexual ornamentation may be related to the degree of paternal care and the 'good-parent' model predicts that male secondary characters honestly advertise paternal investment. In most birds, males are involved in bringing up the young and successful reproduction highly depends on male contribution during breeding. In passerines, male song is indicative of male attributes and for few species it has been shown that song features also signal paternal investment to females. Males of nightingales Luscinia megarhynchos are famous for their elaborate singing but so far there is only little knowledge on the role of male song in intersexual communication, and it is unknown whether male song predicts male parenting abilities. Using RFID technology to record male feeding visits to the nest, we found that nightingale males substantially contribute to chick feeding. Also, we analyzed male nocturnal song with focus on song features that have been shown to signal male quality before. We found that several song features, namely measures of song complexity and song sequencing, were correlated with male feeding rates. Moreover, the combination of these song features had strong predictive power for male contribution to nestling feeding. Since male nightingales are involved in chick rearing, paternal investment might be a crucial variable for female mate choice in this species. Females may assess future paternal care on the basis of song features identified in our study and thus these features may have evolved to signal direct benefits to females. Additionally we underline the importance of multiple acoustic cues for female mating decisions especially in species with complex song such as the nightingale.

  17. A new procedure for characterizing textured surfaces with a deterministic pattern of valley features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Kühle, A; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    , therefore some modifications are investigated. In particular the robust Gaussian regression filter has been modified providing an envelope first-guess in order to always fit the mean line through the plateau region. Starting from a filtered and aligned profile, the feature thresholds recognition...... a correctly aligned roughness profile and permitting comprehensive feature analyses....

  18. Identification of individual features in areal surface topography data by means of template matching and the ring projection transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senin, Nicola; Moretti, Michele; Blunt, Liam A

    2014-01-01

    Starting from areal surface topography data as provided by current commercial three-dimensional (3D) profilometers and 3D digital microscopes, this work investigates the problem of automatically identifying and extracting functionally relevant, individual features within the acquisition area. Feature identification is achieved by adopting an original template-matching algorithmic procedure, based on applying the ring projection transform in combination with a parametric template. The proposed algorithmic procedure addresses in particular template-matching scenarios where significant variability may be associated with the features to be compared to the reference template. The algorithm is applied to a test case involving the characterization of the surface texture of a superabrasive polishing tool used in hard-disk manufacturing. (paper)

  19. Internal Physical Features of a Land Surface Model Employing a Tangent Linear Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runhua; Cohn, Stephen E.; daSilva, Arlindo; Joiner, Joanna; Houser, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    The Earth's land surface, including its biomass, is an integral part of the Earth's weather and climate system. Land surface heterogeneity, such as the type and amount of vegetative covering., has a profound effect on local weather variability and therefore on regional variations of the global climate. Surface conditions affect local weather and climate through a number of mechanisms. First, they determine the re-distribution of the net radiative energy received at the surface, through the atmosphere, from the sun. A certain fraction of this energy increases the surface ground temperature, another warms the near-surface atmosphere, and the rest evaporates surface water, which in turn creates clouds and causes precipitation. Second, they determine how much rainfall and snowmelt can be stored in the soil and how much instead runs off into waterways. Finally, surface conditions influence the near-surface concentration and distribution of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. The processes through which these mechanisms interact with the atmosphere can be modeled mathematically, to within some degree of uncertainty, on the basis of underlying physical principles. Such a land surface model provides predictive capability for surface variables including ground temperature, surface humidity, and soil moisture and temperature. This information is important for agriculture and industry, as well as for addressing fundamental scientific questions concerning global and local climate change. In this study we apply a methodology known as tangent linear modeling to help us understand more deeply, the behavior of the Mosaic land surface model, a model that has been developed over the past several years at NASA/GSFC. This methodology allows us to examine, directly and quantitatively, the dependence of prediction errors in land surface variables upon different vegetation conditions. The work also highlights the importance of accurate soil moisture information. Although surface

  20. Replication of micro and nano-features on iPP by injection molding with fast cavity surface temperature evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speranzaa, Vito; Liparotia, Sara; Calaon, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    The production of polymeric components with functional structures in the micrometer and sub-micrometer range is a complex challenge for the injection molding process, since it suffers the use of low cavity surface temperatures that induce the fast formation of a frozen layer, thus preventing...... was sufficient to obtain accurate replication, with adequate surface temperatures. In the case of nano-features, the replication accuracy was affected by the morphology developed on the molding surface, that is aligned along the flow direction with dimensions comparable with the dimension of the nano...

  1. Cost-benefit evaluation of containment related engineered safety features of Indian pressurized heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajaj, S.S.; Bhawal, R.N.; Rustagi, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    The typical containment system for a commercial nuclear reactor uses several engineered safety features to achieve its objective of limiting the release of radioactive fission products to the environment in the event of postulated accident conditions. The design of containment systems and associated features for Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) has undergone progressive improvement in successive projects. In particular, the current design adopted for the Narora Atomic Power Project (NAPP) has seen several notable improvements. The paper reports on a cost-benefit study in respect of three containment related engineered safety features and subsystems of NAPP, viz. (i) secondary containment envelope, (ii) primary containment filtration and pump-back system, and (iii) secondary containment filtration, recirculation and purge system. The effect of each of these systems in reducing the environmental releases of radioactivity following a design basis accident is presented. The corresponding reduction in population exposure and the associated monetary value of this reduction in exposure are also given. The costs of the features and subsystem under consideration are then compared with the monetary value of the exposures saved, as well as other non-quantified benefits, to arrive at conclusions regarding the usefulness of each subsystem. This study clearly establishes for the secondary containment envelope the benefit in terms of reduction in public exposure giving a quantitative justification for the costs involved. In the case of the other two subsystems, which involve relatively low costs, while all benefits have not been quantified, their desirability is justified on qualitative considerations. It is concluded that the engineered safety features adopted in the current containment system design of Indian PHWRs contribute to reducing radiation exposures during accident conditions in accordance with the ALARA ('as low as reasonably achievable') principle

  2. Influence of Structural Features and Fracture Processes on Surface Roughness: A Case Study from the Krosno Sandstones of the Górka–Mucharz Quarry (Little Beskids, Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieczara Łukasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of analysis of surface roughness parameters in the Krosno Sandstones of Mucharz, southern Poland. It was aimed at determining whether these parameters are influenced by structural features (mainly the laminar distribution of mineral components and directional distribution of non-isometric grains and fracture processes. The tests applied in the analysis enabled us to determine and describe the primary statistical parameters used in the quantitative description of surface roughness, as well as specify the usefulness of contact profilometry as a method of visualizing spatial differentiation of fracture processes in rocks. These aims were achieved by selecting a model material (Krosno Sandstones from the Górka-Mucharz Quarry and an appropriate research methodology. The schedule of laboratory analyses included: identification analyses connected with non-destructive ultrasonic tests, aimed at the preliminary determination of rock anisotropy, strength point load tests (cleaved surfaces were obtained due to destruction of rock samples, microscopic analysis (observation of thin sections in order to determine the mechanism of inducing fracture processes and a test method of measuring surface roughness (two- and three-dimensional diagrams, topographic and contour maps, and statistical parameters of surface roughness. The highest values of roughness indicators were achieved for surfaces formed under the influence of intragranular fracture processes (cracks propagating directly through grains. This is related to the structural features of the Krosno Sandstones (distribution of lamination and bedding.

  3. Fuzzy Relational Compression Applied on Feature Vectors for Infant Cry Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Galaviz, Orion Fausto; Reyes-García, Carlos Alberto

    Data compression is always advisable when it comes to handling and processing information quickly and efficiently. There are two main problems that need to be solved when it comes to handling data; store information in smaller spaces and processes it in the shortest possible time. When it comes to infant cry analysis (ICA), there is always the need to construct large sound repositories from crying babies. Samples that have to be analyzed and be used to train and test pattern recognition algorithms; making this a time consuming task when working with uncompressed feature vectors. In this work, we show a simple, but efficient, method that uses Fuzzy Relational Product (FRP) to compresses the information inside a feature vector, building with this a compressed matrix that will help us recognize two kinds of pathologies in infants; Asphyxia and Deafness. We describe the sound analysis, which consists on the extraction of Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients that generate vectors which will later be compressed by using FRP. There is also a description of the infant cry database used in this work, along with the training and testing of a Time Delay Neural Network with the compressed features, which shows a performance of 96.44% with our proposed feature vector compression.

  4. Analysis of progression of fatigue conditions in biceps brachii muscles using surface electromyography signals and complexity based features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthick, P A; Makaram, Navaneethakrishna; Ramakrishnan, S

    2014-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a neuromuscular condition where muscle performance decreases due to sustained or intense contraction. It is experienced by both normal and abnormal subjects. In this work, an attempt has been made to analyze the progression of muscle fatigue in biceps brachii muscles using surface electromyography (sEMG) signals. The sEMG signals are recorded from fifty healthy volunteers during dynamic contractions under well defined protocol. The acquired signals are preprocessed and segmented in to six equal parts for further analysis. The features, such as activity, mobility, complexity, sample entropy and spectral entropy are extracted from all six zones. The results are found showing that the extracted features except complexity feature have significant variations in differentiating non-fatigue and fatigue zone respectively. Thus, it appears that, these features are useful in automated analysis of various neuromuscular activities in normal and pathological conditions.

  5. Health Communication in Social Media: Message Features Predicting User Engagement on Diabetes-Related Facebook Pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Holly M; Cameron, Linda D

    2016-10-01

    Social media provides unprecedented opportunities for enhancing health communication and health care, including self-management of chronic conditions such as diabetes. Creating messages that engage users is critical for enhancing message impact and dissemination. This study analyzed health communications within ten diabetes-related Facebook pages to identify message features predictive of user engagement. The Common-Sense Model of Illness Self-Regulation and established health communication techniques guided content analyses of 500 Facebook posts. Each post was coded for message features predicted to engage users and numbers of likes, shares, and comments during the week following posting. Multi-level, negative binomial regressions revealed that specific features predicted different forms of engagement. Imagery emerged as a strong predictor; messages with images had higher rates of liking and sharing relative to messages without images. Diabetes consequence information and positive identity predicted higher sharing while negative affect, social support, and crowdsourcing predicted higher commenting. Negative affect, crowdsourcing, and use of external links predicted lower sharing while positive identity predicted lower commenting. The presence of imagery weakened or reversed the positive relationships of several message features with engagement. Diabetes control information and negative affect predicted more likes in text-only messages, but fewer likes when these messages included illustrative imagery. Similar patterns of imagery's attenuating effects emerged for the positive relationships of consequence information, control information, and positive identity with shares and for positive relationships of negative affect and social support with comments. These findings hold promise for guiding communication design in health-related social media.

  6. A Relation Extraction Framework for Biomedical Text Using Hybrid Feature Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahab Muzaffar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The information extraction from unstructured text segments is a complex task. Although manual information extraction often produces the best results, it is harder to manage biomedical data extraction manually because of the exponential increase in data size. Thus, there is a need for automatic tools and techniques for information extraction in biomedical text mining. Relation extraction is a significant area under biomedical information extraction that has gained much importance in the last two decades. A lot of work has been done on biomedical relation extraction focusing on rule-based and machine learning techniques. In the last decade, the focus has changed to hybrid approaches showing better results. This research presents a hybrid feature set for classification of relations between biomedical entities. The main contribution of this research is done in the semantic feature set where verb phrases are ranked using Unified Medical Language System (UMLS and a ranking algorithm. Support Vector Machine and Naïve Bayes, the two effective machine learning techniques, are used to classify these relations. Our approach has been validated on the standard biomedical text corpus obtained from MEDLINE 2001. Conclusively, it can be articulated that our framework outperforms all state-of-the-art approaches used for relation extraction on the same corpus.

  7. Use of the discriminant Fourier-derived cepstrum with feature-level post-processing for surface electromyographic signal classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xinpu; Zhu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Dingguo

    2009-01-01

    Myoelectrical pattern classification is a crucial part in multi-functional prosthesis control. This paper investigates a discriminant Fourier-derived cepstrum (DFC) and feature-level post-processing (FLPP) to discriminate hand and wrist motions using the surface electromyographic signal. The Fourier-derived cepstrum takes advantage of the Fourier magnitude or sub-band power energy of signals directly and provides flexible use of spectral information changing with different motions. Appropriate cepstral coefficients are selected by a proposed separability criterion to construct DFC features. For the post-processing, FLPP which combines features from several analysis windows is used to improve the feature performance further. In this work, two classifiers (a linear discriminant classifier and quadratic discriminant classifier) without hyper-parameter optimization are employed to simplify the training procedure and avoid the possible bias of feature evaluation. Experimental results of the 11-motion problem show that the proposed DFC feature outperforms traditional features such as time-domain statistics and autoregressive-derived cepstrum in terms of the classification accuracy, and it is a promising method for the multi-functionality and high-accuracy control of myoelectric prostheses

  8. Nanopatterned surface with adjustable area coverage and feature size fabricated by photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai Yang; Zhang Yan; Li Wei; Zhou Xuefeng; Wang Changsong; Feng Xin [State Key Laboratory of Materials-oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Zhang Luzheng [Petroleum Research Recovery Center, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Lu Xiaohua, E-mail: xhlu@njut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Materials-oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China)

    2009-08-30

    We report an effective approach to fabricate nanopatterns of alkylsilane self-assembly monolayers (SAMs) with desirable coverage and feature size by gradient photocatalysis in TiO{sub 2} aqueous suspension. Growth and photocatalytic degradation of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) were combined to fabricate adjustable monolayered nanopatterns on mica sheet in this work. Systematic atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed that OTS-SAMs that have similar area coverage with different feature sizes and similar feature size with different area coverages can be fabricated by this approach. Contact angle measurement was applied to confirm the gradually varied nanopatterns contributed to the gradient of UV light illumination. Since this approach is feasible for various organic SAMs and substrates, a versatile method was presented to prepare tunable nanopatterns with desirable area coverage and feature size in many applications, such as molecular and biomolecular recognition, sensor and electrode modification.

  9. Nanopatterned surface with adjustable area coverage and feature size fabricated by photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yang; Zhang Yan; Li Wei; Zhou Xuefeng; Wang Changsong; Feng Xin; Zhang Luzheng; Lu Xiaohua

    2009-01-01

    We report an effective approach to fabricate nanopatterns of alkylsilane self-assembly monolayers (SAMs) with desirable coverage and feature size by gradient photocatalysis in TiO 2 aqueous suspension. Growth and photocatalytic degradation of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) were combined to fabricate adjustable monolayered nanopatterns on mica sheet in this work. Systematic atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed that OTS-SAMs that have similar area coverage with different feature sizes and similar feature size with different area coverages can be fabricated by this approach. Contact angle measurement was applied to confirm the gradually varied nanopatterns contributed to the gradient of UV light illumination. Since this approach is feasible for various organic SAMs and substrates, a versatile method was presented to prepare tunable nanopatterns with desirable area coverage and feature size in many applications, such as molecular and biomolecular recognition, sensor and electrode modification.

  10. Universal binding energy relation for cleaved and structurally relaxed surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srirangarajan, Aarti; Datta, Aditi; Gandi, Appala Naidu; Ramamurty, U; Waghmare, U V

    2014-01-01

    The universal binding energy relation (UBER), derived earlier to describe the cohesion between two rigid atomic planes, does not accurately capture the cohesive properties when the cleaved surfaces are allowed to relax. We suggest a modified functional form of UBER that is analytical and at the same time accurately models the properties of surfaces relaxed during cleavage. We demonstrate the generality as well as the validity of this modified UBER through first-principles density functional theory calculations of cleavage in a number of crystal systems. Our results show that the total energies of all the relaxed surfaces lie on a single (universal) energy surface, that is given by the proposed functional form which contains an additional length-scale associated with structural relaxation. This functional form could be used in modelling the cohesive zones in crack growth simulation studies. We find that the cohesive law (stress–displacement relation) differs significantly in the case where cracked surfaces are allowed to relax, with lower peak stresses occurring at higher displacements. (paper)

  11. Universal binding energy relation for cleaved and structurally relaxed surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirangarajan, Aarti; Datta, Aditi; Gandi, Appala Naidu; Ramamurty, U; Waghmare, U V

    2014-02-05

    The universal binding energy relation (UBER), derived earlier to describe the cohesion between two rigid atomic planes, does not accurately capture the cohesive properties when the cleaved surfaces are allowed to relax. We suggest a modified functional form of UBER that is analytical and at the same time accurately models the properties of surfaces relaxed during cleavage. We demonstrate the generality as well as the validity of this modified UBER through first-principles density functional theory calculations of cleavage in a number of crystal systems. Our results show that the total energies of all the relaxed surfaces lie on a single (universal) energy surface, that is given by the proposed functional form which contains an additional length-scale associated with structural relaxation. This functional form could be used in modelling the cohesive zones in crack growth simulation studies. We find that the cohesive law (stress-displacement relation) differs significantly in the case where cracked surfaces are allowed to relax, with lower peak stresses occurring at higher displacements.

  12. Changes in computed tomography features following preoperative chemotherapy for nephroblastoma: relation to histopathological classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Oeystein E.; Jeanes, Annmarie C.; Roebuck, Derek J.; Owens, Catherine M.; Sebire, Neil J.; Risdon, Rupert A.; Michalski, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess computed tomography (CT) changes, both volume estimates and subjective features, following preoperative chemotherapy for nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumour) in patients treated on the United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group Wilms' Tumour Study-3 (UKW-3) protocol and to compare CT changes and histopathological classification. Twenty-one nephroblastomas in 15 patients treated on UKW-3 were included. All patients were examined by CT before and after preoperative chemotherapy treatment. CT images were reviewed (estimated volume change and subjectively assessed features). CT changes were compared to histopathological classification. Of the 21 tumours, all five high-risk tumours decreased in volume following chemotherapy (median -79%; range -37 to -91%). The sole low-risk tumour decreased in volume by 98%. Ten intermediate-risk tumours decreased in volume (median -72%; range -6 to -98%) and five intermediate-risk tumours increased (median +110%; range +11 to +164%). None of the five high-risk tumours, compared to 15/16 intermediate or low-risk tumours, became less dense and/or more homogeneous, or virtually disappeared, following chemotherapy. Volume change following chemotherapy did not relate to histopathological risk group. Changes in subjectively assessed qualitative CT features were more strongly related to histopathological risk group. (orig.)

  13. Compact complex surfaces with geometric structures related to split quaternions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidov, Johann; Grantcharov, Gueo; Mushkarov, Oleg; Yotov, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    We study the problem of existence of geometric structures on compact complex surfaces that are related to split quaternions. These structures, called para-hypercomplex, para-hyperhermitian and para-hyperkähler, are analogs of the hypercomplex, hyperhermitian and hyperkähler structures in the definite case. We show that a compact 4-manifold carries a para-hyperkähler structure iff it has a metric of split signature together with two parallel, null, orthogonal, pointwise linearly independent vector fields. Every compact complex surface admitting a para-hyperhermitian structure has vanishing first Chern class and we show that, unlike the definite case, many of these surfaces carry infinite-dimensional families of such structures. We provide also compact examples of complex surfaces with para-hyperhermitian structures which are not locally conformally para-hyperkähler. Finally, we discuss the problem of non-existence of para-hyperhermitian structures on Inoue surfaces of type S 0 and provide a list of compact complex surfaces which could carry para-hypercomplex structures.

  14. Accounts of bullying on Twitter in relation to dentofacial features and orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, A; Antoun, J S; Morgaine, K C; Farella, M

    2017-04-01

    Social media offers an accessible resource for gaining valuable insights into the social culture of bullying. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively analyse Twitter posts for common themes relating to dentofacial features, braces and bullying. Twitter's database was searched from 2010 to 2014 using keywords relevant to bullying, teeth and orthodontics. Two investigators assessed the Twitter posts, and selected those that conveyed the experiences or opinions of bullying victims. The posts were qualitatively analysed using thematic analysis. Of the 548 posts screened, 321 were included in the final sample. Four primary categories relating to 'dental-related bullying' were identified: (i) morphological features, (ii) psychological and psychosocial impact, (iii) coping mechanisms and (iv) the role of family. Bullied individuals reported a diverse range of psychological impacts and coping mechanisms. Secondary categories were also identified. Family members, for example, were found to play both a contributory and mediatory role in bullying. In summary, social media can provide new and valuable information about the causal factors and social issues associated with oral health-related bullying. Importantly, some coping mechanisms may mitigate the negative effects of bullying. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Non-perturbational surface-wave inversion: A Dix-type relation for surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Matt; Tsai, Victor C.

    2015-01-01

    We extend the approach underlying the well-known Dix equation in reflection seismology to surface waves. Within the context of surface wave inversion, the Dix-type relation we derive for surface waves allows accurate depth profiles of shear-wave velocity to be constructed directly from phase velocity data, in contrast to perturbational methods. The depth profiles can subsequently be used as an initial model for nonlinear inversion. We provide examples of the Dix-type relation for under-parameterized and over-parameterized cases. In the under-parameterized case, we use the theory to estimate crustal thickness, crustal shear-wave velocity, and mantle shear-wave velocity across the Western U.S. from phase velocity maps measured at 8-, 20-, and 40-s periods. By adopting a thin-layer formalism and an over-parameterized model, we show how a regularized inversion based on the Dix-type relation yields smooth depth profiles of shear-wave velocity. In the process, we quantitatively demonstrate the depth sensitivity of surface-wave phase velocity as a function of frequency and the accuracy of the Dix-type relation. We apply the over-parameterized approach to a near-surface data set within the frequency band from 5 to 40 Hz and find overall agreement between the inverted model and the result of full nonlinear inversion.

  16. [Research on the spectral feature and identification of the surface vegetation stressed by stored CO2 underground leakage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-Hao; Jiang, Jin-Bao; Steven, Michael D; Gong, A-Du; Li, Yi-Fan

    2012-07-01

    With the global climate warming, reducing greenhouse gas emissions becomes a focused problem for the world. The carbon capture and storage (CCS) techniques could mitigate CO2 into atmosphere, but there is a risk in case that the CO2 leaks from underground. The objective of this paper is to study the chlorophyll contents (SPAD value), relative water contents (RWC) and leaf spectra changing features of beetroot under CO2 leakage stress through field experiment. The result shows that the chlorophyll contents and RWC of beetroot under CO2 leakage stress become lower than the control beetroot', and the leaf reflectance increases in the 550 nm region and decreases in the 680nm region. A new vegetation index (R550/R680) was designed for identifying beetroot under CO2 leakage stress, and the result indicates that the vegetation index R550/R680 could identify the beetroots after CO2 leakage for 7 days. The index has strong sensitivity, stability and identification for monitoring the beetroots under CO2 stress. The result of this paper has very important meaning and application values for selecting spots of CCS project, monitoring and evaluating land-surface ecology under CO2 stress and monitoring the leakage spots by using remote sensing.

  17. Investigation of Selected Surface Integrity Features of Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) after Turning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krolczyk, G.; Nieslony, P.; Legutko, S.; Hloch, Sergej; Samardžić, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2015), s. 91-94 ISSN 0543-5846 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : duplex stainless steel * machining * turning * surface integrity * surface roughness Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014 http://hrcak.srce.hr/126702

  18. Surface-confined [2 + 2] cycloaddition towards one-dimensional polymers featuring cyclobutadiene units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Bay V.; Pham, Tuan Anh; Grunst, Michael; Kivala, Milan; Stöhr, Meike

    2017-01-01

    Surface-confined synthesis has been offering a wide range of opportunities for the construction of novel molecular nanostructures. Exploring new types of on-surface coupling reactions is considered essential for being able to deliberately tune the materials properties. Here, we report on the

  19. Ultrastructural features of the internodes’ surface in horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myroslava Stakhiv

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of the outer surface of the common horsetail stem was studied. Through electron microscopic analysis we showed that silica plates on the surface of Equisetum arvense L. stem are distributed evenly, not tight, in thin layer. Thus, compact arrangement of particles on the internodes causes high mechanical strength and stiffness of the E. arvensestem and lateral branches.

  20. Distant supervision for neural relation extraction integrated with word attention and property features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianfeng; Ouyang, Dantong; Hua, Wen; Ye, Yuxin; Li, Ximing

    2018-04-01

    Distant supervision for neural relation extraction is an efficient approach to extracting massive relations with reference to plain texts. However, the existing neural methods fail to capture the critical words in sentence encoding and meanwhile lack useful sentence information for some positive training instances. To address the above issues, we propose a novel neural relation extraction model. First, we develop a word-level attention mechanism to distinguish the importance of each individual word in a sentence, increasing the attention weights for those critical words. Second, we investigate the semantic information from word embeddings of target entities, which can be developed as a supplementary feature for the extractor. Experimental results show that our model outperforms previous state-of-the-art baselines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cardiovascular disease prediction: do pulmonary disease-related chest CT features have added value?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jairam, Pushpa M.; Jong, Pim A. de; Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Isgum, Ivana; Graaf, Yolanda van der

    2015-01-01

    Certain pulmonary diseases are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore we investigated the incremental predictive value of pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features over cardiovascular imaging findings. A total of 10,410 patients underwent diagnostic chest CT for non-cardiovascular indications. Using a case-cohort approach, we visually graded CTs from the cases and from an approximately 10 % random sample of the baseline cohort (n = 1,203) for cardiovascular, pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural findings. The incremental value of pulmonary disease-related CT findings above cardiovascular imaging findings in cardiovascular event risk prediction was quantified by comparing discrimination and reclassification. During a mean follow-up of 3.7 years (max. 7.0 years), 1,148 CVD events (cases) were identified. Addition of pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features to a cardiovascular imaging findings-based prediction model led to marginal improvement of discrimination (increase in c-index from 0.72 (95 % CI 0.71-0.74) to 0.74 (95 % CI 0.72-0.75)) and reclassification measures (net reclassification index 6.5 % (p < 0.01)). Pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features have limited predictive value in the identification of subjects at high risk of CVD events beyond cardiovascular findings on diagnostic chest CT scans. (orig.)

  2. Cardiovascular disease prediction: do pulmonary disease-related chest CT features have added value?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jairam, Pushpa M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Jong, Pim A. de; Mali, Willem P.T.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Isgum, Ivana [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Graaf, Yolanda van der [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Collaboration: PROVIDI study-group

    2015-06-01

    Certain pulmonary diseases are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore we investigated the incremental predictive value of pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features over cardiovascular imaging findings. A total of 10,410 patients underwent diagnostic chest CT for non-cardiovascular indications. Using a case-cohort approach, we visually graded CTs from the cases and from an approximately 10 % random sample of the baseline cohort (n = 1,203) for cardiovascular, pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural findings. The incremental value of pulmonary disease-related CT findings above cardiovascular imaging findings in cardiovascular event risk prediction was quantified by comparing discrimination and reclassification. During a mean follow-up of 3.7 years (max. 7.0 years), 1,148 CVD events (cases) were identified. Addition of pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features to a cardiovascular imaging findings-based prediction model led to marginal improvement of discrimination (increase in c-index from 0.72 (95 % CI 0.71-0.74) to 0.74 (95 % CI 0.72-0.75)) and reclassification measures (net reclassification index 6.5 % (p < 0.01)). Pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features have limited predictive value in the identification of subjects at high risk of CVD events beyond cardiovascular findings on diagnostic chest CT scans. (orig.)

  3. Distinct features of trampoline-related orthopedic injuries in children aged under 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Seok; Hong, Jin Heon; Sim, Jae Ang

    2018-02-01

    Concern has been growing about trampoline-related injuries among young children. Several published policy statements have repeatedly recommended that children younger than 6 years should not use trampolines. However, few studies have investigated the injuries caused by trampoline-related accidents among young children. This study aimed to identify the distinct features of trampoline-related orthopedic injuries in children younger than 6 years. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of pediatric patients aged between 0 and 16 years who visited our regional emergency center due to trampoline-related orthopedic injuries between 2012 and 2015. Patients were divided into two groups: a preschool group (younger than 6 years) and a school group (older than 6 years). We compared the features of the injuries in the two groups. Among 208 patients, 108 (52%) were male and 100 (48%) were female. The mean age was 5.4 years. The preschool group accounted for 66%. There were no seasonal variations. Fractures were sustained in 96 patients (46%). The anatomical locations of injuries differed significantly between the two age groups. Proximal tibia fractures were more frequent in the preschool group than the school group (34% and 6%, respectively). Distal tibia fractures were more prevalent in the school group than the preschool group (44% vs. 13%, respectively). Surgical treatment was needed more frequently in the school group (p = 0.035, hazard ratio 2.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-6.17). Most of the injuries (82%) occurred at trampoline parks. The anatomical locations of trampoline-related orthopedic injuries differed significantly between age groups. Fractures were more common around the knee in younger children and the ankle in older children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Scanning-electron-microscopy study of corrosion and surface features in glass microballoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystroff, R.I.

    1982-01-01

    Gaseous acid treatment (HBr) of surface-hardened binary glass microballoons results in etching and the growth of salt nodules, tubes or whiskers, depending on moisture conditions. Temperatures from 400 0 C to 625 0 C for 24 h or more are required for the effects to be significant. Numerous imperfections, including craters, are documented on the unexposed interiors surfaces. The evident phase separation and nucleation sites suggest a need for better production controls and post-production annealing. 6 figures

  5. Robust surface registration using salient anatomical features for image-guided liver surgery: Algorithm and validation

    OpenAIRE

    Clements, Logan W.; Chapman, William C.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Galloway, Robert L.; Miga, Michael I.

    2008-01-01

    A successful surface-based image-to-physical space registration in image-guided liver surgery (IGLS) is critical to provide reliable guidance information to surgeons and pertinent surface displacement data for use in deformation correction algorithms. The current protocol used to perform the image-to-physical space registration involves an initial pose estimation provided by a point based registration of anatomical landmarks identifiable in both the preoperative tomograms and the intraoperati...

  6. Off-Center Rotation of CuPc Molecular Rotor on a Bi(111) Surface and the Chiral Feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Tao, Min-Long; Tu, Yu-Bing; Wang, Jun-Zhong

    2017-05-04

    Molecular rotors with an off-center axis and the chiral feature of achiral CuPc molecules on a semi-metallic Bi(111) surface have been investigated by means of a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at liquid nitrogen (LN₂) temperature. The rotation axis of each CuPc molecular rotor is located at the end of a phthalocyanine group. As molecular coverage increases, the CuPc molecules are self-assembled into various nanoclusters and finally into two-dimensional (2D) domains, in which each CuPc molecule exhibits an apparent chiral feature. Such chiral features of the CuPc molecules can be attributed to the combined effect of asymmetric charge transfer between the CuPc and Bi(111) substrate, and the intermolecular van der Waals interactions.

  7. Computation and Evaluation of Features of Surface Electromyogram to Identify the Force of Muscle Contraction and Muscle Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar P. Arjunan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between force of muscle contraction and muscle fatigue with six different features of surface electromyogram (sEMG was determined by conducting experiments on thirty-five volunteers. The participants performed isometric contractions at 50%, 75%, and 100% of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC. Six features were considered in this study: normalised spectral index (NSM5, median frequency, root mean square, waveform length, normalised root mean square (NRMS, and increase in synchronization (IIS index. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and linear regression analysis were performed to determine the significance of the feature with respect to the three factors: muscle force, muscle fatigue, and subject. The results show that IIS index of sEMG had the highest correlation with muscle fatigue and the relationship was statistically significant (P0.05.

  8. Computation and evaluation of features of surface electromyogram to identify the force of muscle contraction and muscle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K; Naik, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between force of muscle contraction and muscle fatigue with six different features of surface electromyogram (sEMG) was determined by conducting experiments on thirty-five volunteers. The participants performed isometric contractions at 50%, 75%, and 100% of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Six features were considered in this study: normalised spectral index (NSM5), median frequency, root mean square, waveform length, normalised root mean square (NRMS), and increase in synchronization (IIS) index. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression analysis were performed to determine the significance of the feature with respect to the three factors: muscle force, muscle fatigue, and subject. The results show that IIS index of sEMG had the highest correlation with muscle fatigue and the relationship was statistically significant (P 0.05).

  9. Auditing SNOMED CT hierarchical relations based on lexical features of concepts in non-lattice subgraphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Licong; Bodenreider, Olivier; Shi, Jay; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2018-02-01

    We introduce a structural-lexical approach for auditing SNOMED CT using a combination of non-lattice subgraphs of the underlying hierarchical relations and enriched lexical attributes of fully specified concept names. Our goal is to develop a scalable and effective approach that automatically identifies missing hierarchical IS-A relations. Our approach involves 3 stages. In stage 1, all non-lattice subgraphs of SNOMED CT's IS-A hierarchical relations are extracted. In stage 2, lexical attributes of fully-specified concept names in such non-lattice subgraphs are extracted. For each concept in a non-lattice subgraph, we enrich its set of attributes with attributes from its ancestor concepts within the non-lattice subgraph. In stage 3, subset inclusion relations between the lexical attribute sets of each pair of concepts in each non-lattice subgraph are compared to existing IS-A relations in SNOMED CT. For concept pairs within each non-lattice subgraph, if a subset relation is identified but an IS-A relation is not present in SNOMED CT IS-A transitive closure, then a missing IS-A relation is reported. The September 2017 release of SNOMED CT (US edition) was used in this investigation. A total of 14,380 non-lattice subgraphs were extracted, from which we suggested a total of 41,357 missing IS-A relations. For evaluation purposes, 200 non-lattice subgraphs were randomly selected from 996 smaller subgraphs (of size 4, 5, or 6) within the "Clinical Finding" and "Procedure" sub-hierarchies. Two domain experts confirmed 185 (among 223) suggested missing IS-A relations, a precision of 82.96%. Our results demonstrate that analyzing the lexical features of concepts in non-lattice subgraphs is an effective approach for auditing SNOMED CT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Open-source algorithm for detecting sea ice surface features in high-resolution optical imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Wright

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Snow, ice, and melt ponds cover the surface of the Arctic Ocean in fractions that change throughout the seasons. These surfaces control albedo and exert tremendous influence over the energy balance in the Arctic. Increasingly available meter- to decimeter-scale resolution optical imagery captures the evolution of the ice and ocean surface state visually, but methods for quantifying coverage of key surface types from raw imagery are not yet well established. Here we present an open-source system designed to provide a standardized, automated, and reproducible technique for processing optical imagery of sea ice. The method classifies surface coverage into three main categories: snow and bare ice, melt ponds and submerged ice, and open water. The method is demonstrated on imagery from four sensor platforms and on imagery spanning from spring thaw to fall freeze-up. Tests show the classification accuracy of this method typically exceeds 96 %. To facilitate scientific use, we evaluate the minimum observation area required for reporting a representative sample of surface coverage. We provide an open-source distribution of this algorithm and associated training datasets and suggest the community consider this a step towards standardizing optical sea ice imagery processing. We hope to encourage future collaborative efforts to improve the code base and to analyze large datasets of optical sea ice imagery.

  11. Open-source algorithm for detecting sea ice surface features in high-resolution optical imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nicholas C.; Polashenski, Chris M.

    2018-04-01

    Snow, ice, and melt ponds cover the surface of the Arctic Ocean in fractions that change throughout the seasons. These surfaces control albedo and exert tremendous influence over the energy balance in the Arctic. Increasingly available meter- to decimeter-scale resolution optical imagery captures the evolution of the ice and ocean surface state visually, but methods for quantifying coverage of key surface types from raw imagery are not yet well established. Here we present an open-source system designed to provide a standardized, automated, and reproducible technique for processing optical imagery of sea ice. The method classifies surface coverage into three main categories: snow and bare ice, melt ponds and submerged ice, and open water. The method is demonstrated on imagery from four sensor platforms and on imagery spanning from spring thaw to fall freeze-up. Tests show the classification accuracy of this method typically exceeds 96 %. To facilitate scientific use, we evaluate the minimum observation area required for reporting a representative sample of surface coverage. We provide an open-source distribution of this algorithm and associated training datasets and suggest the community consider this a step towards standardizing optical sea ice imagery processing. We hope to encourage future collaborative efforts to improve the code base and to analyze large datasets of optical sea ice imagery.

  12. Trichodesmium blooms and warm-core ocean surface features in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothibabu, R; Karnan, C; Jagadeesan, L; Arunpandi, N; Pandiarajan, R S; Muraleedharan, K R; Balachandran, K K

    2017-08-15

    Trichodesmium is a bloom-forming, diazotrophic, non-heterocystous cyanobacteria widely distributed in the warmer oceans, and their bloom is considered a 'biological indication' of stratification and nitrogen limitation in the ocean surface layer. In the first part of this paper, based on the retrospective analyses of the ocean surface mesoscale features associated with 59 Trichodesmium bloom incidences recorded in the past, 32 from the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, and 27 from the rest of the world, we have showed that warm-core features have an inducing effect on bloom formation. In the second part, we have considered the environmental preferences of Trichodesmium bloom based on laboratory and field studies across the globe, and proposed a view about how warm-core features could provide an inducing pre-requisite condition for the bloom formation in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Proposed that the subsurface waters of warm-core features maintain more likely chances for the conducive nutrient and light conditions required for the triggering of the blooms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic Association of Major Depression With Atypical Features and Obesity-Related Immunometabolic Dysregulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milaneschi, Yuri; Lamers, Femke; Peyrot, Wouter J

    2017-01-01

    Importance: The association between major depressive disorder (MDD) and obesity may stem from shared immunometabolic mechanisms particularly evident in MDD with atypical features, characterized by increased appetite and/or weight (A/W) during an active episode. Objective: To determine whether...... subgroups of patients with MDD stratified according to the A/W criterion had a different degree of genetic overlap with obesity-related traits (body mass index [BMI] and levels of C-reactive protein [CRP] and leptin). Design, Setting, and Patients: This multicenter study assembled genome-wide genotypic...... between atypical depressive symptoms and obesity-related traits may arise from shared pathophysiologic mechanisms in patients with MDD. Development of treatments effectively targeting immunometabolic dysregulations may benefit patients with depression and obesity, both syndromes with important disability....

  14. Carabelli's trait revisited: an examination of mesiolingual features at the enamel-dentine junction and enamel surface of Pan and Homo sapiens upper molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Alejandra; Skinner, Matthew M; Bailey, Shara E; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2012-10-01

    Carabelli's trait is a morphological feature that frequently occurs on the mesiolingual aspect of Homo sapiens upper molars. Similar structures also referred to as Carabelli's trait have been reported in apes and fossil hominins. However, the morphological development and homology of these mesiolingual structures among hominoids are poorly understood. In this study, we employ micro-computed tomography to image the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) and outer enamel surface (OES) of Pan (n = 48) and H. sapiens (n = 52) upper molars. We investigate the developmental origin of mesiolingual features in these taxa and establish the relative contribution of the EDJ and enamel cap to feature expression. Results demonstrate that mesiolingual features of H. sapiens molars develop at the EDJ and are similarly expressed at the OES. Morphological variation at both surfaces in this taxon can satisfactorily be assessed using standards for Carabelli's trait developed by the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System (ASUDAS). Relative to H. sapiens, Pan has an even greater degree of correspondence in feature expression between the EDJ and OES. Morphological manifestations in Pan molars are not necessarily limited to the protocone and are best characterized by a lingual cingulum that cannot be captured by the ASUDAS. Cusp-like structures, similar to those seen in marked Carabelli's trait expressions in H. sapiens, were not found in Pan. This study provides a foundation for further analyses on the evolutionary history of mesiolingual dental traits within the hominoid lineage. It also highlights the wealth of morphological data that can be obtained at the EDJ for understanding tooth development and for characterizing tooth crown variation in worn fossil teeth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. III-V nanoelectronics and related surface/interface issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hideki

    2003-01-01

    The conventional logic gate architecture is not suitable for high-density integration of quantum devices which are non-robust and extremely structure- and charge-sensitive. In this paper, our novel hexagonal binary-decision-diagram (BDD) quantum circuit approach for III-V nanoelectronics is reviewed and related critical surface/interface issues for high-density integration are discussed. First, the basic concept and actual implementation method of our approach are explained, giving examples of novel BDD quantum integrated circuits where nanowire networks are controlled by nanoscale Schottky wrap gates. For high-density integration, growth of embedded sub-10 nm III-V quantum wire networks by selective molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on patterned substrates is described, including effects of atomic hydrogen irradiation and kinetic control of wire width. The key processing issue lies in understanding and control of nanostructure surfaces/interfaces. Behavior of nanoscale Schottky gates, recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)/scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) studies of surface states, and successful removal of surface states by MBE-grown silicon interface control layer are discussed

  16. Seasonal features of atmospheric surface-layer characteristics over a tropical coastal station in Southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Prasad, K.B.R.R.; Srinivas, C.V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    Dispersion of air-borne effluents occurs in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) where turbulence is the main physical processes. In the surface layer of ABL, the mechanical (shear) generation of turbulence exceeds the buoyant generation or consumption of turbulence. In this layer, under steady state and horizontally homogeneous conditions various forces in the governing equation can be neglected and one can apply Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) to estimate the turbulent fluxes and other surface layer variables. Understanding the turbulent characteristics of the surface layer is vital for modeling of turbulent diffusion in regional numerical weather and pollution dispersion models. The objective of this study is to verify the validity of the MOST at the coastal site Kalpakkam under various atmospheric stability conditions with respect to different seasons for modeling atmospheric dispersion of radioactive effluents

  17. Scaling Relations for Adsorption Energies on Doped Molybdenum Phosphide Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, Meredith; Tsai, Charlie; Chen, Leanne D.; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Nørskov, Jens K.; Chan, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Molybdenum phosphide (MoP), a well-documented catalyst for applications ranging from hydrotreating reactions to electrochemical hydrogen evolution, has yet to be mapped from a more fundamental perspective, particularly in the context of transition-metal scaling relations. In this work, we use periodic density functional theory to extend linear scaling arguments to doped MoP surfaces and understand the behavior of the phosphorus active site. The derived linear relationships for hydrogenated C, N, and O species on a variety of doped surfaces suggest that phosphorus experiences a shift in preferred bond order depending on the degree of hydrogen substitution on the adsorbate molecule. This shift in phosphorus hybridization, dependent on the bond order of the adsorbate to the surface, can result in selective bond weakening or strengthening of chemically similar species. As a result, we discuss how this behavior deviates from transition-metal, sulfide, carbide, and nitride scaling relations, and we discuss potential applications in the context of electrochemical reduction reactions.

  18. Simulation study and guidelines to generate Laser-induced Surface Acoustic Waves for human skin feature detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Fu, Xing; Chen, Kun; Dorantes-Gonzalez, Dante J.; Li, Yanning; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaotang

    2015-12-01

    Despite the seriously increasing number of people contracting skin cancer every year, limited attention has been given to the investigation of human skin tissues. To this regard, Laser-induced Surface Acoustic Wave (LSAW) technology, with its accurate, non-invasive and rapid testing characteristics, has recently shown promising results in biological and biomedical tissues. In order to improve the measurement accuracy and efficiency of detecting important features in highly opaque and soft surfaces such as human skin, this paper identifies the most important parameters of a pulse laser source, as well as provides practical guidelines to recommended proper ranges to generate Surface Acoustic Waves (SAWs) for characterization purposes. Considering that melanoma is a serious type of skin cancer, we conducted a finite element simulation-based research on the generation and propagation of surface waves in human skin containing a melanoma-like feature, determine best pulse laser parameter ranges of variation, simulation mesh size and time step, working bandwidth, and minimal size of detectable melanoma.

  19. Meteorological data for four sites at surface-disruption features in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1985--1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carman, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Surface-disruption features, or craters, resulting from underground nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site may increase the potential for ground-water recharge in an area that would normally produce little, if any, recharge. This report presents selected meteorological data resulting from a study of two surface-disruption features during May 1985 through June 1986. The data were collected at four adjacent sites in Yucca Flat, about 56 kilometers north of Mercury, Nevada. Three sites (one in each of two craters and one at an undisturbed site at the original land surface) were instrumented to collect meteorological data for calculating bare-soil evaporation. These data include (1) long-wave radiation, (2) short-wave radiation, (3) net radiation, (4) air temperature, and (5) soil surface temperature. Meteorological data also were collected at a weather station at an undisturbed site near the study craters. Data collected at this site include (1) air temperature, (2) relative humidity, (3) wind velocity, and (4) wind direction

  20. Modification of the iron mechanical- and corrosion features by ion implantation in surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumvol, I.J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The physical mechanisms responsable by the tin ion implantation in the iron surface at moderated doses are studied. Several techniques are used such as alpha-particle Rutherford backscattering, conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. (L.C.) [pt

  1. Quantifying groundwater dependency of riparian surface hydrologic features using the exit gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examines groundwater exit gradients as a way to quantify groundwater interactions with surface water. We calibrated high resolution groundwater models for the basin fill sediments in the lower Calapooia watershed, Oregon, using data collected between 1928--2000. The e...

  2. A Three-Dimensional View of Titan's Surface Features from Cassini RADAR Stereogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, R. L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Redding, B. L.; Becker, T. L.; Lee, E. M.; Stiles, B. W.; Hensley, S.; Hayes, A.; Lopes, R. M.; Lorenz, R. D.; Mitchell, K. L.; Radebaugh, J.; Paganelli, F.; Soderblom, L. A.; Stofan, E. R.; Wood, C. A.; Wall, S. D.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2008-12-01

    As of the end of its four-year Prime Mission, Cassini has obtained 300-1500 m resolution synthetic aperture radar images of the surface of Titan during 19 flybys. The elongated image swaths overlap extensively, and ~2% of the surface has now been imaged two or more times. The majority of image pairs have different viewing directions, and thus contain stereo parallax that encodes information about Titan's surface relief over distances of ~1 km and greater. As we have previously reported, the first step toward extracting quantitative topographic information was the development of rigorous "sensor models" that allowed the stereo systems previously used at the USGS and JPL to map Venus with Magellan images to be used for Titan mapping. The second major step toward extensive topomapping of Titan has been the reprocessing of the RADAR images based on an improved model of the satellite's rotation. Whereas the original images (except for a few pairs obtained at similar orbital phase, some of which we have mapped previously) were offset by as much as 30 km, the new versions align much better. The remaining misalignments, typically carbono)logic" cycle of precipitation, evaporation, and surface and subsurface fluid flow?

  3. Quantitative prediction of drug side effects based on drug-related features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanqing; Zhang, Wen

    2017-09-01

    Unexpected side effects of drugs are great concern in the drug development, and the identification of side effects is an important task. Recently, machine learning methods are proposed to predict the presence or absence of interested side effects for drugs, but it is difficult to make the accurate prediction for all of them. In this paper, we transform side effect profiles of drugs as their quantitative scores, by summing up their side effects with weights. The quantitative scores may measure the dangers of drugs, and thus help to compare the risk of different drugs. Here, we attempt to predict quantitative scores of drugs, namely the quantitative prediction. Specifically, we explore a variety of drug-related features and evaluate their discriminative powers for the quantitative prediction. Then, we consider several feature combination strategies (direct combination, average scoring ensemble combination) to integrate three informative features: chemical substructures, targets, and treatment indications. Finally, the average scoring ensemble model which produces the better performances is used as the final quantitative prediction model. Since weights for side effects are empirical values, we randomly generate different weights in the simulation experiments. The experimental results show that the quantitative method is robust to different weights, and produces satisfying results. Although other state-of-the-art methods cannot make the quantitative prediction directly, the prediction results can be transformed as the quantitative scores. By indirect comparison, the proposed method produces much better results than benchmark methods in the quantitative prediction. In conclusion, the proposed method is promising for the quantitative prediction of side effects, which may work cooperatively with existing state-of-the-art methods to reveal dangers of drugs.

  4. Local changes of work function near rough features on Cu surfaces operated under high external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djurabekova, Flyura, E-mail: flyura.djurabekova@helsinki.fi; Ruzibaev, Avaz; Parviainen, Stefan [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Holmström, Eero [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences, UCL Earth Sciences, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hakala, Mikko [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-12-28

    Metal surfaces operated under high electric fields produce sparks even if they are held in ultra high vacuum. In spite of extensive research on the topic of vacuum arcs, the mystery of vacuum arc origin still remains unresolved. The indications that the sparking rates depend on the material motivate the research on surface response to extremely high external electric fields. In this work by means of density-functional theory calculations we analyze the redistribution of electron density on (100) Cu surfaces due to self-adatoms and in presence of high electric fields from −1 V/nm up to −2 V/nm (−1 to −2 GV/m, respectively). We also calculate the partial charge induced by the external field on a single adatom and a cluster of two adatoms in order to obtain reliable information on charge redistribution on surface atoms, which can serve as a benchmarking quantity for the assessment of the electric field effects on metal surfaces by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, we investigate the modifications of work function around rough surface features, such as step edges and self-adatoms.

  5. Maladaptive Personality and Neuropsychological Features of Highly Relationally Aggressive Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Savage

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The maladaptive personality and neuropsychological features of highly relationally aggressive females were examined in a group of 30 grade 6, 7, and 8 girls and group-matched controls. Employing a multistage cluster sampling procedure a group of highly, yet almost exclusively, relationally aggressive females were identified and matched on a number of variables to a group of nonaggressive females. Parents of the students in both groups completed the Coolidge Personality and Neuropsychological Inventory, a 200-item DSM-IV-TR aligned, parent-as-respondent, standardized measure of children’s psychological functioning. It was found that high levels of relational aggression, in the absence of physical and verbal aggression, were associated with symptoms of DSM-IV-TR Axis I oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. The highly relationally aggressive group also exhibited a wide variety of personality traits associated with DSM-IV-TR Axis II paranoid, borderline, narcissistic, histrionic, schizotypal, and passive aggressive personality disorders that were not exhibited by the matched controls. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. COMPUTER GRAPHICS MEETS IMAGE FUSION: THE POWER OF TEXTURE BAKING TO SIMULTANEOUSLY VISUALISE 3D SURFACE FEATURES AND COLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Verhoeven

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Since a few years, structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo pipelines have become omnipresent in the cultural heritage domain. The fact that such Image-Based Modelling (IBM approaches are capable of providing a photo-realistic texture along the threedimensional (3D digital surface geometry is often considered a unique selling point, certainly for those cases that aim for a visually pleasing result. However, this texture can very often also obscure the underlying geometrical details of the surface, making it very hard to assess the morphological features of the digitised artefact or scene. Instead of constantly switching between the textured and untextured version of the 3D surface model, this paper presents a new method to generate a morphology-enhanced colour texture for the 3D polymesh. The presented approach tries to overcome this switching between objects visualisations by fusing the original colour texture data with a specific depiction of the surface normals. Whether applied to the original 3D surface model or a lowresolution derivative, this newly generated texture does not solely convey the colours in a proper way but also enhances the smalland large-scale spatial and morphological features that are hard or impossible to perceive in the original textured model. In addition, the technique is very useful for low-end 3D viewers, since no additional memory and computing capacity are needed to convey relief details properly. Apart from simple visualisation purposes, the textured 3D models are now also better suited for on-surface interpretative mapping and the generation of line drawings.

  7. Computer Graphics Meets Image Fusion: the Power of Texture Baking to Simultaneously Visualise 3d Surface Features and Colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, G. J.

    2017-08-01

    Since a few years, structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo pipelines have become omnipresent in the cultural heritage domain. The fact that such Image-Based Modelling (IBM) approaches are capable of providing a photo-realistic texture along the threedimensional (3D) digital surface geometry is often considered a unique selling point, certainly for those cases that aim for a visually pleasing result. However, this texture can very often also obscure the underlying geometrical details of the surface, making it very hard to assess the morphological features of the digitised artefact or scene. Instead of constantly switching between the textured and untextured version of the 3D surface model, this paper presents a new method to generate a morphology-enhanced colour texture for the 3D polymesh. The presented approach tries to overcome this switching between objects visualisations by fusing the original colour texture data with a specific depiction of the surface normals. Whether applied to the original 3D surface model or a lowresolution derivative, this newly generated texture does not solely convey the colours in a proper way but also enhances the smalland large-scale spatial and morphological features that are hard or impossible to perceive in the original textured model. In addition, the technique is very useful for low-end 3D viewers, since no additional memory and computing capacity are needed to convey relief details properly. Apart from simple visualisation purposes, the textured 3D models are now also better suited for on-surface interpretative mapping and the generation of line drawings.

  8. Features of surface enhanced Raman scattering in the systems with «hot spots»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solovyeva E.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we demonstrate the features of SERS on the substrates with «hot spots» on the example of system «diaminostilbene - colloidal silver». We found that «hot spots» forming on aggregated nanoparticles exist on the metal substrates only at low concentration of ligand. This effect caused by the gradual filling of first monolayer by adsorbate molecules. Significantly higher enhancement factor is obtained for substrates with «hot spots», for which the participation of resonance processes in the formation of SERS signal is revealed also.

  9. The gas-hydrate-related seabed features in the Palm Ridge off southwest Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zheng-Wei; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Chen, Song-Chuen; Lin, Hsiao-Shan

    2016-04-01

    The offshore area of the SW Taiwan is located in the convergence zone between the northern continental margin of the South China Sea and the Manila subduction complex. Our study area, the Palm Ridge, is located in the passive continental margin. According to the geophysical, geochemical and geothermal data, abundant gas hydrate may exist in the offshore area of SW Taiwan. In this study, we will study the relation between the seabed features and the gas hydrate formation of the Palm Ridge. The data used in this study include high-resolution sidescan sonar images, sub-bottom profiles, echo sounder system, multi-beam bathymetric data, multi-channel reflection seismic and submarine photography in the Palm Ridge. Our results show the existing authigenic carbonates, gas seepages and gas plumes are mainly distributed in the bathymetric high of the Palm Ridge. Numerous submarine landslides have occurred in the place where the BSR distribution is not continuous. We suggest that it may be because of rapid slope failure, causing the change of the gas hydrate stability zone. We also found several faults on the R3.1 anticline structure east of the deformation front. These features imply that abundant deep methane gases have migrated to shallow strata, causing submarine landslides or collapse. The detailed relationship of gas migration and submarine landslides need further studies.

  10. Age-related changes of adaptive and neuropsychological features in persons with Down Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ghezzo

    Full Text Available Down Syndrome (DS is characterised by premature aging and an accelerated decline of cognitive functions in the vast majority of cases. As the life expectancy of DS persons is rapidly increasing, this decline is becoming a dramatic health problem. The aim of this study was to thoroughly evaluate a group of 67 non-demented persons with DS of different ages (11 to 66 years, from a neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric and psychomotor point of view in order to evaluate in a cross-sectional study the age-related adaptive and neuropsychological features, and to possibly identify early signs predictive of cognitive decline. The main finding of this study is that both neuropsychological functions and adaptive skills are lower in adult DS persons over 40 years old, compared to younger ones. In particular, language and short memory skills, frontal lobe functions, visuo-spatial abilities and adaptive behaviour appear to be the more affected domains. A growing deficit in verbal comprehension, along with social isolation, loss of interest and greater fatigue in daily tasks, are the main features found in older, non demented DS persons evaluated in our study. It is proposed that these signs can be alarm bells for incipient dementia, and that neuro-cognitive rehabilitation and psycho-pharmacological interventions must start as soon as the fourth decade (or even earlier in DS persons, i.e. at an age where interventions can have the greatest efficacy.

  11. Event-related potential correlates of suspicious thoughts in individuals with schizotypal personality features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-bing; Huang, Jia; Cheung, Eric F C; Gong, Qi-yong; Chan, Raymond C K

    2011-01-01

    Suspiciousness is a common feature of schizophrenia. However, suspicious thoughts are also commonly experienced by the general population. This study aimed to examine the underlying neural mechanism of suspicious thoughts in individuals with and without schizotypal personality disorder (SPD)-proneness, using an event-related potential (ERP) paradigm. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded when the "feeling of being seen through" was evoked in the participants. The findings showed a prominent positive deflection of the difference wave within the time window 250-400 ms after stimuli presentation in both SPD-prone and non-SPD-prone groups. Furthermore, the P3 amplitude was significantly reduced in the SPD-prone group compared to the non-SPD-prone group. The current density analysis also indicated hypoactivity in both frontal and temporal regions in the SPD-prone group, suggesting that the frontotemporal cortical network may play a role in the onset of suspicious thoughts. The P3 of difference wave was inversely correlated with the cognitive-perception factor and the suspiciousness/paranoid ideation trait, which provided preliminary electrophysiological evidence for the association of suspiciousness with SPD features.

  12. Molecular features related to HIV integrase inhibition obtained from structure- and ligand-based approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana L de Carvalho

    Full Text Available Among several biological targets to treat AIDS, HIV integrase is a promising enzyme that can be employed to develop new anti-HIV agents. The aim of this work is to propose a mechanistic interpretation of HIV-1 integrase inhibition and to rationalize the molecular features related to the binding affinity of studied ligands. A set of 79 HIV-1 integrase inhibitors and its relationship with biological activity are investigated employing 2D and 3D QSAR models, docking analysis and DFT studies. Analyses of docking poses and frontier molecular orbitals revealed important features on the main ligand-receptor interactions. 2D and 3D models presenting good internal consistency, predictive power and stability were obtained in all cases. Significant correlation coefficients (r(2 = 0.908 and q(2= 0.643 for 2D model; r(2= 0.904 and q(2= 0.719 for 3D model were obtained, indicating the potential of these models for untested compounds. The generated holograms and contribution maps revealed important molecular requirements to HIV-1 IN inhibition and several evidences for molecular modifications. The final models along with information resulting from molecular orbitals, 2D contribution and 3D contour maps should be useful in the design of new inhibitors with increased potency and selectivity within the chemical diversity of the data.

  13. Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis Modeling for Analysis of Flood Design Features at the Picayune Strand Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    restore its predrainage hydrology and ecological function for beneficial effects on flora and fauna in the project area and surrounding public lands. The...partnership with South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), is constructing these features. Engineering support is required for hydrologic and...simulation accuracy and related resource requirements. Spatial data products such as digital elevation models, surveyed channel cross sections, soil

  14. KINEMATICAL FEATURES OF FORMATION OF A FLANGE WITH MINIMUM TENSION OF A TRANSIENT TOROIDAL SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Sidorenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology of plastic forming of wide flanges in tube billets with the predicted length of the transitional toroidal section between the outer plane of the flange and the internal cavity of the pipe is proposed. The procedure for calculating the length of this section is given. In order to eliminate the toroidal portion in the flange formed during the flanging of the pipe, it is proposed to perform its plastic shaping by depositing the cylindrical part of the workpiece. Equations for calculating the extent of the free surface on the toroidal part of the workpiece when it is shaped, depending on the coefficient of contact friction and the presence of a radial support of the flange are obtained. The variant of forming in the flange the toroidal section in the stamp with the compensation cavity is proposed. Equations for calculating the deformation force and the extent of the free surface are given.

  15. Morphological features of the copper surface layer under sliding with high density electric current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadin, V. V., E-mail: fvv@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Aleutdinova, M. I., E-mail: aleut@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Seversk Technological Institute, Branch of State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education “National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Seversk, 636036 (Russian Federation); Rubtsov, V. Ye., E-mail: rvy@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Aleutdinova, V. A., E-mail: valery-aleut@yandex.ru [National Research St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, St. Petersburg, 195251 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    Conductivity and wear intensity of copper under the influence of dry friction and electric current with contact density higher 100 A/cm{sup 2} are presented. It is shown that an increase in hardness and heat outflow from a friction zone leads to the reduction of wear intensity and current contact density increase corresponding to the beginning of catastrophic wear. Structural changes, such as the formation of FeO oxide and α-Fe particles in the copper surface layer, have also been found. It is observed that a worn surface is deformed according to a viscous liquid mechanism. Such singularity is explained in terms of appearance of high-excited atomic states in deforming micro-volumes near contact spots that lead to easy stress relaxation by local plastic shears in the vicinity of stress concentrators. In common this effect allows to achieve high wear resistance.

  16. Initial heats of H{sub 2}S adsorption on activated carbons: Effect of surface features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagreev, A.; Adib, F.; Bandosz, T.J.

    1999-11-15

    The sorption of hydrogen sulfide was studied on activated carbons of various origins by means of inverse gas chromatography at infinite dilution. The conditions of the experiment were dry and anaerobic. Prior to the experiments the surface of some carbon samples was oxidized using either nitric acid or ammonium persulfate. Then the structural parameters of carbons were evaluated from the sorption of nitrogen. From the IGC experiments at various temperatures, heats of adsorption were calculated. The results showed that the heat of H{sub 2}S adsorption under dry anaerobic conditions does not depend on surface chemistry. The dependence of the heat of adsorption on the characteristic energy of nitrogen adsorption calculated from the Dubinin-Raduskevich equation was found. This correlation can be used to predict the heat of H{sub 2}S adsorption based on the results obtained from nitrogen adsorption.

  17. Features of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions with phase transformations on catalyst surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, A D; Krylov, O V

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents a review of 41 bibliographic references to experiments on the adsorption of various gases (e.g., carbon monoxide, formic acid, ammonia, and oxygen) on metals (e.g., nickel, molybdenum, and platinum) and oxides covers observations of two-dimensional phases during adsorption; the kinetics of adsorption and catalysis associated with two-dimensional phase transitions; and several approximate models for describing the kinetics of heterogeneous catalysis which account for two-dimensional phase transformations on catalyst surfaces.

  18. Structural features and activity of Brazzein and its mutants upon substitution of a surfaced exposed alanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanavatian, Parisa; Khalifeh, Khosrow; Jafarian, Vahab

    2016-12-01

    Brazzein (Brz) is a member of sweet-tasting protein containing four disulfide bonds. It was reported as a compact and heat-resistant protein. Here, we have used site-directed mutagenesis and replaced a surface-exposed alanine with aspartic acid (A19D mutant), lysine (A19K mutant) and glycine (A19G mutant). Activity comparisons of wild-type (WT) and mutants using taste panel test procedure showed that A19G variant has the same activity as WT protein. However, introduction of a positive charge in A19K mutant led to significant increase in Brz's sweetness, while A19D has reduced sweetness compared to WT protein. Docking studies showed that mutation at position 19 results in slight chain mobility of protein at the binding surface and changing the patterns of interactions toward more effective binding of E9K variant in the concave surface of sweet taste receptor. Far-UV CD data spectra have a characteristic shape of beta structure for all variants, however different magnitudes of spectra suggest that beta-sheet structure in WT and A19G is more stable than that of A19D and A19K. Equilibrium unfolding studies with fluorescence spectroscopy and using urea and dithiothritol (DTT) as chemical denaturants indicates that A19G mutant gains more stability against urea denaturation; while conformational stability of A19D and A19K decreases when compared with WT and A19G variants. We concluded that the positive charge at the surface of protein is important factor responsible for the interaction of protein with the human sweet receptor and Ala 19 can be considered as a key region for investigating the mechanism of the interaction of Brz with corresponding receptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  19. Combining Landform Thematic Layer and Object-Oriented Image Analysis to Map the Surface Features of Mountainous Flood Plain Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, H.-K.; Lin, M.-L.; Huang, W.-C.

    2012-04-01

    The Typhoon Morakot on August 2009 brought more than 2,000 mm of cumulative rainfall in southern Taiwan, the extreme rainfall event caused serious damage to the Kaoping River basin. The losses were mostly blamed on the landslides along sides of the river, and shifting of the watercourse even led to the failure of roads and bridges, as well as flooding and levees damage happened around the villages on flood bank and terraces. Alluvial fans resulted from debris flow of stream feeders blocked the main watercourse and debris dam was even formed and collapsed. These disasters have highlighted the importance of identification and map the watercourse alteration, surface features of flood plain area and artificial structures soon after the catastrophic typhoon event for natural hazard mitigation. Interpretation of remote sensing images is an efficient approach to acquire spatial information for vast areas, therefore making it suitable for the differentiation of terrain and objects near the vast flood plain areas in a short term. The object-oriented image analysis program (Definiens Developer 7.0) and multi-band high resolution satellite images (QuickBird, DigitalGlobe) was utilized to interpret the flood plain features from Liouguei to Baolai of the the Kaoping River basin after Typhoon Morakot. Object-oriented image interpretation is the process of using homogenized image blocks as elements instead of pixels for different shapes, textures and the mutual relationships of adjacent elements, as well as categorized conditions and rules for semi-artificial interpretation of surface features. Digital terrain models (DTM) are also employed along with the above process to produce layers with specific "landform thematic layers". These layers are especially helpful in differentiating some confusing categories in the spectrum analysis with improved accuracy, such as landslides and riverbeds, as well as terraces, riverbanks, which are of significant engineering importance in disaster

  20. Wide-field surface plasmon microscopy of nano- and microparticles: features, benchmarking, limitations, and bioanalytical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamov, Shavkat; Scherbahn, Vitali; Mirsky, Vladimir M.

    2017-05-01

    Detection of nano- and micro-particles is an important task for chemical analytics, food industry, biotechnology, environmental monitoring and many other fields of science and industry. For this purpose, a method based on the detection and analysis of minute signals in surface plasmon resonance images due to adsorption of single nanopartciles was developed. This new technology allows one a real-time detection of interaction of single nano- and micro-particles with sensor surface. Adsorption of each nanoparticle leads to characteristic diffraction image whose intensity depends on the size and chemical composition of the particle. The adsorption rate characterizes volume concentration of nano- and micro-particles. Large monitored surface area of sensor enables a high dynamic range of counting and to a correspondingly high dynamic range in concentration scale. Depending on the type of particles and experimental conditions, the detection limit for aqueous samples can be below 1000 particles per microliter. For application of method in complex media, nanoparticle images are discriminated from image perturbations due to matrix components. First, the characteristic SPRM images of nanoparticles (templates) are collected in aqueous suspensions or spiked real samples. Then, the detection of nanoparticles in complex media using template matching is performed. The detection of various NPs in consumer products like cosmetics, mineral water, juices, and wines was shown at sub-ppb level. The method can be applied for ultrasensitive detection and analysis of nano- and micro-particles of biological (bacteria, viruses, endosomes), biotechnological (liposomes, protein nanoparticles for drug delivery) or technical origin.

  1. Preparation of porous polymer monoliths featuring enhanced surface coverage with gold nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Lv, Yongqin

    2012-10-01

    A new approach to the preparation of porous polymer monoliths with enhanced coverage of pore surface with gold nanoparticles has been developed. First, a generic poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith was reacted with cystamine followed by the cleavage of its disulfide bonds with tris(2-carboxylethyl)phosphine, which liberated the desired thiol groups. Dispersions of gold nanoparticles with sizes varying from 5 to 40. nm were then pumped through the functionalized monoliths. The materials were then analyzed using both energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. We found that the quantity of attached gold was dependent on the size of nanoparticles, with the maximum attachment of more than 60. wt% being achieved with 40. nm nanoparticles. Scanning electron micrographs of the cross sections of all the monoliths revealed the formation of a non-aggregated, homogenous monolayer of nanoparticles. The surface of the bound gold was functionalized with 1-octanethiol and 1-octadecanethiol, and these monolithic columns were used successfully for the separations of proteins in reversed phase mode. The best separations were obtained using monoliths modified with 15, 20, and 30. nm nanoparticles since these sizes produced the most dense coverage of pore surface with gold. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Influence of surface features of hydroxyapatite on the adsorption of proteins relevant to bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Montes Moraleda, Belén; San Román, Julio; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, Luís M

    2013-08-01

    Protein-surface interaction may determine the success or failure of an implanted device. Not much attention have been paid to the specific surface parametes of hydroxyapatite (OHAp) that modulates and determines the formation and potential activity of the layer of proteins that is first formed when the material get in contact with the host tissue. the influence of specific surface area (SSA), crystallite size (CS) and particle size (PS) of OHAp on the adsorption of proteins relevant for bone regeneration is evaluated in this article. OHAp have been prepared by a wet chemical reaction of Ca(OH)2 with H3PO4. One set of reactions included poly acrylic acid in the reactant solution to modify the properties of the powder. Fibrinogen (Fg) Fraction I, type I: from Human plasma, (67% Protein), and Fibronectin (Fn) from Human plasma were selected to perform the adsorption experiments. The analysis of protein adsorption was carried out by UV/Vis spectrometry. A lower SSA and a different aspect ratio are obtained when the acrylic acid is included in the reaction badge. The deconvolution of the amide I band on the Raman spectra of free and adsorbed proteins reveals that the interaction apatite-protein happens through the carboxylate groups of the proteins. The combined analysis of CS, SSA and PS should be considered on the design of OHAp materials intended to interact with proteins. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. IgG4-related disease: a systemic condition with characteristic microscopic features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detlefsen, Sönke

    2013-01-01

    that a significant proportion of the AIP patients had a variety of extrapancreatic fibroinflammatory lesions, and that AIP therefore was the pancreatic manifestation of a systemic disease. Among these extrapancreatic manifestations, the extrahepatic bile ducts, salivary glands, thyroid, lymph nodes......During the first decade of the 21st century, IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), a fibroinflammatory condition occurring at multiple sites of the body, has been newly recognized. As indicated by its name, elevation of IgG4 in the serum and tissue is a common denominator of IgG4-RD. Since...... diseases on their own, others have been included under the umbrella of "multifocal fibrosclerosis". Biopsies or resection specimens from affected organs in IgG4-RD reveal several common microscopic features irrespective of the site of the lesion. Cellular and storiform fibrosis, lymphoplasmacytic...

  4. Human comfort and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna

    The main objective of the Ph.D. study was to examine occupants’ perception of comfort and self-estimated job performance in non-industrial buildings (homes and offices), in particular how building occupants understand comfort and which parameters, not necessarily related to indoor environments...... and storage, noise level and visual privacy. However, if job performance is considered, then satisfaction with the main indoor environmental parameters should be addressed first as they affected self-estimated job performance to the highest extent. The present study showed that overall satisfaction...... with personal workspace affected significantly the self-estimated job performance. Increasing overall satisfaction with the personal workspace by about 15% would correspond to an increase of self-estimated job performance by 3.7%. Among indoor environmental parameters and building features, satisfaction...

  5. Features of the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acid-Related Disease in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Tkach

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of the combined course of acid-related disorder of the gastrointestinal tract and diabetes mellitus (DM. The attention is paid to the fact that in most cases the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus should be carried out not as a proton pump inhibitor monotherapy, but as a comprehensive and differentiated treatment, taking into account etiological and pathogenetic features of the disease. When choosing the components of triple or quadruple therapy for the eradication of H.pylori in patients with DM among the group of proton pump inhibitors, it is desirable to give preference to pantoprazole (Zovanta. Pantoprazole does not interact with clarithromycin — basic antibiotic of H.pylori therapy. H.pylori therapy based on pantoprazole reduces the likelihood of side effects and increases the effectiveness of treatment.

  6. Gambling disorder in financial markets: Clinical and treatment-related features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young-Chul; Choi, Sam-Wook; Ha, Juwon; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2015-12-01

    To date, few studies have examined the clinical manifestation of disordered gamblers in financial markets. This study examined the differences in the clinical and treatment-related features of gambling disorder between financial markets and horse races. Subjects who met the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling (PG) and who sought treatment were assessed by retrospective chart review. One hundred forty-four subjects were included in this sample, which consisted of the following groups: financial markets (n = 45; 28.6%) and horse races (n = 99; 71.4%). Multiple similar manifestations were found between the groups, including severity of PG, age of PG onset, amounts of gambling debts, drinking days per week, depressive mood, duration of seeking treatment after the onset of PG, and treatment follow-up duration. However, disordered gamblers who invested in the financial market were significantly more likely to be educated (p = 0.003), live with their spouses (p = 0.007), have full-time jobs (p = 0.006), and they were more likely to participate in the first type of gambling than the horse races group (pfinancial markets group received the anti-craving medication less often than the horse races group (p = 0.04). These findings suggest that disordered gamblers in financial markets show different socio-demographic, clinical and treatment-related features compared with the horse race gamblers, despite a similar severity of gambling disorder. Understanding these differential manifestations may provide insight into prevention and treatment development for specific types of gambling.

  7. Clinicopathological features of Riedel's thyroiditis associated with IgG4-related disease in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Ken; Inaba, Hidefumi; Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Furukawa, Yasushi; Doi, Asako; Nishi, Masahiro; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Yoshida, Akira; Imai, Ryoukichi; Akamizu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Riedel's thyroiditis (RT) is a rare chronic fibrosing disorder characterized by a hard, infiltrative lesion in the thyroid gland, which is often associated with multifocal fibrosclerosis. Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is typified by infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells into multiple organs, resulting in tissue fibrosis and organ dysfunction. In order to evaluate the clinicopathological features of RT and its relationship with IgG4-RD, we performed a Japanese literature search using the keywords "Riedel" and "Riedel's thyroiditis." We used the electronic databases Medline and Igaku Chuo Zasshi, the latter of which is the largest medical literature database in Japan. The diagnosis of RT was based on the presence of a fibroinflammatory process with extension into surrounding tissues. Only 10 patients in Japan fulfilled RT diagnostic criteria during the 25-year period between 1988 and 2012. Two patients with confirmed IgG4/IgG immunohistochemical findings demonstrated 43 and 13 IgG4-positive plasma cells per high-power field, respectively, and the IgG4-positive/IgG-positive plasma cell ratios of 20% and less than 5%. Of the 10 patients with RT, two received glucocorticoids, one of whom experienced marked shrinkage of the thyroid lesion. One patient had extra-thyroid involvement in the form of retroperitoneal fibrosis. Although the clinicopathological features of RT suggest that IgG4-RD may be the underlying condition in some cases, further investigation is needed to clarify the etiology of RT in relation to IgG4-RD.

  8. Genome-wide association meta-analysis of neuropathologic features of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W Beecham

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD and related dementias are a major public health challenge and present a therapeutic imperative for which we need additional insight into molecular pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study and analysis of known genetic risk loci for AD dementia using neuropathologic data from 4,914 brain autopsies. Neuropathologic data were used to define clinico-pathologic AD dementia or controls, assess core neuropathologic features of AD (neuritic plaques, NPs; neurofibrillary tangles, NFTs, and evaluate commonly co-morbid neuropathologic changes: cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA, Lewy body disease (LBD, hippocampal sclerosis of the elderly (HS, and vascular brain injury (VBI. Genome-wide significance was observed for clinico-pathologic AD dementia, NPs, NFTs, CAA, and LBD with a number of variants in and around the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE. GalNAc transferase 7 (GALNT7, ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family G (WHITE, Member 1 (ABCG1, and an intergenic region on chromosome 9 were associated with NP score; and Potassium Large Conductance Calcium-Activated Channel, Subfamily M, Beta Member 2 (KCNMB2 was strongly associated with HS. Twelve of the 21 non-APOE genetic risk loci for clinically-defined AD dementia were confirmed in our clinico-pathologic sample: CR1, BIN1, CLU, MS4A6A, PICALM, ABCA7, CD33, PTK2B, SORL1, MEF2C, ZCWPW1, and CASS4 with 9 of these 12 loci showing larger odds ratio in the clinico-pathologic sample. Correlation of effect sizes for risk of AD dementia with effect size for NFTs or NPs showed positive correlation, while those for risk of VBI showed a moderate negative correlation. The other co-morbid neuropathologic features showed only nominal association with the known AD loci. Our results discovered new genetic associations with specific neuropathologic features and aligned known genetic risk for AD dementia with specific neuropathologic changes in the largest brain autopsy study of AD and related

  9. Overlapping Morphologic and Immunohistochemical Features of Hashimoto Thyroiditis and IgG4-Related Thyroid Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raess, Philipp W; Habashi, Arlette; El Rassi, Edward; Milas, Mira; Sauer, David A; Troxell, Megan L

    2015-05-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an emerging clinicopathologic entity characterized by both IgG4+ plasma cell infiltration and fibrosis in one or more organs, prototypically pancreas or salivary/lacrimal glands. IgG4-RD in the thyroid (IgG4-RTD) is an area of active study, and the relationship between IgG4-RTD and Hashimoto thyroiditis is not fully delineated due to their overlapping histologic features. Retrospective review was performed of all thyroidectomy cases demonstrating lymphocytic inflammation at a single institution over a 4-year period. Approximately half (23/38) of patients had a clinical diagnosis of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). Nine of the 38 patients had increased absolute and relative numbers of IgG4+ plasma cells. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of HT had increased lymphoplasmacytic inflammation, but the relative proportion of IgG4+ plasma cells was not increased compared to patients without HT. There was no correlation between IgG4 levels and the amount of fibrosis in patients with or without HT. Patients identified as having the fibrosing variant of HT were not more likely to have increased levels of IgG4+ plasma cells than those without. There is significant morphologic and immunohistochemical overlap between HT and IgG4-RTD. Future studies to identify specific characteristics of IgG4-RTD involving the thyroid are necessary to accurately define this entity.

  10. Small-Scale Morphological Features on a Solid Surface Processed by High-Pressure Abrasive Water Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Kang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Being subjected to a high-pressure abrasive water jet, solid samples will experience an essential variation of both internal stress and physical characteristics, which is closely associated with the kinetic energy attached to the abrasive particles involved in the jet stream. Here, experiments were performed, with particular emphasis being placed on the kinetic energy attenuation and turbulent features in the jet stream. At jet pressure of 260 MPa, mean velocity and root-mean-square (RMS velocity on two jet-stream sections were acquired by utilizing the phase Doppler anemometry (PDA technique. A jet-cutting experiment was then carried out with Al-Mg alloy samples being cut by an abrasive water jet. Morphological features and roughness on the cut surface were quantitatively examined through scanning electron microscopy (SEM and optical profiling techniques. The results indicate that the high-pressure water jet is characterized by remarkably high mean flow velocities and distinct velocity fluctuations. Those irregular pits and grooves on the cut surfaces indicate both the energy attenuation and the development of radial velocity components in the jet stream. When the sample is positioned with different distances from the nozzle outlet, the obtained quantitative surface roughness varies accordingly. A descriptive model highlighting the behaviors of abrasive particles in jet-cutting process is established in light of the experimental results and correlation analysis.

  11. Small-Scale Morphological Features on a Solid Surface Processed by High-Pressure Abrasive Water Jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Can; Liu, Haixia

    2013-08-14

    Being subjected to a high-pressure abrasive water jet, solid samples will experience an essential variation of both internal stress and physical characteristics, which is closely associated with the kinetic energy attached to the abrasive particles involved in the jet stream. Here, experiments were performed, with particular emphasis being placed on the kinetic energy attenuation and turbulent features in the jet stream. At jet pressure of 260 MPa, mean velocity and root-mean-square (RMS) velocity on two jet-stream sections were acquired by utilizing the phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) technique. A jet-cutting experiment was then carried out with Al-Mg alloy samples being cut by an abrasive water jet. Morphological features and roughness on the cut surface were quantitatively examined through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical profiling techniques. The results indicate that the high-pressure water jet is characterized by remarkably high mean flow velocities and distinct velocity fluctuations. Those irregular pits and grooves on the cut surfaces indicate both the energy attenuation and the development of radial velocity components in the jet stream. When the sample is positioned with different distances from the nozzle outlet, the obtained quantitative surface roughness varies accordingly. A descriptive model highlighting the behaviors of abrasive particles in jet-cutting process is established in light of the experimental results and correlation analysis.

  12. Characteristics, seasonal distribution and surface degradation features of microplastic pellets along the Goa coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerasingam, S.; Saha, M.; Suneel, V.; Vethamony, P.; Rodrigues, A.C.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Naik, B.G.

    , especially on sandy beaches. MPPs are usually cylindrical, spherical or oval shape and made up of raw polymers of 1–5 mm. MPPs are industrial raw material transported to manufacturing sites for the production of a wide range of plastic products (Ogata et al...-oxidation, Weathering processes, Surface circulation 2    1. Introduction The global production of plastics has increased from 1.5 million tonnes in 1950 to 299 million tonnes in 2013, representing 4% increase over 2012 (Plastics Europe, 2015). A part...

  13. Comparison of clinical features between primary and drug-induced sleep-related eating disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komada Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yoko Komada,1 Yoshikazu Takaesu,2 Kentaro Matsui,3 Masaki Nakamura,3 Shingo Nishida,3 Meri Kanno,3,† Akira Usui,3 Yuichi Inoue1,3 1Department of Somnology, 2Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Medical University, 3Japan Somnology Center, Institute of Neuropsychiatry, Tokyo, Japan †Meri Kanno passed away on March 1, 2016 Purpose: The aim of this study was to ascertain the clinical characteristics of drug-induced sleep-related eating disorder (SRED. Patients and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 30 patients with primary SRED (without any comorbid sleep disorders and who were not taking any possible causative medications, and ten patients with drug-induced SRED (occurrence of SRED episodes after starting nightly medication of sedative drugs, which completely resolved after dose reduction or discontinuation of the sedatives. Results: All patients with drug-induced SRED took multiple types of sedatives, such as benzodiazepines or benzodiazepine receptor agonists. Clinical features of drug-induced SRED compared with primary SRED were as follows: higher mean age of onset (40 years old in drug-induced SRED vs 26 years old in primary SRED, significantly higher rate of patients who had total amnesia during most of their SRED episodes (75.0% vs 31.8%, significantly lower rate of comorbidity of night eating syndrome (0% vs 63.3%, and significantly lower rate of history of sleepwalking (10.0% vs 46.7%. Increased doses of benzodiazepine receptor agonists may be responsible for drug-induced SRED. Conclusion: The clinical features of drug-induced SRED were different from those of primary SRED, possibly reflecting differences in the underlying mechanisms between these two categories of SREDs. Keywords: nocturnal eating syndrome, night eating, eating disorder, hypnotics, amnesia, sleepwalking, benzodiazepine

  14. Clinical Features and Outcomes of 666 Cases with Therapy-Related Myelodysplastic Syndrome (t-MDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fattah, Mohamed Abd

    2018-01-01

    Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) is a serious complication of chemoradiotherapy for primary diseases. This cohort was aimed to determine the clinical features and outcomes of t-MDS in comparison with de novo MDS. I retrieved data of 666 cases with t-MDS, and 29,703 cases with de novo MDS diagnosed between 2001 and 2012 from the database of U.S. National Cancer Institute. Survival curves were estimated, and Cox proportional hazards model was constructed. Compared with patients with de novo MDS, patients with t-MDS tended to be young (median age; 65 vs. 76 years, p  MDS than de novo MDS (17.2 months and 22% vs. 31 months and 32%, respectively, p  MDS cases, with a median follow-up of 16 months (range 1-143 months), 521 cases (78.2%) had died. Of which, 78 (15%) cases had died from acute myeloid leukemia, and 66 (12.7%) cases had died from solid cancers. Of the total 66 cases died from solid cancers; 19 cases (28.8%) died from cancer of lung/bronchus, 11 cases (16.7%) breast cancers, and 10 cases (15.2%) ovarian cancer. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for clinical features, calendar period and radiotherapy, the hazard of mortality was significantly low in de novo MDS compared with t-MDS (hazard ratio 0.59; p  MDS is a distinct entity of MDS in terms of clinical characteristics and prognosis.

  15. Grain surface features and clay mineralogy of the quaternary sediments from Western Deccan Trap Region, India, and their palaeoclimatic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena U. Joshi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Quartz sand grains obtained from a deeply gullied topography along the banks of two tributaries of River Pravara in Maharashtra (India have been examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Quartz grains have been selected after a heavy mineral separation and micro-photographs of each grain were taken at various angles and magnifications. The sediments reveal features resulting from mechanical grinding as well as from chemical alteration. Conchoidal fractures, cleavage planes, grooves, v-shaped indentations etc. are the mechanical features documented on the grains whereas solution pits of varying sizes and intensity, precipitation surfaces, oriented v-pits, solution crevasses and etching are the features of chemical origin. Several evidences indicate that the samples have undergone digenetic changes. Few grains show the features of intense chemical breakdown. The overall assemblages of the grain surface features suggest that the samples have been subjected to subaqueous transport for a considerable period of time. The minor chemical features such as solution pits or semi circular arcuate steps found in abundance on these grains are due to the dissolution of the sediments in a low energy fluviatile environment. For clay mineralogy, fractions between <2 and <0.2 mm were separated out from the sediments. The clay fractions were then subjected to examination by X-ray diffraction (XRD of oriented K/Ca saturated samples using a Philips Diffractometer and Ni-filtered Cu Ka radiation with the scanning speed of 10 2Ө min -1. The main clay minerals for all the samples are identical and show the presence of hydroxy-interlayered smectites with minor quantities of mica, kaolinite, smectites, quartz and feldspar. The first weathering product of the Deccan Basalt (DB is the dioctahedral smectite. Since the present semi aridic climatic condition of the study area can not transform a smectite to HIS and either smectite to kaolin, it is quite likely that

  16. Visibility of lunar surface features - Apollo 14 orbital observations and lunar landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziedman, K.

    1972-01-01

    Description of an in-flight visibility test conducted during the Apollo 14 mission for the purpose of validating and extending the mathematical visibility models used previously in the course of the Apollo program to examine the constraints on descent operations imposed by lunar visibility limitations. Following a background review of the effects on mission planning of the visibility limitations due to downsun lunar surface detail 'washout' and a discussion of the visibility prediction techniques previously used for studying lunar visibility problems, the visibility test rationale and procedures are defined and the test results presented. The results appear to confirm the validity of the visibility prediction techniques employed in lunar visibility problem studies. These results provide also a basis for improving the accuracy of the prediction techniques by appropriate modifications.

  17. Coastal zone color scanner pigment concentrations in the southern ocean and relationships to geophysical surface features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, J. C.; Mcclain, C. R.; Sullivan, C. W.; Ryan, J. P.; Leonard, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Climatological data on the distribution of surface pigment fields in the entire southern ocean over a seasonal cycle are examined. The occurrence of intense phytoplankton blooms during austral summer months and during other seasons in different regions is identified and analyzed. The highest pigment concentrations are observed at high latitudes and over regions with water depths usually less than 600 m. Basin-scale pigment distribution shows a slightly asymmetric pattern of enhanced pigment concentrations about Antarctica, with enhanced concentrations extending to lower latitudes in the Atlantic and Indian sectors than in the Pacific sector. A general increase in pigment concentrations is evident from the low latitudes toward the Antarctic circumpolar region. Spatial relationships between pigment and archived geophysical data reveal significant correlation between pigment distributions and both bathymetry and wind stress, while general hemispheric scale patterns of pigment distributions are most coherent with the geostrophic flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

  18. Application of Amniotic Membrane in Ocular Surface Diseases: Clinical Features and Treatment Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Cindarik

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To investigate the effectiveness of amniotic membrane transplantation in cases with corneal thinning, desmatocele and refractive corneal ulcer. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Fifty-four eyes of 54 patients who were applied amniotic membrane transplantation for various ocular surface disease between January 2004 and February 2009 in Çukurova University Ophthalmology Department were included in the study. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed. Corneal culture and corneal cytology samples were collected from the patients with the diagnosis of corneal ulcers. The patients were informed about the surgical procedure and the possible complications and informed consent was obtained. The amniotic membranes that were prepared under optimal conditions and protected in frozen forms were used in the operations. Follow-up examinations were done at postoperative 1st day, 1st week, 1st month, 3rd month, 6th month and then once in a year. Re sults: Of 54 patients, 26 (48.1% were men and 28 (51.8% were women. The mean age of patients was 52.53±19.75 (2-87 years. The cases were separated into 2 groups according to the etiology: group 1 - eyes with corneal ulcer (n:26 and group 2 - eyes with corneal stromal thinning, persistent epithelial defects and desmatocel (n:28. The transplantations were performed using cover technique in 17 eyes (31.4%, graft technique in 37 eyes (68.5% and graft technique with corneal patch in 2 eyes (3.7%. Partial penetrating keratoplasty was required in 38 of 54 eyes (70.3%. One eye was enucleated. Dis cus si on: The amniotic membrane transplantation has advantages like: it can be prepared easily and is cost-effective. It is a safe and effective procedure in ocular surface disease. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 177-82

  19. Computer vision-based apple grading for golden delicious apples based on surface features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payman Moallem

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a computer vision-based algorithm for golden delicious apple grading is proposed which works in six steps. Non-apple pixels as background are firstly removed from input images. Then, stem end is detected by combination of morphological methods and Mahalanobis distant classifier. Calyx region is also detected by applying K-means clustering on the Cb component in YCbCr color space. After that, defects segmentation is achieved using Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP neural network. In the next step, stem end and calyx regions are removed from defected regions to refine and improve apple grading process. Then, statistical, textural and geometric features from refined defected regions are extracted. Finally, for apple grading, a comparison between performance of Support Vector Machine (SVM, MLP and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN classifiers is done. Classification is done in two manners which in the first one, an input apple is classified into two categories of healthy and defected. In the second manner, the input apple is classified into three categories of first rank, second rank and rejected ones. In both grading steps, SVM classifier works as the best one with recognition rate of 92.5% and 89.2% for two categories (healthy and defected and three quality categories (first rank, second rank and rejected ones, among 120 different golden delicious apple images, respectively, considering K-folding with K = 5. Moreover, the accuracy of the proposed segmentation algorithms including stem end detection and calyx detection are evaluated for two different apple image databases.

  20. Prevalence and clinical features of sports-related lumbosacral stress injuries in the young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Hideto; Murakami, Mototsune; Nishizawa, Kazuya

    2017-05-01

    Stress injuries (stress fractures and stress reactions) of the lumbosacral region are one of the causes of sports-related lower back pain in young individuals. These injuries can be detected by bone marrow edema lesion on MRI. However, little is known about the prevalence and clinical features of early stage lumbosacral stress injuries. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of lumbosacral stress injuries. A total of 312 patients (under 18 years of age) who complained of sports-related lower back pain that had lasted for ≥7 days underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We reviewed patients' records retrospectively. MRI showed that 33.0% of the patients had lumbar stress injuries and 1.6% had sacral stress injuries. Lumbar stress injuries were more common in males than in females and were found in 30% of 13- to 18-year-old patients. About 50% of the patients that participated in soccer or track and field were diagnosed with lumbar stress injuries. No clinical patterns in the frequencies of sacral stress injuries were detected due to the low number of patients that suffered this type of injury. Plain radiography is rarely able to detect the early stage lesions associated with lumbosacral stress injuries, but such lesions can be detected in the caudal-ventral region of the pars interarticularis on sagittal computed tomography scans. Thirty-three percent of young patients that complained of sports-related lower back pain for ≥7 days had lumbar stress injuries, while 1.6% of them had sacral stress injuries. Clinicians should be aware of the existence of these injuries. MRI is useful for diagnosing lumbosacral stress injuries.

  1. Intraseasonal variations of the Yangtze rainfall and its related atmospheric circulation features during the 1991 summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Jiangyu; Wu, Guoxiong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), Beijing (China); Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China)

    2006-12-15

    The intraseasonal variations of the Yangtze rainfall over eastern China and its related atmospheric circulation characteristics during the 1991 summer are examined based on the gauge-observed rainfall and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. Wavelet analysis shows that during the 1991 summer, the active and break sequences of rainfall over the middle and lower Yangtze Basin are mainly regulated by an oscillatory mode with a period of 15-35 days. An investigation of the circulation features suggests that the 15-35-day oscillation is associated with an anomalous low-level cyclone (anticyclone) appearing alternatively over the northern South China Sea (SCS) and the Philippine Sea, and related to a northeastward (southwestward) shift of the western Pacific subtropical anticyclone over the SCS, leading to a lower tropospheric divergence (convergence) over the Yangtze Basin. In the upper troposphere, the 15-35-day oscillation exhibits a dipole anomaly characterized by an anomalous cyclone (anticyclone) over eastern China and an anomalous anticyclone (cyclone) over the northern Tibetan Plateau, resulting in a southwestward shrinking (northeastward extending) of the South Asian anticyclone, and forming a convergence (divergence) over eastern China. Such a coupled anomalous flow pattern between the lower and upper troposphere favors large-scale descending (ascending) motion, and hence reduced (enhanced) rainfall over the Yangtze Basin. Dynamically, the intraseasonal variations in the Yangtze rainfall are mainly determined by the coupling between the low-level relative vorticity and the upper-level divergence. In the middle troposphere, the 15-35-day oscillation of the subtropical high is originated over the central North Pacific north of Hawaii, then propagates westward to the SCS-Philippine Sea, and finally modulates the intraseasonal variations of the Yangtze rainfall. (orig.)

  2. Cortical surface registration using spherical thin-plate spline with sulcal lines and mean curvature as features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjin; Park, Jun-Sung; Seong, Joon-Kyung; Na, Duk L; Lee, Jong-Min

    2012-04-30

    Analysis of cortical patterns requires accurate cortical surface registration. Many researchers map the cortical surface onto a unit sphere and perform registration of two images defined on the unit sphere. Here we have developed a novel registration framework for the cortical surface based on spherical thin-plate splines. Small-scale composition of spherical thin-plate splines was used as the geometric interpolant to avoid folding in the geometric transform. Using an automatic algorithm based on anisotropic skeletons, we extracted seven sulcal lines, which we then incorporated as landmark information. Mean curvature was chosen as an additional feature for matching between spherical maps. We employed a two-term cost function to encourage matching of both sulcal lines and the mean curvature between the spherical maps. Application of our registration framework to fifty pairwise registrations of T1-weighted MRI scans resulted in improved registration accuracy, which was computed from sulcal lines. Our registration approach was tested as an additional procedure to improve an existing surface registration algorithm. Our registration framework maintained an accurate registration over the sulcal lines while significantly increasing the cross-correlation of mean curvature between the spherical maps being registered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Modification of the large-scale features of high Reynolds number wall turbulence by passive surface obtrusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monty, J.P.; Lien, K.; Chong, M.S. [University of Melbourne, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Allen, J.J. [New Mexico State University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    2011-12-15

    A high Reynolds number boundary-layer wind-tunnel facility at New Mexico State University was fitted with a regularly distributed braille surface. The surface was such that braille dots were closely packed in the streamwise direction and sparsely spaced in the spanwise direction. This novel surface had an unexpected influence on the flow: the energy of the very large-scale features of wall turbulence (approximately six-times the boundary-layer thickness in length) became significantly attenuated, even into the logarithmic region. To the author's knowledge, this is the first experimental study to report a modification of 'superstructures' in a rough-wall turbulent boundary layer. The result gives rise to the possibility that flow control through very small, passive surface roughness may be possible at high Reynolds numbers, without the prohibitive drag penalty anticipated heretofore. Evidence was also found for the uninhibited existence of the near-wall cycle, well known to smooth-wall-turbulence researchers, in the spanwise space between roughness elements. (orig.)

  4. Magnetic nanoparticles: surface effects and properties related to biomedicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Bashar; Obaidat, Ihab M; Albiss, Borhan A; Haik, Yousef

    2013-10-25

    Due to finite size effects, such as the high surface-to-volume ratio and different crystal structures, magnetic nanoparticles are found to exhibit interesting and considerably different magnetic properties than those found in their corresponding bulk materials. These nanoparticles can be synthesized in several ways (e.g., chemical and physical) with controllable sizes enabling their comparison to biological organisms from cells (10-100 μm), viruses, genes, down to proteins (3-50 nm). The optimization of the nanoparticles' size, size distribution, agglomeration, coating, and shapes along with their unique magnetic properties prompted the application of nanoparticles of this type in diverse fields. Biomedicine is one of these fields where intensive research is currently being conducted. In this review, we will discuss the magnetic properties of nanoparticles which are directly related to their applications in biomedicine. We will focus mainly on surface effects and ferrite nanoparticles, and on one diagnostic application of magnetic nanoparticles as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.

  5. Aerodynamics of yacht sails: viscous flow features and surface pressure distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Ignazio Maria

    2014-11-01

    The present paper presents the first Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) on a yacht sails. Wind tunnel experiments on a 1:15th model-scale sailing yacht with an asymmetric spinnaker (fore sail) and a mainsails (aft sail) were modelled using several time and grid resolutions. Also the Reynolds-average Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations were solved for comparison with DES. The computed forces and surface pressure distributions were compared with those measured with both flexible and rigid sails in the wind tunnel and good agreement was found. For the first time it was possible to recognise the coherent and steady nature of the leading edge vortex that develops on the leeward side of the asymmetric spinnaker and which significantly contributes to the overall drive force. The leading edge vortex increases in diameter from the foot to the head of the sail, where it becomes the tip vortex and convects downstream in the direction of the far field velocity. The tip vortex from the head of the mainsail rolls around the one of the spinnaker. The spanwise twist of the spinnaker leads to a mid-span helicoidal vortex, which has never been reported by previous authors, with an horizontal axis and rotating in the same direction of the tip vortex.

  6. An Experimental Optical Three-axis Tactile Sensor Featured with Hemispherical Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohka, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Takata, Jumpei; Mitsuya, Yasunaga

    We are developing an optical three-axis tactile sensor capable of acquiring normal and shearing force to mount on a robotic finger. The tactile sensor is based on the principle of an optical waveguide-type tactile sensor, which is composed of an acrylic hemispherical dome, a light source, an array of rubber sensing elements, and a CCD camera. The sensing element of the silicone rubber comprises one columnar feeler and eight conical feelers. The contact areas of the conical feelers, which maintain contact with the acrylic dome, detect the three-axis force applied to the tip of the sensing element. Normal and shearing forces are then calculated from integration and centroid displacement of the grayscale value derived from the conical feeler's contacts. To evaluate the present tactile sensor, we conducted a series of experiments using an x-z stage, a rotational stage, and a force gauge. Although we discovered that the relationship between the integrated grayscale value and normal force depends on the sensor's latitude on the hemispherical surface, it is easy to modify the sensitivity based on the latitude to make the centroid displacement of the grayscale value proportional to the shearing force. When we examined the repeatability of the present tactile sensor with 1,000 load/unload cycles, the error was 2%.

  7. The Word Composite Effect Depends on Abstract Lexical Representations But Not Surface Features Like Case and Font

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ventura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies have shown that words show a composite effect: When readers perform a same-different matching task on a target-part of a word, performance is affected by the irrelevant part, whose influence is severely reduced when the two parts are misaligned. However, the locus of this word composite effect is largely unknown. To enlighten it, in two experiments, Portuguese readers performed the composite task on letter strings: in Experiment 1, in written words varying in surface features (between-participants: courier, notera, alternating-cAsE, and in Experiment 2 in pseudowords. The word composite effect, signaled by a significant interaction between alignment of the two word parts and congruence between parts was found in the three conditions of Experiment 1, being unaffected by NoVeLtY of the configuration or by handwritten form. This effect seems to have a lexical locus, given that in Experiment 2 only the main effect of congruence between parts was significant and was not modulated by alignment. Indeed, the cross-experiment analysis showed that words presented stronger congruence effects than pseudowords only in the aligned condition, because when misaligned the whole lexical item configuration was disrupted. Therefore, the word composite effect strongly depends on abstract lexical representations, as it is unaffected by surface features and is specific to lexical items.

  8. The Word Composite Effect Depends on Abstract Lexical Representations But Not Surface Features Like Case and Font.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Paulo; Fernandes, Tânia; Leite, Isabel; Almeida, Vítor B; Casqueiro, Inês; Wong, Alan C-N

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that words show a composite effect: When readers perform a same-different matching task on a target-part of a word, performance is affected by the irrelevant part, whose influence is severely reduced when the two parts are misaligned. However, the locus of this word composite effect is largely unknown. To enlighten it, in two experiments, Portuguese readers performed the composite task on letter strings: in Experiment 1, in written words varying in surface features (between-participants: courier, notera, alternating-cAsE), and in Experiment 2 in pseudowords. The word composite effect, signaled by a significant interaction between alignment of the two word parts and congruence between parts was found in the three conditions of Experiment 1, being unaffected by NoVeLtY of the configuration or by handwritten form. This effect seems to have a lexical locus, given that in Experiment 2 only the main effect of congruence between parts was significant and was not modulated by alignment. Indeed, the cross-experiment analysis showed that words presented stronger congruence effects than pseudowords only in the aligned condition, because when misaligned the whole lexical item configuration was disrupted. Therefore, the word composite effect strongly depends on abstract lexical representations, as it is unaffected by surface features and is specific to lexical items.

  9. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students’ Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of two question prompts. We asked four versions of the question with different combinations of the two plant species and order of prompts in an introductory cell biology course. We found that there was not a significant difference in the content of student responses to versions of the question stem with different species or order of prompts, using both computerized lexical analysis and expert scoring. We conducted 20 face-to-face interviews with students to further probe the effects of question wording on student responses. During the interviews, we found that students thought that the plant species was neither relevant nor confusing when answering the question. Students identified the prompts as both relevant and confusing. However, this confusion was not specific to a single version. PMID:25999312

  10. Color heterogeneity of the surface of Phobos: Relationships to geologic features and comparison to meteorite analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murchie, S.L.; Britt, D.T.; Head, J.W.; Pratt, S.F.; Fisher, P.C.; Zhukov, B.S.; Kuzmin, A.A.; Ksanfomality, L.V.; Zharkov, A.V.; Nikitin, G.E.; Fanale, F.P.; Blaney, D.L.; Bell, J.F.; Robinson, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Multispectral observations of Phobos by the VSK (Videospectrometric) TV cameras and KRFM (Combined Radiometer and Photometer for Mars) UV-visible spectrometer on Phobos 2 have provided new determinations of the satellite's spectral reflectance properties, at greater spatial and spectral resolutions and over a greater geographic range than have previously been available. Images of the ratio of visible and NIR reflectances covering the longitude range 30-250 degrees W were constructed from 0.40-0.56 μm and 0.78-1.1 μm VSK images. The average color ratio of Phobos was found to be ∼0.97±0.14, consistent with previously obtained measurements. However, the surface is heterogeneous, with at least four recognizable spectral units whose absolute color ratios were determined to within ∼10%: a red unit with a color ratio of 0.7-0.8, a reddish gray unit with a color ratio of 0.8-1.0, a bluish gray unit with a color ratio of 1.0-1.1, and a blue unit with a color ratio of 1.1-1.4. The redder and bluer color units are interpreted to have been excavated by impacts, from an optically and/or compositionally heterogeneous interior overlain by a reddish gray surficial layer. The location of the blue lobe emanating from Stickney correlates with the location of one of the morphologic classes of grooves, as predicted by ejecta reimpact models of groove origin. The large color ratio of blue material is comparable to that of an assemblage of mafic minerals like that forming black chondrites. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of the color ratio and UV-visible spectral properties of bluish gray material with those of meteorites indicates that black chondrites are this material's closest spectral analog. The UV-visible spectra of reddish gray and red materials most resemble spectra of black chondrites but are also comparable to spectra of some carbonaceous chondrites

  11. INVESTIGATING THE FEATURES OF EXTRACTION OF FERROUSCONCRETE SURFACE CONSTRUCTIONS FOR EXTERNAL ARMORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOLODID O. S.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Amplification of beam structures is usually performed in several classical ways, in particular: increase in cross-section due to build-up; changing the static scheme of work due to the installation of laggings, beam knees, racks, etc. However, the arrangement of additional reinforcement structures leads to a decrease in inter-floor space, an increase in the load on the supports and foundations and changes in structural and planning decisions of the interior space of the building. An alternative to these methods of reinforcement of beam structures is external reinforcement namely high-tension cloths, plates or strips that are bonded with special adhesives to the surfaces of structures. However, domestic scientific-technical and normative literature actually leaves such methods of amplification out of its attention. That is why a number of experimental studies were carried out to determine efficiency of reinforcing structures under MAPEI technology with the use of carbon fiber and in order to find alternative to domestic technologies. In alternative studies the authors used fiberglass, steel strips and steel angles bonded with special adhesives of domestic production. The efficiency criterion of technologies being tested was adopted bending load capacity of amplified beam structures made of reinforced concrete. The results of experimental studies found that reinforcement technology MAPEI by applying carbon fiber increases carrying capacity of beams to 417.6% compared with non-enhanced beams. At the same time, amplification of beams with steel angles increased their bearing capacity by 343.9%, with steel plates - by 294.8%, and with fiberglass - by 319.4%. The obtained results indicate high efficiency of the investigated methods of strengthening for beam structures and build up the direction of further research of organizational and technological solutions for the implementation of external additional reinforcement of beam constructions.

  12. The features of radiation induced lung fibrosis related with dosimetric parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Young-Taek; Noh, O Kyu; Jang, Hyunsoo; Chun, Mison; Park, Kyung Joo; Park, Kwang Joo; Kim, Mi-Hwa; Park, Hae-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Radiation induced lung fibrosis (RILF) is a major complication after lung irradiation and is very important for long term quality of life and could result in fatal respiratory insufficiency. However, there has been little information on dosimetric parameters for radiotherapy planning in the aspect of RILF. The features of RILF related with dosimetric parameters were evaluated. Methods and materials: Forty-eight patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma who underwent post-operative radiation therapy (PORT) without adjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed. The degree of lung fibrosis was estimated by fibrosis volume and the dosimetric parameters were calculated from the plan of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Results: The fibrosis volume and V-dose as dosimetric parameters showed significant correlation and the correlation coefficient ranged from 0.602 to 0.683 (P < 0.01). The degree of the correlation line was steeper as the dose increase and threshold dose was not found. Mean lung dose (MLD) showed strong correlation with fibrosis volume (correlation coefficient = 0.726, P < 0.01). Conclusions: The fibrosis volume is continuously increased with V-dose as the reference dose increases. MLD is useful as a single parameter for comparing rival plans in the aspect of RILF.

  13. Histological features of the placenta and their relation to the gross and data from Thoroughbred mares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M. Pazinato

    Full Text Available Abstract: The placenta is a transitory organ that originates from maternal and fetal tissues, the function of which is transporting nutrients from the mother to the fetus. The aim of this study was describe the histological features of placentas in healthy Thoroughbred mares at foaling and evaluate their relation with the gross placental and data of these mares. For this study 188 Thoroughbred mares were used. It was performed clinical observation for signs of placentitis during daily health checks and ultrasonic examination monthly to assess the fetus and placenta. All of the mares that exhibited clinical signs of placentitis were treated during gestation. The parturition was assisted, the placentas were grossly evaluated and samples were collected immediately after expulsion. The following data were considered for each mare: age, gestational age, number of parturition, time for placental expulsion, umbilical-cord length, placental weight and clinical signs of placentitis. Histological evaluation of the placentas revealed extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization of the epithelial areolar cells, presence of inflammatory infiltrates and hypoplasia-atrophy of the microcotyledons. Most of the gross placental findings were consistent with the histological results. In conclusion the mares with a vacuolated placental chorionic epithelium were older and had experienced a larger number of births. Great part of the mares with inflammatory infiltrates did not showed any clinical signs of placentitis during gestation.

  14. Gender-related clinical and immunological features of extremely low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Chistyakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinations were made in 35 boys and 39 girls with extremely low birth weight in order to identify gender-related clinical and immunological features. A comparison group consisted of 31 full-term newborns with early uncomplicated adaptation. The investigators determined the number of lymphocyte subpopulations and cytokine-producing cells (CD3+INF-γ+, CD3+IL-4+ by flow cytometry and the serum levels of cytokines (IL-4, IFN-γ and neopterin by enzyme immunoassay. A study of immunological parameters revealed that the boys had a smaller number of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ subpopulations, a reduced content of CD3+IL-4+ cells at birth, and low IL-4 production on the first day of life compared to the full-term neonates. The girls were recorded to have higher levels of neopterin and B cells on the first day of life, the quantitative characteristics of T lymphocytes were consistent with those in the full-term infants. The findings are indicative of the greater functional immaturity of the immune system in the preterm boys. 

  15. Automated age-related macular degeneration classification in OCT using unsupervised feature learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venhuizen, Freerk G.; van Ginneken, Bram; Bloemen, Bart; van Grinsven, Mark J. J. P.; Philipsen, Rick; Hoyng, Carel; Theelen, Thomas; Sánchez, Clara I.

    2015-03-01

    Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a common eye disorder with high prevalence in elderly people. The disease mainly affects the central part of the retina, and could ultimately lead to permanent vision loss. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is becoming the standard imaging modality in diagnosis of AMD and the assessment of its progression. However, the evaluation of the obtained volumetric scan is time consuming, expensive and the signs of early AMD are easy to miss. In this paper we propose a classification method to automatically distinguish AMD patients from healthy subjects with high accuracy. The method is based on an unsupervised feature learning approach, and processes the complete image without the need for an accurate pre-segmentation of the retina. The method can be divided in two steps: an unsupervised clustering stage that extracts a set of small descriptive image patches from the training data, and a supervised training stage that uses these patches to create a patch occurrence histogram for every image on which a random forest classifier is trained. Experiments using 384 volume scans show that the proposed method is capable of identifying AMD patients with high accuracy, obtaining an area under the Receiver Operating Curve of 0:984. Our method allows for a quick and reliable assessment of the presence of AMD pathology in OCT volume scans without the need for accurate layer segmentation algorithms.

  16. The features of chlorophyll concentration long-standing dynamics in the ocean surface layer (comparison of czcs and seawifs data)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevyrnogov, A.; Vysotskaya, G.

    To preserve biosphere and make its utilization expedient makes imperative to comprehend in depth long-standing dynamics of the primary production process on our planet. Variability of chlorophyll concentration in the ocean is one of the most important components of this process. However, hard access and large size of the water surface make its investigation labor-consuming. Besides, the dependence of primary production on high variability of hydrophysical phenomena in the ocean (fluctuations of currents, frontal zones, etc.) makes the location of points for measuring the chlorophyll concentration dynamics significant. In this work the long-standing changes in chlorophyll concentration in the surface layer of the ocean have been analyzed on the basis of the CZCS data for 7.5 years and the SeaWiFS data from 1997 to 2003. It was shown that the average chlorophyll concentration calculated at all investigated area is varied moderately. However when analyzing spatially local trends, it was detected that areas exist with stable rise and fall of chlorophyll concentration. Some interesting features of the long-standing dynamics of chlorophyll concentration several interesting features were found. There are the various directions of long-term trends (constant increase or decrease) that cannot be explained only by large-scale hydrological phenomena in the ocean (currents, upwellings etc.). The next feature is a difference between the trends revealed by using the CZCS data and the trends based on the SeaWiFS data. Thus, the obtained results allow the possibility of identification of the ocean biota role in the global biospheric gas exchange.

  17. Estimating regional methane surface fluxes: the relative importance of surface and GOSAT mole fraction measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fraser

    2013-06-01

    posterior methane fluxes by incorporating them into GEOS-Chem and sampling the model at the location and time of surface CH4 measurements from the AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment network and column XCH4 measurements from TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network. The posterior fluxes modestly improve the model agreement with AGAGE and TCCON data relative to prior fluxes, with the correlation coefficients (r2 increasing by a mean of 0.04 (range: −0.17 to 0.23 and the biases decreasing by a mean of 0.4 ppb (range: −8.9 to 8.4 ppb.

  18. [Study on risk factors and behavior features related to chronic diseases among adults in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ji-ying; Li, Xin-jian; Yao, Hai-hong; Yan, Qing-hua; Lu, Wei; Zhong, Wei-jian

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the risk factors and behavior features related to chronic diseases among adults in Shanghai. A total of 15 516 subjects aged over 18 years old were selected from the investigation project on chronic diseases and relevant risk factors in Shanghai in 2010. Questionnaire were used to investigate the general information of the subjects, such as behavior features as smoking, drinking, diet, physical activity as well as the prevalence and control of chronic diseases as hypertension and diabetes. The physical examination included height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose and blood lipids. Being preprocessed by complex weighting method, the data showed that the overweight rate of Shanghai adults aged above 18 was 32.4% (5288), separately 32.2% (2506) and 32.5% (2782) (χ(2) = 0.10, P = 0.844) in urban and rural areas; the obesity rate was 8.8% (1538), separately 8.7% (738) and 8.8% (800) (χ(2) = 0.06, P = 0.901) in urban and rural areas. The overweight rate was separately 36.0% (2888) in males and 28.6% (2400) in females (χ(2) = 96.61, P smoking rate was 25.0% (3813), separately 48.4% (3722) and 1.2% (91) in males and females (χ(2) = 4572.06, P smoking rate was 22.1% (3402). The rate of having the habit of drinking at least once a month in males was 39.5% (3102), separately 35.1% (1262) and 42.7% (1840) in urban and rural areas (χ(2) = 45.98, P = 0.012). The rate of drinking almost every day was 16.3% (1380), and the percentage of excessive alcohol consumption was 28.9% (2483). The percentage in group of subjects aging between 45-59 years old was 38.5% (1191), which was higher than that in any other groups (22.8% (641) in group aging 18-44 years old and 22.9% (651) in group aging ≥ 60 years old) (χ(2) = 241.38, P excess consumption of sodium (52.0%, 8257) and oil (51.7%, 7884). The risk factors of chronic diseases were highly prevalent in Shanghai. The prevalence of risk factors as overweight or obesity, lack of physical

  19. Global surface temperature in relation to northeast monsoon rainfall ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is observed that the meridional gradient in surface air temperature anomalies between Europe and ... Surface air tempera- ture is one of the factors that influence monsoon variability. The distribution of surface air temper- ature over land and sea determines the locations ..... Asia, north Indian Ocean, northeast Russia and.

  20. Hyperspectral analysis for qualitative and quantitative features related to acid mine drainage at a remediated open-pit mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G.; Calvin, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    The exposure of pyrite to oxygen and water in mine waste environments is known to generate acidity and the accumulation of secondary iron minerals. Sulfates and secondary iron minerals associated with acid mine drainage (AMD) exhibit diverse spectral properties in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The use of hyperspectral imagery for identification of AMD mineralogy and contamination has been well studied. Fewer studies have examined the impacts of hydrologic variations on mapping AMD or the unique spectral signatures of mine waters. Open-pit mine lakes are an additional environmental hazard which have not been widely studied using imaging spectroscopy. A better understanding of AMD variation related to climate fluctuations and the spectral signatures of contaminated surface waters will aid future assessments of environmental contamination. This study examined the ability of multi-season airborne hyperspectral data to identify the geochemical evolution of substances and contaminant patterns at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site. The mine is located 24 miles southeast of Lake Tahoe and contains remnant tailings piles and several AMD collection ponds. The objectives were to 1) distinguish temporal changes in mineralogy at a the remediated open-pit sulfur mine, 2) identify the absorption features of mine affected waters, and 3) quantitatively link water spectra to known dissolved iron concentrations. Images from NASA's AVIRIS instrument were collected in the spring, summer, and fall seasons for two consecutive years at Leviathan (HyspIRI campaign). Images had a spatial resolution of 15 meters at nadir. Ground-based surveys using the ASD FieldSpecPro spectrometer and laboratory spectral and chemical analysis complemented the remote sensing data. Temporal changes in surface mineralogy were difficult to distinguish. However, seasonal changes in pond water quality were identified. Dissolved ferric iron and chlorophyll

  1. Quantitative analysis and relevant features of the scientific literature related to SAXS and SANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craievich, Aldo F; Fischer, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    We present and discuss here numerical information derived from a systematic searching of scientific papers related to SAXS and SANS published in indexed journals - from 1945 until nowadays - recorded by the Web of Science Data Bank (WoS). We have detected interesting features regarding the time dependence of the number of papers/year, N(t), indicating the existence of three well-defined periods of historical evolution with rather well-defined boundaries. All three periods exhibit a positive and approximately linear variation of N(t) but, at the two transitions between periods, the rate of growth exhibits clear and strong increases. Differences of the historical evolutions in the numbers of papers/year related to SAXS and to SANS were established. The different behaviours regarding the numbers of papers/year related to SAXS and to SANS and the existence of three different and well defined periods for N(t) can be qualitatively understood as a consequence of the progressive and increasing availability along the last three decades of very brilliant synchrotrons, last generation commercial X-ray sources, new neutron facilities, powerful computers and novel theoretical approaches for SAS data analysis. The rates of growth in the number of papers/year published by authors from a set of different countries are approximately constant along the last two decades. For other countries we have detected a slowing down effect in the number of papers/year while a clear acceleration could be noticed for the production of SAS papers by authors from several emerging countries. These opposite trends compensate in such a way that the number of SAS (SAXS+SAXS) articles published per year all around the world maintained a vigorous linear growth - during more than 20 years - at a constant rate of 60 papers/year, without any indication of eventual saturation. The observed distribution of articles among different journals indicates that a very high fraction of the volume of SAS research is

  2. Effects of nearby surface features on wind speed at a nuclear plant meteorological station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, N.A.; Goodwin, R.J.; Pittman, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    There is a definite cause and effect relationship between the trees in the vicinity of the meteorological tower and the wind speed at the 10-meter level on the meteorological tower. For the affected directions, horizontal wind speed is significantly reduced below what it would be for that level if the trees were not present. This effect is only slightly less for the 10:1 exposure achieved with the 1977 tree clearing, which illustrates that meeting this commonly accepted distance to height ratio does not assure representativeness of 10-meter data collected at a nuclear plant site. The somewhat stronger effect for winds from the south through southwest directions may be partly attributable to the abrupt change in roughness and elevation encountered by air moving at an angle or directly across the reservoir, which is 3.5 to 5.0 kilometers wide at this site. This general reduction in wind speed values below what would be expected at the plant location will result in biased dispersion estimates. Calculated relative concentration values for releases treated as ground-level or building-wake releases would be larger than actual concentrations. While this would provide conservative concentration values, radioactive plume transport calculations would be nonconservative. The calculated, or predicted, transport rate would be slower than the actual transport rate. Such local biases affecting the spatial representativeness of airflow at 10 meters are a primary reason for TVA's decision to use 46-meter wind data for ground-level transport and diffusion modeling in its radiological emergency preparedness program

  3. A review of the surface features and properties, surfactant adsorption and floatability of four key minerals of diasporic bauxite resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningning; Nguyen, Anh V; Zhou, Changchun

    2018-04-01

    Diasporic bauxite represents one of the major aluminum resources. Its upgrading for further processing involves a separation of diaspore (the valuable mineral) from aluminosilicates (the gangue minerals) such as kaolinite, illite, and pyrophyllite. Flotation is one of the most effective ways to realize the upgrading. Since flotation is a physicochemical process based on the difference in the surface hydrophobicity of different components, determining the adsorption characteristics of various flotation surfactants on the mineral surfaces is critical. The surfactant adsorption properties of the minerals, in turn, are controlled by the surface chemistry of the minerals, while the latter is related to the mineral crystal structures. In this paper, we first discuss the crystal structures of the four key minerals of diaspore, kaolinite, illite, and pyrophyllite as well as the broken bonds on their exposed surfaces after grinding. Next, we summarize the surface chemistry properties such as surface wettability and surface electrical properties of the four minerals, and the differences in these properties are explained from the perspective of mineral crystal structures. Then we review the adsorption mechanism and adsorption characteristics of surfactants such as collectors (cationic, anionic, and mixed surfactants), depressants (inorganic and organic), dispersants, and flocculants on these mineral surfaces. The separation of diaspore and aluminosilicates by direct flotation and reverse flotation are reviewed, and the collecting properties of different types of collectors are compared. Furthermore, the abnormal behavior of the cationic flotation of kaolinite is also explained in this section. This review provides a strong theoretical support for the optimization of the upgrading of diaspore bauxite ore by flotation and the early industrialization of the reverse flotation process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical features of tic-related obsessive-compulsive disorder: results from a large multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes de Alvarenga, Pedro; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Dominguez Alves, Anna Claudia; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Fossaluza, Victor; Hounie, Ana Gabriela; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Rodrigues Torres, Albina

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients with comorbid tic disorders (TD) in a large, multicenter, clinical sample. A cross-sectional study was conducted that included 813 consecutive OCD outpatients from the Brazilian OCD Research Consortium and used several instruments of assessment, including the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS), the USP Sensory Phenomena Scale, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. The sample mean current age was 34.9 years old (SE 0.54), and the mean age at obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) onset was 12.8 years old (SE 0.27). Sensory phenomena were reported by 585 individuals (72% of the sample). The general lifetime prevalence of TD was 29.0% (n = 236), with 8.9% (n = 72) presenting Tourette syndrome, 17.3% (n = 141) chronic motor tic disorder, and 2.8% (n = 23) chronic vocal tic disorder. The mean tic severity score, according to the YGTSS, was 27.2 (SE 1.4) in the OCD + TD group. Compared to OCD patients without comorbid TD, those with TD (OCD + TD group, n = 236) were more likely to be males (49.2% vs. 38.5%, p disorders in general: separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, impulse control disorders in general, and skin picking. Also, the "aggressive," "sexual/religious," and "hoarding" symptom dimensions were more severe in the OCD + TD group. Tic-related OCD may constitute a particular subgroup of the disorder with specific phenotypical characteristics, but its neurobiological underpinnings remain to be fully disentangled.

  5. Status review of large fast reactor core designs and their dynamics related features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spenke, H.; Kiefhaber, E.

    1982-01-01

    Since several years conventional and unconventional concepts of large fast reactor cores have been investigated in the Federal Republic of Germany at INTERATOM and Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The work was performed jointly with Belgonucleaire (Belgium). Basically, the studies were aimed at the determination of the performance potential of different core concepts for large fast reactors. Thus the following points were considered: power distribution, neutron fluence and residence time, doubling time, uranium ore consumption, dynamics and safety related features, economics, cooling strategy, core element bowing behaviour. In this paper, the state of the analysis will be presented with emphasis on those points relevant for this meeting. However, we have to make clear, that dynamic and accident studies are still under way and that we are not yet able to cover these aspects in a quantitative manner. This is due to the fact, that the efforts in the DeBeNe-countries have been concentrated on the work necessary for being granted the different licenses for SNR 300, fast breeder prototype reactor near Kalkar. As we expect to obtain these important licenses at the beginning of 1982, an increased man power can be devoted to studies of dynamic and safety problems of large fast cores from that time on. These studies have to fit into the planning recently announced by the utility ESK who will be ordering SNR 2, the first demonstration breeder reactor of Germany, Belgium, Netherlands and France. The planning calls for concept decisions in 1983, leading to an engineering contract for SNR 2 in 1983/1984. Accordingly we shall have to complete and evaluate the ongoing core concept Investigations till 1983 resulting in a subsequent final choice

  6. Feature Extraction of Event-Related Potentials Using Wavelets: An Application to Human Performance Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Shensa, Mark J.; Remington, Roger W. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development and evaluation of mathematical models for predicting human performance from discrete wavelet transforms (DWT) of event-related potentials (ERP) elicited by task-relevant stimuli. The DWT was compared to principal components analysis (PCA) for representation of ERPs in linear regression and neural network models developed to predict a composite measure of human signal detection performance. Linear regression models based on coefficients of the decimated DWT predicted signal detection performance with half as many f ree parameters as comparable models based on PCA scores. In addition, the DWT-based models were more resistant to model degradation due to over-fitting than PCA-based models. Feed-forward neural networks were trained using the backpropagation,-, algorithm to predict signal detection performance based on raw ERPs, PCA scores, or high-power coefficients of the DWT. Neural networks based on high-power DWT coefficients trained with fewer iterations, generalized to new data better, and were more resistant to overfitting than networks based on raw ERPs. Networks based on PCA scores did not generalize to new data as well as either the DWT network or the raw ERP network. The results show that wavelet expansions represent the ERP efficiently and extract behaviorally important features for use in linear regression or neural network models of human performance. The efficiency of the DWT is discussed in terms of its decorrelation and energy compaction properties. In addition, the DWT models provided evidence that a pattern of low-frequency activity (1 to 3.5 Hz) occurring at specific times and scalp locations is a reliable correlate of human signal detection performance.

  7. Clinical features and management of non-HIV related lipodystrophy in children: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipodystrophy syndromes are characterized by generalized or partial absence of adipose tissue. We conducted a systematic review to synthesize data on clinical and metabolic features of lipodystrophy (age at onset, Scopus and Non-Indexe...

  8. Expanding spectrum of human RYR2-related disease - New electrocardiographic, structural, and genetic features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhuiyan, Zahurul A.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; van Tintelen, J. Peter; Bink-Boelkens, Margreet T. E.; Wiesfeld, Ans C. P.; Alders, Marielle; Postma, Alex V.; van Langen, Irene; Mannens, Marcel M. A. M.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background - Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is a disease characterized by ventricular arrhythmias elicited exclusively under adrenergic stress. Additional features include baseline bradycardia and, in some patients, right ventricular fatty displacement. The clinical spectrum

  9. Assessing the similarity of surface linguistic features related to epilepsy across pediatric hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Brian; Matykiewicz, Pawel; Bretonnel Cohen, K; Standridge, Shannon M; Glauser, Tracy A; Dlugos, Dennis J; Koh, Susan; Tham, Eric; Pestian, John

    2014-01-01

    The constant progress in computational linguistic methods provides amazing opportunities for discovering information in clinical text and enables the clinical scientist to explore novel approaches to care. However, these new approaches need evaluation. We describe an automated system to compare descriptions of epilepsy patients at three different organizations: Cincinnati Children's Hospital, the Children's Hospital Colorado, and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. To our knowledge, there have been no similar previous studies. In this work, a support vector machine (SVM)-based natural language processing (NLP) algorithm is trained to classify epilepsy progress notes as belonging to a patient with a specific type of epilepsy from a particular hospital. The same SVM is then used to classify notes from another hospital. Our null hypothesis is that an NLP algorithm cannot be trained using epilepsy-specific notes from one hospital and subsequently used to classify notes from another hospital better than a random baseline classifier. The hypothesis is tested using epilepsy progress notes from the three hospitals. We are able to reject the null hypothesis at the 95% level. It is also found that classification was improved by including notes from a second hospital in the SVM training sample. With a reasonably uniform epilepsy vocabulary and an NLP-based algorithm able to use this uniformity to classify epilepsy progress notes across different hospitals, we can pursue automated comparisons of patient conditions, treatments, and diagnoses across different healthcare settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Basic feature of host rock and its relation to the formation of leachable sandstone type uranium deposit in Shihongtan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Zhigao; Zhang Jiamin; Ji Haijun; Sun Yanhuan; Zhang Fa

    2012-01-01

    Basic feature of sedimentology and petrology and lithogeochemistry of middle Jurassic Xishanyao formation were discussed for Shihongtan uranium deposit in the paper. The relation between host rock and ore formation was analysed. It is indicated that the formation of Shihongtan uranium deposit de-ponds on the following host features in sedimentology, petrology, lithogeochemistry and the intense oxidized epigenetic alteration under hot dry climate condition during the formation of peneplain caused by the slow tilting uplift. (authors)

  11. Study of the deposition features of the organic dye Rhodamine B on the porous surface of silicon with different pore sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenshin, A. S., E-mail: lenshinas@phys.vsu.ru; Seredin, P. V.; Kavetskaya, I. V.; Minakov, D. A.; Kashkarov, V. M. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The deposition features of the organic dye Rhodamine B on the porous surface of silicon with average pore sizes of 50–100 and 100–250 nm are studied. Features of the composition and optical properties of the obtained systems are studied using infrared and photoluminescence spectroscopy. It is found that Rhodamine-B adsorption on the surface of por-Si with various porosities is preferentially physical. The optimal technological parameters of its deposition are determined.

  12. Ocular Surface Temperature in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the ocular thermographic profiles in age-related macular degeneration (AMD eyes and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities, which could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods. 32 eyes with early AMD, 37 eyes with atrophic AMD, 30 eyes affected by untreated neovascular AMD, and 43 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included. The control group consisted of 44 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, and a body temperature higher than 37.5°C. A total of 186 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320. The ocular surface temperature (OST of three ocular points was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test were used for statistical analyses. Results. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P value >0.272. OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P>0.05. Conclusions. Considering the possible relationship between ocular blood flow and OST, these findings might support the central role of ischemia in the pathogenesis of AMD.

  13. Neural Computation of Surface Border Ownership and Relative Surface Depth from Ambiguous Contrast Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresp-Langley, Birgitta; Grossberg, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The segregation of image parts into foreground and background is an important aspect of the neural computation of 3D scene perception. To achieve such segregation, the brain needs information about border ownership; that is, the belongingness of a contour to a specific surface represented in the image. This article presents psychophysical data derived from 3D percepts of figure and ground that were generated by presenting 2D images composed of spatially disjoint shapes that pointed inward or outward relative to the continuous boundaries that they induced along their collinear edges. The shapes in some images had the same contrast (black or white) with respect to the background gray. Other images included opposite contrasts along each induced continuous boundary. Psychophysical results demonstrate conditions under which figure-ground judgment probabilities in response to these ambiguous displays are determined by the orientation of contrasts only, not by their relative contrasts, despite the fact that many border ownership cells in cortical area V2 respond to a preferred relative contrast. Studies are also reviewed in which both polarity-specific and polarity-invariant properties obtain. The FACADE and 3D LAMINART models are used to explain these data. PMID:27516746

  14. Neural Computation of Surface Border Ownership and Relative Surface Depth from Ambiguous Contrast Inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresp-Langley, Birgitta; Grossberg, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The segregation of image parts into foreground and background is an important aspect of the neural computation of 3D scene perception. To achieve such segregation, the brain needs information about border ownership; that is, the belongingness of a contour to a specific surface represented in the image. This article presents psychophysical data derived from 3D percepts of figure and ground that were generated by presenting 2D images composed of spatially disjoint shapes that pointed inward or outward relative to the continuous boundaries that they induced along their collinear edges. The shapes in some images had the same contrast (black or white) with respect to the background gray. Other images included opposite contrasts along each induced continuous boundary. Psychophysical results demonstrate conditions under which figure-ground judgment probabilities in response to these ambiguous displays are determined by the orientation of contrasts only, not by their relative contrasts, despite the fact that many border ownership cells in cortical area V2 respond to a preferred relative contrast. Studies are also reviewed in which both polarity-specific and polarity-invariant properties obtain. The FACADE and 3D LAMINART models are used to explain these data.

  15. Neural computation of surface border ownership and relative surface depth from ambiguous contrast inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Dresp-Langley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The segregation of image parts into foreground and background is an important aspect of the neural computation of 3D scene perception. To achieve such segregation, the brain needs information about border ownership; that is, the belongingness of a contour to a specific surface represented in the image. This article presents psychophysical data derived from 3D percepts of figure and ground that were generated by presenting 2D images composed of spatially disjoint shapes that pointed inward or outward relative to the continuous boundaries that they induced along their collinear edges. The shapes in some images had the same contrast (black or white with respect to the background gray. Other images included opposite contrasts along each induced continuous boundary. Results demonstrate conditions under which figure-ground judgment probabilities in response to these ambiguous displays are determined by the orientation of contrasts only, not by their relative contrasts, despite the fact that many border ownership cells in cortical area V2 respond to a preferred relative contrast. Studies are also reviewed in which both polarity-specific and polarity-invariant properties obtain. The FACADE and 3D LAMINART models are used to explain these data.

  16. First evidence of a prospective relation between avoidance of internal states and borderline personality disorder features in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Carla; Kalpakci, Allison; Mellick, William; Venta, Amanda; Temple, Jeff R

    2015-03-01

    At least two leading developmental models of borderline personality disorder (BPD) emphasize the role of accurate reflection and understanding of internal states as significant to the development of BPD features (Fonagy, Int J Psycho-Anal 72:639-656, 1991; Linehan, Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder, 1993). The current study used the construct of experiential avoidance (EA) to operationalize avoidance of internal states and sought to examine (1) the concurrent relations between EA and borderline features in a large and diverse community sample; and (2) the prospective relation between EA and borderline features over a 1-year follow-up, controlling for baseline levels of borderline features. N = 881 adolescents recruited from public schools in a large metropolitan area participated in baseline assessments and N = 730 completed follow-up assessments. Two main findings were reported. First, EA was associated with borderline features, depressive, and anxiety symptoms at the bivariate level, but when all variables were considered together, depression and anxiety no longer remained significantly associated with borderline features, suggesting that the relations among these symptom clusters may be accounted for by EA as a cross-cutting underlying psychological process. Second, EA predicted levels of borderline symptoms at 1-year follow-up, controlling for baseline levels of borderline symptoms, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Results are interpreted against the background of developmental theories of borderline personality disorder.

  17. Method for Surface Scanning in Medical Imaging and Related Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A method and apparatus for surface scanning in medical imaging is provided. The surface scanning apparatus comprises an image source, a first optical fiber bundle comprising first optical fibers having proximal ends and distal ends, and a first optical coupler for coupling an image from the image...

  18. Identifying features of pocket parks that may be related to health promoting use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschardt, Karin Kragsig; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2016-01-01

    . The results show that ‘green features’ do not seem to be of crucial importance for ‘socialising’ whereas, as expected, features promoting gathering should be prioritised. For ‘rest and restitution’, the main results show that ‘green ground cover’ and ‘enclosed green niches’ are important, while ‘disturbing......Urban green spaces have been shown to promote health and well-being and recent research indicates that the two primary potentially health promoting uses of pocket parks are ‘rest and restitution’ and ‘socialising’. The aim of this study is to identify features in pocket parks that may support...... features’ (playground, view outside park) should be avoided. The results add knowledge about the features which support the health promoting use of pocket parks to the existing body of research....

  19. Three-dimensional measurement of small inner surface profiles using feature-based 3-D panoramic registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yuanzheng; Seibel, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid development in the performance of sophisticated optical components, digital image sensors, and computer abilities along with decreasing costs has enabled three-dimensional (3-D) optical measurement to replace more traditional methods in manufacturing and quality control. The advantages of 3-D optical measurement, such as noncontact, high accuracy, rapid operation, and the ability for automation, are extremely valuable for inline manufacturing. However, most of the current optical approaches are eligible for exterior instead of internal surfaces of machined parts. A 3-D optical measurement approach is proposed based on machine vision for the 3-D profile measurement of tiny complex internal surfaces, such as internally threaded holes. To capture the full topographic extent (peak to valley) of threads, a side-view commercial rigid scope is used to collect images at known camera positions and orientations. A 3-D point cloud is generated with multiview stereo vision using linear motion of the test piece, which is repeated by a rotation to form additional point clouds. Registration of these point clouds into a complete reconstruction uses a proposed automated feature-based 3-D registration algorithm. The resulting 3-D reconstruction is compared with x-ray computed tomography to validate the feasibility of our proposed method for future robotically driven industrial 3-D inspection.

  20. Spent coffee-based activated carbon: specific surface features and their importance for H2S separation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kante, Karifala; Nieto-Delgado, Cesar; Rangel-Mendez, J Rene; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2012-01-30

    Activated carbons were prepared from spent ground coffee. Zinc chloride was used as an activation agent. The obtained materials were used as a media for separation of hydrogen sulfide from air at ambient conditions. The materials were characterized using adsorption of nitrogen, elemental analysis, SEM, FTIR, and thermal analysis. Surface features of the carbons depend on the amount of an activation agent used. Even though the residual inorganic matter takes part in the H(2)S retention via salt formation, the porous surface of carbons governs the separation process. The chemical activation method chosen resulted in formation of large volume of pores with sizes between 10 and 30Å, optimal for water and hydrogen sulfide adsorption. Even though the activation process can be optimized/changed, the presence of nitrogen in the precursor (caffeine) is a significant asset of that specific organic waste. Nitrogen functional groups play a catalytic role in hydrogen sulfide oxidation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Zinc (hydr)oxide/graphite oxide/AuNPs composites: role of surface features in H₂S reactive adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakoudakis, Dimitrios A; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2014-12-15

    Zinc hydroxide/graphite oxide/AuNPs composites with various levels of complexity were synthesized using an in situ precipitation method. Then they were used as H2S adsorbents in visible light. The materials' surfaces were characterized before and after H2S adsorption by various physical and chemical methods (XRD, FTIR, thermal analysis, potentiometric titration, adsorption of nitrogen and SEM/EDX). Significant differences in surface features and synergistic effects were found depending on the materials' composition. Addition of graphite oxide and the deposition of gold nanoparticles resulted in a marked increase in the adsorption capacity in comparison with that on the zinc hydroxide and zinc hydroxide/AuNP. Addition of AuNPs to zinc hydroxide led to a crystalline ZnO/AuNP composite while the zinc hydroxide/graphite oxide/AuNP composite was amorphous. The ZnOH/GO/AuNPs composite exhibited the greatest H2S adsorption capacity due to the increased number of OH terminal groups and the conductive properties of GO that facilitated the electron transfer and consequently the formation of superoxide ions promoting oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. AuNPs present in the composite increased the conductivity, helped with electron transfer to oxygen, and prevented the fast recombination of the electrons and holes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cross-sensory mapping of feature values in the size-brightness correspondence can be more relative than absolute

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Laura; Walker, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A role for conceptual representations in cross-sensory correspondences has been linked to the relative (context-sensitive) mapping of feature values, whereas a role for sensory-perceptual representations has been linked to their absolute (context-insensitive) mapping. Demonstrating the relative nature of the automatic mapping underlying a cross-sensory correspondence therefore offers one way of confirming its conceptual basis. After identifying several prerequisites for relative and absolute ...

  3. Anatomical Features of the Interscapular Area Where Wet Cupping Therapy Is Done and Its Possible Relation to Acupuncture Meridians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghods, Roshanak; Sayfouri, Nasrin; Ayati, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-12-01

    Although wet cupping has been a treatment for centuries, its mechanism of action is not well understood. Because the anatomical features of the wet-cupping area might play a role in its mechanism, we focus on the features of the interscapular area in which a common type of wet-cupping therapy (WCT), called Hijamat-e-Aam in Iranian medicine, is usually applied and discuss the possible relation of those features to the acupuncture meridians. We gathered and analyzed data from reliable textbooks on modern medicine with a focus on the anatomical features of the interscapular area, topics related to WTC in Iranian medicine, and acupuncture sources obtained by searching PubMed, Google-Scholar, and Science Direct. The interscapular area used for WCT was found to have special features: brown adipose tissue, immediate proximity to sympathetic ganglia, passage of the thoracic duct, two important acupuncture meridians, and proximity to the main vessel divisions carrying blood from the heart and the brain. These features indicate that the interscapular application of WCT not only discharges waste materials through a shifting of blood to the site after application of a traction force but also invigorates the body's metabolism, increases immunity, and regulates blood biochemistry, which are desired therapeutic effects of WCT. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Anatomical Features of the Interscapular Area Where Wet Cupping Therapy Is Done and Its Possible Relation to Acupuncture Meridians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshanak Ghods

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although wet cupping has been a treatment for centuries, its mechanism of action is not well understood. Because the anatomical features of the wet-cupping area might play a role in its mechanism, we focus on the features of the interscapular area in which a common type of wet-cupping therapy (WCT, called Hijamat-e-Aam in Iranian medicine, is usually applied and discuss the possible relation of those features to the acupuncture meridians. We gathered and analyzed data from reliable textbooks on modern medicine with a focus on the anatomical features of the interscapular area, topics related to WTC in Iranian medicine, and acupuncture sources obtained by searching PubMed, Google-Scholar, and Science Direct. The interscapular area used for WCT was found to have special features: brown adipose tissue, immediate proximity to sympathetic ganglia, passage of the thoracic duct, two important acupuncture meridians, and proximity to the main vessel divisions carrying blood from the heart and the brain. These features indicate that the interscapular application of WCT not only discharges waste materials through a shifting of blood to the site after application of a traction force but also invigorates the body’s metabolism, increases immunity, and regulates blood biochemistry, which are desired therapeutic effects of WCT.

  5. Feature-based attention is functionally distinct from relation-based attention: The double dissociation between color-based capture and color-relation-based capture of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng; Jiao, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The present study used a spatial blink task and a cuing task to examine the boundary between feature-based capture and relation-based capture. Feature-based capture occurs when distractors match the target feature such as target color. The occurrence of relation-based capture is contingent upon the feature relation between target and distractor (e.g., color relation). The results show that color distractors that match the target-nontarget color relation do not consistently capture attention when they appear outside of the attentional window, but distractors appearing outside the attentional window that match the target color consistently capture attention. In contrast, color distractors that best match the target-nontarget color relation but not the target color, are more likely to capture attention when they appear within the attentional window. Consistently, color cues that match the target-nontarget color relation produce a cuing effect when they appear within the attentional window, while target-color matched cues do not. Such a double dissociation between color-based capture and color-relation-based capture indicates functionally distinct mechanisms for these 2 types of attentional selection. This also indicates that the spatial blink task and the uninformative cuing task are measuring distinctive aspects of involuntary attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Including pride and its group-based, relational, and contextual features in theories of contempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gavin Brent

    2017-01-01

    Sentiment includes emotional and enduring attitudinal features of contempt, but explaining contempt as a mixture of basic emotion system affects does not adequately address the family resemblance structure of the concept. Adding forms of individual, group-based, and widely shared arrogance and contempt is necessary to capture the complex mixed feelings of proud superiority when "looking down upon" and acting harshly towards others.

  7. Hydrotalcites: relation between structural features, basicity and activity in the Wittig reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sychev, M.V.; Prihod'ko, R.V.; Erdmann, K.; Mangel, A.; Santen, van R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Carbonate hydrotalcitrs (HTls) were prepared by coprecipitation of metal nitrate salts and Na2CO3. The structural features of noncalcined, calcined and reconstructed materials were characterized by XRD, Al-27 MAS NMR, AAS and N-2 adsorption. If was shown that reconstruction of the calcined HTls due

  8. Genetic Association of Major Depression With Atypical Features and Obesity-Related Immunometabolic Dysregulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milaneschi, Yuri; Lamers, Femke; Peyrot, Wouter J; Baune, Bernhard T; Breen, Gerome; Dehghan, Abbas; Forstner, Andreas J; Grabe, Hans J; Homuth, Georg; Kan, Carol; Lewis, Cathryn M; Mullins, Niamh; Nauck, Matthias; Pistis, Giorgio; Preisig, Martin; Rivera, Margarita; Rietschel, Marcella; Streit, Fabian; Strohmaier, Jana; Teumer, Alexander; Van der Auwera, Sandra; Wray, Naomi R; Boomsma, Dorret I; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2017-01-01

    Importance: The association between major depressive disorder (MDD) and obesity may stem from shared immunometabolic mechanisms particularly evident in MDD with atypical features, characterized by increased appetite and/or weight (A/W) during an active episode. Objective: To determine whether

  9. Satisfaction and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Frontczak, Monika; Schiavon, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines how satisfaction with indoor environmental parameters and building features affects satisfaction and self-estimated job performance. The analyses used subjective responses from around 50, 000 occupants collected mainly in US office buildings using a web-based survey administered...

  10. Surface Resonance Bands on (001)W: Experimental Dispersion Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willis, R. F.; Feuerbacher, B.; Christensen, N. Egede

    1977-01-01

    A band of unbound surface states (resonances), located in an energy region above the vacuum threshold corresponding to an energy band gap in the electron states of the bulk crystal, has been observed by angle-resolved secondary-electron-emission spectroscopy. The experimental dispersion behavior...... is in agreement with the two-dimensional band structure of a clean (001)W surface recently proposed by Smith and Mittheiss....

  11. Geologic features of the Connecticut Valley, Massachusetts, as related to recent floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahns, Richard Henry

    1947-01-01

    This report gives the results of a geologic study of certain features that bear upon the recent flood behavior of rivers flowing in the Massachusetts part of the Connecticut Valley. It is in part an outline of the physiographic history of the Connecticut River, a 'history that is treated in progressively greater detail as it concerns events occurring from Mesozoic time to the present, and in part a discussion of erosional and depositional processes associated with the extraordinary floods of March 1936 and September 1938. The Connecticut River flows southward through Massachusetts in a broad lowland area of more than 400 square miles and is joined in this area by four large tributaries, the Deerfield and Westfield Rivers from the west and the Millers and Chicopee Rivers from the east. The lowland area, or :Connecticut Valley province, is flanked on the west by the Berkshire Hills, a, deeply incised uplifted plateau, and on the east by the central upland, or Worcester .County plateau, a lower upland marked by rolling topography. Most of the broad, relatively flat valley floor is underlain by Triassic sedimentary rocks. Rising above it, however, are the prominent Holyoke-Mount Tom and Deerfield Ranges, which consist in large part of dark-colored igneous rocks, also of Triassic age. There is evidence of several cycles of erosion in central western Massachusetts, the last two of which are of Tertiary age and appear to have reached nature and very youthful stages of topographic development, respectively. Immediately prior to the glacial epoch, therefore, the Connecticut River flowed in a fairly narrow, deep gorge, which it had incised in the rather flat 5ottom of the valley that it had formed at an earlier stage. A Pleistocene crustal subsidence probably of several hundred feet, for which there has been only partial compensation in postglacial time, was responsible for the present position of much of this gorge below sea level. That an estuary does not now occupy the

  12. Surveying alignment-free features for Ortholog detection in related yeast proteomes by using supervised big data classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galpert, Deborah; Fernández, Alberto; Herrera, Francisco; Antunes, Agostinho; Molina-Ruiz, Reinaldo; Agüero-Chapin, Guillermin

    2018-05-03

    The development of new ortholog detection algorithms and the improvement of existing ones are of major importance in functional genomics. We have previously introduced a successful supervised pairwise ortholog classification approach implemented in a big data platform that considered several pairwise protein features and the low ortholog pair ratios found between two annotated proteomes (Galpert, D et al., BioMed Research International, 2015). The supervised models were built and tested using a Saccharomycete yeast benchmark dataset proposed by Salichos and Rokas (2011). Despite several pairwise protein features being combined in a supervised big data approach; they all, to some extent were alignment-based features and the proposed algorithms were evaluated on a unique test set. Here, we aim to evaluate the impact of alignment-free features on the performance of supervised models implemented in the Spark big data platform for pairwise ortholog detection in several related yeast proteomes. The Spark Random Forest and Decision Trees with oversampling and undersampling techniques, and built with only alignment-based similarity measures or combined with several alignment-free pairwise protein features showed the highest classification performance for ortholog detection in three yeast proteome pairs. Although such supervised approaches outperformed traditional methods, there were no significant differences between the exclusive use of alignment-based similarity measures and their combination with alignment-free features, even within the twilight zone of the studied proteomes. Just when alignment-based and alignment-free features were combined in Spark Decision Trees with imbalance management, a higher success rate (98.71%) within the twilight zone could be achieved for a yeast proteome pair that underwent a whole genome duplication. The feature selection study showed that alignment-based features were top-ranked for the best classifiers while the runners-up were

  13. Clinical and Immunological Features of Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome in the Era of Neuronal Cell Surface Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armangué, Thaís; Sabater, Lidia; Torres-Vega, Estefanía; Martínez-Hernández, Eugenia; Ariño, Helena; Petit-Pedrol, Mar; Planagumà, Jesús; Bataller, Luis; Dalmau, Josep; Graus, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    Most studies on opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) in adults are based on small case series before the era of neuronal cell surface antibody discovery. To report the clinical and immunological features of idiopathic OMS (I-OMS) and paraneoplastic OMS (P-OMS), the occurrence of antibodies to cell surface antigens, and the discovery of a novel cell surface epitope. Retrospective cohort study and laboratory investigations of 114 adult patients with OMS at a center for autoimmune neurological disorders done between January 2013 and September 2015. Review of clinical records. Immunohistochemistry on rat brain and cultured neurons as well as cell-based assays were used to identify known autoantibodies. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were used to characterize novel antigens. Of the 114 patients (62 [54%] female; median age, 45 years; interquartile range, 32-60 years), 45 (39%) had P-OMS and 69 (61%) had I-OMS. In patients with P-OMS, the associated tumors included lung cancer (n = 19), breast cancer (n = 10), other cancers (n = 5), and ovarian teratoma (n = 8); 3 additional patients without detectable cancer were considered to have P-OMS because they had positive results for onconeuronal antibodies. Patients with I-OMS, compared with those who had P-OMS, were younger (median age, 38 [interquartile range, 31-50] vs 54 [interquartile range, 45-65] years; P OMS with lung cancer (21% vs 5% in patients with OMS without lung cancer; P = .02); however, a similar frequency of glycine receptor antibodies was found in patients with lung cancer without OMS (13 of 65 patients [20%]). A novel cell surface epitope, human natural killer 1 (HNK-1), was the target of the antibodies in 3 patients with lung cancer and P-OMS. Patients with I-OMS responded better to treatment and had fewer relapses than those with P-OMS. Older age and encephalopathy, significantly associated with P-OMS, are clinical clues suggesting an underlying tumor. Glycine receptor antibodies occur

  14. Kinetics and thermodynamics studies on the BMP-2 adsorption onto hydroxyapatite surface with different multi-morphological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhiwei; Huangfu, Changxin; Wang, Yanying; Ge, Hongwei; Yao, Yao; Zou, Ping; Wang, Guangtu; He, Hua; Rao, Hanbing

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the surface topography on protein adsorption process is of great significance for designing hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic material surfaces. In this work, three different topographies of HA materials HA-sheet, HA-rod, and HA-whisker were synthesized and testified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). We have systematically investigated the adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2) on the three different topography surfaces of HA, respectively. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacities of HA-sheet, HA-rod and HA-whisker were (219.96 ± 10.18), (247.13 ± 12.35), and (354.67 ± 17.73) μg · g(-1), respectively. Kinetic parameters, rate constants, equilibrium adsorption capacities and related correlation coefficients, for each kinetic model were calculated as well as discussed. It demonstrated that the adsorption of BMP-2 onto HA could be described by the pseudo second-order equation. Adsorption of BMP-2 onto HA followed the Langmuir isotherm. It confirmed that compared with other samples HA-whisker had more adsorption sites for its high specific surface area which could provide more opportunities for protein molecules. The adsorption processes were endothermic (ΔH > 0), spontaneous (ΔG 0). A possible adsorption mechanism has been proposed. In addition, the BMP-2 could be adsorbed to the surface which existed slight conformational changes by FT-IR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Renal Epithelial Cell Injury Induced by Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Depends on their Structural Features: Size, Surface, and Crystalline Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin-Yuan; Ouyang, Jian-Ming; Gan, Qiong-Zhi; Liu, Ai-Jie

    2016-11-01

    Urinary crystals in normal and kidney stone patients often differ in crystal sizes and surface structures, but the effects of different crystal properties on renal tubular epithelial cells remain unclear. This study aimed to compare the cytotoxicity of micron/nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals with sizes of 50 nm, 200 nm, 1 μm, 3 μm, and 10 μm to African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells, to reveal the effect of crystal size and surface structure on cell injury, and to investigate the pathological mechanism of calcium oxalate kidney stones. Cell viability, cellular biochemical parameters, and internalized crystal amount in Vero cells were closely associated with the size of COM crystals. At the same concentration (200 μg/mL), COM-1 μm induced the most serious injury to Vero cells and caused the most significant change to cellular biochemical parameters, which were related to the specific porous structure and highest internalized amount in Vero cells. By contrast, COM-50 nm and COM-200 nm crystals lost their small size effect because of serious aggregation and weakened their toxicity to cells. COM-3 μm and COM-10 μm crystals were too large for cells to completely internalize; these crystals also exhibited a low specific surface area and thus weakened their toxicity. The excessive expression of intracellular ROS and reduction of the free-radical scavenger SOD were the main reasons for cell injury and eventually caused necrotic cell death. Crystal size, surface structure, aggregation, and internalization amount were closely related to the cytotoxicity of COM crystals.

  16. Analysis of radiological features relative to histopathology in 42 skull-base chordomas and chondrosarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamir, M. Necmettin; Ozduman, Koray

    2006-01-01

    Chordomas and chondrosarcomas are malignant tumors that are reported to have similar clinical presentations and radiological features but different behaviors and outcomes. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine whether specific radiological features of skull-base chordomas or chondrosarcomas are correlated with histopathology, and thus allow preoperative diagnosis. The study involved 32 classic chordomas, 6 chondroid chordomas and 4 chondrosarcomas (42 tumors total). For each case, tumor size and extent, the detailed anatomy involved, and magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography findings were analyzed. Tumor extent was assessed using a novel method that assessed presence/absence in 18 defined skull-base zones. The chondrosarcomas presented significantly earlier in life than the chordomas (means, 20.5 years versus 36 years, respectively). At time of diagnosis, the median tumor volume was 23 cm 3 (range, 1.2-78.8 cm 3 ) and the mean tumor extent was 6.7 ± 2.9 zones. There were no differences between chordomas and chondrosarcomas, or between the two chordoma subgroups, with respect to lesion volume or extent. Comparison of other imaging findings revealed no features that were diagnostic for either chordoma or chondrosarcoma. The data support previous claims that chondrosarcomas present earlier in life than chordomas, but this finding is not diagnostic. There is wide variation in the extent of skull-base chordomas and chondrosarcomas, and in the specific anatomical structures these tumors involve. None of the MRI or CT features of these tumors appear to be useful for differentiating chordomas from chondrosarcomas preoperatively. For surgical planning, specific, area-oriented definition of tumor extent might provide more useful information than tumor-type classification schemes

  17. Analysis of radiological features relative to histopathology in 42 skull-base chordomas and chondrosarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamir, M. Necmettin [Marmara University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: koray.ozduman@yale.edu; Ozduman, Koray [Marmara University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2006-06-15

    Chordomas and chondrosarcomas are malignant tumors that are reported to have similar clinical presentations and radiological features but different behaviors and outcomes. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine whether specific radiological features of skull-base chordomas or chondrosarcomas are correlated with histopathology, and thus allow preoperative diagnosis. The study involved 32 classic chordomas, 6 chondroid chordomas and 4 chondrosarcomas (42 tumors total). For each case, tumor size and extent, the detailed anatomy involved, and magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography findings were analyzed. Tumor extent was assessed using a novel method that assessed presence/absence in 18 defined skull-base zones. The chondrosarcomas presented significantly earlier in life than the chordomas (means, 20.5 years versus 36 years, respectively). At time of diagnosis, the median tumor volume was 23 cm{sup 3} (range, 1.2-78.8 cm{sup 3}) and the mean tumor extent was 6.7 {+-} 2.9 zones. There were no differences between chordomas and chondrosarcomas, or between the two chordoma subgroups, with respect to lesion volume or extent. Comparison of other imaging findings revealed no features that were diagnostic for either chordoma or chondrosarcoma. The data support previous claims that chondrosarcomas present earlier in life than chordomas, but this finding is not diagnostic. There is wide variation in the extent of skull-base chordomas and chondrosarcomas, and in the specific anatomical structures these tumors involve. None of the MRI or CT features of these tumors appear to be useful for differentiating chordomas from chondrosarcomas preoperatively. For surgical planning, specific, area-oriented definition of tumor extent might provide more useful information than tumor-type classification schemes.

  18. Overview of centaur and graspin enviroment generators part 1 syntx related features

    OpenAIRE

    Zuppa, Elisabetta

    1989-01-01

    A short presentation of two generic interactive environments- GRASPIN and CENTAUR- is given. When provided with the description of a particular language-including its syntax and semantics- GRASPIN and CENTAUR produce an environment specific for that language. This is the first of a series of notes regarding the above systems which will cover the semantic specification and user-interface features of both of them.

  19. Relation of borderline personality features to preincarceration HIV risk behaviors of jail inmates: Evidence for gender differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Leah M; Stuewig, Jeffrey B; Tangney, June P

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the relationship between borderline personality disorder (BPD) features and preincarceration HIV risk behaviors in a sample of 499 (70% male) jail inmates, as well as gender differences in these associations. Elevated levels of BPD symptomatology were present among male and female participants, though there was considerable variance observed in participants' BPD symptoms and HIV risk behaviors. In the full sample, BPD features were positively associated with a variety of HIV risk behaviors, including injection drug use and frequency of unprotected sex with high risk partners and under high risk circumstances. Gender moderated only 2 relationships between BPD features and HIV risk behaviors, with a stronger association between BPD features and number of sexual partners, and BPD features and frequency of unprotected sex while under the influence of alcohol or drugs for women, relative to men. Taken together, these findings suggest that programs targeting HIV risk within correctional populations may benefit from considering the role of BPD features, particularly emotion regulation difficulties and impulsivity, in influencing HIV risk behaviors among both women and men. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Superhydrophobicity of biological and technical surfaces under moisture condensation: stability in relation to surface structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockenhaupt, Bernd; Ensikat, Hans-Jürgen; Spaeth, Manuel; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2008-12-02

    The stability of superhydrophobic properties of eight plants and four technical surfaces in respect to water condensation has been compared. Contact and sliding angles were measured after application of water drops of ambient temperature (20 degrees C) onto cooled surfaces. Water evaporating from the drops condensed, due to the temperature difference between the drops and the surface, on the cooled samples, forming "satellite droplets" in the vicinity of the drops. Surface cooling to 15, 10, and 5 degrees C showed a gradual decrease of superhydrophobicity. The decrease was dependent on the specific surface architecture of the sample. The least decrease was found on hierarchically structured surfaces with a combination of a coarse microstructure and submicrometer-sized structures, similar to that of the Lotus leaf. Control experiments with glycerol droplets, which show no evaporation, and thus no condensation, were carried out to verify that the effects with water were caused by condensation from the drop (secondary condensation). Furthermore, the superhydrophobic properties after condensation on cooled surfaces from a humid environment for 10 min were examined. After this period, the surfaces were covered with spherical water droplets, but most samples retained their superhydrophobicity. Again, the best stability of the water-repellent properties was found on hierarchically structured surfaces similar to that of the Lotus leaf.

  1. Relations between Automatically Extracted Motion Features and the Quality of Mother-Infant Interactions at 4 and 13 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egmose, Ida; Varni, Giovanna; Cordes, Katharina; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Væver, Mette S; Køppe, Simo; Cohen, David; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Bodily movements are an essential component of social interactions. However, the role of movement in early mother-infant interaction has received little attention in the research literature. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between automatically extracted motion features and interaction quality in mother-infant interactions at 4 and 13 months. The sample consisted of 19 mother-infant dyads at 4 months and 33 mother-infant dyads at 13 months. The coding system Coding Interactive Behavior (CIB) was used for rating the quality of the interactions. Kinetic energy of upper-body, arms and head motion was calculated and used as segmentation in order to extract coarse- and fine-grained motion features. Spearman correlations were conducted between the composites derived from the CIB and the coarse- and fine-grained motion features. At both 4 and 13 months, longer durations of maternal arm motion and infant upper-body motion were associated with more aversive interactions, i.e., more parent-led interactions and more infant negativity. Further, at 4 months, the amount of motion silence was related to more adaptive interactions, i.e., more sensitive and child-led interactions. Analyses of the fine-grained motion features showed that if the mother coordinates her head movements with her infant's head movements, the interaction is rated as more adaptive in terms of less infant negativity and less dyadic negative states. We found more and stronger correlations between the motion features and the interaction qualities at 4 compared to 13 months. These results highlight that motion features are related to the quality of mother-infant interactions. Factors such as infant age and interaction set-up are likely to modify the meaning and importance of different motion features.

  2. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12 year old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belsky, D.; Caspi, A.; Arseneault, L.; Bleidorn, W.; Fonagy, P.; Goodman, M.; Houts, R.; Moffitt, T.

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in

  3. Numerical simulation of mesoscale surface pressure features with trailing stratiform squall lines using WRF -ARW model over Gangetic West Bengal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn, Soma; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the simulation of mesoscale surface pressure patterns like pre-squall mesolow, mesohigh and wake low associated with leading convective line-trailing stratiform (TS) squall lines over Gangetic West Bengal (GWB). For this purpose, a two way interactive triple nested domain with high resolution WRF model having2 km grid length in the innermost domain is used. The model simulated results are compared with the available in-situ observations obtained as a part of Severe Thunderstorm: Observations and Regional Modeling (STORM) programme, reflectivity products of Doppler Weather Radar (DWR) Kolkata and TRMM rainfall. Three TS squall lines (15 May 2009, 5 May 2010 and 7 May 2010) are chosen during pre-monsoon thunderstorm season for this study. The model simulated results of diurnal variation of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction at the station Kharagpur in GWB region reveal a sudden fall in temperature, increase in the amount of relative humidity and sudden rise in wind speed during the arrival of the storms. Such results are well comparable with the observations though there are some leading or lagging of time in respect of actual occurrences of such events. The study indicates that the model is able to predict the occurrences of three typical surface pressure features namely: pre-squall mesolow, meso high and wake low. The predicted surface parameters like accumulated rainfall, maximum reflectivity and vertical profiles (temperature, relative humidity and winds) are well accorded with the observations. The convective and stratiform precipitation region of the TS squall lines are well represented by the model. A strong downdraft is observed to be a contributory factor for formation of mesohigh in the convective region of the squall line. Wake low is observed to reside in the stratiform rain region and the descending dry air at this place has triggered the wake low through adiabatic

  4. Representing Objects using Global 3D Relational Features for Recognition Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Wail

    2015-01-01

    representations. For representing objects, we derive global descriptors encoding shape using viewpoint-invariant features obtained from multiple sensors observing the scene. Objects are also described using color independently. This allows for combining color and shape when it is required for the task. For more...... robust color description, color calibration is performed. The framework was used in three recognition tasks: object instance recognition, object category recognition, and object spatial relationship recognition. For the object instance recognition task, we present a system that utilizes color and scale...

  5. Relating interesting quantitative time series patterns with text events and text features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Franz; Schreck, Tobias; Jentner, Wolfgang; Sharalieva, Lyubka; Keim, Daniel A.

    2013-12-01

    In many application areas, the key to successful data analysis is the integrated analysis of heterogeneous data. One example is the financial domain, where time-dependent and highly frequent quantitative data (e.g., trading volume and price information) and textual data (e.g., economic and political news reports) need to be considered jointly. Data analysis tools need to support an integrated analysis, which allows studying the relationships between textual news documents and quantitative properties of the stock market price series. In this paper, we describe a workflow and tool that allows a flexible formation of hypotheses about text features and their combinations, which reflect quantitative phenomena observed in stock data. To support such an analysis, we combine the analysis steps of frequent quantitative and text-oriented data using an existing a-priori method. First, based on heuristics we extract interesting intervals and patterns in large time series data. The visual analysis supports the analyst in exploring parameter combinations and their results. The identified time series patterns are then input for the second analysis step, in which all identified intervals of interest are analyzed for frequent patterns co-occurring with financial news. An a-priori method supports the discovery of such sequential temporal patterns. Then, various text features like the degree of sentence nesting, noun phrase complexity, the vocabulary richness, etc. are extracted from the news to obtain meta patterns. Meta patterns are defined by a specific combination of text features which significantly differ from the text features of the remaining news data. Our approach combines a portfolio of visualization and analysis techniques, including time-, cluster- and sequence visualization and analysis functionality. We provide two case studies, showing the effectiveness of our combined quantitative and textual analysis work flow. The workflow can also be generalized to other

  6. Ceramic coatings: A phenomenological modeling for damping behavior related to microstructural features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassini, N.; Patsias, S.; Lambrinou, K.

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has shown that both stiffness and damping of ceramic coatings exhibit different non-linearities. These properties strongly depend on the microstructure, which is characterized by heterogeneous sets of elastic elements with mesoscopic sizes and shapes, as in non-linear mesoscopic elastic materials. To predict the damping properties of this class of materials, we have implemented a phenomenological model that characterizes their elastic properties. The model is capable of reproducing the basic features of the observed damping behavior for zirconia coatings prepared by air plasma spraying and electron-beam physical-vapor-deposition

  7. Features of groundwater pollution and its relation to overexploitation of groundwater in Shijiazhuang city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Wang Zhiming; Liu Shufen; Li Ping

    2005-01-01

    The groundwater pollution in Shijiazhuang city is characterized by an excess of some components and parameters over permitted values. The main pollutants are originated from the city sewage which is quite typical for groundwater pollution in many cities of China. On the basis of agonizingly features of groundwater pollution, the relationship between the groundwater pollution and the groundwater overexploitation is discussed in this paper, and the mechanism of intensifying the pollution by overexploitation has been revealed. Finally, it is proposed that the overexploitation of groundwater is an important inducing factor leading to the groundwater pollution in cities. (authors)

  8. Features, events, processes, and safety factor analysis applied to a near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, M.E.; Dolinar, G.M.; Lange, B.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An analysis of features, events, processes (FEPs) and other safety factors was applied to AECL`s proposed IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) near-surface LLRW disposal facility. The FEP analysis process which had been developed for and applied to high-level and transuranic disposal concepts was adapted for application to a low-level facility for which significant efforts in developing a safety case had already been made. The starting point for this process was a series of meetings of the project team to identify and briefly describe FEPs or safety factors which they thought should be considered. At this early stage participants were specifically asked not to screen ideas. This initial list was supplemented by selecting FEPs documented in other programs and comments received from an initial regulatory review. The entire list was then sorted by topic and common issues were grouped, and issues were classified in three priority categories and assigned to individuals for resolution. In this paper, the issue identification and resolution process will be described, from the initial description of an issue to its resolution and inclusion in the various levels of the safety case documentation.

  9. Structure Crack Identification Based on Surface-mounted Active Sensor Network with Time-Domain Feature Extraction and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunling DU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work the condition of metallic structures are classified based on the acquired sensor data from a surface-mounted piezoelectric sensor/actuator network. The structures are aluminum plates with riveted holes and possible crack damage at these holes. A 400 kHz sine wave burst is used as diagnostic signals. The combination of time-domain S0 waves from received sensor signals is directly used as features and preprocessing is not needed for the dam age detection. Since the time sequence of the extracted S0 has a high dimension, principal component estimation is applied to reduce its dimension before entering NN (neural network training for classification. An LVQ (learning vector quantization NN is used to classify the conditions as healthy or damaged. A number of FEM (finite element modeling results are taken as inputs to the NN for training, since the simulated S0 waves agree well with the experimental results on real plates. The performance of the classification is then validated by using these testing results.

  10. Kinetics and thermodynamics studies on the BMP-2 adsorption onto hydroxyapatite surface with different multi-morphological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Zhiwei; Huangfu, Changxin; Wang, Yanying; Ge, Hongwei; Yao, Yao; Zou, Ping; Wang, Guangtu [College of Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya' an 625014 (China); He, Hua [Institute of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Sichuan 611130 (China); Rao, Hanbing, E-mail: rhbscu@gmail.com [College of Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya' an 625014 (China)

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the surface topography on protein adsorption process is of great significance for designing hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic material surfaces. In this work, three different topographies of HA materials HA-sheet, HA-rod, and HA-whisker were synthesized and testified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). We have systematically investigated the adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2) on the three different topography surfaces of HA, respectively. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacities of HA-sheet, HA-rod and HA-whisker were (219.96 ± 10.18), (247.13 ± 12.35), and (354.67 ± 17.73) μg · g{sup −1}, respectively. Kinetic parameters, rate constants, equilibrium adsorption capacities and related correlation coefficients, for each kinetic model were calculated as well as discussed. It demonstrated that the adsorption of BMP-2 onto HA could be described by the pseudo second-order equation. Adsorption of BMP-2 onto HA followed the Langmuir isotherm. It confirmed that compared with other samples HA-whisker had more adsorption sites for its high specific surface area which could provide more opportunities for protein molecules. The adsorption processes were endothermic (ΔH > 0), spontaneous (ΔG < 0) and entropy increasing (ΔS > 0). A possible adsorption mechanism has been proposed. In addition, the BMP-2 could be adsorbed to the surface which existed slight conformational changes by FT-IR. - Highlights: • A novel protein adsorption studies based on sheet, rod and whisker of HA were designed. • Kinetic and thermodynamics parameters of BMP-2 and HA bonded materials were evaluated. • Surface topographies of the HA effect BMP-2 adsorption • The HA-whisker material had excellent adsorption performance for protein enrichment. • The electrostatic interaction is responsible for the

  11. Kinetics and thermodynamics studies on the BMP-2 adsorption onto hydroxyapatite surface with different multi-morphological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zhiwei; Huangfu, Changxin; Wang, Yanying; Ge, Hongwei; Yao, Yao; Zou, Ping; Wang, Guangtu; He, Hua; Rao, Hanbing

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the surface topography on protein adsorption process is of great significance for designing hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic material surfaces. In this work, three different topographies of HA materials HA-sheet, HA-rod, and HA-whisker were synthesized and testified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). We have systematically investigated the adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2) on the three different topography surfaces of HA, respectively. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacities of HA-sheet, HA-rod and HA-whisker were (219.96 ± 10.18), (247.13 ± 12.35), and (354.67 ± 17.73) μg · g −1 , respectively. Kinetic parameters, rate constants, equilibrium adsorption capacities and related correlation coefficients, for each kinetic model were calculated as well as discussed. It demonstrated that the adsorption of BMP-2 onto HA could be described by the pseudo second-order equation. Adsorption of BMP-2 onto HA followed the Langmuir isotherm. It confirmed that compared with other samples HA-whisker had more adsorption sites for its high specific surface area which could provide more opportunities for protein molecules. The adsorption processes were endothermic (ΔH > 0), spontaneous (ΔG < 0) and entropy increasing (ΔS > 0). A possible adsorption mechanism has been proposed. In addition, the BMP-2 could be adsorbed to the surface which existed slight conformational changes by FT-IR. - Highlights: • A novel protein adsorption studies based on sheet, rod and whisker of HA were designed. • Kinetic and thermodynamics parameters of BMP-2 and HA bonded materials were evaluated. • Surface topographies of the HA effect BMP-2 adsorption • The HA-whisker material had excellent adsorption performance for protein enrichment. • The electrostatic interaction is responsible for the BMP-2

  12. Balance confidence is related to features of balance and gait in individuals with chronic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Wong, Jennifer S.; Mansfield, Avril

    2016-01-01

    Reduced balance confidence is associated with impairments in features of balance and gait in individuals with sub-acute stroke. However, an understanding of these relationships in individuals at the chronic stage of stroke recovery is lacking. This study aimed to quantify relationships between balance confidence and specific features of balance and gait in individuals with chronic stroke. Participants completed a balance confidence questionnaire and clinical balance assessment (quiet standing, walking, and reactive stepping) at 6 months post-discharge from inpatient stroke rehabilitation. Regression analyses were performed using balance confidence as a predictor variable and quiet standing, walking, and reactive stepping outcome measures as the dependent variables. Walking velocity was positively correlated with balance confidence, while medio-lateral centre of pressure excursion (quiet standing) and double support time, step width variability, and step time variability (walking) were negatively correlated with balance confidence. This study provides insight into the relationships between balance confidence and balance and gait measures in individuals with chronic stroke, suggesting that individuals with low balance confidence exhibited impaired control of quiet standing as well as walking characteristics associated with cautious gait strategies. Future work should identify the direction of these relationships to inform community-based stroke rehabilitation programs for individuals with chronic stroke, and determine the potential utility of incorporating interventions to improve balance confidence into these programs. PMID:27955809

  13. Selective weighting of action-related feature dimensions in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Anna; Schubö, Anna

    2017-08-01

    Planning an action primes feature dimensions that are relevant for that particular action, increasing the impact of these dimensions on perceptual processing. Here, we investigated whether action planning also affects the short-term maintenance of visual information. In a combined memory and movement task, participants were to memorize items defined by size or color while preparing either a grasping or a pointing movement. Whereas size is a relevant feature dimension for grasping, color can be used to localize the goal object and guide a pointing movement. The results showed that memory for items defined by size was better during the preparation of a grasping movement than during the preparation of a pointing movement. Conversely, memory for color tended to be better when a pointing movement rather than a grasping movement was being planned. This pattern was not only observed when the memory task was embedded within the preparation period of the movement, but also when the movement to be performed was only indicated during the retention interval of the memory task. These findings reveal that a weighting of information in visual working memory according to action relevance can even be implemented at the representational level during maintenance, demonstrating that our actions continue to influence visual processing beyond the perceptual stage.

  14. On the Origin of the Bolivian High and Related Circulation Features of the South American Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenters, J. D.; Cook, K. H.

    1997-03-01

    The climatological structure in the upper-tropospheric summertime circulation over South America is diagnosed using a GCM (with and without South American topography), a linear model, and observational data. Emphasis is placed on understanding the origin of observed features such as the Bolivian high and the accompanying `Nordeste low' to the east. Results from the linear model indicate that these two features are generated in response to precipitation over the Amazon basin, central Andes, and South Atlantic convergence zone, with African precipitation also playing a crucial role in the formation of the Nordeste low. The direct mechanical and sensible heating effects of the Andes are minimal, acting only to induce a weak lee trough in midlatitudes and a shallow monsoonal circulation over the central Andes. In the GCM, the effects of the Andes include a strengthening of the Bolivian high and northward shift of the Nordeste low, primarily through changes in the precipitation field. The position of the Bolivian high is primarily determined by Amazonian precipitation and is little affected by the removal of the Andes. Strong subsidence to the west of the high is found to be important for the maintenance of the high's warm core, while large-scale convective overshooting to the east is responsible for a layer of cold air above the high.

  15. Improvements in or relating to surface treatment of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.; Hartley, N.E.W.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for surface treating metals so as to reduce their coefficients of friction. The metal is subjected to bombardment by a beam of ions of dry lubricant material, or material that forms a dry lubricant. The ions should have energies sufficient to cause them to be implanted into the surface region of the metal. The metal may be heated to facilitate assimilation of the ions, and implantation may be enhanced by means of irradiation of the article with radiation of energy sufficient to enhance diffusion of the ions into the article. The dry lubricant ions may comprise Mo + , In + , or Sn + . Where the article is of steel suitable ions are Mo + and S + deposited in the ratio of 1:2. Examples of application of the method are given, using a 500 Kv Cockcroft-Walton accelerator for the implantation. (U.K.)

  16. Magnetic Nanoparticles: Surface Effects and Properties Related to Biomedicine Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Issa, Bashar; Obaidat, Ihab M.; Albiss, Borhan A.; Haik, Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Due to finite size effects, such as the high surface-to-volume ratio and different crystal structures, magnetic nanoparticles are found to exhibit interesting and considerably different magnetic properties than those found in their corresponding bulk materials. These nanoparticles can be synthesized in several ways (e.g., chemical and physical) with controllable sizes enabling their comparison to biological organisms from cells (10–100 μm), viruses, genes, down to proteins (3–50 nm). The opti...

  17. Using Feature Films to Teach Public Relations: An Assessment Model from Nonmajor Students' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Angela Ka Ying; Hutton, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching fundamental public relations courses to students from diverse backgrounds poses additional complexities in learning effectiveness. This exploratory study evaluated the effectiveness and identified the challenges of using films to teach public relations among nonmajor students. Results from an online survey and two focus groups found that…

  18. Study of ice-related flow features around Tanaica Montes, Mars: Implications for late amazonian debris-covered glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rishitosh K.; Vijayan, S.; Bharti, Rajiv R.

    2017-11-01

    Lobate debris aprons (LDA) and lineated valley fill (LVF) have been broadly recognized in the mid-latitudes of Mars and their subsequent analyses using data from the SHAllow RADar (SHARAD) instrument has suggested evidence for contemporary ice preserved beneath these features. In this study, we conduct detailed characterization of newly identified LDA flow units within the Tanaica Montes region (39.55˚ N, 269.17˚ E) of Mars to assess and understand the similarities in their emplacement with respect to LDA flow units mapped in other regions of Mars. We utilize the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) images and SHAllow RADar (SHARAD) datasets for geomorphic and subsurface analysis and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) point tracks for topographic analysis. Geomorphic observation of LDA flow units surrounding the montes flanks and massif walls reveal integrated pattern of convergence and divergence and evidence of bending and deflection within the flow lines that resulted in concentric, loop-like flow patterns in the downslope. Brain-terrain texture and craters with varying morphological characteristics (ring-mold type) is suggestive that LDAs may be similar to ice-rich, debris-covered glaciers. MOLA point track based convex-up topographic profiles of LDAs suggest that their thickness vary in the range of ∼100-200 m in both the northwestern and southeastern portions of study region. Further, the slope values of mapped LDA surfaces within the study region are within ∼0.1˚-4˚. The extent of mapped LDAs within the study region is such that some of the low elevation (∼0.8-1.3 km) portions of montes flanks are surrounded by relatively less extent (up to ∼0.5-0.8 km) of LDA flow units. Geomorphic and topographic evidence for flow units that appear to be superposed on the main LDA body collectively suggest the possibility of episodic glacial activity in the region. Furthermore, based on the alignment of subsurface

  19. Comparison of Surface Flow Features from Lidar-Derived Digital Elevation Models with Historical Elevation and Hydrography Data for Minnehaha County, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppenga, Sandra K.; Worstell, Bruce B.; Stoker, Jason M.; Greenlee, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has taken the lead in the creation of a valuable remote sensing product by incorporating digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) into the National Elevation Dataset (NED), the elevation layer of 'The National Map'. High-resolution lidar-derived DEMs provide the accuracy needed to systematically quantify and fully integrate surface flow including flow direction, flow accumulation, sinks, slope, and a dense drainage network. In 2008, 1-meter resolution lidar data were acquired in Minnehaha County, South Dakota. The acquisition was a collaborative effort between Minnehaha County, the city of Sioux Falls, and the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. With the newly acquired lidar data, USGS scientists generated high-resolution DEMs and surface flow features. This report compares lidar-derived surface flow features in Minnehaha County to 30- and 10-meter elevation data previously incorporated in the NED and ancillary hydrography datasets. Surface flow features generated from lidar-derived DEMs are consistently integrated with elevation and are important in understanding surface-water movement to better detect surface-water runoff, flood inundation, and erosion. Many topographic and hydrologic applications will benefit from the increased availability of accurate, high-quality, and high-resolution surface-water data. The remotely sensed data provide topographic information and data integration capabilities needed for meeting current and future human and environmental needs.

  20. Imaging features of microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma developed after direct-acting antiviral therapy in HCV-related cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renzulli, Matteo; Brocchi, Stefano; Golfieri, Rita [Sant' Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Prevention, Bologna (Italy); Buonfiglioli, Federica; Conti, Fabio; Verucchi, Gabriella; Andreone, Pietro [University of Bologna, Research Centre for the Study of Hepatitis, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences DIMEC, Bologna (Italy); Serio, Ilaria [Sant' Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Department of Digestive Diseases, Bologna (Italy); Foschi, Francesco Giuseppe [Ospedale di Faenza, Division of Internal Medicine, Faenza (Italy); Caraceni, Paolo; Mazzella, Giuseppe [University of Bologna, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC), Bologna (Italy); Brillanti, Stefano [University of Bologna, Research Centre for the Study of Hepatitis, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences DIMEC, Bologna (Italy); U.O. di Gastroenterologia, Bologna (Italy)

    2018-02-15

    To evaluate imaging features of microvascular invasion (MVI) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) developed after direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy in HCV-related cirrhosis. Retrospective cohort study on 344 consecutive patients with HCV-related cirrhosis treated with DAA and followed for 48-74 weeks. Using established imaging criteria for MVI, HCC features were analysed and compared with those in nodules not occurring after DAA. After DAA, HCC developed in 29 patients (single nodule, 18 and multinodular, 11). Median interval between therapy end and HCC diagnosis was 82 days (0-318). Forty-one HCC nodules were detected (14 de novo, 27 recurrent): maximum diameter was 10-20 mm in 27, 20-50 mm in 13, and > 50 mm in 1. Imaging features of MVI were present in 29/41 nodules (70.7%, CI: 54-84), even in 17/29 nodules with 10-20 mm diameter (58.6%, CI: 39-76). MVI was present in only 17/51 HCC nodules that occurred before DAA treatment (33.3%, CI: 22-47) (p= 0.0007). MVI did not correlate with history of previous HCC. HCC occurs rapidly after DAA therapy, and aggressive features of MVI characterise most neoplastic nodules. Close imaging evaluations are needed after DAA in cirrhotic patients. (orig.)

  1. Sending and Receiving Text Messages with Sexual Content: Relations with Early Sexual Activity and Borderline Personality Features in Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, Dawn Y; Ackerman, Robert A; Ehrenreich, Samuel E; Underwood, Marion K

    2017-05-01

    This research examined adolescents' written text messages with sexual content to investigate how sexting relates to sexual activity and borderline personality features. Participants (N = 181, 85 girls) completed a measure of borderline personality features prior to 10 th grade and were subsequently given smartphones configured to capture the content of their text messages. Four days of text messaging were micro-coded for content related to sex. Following 12 th grade, participants reported on their sexual activity and again completed a measure of borderline personality features. Results showed that engaging in sexting at age 16 was associated with reporting an early sexual debut, having sexual intercourse experience, having multiple sex partners, and engaging in drug use in combination with sexual activity two years later. Girls engaging in sex talk were more likely to have had sexual intercourse by age 18. Text messaging about hypothetical sex in grade 10 also predicted borderline personality features at age 18. These findings suggest that sending text messages with sexual content poses risks for adolescents. Programs to prevent risky sexual activity and to promote psychological health could be enhanced by teaching adolescents to use digital communication responsibly.

  2. Sending and Receiving Text Messages with Sexual Content: Relations with Early Sexual Activity and Borderline Personality Features in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, Dawn Y.; Ackerman, Robert A.; Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Underwood, Marion K.

    2017-01-01

    This research examined adolescents’ written text messages with sexual content to investigate how sexting relates to sexual activity and borderline personality features. Participants (N = 181, 85 girls) completed a measure of borderline personality features prior to 10th grade and were subsequently given smartphones configured to capture the content of their text messages. Four days of text messaging were micro-coded for content related to sex. Following 12th grade, participants reported on their sexual activity and again completed a measure of borderline personality features. Results showed that engaging in sexting at age 16 was associated with reporting an early sexual debut, having sexual intercourse experience, having multiple sex partners, and engaging in drug use in combination with sexual activity two years later. Girls engaging in sex talk were more likely to have had sexual intercourse by age 18. Text messaging about hypothetical sex in grade 10 also predicted borderline personality features at age 18. These findings suggest that sending text messages with sexual content poses risks for adolescents. Programs to prevent risky sexual activity and to promote psychological health could be enhanced by teaching adolescents to use digital communication responsibly. PMID:28824224

  3. Increased levels of circulating CD34+ cells in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: relation with clinical and OCT features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Caner; Özdal, Pınar Ç; Beyazyıldız, Emrullah; Özcan, Nurgül E; Teke, Mehmet Y; Vural, Gülden; Öztürk, Faruk

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the levels of circulating CD34+ stem cells in patients with neovascular type age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and its relation with clinical and optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings. The study consisted of 55 patients: 28 patients (18 male and 10 female) with neovascular type AMD as a study group and 27 patients (12 male and 15 female) scheduled for cataract surgery as a control group. The level of CD34+ stem cells was measured by flow cytometry. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. The mean ages of patients in the study and control groups were 71 ± 8 and 68 ± 6 years, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of age, sex, or systemic disease association between study and control groups. However, smoking status was significantly higher in the study group (67.9% vs 37.0%; p = 0.02). Stem cell levels were significantly higher in the study group (1.5 ± 0.9 vs 0.5 ± 0.3; p<0.001), but there was no relation between stem cell levels and clinical and OCT findings. Increased circulating CD34+ stem cell levels were observed in patients with choroidal neovascular membrane associated with AMD, but no significant relation was found between cell levels and clinical and OCT findings.

  4. Increased deoxythymidine triphosphate levels is a feature of relative cognitive decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Frederiksen, Jane H; Olsen, Maria Nathalie Angleys

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial bioenergetics, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular levels of nucleotides have been hypothesized as early indicators of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Utilizing relative decline of cognitive ability as a predictor of AD risk, we evaluated the correlation between change...... of cognitive ability and mitochondrial bioenergetics, ROS and cellular levels of deoxyribonucleotides. Change of cognitive abilities, scored at ages of approximately 20 and 57 was determined for a cohort of 1985 male participants. Mitochondrial bioenergetics, mitochondrial ROS and whole-cell levels...... of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a total of 103 selected participants displaying the most pronounced relative cognitive decline and relative cognitive improvement. We show that relative cognitive decline is associated with higher PBMC content...

  5. Relating surface chemistry and oxygen surface exchange in LnBaCo2O(5+δ) air electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez, Helena; Druce, John; Kilner, John A; Ishihara, Tatsumi

    2015-01-01

    The surface and near-surface chemical composition of electroceramic materials often shows significant deviations from that of the bulk. In particular, layered materials, such as cation-ordered LnBaCo2O(5+δ) perovskites (Ln = lanthanide), undergo surface and sub-surface restructuring due to the segregation of the divalent alkaline-earth cation. These processes can take place during synthesis and processing steps (e.g. deposition, sintering or annealing), as well as at temperatures relevant for the operation of these materials as air electrodes in solid oxide fuel cells and electrolysers. Furthermore, the surface segregation in these double perovskites shows fast kinetics, starting at temperatures as low as 400 °C over short periods of time and leading to a decrease in the transition metal surface coverage exposed to the gas phase. In this work, we use a combination of stable isotope tracer labeling and surface-sensitive ion beam techniques to study the oxygen transport properties and their relationship with the surface chemistry in ordered LnBaCo2O(5+δ) perovskites. Time-of-Flight Secondary-Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) combined with (18)O isotope exchange was used to determine the oxygen tracer diffusion (D*) and surface exchange (k*) coefficients. Furthermore, Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) was used for the analysis of the surface and near surface chemistry as it provides information from the first mono-atomic layer of the materials. In this way, we could relate the compositional modifications (e.g. cation segregation) taking place at the electrochemically-active surface during the exchange at high temperatures and the oxygen transport properties in double perovskite electrode materials to further our understanding of the mechanism of the surface exchange process.

  6. [Age-related features of neuromuscular function in rats with hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerush, P O; Makiĭ, Ie A; Rodyns'kyĭ, O H

    2001-01-01

    Studied features of functioning of nervous-muscular system at white rats of two age groups: preadolescent (5 weeks) and puberal (24 weeks), in conditions experimental hyperthyroidism (HT). It is established, that in conditions HT at action of the raised concentration thyroxine characteristics of excitation gastrocnemius muscles essentially changed at irritation of a sciatic nerve in groups preadolescent and puberal animals. In all age groups in conditions HT increase of a threshold of excitation gastrocnemius muscles is marked at indirect stimulation and decrease at direct stimulation; also in all age groups in conditions HT reduction of time chronaxy muscles is fixed, both at direct, and at indirect irritation. At preadolescent animals, as against puberal in conditions HT at action of the raised concentration thyroxine on nervous-muscular system it is not revealed authentic change of the latent period and amplitude of potential of action (PA). The conclusion is made, that in conditions HT change of a threshold of excitation and chronaxy gastrocnemius muscles both at direct, and at indirect irritation do not carry age specificity and have an identical orientation, both at preadolescent, and at puberal rats. At preadolescent animals in conditions HT, as against puberal the parameter of amplitude and latent period PA authentically did not change, that can testify to smaller sensitivity of the caused answers gastrocnemius muscles to the raised concentration thyroxine, probably, by virtue of immaturity peripheral neuromotor the device.

  7. EXTRACTING SPATIOTEMPORAL OBJECTS FROM RASTER DATA TO REPRESENT PHYSICAL FEATURES AND ANALYZE RELATED PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Zollweg

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous ground-based, airborne, and orbiting platforms provide remotely-sensed data of remarkable spatial resolution at short time intervals. However, this spatiotemporal data is most valuable if it can be processed into information, thereby creating meaning. We live in a world of objects: cars, buildings, farms, etc. On a stormy day, we don’t see millions of cubes of atmosphere; we see a thunderstorm ‘object’. Temporally, we don’t see the properties of those individual cubes changing, we see the thunderstorm as a whole evolving and moving. There is a need to represent the bulky, raw spatiotemporal data from remote sensors as a small number of relevant spatiotemporal objects, thereby matching the human brain’s perception of the world. This presentation reveals an efficient algorithm and system to extract the objects/features from raster-formatted remotely-sensed data. The system makes use of the Python object-oriented programming language, SciPy/NumPy for matrix manipulation and scientific computation, and export/import to the GeoJSON standard geographic object data format. The example presented will show how thunderstorms can be identified and characterized in a spatiotemporal continuum using a Python program to process raster data from NOAA’s High-Resolution Rapid Refresh v2 (HRRRv2 data stream.

  8. Extracting Spatiotemporal Objects from Raster Data to Represent Physical Features and Analyze Related Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollweg, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    Numerous ground-based, airborne, and orbiting platforms provide remotely-sensed data of remarkable spatial resolution at short time intervals. However, this spatiotemporal data is most valuable if it can be processed into information, thereby creating meaning. We live in a world of objects: cars, buildings, farms, etc. On a stormy day, we don't see millions of cubes of atmosphere; we see a thunderstorm `object'. Temporally, we don't see the properties of those individual cubes changing, we see the thunderstorm as a whole evolving and moving. There is a need to represent the bulky, raw spatiotemporal data from remote sensors as a small number of relevant spatiotemporal objects, thereby matching the human brain's perception of the world. This presentation reveals an efficient algorithm and system to extract the objects/features from raster-formatted remotely-sensed data. The system makes use of the Python object-oriented programming language, SciPy/NumPy for matrix manipulation and scientific computation, and export/import to the GeoJSON standard geographic object data format. The example presented will show how thunderstorms can be identified and characterized in a spatiotemporal continuum using a Python program to process raster data from NOAA's High-Resolution Rapid Refresh v2 (HRRRv2) data stream.

  9. Surface energy and surface stress on vicinals by revisiting the Shuttleworth relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecquet, Pascal

    2018-04-01

    In 1998 [Surf. Sci. 412/413, 639 (1998)], we showed that the step stress on vicinals varies as 1/L, L being the distance between steps, while the inter-step interaction energy primarily follows the law as 1/L2 from the well-known Marchenko-Parshin model. In this paper, we give a better understanding of the interaction term of the step stress. The step stress is calculated with respect to the nominal surface stress. Consequently, we calculate the diagonal surface stresses in both the vicinal system (x, y, z) where z is normal to the vicinal and the projected system (x, b, c) where b is normal to the nominal terrace. Moreover, we calculate the surface stresses by using two methods: the first called the 'Zero' method, from the surface pressure forces and the second called the 'One' method, by homogeneously deforming the vicinal in the parallel direction, x or y, and by calculating the surface energy excess proportional to the deformation. By using the 'One' method on the vicinal Cu(0 1 M), we find that the step deformations, due to the applied deformation, vary as 1/L by the same factor for the tensor directions bb and cb, and by twice the same factor for the parallel direction yy. Due to the vanishing of the surface stress normal to the vicinal, the variation of the step stress in the direction yy is better described by using only the step deformation in the same direction. We revisit the Shuttleworth formula, for while the variation of the step stress in the direction xx is the same between the two methods, the variation in the direction yy is higher by 76% for the 'Zero' method with respect to the 'One' method. In addition to the step energy, we confirm that the variation of the step stress must be taken into account for the understanding of the equilibrium of vicinals when they are not deformed.

  10. Falling Leaves Inspired ZnO Nanorods-Nanoslices Hierarchical Structure for Implant Surface Modification with Two Stage Releasing Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hang; Miao, Xinxin; Ye, Jing; Wu, Tianlong; Deng, Zhongbo; Li, Chen; Jia, Jingyu; Cheng, Xigao; Wang, Xiaolei

    2017-04-19

    Inspired from falling leaves, ZnO nanorods-nanoslices hierarchical structure (NHS) was constructed to modify the surfaces of two widely used implant materials: titanium (Ti) and tantalum (Ta), respectively. By which means, two-stage release of antibacterial active substances were realized to address the clinical importance of long-term broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. At early stages (within 48 h), the NHS exhibited a rapid releasing to kill the bacteria around the implant immediately. At a second stage (over 2 weeks), the NHS exhibited a slow releasing to realize long-term inhibition. The excellent antibacterial activity of ZnO NHS was confirmed once again by animal test in vivo. According to the subsequent experiments, the ZnO NHS coating exhibited the great advantage of high efficiency, low toxicity, and long-term durability, which could be a feasible manner to prevent the abuse of antibiotics on implant-related surgery.

  11. Clinical and pathogenic features of ETV6-related thrombocytopenia with predisposition to acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melazzini, Federica; Palombo, Flavia; Balduini, Alessandra; De Rocco, Daniela; Marconi, Caterina; Noris, Patrizia; Gnan, Chiara; Pippucci, Tommaso; Bozzi, Valeria; Faleschini, Michela; Barozzi, Serena; Doubek, Michael; Di Buduo, Christian A.; Kozubik, Katerina Stano; Radova, Lenka; Loffredo, Giuseppe; Pospisilova, Sarka; Alfano, Caterina; Seri, Marco; Balduini, Carlo L.; Pecci, Alessandro; Savoia, Anna

    2016-01-01

    ETV6-related thrombocytopenia is an autosomal dominant thrombocytopenia that has been recently identified in a few families and has been suspected to predispose to hematologic malignancies. To gain further information on this disorder, we searched for ETV6 mutations in the 130 families with inherited thrombocytopenia of unknown origin from our cohort of 274 consecutive pedigrees with familial thrombocytopenia. We identified 20 patients with ETV6-related thrombocytopenia from seven pedigrees. They have five different ETV6 variants, including three novel mutations affecting the highly conserved E26 transformation-specific domain. The relative frequency of ETV6-related thrombocytopenia was 2.6% in the whole case series and 4.6% among the families with known forms of inherited thrombocytopenia. The degree of thrombocytopenia and bleeding tendency of the patients with ETV6-related thrombocytopenia were mild, but four subjects developed B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia during childhood, resulting in a significantly higher incidence of this condition compared to that in the general population. Clinical and laboratory findings did not identify any particular defects that could lead to the suspicion of this disorder from the routine diagnostic workup. However, at variance with most inherited thrombocytopenias, platelets were not enlarged. In vitro studies revealed that the maturation of the patients’ megakaryocytes was defective and that the patients have impaired proplatelet formation. Moreover, platelets from patients with ETV6-related thrombocytopenia have reduced ability to spread on fibrinogen. Since the dominant thrombocytopenias due to mutations in RUNX1 and ANKRD26 are also characterized by normal platelet size and predispose to hematologic malignancies, we suggest that screening for ETV6, RUNX1 and ANKRD26 mutations should be performed in all subjects with autosomal dominant thrombocytopenia and normal platelet size. PMID:27365488

  12. NPM1 mutations in therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia with uncharacteristic features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Tolstrup; Andersen, Mette Klarskov; Christiansen, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    Frameshift mutations of the nucleophosmin gene (NPM1) were recently reported as a frequently occurring abnormality in patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To evaluate the frequency of NPM1 mutations in patients with therapy-related myelodysplasia (t-MDS) and therapy-related AML (t......-/-7, the most frequent abnormalities of t-MDS/t-AML, were not observed (P=0.002). This raises the question whether some of the cases presenting NPM1 mutations were in fact cases of de novo leukemia. The close association to class I mutations and the inverse association to class II mutations suggest...

  13. Remote comets and related bodies - VJHK colorimetry and surface materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, W. K.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Degewij, J.

    1982-01-01

    VJHK colors for a number of asteroids and eight comets at various solar distances and levels of activity were obtained, and the observations are interpreted in terms of a two-component mixing model in which outer solar system interplanetary bodies are viewed as mixtures of ice and dark carbonaceous-type (RD and C) dirt. It is inferred that the observed comets have comae, and perhaps surfaces, of dirty ice or ice dirt grains colored by an RD-dirt component. This inference is supported by systematics of an 'alpha index' based on VJHK colors and empirically correlated with albedo and ice/dirt ratio. Among comets the alpha index correlates with solar distance in a way that suggests comets emit dirty ice grains which are stable at large solar distance but from which the ice component sublimes and leaves dirt grains at small solar distance.

  14. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Arseneault, Louise; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Fonagy, Peter; Goodman, Marianne; Houts, Renate; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2012-02-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 pairs of same-sex twins followed from birth through age 12 years. Borderline personality related characteristics measured at age 12 years were highly heritable, were more common in children who had exhibited poor cognitive function, impulsivity, and more behavioral and emotional problems at age 5 years, and co-occurred with symptoms of conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Exposure to harsh treatment in the family environment through age 10 years predicted borderline personality related characteristics at age 12 years. This association showed evidence of environmental mediation and was stronger among children with a family history of psychiatric illness, consistent with diathesis-stress models of borderline etiology. Results indicate that borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with borderline personality disorder in adults and suggest that inherited and environmental risk factors make independent and interactive contributions to borderline etiology.

  15. Relating Teachers' Whistleblowing Tendency and Personal Features: Machiavellianism, Religiosity, and Utilitarianism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, Asiye Toker

    2015-01-01

    This study examines relationships between religiosity and value orientation of teachers, and preference for whistleblowing modes. Three hypotheses were developed, and tested related to the relationships between utilitarianism, religiosity, Machiavellianism and preference for various forms of whistleblowing. To analyse the data obtained from a…

  16. The impact of nectar chemical features on phenotypic variation in two related nectar yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, María I; Herrera, Carlos M; Van den Ende, Wim; Verstrepen, Kevin; Lievens, Bart; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2015-06-01

    Floral nectars become easily colonized by microbes, most often species of the ascomycetous yeast genus Metschnikowia. Although it is known that nectar composition can vary tremendously among plant species, most probably corresponding to the nutritional requirements of their main pollinators, far less is known about how variation in nectar chemistry affects intraspecific variation in nectarivorous yeasts. Because variation in nectar traits probably affects growth and abundance of nectar yeasts, nectar yeasts can be expected to display large phenotypic variation in order to cope with varying nectar conditions. To test this hypothesis, we related variation in the phenotypic landscape of a vast collection of nectar-living yeast isolates from two Metschnikowia species (M. reukaufii and M. gruessii) to nectar chemical traits using non-linear redundancy analyses. Nectar yeasts were collected from 19 plant species from different plant families to include as much variation in nectar chemical traits as possible. As expected, nectar yeasts displayed large variation in phenotypic traits, particularly in traits related to growth performance in carbon sources and inhibitors, which was significantly related to the host plant from which they were isolated. Total sugar concentration and relative fructose content significantly explained the observed variation in the phenotypic profile of the investigated yeast species, indicating that sugar concentration and composition are the key traits that affect phenotypic variation in nectarivorous yeasts. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Ontogeny of Sex-Related Differences in Foetal Developmental Features, Lipid Availability and Fatty Acid Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consolacion Garcia-Contreras

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sex-related differences in lipid availability and fatty acid composition during swine foetal development were investigated. Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in the mother were strongly related to the adequacy or inadequacy of foetal development and concomitant activation of protective growth in some organs (brain, heart, liver and spleen. Cholesterol and triglyceride availability was similar in male and female offspring, but female foetuses showed evidence of higher placental transfer of essential fatty acids and synthesis of non-essential fatty acids in muscle and liver. These sex-related differences affected primarily the neutral lipid fraction (triglycerides, which may lead to sex-related postnatal differences in energy partitioning. These results illustrate the strong influence of the maternal lipid profile on foetal development and homeorhesis, and they confirm and extend previous reports that female offspring show better adaptive responses to maternal malnutrition than male offspring. These findings may help guide dietary interventions to ensure adequate fatty acid availability for postnatal development.

  18. FEATURES OF INNOVATIVE MANAGEMENT OF REFORMATORY CHANGES IN SYSTEM OF THE LAND RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana ZAVOLICHNA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors investigated the state of land reform in Ukraine evaluated the prospects of its development following on from the experience of Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary. An innovative algorithm of change management in the system of administration of land relations was suggested, which role is to provide opportunities to expeditiously manage land conversion, effectively overcome resistance to change.

  19. Lactoperoxidase catalyzed radioiodination of cell surface immunoglobulin: incorporated radioactivity may not reflect relative cell surface Ig density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, R.L.; Yuen, C.C.; Mage, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Rabbit and mouse splenic lymphocytes were radioiodinated by the lactoperoxidase technique, extracted with non-ionic detergent, immunoprecipitated with high titered rabbit anti-kappa antisera, and compared by SDS-PAGE. Mouse sIg peaks were reproducibly larger in size than rabbit sIg peaks (often greater than 10 times). Neither differences in incorporation of label into the rabbit cell surface, nor differences in average sIg density explain this result. Total TCA-precipitable radioactivity was similar in each species. Estimation of the relative amounts of sIg in the mouse and rabbit showed similar average sIg densities. Differences in detergent solubility, proteolytic lability, or antisera used also do not adequately account for this difference. Thus, these data indicate that radioactivity incorporated after lactoperoxidase catalyzed cell surface radioiodination may not reflect cell surface Ig density. Conclusions about cell surface density based upon relative incorporation of radioactivity should be confirmed by other approaches

  20. Digital database of mining-related features at selected historic and active phosphate mines, Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham, and Caribou counties, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, J. Douglas; Moyle, Phillip R.

    2001-01-01

    This report provides a description of data and processes used to produce a spatial database that delineates mining-related features in areas of historic and active phosphate mining in the core of the southeastern Idaho phosphate resource area. The data have varying degrees of accuracy and attribution detail. Classification of areas by type of mining-related activity at active mines is generally detailed; however, the spatial coverage does not differentiate mining-related surface disturbance features at many of the closed or inactive mines. Nineteen phosphate mine sites are included in the study. A total of 5,728 hc (14,154 ac), or more than 57 km2 (22 mi2), of phosphate mining-related surface disturbance are documented in the spatial coverage of the core of the southeast Idaho phosphate resource area. The study includes 4 active phosphate mines—Dry Valley, Enoch Valley, Rasmussen Ridge, and Smoky Canyon—and 15 historic phosphate mines—Ballard, Champ, Conda, Diamond Gulch, Gay, Georgetown Canyon, Henry, Home Canyon, Lanes Creek, Maybe Canyon, Mountain Fuel, Trail Canyon, Rattlesnake Canyon, Waterloo, and Wooley Valley. Spatial data on the inactive historic mines is relatively up-to-date; however, spatially described areas for active mines are based on digital maps prepared in early 1999. The inactive Gay mine has the largest total area of disturbance: 1,917 hc (4,736 ac) or about 19 km2 (7.4 mi2). It encompasses over three times the disturbance area of the next largest mine, the Conda mine with 607 hc (1,504 ac), and it is nearly four times the area of the Smoky Canyon mine, the largest of the active mines with 497 hc (1,228 ac). The wide range of phosphate mining-related surface disturbance features (approximately 80) were reduced to 13 types or features used in this study—adit and pit, backfilled mine pit, facilities, mine pit, ore stockpile, railroad, road, sediment catchment, tailings or tailings pond, topsoil stockpile, water reservoir, and disturbed

  1. Computed tomography of surface related radionuclide distributions ('BONN'-tomography)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockisch, A.; Koenig, R.

    1989-01-01

    A method called the 'BONN' tomography is described to produce planar projections of circular activity distributions using standard single photon emission computed tomography. The clinical value of the method is demonstrated for bone scans of the jaw, thorax, and pelvis. Numerical or projection-related problems are discussed. (orig.) [de

  2. The relation between surface texture of asphalt pavements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic conditions, road variables, skid resistance, texture depth, and accident data for the period 2000 - 2004 were analysed to develop models to establish the inter-relationships between skid resistance, macrotexture and incidence of accidents. Poisson regression relating to accident frequency and exposure variables ...

  3. Some features of excited states density matrix calculation and their pairing relations in conjugated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giambiagi, M.S. de; Giambiagi, M.

    1982-01-01

    Direct PPP-type calculations of self-consistent (SC) density matrices for excited states are described and the corresponding 'thawn' molecular orbitals (MO) are discussed. Special attention is addressed to particular solutions arising in conjugated systems of a certain symmetry, and to their chemical implications. The U(2) and U(3) algebras are applied respectively to the 4-electron and 6-electron cases: a natural separation of excited states in different cases follows. A simple approach to the convergence problem for excited states is given. The complementarity relations, an alternative formulation of the pairing theorem valid for heteromolecules and non-alternant systems, allow some fruitful experimental applications. Together with the extended pairing relations shown here, they may help to rationalize general trends. (Author) [pt

  4. Human comfort and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    OpenAIRE

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna; Wargocki, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the Ph.D. study was to examine occupants’ perception of comfort and self-estimated job performance in non-industrial buildings (homes and offices), in particular how building occupants understand comfort and which parameters, not necessarily related to indoor environments, influence the perception of comfort.To meet the objective, the following actions were taken: (1) a literature survey exploring which indoor environmental parameters (thermal, acoustic, visualenvironmen...

  5. Evolution of the sex-related locus and genomic features shared in microsporidia and fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Chan Lee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Microsporidia are obligate intracellular, eukaryotic pathogens that infect a wide range of animals from nematodes to humans, and in some cases, protists. The preponderance of evidence as to the origin of the microsporidia reveals a close relationship with the fungi, either within the kingdom or as a sister group to it. Recent phylogenetic studies and gene order analysis suggest that microsporidia share a particularly close evolutionary relationship with the zygomycetes.Here we expanded this analysis and also examined a putative sex-locus for variability between microsporidian populations. Whole genome inspection reveals a unique syntenic gene pair (RPS9-RPL21 present in the vast majority of fungi and the microsporidians but not in other eukaryotic lineages. Two other unique gene fusions (glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetase and ubiquitin-ribosomal subunit S30 that are present in metazoans, choanoflagellates, and filasterean opisthokonts are unfused in the fungi and microsporidians. One locus previously found to be conserved in many microsporidian genomes is similar to the sex locus of zygomycetes in gene order and architecture. Both sex-related and sex loci harbor TPT, HMG, and RNA helicase genes forming a syntenic gene cluster. We sequenced and analyzed the sex-related locus in 11 different Encephalitozoon cuniculi isolates and the sibling species E. intestinalis (3 isolates and E. hellem (1 isolate. There was no evidence for an idiomorphic sex-related locus in this Encephalitozoon species sample. According to sequence-based phylogenetic analyses, the TPT and RNA helicase genes flanking the HMG genes are paralogous rather than orthologous between zygomycetes and microsporidians.The unique genomic hallmarks between microsporidia and fungi are independent of sequence based phylogenetic comparisons and further contribute to define the borders of the fungal kingdom and support the classification of microsporidia as unusual derived fungi. And the sex/sex-related

  6. Surface Textures and Features Indicative of Endogenous Growth at the McCartys Flow Field, NM, as an Analog to Martian Volcanic Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Crumpler, L. S.; Garry, W. B.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Self, S.; Aubele, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Basaltic lavas typically form channels or tubes, which are recognized on the Earth and Mars. Although largely unrecognized in the planetary community, terrestrial inflated sheet flows also display morphologies that share many commonalities with lava plains on Mars. The McCartys lava flow field is among the youngest (approx.3000 yrs) basaltic flows in the continental United States. The southwest sections of the flow displays smooth, flat-topped plateaus with irregularly shaped pits and hummocky inter-plateau units that form a polygonal surface. Plateaus are typically elongate in map view, up to 20 m high and display lineations within the glassy crust. Lineated surfaces occasionally display small < 1m diameter lava coils. Lineations are generally straight and parallel each other, sometimes for over 100 meters. The boundaries between plateaus and depressions are also lineated and tilted to angles sometimes approaching vertical. Plateau-parallel cracks, sometimes containing squeeze-ups, mark the boundary between tilted crust and plateau. Some plateau depressions display level floors with hummocky surfaces, while some are bowl shaped with floors covered in broken lava slabs. The lower walls of pits sometimes display lateral, sagged lava wedges. Infrequently, pit floors display the upper portion of a tumulus from an older flow. In some places the surface crust has been disrupted forming a slabby texture. Slabs are typically on the scale of a meter or less across and no less than 7-10 cm thick. The slabs preserve the lineated textures of the undisturbed plateau crust. It appears that this style of terrain represents the emplacement of an extensive sheet that experiences inflation episodes within preferred regions where lateral spreading of the sheet is inhibited, thereby forming plateaus. Rough surfaces represent inflation-related disruption of pahoehoe lava and not a a lava. Depressions are often the result of non-inflation and can be clearly identified by lateral

  7. Sleep variability and fatigue in adolescents: Associations with school-related features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, M G; Gaspar, T; Tomé, G; Paiva, T

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the influences of sleep duration and sleep variability (SleepV), upon adolescents' school-related situations. The Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey is based on a self-completed questionnaire. The participants were 3164 pupils (53.7% girls), attending the 8th and 10th grades, 14.9 years old, and were inquired about subjective sleep duration during the week and weekends, SleepV, fatigue, difficulties in sleep initiation, school achievement, feelings towards schools, pressure with school work and skipping classes. Multiple regression models used, as dependent variables: (a) school achievement, (b) disliking school, (c) pressure with school work and (d) skipping classes, using as independent variables, each of the remaining school-related variables, fatigue, total sleep duration and difficulties in sleep initiation. The average sleep duration in the week and during weekdays was lower than recommended for these age groups, and almost half of students had high SleepV between weekdays and weekends. A logistic model revealed that the absence of SleepV was associated with lower perception of school work pressure, less frequent skipping classes, more infrequent fatigue and more infrequent difficulties in sleep initiation. Poor sleep quality, SleepV and insufficient sleep duration affected negatively school-related variables. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. Closed-loop surface-related multiple elimination and its application to simultaneous data reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Angarita, G.A.; Verschuur, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-related multiple elimination (SRME) is one of the most commonly used methods for suppressing surface multiples. However, to obtain an accurate surface multiple estimation, dense source and receiver sampling is required. The traditional approach to this problem is performing data

  9. The mutator pathway is a feature of immunodeficiency-related lymphomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Alex; Raphael, Martine; Brennetot, Caroline; Poirel, Helene; Buhard, Olivier; Aubry, Alban; Martin, Antoine; Krimi, Amor; Leblond, Veronique; Gabarre, Jean; Davi, Frederic; Charlotte, Frederic; Berger, Francoise; Gaidano, Gianluca; Capello, Daniela; Canioni, Danielle; Bordessoule, Dominique; Feuillard, Jean; Gaulard, Philippe; Delfau, Marie Helene; Ferlicot, Sophie; Eclache, Virginie; Prevot, Sophie; Guettier, Catherine; Lefevre, Pascale Cornillet; Adotti, Francoise; Hamelin, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The mutator phenotype caused by defects in the mismatch repair system is observed in a subset of solid neoplasms characterized by widespread microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H). It is known to be very rare in non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), whereas mutator NHL is the most frequent tumor subtype in mismatch repair-deficient mice. By screening a series of 603 human NHL with specific markers of the mutator phenotype, we found here 12 MSI-H cases (12/603, 2%). Of interest, we demonstrated that this phenotype was specifically associated with immunodeficiency-related lymphomas (ID-RL), because it was observed in both posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (9/111, 8.1%) and HIV infection-related lymphomas (3/128, 2.3%) but not in a large series of NHL arising in the general population (0/364) (P < 0.0001). The MSI pathway is known to lead to the production of hundreds of abnormal protein neoantigens that are generated in MSI-H neoplasms by frameshift mutations of a number of genes containing coding microsatellite sequences. As expected, MSI-H ID-RL were found to harbor such genetic alterations in 12 target genes with a putative role in lymphomagenesis. The observation that the MSI-H phenotype was restricted to HIV infection-related lymphomas and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders suggests the existence of the highly immunogenic mutator pathway as a novel oncogenic process in lymphomagenesis whose role is favored when host immunosurveillance is reduced. Because MSI-H-positive cases were found to be either Epstein-Barr virus-positive or -negative, the mutator pathway should act synergistically or not with this other oncogenic factor, playing an important role in ID-RL. PMID:15047891

  10. Spatial database of mining-related features in 2001 at selected phosphate mines, Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham, and Caribou Counties, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Phillip R.; Kayser, Helen Z.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the spatial database, PHOSMINE01, and the processes used to delineate mining-related features (active and inactive/historical) in the core of the southeastern Idaho phosphate resource area. The spatial data have varying degrees of accuracy and attribution detail. Classification of areas by type of mining-related activity at active mines is generally detailed; however, for many of the closed or inactive mines the spatial coverage does not differentiate mining-related surface disturbance features. Nineteen phosphate mine sites are included in the study, three active phosphate mines - Enoch Valley (nearing closure), Rasmussen Ridge, and Smoky Canyon - and 16 inactive (or historical) phosphate mines - Ballard, Champ, Conda, Diamond Gulch, Dry Valley, Gay, Georgetown Canyon, Henry, Home Canyon, Lanes Creek, Maybe Canyon, Mountain Fuel, Trail Canyon, Rattlesnake, Waterloo, and Wooley Valley. Approximately 6,000 hc (15,000 ac), or 60 km2 (23 mi2) of phosphate mining-related surface disturbance are documented in the spatial coverage. Spatial data for the inactive mines is current because no major changes have occurred; however, the spatial data for active mines were derived from digital maps prepared in early 2001 and therefore recent activity is not included. The inactive Gay Mine has the largest total area of disturbance, 1,900 hc (4,700 ac) or about 19 km2 (7.4 mi2). It encompasses over three times the disturbance area of the next largest mine, the Conda Mine with 610 hc (1,500 ac), and it is nearly four times the area of the Smoky Canyon Mine, the largest of the active mines with about 550 hc (1,400 ac). The wide range of phosphate mining-related surface disturbance features (141) from various industry maps were reduced to 15 types or features based on a generic classification system used for this study: mine pit; backfilled mine pit; waste rock dump; adit and waste rock dump; ore stockpile; topsoil stockpile; tailings or tailings pond; sediment

  11. The reciprocal constitutive features of a Middle Eastern partnership: The Russian–Syrian bilateral relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Tudoroiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the concept of reciprocal socialization, this article argues that the Damascus–Moscow partnership has been since 1970 a reciprocal constitutive relation that has influenced considerably the actions, interests, and identities of the two partners. During the last two decades of the Cold War it represented an almost ideal-type example of a relationship between a super-power and its regional ally that, through its complex consequences, shaped significantly the two partners themselves, the Middle Eastern political and security environment, and the international system as a whole. Post-2003 developments and especially the present Syrian crisis also have influenced considerably the two states' identity-building processes. After the US invasion of Iraq, the patterns of renewed bilateral cooperation have mirrored, at least in part, the Cold War ones. The Arab Spring enforced this trend. Yet, today the International Relations identity of Russia is quite different from the Soviet era one. The main consequence is that Moscow's new identity prevents it from supporting the regime in Damascus at any cost. If military operations take a turn threatening seriously the survival of that regime, it is likely that the Kremlin will not escalate its pro-al-Asad involvement, thus accepting the possible fall of its Middle Eastern ally.

  12. Mapping surface disturbance of energy-related infrastructure in southwest Wyoming--An assessment of methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaine, Stephen S.; O'Donnell, Michael S.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Baer, Lori; Fancher, Tammy; McBeth, Jamie; McDougal, Robert R.; Waltermire, Robert; Bowen, Zachary H.; Diffendorfer, James; Garman, Steven; Hanson, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated how well three leading information-extraction software programs (eCognition, Feature Analyst, Feature Extraction) and manual hand digitization interpreted information from remotely sensed imagery of a visually complex gas field in Wyoming. Specifically, we compared how each mapped the area of and classified the disturbance features present on each of three remotely sensed images, including 30-meter-resolution Landsat, 10-meter-resolution SPOT (Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre), and 0.6-meter resolution pan-sharpened QuickBird scenes. Feature Extraction mapped the spatial area of disturbance features most accurately on the Landsat and QuickBird imagery, while hand digitization was most accurate on the SPOT imagery. Footprint non-overlap error was smallest on the Feature Analyst map of the Landsat imagery, the hand digitization map of the SPOT imagery, and the Feature Extraction map of the QuickBird imagery. When evaluating feature classification success against a set of ground-truthed control points, Feature Analyst, Feature Extraction, and hand digitization classified features with similar success on the QuickBird and SPOT imagery, while eCognition classified features poorly relative to the other methods. All maps derived from Landsat imagery classified disturbance features poorly. Using the hand digitized QuickBird data as a reference and making pixel-by-pixel comparisons, Feature Extraction classified features best overall on the QuickBird imagery, and Feature Analyst classified features best overall on the SPOT and Landsat imagery. Based on the entire suite of tasks we evaluated, Feature Extraction performed best overall on the Landsat and QuickBird imagery, while hand digitization performed best overall on the SPOT imagery, and eCognition performed worst overall on all three images. Error rates for both area measurements and feature classification were prohibitively high on Landsat imagery, while QuickBird was time and cost prohibitive for

  13. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw in a multiple myeloma patient: A case report with characteristic radiographic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Do; Park, Moo-Rim; Kwon, Kyung-Hwan

    2015-09-01

    A 59-year-old male who had suffered from multiple myeloma for nine years and had been administered bisphosphonates for seven years visited a dental hospital for pain relief due to extensive caries in his left maxillary molars. The molars were extracted, leaving an exposed wound for three months. The radiograph showed sequestra formation and irregular bone destruction in the left maxilla. Sudden pain and gingival swelling in the right mandibular molar area occurred six months later. The interseptum of the right lower second molar was observed to be necrotic during surgery. These findings coincided with the features of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). In this case, the long intravenous administration of bisphosphonates and tooth extraction were likely the etiologic factors of BRONJ in a patient with multiple myeloma; moreover, the bilateral occurrence of BRONJ is a characteristic feature.

  14. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw in a multiple myeloma patient: A case report with characteristic radiographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Do; Kwon, Kyung Hwan; Park, Moo Rim

    2015-01-01

    A 59-year-old male who had suffered from multiple myeloma for nine years and had been administered bisphosphonates for seven years visited a dental hospital for pain relief due to extensive caries in his left maxillary molars. The molars were extracted, leaving an exposed wound for three months. The radiograph showed sequestra formation and irregular bone destruction in the left maxilla. Sudden pain and gingival swelling in the right mandibular molar area occurred six months later. The interseptum of the right lower second molar was observed to be necrotic during surgery. These findings coincided with the features of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). In this case, the long intravenous administration of bisphosphonates and tooth extraction were likely the etiologic factors of BRONJ in a patient with multiple myeloma; moreover, the bilateral occurrence of BRONJ is a characteristic feature

  15. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw in a multiple myeloma patient: A case report with characteristic radiographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do; Kwon, Kyung Hwan [College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Moo Rim [Dept. of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    A 59-year-old male who had suffered from multiple myeloma for nine years and had been administered bisphosphonates for seven years visited a dental hospital for pain relief due to extensive caries in his left maxillary molars. The molars were extracted, leaving an exposed wound for three months. The radiograph showed sequestra formation and irregular bone destruction in the left maxilla. Sudden pain and gingival swelling in the right mandibular molar area occurred six months later. The interseptum of the right lower second molar was observed to be necrotic during surgery. These findings coincided with the features of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). In this case, the long intravenous administration of bisphosphonates and tooth extraction were likely the etiologic factors of BRONJ in a patient with multiple myeloma; moreover, the bilateral occurrence of BRONJ is a characteristic feature.

  16. Optimized maintenance concept of safety relevant valves related to ageing management features in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koring, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the existing concept in E.ON Kernkraft and its sound application to ageing management issues by focussing on group 2 components such as safety relevant valves. It is demonstrated how the maintenance concept of safety relevant valves is supported by a valve diagnostic system accompanied by an applied procedure to assess the measured results with respect to the required functionality and ageing phenomena. Furthermore this concept has been developed to optimize the existing preventive maintenance of the safety relevant valves by implementing condition oriented aspects derived from the diagnostic results. The main issue of this maintenance concept is to demonstrate the high level of the secured function, reliability and performance of the safety relevant valves within an integrated ageing management. Additionally it offers improvements of all preventive maintenance issues as maintenance periods and the component related volume, spare parts management and costs. (author)

  17. Main features of the pressurized component life management related R and D activity in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillemot, F.; Oszwald, F.

    1995-01-01

    During the last one and half years the following main developments related to the life-time management of the NPP units took place in Hungary: 1. National project named AGNES (Advanced General New Evaluation of Safety) finished. 2. The first results of the extended surveillance program of NPP Paks has been measured. 3. The upgraded ultrasonic testing equipment used for RPV outside testing, and nozzle testing is regularly used in refuelling periods. 4. Radiation embrittlement and thermal ageing research started on RPV materials, mainly on cladding. 5. Participation in the development of the IAEA RPV ageing database. 6. Participation in IAEA pilot studies on ageing. 7. Operation of the Budapest Research Reactor, and building a new high capacity helium cooled irradiation rig. 8. Nondestructive evaluation of material ageing of a steam generator vessels. 9. A life-time calculation of Paks RPV-s. This report is a short survey of these developments. 19 refs, 4 figs

  18. Relation Between Early Maladaptive Schemes and Anxiety and Depression Features in University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lucía Sánchez-Ortíz***

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and depression are important health problems, because of the high prevalence rates in normal population and in clinical population. This non-experimental study intends to identify the cognitive profile, through the early maladaptive schemes in students from the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana Bucaramanga, related with depression and anxiety scores. Thegoal is to contribute to the identification of cognitive characteristics that could help in the prevention of these disorders. 259 psychology students of the first seven semesters were evaluated by means from the following questionnaires: BDI, ST/DEP, STAI and YSQ-L2. The results don’t show the presence of specific schemes as a function of the presence of State/ Trait depression or State/Trait anxiety, which might suggest, through the dimensional paradigm, the presence of a cognitive pattern for an anxiety and depression mix disorder. It is suggested that further research should be carried out with other samples, including clinical population.

  19. Epigenetic features of testicular germ cell tumours in relation to epigenetic characteristics of foetal germ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Dina Graae; Skakkebæk, Niels E; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    in humans. However, the common precursor of testicular cancers- the carcinoma in situ (CIS) cell- is thought to be an arrested foetal germ cell. Therefore studies of CIS cells may leverage information on human foetal germ cell development and, in particular, when neoplastic transformation is initiated....... In this review, we will focus on current knowledge of the epigenetics of CIS cells and relate it to the epigenetic changes occurring in early developing germ cells of mice during specification, migration and colonization. We will focus on DNA methylation and some of the best studied histone modifications like H3...... event in the initiation of testicular germ cell cancer. Even though only sparse information is available on epigenetic cues in human foetal germ cells, these indicate that the developmental patterns differ from the findings in mice and emphasize the need for further studies of foetal germ cell...

  20. Significant Features of Warm Season Water Vapor Flux Related to Heavy Rainfall and Draught in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Koji; Iseri, Yoshihiko; Jinno, Kenji

    2009-11-01

    In this study, our objective is to reveal complicated relationships between spatial water vapor inflow patterns and heavy rainfall activities in Kyushu located in the western part of Japan, using the outcomes of pattern recognition of water vapor inflow, based on the Self-Organizing Map. Consequently, it could be confirmed that water vapor inflow patterns control the distribution and the frequency of heavy rainfall depending on the direction of their fluxes and the intensity of Precipitable water. Historically serious flood disasters in South Kyushu in 1993 were characterized by high frequency of the water vapor inflow patterns linking to heavy rainfall. On the other hand, severe draught in 1994 was characterized by inactive frontal activity that do not related to heavy rainfall.

  1. A hospital cafeteria-related food-borne outbreak due to Bacillus cereus: unique features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddour, L M; Gaia, S M; Griffin, R; Hudson, R

    1986-09-01

    Although Bacillus cereus is a well-known cause of food-borne illness, hospital-related outbreaks of food-borne disease due to B. cereus have rarely been documented. We report a hospital employee cafeteria outbreak due to foods contaminated with B. cereus in which an outside caterer was employed to prepare the suspect meals. Data were collected from 249 of 291 employees who had eaten either of the two meals. With a mean incubation period of 12.5 hours, 64% (160 of 249) of employees manifested illness. Symptoms, which averaged 24.3 hours in duration, included diarrhea (96.3%), abdominal cramps (90%), nausea (50.6%), weakness (24.7%), and vomiting (13.8%). Eighty-seven employees sought medical attention, 84 of whom were seen in an emergency room. Although a significant difference was not demonstrated in food-specific attack rates, B. cereus was cultured from both rice and chicken items that were served at both meals. Sixty-three employees submitted stools for culture that grew no enteric pathogens, but none were examined for B. cereus. This food-borne outbreak demonstrates: the need for hospital kitchen supervisors to ensure proper handling of food when outside caterers are employed; that significant differences in food-specific attack rates may not be demonstrated in outbreaks, which may be related to several factors; and the importance of notifying microbiology laboratory personnel when B. cereus is a suspect enteric pathogen, since many laboratories do not routinely attempt to identify this organism in stool specimens.

  2. Statistical distributions of earthquakes and related non-linear features in seismic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, B.-F.

    2006-01-01

    A few basic facts in the science of the earthquakes are briefly reviewed. An accumulation, or growth, model is put forward for the focal mechanisms and the critical focal zone of the earthquakes, which relates the earthquake average recurrence time to the released seismic energy. The temporal statistical distribution for average recurrence time is introduced for earthquakes, and, on this basis, the Omori-type distribution in energy is derived, as well as the distribution in magnitude, by making use of the semi-empirical Gutenberg-Richter law relating seismic energy to earthquake magnitude. On geometric grounds, the accumulation model suggests the value r = 1/3 for the Omori parameter in the power-law of energy distribution, which leads to β = 1,17 for the coefficient in the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence law, in fair agreement with the statistical analysis of the empirical data. Making use of this value, the empirical Bath's law is discussed for the average magnitude of the aftershocks (which is 1.2 less than the magnitude of the main seismic shock), by assuming that the aftershocks are relaxation events of the seismic zone. The time distribution of the earthquakes with a fixed average recurrence time is also derived, the earthquake occurrence prediction is discussed by means of the average recurrence time and the seismicity rate, and application of this discussion to the seismic region Vrancea, Romania, is outlined. Finally, a special effect of non-linear behaviour of the seismic waves is discussed, by describing an exact solution derived recently for the elastic waves equation with cubic anharmonicities, its relevance, and its connection to the approximate quasi-plane waves picture. The properties of the seismic activity accompanying a main seismic shock, both like foreshocks and aftershocks, are relegated to forthcoming publications. (author)

  3. Relating Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis) occupancy to habitat and landscape features in the context of fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jane E.; Buhl, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    The Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis) is a focal species of concern associated with shallowly flooded emergent wetlands, most commonly sedge (Carex spp.) meadows. Their populations are believed to be limited by loss or degradation of wetland habitat due to drainage, altered hydrology, and fire suppression, factors that have often resulted in encroachment of shrubs into sedge meadows and change in vegetative cover. Nocturnal call-playback surveys for Yellow Rails were conducted over 3 years at Seney National Wildlife Refuge in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Effects of habitat structure and landscape variables on the probability of use by Yellow Rails were assessed at two scales, representing a range of home range sizes, using generalized linear mixed models. At the 163-m (8-ha) scale, year with quadratic models of maximum and mean water depths best explained the data. At the 300-m (28-ha) scale, the best model contained year and time since last fire (≤ 1, 2–5, and > 10 years). The probability of use by Yellow Rails was 0.285 ± 0.132 (SE) for points burned 2-5 years ago, 0.253 ± 0.097 for points burned ≤ 1 year ago, and 0.028 ± 0.019 for points burned > 10 years ago. Habitat differences relative to fire history and comparisons between sites with and without Yellow Rails indicated that Yellow Rails used areas with the deepest litter and highest ground cover, and relatively low shrub cover and heights, as well as landscapes having greater sedge-grass cover and less lowland woody or upland cover types. Burning every 2-5 years appears to provide the litter, ground-level cover, and woody conditions attractive to Yellow Rails. Managers seeking to restore and sustain these wetland systems would benefit from further investigations into how flooding and fire create habitat conditions attractive to breeding Yellow Rails

  4. Exploring the Moderating Role of Problematic Substance Use in the Relations Between Borderline and Antisocial Personality Features and Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenti, Nicholas A; Snead, Alexandra L; Babcock, Julia C

    2018-02-01

    Borderline and antisocial personality features relate to multiple externalizing behaviors, including intimate partner violence (IPV). However, not all individuals with borderline and antisocial traits perpetrate IPV. The strength of the personality-IPV link may be related to problematic substance use. We examined borderline and antisocial personality features, problematic substance use, and IPV in a community sample of couples. Positive relations between both borderline and antisocial features and IPV were stronger in conditions of high problematic alcohol use relative to low problematic alcohol use. Alcohol misuse may be an important factor to consider for IPV reduction in men with these personality features.

  5. THE CITY- THE PORT-THE SEA The evolutive features of a complex relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Coletta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The balanced relation between the city and the sea was at the centre of the Greek philosophy. During the flourishing of the Hellenic civilization, Plato began wondering about the appropriate characteristics of a site for an urban settlement near the sea. An ideal-type of urban settlement model resulted, based on accessibility, safety, hygienism, productivity, proximity to energy sources, prosperity.Renaissance artists appealed to the ancient knowledge in order to renew the treatises about architecture and town planning, in the perspective of building new models aiming at making perfect the structure and the soul of the city through a strictly geometric form.The harbour rose with open arms, towards the sea; a hug aiming at showing the pleasure of meeting,  guaranteeing shelter, protection, safety and friendly welcome.On the contrary, the harbour turns its back to the city and sometimes it moves the city away, in order to keep a certain distance.Physical and institutional barriers intervene between the city and the sea, claiming autonomous political-administrative and planning roles, often hindering, instead of fostering, natural osmotic processes, debasing functions, roles and social, economic, political and cultural interests of reciprocal belonging.Almost everywhere the legislative evolution has followed, and not preceded, the territorial devastation of settlements along the coasts – especially the devastation spontaneously risen – and only later has tried to hold in check a phenomenon sadly fallen in the ways of doing and the emptiness of thinking, letting the “habit of doing” prevail the conservative legislation based on placing pickets to the “not to do” approach; that situation in the light of an economic power become the director of political power, conditioned at opening eyes on doing for half-closing eyes on business.The new city-sea relation has to be studied as a valorisation, not as mere protective measures prescribed by

  6. Carotid plaque age is a feature of plaque stability inversely related to levels of plasma insulin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hägg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The stability of atherosclerotic plaques determines the risk for rupture, which may lead to thrombus formation and potentially severe clinical complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Although the rate of plaque formation may be important for plaque stability, this process is not well understood. We took advantage of the atmospheric (14C-declination curve (a result of the atomic bomb tests in the 1950s and 1960s to determine the average biological age of carotid plaques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: The cores of carotid plaques were dissected from 29 well-characterized, symptomatic patients with carotid stenosis and analyzed for (14C content by accelerator mass spectrometry. The average plaque age (i.e. formation time was 9.6±3.3 years. All but two plaques had formed within 5-15 years before surgery. Plaque age was not associated with the chronological ages of the patients but was inversely related to plasma insulin levels (p = 0.0014. Most plaques were echo-lucent rather than echo-rich (2.24±0.97, range 1-5. However, plaques in the lowest tercile of plaque age (most recently formed were characterized by further instability with a higher content of lipids and macrophages (67.8±12.4 vs. 50.4±6.2, p = 0.00005; 57.6±26.1 vs. 39.8±25.7, p<0.0005, respectively, less collagen (45.3±6.1 vs. 51.1±9.8, p<0.05, and fewer smooth muscle cells (130±31 vs. 141±21, p<0.05 than plaques in the highest tercile. Microarray analysis of plaques in the lowest tercile also showed increased activity of genes involved in immune responses and oxidative phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show, for the first time, that plaque age, as judge by relative incorporation of (14C, can improve our understanding of carotid plaque stability and therefore risk for clinical complications. Our results also suggest that levels of plasma insulin might be involved in determining carotid plaque age.

  7. Using surfaces and surface relations in an early cognitive vision system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Mustafa, Wail; Popovic, Mila

    2015-01-01

    We present a deep hierarchical visual system with two parallel hierarchies for edge and surface information. In the two hierarchies, complementary visual information is represented on different levels of granularity together with the associated uncertainties and confidences. At all levels geometric...... and appearance information is coded explicitly in 2D and 3D allowing to access this information separately and to link between the different levels. We demonstrate the advantages of such hierarchies in three applications covering grasping, view-point independent object representation, and pose estimation....

  8. Relation between uranium mineralization and structural features, Gebel Gattar, north eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.B.; Shalaby, M.H.; Abuzaid, M.M.; Ragab, A.

    1998-01-01

    Gebel Gattar area is situated in the northern Eastern Desert of Egypt, SW Hurghada city and is considered as an area of high potentialities for uranium deposits. The area is covered by Hammamat sediments and Gattarian granites. The Hammamat sediments are dissected by different types of dykes, while Gebel Gattar granites are cut only by basic dykes. These granites are mentioned as the younger pink granites, perthitic leucogranites, calc-alkaline and within plate granites. The structural deformations of the study area are represented by primary structures and secondary ones. The most prevailing structures are folding, faulting and jointing. The faults, especially those trending in the NNE-SSW and N-S directions played as pass ways to the ascending uranium-bearing hydrothermal solutions carrying uranium mineralizations. Most of them are located within a large pull apart basin. It is found from the relation between structures and uranium mineralization within the highly pro missing shear zones that uranium mineralizations are located within a large pull-apart basin, having about 2 km length and 0.5 km width. This idea is based up on the distribution of uranium mineralized lenses as shown in a block diagram. This conclusion is based on the structural framework of the area, the shape of mineralization and its distribution and their mutual relationships of Gl, Gll and GVl shear zones

  9. Desferrioxamine-induced long bone changes in thalassaemic patients - Radiographic features, prevalence and relations with growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Y.L.; Li, C.K.; Pang, L.M.; Chik, K.W

    2000-08-01

    AIM: To study the radiographic findings of desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia, its prevalence and relation to growth in thalassaemic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 35 thalassaemic patients on a hypertransfusion scheme and chelation therapy at a dose not exceeding 50 mg/kg/day. Radiographs of the left hand taken for bone age assessment in consecutive patients over the past 12 months were evaluated for signs of desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia. The findings were correlated with data on growth, chelation and body iron content. RESULTS: Twelve of 35 patients had evidence of desferrioxamine-induced long bone dysplasia. There was no significant difference in the groups with and without radiographic evidence of bone dysplasia with respect to the height percentile at time of initiation of therapy, height percentile at time of radiography, skeletal age delay, age at starting chelation, chelation dose and duration, units of blood transfused, average chelation dose, and serum ferritin levels at time of radiography. Both groups showed a reduced percentile growth with a significantly greater reduction (P = 0.03) in the patients with dysplastic change. CONCLUSION: Desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia is associated with height reduction and can be seen in patients receiving desferrioxamine chelation therapy at doses of less than 50 mg/kg/day. Awareness of the diagnosis is of importance as reduction of the desferrioxamine dose may improve bone growth. Chan, Y. L. (2000)

  10. Genome mining of Streptomyces scabrisporus NF3 reveals symbiotic features including genes related to plant interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Luna, Stefany Daniela; Cruz Vázquez, Angélica Patricia; Jiménez Suárez, Verónica; Rodríguez-Sanoja, Romina; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.; Sánchez, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria are wide-spread and associated with plant physiological benefits, yet their genomes and secondary metabolites remain largely unidentified. In this study, we explored the genome of the endophyte Streptomyces scabrisporus NF3 for discovery of potential novel molecules as well as genes and metabolites involved in host interactions. The complete genomes of seven Streptomyces and three other more distantly related bacteria were used to define the functional landscape of this unique microbe. The S. scabrisporus NF3 genome is larger than the average Streptomyces genome and not structured for an obligate endosymbiotic lifestyle; this and the fact that can grow in R2YE media implies that it could include a soil-living stage. The genome displays an enrichment of genes associated with amino acid production, protein secretion, secondary metabolite and antioxidants production and xenobiotic degradation, indicating that S. scabrisporus NF3 could contribute to the metabolic enrichment of soil microbial communities and of its hosts. Importantly, besides its metabolic advantages, the genome showed evidence for differential functional specificity and diversification of plant interaction molecules, including genes for the production of plant hormones, stress resistance molecules, chitinases, antibiotics and siderophores. Given the diversity of S. scabrisporus mechanisms for host upkeep, we propose that these strategies were necessary for its adaptation to plant hosts and to face changes in environmental conditions. PMID:29447216

  11. Genome mining of Streptomyces scabrisporus NF3 reveals symbiotic features including genes related to plant interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Diana Ceapă

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria are wide-spread and associated with plant physiological benefits, yet their genomes and secondary metabolites remain largely unidentified. In this study, we explored the genome of the endophyte Streptomyces scabrisporus NF3 for discovery of potential novel molecules as well as genes and metabolites involved in host interactions. The complete genomes of seven Streptomyces and three other more distantly related bacteria were used to define the functional landscape of this unique microbe. The S. scabrisporus NF3 genome is larger than the average Streptomyces genome and not structured for an obligate endosymbiotic lifestyle; this and the fact that can grow in R2YE media implies that it could include a soil-living stage. The genome displays an enrichment of genes associated with amino acid production, protein secretion, secondary metabolite and antioxidants production and xenobiotic degradation, indicating that S. scabrisporus NF3 could contribute to the metabolic enrichment of soil microbial communities and of its hosts. Importantly, besides its metabolic advantages, the genome showed evidence for differential functional specificity and diversification of plant interaction molecules, including genes for the production of plant hormones, stress resistance molecules, chitinases, antibiotics and siderophores. Given the diversity of S. scabrisporus mechanisms for host upkeep, we propose that these strategies were necessary for its adaptation to plant hosts and to face changes in environmental conditions.

  12. Effect of microstructure and surface features on wetting angle of a Fe-3.2 wt%C.E. cast iron with water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Samira; Niroumand, Behzad; Dorri Moghadam, Afsaneh; Rohatgi, Pradeep K.

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, variation in surface wetting behavior of a hypoeutectic cast iron with its microstructural features and surface roughness was investigated. Samples with an identical composition, i.e. Fe-3.2 wt%C.E., and different microstructures (a gray cast iron with A-type flake graphite and a white cast iron) were fabricated by gravity casting of molten cast iron in a chill mold at different cooling rates. A variation of surface roughness was also developed by polishing, a four-stage electroetching and a four-stage mechanical abrading on the samples. Roughness and water contact angles of all surfaces were then measured. The surface roughness factor and the solid fraction in contact with water by the Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter contact models were also calculated and compared with the corresponding measured contact angles to find out which regime was active. Results indicated that the surface microstructure and the type of constituents present at the surface influenced the cast iron surface wettability and that it was possible to change the surface contact angle by modification of the surface microstructure. The mechanically abraded gray cast iron followed the Wenzel-type regime while the electroetched surfaces of gray cast iron exhibited a transition from Wenzel to Cassie-Baxter type regime. In white cast iron, the results indicated Wenzel type behavior in the electroetched samples while for the mechanically abraded samples, none of these two models could predict the wetting behavior. Furthermore, the wetting angles of both gray and white cast irons were measured after 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks of air exposure. The results showed that the wetting angles of both samples increased to above 90° after one week of air exposure which was likely due to adsorption of low surface energy hydrocarbons on the surfaces.

  13. DDAH2 mRNA expression is inversely associated with some cardiovascular risk-related features in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchau, Blanca; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Zulet, M Angeles; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the mRNA expression profiles of three genes (PRMT1, DDAH2 and NOS3) are related to ADMA metabolism and signalling, and the potential relationships with anthropometrical, biochemical, lifestyle and inflammatory indicators in healthy young adults. An emphasis on the putative effect of different mRNA expression on cardiovascular risk-related features was paid. Anthropometrical measurements as well as lifestyle features were analyzed in 120 healthy young adults. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucose and lipid profiles as well as the concentrations of selected inflammatory markers. Profiles of mRNA expression were assessed for PRMT1, DDAH2 and NOS3 genes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Regarding inflammatory biomarkers, DDAH2 was inversely associated with IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Moreover, subjects in the highest quintile of DDAH2 mRNA expression showed a reduced risk to have higher values of waist circumference, and to be more prone to show higher values of HDL-c. Interestingly, DDAH2 gene expression seemed to be related with some anthropometrical, biochemical, lifestyle and inflammatory indicators linked to cardiovascular risk in apparently healthy young adults, emerging as a potential disease marker.

  14. DDAH2 mRNA Expression Is Inversely Associated with Some Cardiovascular Risk-Related Features in Healthy Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Puchau

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the mRNA expression profiles of three genes (PRMT1, DDAH2 and NOS3 are related to ADMA metabolism and signalling, and the potential relationships with anthropometrical, biochemical, lifestyle and inflammatory indicators in healthy young adults. An emphasis on the putative effect of different mRNA expression on cardiovascular risk-related features was paid. Anthropometrical measurements as well as lifestyle features were analyzed in 120 healthy young adults. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucose and lipid profiles as well as the concentrations of selected inflammatory markers. Profiles of mRNA expression were assessed for PRMT1, DDAH2 and NOS3 genes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Regarding inflammatory biomarkers, DDAH2 was inversely associated with IL-6 and TNF-α. Moreover, subjects in the highest quintile of DDAH2 mRNA expression showed a reduced risk to have higher values of waist circumference, and to be more prone to show higher values of HDL-c. Interestingly, DDAH2 gene expression seemed to be related with some anthropometrical, biochemical, lifestyle and inflammatory indicators linked to cardiovascular risk in apparently healthy young adults, emerging as a potential disease marker.

  15. Surface Floating 2D Bands in Layered Nonsymmorphic Semimetals: ZrSiS and Related Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topp, Andreas; Queiroz, Raquel; Grüneis, Andreas; Müchler, Lukas; Rost, Andreas W.; Varykhalov, Andrei; Marchenko, Dmitry; Krivenkov, Maxim; Rodolakis, Fanny; McChesney, Jessica L.; Lotsch, Bettina V.; Schoop, Leslie M.; Ast, Christian R.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we present a model of the surface states of nonsymmorphic semimetals. These are derived from surface mass terms that lift the high degeneracy imposed in the band structure by the nonsymmorphic bulk symmetries. Reflecting the reduced symmetry at the surface, the bulk bands are strongly modified. This leads to the creation of two-dimensional floating bands, which are distinct from Shockley states, quantum well states or topologically protected surface states. We focus on the layered semimetal ZrSiS to clarify the origin of its surface states. We demonstrate an excellent agreement between DFT calculations and ARPES measurements and present an effective four-band model in which similar surface bands appear. Finally, we emphasize the role of the surface chemical potential by comparing the surface density of states in samples with and without potassium coating. Our findings can be extended to related compounds and generalized to other crystals with nonsymmorphic symmetries.

  16. Crystal structure and nanotopographical features on the surface of heat-treated and anodized porous titanium biomaterials produced using selective laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin Yavari, S., E-mail: s.aminyavari@tudelft.nl [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); FT Innovations BV, Braamsluiper 1, 5831 PW Boxmeer (Netherlands); Wauthle, R. [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Section Production Engineering, Machine Design and Automation (PMA), Celestijnenlaan 300B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); LayerWise NV, Kapeldreef 60, Leuven (Belgium); Böttger, A.J. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Schrooten, J. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44 PB 2450, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Weinans, H. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Department of Orthopedics and Department of Rheumatology, UMC Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Zadpoor, A.A. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-01-30

    Porous titanium biomaterials manufactured using additive manufacturing techniques such as selective laser melting are considered promising materials for orthopedic applications where the biomaterial needs to mimic the properties of bone. Despite their appropriate mechanical properties and the ample pore space they provide for bone ingrowth and osseointegration, porous titanium structures have an intrinsically bioinert surface and need to be subjected to surface bio-functionalizing procedures to enhance their in vivo performance. In this study, we used a specific anodizing process to build a hierarchical oxide layer on the surface of porous titanium structures made by selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V ELI powder. The hierarchical structure included both nanotopographical features (nanotubes) and micro-features (micropits). After anodizing, the biomaterial was heat treated in Argon at different temperatures ranging between 400 and 600 °C for either 1 or 2 h to improve its bioactivity. The effects of applied heat treatment on the crystal structure of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes and the nanotopographical features of the surface were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was shown that the transition from the initial crystal structure, i.e. anatase, to rutile occurs between 500 and 600 °C and that after 2 h of heat treatment at 600 °C the crystal structure is predominantly rutile. The nanotopographical features of the surface were found to be largely unchanged for heat treatments carried out at 500 °C or below, whereas they were partially or largely disrupted after heat treatment at 600 °C. The possible implications of these findings for the bioactivity of porous titanium structures are discussed.

  17. CONVECTIVE HEAT EXCHANGE ON THE LATERAL SURFACE OF A RELATIVELY LONG CYCLONE CHAMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Saburov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-turbulent swirling flows of heat carrier that are created by a cyclone chamber are used in industry. They make it possible to intensify processes of heat and mass exchange. The results of an experimental study of convective heat transfer on the lateral surface of the active volume of a relatively long cyclone chamber considerably exceeding the length of the chambers that were used in previously performed studies are presented and analyzed in the article. Air supply in the swirler of the chamber was performed tangentially from diametrically opposite sides of the two input channels. The gas outlet was implemented from the opposite end. The heat transfer by convection to the swirling air flow was studied by the method of changing the state of aggregation of a heating agent – condensation of slightly superheated steam. Collecting condensate from the working section was made through a water seal for maintaining a constant pressure calorimeter. The amount of heat transferred during experiment was determined by weight of the collected condensate. The specific features of influence of geometrical characteristics of cyclone chamber on intensity of heat exchange are considered. In the experiments we varied the relative diameter of the outlet port of the chamber dвых and the relative area of the input channels fвх. Segmental construction of the chamber made it possible to move a calorimeter on its length. The local heat transfer coefficient was determined for various values of the dimensionless longitudinal coordinate z coinciding with the axis of the chamber, and counted from the back end of the swirler. The estimated equations of heat transfer obtained during the research are presented and recommended for use in practice of engineering. The considered problem is of an interest from the point of view of further research of aerodynamics and of convective heat transfer in a highly swirling flow cyclone devices, in order to improve the

  18. Data related uncertainty in near-surface vulnerability assessments for agrochemicals in the San Joaquin Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loague, Keith; Blanke, James S; Mills, Melissa B; Diaz-Diaz, Ricardo; Corwin, Dennis L

    2012-01-01

    Precious groundwater resources across the United States have been contaminated due to decades-long nonpoint-source applications of agricultural chemicals. Assessing the impact of past, ongoing, and future chemical applications for large-scale agriculture operations is timely for designing best-management practices to prevent subsurface pollution. Presented here are the results from a series of regional-scale vulnerability assessments for the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Two relatively simple indices, the retardation and attenuation factors, are used to estimate near-surface vulnerabilities based on the chemical properties of 32 pesticides and the variability of both soil characteristics and recharge rates across the SJV. The uncertainties inherit to these assessments, derived from the uncertainties within the chemical and soil data bases, are estimated using first-order analyses. The results are used to screen and rank the chemicals based on mobility and leaching potential, without and with consideration of data-related uncertainties. Chemicals of historic high visibility in the SJV (e.g., atrazine, DBCP [dibromochloropropane], ethylene dibromide, and simazine) are ranked in the top half of those considered. Vulnerability maps generated for atrazine and DBCP, featured for their legacy status in the study area, clearly illustrate variations within and across the assessments. For example, the leaching potential is greater for DBCP than for atrazine, the leaching potential for DBCP is greater for the spatially variable recharge values than for the average recharge rate, and the leaching potentials for both DBCP and atrazine are greater for the annual recharge estimates than for the monthly recharge estimates. The data-related uncertainties identified in this study can be significant, targeting opportunities for improving future vulnerability assessments. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America

  19. Statistical characterization of surface features from tungsten-coated divertor inserts in the DIII-D Metal Rings Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jacob; Unterberg, Ezekial; Chrobak, Christopher; Stahl, Brian; Abrams, Tyler

    2017-10-01

    Continuing analysis of tungsten-coated inserts from the recent DIII-D Metal Rings Campaign utilizes a statistical approach to study carbon migration and deposition on W surfaces and to characterize the pre- versus post-exposure surface morphology. A TZM base was coated with W using both CVD and PVD and allowed for comparison between the two coating methods. The W inserts were positioned in the lower DIII-D divertor in both the upper (shelf) region and lower (floor) region and subjected to multiple plasma shots, primarily in H-mode. Currently, the post-exposure W inserts are being characterized using SEM/EDX to qualify the surface morphology and to quantify the surface chemical composition. In addition, profilometry is being used to measure the surface roughness of the inserts both before and after plasma exposure. Preliminary results suggest a correlation between the pre-exposure surface roughness and the level of carbon deposited on the surface. Furthermore, ongoing in-depth analysis may reveal insights into the formation mechanism of nanoscale bumps found in the carbon-rich regions of the W surfaces that have not yet been explained. Work supported in part by US DoE under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program and under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  20. Dispersion and energy conservation relations of surface waves in semi-infinite plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanassov, V.

    1981-01-01

    The hydrodynamic theory of surface wave propagation in semi-infinite homogeneous isotropic plasma is considered. Explicit linear surface wave solutions are given for the electric and magnetic fields, charge and current densities. These solutions are used to obtain the well-known dispersion relations and, together with the general energy conservation equation, to find appropriate definitions for the energy and the energy flow densities of surface waves. These densities are associated with the dispersion relation and the group velocity by formulae similar to those for bulk waves in infinite plasmas. Both cases of high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) surface waves are considered. (author)

  1. Analysis of respiratory events in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: Inter-relations and association to simple nocturnal features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandeharioun, H; Rezaeitalab, F; Lotfi, R

    2016-01-01

    This study carefully evaluates the association of different respiration-related events to each other and to simple nocturnal features in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAS). The events include apneas, hypopneas, respiratory event-related arousals and snores. We conducted a statistical study on 158 adults who underwent polysomnography between July 2012 and May 2014. To monitor relevance, along with linear statistical strategies like analysis of variance and bootstrapping a correlation coefficient standard error, the non-linear method of mutual information is also applied to illuminate vague results of linear techniques. Based on normalized mutual information weights (NMIW), indices of apnea are 1.3 times more relevant to AHI values than those of hypopnea. NMIW for the number of blood oxygen desaturation below 95% is considerable (0.531). The next relevant feature is "respiratory arousals index" with NMIW of 0.501. Snore indices (0.314), and BMI (0.203) take the next place. Based on NMIW values, snoring events are nearly one-third (29.9%) more dependent to hypopneas than RERAs. 1. The more sever the OSAS is, the more frequently the apneic events happen. 2. The association of snore with hypopnea/RERA revealed which is routinely ignored in regression-based OSAS modeling. 3. The statistical dependencies of oximetry features potentially can lead to home-based screening of OSAS. 4. Poor ESS-AHI relevance in the database under study indicates its disability for the OSA diagnosis compared to oximetry. 5. Based on poor RERA-snore/ESS relevance, detailed history of the symptoms plus polysomnography is suggested for accurate diagnosis of RERAs. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Fabrication of narrow surface relief features in a side-chain azobenzene polyester with a scanning near-field microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Holme, N. C. R.; Pedersen, M.

    2001-01-01

    We show that it is possible to fabricate topographic submicron features in a side-chain azobenzene polyester with a scanning near-field optical microscope, Through irradiation at a wavelength of 488 run at intensity levels of 12 W/cm(2), topographic features as narrow as 240 nm and as high as 6 nm...... have been reproducibly recorded in a thin film of the polyester. These observations are consistent with the fact that at low intensities peaks are produced evolving into formation of trenches at high intensities in the case of amorphous side-chain azobenzene polyesters. This may find applications...

  3. FEATURES OF DYNAMIC CHANGE OF INNER DISEASE-RELATION TYPE IN COHORT OF PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM ADDICTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Grigoryan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Pathoplastic modification of addictive disorders with affective spectrum violations, leads to the formation of the psychopathological cluster that have specific structural and dynamic features.Methods and results. In order to assess the dynamics of change of disease-relation type by LOBY questionnaire, 100 patients from «Zaporozhye Regional Narcological Dispensary» suffering from polydrug usage and affective spectrum disorders were examined in the following clinical periods: withdrawal state, further inpatient and outpatient follow-up.Conclusion. The solidity of background psychopathological disorders in perspective of their affiliation to somatogenically-organic register, for the entire study contingent was found. Dynamics of change of disease-relation type illustrates partially reversible character of these disorders.

  4. Visual search for feature conjunctions: an fMRI study comparing alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) to ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Conaill, Carrie R; Malisza, Krisztina L; Buss, Joan L; Bolster, R Bruce; Clancy, Christine; de Gervai, Patricia Dreessen; Chudley, Albert E; Longstaffe, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) falls under the umbrella of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Diagnosis of ARND is difficult because individuals do not demonstrate the characteristic facial features associated with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). While attentional problems in ARND are similar to those found in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the underlying impairment in attention pathways may be different. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was conducted at 3 T. Sixty-three children aged 10 to 14 years diagnosed with ARND, ADHD, and typically developing (TD) controls performed a single-feature and a feature-conjunction visual search task. Dorsal and ventral attention pathways were activated during both attention tasks in all groups. Significantly greater activation was observed in ARND subjects during a single-feature search as compared to TD and ADHD groups, suggesting ARND subjects require greater neural recruitment to perform this simple task. ARND subjects appear unable to effectively use the very efficient automatic perceptual 'pop-out' mechanism employed by TD and ADHD groups during presentation of the disjunction array. By comparison, activation was lower in ARND compared to TD and ADHD subjects during the more difficult conjunction search task as compared to the single-feature search. Analysis of DTI data using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) showed areas of significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and higher mean diffusivity (MD) in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) in ARND compared to TD subjects. Damage to the white matter of the ILF may compromise the ventral attention pathway and may require subjects to use the dorsal attention pathway, which is associated with effortful top-down processing, for tasks that should be automatic. Decreased functional activity in the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) of ARND subjects may be due to a

  5. Cell behavior related to implant surfaces with different microstructure and chemical composition: an in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conserva, Enrico; Lanuti, Anna; Menini, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on an in vitro comparison of osteoblast and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation related to two different surface treatments applied to the same implant design to determine whether the interaction between cells and implants is influenced by surface structure and chemical composition of the implants. Thirty-nine implants with a sandblasted (SB) surface and 39 implants with a grit-blasted and high-temperature acid-etched (GBAE) surface were used. The implant macrostructures and microstructures were analyzed by high- and low-voltage scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by stereo-SEM. The surface chemical composition was investigated by energy dispersive analysis and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. SaOS-2 osteoblasts and human MSCs were used for the evaluation of cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activity in contact with the two surfaces. The GBAE surface showed fewer contaminants and a very high percentage of titanium (19.7%) compared to the SB surface (14.2%). The two surfaces showed similar mean roughness (Ra), but the depth (Rz) and density (RSm) of the porosity were significantly increased in the GBAE surface. The GBAE surface presented more osteoblast and MSC proliferation than the SB surface. No statistically significant differences in alkaline phosphatase activity were found between surfaces for either cellular line. The GBAE surface showed less surface contaminants and a higher percentage of titanium (19.7%) than the SB surface. The macro/micropore structured design and chemical composition of the GBAE surface allowed greater cell adhesion and proliferation and an earlier cell spreading but did not play an obvious role in in vitro cellular differentiation.

  6. Visualisation of variable binding pockets on protein surfaces by probabilistic analysis of related structure sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashford Paul

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein structures provide a valuable resource for rational drug design. For a protein with no known ligand, computational tools can predict surface pockets that are of suitable size and shape to accommodate a complementary small-molecule drug. However, pocket prediction against single static structures may miss features of pockets that arise from proteins' dynamic behaviour. In particular, ligand-binding conformations can be observed as transiently populated states of the apo protein, so it is possible to gain insight into ligand-bound forms by considering conformational variation in apo proteins. This variation can be explored by considering sets of related structures: computationally generated conformers, solution NMR ensembles, multiple crystal structures, homologues or homology models. It is non-trivial to compare pockets, either from different programs or across sets of structures. For a single structure, difficulties arise in defining particular pocket's boundaries. For a set of conformationally distinct structures the challenge is how to make reasonable comparisons between them given that a perfect structural alignment is not possible. Results We have developed a computational method, Provar, that provides a consistent representation of predicted binding pockets across sets of related protein structures. The outputs are probabilities that each atom or residue of the protein borders a predicted pocket. These probabilities can be readily visualised on a protein using existing molecular graphics software. We show how Provar simplifies comparison of the outputs of different pocket prediction algorithms, of pockets across multiple simulated conformations and between homologous structures. We demonstrate the benefits of use of multiple structures for protein-ligand and protein-protein interface analysis on a set of complexes and consider three case studies in detail: i analysis of a kinase superfamily highlights the

  7. Visualisation of variable binding pockets on protein surfaces by probabilistic analysis of related structure sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Paul; Moss, David S; Alex, Alexander; Yeap, Siew K; Povia, Alice; Nobeli, Irene; Williams, Mark A

    2012-03-14

    Protein structures provide a valuable resource for rational drug design. For a protein with no known ligand, computational tools can predict surface pockets that are of suitable size and shape to accommodate a complementary small-molecule drug. However, pocket prediction against single static structures may miss features of pockets that arise from proteins' dynamic behaviour. In particular, ligand-binding conformations can be observed as transiently populated states of the apo protein, so it is possible to gain insight into ligand-bound forms by considering conformational variation in apo proteins. This variation can be explored by considering sets of related structures: computationally generated conformers, solution NMR ensembles, multiple crystal structures, homologues or homology models. It is non-trivial to compare pockets, either from different programs or across sets of structures. For a single structure, difficulties arise in defining particular pocket's boundaries. For a set of conformationally distinct structures the challenge is how to make reasonable comparisons between them given that a perfect structural alignment is not possible. We have developed a computational method, Provar, that provides a consistent representation of predicted binding pockets across sets of related protein structures. The outputs are probabilities that each atom or residue of the protein borders a predicted pocket. These probabilities can be readily visualised on a protein using existing molecular graphics software. We show how Provar simplifies comparison of the outputs of different pocket prediction algorithms, of pockets across multiple simulated conformations and between homologous structures. We demonstrate the benefits of use of multiple structures for protein-ligand and protein-protein interface analysis on a set of complexes and consider three case studies in detail: i) analysis of a kinase superfamily highlights the conserved occurrence of surface pockets at the active

  8. Laser transformation hardening effect on hardening zone features and surface hardness of tool steel AISI D2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lesyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of technological input regimes of the laser transformation hardening on change the hardening depth, hardening width, and hardening angle, as well as surface hardness of the tool steel AISI D2 using multifactor experiment with elements of the analysis of variance and regression equations was determined. The laser transformation hardening process implemented by controlling the heating temperature using Nd:YAG fiber laser with scanner, pyrometer and proportional-integral-differential controller. The linear and quadratic regression models are developed, as well as response surface to determine the effect of the heating temperature and feed rate of the treated surface on the energy density of the laser beam, hardening depths, hardening width, hardening angle, and surface hardness are designed. The main effect on the energy density of the laser beam has a velocity laser treatment, on the other hand, the main effect on the geometrical parameters of the laser hardened zone and surface hardness has temperature heating are shown. The optimum magnitudes of the heating temperature (1270 °C and feed rate of the treated surface (90 mm/min for laser transformation hardening of the tool steel AISI D2 using fiber laser with scanner were defined.

  9. Adolescents' hypochondriacal fears and beliefs: Relationship with demographic features, psychological distress, well-being and health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, Laura; Ricci Garotti, Maria Grazia; Grandi, Silvana; Tossani, Eliana

    2015-10-01

    There is little previous literature on hypochondriacal attitudes in teens. We examined the relationship between adolescents' hypochondriacal fears and beliefs, demographic features, psychological distress and well-being, and health-related behaviors. Nine hundred and forty-eight students (53.4% males), aged 14-19years (mean 15.8±1.3years), completed the Illness Attitude Scales, the Symptom Questionnaire, and the Psychological Well-Being scales. Demographic features and health-related behaviors (smoking, alcohol consumption, illicit substance use, and sedentary, eating and sleep habits) were also collected. Hypochondriacal concerns were significantly higher among females and correlated with increased psychological distress and reduced well-being. One hundred and forty-nine participants (15.7% of the sample) reached the threshold of the "hypochondriacal responses", identified by Kellner as a screening method for clinically significant hypochondriacal symptoms. The "hypochondriacal responses" were significantly associated with higher levels of psychological distress, decreased well-being, and some unhealthy behaviors: smoking, use of illicit substances, physical inactivity, and short sleep. Female gender, physical inactivity, and higher levels of hostility independently predicted the "hypochondriacal responses" pattern. A substantial percentage of adolescents experience significant concerns about health. Excessive illness fears are associated with less healthy behaviors. A thorough assessment of illness-related concerns may be crucial for the prevention of both the development of more structured forms of abnormal illness behavior (e.g., severe health anxiety) and the engagement in some unhealthy lifestyles in adolescents. However, it may also be that unhealthy behaviors lead to increased preoccupation with one's own health through adolescents' implicit knowledge about possible consequences of such behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The discontent degree in relations with the proximal social environment and adolescent personality features in Timis County, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Cristina; Vlaicu, Brigitha

    2015-01-01

    In our study we investigated whether there is a relation between the degree of discontent in relations with the proximal social environment (family and peer groups) and adolescent personality features. The study was conducted on a statistical representative and homogenous sample consisting of 2908 teenagers (51.5% girls and 48.5 % boys, aged between 15 and 19 years). It was an observational (case) study and it consisted in 2 questionnaires applying: Freiburg Personality Inventory (212 items) and CORT 2004 questionnaire (116 items, 6 referring to the discontent levels created by proximal social environment). Cronbach's alpha index was 0.802 for FPI and 0,910 for CORT 2004. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 16 program applying Chi square (χ2) and gamma (γ) correlation. Depression and Emotional lability correlated positively and powerfully with q15 (discontent degree of relations with present friend-peers) (γ = 0.471, Sig. 0.000, and γ = 0.383, Sig. 0.000, respectively) and q5 (discontent degree of the relation with parents) (γ = 0.380, Sig. 0.000, and γ = 0.337, Sig. 0.000, respectively). Sociability and calm correlated negative with q5 (γ = -0.14, Sig. 0.000, and γ = -0.35, Sig. 0.000, respectively), q15 (γ = -0.33, Sig. 000 and γ = -0.18, Sig. 000, respectively). In conclusion, there is direct proportional relation between the discontent degree of relations with friend-peers and parents and depression and emotional lability, and inverse proportional relation of friend-peers and parents with sociability and calm.

  11. Phylogeny Inference of Closely Related Bacterial Genomes: Combining the Features of Both Overlapping Genes and Collinear Genomic Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Cong; Lin, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Overlapping genes (OGs) represent one type of widespread genomic feature in bacterial genomes and have been used as rare genomic markers in phylogeny inference of closely related bacterial species. However, the inference may experience a decrease in performance for phylogenomic analysis of too closely or too distantly related genomes. Another drawback of OGs as phylogenetic markers is that they usually take little account of the effects of genomic rearrangement on the similarity estimation, such as intra-chromosome/genome translocations, horizontal gene transfer, and gene losses. To explore such effects on the accuracy of phylogeny reconstruction, we combine phylogenetic signals of OGs with collinear genomic regions, here called locally collinear blocks (LCBs). By putting these together, we refine our previous metric of pairwise similarity between two closely related bacterial genomes. As a case study, we used this new method to reconstruct the phylogenies of 88 Enterobacteriale genomes of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Our results demonstrated that the topological accuracy of the inferred phylogeny was improved when both OGs and LCBs were simultaneously considered, suggesting that combining these two phylogenetic markers may reduce, to some extent, the influence of gene loss on phylogeny inference. Such phylogenomic studies, we believe, will help us to explore a more effective approach to increasing the robustness of phylogeny reconstruction of closely related bacterial organisms. PMID:26715828

  12. LiDAR Relative Reflectivity Surface (2011) for the St. Thomas East End Reserve, St. Thomas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution relative seafloor reflectivity surface for the St. Thomas East End Reserve...

  13. Relation between bulk compressibility and surface energy of electron-hole liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singwi, K.S.; Tosi, M.P.

    1979-08-01

    Attention is drawn to the existence of an empirical relation chiσ/asup(*)sub(B) approximately 1 between the compressibility, the surface energy and the excitonic radius in electron-hole liquids. (author)

  14. Transcriptional profiles of pilocytic astrocytoma are related to their three different locations, but not to radiological tumor features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakrzewski, Krzysztof; Jarząb, Michał; Pfeifer, Aleksandra; Oczko-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Jarząb, Barbara; Liberski, Paweł P.; Zakrzewska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Pilocytic astrocytoma is the most common type of brain tumor in the pediatric population, with a generally favorable prognosis, although recurrences or leptomeningeal dissemination are sometimes also observed. For tumors originating in the supra-or infratentorial location, a different molecular background was suggested, but plausible correlations between the transcriptional profile and radiological features and/or clinical course are still undefined. The purpose of this study was to identify gene expression profiles related to the most frequent locations of this tumor, subtypes based on various radiological features, and the clinical pattern of the disease. Eighty six children (55 males and 31 females) with histologically verified pilocytic astrocytoma were included in this study. Their age at the time of diagnosis ranged from fourteen months to seventeen years, with a mean age of seven years. There were 40 cerebellar, 23 optic tract/hypothalamic, 21 cerebral hemispheric, and two brainstem tumors. According to the radiological features presented on MRI, all cases were divided into four subtypes: cystic tumor with a non-enhancing cyst wall; cystic tumor with an enhancing cyst wall; solid tumor with central necrosis; and solid or mainly solid tumor. In 81 cases primary surgical resection was the only and curative treatment, and in five cases progression of the disease was observed. In 47 cases the analysis was done by using high density oligonucleotide microarrays (Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0) with subsequent bioinformatic analyses and confirmation of the results by independent RT-qPCR (on 39 samples). Bioinformatic analyses showed that the gene expression profile of pilocytic astrocytoma is highly dependent on the tumor location. The most prominent differences were noted for IRX2, PAX3, CXCL14, LHX2, SIX6, CNTN1 and SIX1 genes expression even within different compartments of the supratentorial region. Analysis of the genes potentially associated with radiological

  15. Classification of passive auditory event-related potentials using discriminant analysis and self-organizing feature maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönweiler, R; Wübbelt, P; Tolloczko, R; Rose, C; Ptok, M

    2000-01-01

    Discriminant analysis (DA) and self-organizing feature maps (SOFM) were used to classify passively evoked auditory event-related potentials (ERP) P(1), N(1), P(2) and N(2). Responses from 16 children with severe behavioral auditory perception deficits, 16 children with marked behavioral auditory perception deficits, and 14 controls were examined. Eighteen ERP amplitude parameters were selected for examination of statistical differences between the groups. Different DA methods and SOFM configurations were trained to the values. SOFM had better classification results than DA methods. Subsequently, measures on another 37 subjects that were unknown for the trained SOFM were used to test the reliability of the system. With 10-dimensional vectors, reliable classifications were obtained that matched behavioral auditory perception deficits in 96%, implying central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). The results also support the assumption that CAPD includes a 'non-peripheral' auditory processing deficit. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Significant Enhancement of the Chiral Correlation Length in Nematic Liquid Crystals by Gold Nanoparticle Surfaces Featuring Axially Chiral Binaphthyl Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Taizo; Sharma, Anshul; Hegmann, Torsten

    2016-01-26

    Chirality is a fundamental scientific concept best described by the absence of mirror symmetry and the inability to superimpose an object onto its mirror image by translation and rotation. Chirality is expressed at almost all molecular levels, from single molecules to supramolecular systems, and present virtually everywhere in nature. Here, to explore how chirality propagates from a chiral nanoscale surface, we study gold nanoparticles functionalized with axially chiral binaphthyl molecules. In particular, we synthesized three enantiomeric pairs of chiral ligand-capped gold nanoparticles differing in size, curvature, and ligand density to tune the chirality transfer from nanoscale solid surfaces to a bulk anisotropic liquid crystal medium. Ultimately, we are examining how far the chirality from a nanoparticle surface reaches into a bulk material. Circular dichroism spectra of the gold nanoparticles decorated with binaphthyl thiols confirmed that the binaphthyl moieties form a cisoid conformation in isotropic organic solvents. In the chiral nematic liquid crystal phase, induced by dispersing the gold nanoparticles into an achiral anisotropic nematic liquid crystal solvent, the binaphthyl moieties on the nanoparticle surface form a transoid conformation as determined by imaging the helical twist direction of the induced cholesteric phase. This suggests that the ligand density on the nanoscale metal surfaces provides a dynamic space to alter and adjust the helicity of binaphthyl derivatives in response to the ordering of the surrounding medium. The helical pitch values of the induced chiral nematic phase were determined, and the helical twisting power (HTP) of the chiral gold nanoparticles calculated to elucidate the chirality transfer efficiency of the binaphthyl ligand capped gold nanoparticles. Remarkably, the HTP increases with increasing diameter of the particles, that is, the efficiency of the chirality transfer of the binaphthyl units bound to the nanoparticle

  17. Neuropsychological features of indigent murder defendants and death row inmates in relation to homicidal aspects of their crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Robert E; Rubin, Leah H; Jensen, Marie; Daoust, Sarah

    2010-02-01

    Neuropsychological features of 77 indigent murder defendants and death row inmates were examined in relation to criminal variables underlying their homicidal acts. Clinically, the sample was characterized by elevated rates of developmental disorders (49%), personality disorders (54%), Axis I psychiatric disorders (45%), substance abuse (86%), and history of violence (43%). By statute, killing more than one person is an aggravating factor in many jurisdictions that renders a murder defendant eligible for the death penalty. Individuals who committed a single murder were characterized by executive dysfunction, lower intelligence, slower speed of information processing, and a higher frequency of developmental disorders (58%), relative to those charged and/or convicted of killing two or more people, who were characterized by a significantly higher rate of personality disorders (79%) and a lower rate of developmental disorders (34%). Additionally, using the FBI criminal classification system for categorizing homicide by motive, a significant difference in the frequency of psychosis was found among subgroups associated with the following motives: Criminal enterprise; personal cause; and sex. The collective neuropsychological profile of the sample revealed that executive functions were significantly decreased, relative to memory functions, with over half of the sample (55%) demonstrating executive dysfunction.

  18. Surface-plasmon dispersion relation for the inhomogeneous charge-density medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsh, O.K.; Agarwal, B.K.

    1989-01-01

    The surface-plasmon dispersion relation is derived for the plane-bounded electron gas when there is an inhomogeneous charge-density distribution in the plasma. The hydrodynamical model is used. Both cphi and dcphi/dx are taken to be continuous at the surface of the slab, where cphi is the scalar potential. The dispersion relation is compared with the theoretical works of Stern and Ferrell and of Harsh and Agarwal. It is also compared with the observations of Kunz. A dispersion relation for the volume-plasmon oscillations is derived which resembles the well-known relation of Bohm and Pines

  19. BEP-relations for N2 dissociation over stepped transition metal and alloy surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fronczek-Munter, Ture Rønved; Bligaard, Thomas; Christensen, Claus H.

    2008-01-01

    , a perfectly linear Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relation between the transition-state potential energy and the dissociative chemisorption energy is obtained. The perfect BEP relation, which extends over 12 eV in chemisorption energy, suggests that the manifestation of BEP relations for surface reactions...... is a general electronic structure effect, and that geometric effects are responsible for the scatter which is normally observed around the BEP line. The BEP relation is also shown to be valid for both surface and bulk alloys. The scatter is, however, larger than for the pure elements. This can be understood...

  20. The relative contributions of facial shape and surface information to perceptions of attractiveness and dominance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaimie S Torrance

    Full Text Available Although many studies have investigated the facial characteristics that influence perceptions of others' attractiveness and dominance, the majority of these studies have focused on either the effects of shape information or surface information alone. Consequently, the relative contributions of facial shape and surface characteristics to attractiveness and dominance perceptions are unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the relationships between ratings of original versions of faces and ratings of versions in which either surface information had been standardized (i.e., shape-only versions or shape information had been standardized (i.e., surface-only versions. For attractiveness and dominance judgments of both male and female faces, ratings of shape-only and surface-only versions independently predicted ratings of the original versions of faces. The correlations between ratings of original and shape-only versions and between ratings of original and surface-only versions differed only in two instances. For male attractiveness, ratings of original versions were more strongly related to ratings of surface-only than shape-only versions, suggesting that surface information is particularly important for men's facial attractiveness. The opposite was true for female physical dominance, suggesting that shape information is particularly important for women's facial physical dominance. In summary, our results indicate that both facial shape and surface information contribute to judgments of others' attractiveness and dominance, suggesting that it may be important to consider both sources of information in research on these topics.

  1. The relative contributions of facial shape and surface information to perceptions of attractiveness and dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Jaimie S; Wincenciak, Joanna; Hahn, Amanda C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2014-01-01

    Although many studies have investigated the facial characteristics that influence perceptions of others' attractiveness and dominance, the majority of these studies have focused on either the effects of shape information or surface information alone. Consequently, the relative contributions of facial shape and surface characteristics to attractiveness and dominance perceptions are unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the relationships between ratings of original versions of faces and ratings of versions in which either surface information had been standardized (i.e., shape-only versions) or shape information had been standardized (i.e., surface-only versions). For attractiveness and dominance judgments of both male and female faces, ratings of shape-only and surface-only versions independently predicted ratings of the original versions of faces. The correlations between ratings of original and shape-only versions and between ratings of original and surface-only versions differed only in two instances. For male attractiveness, ratings of original versions were more strongly related to ratings of surface-only than shape-only versions, suggesting that surface information is particularly important for men's facial attractiveness. The opposite was true for female physical dominance, suggesting that shape information is particularly important for women's facial physical dominance. In summary, our results indicate that both facial shape and surface information contribute to judgments of others' attractiveness and dominance, suggesting that it may be important to consider both sources of information in research on these topics.

  2. Oxide nanostructures on a Nb surface and related systems: experiments and ab initio calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Mikhail V; Razinkin, A S; Ivanovskii, Alexander L

    2011-01-01

    This review discusses the state of the art in two related research areas: the surfaces of niobium and of its related group IV-VI transition metals, and surface (primarily oxide) nanostructures that form on niobium (and group IV-VI d-metals) due to gas adsorption or impurity diffusion from the bulk. Experimental (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoelectron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy) and theoretical (ab initio simulation) results on d-metal surfaces are summarized and reviewed. (reviews of topical problems)

  3. "Retweet to Pass the Blunt": Analyzing Geographic and Content Features of Cannabis-Related Tweeting Across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniulaityte, Raminta; Lamy, Francois R; Smith, G Alan; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Carlson, Robert G; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Martins, Silvia S; Boyer, Edward W; Sheth, Amit

    2017-11-01

    Twitter data offer new possibilities for tracking health-related communications. This study is among the first to apply advanced information processing to identify geographic and content features of cannabis-related tweeting in the United States. Tweets were collected using streaming Application Programming Interface (March-May 2016) and were processed by eDrugTrends to identify geolocation and classify content by source (personal communication, media, retail) and sentiment (positive, negative, neutral). States were grouped by cannabis legalization policies into "recreational," "medical, less restrictive," "medical, more restrictive," and "illegal." Permutation tests were performed to analyze differences among four groups in adjusted percentages of all tweets, unique users, personal communications only, and positive-to-negative sentiment ratios. About 30% of all 13,233,837 cannabis-related tweets had identifiable state-level geo-information. Among geolocated tweets, 76.2% were personal communications, 21.1% media, and 2.7% retail. About 71% of personal communication tweets expressed positive sentiment toward cannabis; 16% expressed negative sentiment. States in the recreational group had significantly greater average adjusted percentage of cannabis tweets (3.01%) compared with other groups. For personal communication tweets only, the recreational group (2.47%) was significantly greater than the medical, more restrictive (1.84%) and illegal (1.85%) groups. Similarly, the recreational group had significantly greater average positive-to-negative sentiment ratio (4.64) compared with the medical, more restrictive (4.15) and illegal (4.19) groups. Average adjusted percentages of unique users showed similar differences between recreational and other groups. States with less restrictive policies displayed greater cannabis-related tweeting and conveyed more positive sentiment. The study demonstrates the potential of Twitter data to become a valuable indicator of drug-related

  4. Feature network models for proximity data : statistical inference, model selection, network representations and links with related models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, Laurence Emmanuelle

    2006-01-01

    Feature Network Models (FNM) are graphical structures that represent proximity data in a discrete space with the use of features. A statistical inference theory is introduced, based on the additivity properties of networks and the linear regression framework. Considering features as predictor

  5. On some investigation features of sorption of flotation reagents labelled by soft β-emitters on mineral surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korobochkin, V.P.; Gladyshev, V.P.; Latypova, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    A correction for self-absorption, taking into account concrete dimensions of mineral grain during sorption of flotation reagents on mineral surface is deduced. On the basis of the regularity obtained problems of the sensitivity of the determination method of reagent activity sorbed by minerals which are labelled by radioactive isotopes are considered. Improved technique is described and statistical analysis of the experimental data obtained is carried out

  6. Solvothermal growth of a ruthenium metal-organic framework featuring HKUST-1 structure type as thin films on oxide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozachuk, Olesia; Yusenko, Kirill; Noei, Heshmat; Wang, Yuemin; Walleck, Stephan; Glaser, Thorsten; Fischer, Roland A

    2011-08-14

    Phase-pure crystalline thin films of a mixed-valence Ru(2)(II,III) metal-organic framework with 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate (btc) as a linker were solvothermally grown on amorphous alumina and silica surfaces. Based on the Rietveld refinement, the structure of Ru-MOF was assigned to be analogous to [Cu(3)(btc)(2)] (HKUST-1). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  7. Expression of Msx-1 is suppressed in bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis related jaw tissue-etiopathology considerations respecting jaw developmental biology-related unique features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlegel Karl A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone-destructive disease treatments include bisphosphonates and antibodies against the osteoclast differentiator, RANKL (aRANKL; however, osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ is a frequent side-effect. Current models fail to explain the restriction of bisphosphonate (BP-related and denosumab (anti-RANKL antibody-related ONJ to jaws. Msx-1 is exclusively expressed in craniofacial structures and pivotal to cranial neural crest (CNC-derived periodontal tissue remodeling. We hypothesised that Msx-1 expression might be impaired in bisphosphonate-related ONJ. The study aim was to elucidate Msx-1 and RANKL-associated signal transduction (BMP-2/4, RANKL in ONJ-altered and healthy periodontal tissue. Methods Twenty ONJ and twenty non-BP exposed periodontal samples were processed for RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. An automated staining-based alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase method was used to measure the stained cells:total cell-number ratio (labelling index, Bonferroni adjustment. Real-time RT-PCR was performed on ONJ-affected and healthy jaw periodontal samples (n = 20 each to quantitatively compare Msx-1, BMP-2, RANKL, and GAPDH mRNA levels. Results Semi-quantitative assessment of the ratio of stained cells showed decreased Msx-1 and RANKL and increased BMP-2/4 (all p Conclusions These results explain the sclerotic and osteopetrotic changes of periodontal tissue following BP application and substantiate clinical findings of BP-related impaired remodeling specific to periodontal tissue. RANKL suppression substantiated the clinical finding of impaired bone remodelling in BP- and aRANKL-induced ONJ-affected bone structures. Msx-1 suppression in ONJ-adjacent periodontal tissue suggested a bisphosphonate-related impairment in cellular differentiation that occurred exclusively jaw remodelling. Further research on developmental biology-related unique features of jaw bone structures will help to elucidate pathologies restricted to

  8. The recruiter's excitement--features of thoracic vibrations during the honey bee's waggle dance related to food source profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrncir, Michael; Maia-Silva, Camila; Mc Cabe, Sofia I; Farina, Walter M

    2011-12-01

    The honey bee's waggle dance constitutes a remarkable example of an efficient code allowing social exploitation of available feeding sites. In addition to indicating the position (distance, direction) of a food patch, both the occurrence and frequency of the dances depend on the profitability of the exploited resource (sugar concentration, solution flow rate). During the waggle dance, successful foragers generate pulsed thoracic vibrations that putatively serve as a source of different kinds of information for hive bees, who cannot visually decode dances in the darkness of the hive. In the present study, we asked whether these vibrations are a reliable estimator of the excitement of the dancer when food profitability changes in terms of both sugar concentration and solution flow rate. The probability of producing thoracic vibrations as well as several features related to their intensity during the waggle phase (pulse duration, velocity amplitude, duty cycle) increased with both these profitability variables. The number of vibratory pulses, however, was independent of sugar concentration and reward rate exploited. Thus, pulse number could indeed be used by dance followers as reliable information about food source distance, as suggested in previous studies. The variability of the dancer's thoracic vibrations in relation to changes in food profitability suggests their role as an indicator of the recruiter's motivational state. Hence, the vibrations could make an important contribution to forager reactivation and, consequently, to the organisation of collective foraging processes in honey bees.

  9. IgG4-Related Disease: Baseline clinical and laboratory features in 125 patients with biopsy-proven disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Zachary S.; Deshpande, Vikram; Mattoo, Hamid; Mahajan, Vinay S.; Kulikova, Maria; Pillai, Shiv; Stone, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an immune-mediated fibroinflammatory condition that can affect nearly any organ. No detailed clinical and laboratory assessments have been reported in large numbers of patients with IgG4-RD diagnoses established by strict clinicopathological correlation. Methods We reviewed the baseline features of 125 patients with biopsy-proven disease. The diagnosis was confirmed by pathology review according to consensus diagnostic criteria. Disease activity and damage were assessed by the IgG4-RD Responder Index (RI). Flow cytometry was used to assess levels of circulating plasmablasts. Results Of the 125 patients, 103 had active disease and 86 were on no treatment. Only 51% of the patients with active disease had elevated serum IgG4 concentrations. However, patients with active disease and elevated serum IgG4 concentrations were older, had a higher RI, a greater number of organs involved, lower complement levels, higher absolute eosinophil counts, and higher IgE levels compared to those with active disease but normal serum IgG4 (PIgG4+ plasmablast level and RI (R=0.45, P=0.003) was stronger than that of total plasmablasts and RI. Seventy-six (61%) of the patients were male, but no significant differences according to gender were observed with regard to disease severity, organ involvement, or serum IgG4 concentrations. Glucocorticoids failed to produce sustained remission in the majority of patients. Conclusion Nearly 50% of this patient cohort with biopsy-proven, clinically-active IgG4-RD had normal serum IgG4 concentrations. Serum IgG4 elevation identify a subset with more inflammatory features. IgG4+ plasmablasts correlate well with disease activity. PMID:25988916

  10. Microbes at Surface-Air Interfaces: The Metabolic Harnessing of Relative Humidity, Surface Hygroscopicity, and Oligotrophy for Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Wendy; Kroukamp, Otini; Korber, Darren R.; McKelvie, Jennifer; Wolfaardt, Gideon M.

    2016-01-01

    The human environment is predominantly not aqueous, and microbes are ubiquitous at the surface-air interfaces with which we interact. Yet microbial studies at surface-air interfaces are largely survival-oriented, whilst microbial metabolism has overwhelmingly been investigated from the perspective of liquid saturation. This study explored microbial survival and metabolism under desiccation, particularly the influence of relative humidity (RH), surface hygroscopicity, and nutrient availability on the interchange between these two phenomena. The combination of a hygroscopic matrix (i.e., clay or 4,000 MW polyethylene glycol) and high RH resulted in persistent measurable microbial metabolism during desiccation. In contrast, no microbial metabolism was detected at (a) hygroscopic interfaces at low RH, and (b) less hygroscopic interfaces (i.e., sand and plastic/glass) at high or low RH. Cell survival was conversely inhibited at high RH and promoted at low RH, irrespective of surface hygroscopicity. Based on this demonstration of metabolic persistence and survival inhibition at high RH, it was proposed that biofilm metabolic rates might inversely influence whole-biofilm resilience, with ‘resilience’ defined in this study as a biofilm’s capacity to recover from desiccation. The concept of whole-biofilm resilience being promoted by oligotrophy was supported in desiccation-tolerant Arthrobacter spp. biofilms, but not in desiccation-sensitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. The ability of microbes to interact with surfaces to harness water vapor during desiccation was demonstrated, and potentially to harness oligotrophy (the most ubiquitous natural condition facing microbes) for adaptation to desiccation. PMID:27746774

  11. Surface modification effects on defect-related photoluminescence in colloidal CdS quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, TaeGi; Shimura, Kunio; Kim, DaeGwi

    2018-05-03

    We investigated the effects of surface modification on the defect-related photoluminescence (PL) band in colloidal CdS quantum dots (QDs). A size-selective photoetching process and a surface modification technique with a Cd(OH)2 layer enabled the preparation of size-controlled CdS QDs with high PL efficiency. The Stokes shift of the defect-related PL band before and after the surface modification was ∼1.0 eV and ∼0.63 eV, respectively. This difference in the Stokes shifts suggests that the origin of the defect-related PL band was changed by the surface modification. Analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the surface of the CdS QDs before and after the surface modification was S rich and Cd rich, respectively. These results suggest that Cd-vacancy acceptors and S-vacancy donors affect PL processes in CdS QDs before and after the surface modification, respectively.

  12. Hyperspatial Thermal Imaging of Surface Hydrothermal Features at Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska using a small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselwimmer, C. E.; Wilson, R.; Upton, C.; Prakash, A.; Holdmann, G.; Walker, G.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal remote sensing provides a valuable tool for mapping and monitoring surface hydrothermal features associated with geothermal activity. The increasing availability of low-cost, small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) with integrated thermal imaging sensors offers a means to undertake very high spatial resolution (hyperspatial), quantitative thermal remote sensing of surface geothermal features in support of exploration and long-term monitoring efforts. Results from the deployment of a quadcopter sUAS equipped with a thermal camera over Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska for detailed mapping and heat flux estimation for hot springs, seeps, and thermal pools are presented. Hyperspatial thermal infrared imagery (4 cm pixels) was acquired over Pilgrim Hot Springs in July 2013 using a FLIR TAU 640 camera operating from an Aeryon Scout sUAS flying at an altitude of 40m. The registered and mosaicked thermal imagery is calibrated to surface temperature values using in-situ measurements of uniform blackbody tarps and the temperatures of geothermal and other surface pools acquired with a series of water temperature loggers. Interpretation of the pre-processed thermal imagery enables the delineation of hot springs, the extents of thermal pools, and the flow and mixing of individual geothermal outflow plumes with an unprecedented level of detail. Using the surface temperatures of thermal waters derived from the FLIR data and measured in-situ meteorological parameters the hot spring heat flux and outflow rate is calculated using a heat budget model for a subset of the thermal drainage. The heat flux/outflow rate estimates derived from the FLIR data are compared against in-situ measurements of the hot spring outflow rate recorded at the time of the thermal survey.

  13. Equipment for decontamination of inner vessel surfaces featuring sound or ultrasound transducer on float inside liquid-filled vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar, J.; Straka, M.

    1982-01-01

    The equipment for the decontamination of the inner surfaces of vessels consists of an immersion float which is provided with a screw, an electric motor, a rudder and at least one float chamber, and a remotely controlled valve. The float is provided with a power source, a high frequency a.c. current generator and a control panel outside the vessel. The float is connected to parts of the equipment outside the vessel by a multi-core cable. The immersion float may also be provided with a detector for measuring the quantity of ionizing radiation whose display is placed outside the vessel being decontaminated. (B.S.)

  14. Expression of Msx-1 is suppressed in bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis related jaw tissue-etiopathology considerations respecting jaw developmental biology-related unique features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrhan, Falk; Hyckel, Peter; Ries, Jutta; Stockmann, Phillip; Nkenke, Emeka; Schlegel, Karl A; Neukam, Friedrich W; Amann, Kerstin

    2010-10-13

    Bone-destructive disease treatments include bisphosphonates and antibodies against the osteoclast differentiator, RANKL (aRANKL); however, osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a frequent side-effect. Current models fail to explain the restriction of bisphosphonate (BP)-related and denosumab (anti-RANKL antibody)-related ONJ to jaws. Msx-1 is exclusively expressed in craniofacial structures and pivotal to cranial neural crest (CNC)-derived periodontal tissue remodeling. We hypothesised that Msx-1 expression might be impaired in bisphosphonate-related ONJ. The study aim was to elucidate Msx-1 and RANKL-associated signal transduction (BMP-2/4, RANKL) in ONJ-altered and healthy periodontal tissue. Twenty ONJ and twenty non-BP exposed periodontal samples were processed for RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. An automated staining-based alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase method was used to measure the stained cells:total cell-number ratio (labelling index, Bonferroni adjustment). Real-time RT-PCR was performed on ONJ-affected and healthy jaw periodontal samples (n = 20 each) to quantitatively compare Msx-1, BMP-2, RANKL, and GAPDH mRNA levels. Semi-quantitative assessment of the ratio of stained cells showed decreased Msx-1 and RANKL and increased BMP-2/4 (all p Msx-1 (p Msx-1 suppression in ONJ-adjacent periodontal tissue suggested a bisphosphonate-related impairment in cellular differentiation that occurred exclusively jaw remodelling. Further research on developmental biology-related unique features of jaw bone structures will help to elucidate pathologies restricted to maxillofacial tissue.

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF SURFACE RESISTIVITY AND RELATIVE PERMITTIVITY OF SILICONE RUBBER FOR HIGH VOLTAGE APPLICATION USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Ali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Silicone Rubber (SiR is considered as one of the most established insulator in High Voltage (HV industry. SiR possess a great function ability such as its lighter weight, great heat resistance and substantial electrical insulation properties. Dynamic research were performed all around the world in order to explore the unique insulating behavior of SiR but very little are done on the optimization of SiR in term of their processing parameters and formulation. In this work, four materials and processing factors were introduced; A: Alumina Trihydrate (ATH, B: Dicumyl-Peroxide (DCP, C: mixing speed and D: mixing time in order to analyze its contribution towards improving the surface resistivity and relative permittivity of SIR rubber. The factors range were set based on prior screening and are defined as; ATH (10 – 50 pphr, Dicumyl Peroxide (0.50 -1.50 pphr, speed of mixer (40 – 70 rpm and mixing period (5 – 10 mins which were then varied accordingly to produce an overall 19 samples of SiR blends. The testing results were analyzed using statistical Design of Experiment (DOE by applying two level full factorial from Design Expert Software (v10 to discover the inter-correlation between the factors studied and benefaction of each factor in improving both surface resistivity and relative permittivity responses of produced SiR blends. The model analysis on surface resistivity shows the coefficient of determination R2 value of 88.72% while the one for relative permittivity shows R2 value of 82.34 %. Combination of both dependent variables had yielded an optimization suggestion for SiR formulation and processing strategy of ATH: 50 pphr, DCP: 0.50 pphr, mixing speed: 70 rpm and mixing period: 10 mins with the desirability level of 0.835. The optimized formulation had resulted in the production of SiR blend with the characteristic of surface resistivity of 1.02039x10^14 Ω/sq and relative permittivity of 4.0231, respectively. In conclusion, it can be

  16. Long wave dispersion relations for surface waves in a magnetically structured atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, I.C.; Roberts, B.

    1983-01-01

    A means of obtaining approximate dispersion relations for long wavelength magnetoacoustic surface waves propagating in a magnetically structured atmosphere is presented. A general dispersion relation applying to a wide range of magnetic profiles is obtained, and illustrated for the special cases of a single interface and a magnetic slab. In the slab geometry, for example, the dispersion relation contains both the even (sausage) and odd (kink) modes in one formalism

  17. 1p13.2 deletion displays clinical features overlapping Noonan syndrome, likely related to NRAS gene haploinsufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Duarte Linhares

    Full Text Available Abstract Deletion-induced hemizygosity may unmask deleterious autosomal recessive variants and be a cause of the phenotypic variability observed in microdeletion syndromes. We performed complete exome sequencing (WES analysis to examine this possibility in a patient with 1p13.2 microdeletion. Since the patient displayed clinical features suggestive of Noonan Syndrome (NS, we also used WES to rule out the presence of pathogenic variants in any of the genes associated with the different types of NS. We concluded that the clinical findings could be attributed solely to the 1p13.2 haploinsufficiency. Retrospective analysis of other nine reported patients with 1p13.2 microdeletions showed that six of them also presented some characteristics of NS. In all these cases, the deleted segment included the NRAS gene. Gain-of-function mutations of NRAS gene are causally related to NS type 6. Thus, it is conceivable that NRAS haploinsufficiency and gain-of-function mutations may have similar clinical consequences. The same phenomenon has been described for two other genes belonging to the Ras/MAPK pathway: MAP2K2 and SHOC2. In conclusion, we here report genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with chromosome 1p13.2 microdeletions and we propose that NRAS may be a critical gene for the NS characteristics in the patients.

  18. Kallikrein-related peptidase 4 induces cancer-associated fibroblast features in prostate-derived stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryza, Thomas; Silva, Lakmali M; Bock, Nathalie; Fuhrman-Luck, Ruth A; Stephens, Carson R; Gao, Jin; Samaratunga, Hema; Lawrence, Mitchell G; Hooper, John D; Dong, Ying; Risbridger, Gail P; Clements, Judith A

    2017-10-01

    The reciprocal communication between cancer cells and their microenvironment is critical in cancer progression. Although involvement of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) in cancer progression is long established, the molecular mechanisms leading to differentiation of CAFs from normal fibroblasts are poorly understood. Here, we report that kallikrein-related peptidase-4 (KLK4) promotes CAF differentiation. KLK4 is highly expressed in prostate epithelial cells of premalignant (prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia) and malignant lesions compared to normal prostate epithelia, especially at the peristromal interface. KLK4 induced CAF-like features in the prostate-derived WPMY1 normal stromal cell line, including increased expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, ESR1 and SFRP1. KLK4 activated protease-activated receptor-1 in WPMY1 cells increasing expression of several factors (FGF1, TAGLN, LOX, IL8, VEGFA) involved in prostate cancer progression. In addition, KLK4 induced WPMY1 cell proliferation and secretome changes, which in turn stimulated HUVEC cell proliferation that could be blocked by a VEGFA antibody. Importantly, the genes dysregulated by KLK4 treatment of WPMY1 cells were also differentially expressed between patient-derived CAFs compared to matched nonmalignant fibroblasts and were further increased by KLK4 treatment. Taken together, we propose that epithelial-derived KLK4 promotes tumour progression by actively promoting CAF differentiation in the prostate stromal microenvironment. © 2017 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Brain iron accumulation affects myelin-related molecular systems implicated in a rare neurogenetic disease family with neuropsychiatric features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, M; Johnstone, D M; Bassett, B; Graham, R M; Chua, A C G; House, M J; Collingwood, J F; Bettencourt, C; Houlden, H; Ryten, M; Olynyk, J K; Trinder, D; Milward, E A

    2016-11-01

    The 'neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation' (NBIA) disease family entails movement or cognitive impairment, often with psychiatric features. To understand how iron loading affects the brain, we studied mice with disruption of two iron regulatory genes, hemochromatosis (Hfe) and transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2). Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy demonstrated increased iron in the Hfe -/- × Tfr2 mut brain (P=0.002, n ≥5/group), primarily localized by Perls' staining to myelinated structures. Western immunoblotting showed increases of the iron storage protein ferritin light polypeptide and microarray and real-time reverse transcription-PCR revealed decreased transcript levels (Pgross myelin structure and integrity appear unaffected (P>0.05). Overlap (P0.05). These results implicate myelin-related systems involved in NBIA neuropathogenesis in early responses to iron loading. This may contribute to behavioral symptoms in NBIA and hemochromatosis and is relevant to patients with abnormal iron status and psychiatric disorders involving myelin abnormalities or resistant to conventional treatments.

  20. Clinical features and prognostic implications of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy related to the cardiac myosin-binding protein C gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, P; Dubourg, O; Desnos, M; Bennaceur, M; Carrier, L; Camproux, A C; Isnard, R; Hagege, A; Langlard, J M; Bonne, G; Richard, P; Hainque, B; Bouhour, J B; Schwartz, K; Komajda, M

    1998-06-09

    Little information is available on phenotype-genotype correlations in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy that are related to the cardiac myosin binding protein C (MYBPC3) gene. The aim of this study was to perform this type of analysis. We studied 76 genetically affected subjects from nine families with seven recently identified mutations (SASint20, SDSint7, SDSint23, branch point int23, Glu542Gln, a deletion in exon 25, and a duplication/deletion in exon 33) in the MYBPC3 gene. Detailed clinical, ECG, and echocardiographic parameters were analyzed. An intergene analysis was performed by comparing the MYBPC3 group to seven mutations in the beta-myosin heavy-chain gene (beta-MHC) group (n=52). There was no significant phenotypic difference among the different mutations in the MYBPC3 gene. However, in the MYBPC3 group compared with the beta-MHC group, (1) prognosis was significantly better (P<0.0001), and no deaths occurred before the age of 40 years; (2) the age at onset of symptoms was delayed (41+/-19 versus 35+/-17 years, P<0.002); and (3) before 30 years of age, the phenotype was particularly mild because penetrance was low (41% versus 62%), maximal wall thicknesses lower (12+/-4 versus 16+/-7 mm, P<0.03), and abnormal T waves less frequent (9% versus 45%, P<0.02). These results are consistent with specific clinical features related to the MYBPC3 gene: onset of the disease appears delayed and the prognosis is better than that associated with the beta-MHC gene. These findings could be particularly important for the purpose of clinical management and genetic counseling in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  1. Growth-related changes of skeletal and upper-airway features in bilateral cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu-Guven, Bengisu; Karakaya, Jale; Ozgur, Figen; Aksu, Muge

    2015-10-01

    The craniofacial morphology of subjects with cleft lip and palate differs from that of subjects without clefts. Subjects with bilateral cleft lip and palate tend to have maxillary retrognathism, a smaller mandible with an obtuse gonial angle, greater anterior upper and lower facial heights, and retroclined maxillary incisors. The purposes of this research were to compare the skeletal and upper-airway features of subjects with bilateral cleft lip and palate with the same features in control subjects without clefts and to determine the growth-related changes at different growth stages. The sample comprised 212 subjects divided into 2 groups: 68 with bilateral cleft lip and palate, and 144 controls without clefts; each group was further divided into 4 subgroups according to growth stage using the cervical vertebral maturation stage method. The subgroups were defined as early childhood (stage 1), prepubertal (stage 2), pubertal (stage 3), and postpubertal (stage 4). The cephalometric variables were evaluated with 2-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni test. Maxillary position showed no significant differences between the male groups. The maxilla was more prognathic at stage 2 and became more retrognathic at stages 3 and 4 in the females. The mandible was more retrusive in the bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects at stage 1 in males and at stages 3 and 4 in females. ANB was larger at stages 1 and 2, and it became similar to the controls at stages 3 and 4 in male and female bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects. Vertical growth was seen in the bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects regardless of sex, and no change was observed with age. Posterior airway space was narrower in all stages (except for stage 1 in females). Middle airway space was wider after stage 1 in the male and female bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects. Inferior airway space was narrower in the male bilateral cleft lip and palate patients at the early childhood and pubertal stages. Age

  2. Structural motif screening reveals a novel, conserved carbohydrate-binding surface in the pathogenesis-related protein PR-5d

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moffatt Barbara A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromatic amino acids play a critical role in protein-glycan interactions. Clusters of surface aromatic residues and their features may therefore be useful in distinguishing glycan-binding sites as well as predicting novel glycan-binding proteins. In this work, a structural bioinformatics approach was used to screen the Protein Data Bank (PDB for coplanar aromatic motifs similar to those found in known glycan-binding proteins. Results The proteins identified in the screen were significantly associated with carbohydrate-related functions according to gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis, and predicted motifs were found frequently within novel folds and glycan-binding sites not included in the training set. In addition to numerous binding sites predicted in structural genomics proteins of unknown function, one novel prediction was a surface motif (W34/W36/W192 in the tobacco pathogenesis-related protein, PR-5d. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the surface motif is exclusive to a subfamily of PR-5 proteins from the Solanaceae family of plants, and is absent completely in more distant homologs. To confirm PR-5d's insoluble-polysaccharide binding activity, a cellulose-pulldown assay of tobacco proteins was performed and PR-5d was identified in the cellulose-binding fraction by mass spectrometry. Conclusions Based on the combined results, we propose that the putative binding site in PR-5d may be an evolutionary adaptation of Solanaceae plants including potato, tomato, and tobacco, towards defense against cellulose-containing pathogens such as species of the deadly oomycete genus, Phytophthora. More generally, the results demonstrate that coplanar aromatic clusters on protein surfaces are a structural signature of glycan-binding proteins, and can be used to computationally predict novel glycan-binding proteins from 3 D structure.

  3. Structural motif screening reveals a novel, conserved carbohydrate-binding surface in the pathogenesis-related protein PR-5d.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxey, Andrew C; Cheng, Zhenyu; Moffatt, Barbara A; McConkey, Brendan J

    2010-08-03

    Aromatic amino acids play a critical role in protein-glycan interactions. Clusters of surface aromatic residues and their features may therefore be useful in distinguishing glycan-binding sites as well as predicting novel glycan-binding proteins. In this work, a structural bioinformatics approach was used to screen the Protein Data Bank (PDB) for coplanar aromatic motifs similar to those found in known glycan-binding proteins. The proteins identified in the screen were significantly associated with carbohydrate-related functions according to gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, and predicted motifs were found frequently within novel folds and glycan-binding sites not included in the training set. In addition to numerous binding sites predicted in structural genomics proteins of unknown function, one novel prediction was a surface motif (W34/W36/W192) in the tobacco pathogenesis-related protein, PR-5d. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the surface motif is exclusive to a subfamily of PR-5 proteins from the Solanaceae family of plants, and is absent completely in more distant homologs. To confirm PR-5d's insoluble-polysaccharide binding activity, a cellulose-pulldown assay of tobacco proteins was performed and PR-5d was identified in the cellulose-binding fraction by mass spectrometry. Based on the combined results, we propose that the putative binding site in PR-5d may be an evolutionary adaptation of Solanaceae plants including potato, tomato, and tobacco, towards defense against cellulose-containing pathogens such as species of the deadly oomycete genus, Phytophthora. More generally, the results demonstrate that coplanar aromatic clusters on protein surfaces are a structural signature of glycan-binding proteins, and can be used to computationally predict novel glycan-binding proteins from 3 D structure.

  4. Correlation between phonon anomaly along [211] and the Fermi surface nesting features with associated electron-phonon interactions in Ni2FeGa: A first principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabungbam, Satyananda; Sahariah, Munima B.

    2015-01-01

    First principles calculation reaffirms the presence of phonon anomaly along [211] direction in Ni 2 FeGa shape memory alloy supporting the experimental findings of J. Q. Li et al. Fermi surface scans have been performed in both austenite and martensite phase to see the possible Fermi nesting features in this alloy. The magnitude of observed Fermi surface nesting vectors in (211) plane exactly match the phonon anomaly wavevectors along [211] direction. Electron-phonon calculation in the austenite phase shows that there is significant electron-phonon coupling in this alloy which might arise out of the lattice coupling between lower acoustic modes and higher optical modes combined with the observed strong Fermi nesting features in the system. - Highlights: • Transverse acoustic (TA 2 ) modes show anomaly along [211] direction in Ni 2 FeGa. • The phonon anomaly wavevector has been correlated with the Fermi nesting vectors. • Electron-phonon coupling calculation shows significant coupling in this system. • Max. el-ph coupling occurs in transition frequencies from acoustic to optical modes

  5. Characterization and molecular features of the cell surface receptor for human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, S.; Tojo, A.; Kitamura, T.; Urabe, A.; Miyazono, K.; Takaku, F.

    1990-01-01

    The receptors for human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on the surfaces of normal and leukemic myeloid cells were characterized using 125I-labeled bacterially synthesized GM-CSF. The binding was rapid, specific, time dependent, and saturable. Scatchard analysis of the 125I-GM-CSF binding to peripheral blood neutrophils indicated the presence of a single class of binding site (Kd = 99 +/- 21 pM; 2,304 +/- 953 sites/cell). However, for peripheral blood monocytes and two GM-CSF-responsive myeloid cell lines (U-937 and TF-1), the Scatchard plots were biphasic curvilinear, which were best fit by curves derived from two binding site model: one with high affinity (Kd1 = 10-40 pM) and the other with low affinity (Kd2 = 0.9-2.0 nM). For U-937 cells, the number of high-affinity receptors was 1,058 +/- 402 sites/cell and that of low-affinity receptors was estimated to be 10,834 +/- 2,396 sites/cell. Cross-linking studies yielded three major bands with molecular masses of 150 kDa, 115 kDa, and 95 kDa, which were displaced by an excess amount of unlabeled GM-CSF, suggesting 135-kDa, 100-kDa, and 80-kDa species for the individual components of the human GM-CSF receptor. These bands comigrated for different cell types including peripheral blood neutrophils, U-937 cells and TF-1 cells. In experiments using U-937 cells, only the latter two bands appeared to be labeled in a dose-dependent manner in a low-affinity state. These results suggest that the human GM-CSF receptor possibly forms a multichain complex

  6. Relation between surface roughness and number of cathode spots of a low-pressure arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Atsushi; Iwao, Toru; Yumoto, Motoshige

    2008-01-01

    A remarkable characteristic of the cathode spot of a low-pressure arc is that it can remove an oxide layer preferentially. Recently, cathode spots of a low-pressure arc have been used for cleaning metal oxide surfaces before thermal spraying or surface modification. Nevertheless, few reports have described the cathode spot movement or the oxide removal process. This experiment was carried out using a Fe+C cathode workpiece and a cylindrical copper anode. The cathode spot movement was recorded using a high-speed video camera. The images were later analysed using plasma image processing. The workpiece surface, which was covered with a 9.67 μm thick oxide, was analysed using laser microscopy after processing. The surface roughness and the number of cathode spots showed no direct relation because the current density per cathode spot did not change according to the number of cathode spots.

  7. Surface morphology of chitin highly related with the isolated body part of butterfly (Argynnis pandora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Murat; Bitim, Betül; Mujtaba, Muhammad; Koyuncu, Turgay

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to understand the differences in the physicochemical properties of chitin samples isolated from the wings and the other body parts except the wings (OBP) of a butterfly species (Argynnis pandora). The same isolation method was used for obtaining chitin specimens from both types of body parts. The chitin content of the wings (22%) was recorded as being much higher than the OBP (8%). The extracted chitin samples were characterized via FT-IR, TGA, XRD, SEM, and elemental analysis techniques. Results of these characterizations revealed that the chitins from both structures (wings and OBP) were very similar, except for their surface morphologies. SEM results demonstrated one type of surface morphology for the wings and four different surface morphologies for the OBP. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that the surface morphology of the chitin is highly related with the body part. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Enterovirus-related diarrhoea in Guangdong, China: clinical features and implications in hand, foot and mouth disease and herpangina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong-Tao; Yi, Hai-Su; Guo, Yong-Hui; Pan, Yu-Xian; Tao, Shao-Hua; Wang, Bin; Chen, Man-Jun; Yang, Mei; Yu, Nan

    2016-03-16

    A series of complications caused by enteroviruses, including meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis, acute cardiopulmonary failure, respiratory infection, and myocardial injury have been reported in hand, foot and mouth disease/herpangina (HFMD/HA). However, the complication of diarrhoea caused by enteroviruses has been neglected, and a summary of its clinical features and impact on HFMD/HA is unavailable. We included inpatients with HFMD/HA admitted to the Paediatric Department of Zhujiang Hospital during 2009-2012. We summarised and compared clinical data for cases with and without diarrhoea, and determined enterovirus serotypes by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and genotyping based on a partial-length fragment of viral protein 1 or the 5'-untranslated region. There were 804 inpatients with HFMD/HA and 28 (3.5%) presented with diarrhoea. Gastrointestinal symptoms were mild in most cases of diarrhoea (82.1%), with high prevalence of no dehydration (82.1%), short duration of diarrhoea (78.6%) and watery stools (75.0%). The prevalence of multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (10.7 vs 0.40%) (p = 0.001), hepatic injury (14.3 vs 3.4%) (p = 0.019), myocardial injury (21.4 vs 6.1%) (p = 0.002) and convulsion (21.4 vs 7.2%) (p = 0.016) was significantly higher in the diarrhoea than no diarrhoea group. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding prevalence of death, altered consciousness, paralysis, central nervous system involvement, or acute respiratory infection. Most patients with diarrhoea caused by enteroviruses circulating in Guangdong Province in 2009-2012 had mild or moderate gastrointestinal symptoms. Although enterovirus-related diarrhoea caused additional multi-organ dysfunction syndrome, hepatic injury and myocardial injury in children with HFMD/HA, timely intervention efficiently reduced disease severity and improved outcome.

  9. Comparison of femoroacetabular impingement-related radiographic features in a convenience sample of Japanese patients with and without herniation pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineta, Kazuaki; Goto, Tomohiro; Wada, Keizo; Tamaki, Yasuaki; Hamada, Daisuke; Higashino, Kosaku; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of herniation pits (HPs) and to evaluate differences in radiographic features related to femoroacetabular impingement - a hip disorder with abnormal abutment between the acetabulum and femur - between hips with and without HPs in a convenience sample of Japanese patients. We reviewed 1,178 hips on each side (695 men, 483 women; mean age, 58.2 years) using computed tomographic images. The radiological assessments of hip morphology were performed by measuring the lateral center edge angle, acetabular index, acetabular version, alpha angle, and femoral head-neck offset. HPs were defined as the round or oval cystic lesions surrounded by sclerotic bone located below the anterior femoral neck cortex. Intraclass and interclass reproducibility of all radiographic measurements was acceptable (ICC: 0.71-0.98). The prevalence of HPs was 13.9 % in all subjects and was significantly higher in men (18.1 %) than in women (7.8 %; p < 0.001). HPs were larger in male (p < 0.001) and elderly subjects (p < 0.005). In subjects with HPs, the alpha angle was larger and femoral head-neck offset and offset ratio were smaller in the cohort overall and in men. Logistic regression analysis revealed the association between radiological cam-type FAI and HPs in all subjects (odds ratio: 1.86, p < 0.001). We revealed the prevalence of HPs and showed it has a predilection for men in this Japanese cohort. Femoral head asphericity or small head-neck offset was more common in subjects with HPs than those without HPs. (orig.)

  10. Phytoplankton variability and community structure in relation to hydrographic features in the NE Aegean frontal area (NE Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagaria, A.; Mandalakis, M.; Mara, P.; Frangoulis, C.; Karatsolis, B.-Th.; Pitta, P.; Triantaphyllou, M.; Tsiola, A.; Psarra, S.

    2017-10-01

    The structure of phytoplankton community in the salinity-stratified Northeastern Aegean frontal area adjacent to the Dardanelles Straits was investigated on a seasonal basis (autumn, spring and summer) and in relation to circulating water masses: the modified Black Sea Water (BSW) and the Levantine Water (LW). By employing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) for the analysis of phytoplankton pigments in conjunction with conventional cell counting methodologies (i.e. inverted light microscopy, flow cytometry) and primary production measurements, a comprehensive qualitative and quantitative characterization of phytoplankton community composition and its activity was conducted. Chlorophyll-a normalized production and estimated growth rates presented the highest values within the 'fresh' BSW mass during summer, though generally growth rates were low (production. Large cell organisms, and in particular diatoms, were closely associated with the surface BSW masses outflowing from the Straits. Our results showed that all phytoplankton size components were significant over time and space suggesting a rather multivorous food web functioning of the system.

  11. LiDAR Relative Reflectivity Surface (2011) for Coral Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution relative seafloor reflectivity surface for Coral Bay, St. John in the U.S....

  12. Basement to surface expressions and critical factors in the genesis of unconformity-related deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Two subprojects: 1) Basement to surface expressions of deep mineralization and refinement of critical factors leading to the genesis of unconformity-related uranium deposits; and 2) Recognition of uranium ore system alteration signatures in complex terranes: IOCG vs albite-hosted uranium vs volcanic-hosted uranium.

  13. The complex dispersion relation of surface plasmon polaritons at gold/para-hexaphenylene interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemke, Christoph; Leißner, Till; Klick, Alwin

    2014-01-01

    Two-photon photoemission electron microscopy (2P-PEEM) is used to measure the real and imaginary part of the dispersion relation of surface plasmon polaritons at different interface systems. A comparison of calculated and measured dispersion data for a gold/vacuum interface demonstrates...

  14. Volcano Relations for Oxidation of Hydrogen Halides over Rutile Oxide Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftelund, Anja; Man, Isabela C.; Hansen, Heine A.

    2012-01-01

    over a range of different rutile oxide surfaces. Based on the scaling relations, two descriptors are identified that describe the reactions uniquely. By combining scaling with the micro-kinetic model, activity volcanoes for the three different oxidation reactions are derived. It is found...

  15. LiDAR Relative Reflectivity Surface (2011) for Fish Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution relative seafloor reflectivity surface for Fish Bay, St. John in the U.S....

  16. Age-Related Features of Reactive Catecholamine Shifts in the Spinal Cord in Acute Somatic Pain: Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Ovsyannikov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the age-related features of an adrenergic response of the central nervous system to acute somatic pain (ASP.Subjects and methods: The spinal cord (SC levels of adrenaline (A, noradrenaline (NA, and dopamine (DA were studied in albino male rats of five age groups: 1 neonatal (2—4-day rats; 2 17—18-day rats that began to see; 3 monthly rats; 4 sexually mature (3—4 month ones; and 5 old ones aged over 2 years. ASP was reproduced by electrodermal stimulation of the rat tail; the levels of catecholamines (CA were measured by spectrofluorimetric microassay.Results. During postnatal ontogenesis, the rats were found to have a phase pattern of physiological changes in the spinal concentrations of CA: a decrease in their high neonatal levels (due to DA by the time the animals began to see; their progressive increase by prepuberty (due to NA and in sexually maturity (due to A and DA, and a reduction in all CA fractions in old rats. ASP was attended by a rise in the SC concentration of CA in the neonatal animals and by clearly-cut reactive shifts in all fractions in the old ones. With A and DA increases, the SC concentrations of NA halved in the rats that began to see and had ASP; the amount of CA remained unchanged as compared with the controls. In prepubertal and sexually mature male rats, there was a reduction in the spinal CA pool, but due to different components: to A and NA in 35-day rats and to A and DA in 3-month ones.Conclusion. Age-related changes in the pattern of a spinal CA response in rats with ASP show a ontogenetic trend in the development of adrenal responsiveness from the immature generalized forms of an early postnatal period to the definitive differentiated economic reactions of the hypo-to-normergic type and then to the hyperergic destructive reactions of old age. 

  17. The Memory Is in the Details: Relations between Memory for the Specific Features of Events and Long-Term Recall during Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Lukowski, Angela F.

    2010-01-01

    The second year of life is marked by pronounced changes in the length of time over which events are remembered. We tested whether the age-related differences are related to differences in memory for the specific features of events. In our study, 16- and 20-month-olds were tested for immediate and long-term recall of individual actions and temporal…

  18. Surface deterioration of dental materials after simulated toothbrushing in relation to brushing time and load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintze, S D; Forjanic, M; Ohmiti, K; Rousson, V

    2010-04-01

    (1) To evaluate the changes in surface roughness and gloss after simulated toothbrushing of 9 composite materials and 2 ceramic materials in relation to brushing time and load in vitro; (2) to assess the relationship between surface gloss and surface roughness. Eight flat specimens of composite materials (microfilled: Adoro, Filtek Supreme, Heliomolar; microhybrid: Four Seasons, Tetric EvoCeram; hybrid: Compoglass F, Targis, Tetric Ceram; macrohybrid: Grandio), two ceramic materials (IPS d.SIGN and IPS Empress polished) were fabricated according to the manufacturer's instructions and optimally polished with up to 4000 grit SiC. The specimens were subjected to a toothbrushing (TB) simulation device (Willytec) with rotating movements, toothpaste slurry and at three different loads (100g/250g/350g). At hourly intervals from 1h to 10h TB, mean surface roughness Ra was measured with an optical sensor and the surface gloss (Gl) with a glossmeter. Statistical analysis was performed for log-transformed Ra data applying two-way ANOVA to evaluate the interaction between load and material and load and brushing time. There was a significant interaction between material and load as well as between load and brushing time (pgloss was the parameter which discriminated best between the materials, followed by mean surface roughness Ra. There was a strong correlation between surface gloss and surface roughness for all the materials except the ceramics. The evaluation of the deterioration curves of individual specimens revealed a more or less synchronous course suspecting hinting specific external conditions and not showing the true variability in relation to the tested material. The surface roughness and gloss of dental materials changes with brushing time and load and thus results in different material rankings. Apart from Grandio, the hybrid composite resins were more prone to surface changes than microfilled composites. The deterioration potential of a composite material can be

  19. Tribological analysis of the ventral scale structure in a Python regius in relation to laser textured surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aal, H A; El Mansori, M

    2013-01-01

    Laser texturing is one of the leading technologies applied to modify surface topography. To date, however, a standardized procedure to generate deterministic textures is virtually non-existent. In nature, especially in squamata, there are many examples of deterministic structured textures that allow species to control friction and condition their tribological response for efficient function. In this work, we draw a comparison between industrial surfaces and reptilian surfaces. We chose the Python regius species as a bio-analogue with a deterministic surface. We first study the structural make up of the ventral scales of the snake (both construction and metrology). We further compare the metrological features of the ventral scales to experimentally recommended performance indicators of industrial surfaces extracted from open literature. The results indicate the feasibility of engineering a laser textured surface based on the reptilian ornamentation constructs. It is shown that the metrological features, key to efficient function of a rubbing deterministic surface, are already optimized in the reptile. We further show that optimization in reptilian surfaces is based on synchronizing surface form, textures and aspects to condition the frictional response. Mimicking reptilian surfaces, we argue, may form a design methodology potentially capable of generating advanced deterministic surface constructs capable of efficient tribological function. (paper)

  20. A unified account of perceptual layering and surface appearance in terms of gamut relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladusich, Tony; McDonnell, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    When we look at the world--or a graphical depiction of the world--we perceive surface materials (e.g. a ceramic black and white checkerboard) independently of variations in illumination (e.g. shading or shadow) and atmospheric media (e.g. clouds or smoke). Such percepts are partly based on the way physical surfaces and media reflect and transmit light and partly on the way the human visual system processes the complex patterns of light reaching the eye. One way to understand how these percepts arise is to assume that the visual system parses patterns of light into layered perceptual representations of surfaces, illumination and atmospheric media, one seen through another. Despite a great deal of previous experimental and modelling work on layered representation, however, a unified computational model of key perceptual demonstrations is still lacking. Here we present the first general computational model of perceptual layering and surface appearance--based on a boarder theoretical framework called gamut relativity--that is consistent with these demonstrations. The model (a) qualitatively explains striking effects of perceptual transparency, figure-ground separation and lightness, (b) quantitatively accounts for the role of stimulus- and task-driven constraints on perceptual matching performance, and (c) unifies two prominent theoretical frameworks for understanding surface appearance. The model thereby provides novel insights into the remarkable capacity of the human visual system to represent and identify surface materials, illumination and atmospheric media, which can be exploited in computer graphics applications.

  1. Borderline Personality Disorder Features Are Associated with Concurrent Pain-Related Disability in a Chronic Pain Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Caleb J; Tragesser, Sarah L

    2018-04-03

    To determine whether core features of borderline personality disorder are associated with increased rates of being on disability benefits due to chronic pain conditions. A total of 147 patients currently in treatment for chronic pain at a multimodal chronic pain clinic. We tested for a concurrent relationship between borderline personality disorder features and employment status using self-report measures. Borderline personality disorder features were associated with increased likelihood of currently being on disability due to pain conditions (odds ratio [OR] = 23.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.68-318.73), on disability due to other conditions (OR = 33.65, 95% CI = 2.15-526.13), and unemployed (OR = 20.14, 95% CI = 1.38-294.93), even while controlling for pain severity and interference, depression, and trait anxiety. A follow-up analysis revealed that these associations were due to the negative relationships facet of borderline personality disorder features. Borderline personality disorder features, particularly negative relationships, are associated with increased rates of pain disability, general disability, and unemployment in a chronic pain sample. Future research should examine mechanisms by which the maladaptive interpersonal behaviors and cognitions of borderline personality disorder might result in worse long-term employment outcomes of chronic pain.

  2. Surface density: a new parameter in the fundamental metallicity relation of star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Tetsuya; Goto, Tomotsugu; Momose, Rieko

    2018-04-01

    Star-forming galaxies display a close relation among stellar mass, metallicity, and star formation rate (or molecular-gas mass). This is known as the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) (or molecular-gas FMR), and it has a profound implication on models of galaxy evolution. However, there still remains a significant residual scatter around the FMR. We show here that a fourth parameter, the surface density of stellar mass, reduces the dispersion around the molecular-gas FMR. In a principal component analysis of 29 physical parameters of 41 338 star-forming galaxies, the surface density of stellar mass is found to be the fourth most important parameter. The new 4D fundamental relation forms a tighter hypersurface that reduces the metallicity dispersion to 50 per cent of that of the molecular-gas FMR. We suggest that future analyses and models of galaxy evolution should consider the FMR in a 4D space that includes surface density. The dilution time-scale of gas inflow and the star-formation efficiency could explain the observational dependence on surface density of stellar mass.

  3. Surface sediment quality relative to port activities: A contaminant-spectrum assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shen; Hong, Bing; Ma, Jun; Chen, Yongshan; Xi, Xiuping; Gao, Jingbo; Hu, Xiuqin; Xu, Xiangrong; Sun, Yuxin

    2017-10-15

    Ports are facing increasing environmental concerns with their importance to the global economy. Numerous studies indicated sediment quality deterioration in ports; however, the deterioration is not discriminated for each port activity. This study investigated a spectrum of contaminants (metals and organic pollutants) in surface sediments at 20 sampling points in Port Ningbo, China, one of the top five world ports by volume. The spectrum of contaminants (metals and organic pollutants) was quantified following marine sediment quality guidelines of China and USA and surface sediment quality was assessed according to thresholds of the two guidelines. Coupling a categorical matrix of port activities with the matrix of sedimentary contaminants revealed that contaminants were highly associated with the port operations. Ship repair posed a severe chemical risk to sediment. Operations of crude oil and coal loadings were two top activities related to organic pollutants in sediments while port operations of ore and container loadings discharged metals. Among the 20 sampling points, Cu, Zn, Pb, and DDT and its metabolites were the priority contaminants influencing sediment quality. Overall, surface sediments in Port Ningbo had relatively low environmental risks but ship repair is an environmental concern that must be addressed. This study provides a practical approach for port activity-related quality assessment of surface sediments in ports that could be applicable in many world sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Surface applicators for high dose rate brachytherapy in AIDS-related kaposi's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Michael D.C.; Yassa, Mariam; Podgorsak, Ervin B.; Roman, Ted N.; Schreiner, L. John; Souhami, Luis

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The development of commercially available surface applicators using high dose rate remote afterloading devices has enabled radiotherapy centers to treat selected superficial lesions using a remote afterloading brachytherapy unit. The dosimetric parameters of these applicators, the clinical implementation of this technique, and a review of the initial patient treatment regimes are presented. Methods and Materials: A set of six fixed-diameter (1, 2, and 3 cm), tungsten/steel surface applicators is available for use with a single stepping-source (Ir-192, 370 GBq) high dose rate afterloader. The source can be positioned either in a parallel or perpendicular orientation to the treatment plane at the center of a conical aperture that sits at an SSD of approximately 15 mm and is used with a 1-mm thick removable plastic cap. The surface dose rates, percent depth dose, and off-axis ratios were measured. A custom-built, ceiling-mounted immobilization device secures the applicator on the surface of the patient's lesion during treatment. Results: Between November 1994, and September 1996, 16 AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma patients having a total of 120 lesions have been treated with palliative intent. Treatment sites were distributed between the head and neck, extremity, and torso. Doses ranged from 8 to 20 Gy, with a median dose of 10 Gy delivered in a single fraction. Treatments were well tolerated with minimal skin reaction, except for patients with lesions treated to 20 Gy who developed moderate/severe desquamation. Conclusion: Radiotherapy centers equipped with a high dose rate remote afterloading unit may treat small selected surface lesions with commercially available surface applicators. These surface applicators must be used with a protective cap to eliminate electron contamination. The optimal surface dose appears to be either 10 or 15 Gy depending upon the height of the lesion

  5. Interspecific scaling patterns of talar articular surfaces within primates and their closest living relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Boyer, Doug M

    2014-01-01

    The articular facets of interosseous joints must transmit forces while maintaining relatively low stresses. To prevent overloading, joints that transmit higher forces should therefore have larger facet areas. The relative contributions of body mass and muscle-induced forces to joint stress are unclear, but generate opposing hypotheses. If mass-induced forces dominate, facet area should scale with positive allometry to body mass. Alternatively, muscle-induced forces should cause facets to scale isometrically with body mass. Within primates, both scaling patterns have been reported for articular surfaces of the femoral and humeral heads, but more distal elements are less well studied. Additionally, examination of complex articular surfaces has largely been limited to linear measurements, so that ‘true area' remains poorly assessed. To re-assess these scaling relationships, we examine the relationship between body size and articular surface areas of the talus. Area measurements were taken from microCT scan-generated surfaces of all talar facets from a comprehensive sample of extant euarchontan taxa (primates, treeshrews, and colugos). Log-transformed data were regressed on literature-derived log-body mass using reduced major axis and phylogenetic least squares regressions. We examine the scaling patterns of muscle mass and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) to body mass, as these relationships may complicate each model. Finally, we examine the scaling pattern of hindlimb muscle PCSA to talar articular surface area, a direct test of the effect of mass-induced forces on joint surfaces. Among most groups, there is an overall trend toward positive allometry for articular surfaces. The ectal (= posterior calcaneal) facet scales with positive allometry among all groups except ‘sundatherians', strepsirrhines, galagids, and lorisids. The medial tibial facet scales isometrically among all groups except lemuroids. Scaling coefficients are not correlated with sample

  6. SASP. Contributions to the 13. Symposium on atomic and surface physics and related topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheier, P.; Maerk, T.

    2002-01-01

    The XIII symposium on Atomic and Surface Physics and related Topics (SASP) is devoted to cover the research of interactions between ions, electrons, photons, atoms, molecules and clusters and their interaction with surfaces. This year there was a special session dedicated to proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry covering its applications in different fields and a mini symposium on the radiation action on bio-molecules such as uracil. The contributions included in the proceeding correspond to invited lectures and poster sessions, consisting of short and extended abstracts as well as short articles. (nevyjel)

  7. SASP. Contributions to the 13. Symposium on atomic and surface physics and related topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheier, P; Maerk, T [eds.

    2002-07-01

    The XIII symposium on Atomic and Surface Physics and related Topics (SASP) is devoted to cover the research of interactions between ions, electrons, photons, atoms, molecules and clusters and their interaction with surfaces. This year there was a special session dedicated to proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry covering its applications in different fields and a mini symposium on the radiation action on bio-molecules such as uracil. The contributions included in the proceeding correspond to invited lectures and poster sessions, consisting of short and extended abstracts as well as short articles. (nevyjel)

  8. Basic features of the predictive tools of early warning systems for water-related natural hazards: examples for shallow landslides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Greco

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To manage natural risks, an increasing effort is being put in the development of early warning systems (EWS, namely, approaches facing catastrophic phenomena by timely forecasting and alarm spreading throughout exposed population. Research efforts aimed at the development and implementation of effective EWS should especially concern the definition and calibration of the interpretative model. This paper analyses the main features characterizing predictive models working in EWS by discussing their aims and their features in terms of model accuracy, evolutionary stage of the phenomenon at which the prediction is carried out and model architecture. Original classification criteria based on these features are developed throughout the paper and shown in their practical implementation through examples of flow-like landslides and earth flows, both of which are characterized by rapid evolution and quite representative of many applications of EWS.

  9. Basic features of the predictive tools of early warning systems for water-related natural hazards: examples for shallow landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Roberto; Pagano, Luca

    2017-12-01

    To manage natural risks, an increasing effort is being put in the development of early warning systems (EWS), namely, approaches facing catastrophic phenomena by timely forecasting and alarm spreading throughout exposed population. Research efforts aimed at the development and implementation of effective EWS should especially concern the definition and calibration of the interpretative model. This paper analyses the main features characterizing predictive models working in EWS by discussing their aims and their features in terms of model accuracy, evolutionary stage of the phenomenon at which the prediction is carried out and model architecture. Original classification criteria based on these features are developed throughout the paper and shown in their practical implementation through examples of flow-like landslides and earth flows, both of which are characterized by rapid evolution and quite representative of many applications of EWS.

  10. Salt Induces Features of a Dormancy-Like State in Seeds of Eutrema (Thellungiella salsugineum, a Halophytic Relative of Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Kazachkova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The salinization of land is a major factor limiting crop production worldwide. Halophytes adapted to high levels of salinity are likely to possess useful genes for improving crop tolerance to salt stress, as well as providing a food source on marginal lands. However, despite being salt-tolerant plants, the seeds of many halophytes will not germinate on saline soils, yet little is understood regarding biochemical and gene expression changes underlying salt-mediated inhibition of halophyte seed germination. We have used the halophytic Arabidopsis relative model system, Eutrema (Thellungiella salsugineum to explore salt-mediated inhibition of germination. We show that E. salsugineum seed germination is inhibited by salt to a far greater extent than in Arabidopsis, and that this inhibition is in response to the osmotic component of salt exposure. E. salsugineum seeds remain viable even when germination is completely inhibited, and germination resumes once seeds are transferred to non-saline conditions. Moreover, removal of the seed coat from salt-treated seeds allows embryos to germinate on salt-containing medium. Mobilization of seed storage reserves is restricted in salt-treated seeds, while many germination-associated metabolic changes are arrested or progress to a lower extent. Salt-exposed seeds are further characterized by a reduced GA/ABA ratio and increased expression of the germination repressor genes, RGL2, ABI5 and DOG1. Furthermore, a salt-mediated increase in expression of a LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT gene and accretion of metabolites involved in osmoprotection indicates induction of processes associated with stress tolerance, and accumulation of easily mobilized carbon reserves. Overall, our results suggest that salt inhibits E. salsugineum seed germination by inducing a seed state with molecular features of dormancy while a physical constraint to radicle emergence is provided by the seed coat layers. This seed state could facilitate

  11. The Orientation of Nanoscale Apatite Platelets in Relation to Osteoblastic-Osteocyte Lacunae on Trabecular Bone Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Furqan A; Zanghellini, Ezio; Matic, Aleksandar; Thomsen, Peter; Palmquist, Anders

    2016-02-01

    The orientation of nanoscale mineral platelets was quantitatively evaluated in relation to the shape of lacunae associated with partially embedded osteocytes (osteoblastic-osteocytes) on the surface of deproteinised trabecular bone of adult sheep. By scanning electron microscopy and image analysis, the mean orientation of mineral platelets at the osteoblastic-osteocyte lacuna (Ot.Lc) floor was found to be 19° ± 14° in the tibia and 20° ± 14° in the femur. Further, the mineral platelets showed a high degree of directional coherency: 37 ± 7% in the tibia and 38 ± 9% in the femur. The majority of Ot.Lc in the tibia (69.37%) and the femur (74.77%) exhibited a mean orientation of mineral platelets between 0° and 25°, with the largest fraction within a 15°-20° range, 17.12 and 19.8% in the tibia and femur, respectively. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterise the features observed on the anorganic bone surface. The Ca/P (atomic %) ratio was 1.69 ± 0.1 within the Ot.Lc and 1.68 ± 0.1 externally. Raman spectra of NaOCl-treated bone showed peaks associated with carbonated apatite: ν1, ν2 and ν4 PO4(3-), and ν1 CO3(2-), while the collagen amide bands were greatly reduced in intensity compared to untreated bone. The apatite-to-collagen ratio increased considerably after deproteinisation; however, the mineral crystallinity and the carbonate-to-phosphate ratios were unaffected. The ~19°-20° orientation of mineral platelets in at the Ot.Lc floor may be attributable to a gradual rotation of osteoblasts in successive layers relative to the underlying surface, giving rise to the twisted plywood-like pattern of lamellar bone.

  12. Distinctive Features of Surface Winds over Indian Ocean Between Strong and Weak Indian Summer Monsoons: Implications With Respect To Regional Rainfall Change in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Bourassa, M. A.; Ali, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    This observational study focuses on characterizing the surface winds in the Arabian Sea (AS), the Bay of Bengal (BoB), and the southern Indian Ocean (SIO) with special reference to the strong and weak Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) using the latest daily gridded rainfall dataset provided by the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) and the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) gridded wind product version 2.0 produced by Remote Sensing System (RSS) over the overlapped period 1991-2014. The potential links between surface winds and Indian regional rainfall are also examined. Results indicate that the surface wind speeds in AS and BoB during June-August are almost similar during strong ISMRs and weak ISMRs, whereas significant discrepancies are observed during September. By contrast, the surface wind speeds in SIO during June-August are found to be significantly different between strong and weak ISMRs, where they are similar during September. The significant differences in monthly mean surface wind convergence between strong and weak ISMRs are not coherent in space in the three regions. However, the probability density function (PDF) distributions of daily mean area-averaged values are distinctive between strong and weak ISMRs in the three regions. The correlation analysis indicates the area-averaged surface wind speeds in AS and the area-averaged wind convergence in BoB are highly correlated with regional rainfall for both strong and weak ISMRs. The wind convergence in BoB during strong ISMRs is relatively better correlated with regional rainfall than during weak ISMRs. The surface winds in SIO do not greatly affect Indian rainfall in short timescales, however, they will ultimately affect the strength of monsoon circulation by modulating Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) mode via atmosphere-ocean interactions.

  13. SigWin-detector: A Grid-enabled workflow for discovering enriched windows of genomic features related to DNA sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inda, M.A.; van Batenburg, M.F.; Roos, M.; Belloum, A.S.Z.; Vasunin, D.; Wibisono, A.; van Kampen, A.H.C.; Breit, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Chromosome location is often used as a scaffold to organize genomic information in both the living cell and molecular biological research. Thus, ever-increasing amounts of data about genomic features are stored in public databases and can be readily visualized by genome browsers. To

  14. SigWin-detector: a Grid-enabled workflow for discovering enriched windows of genomic features related to DNA sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inda, Marcia A.; van Batenburg, Marinus F.; Roos, Marco; Belloum, Adam Sz; Vasunin, Dmitry; Wibisono, Adianto; van Kampen, Antoine H. C.; Breit, Timo M.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Chromosome location is often used as a scaffold to organize genomic information in both the living cell and molecular biological research. Thus, ever-increasing amounts of data about genomic features are stored in public databases and can be readily visualized by genome

  15. Study on Relation between Hydrodynamic Feature Size of HPAM and Pore Size of Reservoir Rock in Daqing Oilfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow mechanism of the injected fluid was studied by the constant pressure core displacement experiments in the paper. It is assumed under condition of the constant pressure gradient in deep formation based on the characteristic of pressure gradient distribution between the injection and production wells and the mobility of different polymer systems in deep reservoir. Moreover, the flow rate of steady stream was quantitatively analyzed and the critical flow pressure gradient of different injection parameters polymer solutions in different permeability cores was measured. The result showed that polymer hydrodynamic feature size increases with the increasing molecular weight. If the concentration of polymer solutions overlaps beyond critical concentration, then molecular chains entanglement will be occur and cause the augment of its hydrodynamic feature size. The polymer hydrodynamic feature size decreased as the salinity of the dilution water increased. When the median radius of the core pore and throat was 5–10 times of the polymer system hydrodynamic feature size, the polymer solution had a better compatibility with the microscopic pore structure of the reservoir. The estimation of polymer solutions mobility in the porous media can be used to guide the polymer displacement plan and select the optimum injection parameters.

  16. Air and Ground Surface Temperature Relations in a Mountainous Basin, Wolf Creek, Yukon Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roadhouse, Emily A.

    The links between climate and permafrost are well known, but the precise nature of the relationship between air and ground temperatures remains poorly understood, particularly in complex mountain environments. Although previous studies indicate that elevation and potential incoming solar radiation (PISR) are the two leading factors contributing to the existence of permafrost at a given location, additional factors may also contribute significantly to the existence of mountain permafrost, including vegetation cover, snow accumulation and the degree to which individual mountain landscapes are prone to air temperature inversions. Current mountain permafrost models consider only elevation and aspect, and have not been able to deal with inversion effects in a systematic fashion. This thesis explores the relationship between air and ground surface temperatures and the presence of surface-based inversions at 27 sites within the Wolf Creek basin and surrounding area between 2001 and 2006, as a first step in developing an improved permafrost distribution TTOP model. The TTOP model describes the relationship between the mean annual air temperature and the temperature at the top of permafrost in terms of the surface and thermal offsets (Smith and Riseborough, 2002). Key components of this model are n-factors which relate air and ground climate by establishing the ratio between air and surface freezing (winter) and thawing (summer) degree-days, thus summarizing the surface energy balance on a seasonal basis. Here we examine (1) surface offsets and (2) freezing and thawing n-factor variability at a number of sites through altitudinal treeline in the southern Yukon. Thawing n-factors (nt) measured at individual sites remained relatively constant from one year to the next and may be related to land cover. During the winter, the insulating effect of a thick snow cover results in higher surface temperatures, while thin snow cover results in low surface temperatures more closely

  17. Microbial control of food-related surfaces: Na-Chlorophyllin-based photosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksiene, Zivile; Paskeviciute, Egle

    2011-10-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate efficiency of photosensitization as surface sanitation alternative using model systems when food pathogens, their spores and biofilms were attached to the food-related surface (polyolefine). In addition it was important to compare antibacterial efficiency of Na-Chlorophyllin (Na-Chl)-based photosensitization with conventional sanitizers. Obtained results indicate that Bacilluscereus ATCC 12826 and Listeriamonocytogenes ATCC 7644 as well as their thermoresistant strains B.cereus SV90 and L.monocytogenes 56LY were effectively inactivated (7 log) by Na-Chl-based photosensitization in vitro. Inactivation rate of thermoresistant strains was slower. The number of attached to the surface B.cereus ATCC 12826 and L.monocytogenes ATCC 7644 was reduced from 4-4.5 log to 0 log after photosensitization treatment. To achieve adequate inactivation of thermoresistant strains the higher Na-Chl concentration and longer illumination times had to be used. Comparison of different surface decontamination treatments reveal that photosensitization is much more effective against all surface-attached B.cereus and L.monocytogenes strains than washing with water or 200 ppm Na-hypochlorite. It is important to note, that surface-attached B.cereus spores and L.monocytogenes biofilms can be eliminated from it by photosensitization as well. Our data support the idea that Na-Chlorophyllin-based photosensitization has high antibacterial potential which may serve in the future for the development of human and environment friendly, non-thermal surface decontamination technique. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Teeth and bones: applications of surface science to dental materials and related biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F. H.

    2001-05-01

    Recent years have seen a considerable upsurge in publications concerning the surface structure and chemistry of materials with biological or biomedical applications. Within the body, gas-solid interactions become relatively less significant and solid-liquid or solid-solid interfaces dominate, providing new challenges for the surface scientist. The current paper aims to provide a timely review of the use of surface analysis and modification techniques within the biomaterials field. A broad overview of applications in a number of related areas is given with particular attention focusing on those materials commonly encountered in dentistry and oral or maxillofacial implantology. Several specific issues of current interest are discussed. The interaction between synthetic and natural solids, both in the oral environment and elsewhere in the body is important in terms of adhesion, related stresses and strains and ultimately the longevity of a dental restoration, biomedical implant, or indeed the surrounding tissue. Exposure to body fluids, of course, can also affect stability, leading to the degradation or corrosion of materials within the body. Whilst this could potentially be harmful, e.g., if cytotoxic elements are released, it may alternatively provide a route to the preferential release of beneficial substances. Furthermore, in some cases, the controlled disintegration of a biomaterial is desirable, allowing the removal of an implant, e.g., without the need for further surgery. The presence of cells in the immediate bioenvironment additionally complicates the situation. A considerable amount of current research activity is targeted at the development of coatings or surface treatments to encourage tissue growth. If this is to be achieved by stimulating enhanced cell productivity, determination of the relationship between cell function and surface composition is essential.

  19. Influence of pipe material and surfaces on sulfide related odor and corrosion in sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Vollertsen, Jes; Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Wium-Andersen, Tove; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2008-09-01

    Hydrogen sulfide oxidation on sewer pipe surfaces was investigated in a pilot scale experimental setup. The experiments were aimed at replicating conditions in a gravity sewer located immediately downstream of a force main where sulfide related concrete corrosion and odor is often observed. During the experiments, hydrogen sulfide gas was injected intermittently into the headspace of partially filled concrete and plastic (PVC and HDPE) sewer pipes in concentrations of approximately 1,000 ppm(v). Between each injection, the hydrogen sulfide concentration was monitored while it decreased because of adsorption and subsequent oxidation on the pipe surfaces. The experiments showed that the rate of hydrogen sulfide oxidation was approximately two orders of magnitude faster on the concrete pipe surfaces than on the plastic pipe surfaces. Removal of the layer of reaction (corrosion) products from the concrete pipes was found to reduce the rate of hydrogen sulfide oxidation significantly. However, the rate of sulfide oxidation was restored to its background level within 10-20 days. A similar treatment had no observable effect on hydrogen sulfide removal in the plastic pipe reactors. The experimental results were used to model hydrogen sulfide oxidation under field conditions. This showed that the gas-phase hydrogen sulfide concentration in concrete sewers would typically amount to a few percent of the equilibrium concentration calculated from Henry's law. In the plastic pipe sewers, significantly higher concentrations were predicted because of the slower adsorption and oxidation kinetics on such surfaces.

  20. Effects of storage methods on time-related changes of titanium surface properties and cellular response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Haibin; Zhou Lei; Wan Lei; Li Shaobing; Rong Mingdeng; Guo Zehong

    2012-01-01

    Titanium implants are sold in the market as storable medical devices. All the implants have a certain shelf life during which they maintain their sterility, but variations of the surface properties through this duration have not been subject to a comprehensive assessment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of storage methods on time-related changes of titanium surface properties. Acid-etched titanium discs (Sa = 0.82 µm) were placed in a sealed container (tradition method) or submerged in the ddH 2 O/NaCl solution (0.15 mol L −1 )/CaCl 2 solution (0.15 mol L −1 ), and new titanium discs were used as a control group. SEM and optical profiler showed that surface morphology and roughness did not change within different groups, but the XPS analysis confirmed that the surface chemistry altered by different storage protocols as the storage duration increased, and the contact angle also varied with storage methods. The storage method also affected the protein adsorption capacity and cellular response on the titanium surface. All titanium discs stored in the solution maintained their excellent bioactivity even after four weeks storage time, but titanium discs stored in a traditional manner decreased substantially in an age-dependent manner. Much effort is needed to improve the storage methods in order to maintain the bioactivity of a titanium dental implant. (paper)

  1. Assessment of Land Surface Complexity In Relation To Information Capacity and the Fractal Dimension in Different Landform Regions Using Landsat Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Wang Xu; Huijie, Qin; Zhe, Zhang; Fei, Li

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing images are highly structured, and contiguous pixels of space domain have strong correlations that contain abundant information on land surface structure features and land surface electromagnetic radiation features. The information capacity model, which is a quality evaluation model based on a multi-dimensional histogram, includes local correlations within different pixels. Thus, the information capacity can illustrate land surface structural information more objectively and effectively than other single-pixel calculation models. Our results reveal that the information capacity value correlates well with the meaningful grey level of remote sensing imagery. This high correlation is related to the complexity of terrestrial surface landscapes. Therefore, information capacity, as applied to geoscience, is introduced in this study to demonstrate the spatial differentiation of information capacity of different landform regions. Generally, the information capacity of a mountain is large and is followed in decreasing order by those of the hills and the plains. Moreover, the correlation between information capacity and the fractal dimension is analysed. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the level of correlation for information capacity and the fractal dimension is high, and the correlation coefficient for the basic landform areas and the loess landform areas is 0.874 and 0.825, respectively. Finally, this paper proposes that information capacity be used as a new reference index for geoscientific analysis in quantitative research on the characteristics of land surface complexity

  2. Interfacial Tension and Surface Pressure of High Density Lipoprotein, Low Density Lipoprotein, and Related Lipid Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollila, O. H. S.; Lamberg, A.; Lehtivaara, M.

    2012-01-01

    ) are essentially lipid droplets surrounded by specific proteins, their main function being to transport cholesterol. Interfacial tension and surface pressure of these particles are of great interest because they are related to the shape and the stability of the droplets and to protein adsorption at the interface....... Here we use coarse-grained molecular-dynamics simulations to consider a number of related issues by calculating the interfacial tension in protein-free lipid droplets, and in HDL and LDL particles mimicking physiological conditions. First, our results suggest that the curvature dependence......Lipid droplets play a central role in energy storage and metabolism on a cellular scale. Their core is comprised of hydrophobic lipids covered by a surface region consisting of amphiphilic lipids and proteins. For example, high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively...

  3. Natural landscape features, human-related attractants, and conflict hotspots: A spatial analysis of human-grizzly bear conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S.M.; Madel, M.J.; Mattson, D.J.; Graham, J.M.; Burchfield, J.A.; Belsky, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    There is a long history of conflict in the western United States between humans and grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) involving agricultural attractants. However, little is known about the spatial dimensions of this conflict and the relative importance of different attractants. This study was undertaken to better understand the spatial and functional components of conflict between humans and grizzly bears on privately owned agricultural lands in Montana. Our investigations focused on spatial associations of rivers and creeks, livestock pastures, boneyards (livestock carcass dump sites), beehives, and grizzly bear habitat with reported human-grizzly bear conflicts during 1986-2001. We based our analysis on a survey of 61 of 64 livestock producers in our study in the Rocky Mountain East Front, Montana. With the assistance of livestock and honey producers, we mapped the locations of cattle and sheep pastures, boneyards, and beehives. We used density surface mapping to identify seasonal clusters of conflicts that we term conflict hotspots. Hotspots accounted for 75% of all conflicts and encompassed approximately 8% of the study area. We also differentiated chronic (4 or more years of conflicts) from non-chronic hotspots (fewer than 4 years of conflict). The 10 chronic hotpots accounted for 58% of all conflicts. Based on Monte Carlo simulations, we found that conflict locations were most strongly associated with rivers and creeks followed by sheep lambing areas and fall sheep pastures. Conflicts also were associated with cattle calving areas, spring cow-calf pastures, summer and fall cattle pastures, and boneyards. The Monte Carlo simulations indicated associations between conflict locations and unprotected beehives at specific analysis scales. Protected (fenced) beehives were less likely to experience conflicts than unprotected beehives. Conflicts occurred at a greater rate in riparian and wetland vegetation than would be expected. The majority of conflicts occurred in a

  4. Glazed ceramic roof tiles: influence of surface features in the solar reflectance index; Influencia das caracteristicas da superficie no indice de refletancia solar de telhas ceramicas esmaltadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoli, Leitcia Silva de; Stapait, Camila Cristina; Marinoski, Deivis Luis; Fredel, Marcio Celso; Schabbach, Luciana M., E-mail: luciana.maccarini@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Blumenau, SC (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    In this study the influence of surface features of ceramic roof tiles in the solar reflectance index were evaluated. Two glazed ceramic roof tiles (type stoneware) with the same color (ivory) but with different appearance (matte and brilliant) were the focus of the analysis. The Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of the roofs tiles were determined by the solar reflectance values (UV-VIS-NIR) and emittance, measured in laboratory. The samples showed SRI> 39 in accordance with LEED certification criteria (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), contributing to minimizing the Heat Island Effects. Although the matte roof tile shows a slightly higher SRI value (82) than the brilliant one (78), the results for the variables that composes the SRI value (reflectance and emittance) were very similar. Analysis of XRD, SEM and EDS performed on the surfaces of the two roofs indicated for the matte glaze the presence of microcrystals (with barium and zinc) that can contribute to the slightly highest value of SRI. The roughness (optical interferometer white light) and the brightness (brightness meter) of the samples were also measured. (author)

  5. The surface defect-related electroluminescence from the ZnO microwire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Meng; Zhao Dongxu; Yao Bin; Li Binghui; Zhang Zhenzhong; Shan Chongxin; Shen Dezhen, E-mail: dxzhao2000@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130021 (China)

    2011-02-23

    Surface defect-related electroluminescence (EL) was realized from a single ZnO microwire-based metal-semiconductor-metal structure on a glass substrate. ZnO microwires were successfully fabricated using a simple chemical vapour deposition approach. Schottky contacts were detected between Au electrodes and the ZnO microwire. The EL spectrum showed a broad emission band covering the visible range from 400 to 700 nm. The possible EL emission mechanism is discussed in detail in this paper.

  6. The Cell Surface Markers Expression in Postmenopausal Women and Relation to Obesity and Bone Status

    OpenAIRE

    Horv?thov?, Mira; Ilavsk?, Silvia; ?tef?kov?, Korn?lia; Szabov?, Michaela; Krivo??kov?, Zora; Jahnov?, Eva; Tulinsk?, Jana; Spustov?, Viera; Gajdo?, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The age-related changes and hormonal deprivation in postmenopausal women are associated with the immune response alteration. The excessive fat accumulation, local and systemic inflammation may lead to dysregulation in immune function and relevant health problems, including obesity and osteoporosis. We analyzed the expression of cell surface markers in the venous blood specimens, stained with fluorophores-conjugated monoclonal antibodies and analysed by multicolour flow cytometry. The signific...

  7. Cosmic ray exposure dating of geo-morphic surface features using in situ-produced 10Be: tectonic and climatic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siame, L.; Bellier, O.; Sebrier, M.; Braucher, R.; Bourles, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of continental landforms is mainly modulated by the impact of climatic and tectonic processes. Because of their distinctive morphology and the periodicity of their deposition, climatically induced landforms such as alluvial fans or terraces are well suited to infer rates of tectonic and continental climatic processes. Within tectonically active regions, an important step consists in dating displaced geomorphic features to calculate slip rates on active faults. Dating is probably the most critical tool because it is generally much more simpler to measure deformation resulting from tectonic activity than it is to accurately date when that deformation occurred. Recent advances in analytical chemistry and nuclear physics (accelerator mass spectrometry) now allow quantitative abundance measurements of the extremely rare isotopes produced by the interaction of cosmic rays with surface rocks and soils, the so-called in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides ( 3 He, 10 Be, 21 Ne, 26 Al, 36 Cl), and allow to directly date the duration that a landform has been exposed to cosmic rays at the Earth's surface (Lal, 1991; Nishiizumi et al., 1993; Cerling and Craig, 1994; Clark et al., 1995]. In fact, the abundance of these cosmo-nuclides is proportional to landscape stability and, under favorable circumstances, their abundance within surface rocks can be used as a proxy for erosion rate or exposure age. These cosmo-nuclides thus provide geomorphologists with the opportunity to constrain rates of landscape evolution. This paper presents a new approach that combines cosmic ray exposure (CRE) dating using in situ-produced 10 Be and geomorphic as well as structural analyse. This approach has been applied on two active strike-slip and reverse faults located in the Andean fore-land of western Argentina. These two case studies illustrate how CRE dating using in situ-produced 10 Be is particularly well suited for geomorphic studies that aim to estimate the respective control of

  8. Main features of the geological structure of upper-Frasnian barrier reefs in relation to their petroleum content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikonov, N.I.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of new geological geophysical and industrial materials has made it possible to distinguish in the boundary part of the late Devonician shoal carbonate shelf barrier reefs of various ages. In confines of individual distinguished reefs there have been established deposits of oil (Western Tebuksk, Pashsor and Khar'yatinsk). There are given prospecting features of classification of buried reefs and prognoses for the finding possible oil deposits in them (Beyaksk, Sandiveis reefs).

  9. A redetermination of the Barnes-Evans relation for surface flux in the V band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, J.A.; Poe, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    Paying especial attention to the errors, we have redetermined the relation between visual flux at the star and color for stars with measured angular diameters. For stars cooler than the sun this is given both as a group of four polynomials in (V-R) for various parts of the range (V-R) >or approx.0.2, which start to recognize the fine structure in the flux-color relation, and as a straight line fitted to the data for 0,7 ≤ (V-R) ≤ 2.5. For stars hotter than the sun we give a table of surface flux vs. spectral type and (B-I) color. For stars later than the sun this flux-color relation is still defined almost entirely by giants. The conclusion that visual surface flux is a single function of (V-R) for all luminosity classes remains weak because of the small number of dwarfs and supergiants with angular diameters, likely systematic errors in the angular diameters of supergiants and the relatively large errors of individual angular diameters. The flux-color relation is combined with independent scales of bolometric corrections to give effective temperatures. We find that our results agree moderately well with those of Code et al. (1976), on which they are primarily based, for the hotter stars. However, they imply significant revisions of both the temperature and bolometric-correction scales for cool stars. 94 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs. (author)

  10. Radiative heat exchange between surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yener, Y.; Yuncu, H.

    1987-01-01

    The geometrical features of radiative heat exchange between surfaces are discussed first by developing various radiation shape factor relations. The governing equations for enclosures with diffusely emitting and diffusely reflecting surfaces, as well as the equations for enclosures with gray surfaces having specular component of reflectivity are introduced next. Finally, a simplified model for enclosures with isothermal surfaces under the assumption of uniform radiosity over the surfaces is discussed, and various working relations for different conditions are presented

  11. A Comparative Study of Coping Strategies and the Features of Interpersonal Relations and Life Orientations of People with Congenital and Acquired Diseases of the Musculoskeletal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, E. V.; Tolkacheva, O. N.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of a comparative study of the features of the coping strategies, life orientations, and interpersonal relations of disabled people with acquired and congenital diseases of the musculoskeletal system. The authors discovered differences in interpersonal behavior in the area of control, and they revealed factors that…

  12. Relation between the size of fog droplets and their contact angles with CR39 surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosu, G; Andrzejewski, L; Veilleux, G; Ross, G G

    2004-01-01

    The formation of fog on CR39 surfaces has been studied. Water droplets form fog coalesce with time, especially during the first 20 s at the beginning of the formation of fog. Consequently, their mean diameter increases. Formation of fog being related to the wettability of the surfaces, the latter has been increased by the implantation of Ar ions into CR39 surfaces under an oxygen partial pressure. A very wetting CR39 surface with advancing (ACA) and receding (RCA) contact angles below 5 deg. has been obtained with an implantation dose of 1.28x10 17 Ar + cm -2 . In this condition, no formation of fog was observed. Characterization using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has shown that the molecular structure of CR39 is strongly modified by Ar + implantation, which would be responsible for the increase in wettability. Unfortunately, both ACA and RCA increase with time, which is called ageing, and the formation of fog is again observed. The diameter and concentration of water droplets forming fog have been plotted against the contact angle. These plots show that no formation of fog occurs for ACA 15 He + cm -2 and an energy of 2 keV, sufficient to push the ions deeper than the Ar depth profile, delays the ageing effect in such a way that ACA ≅ 40 deg. is reached after ∼2000 h and no formation of fog is observed during these first ∼2000 h

  13. Binding and orientation of fibronectin on polystyrene surfaces using immobilized bacterial adhesin-related peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueh, U; Bryers, J D; Kreutzer, D L

    2003-10-01

    Fibronectin (FN) is known to bind to bacteria via high affinity receptors on bacterial surfaces known as adhesins. The binding of bacteria to FN is thought to have a key role in foreign device associated infections. For example, previous studies have indicated that Staphylococcus aureus adhesins bind to the 29 kDa NH(3) terminus end of FN, and thereby promote bacteria adherence to surfaces. Recently, the peptide sequences within the S. aureus adhesin molecule that are responsible for FN binding have been identified. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that functional FN can be bound and specifically oriented on polystyrene surfaces using bacterial adhesin-related (BRP-A) peptide. We further hypothesize that monoclonal antibodies that react with specific epitopes on the FN can be used to quantify both FN binding and orientation on these surfaces. Based on this hypothesis, we initiated a systematic investigation of the binding and orientation of FN on polystyrene surfaces using BRP-A peptide. To test this hypothesis, the binding and orientation of the FN to immobilized BRP-A was quantified using (125)I-FN, and monoclonal antibodies. (125)I-FN was used to quantitate FN binding to peptide-coated polystyrene surfaces. The orientation of bound FN was demonstrated by the use of monoclonal antibodies, which are reactive with the amine (N) or carboxyl (C) termini of the FN. The results of our studies demonstrated that when the BRP-A peptide was used to bind FN to surfaces that: 1. functional FN was bound to the peptide; 2. anti-C terminus antibodies bound to the peptide FN; and 3. only limited binding of anti-N terminus antibodies to peptide-bound FN occurred. We believe that the data that indicate an enhanced binding of anti-C antibodies reactive to anti-N antibodies are a result of the FN binding in an oriented manner with the N termini of FN bound tightly to the BRP-A on the polystyrene surface. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 67A: 36

  14. PREFACE Surface Modifications of Diamond and Related Materials (Session D, E-MRS Spring Meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Christoph E.

    2010-11-01

    This special issue contains selected papers which were presented at the E-MRS Symposium BIOMATERIALS, SENSORS & SURFACES, D: 'Surface modifications of diamond and related materials' which was held on 7-9 June 2010 in Strasbourg (France). With about 54 oral and poster presentations given from teams all over the world it was a very interesting, dense and lively meeting. The symposium focused on chemical modifications applied to graft surfaces of diamond, nano-diamond particles, diamond-like carbon, graphene, graphite and carbon nano-tubes with linker molecular layers for realization of bio-sensors, bio-markers, separation techniques, and switchable chemical links. Presented techniques span spontaneous bonding to photo-chemical attachment, electrochemical modifications, to Suzuki-coupling of aryl molecules. Special attention was drawn to mechanisms driving bonding kinetics such as electron transfer reactions, hydrogen cleavage reactions by nucleophilic molecules and growths schemas which vary from correlated two-dimensional chain reactions to three-dimensional cross polymerization. Hydrogen terminations, surface defects, surface roughness and atomic arrangements of surface carbon atoms were of interest to elucidate bonding mechanisms. In addition, bonding stability, either of linker molecules or of complex functionalized surfaces with DNA, proteins and enzymes was discussed by several speakers as well as details of the electronic interfaces between solid transducers and bio-layers. Here the characterization of surface and interface defect densities, of Fermi level pinning and of electron transfer rates was a major topic. Miniaturization of sensor area and application of new detection schemas was discussed. Diamond nano-particles which are increasingly used as biomarkers in drug delivery experiments also attracted attention. The organizers