WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface features including

  1. Including product features in process redesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Hauksdóttir, Dagný; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2017-01-01

    This article suggests a visual modelling method for integrating models of product features with business process models for redesigning the business processes involving specifications of customer-tailored products and services. The current methods for redesigning these types of business processes...... do not take into account how the product features are applied throughout the process, which makes it difficult to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the activities in the processes and to generate significant improvements. The suggested approach models the product family using the so......-called product variant master and the business process modelling notation for modelling the process flow. The product model is combined with the process map by identifying features used in each step of the process flow. Additionally, based on the information absorbed from the integrated model, the value stream...

  2. Feature sensitive multiscale editing on surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarenz, U.; Griebel, M.; Rumpf, M.; Schweitzer, M.A.; Telea, A.

    2004-01-01

    A novel editing method for large triangular meshes is presented. We detect surface features, such as edge and corners, by computing local zero and first surface moments, using a robust and noise resistant method. The feature detection is encoded in a finite element matrix, passed to an algebraic

  3. Ceramic substrate including thin film multilayer surface conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Joseph Ambrose; Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2017-05-09

    A ceramic substrate comprises a plurality of ceramic sheets, a plurality of inner conductive layers, a plurality of vias, and an upper conductive layer. The ceramic sheets are stacked one on top of another and include a top ceramic sheet. The inner conductive layers include electrically conductive material that forms electrically conductive features on an upper surface of each ceramic sheet excluding the top ceramic sheet. The vias are formed in each of the ceramic sheets with each via being filled with electrically conductive material. The upper conductive layer includes electrically conductive material that forms electrically conductive features on an upper surface of the top ceramic sheet. The upper conductive layer is constructed from a stack of four sublayers. A first sublayer is formed from titanium. A second sublayer is formed from copper. A third sublayer is formed from platinum. A fourth sublayer is formed from gold.

  4. Surface characterization based upon significant topographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, J; Grime, D; Blateyron, F, E-mail: fblateyron@digitalsurf.fr [Digital Surf, 16 rue Lavoisier, F-25000 Besancon (France)

    2011-08-19

    Watershed segmentation and Wolf pruning, as defined in ISO 25178-2, allow the detection of significant features on surfaces and their characterization in terms of dimension, area, volume, curvature, shape or morphology. These new tools provide a robust way to specify functional surfaces.

  5. Surface characterization based upon significant topographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, J; Grime, D; Blateyron, F

    2011-01-01

    Watershed segmentation and Wolf pruning, as defined in ISO 25178-2, allow the detection of significant features on surfaces and their characterization in terms of dimension, area, volume, curvature, shape or morphology. These new tools provide a robust way to specify functional surfaces.

  6. Vibration of Piezoelectric Nanowires Including Surface Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ansari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, surface and piezoelectric effects on the vibration behavior of nanowires (NWs are investigated by using a Timoshenko beam model. The electric field equations and the governing equations of motion for the piezoelectric NWs are derived with the consideration of surface effects. By the exact solution of the governing equations, an expression for the natural frequencies of NWs with simply-supported boundary conditions is obtained. The effects of piezoelectricity and surface effects on the vibrational behavior of Timoshenko NWs are graphically illustrated. A comparison is also made between the predictions of Timoshenko beam model and those of its Euler-Bernoulli counterpart. Additionally, the present results are validated through comparison with the available data in the literature.

  7. Pulmonary nodule characterization, including computer analysis and quantitative features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholmai, Brian J; Koo, Chi Wan; Johnson, Geoffrey B; White, Darin B; Raghunath, Sushravya M; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Moynagh, Michael R; Lindell, Rebecca M; Hartman, Thomas E

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary nodules are commonly detected in computed tomography (CT) chest screening of a high-risk population. The specific visual or quantitative features on CT or other modalities can be used to characterize the likelihood that a nodule is benign or malignant. Visual features on CT such as size, attenuation, location, morphology, edge characteristics, and other distinctive "signs" can be highly suggestive of a specific diagnosis and, in general, be used to determine the probability that a specific nodule is benign or malignant. Change in size, attenuation, and morphology on serial follow-up CT, or features on other modalities such as nuclear medicine studies or MRI, can also contribute to the characterization of lung nodules. Imaging analytics can objectively and reproducibly quantify nodule features on CT, nuclear medicine, and magnetic resonance imaging. Some quantitative techniques show great promise in helping to differentiate benign from malignant lesions or to stratify the risk of aggressive versus indolent neoplasm. In this article, we (1) summarize the visual characteristics, descriptors, and signs that may be helpful in management of nodules identified on screening CT, (2) discuss current quantitative and multimodality techniques that aid in the differentiation of nodules, and (3) highlight the power, pitfalls, and limitations of these various techniques.

  8. Robust Features Of Surface Electromyography Signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, M I; Miskon, M F; Yaacob, M R

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, application of robotics in human life has been explored widely. Robotics exoskeleton system are one of drastically areas in recent robotic research that shows mimic impact in human life. These system have been developed significantly to be used for human power augmentation, robotics rehabilitation, human power assist, and haptic interaction in virtual reality. This paper focus on solving challenges in problem using neural signals and extracting human intent. Commonly, surface electromyography signal (sEMG) are used in order to control human intent for application exoskeleton robot. But the problem lies on difficulty of pattern recognition of the sEMG features due to high noises which are electrode and cable motion artifact, electrode noise, dermic noise, alternating current power line interface, and other noise came from electronic instrument. The main objective in this paper is to study the best features of electromyography in term of time domain (statistical analysis) and frequency domain (Fast Fourier Transform).The secondary objectives is to map the relationship between torque and best features of muscle unit activation potential (MaxPS and RMS) of biceps brachii. This project scope use primary data of 2 male sample subject which using same dominant hand (right handed), age between 20–27 years old, muscle diameter 32cm to 35cm and using single channel muscle (biceps brachii muscle). The experiment conduct 2 times repeated task of contraction and relaxation of biceps brachii when lifting different load from no load to 3kg with ascending 1kg The result shows that Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) has less error than mean value of reading compare to root mean square (RMS) value. Thus, Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) show the linear relationship against torque experience by elbow joint to lift different load. As the conclusion, the best features is MaxPS because it has the lowest error than other features and

  9. Robust Features Of Surface Electromyography Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, M. I.; Miskon, M. F.; Yaacob, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, application of robotics in human life has been explored widely. Robotics exoskeleton system are one of drastically areas in recent robotic research that shows mimic impact in human life. These system have been developed significantly to be used for human power augmentation, robotics rehabilitation, human power assist, and haptic interaction in virtual reality. This paper focus on solving challenges in problem using neural signals and extracting human intent. Commonly, surface electromyography signal (sEMG) are used in order to control human intent for application exoskeleton robot. But the problem lies on difficulty of pattern recognition of the sEMG features due to high noises which are electrode and cable motion artifact, electrode noise, dermic noise, alternating current power line interface, and other noise came from electronic instrument. The main objective in this paper is to study the best features of electromyography in term of time domain (statistical analysis) and frequency domain (Fast Fourier Transform).The secondary objectives is to map the relationship between torque and best features of muscle unit activation potential (MaxPS and RMS) of biceps brachii. This project scope use primary data of 2 male sample subject which using same dominant hand (right handed), age between 20-27 years old, muscle diameter 32cm to 35cm and using single channel muscle (biceps brachii muscle). The experiment conduct 2 times repeated task of contraction and relaxation of biceps brachii when lifting different load from no load to 3kg with ascending 1kg The result shows that Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) has less error than mean value of reading compare to root mean square (RMS) value. Thus, Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) show the linear relationship against torque experience by elbow joint to lift different load. As the conclusion, the best features is MaxPS because it has the lowest error than other features and show

  10. Monitoring of tritium-contaminated surfaces, including skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surette, R.A.; Wood, M.J.

    1994-05-01

    We have examined various commercially available tritium surface contamination monitors along with different swipe media and techniques for direct and indirect (swipe) monitoring of contaminated surfaces, including skin. None of the methods or instruments evaluated were more sensitive than the swipe and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method. Swipe measurements with open-window proportional counters were, in general, less than half as sensitive as LSC, but have the advantages of having the results available almost immediately, and no sample preparation is required. The Nuclear Measurement Corporation's PC-55 is the most suitable instrument we tested for the analysis of routine swipe measurement. The PC-55 was about one third as sensitive as LSC when used with Ontario Hydro filter paper swipe media. Surface contamination measurement results can be obtained within minutes using the PC-55, compared to hours using LSC. The selection of swipe media for use with proportional counter-based instruments is critical. A medium that is electrically insulating can develop an electrostatic charge on its surface; this may alter the field gradient in the detector and may adversely influence the results. Although the PC-55 is sufficiently sensitive and very convenient, operational experience with the instrument is needed before recommending that it replace current LSC methods. The PC-55's susceptibility to internal tritium contamination may limit its practical usefulness. Because of the complexity of using live animals to evaluate direct and indirect methods for assessing skin contamination, pig skin was investigated as a possible substitute. We concluded that, for the first few hours post-exposure, pig skin mimics the kinetics of animal skin that has contacted a tritium-contaminated surface. (author). 30 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  11. An ontology design pattern for surface water features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Gaurav; Mark, David; Kolas, Dave; Varanka, Dalia; Romero, Boleslo E.; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Usery, E. Lynn; Liebermann, Joshua; Sorokine, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Surface water is a primary concept of human experience but concepts are captured in cultures and languages in many different ways. Still, many commonalities exist due to the physical basis of many of the properties and categories. An abstract ontology of surface water features based only on those physical properties of landscape features has the best potential for serving as a foundational domain ontology for other more context-dependent ontologies. The Surface Water ontology design pattern was developed both for domain knowledge distillation and to serve as a conceptual building-block for more complex or specialized surface water ontologies. A fundamental distinction is made in this ontology between landscape features that act as containers (e.g., stream channels, basins) and the bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes) that occupy those containers. Concave (container) landforms semantics are specified in a Dry module and the semantics of contained bodies of water in a Wet module. The pattern is implemented in OWL, but Description Logic axioms and a detailed explanation is provided in this paper. The OWL ontology will be an important contribution to Semantic Web vocabulary for annotating surface water feature datasets. Also provided is a discussion of why there is a need to complement the pattern with other ontologies, especially the previously developed Surface Network pattern. Finally, the practical value of the pattern in semantic querying of surface water datasets is illustrated through an annotated geospatial dataset and sample queries using the classes of the Surface Water pattern.

  12. Including pride and its group-based, relational, and contextual features in theories of contempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gavin Brent

    2017-01-01

    Sentiment includes emotional and enduring attitudinal features of contempt, but explaining contempt as a mixture of basic emotion system affects does not adequately address the family resemblance structure of the concept. Adding forms of individual, group-based, and widely shared arrogance and contempt is necessary to capture the complex mixed feelings of proud superiority when "looking down upon" and acting harshly towards others.

  13. Exploration Technology Development including Surface Acoustic Wave RFID chips

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project is focused on maturing future surface exploration technologies and instrumentation and working towards flight instrumentation and systems to support...

  14. Ceres' deformational surface features compared to other planetary bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Gathen, Isabel; Jaumann, Ralf; Krohn, Katrin; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Elgner, Stephan; Kersten, Elke; Matz, Klaus-Dieter; Nass, Andrea; Otto, Katharina; Preusker, Frank; Roatsch, Thomas; Schröder, Stefanus E.; Schulzeck, Franziska; Stephan, Katrin; Wagner, Roland; De Sanctis, Maria C.; Schenk, Paul; Scully, Jennifer E. C.; Williams, Dave A.; Raymond, Carol A.

    2016-04-01

    On March 2015, NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the dwarf planet Ceres and has been providing images of its surface. Based on High Altitude Mapping Orbiter (HAMO) clear filter images (140 m/px res.), a Survey mosaic (~400 m/px) and a series of Low Altitude Mapping Orbiter (LAMO) clear filter images (35 m/px) of the Dawn mission [1], deformational features are identified on the surface of Ceres. In order to further our knowledge about the nature and origin of these features, we start a comparative analysis of similar features on different planetary bodies, like Enceladus, Ganymede and the Moon, based on images provided by the Cassini, Galileo and Lunar Orbiter mission. This study focuses on the small scale fractures, mostly located on Ceres' crater floors, in comparison with crater fractures on the planetary bodies named above. The fractures were analyzed concerning the morphology and shape, the distribution, orientation and possible building mechanisms. On Ceres, two different groups of fractures are distinct. The first one includes fractures, normally arranged in subparallel pattern, which are usually located on crater floors, but also on crater rims. Their sense of direction is relatively uniform but in some cases they get deformed by shearing. The second group consists of joint systems, which spread out of one single location, sometimes arranged concentric to the crater rim. They were likely formed by cooling-melting processes linked to the impact process or up doming material. Fractures located on crater floors are also common on the icy satellite Enceladus [3]. While Enceladus' fractures don't seem to have a lot in common compared to those on Ceres, we assume that similar fracture patterns and therefore similar building mechanism can be found e.g. on Ganymede and especially on the Moon [2]. Further work will include the comparison of the fractures with additional planetary bodies and the trial to explain why fracturing e.g. on Enceladus differs from that on

  15. 3p interstitial deletion including PRICKLE2 in identical twins with autistic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Akihisa; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Miyajima, Masakazu; Shimojima, Keiko; Kondo, Satoshi; Abe, Shinpei; Ikeno, Mitsuru; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2014-11-01

    Microdeletion and microduplication syndromes without characteristic dysmorphic features are difficult to diagnose without chromosomal microarrays. We describe the clinical course and genetic findings of monozygotic twins with intellectual disabilities and autistic features associated with mild facial dysmorphism and microdeletion of chromosome 3p14. The postnatal course of the second twin was complicated by intestinal malrotation, whereas that of the first twin was unremarkable. Both twins had several mild dysmorphic features including upswept frontal hair, low-set posterior rotated ears, arched down-slanting eyebrows, prominent forehead, epicanthic folds, micrognathia, hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, short philtrum, and camptodactyly of the bilateral fifth fingers. They had autistic features such as poor eye contact and no social smile, stereotyped behaviors, and preference for solitary play. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed de novo 6.88-Mb deletions of 3p14 (chr3: 60,472,496-67,385,119) involving 17 genes in both twins. The deleted region contained 17 genes, five of which are known or presumed to be related to central nervous system disorders: FEZF2, SYNPR, ATXN7, PRICKLE2, and MAGI1. We consider that PRICKLE2 is the most likely causative gene for the autistic features exhibited by these individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Feature Surfaces in Symmetric Tensor Fields Based on Eigenvalue Manifold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Jonathan; Yeh, Harry; Wang, Wenping; Zhang, Yue; Laramee, Robert S; Sharma, Ritesh; Schultz, Thomas; Zhang, Eugene

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional symmetric tensor fields have a wide range of applications in solid and fluid mechanics. Recent advances in the (topological) analysis of 3D symmetric tensor fields focus on degenerate tensors which form curves. In this paper, we introduce a number of feature surfaces, such as neutral surfaces and traceless surfaces, into tensor field analysis, based on the notion of eigenvalue manifold. Neutral surfaces are the boundary between linear tensors and planar tensors, and the traceless surfaces are the boundary between tensors of positive traces and those of negative traces. Degenerate curves, neutral surfaces, and traceless surfaces together form a partition of the eigenvalue manifold, which provides a more complete tensor field analysis than degenerate curves alone. We also extract and visualize the isosurfaces of tensor modes, tensor isotropy, and tensor magnitude, which we have found useful for domain applications in fluid and solid mechanics. Extracting neutral and traceless surfaces using the Marching Tetrahedra method can cause the loss of geometric and topological details, which can lead to false physical interpretation. To robustly extract neutral surfaces and traceless surfaces, we develop a polynomial description of them which enables us to borrow techniques from algebraic surface extraction, a topic well-researched by the computer-aided design (CAD) community as well as the algebraic geometry community. In addition, we adapt the surface extraction technique, called A-patches, to improve the speed of finding degenerate curves. Finally, we apply our analysis to data from solid and fluid mechanics as well as scalar field analysis.

  17. Olkiluoto surface hydrological modelling: Update 2012 including salt transport modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, T.

    2013-11-01

    Posiva Oy is responsible for implementing a final disposal program for spent nuclear fuel of its owners Teollisuuden Voima Oyj and Fortum Power and Heat Oy. The spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed at a depth of about 400-450 meters in the crystalline bedrock at the Olkiluoto site. Leakages located at or close to spent fuel repository may give rise to the upconing of deep highly saline groundwater and this is a concern with regard to the performance of the tunnel backfill material after the closure of the tunnels. Therefore a salt transport sub-model was added to the Olkiluoto surface hydrological model (SHYD). The other improvements include update of the particle tracking algorithm and possibility to estimate the influence of open drillholes in a case where overpressure in inflatable packers decreases causing a hydraulic short-circuit between hydrogeological zones HZ19 and HZ20 along the drillhole. Four new hydrogeological zones HZ056, HZ146, BFZ100 and HZ039 were added to the model. In addition, zones HZ20A and HZ20B intersect with each other in the new structure model, which influences salinity upconing caused by leakages in shafts. The aim of the modelling of long-term influence of ONKALO, shafts and repository tunnels provide computational results that can be used to suggest limits for allowed leakages. The model input data included all the existing leakages into ONKALO (35-38 l/min) and shafts in the present day conditions. The influence of shafts was computed using eight different values for total shaft leakage: 5, 11, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 l/min. The selection of the leakage criteria for shafts was influenced by the fact that upconing of saline water increases TDS-values close to the repository areas although HZ20B does not intersect any deposition tunnels. The total limit for all leakages was suggested to be 120 l/min. The limit for HZ20 zones was proposed to be 40 l/min: about 5 l/min the present day leakages to access tunnel, 25 l/min from

  18. Automatic selective feature retention in patient specific elastic surface registration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jansen van Rensburg, GJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available . An intelligent mesh morphing strategy where dissimilar feature surfaces can be extracted automatically also greatly reduces the amount of user input required. REFERENCES [1] R. Bryan, P.S. Mohan, A. Hopkins, F. Galloway, M. Taylor and P. Nair, Statitical...

  19. An Ontology Design Pattern for Surface Water Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Gaurav [Ohio University; Mark, David [University at Buffalo (SUNY); Kolas, Dave [Raytheon BBN Technologies; Varanka, Dalia [U.S. Geological Survey, Rolla, MO; Romero, Boleslo E [University of California, Santa Barbara; Feng, Chen-Chieh [National University of Singapore; Usery, Lynn [U.S. Geological Survey, Rolla, MO; Liebermann, Joshua [Tumbling Walls, LLC; Sorokine, Alexandre [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Surface water is a primary concept of human experience but concepts are captured in cultures and languages in many different ways. Still, many commonalities can be found due to the physical basis of many of the properties and categories. An abstract ontology of surface water features based only on those physical properties of landscape features has the best potential for serving as a foundational domain ontology. It can then be used to systematically incor-porate concepts that are specific to a culture, language, or scientific domain. The Surface Water ontology design pattern was developed both for domain knowledge distillation and to serve as a conceptual building-block for more complex surface water ontologies. A fundamental distinction is made in this on-tology between landscape features that act as containers (e.g., stream channels, basins) and the bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes) that occupy those containers. Concave (container) landforms semantics are specified in a Dry module and the semantics of contained bodies of water in a Wet module. The pattern is imple-mented in OWL, but Description Logic axioms and a detailed explanation is provided. The OWL ontology will be an important contribution to Semantic Web vocabulary for annotating surface water feature datasets. A discussion about why there is a need to complement the pattern with other ontologies, es-pecially the previously developed Surface Network pattern is also provided. Fi-nally, the practical value of the pattern in semantic querying of surface water datasets is illustrated through a few queries and annotated geospatial datasets.

  20. Including Finite Surface Span Effects in Empirical Jet-Surface Interaction Noise Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of finite span on the jet-surface interaction noise source and the jet mixing noise shielding and reflection effects is considered using recently acquired experimental data. First, the experimental setup and resulting data are presented with particular attention to the role of surface span on far-field noise. These effects are then included in existing empirical models that have previously assumed that all surfaces are semi-infinite. This extended abstract briefly describes the experimental setup and data leaving the empirical modeling aspects for the final paper.

  1. Representing images using curvilinear feature driven subdivision surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hailing; Zheng, Jianmin; Wei, Lei

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a subdivision-based vector graphics for image representation and creation. The graphics representation is a subdivision surface defined by a triangular mesh augmented with color attribute at vertices and feature attribute at edges. Special cubic B-splines are proposed to describe curvilinear features of an image. New subdivision rules are then designed accordingly, which are applied to the mesh and the color attribute to define the spatial distribution and piecewise-smoothly varying colors of the image. A sharpness factor is introduced to control the color transition across the curvilinear edges. In addition, an automatic algorithm is developed to convert a raster image into such a vector graphics representation. The algorithm first detects the curvilinear features of the image, then constructs a triangulation based on the curvilinear edges and feature attributes, and finally iteratively optimizes the vertex color attributes and updates the triangulation. Compared with existing vector-based image representations, the proposed representation and algorithm have the following advantages in addition to the common merits (such as editability and scalability): 1) they allow flexible mesh topology and handle images or objects with complicated boundaries or features effectively; 2) they are able to faithfully reconstruct curvilinear features, especially in modeling subtle shading effects around feature curves; and 3) they offer a simple way for the user to create images in a freehand style. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been demonstrated in experiments.

  2. Potential energy surface for ? dissociation including spin-orbit effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Matthew R.; Aquino, Adelia J. A.; de Jong, Wibe A.; Granucci, Giovanni; Hase, William L.

    2012-10-01

    Previous experiments [J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 2833 (2012)] have studied the dissociation of 1,2-diiodoethane radical cation ( ? ) and found a one-dimensional distribution of translational energy, an odd finding considering most product relative translational energy distributions are two-dimensional. The goal of this study is to obtain an accurate understanding of the potential energy surface (PES) topology for the unimolecular decomposition reaction ? → C2H4I+ + I•. This is done through comparison of many single-reference electronic structure methods, coupled-cluster single-point (energy) calculations, and multi-reference energy calculations used to quantify spin-orbit (SO) coupling effects. We find that the structure of the ? reactant has a substantial effect on the role of the SO coupling on the reaction energy. Both the BHandH and MP2 theories with an ECP/6-31++G** basis set, and without SO coupling corrections, provide accurate models for the reaction energetics. MP2 theory gives an unsymmetric structure with different C-I bond lengths, resulting in a SO energy for ? similar to that for the product I-atom and a negligible SO correction to the reaction energy. In contrast, DFT gives a symmetric structure for ? , similar to that of the neutral C2H4I2 parent, resulting in a substantial SO correction and increasing the reaction energy by 6.0-6.5 kcalmol-1. Also, we find that, for this system, coupled-cluster single-point energy calculations are inaccurate, since a small change in geometry can lead to a large change in energy.

  3. Nanometer polymer surface features: the influence on surface energy, protein adsorption and endothelial cell adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Joseph; Khang, Dongwoo; Webster, Thomas J.

    2008-12-01

    Current small diameter (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) surfaces elevated endothelial cell adhesion, proliferation, and extracellular matrix synthesis when compared to nanosmooth surfaces. Nonetheless, these studies failed to address the importance of lateral and vertical surface feature dimensionality coupled with surface free energy; nor did such studies elicit an optimum specific surface feature size for promoting endothelial cell adhesion. In this study, a series of highly ordered nanometer to submicron structured PLGA surfaces of identical chemistry were created using a technique employing polystyrene nanobeads and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) molds. Results demonstrated increased endothelial cell adhesion on PLGA surfaces with vertical surface features of size less than 18.87 nm but greater than 0 nm due to increased surface energy and subsequently protein (fibronectin and collagen type IV) adsorption. Furthermore, this study provided evidence that the vertical dimension of nanometer surface features, rather than the lateral dimension, is largely responsible for these increases. In this manner, this study provides key design parameters that may promote vascular graft efficacy.

  4. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Dermatomyositis: Associations with Clinical and Laboratory Features Including Autoantibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Mugii

    Full Text Available Dysphagia develops with low frequency in patients with dermatomyositis. Our objective was to determine the clinical and laboratory features that can estimate the development of dysphagia in dermatomyositis.This study included 92 Japanese patients with adult-onset dermatomyositis. The associations between dysphagia and clinical and laboratory features including disease-specific autoantibodies determined by immunoprecipitation assays were analyzed.Videofluoroscopy swallow study (VFSS was performed for all patients with clinical dysphagia (n = 13, 14.1% but not for patients without clinical dysphagia. Typical findings of dysphagia (pharyngeal pooling, n = 11 and/or nasal regurgitation, n = 4 was detected by VFSS in all patients with clinical dysphagia. Eleven patients with dysphagia (84.6% had anti-transcription intermediary factor 1γ (TIF-1γ antibody. By univariate analysis, the average age and the male to female ratio, internal malignancy, and anti-TIF-1γ antibody were significantly higher and the frequency of interstitial lung diseases and manual muscle testing (MMT scores of sternomastoid and dertoid muscles were significantly lower in patients with dysphagia than in patients without dysphagia. Among patients with anti-TIF-1γ antibody, the mean age, the ratios of male to female and internal malignancy were significantly higher and mean MMT scores of sternomastoid muscle were significantly lower in patients with dysphagia compared with patients without dysphagia. By multivariable analysis, the risk of dysphagia was strongly associated with the existence of internal malignancy and ant-TIF-1γ antibody and was also associated with reduced scores of manual muscle test of sternomastoid muscle. Dysphagia was markedly improved after the treatment against myositis in all 13 patients.These findings indicate that dysphagia can develop frequently in patients with internal malignancy, anti-TIF-1γ antibody, or severe muscle weakness of sternomastoid

  5. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Dermatomyositis: Associations with Clinical and Laboratory Features Including Autoantibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugii, Naoki; Hasegawa, Minoru; Matsushita, Takashi; Hamaguchi, Yasuhito; Oohata, Sacihe; Okita, Hirokazu; Yahata, Tetsutarou; Someya, Fujiko; Inoue, Katsumi; Murono, Shigeyuki; Fujimoto, Manabu; Takehara, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Objective Dysphagia develops with low frequency in patients with dermatomyositis. Our objective was to determine the clinical and laboratory features that can estimate the development of dysphagia in dermatomyositis. Methods This study included 92 Japanese patients with adult-onset dermatomyositis. The associations between dysphagia and clinical and laboratory features including disease-specific autoantibodies determined by immunoprecipitation assays were analyzed. Results Videofluoroscopy swallow study (VFSS) was performed for all patients with clinical dysphagia (n = 13, 14.1%) but not for patients without clinical dysphagia. Typical findings of dysphagia (pharyngeal pooling, n = 11 and/or nasal regurgitation, n = 4) was detected by VFSS in all patients with clinical dysphagia. Eleven patients with dysphagia (84.6%) had anti-transcription intermediary factor 1γ (TIF-1γ) antibody. By univariate analysis, the average age and the male to female ratio, internal malignancy, and anti-TIF-1γ antibody were significantly higher and the frequency of interstitial lung diseases and manual muscle testing (MMT) scores of sternomastoid and dertoid muscles were significantly lower in patients with dysphagia than in patients without dysphagia. Among patients with anti-TIF-1γ antibody, the mean age, the ratios of male to female and internal malignancy were significantly higher and mean MMT scores of sternomastoid muscle were significantly lower in patients with dysphagia compared with patients without dysphagia. By multivariable analysis, the risk of dysphagia was strongly associated with the existence of internal malignancy and ant-TIF-1γ antibody and was also associated with reduced scores of manual muscle test of sternomastoid muscle. Dysphagia was markedly improved after the treatment against myositis in all 13 patients. Conclusion These findings indicate that dysphagia can develop frequently in patients with internal malignancy, anti-TIF-1γ antibody, or severe muscle

  6. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Dermatomyositis: Associations with Clinical and Laboratory Features Including Autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugii, Naoki; Hasegawa, Minoru; Matsushita, Takashi; Hamaguchi, Yasuhito; Oohata, Sacihe; Okita, Hirokazu; Yahata, Tetsutarou; Someya, Fujiko; Inoue, Katsumi; Murono, Shigeyuki; Fujimoto, Manabu; Takehara, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia develops with low frequency in patients with dermatomyositis. Our objective was to determine the clinical and laboratory features that can estimate the development of dysphagia in dermatomyositis. This study included 92 Japanese patients with adult-onset dermatomyositis. The associations between dysphagia and clinical and laboratory features including disease-specific autoantibodies determined by immunoprecipitation assays were analyzed. Videofluoroscopy swallow study (VFSS) was performed for all patients with clinical dysphagia (n = 13, 14.1%) but not for patients without clinical dysphagia. Typical findings of dysphagia (pharyngeal pooling, n = 11 and/or nasal regurgitation, n = 4) was detected by VFSS in all patients with clinical dysphagia. Eleven patients with dysphagia (84.6%) had anti-transcription intermediary factor 1γ (TIF-1γ) antibody. By univariate analysis, the average age and the male to female ratio, internal malignancy, and anti-TIF-1γ antibody were significantly higher and the frequency of interstitial lung diseases and manual muscle testing (MMT) scores of sternomastoid and dertoid muscles were significantly lower in patients with dysphagia than in patients without dysphagia. Among patients with anti-TIF-1γ antibody, the mean age, the ratios of male to female and internal malignancy were significantly higher and mean MMT scores of sternomastoid muscle were significantly lower in patients with dysphagia compared with patients without dysphagia. By multivariable analysis, the risk of dysphagia was strongly associated with the existence of internal malignancy and ant-TIF-1γ antibody and was also associated with reduced scores of manual muscle test of sternomastoid muscle. Dysphagia was markedly improved after the treatment against myositis in all 13 patients. These findings indicate that dysphagia can develop frequently in patients with internal malignancy, anti-TIF-1γ antibody, or severe muscle weakness of sternomastoid muscle.

  7. Touching Textured Surfaces: Cells in Somatosensory Cortex Respond Both to Finger Movement and to Surface Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darian-Smith, Ian; Sugitani, Michio; Heywood, John; Karita, Keishiro; Goodwin, Antony

    1982-11-01

    Single neurons in Brodmann's areas 3b and 1 of the macaque postcentral gyrus discharge when the monkey rubs the contralateral finger pads across a textured surface. Both the finger movement and the spatial pattern of the surface determine this discharge in each cell. The spatial features of the surface are represented unambiguously only in the responses of populations of these neurons, and not in the responses of the constituent cells.

  8. Detection of a bright feature on the surface of Betelgeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buscher, D.F.; Baldwin, J.E.; Warner, P.J. (Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory, Cambridge (UK). Cavendish Lab.); Haniff, C.A. (Palomar Observatory, Pasadena, CA (USA))

    1990-07-01

    We present high-resolution images of the M-supergiant Betelgeuse in 1989 February at wavelengths of 633, 700 and 710 nm, made using the non-redundant masking method. At all these wavelengths, there is unambiguous evidence for an asymmetric feature on the surface of the star, which contributes 10-15 per cent of the total observed flux. This might be due to a close companion passing in front of the stellar disc or, more likely, to large-scale convection in the stellar atmosphere. (author).

  9. Land surface and climate parameters and malaria features in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Y. A.; Anh, N. K.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface parameters may affect local microclimate, which in turn alters the development of mosquito habitats and transmission risks (soil-vegetation-atmosphere-vector borne diseases). Forest malaria is a chromic issue in Southeast Asian countries, in particular, such as Vietnam (in 1991, approximate 2 million cases and 4,646 deaths were reported (https://sites.path.org)). Vietnam has lowlands, sub-tropical high humidity, and dense forests, resulting in wide-scale distribution and high biting rate of mosquitos in Vietnam, becoming a challenging and out of control scenario, especially in Vietnamese Central Highland region. It is known that Vietnam's economy mainly relies on agriculture and malaria is commonly associated with poverty. There is a strong demand to investigate the relationship between land surface parameters (land cover, soil moisture, land surface temperature, etc.) and climatic variables (precipitation, humidity, evapotranspiration, etc.) in association with malaria distribution. GIS and remote sensing have been proven their powerful potentials in supporting environmental and health studies. The objective of this study aims to analyze physical attributes of land surface and climate parameters and their links with malaria features. The outcomes are expected to illustrate how remotely sensed data has been utilized in geohealth applications, surveillance, and health risk mapping. In addition, a platform with promising possibilities of allowing disease early-warning systems with citizen participation will be proposed.

  10. Diamond Provenance Through Shape, Colour, Surface Features and Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J.

    2002-05-01

    The physical properties of diamond provide a possible means by which run-of-mine productions may be identified. Such properties as shape, the regularity and angularity of the crystal form, the level of transparency, colour, syngenetic inclusion content and surface feature characteristics, all as a function of diamond size, can classify diamond productions. In early work, up to 1500 diamonds in specific sizes ranging from just under 2mm up to 6mm were evaluated. Using this procedure, most of the diamonds from the main mines in southern Africa have now been classified. Within South Africa, the mine at Swartruggens is the only one to have measurable levels of cube-shaped diamonds and an absence of the spinel twin form of diamond, more commonly known as the macle. In Botswana, the proportion of cube related forms at Jwaneng is about four times that at Orapa. Whilst the common diamond colours, colourless, yellow and brown, occur in most mines, there is a marked change in the proportion of transparent green-coated diamonds with depth in mines such as Finsch and Jwaneng. Individual mines may also have very small proportions of distinctive diamond colours, such as pinks at the Argyle mine in Australia and blues in the Premier mine in South Africa. More recently, classification emphasis has shifted away from large numbers of diamonds examined and particular attention has been paid to surface features, which reflect changes to the diamond either whilst still in the kimberlite, or subsequently during transport to an alluvial source. A classification of diamonds at the Venetia mine, South Africa, for example, showed that the proportion of diamonds with the feature referred to as corrosion sculpture, was distinctive between kimberlite types within the mine. With alluvial diamonds, transport causes further defects, particularly a general increase in the proportion of diamonds with surface features referred to as percussion marks and edge abrasion. The above observational

  11. Replication of surface features from a master model to an amorphous metallic article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William L.; Bakke, Eric; Peker, Atakan

    1999-01-01

    The surface features of an article are replicated by preparing a master model having a preselected surface feature thereon which is to be replicated, and replicating the preselected surface feature of the master model. The replication is accomplished by providing a piece of a bulk-solidifying amorphous metallic alloy, contacting the piece of the bulk-solidifying amorphous metallic alloy to the surface of the master model at an elevated replication temperature to transfer a negative copy of the preselected surface feature of the master model to the piece, and separating the piece having the negative copy of the preselected surface feature from the master model.

  12. MR features of the developing perianterior horn structure including subcallosal fasciculus in infants and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsunomiya, Hidetsuna [Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Nakamura, Yasuhiro [St. Mary' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Kurume (Japan)

    2007-11-15

    To describe the changes in the magnetic resonance (MR) signal of the perianterior horn structure (PAS) with increasing age, we studied 69 infants and children aged between 3 days and 9.4 years (average: 2.8 years) without any neurological deficits. T1- and T2-weighted images and FLAIR (fluid attenuation inversion recovery) images were obtained in the axial plane. Based on a comparison of the intensity of the PAS with that of the cortex in each sequence (T1-WI/FLAIR/T2-WI), we classified the signal-intensity patterns into four types: I, low/low/high; II, low/high/high; III, iso/high/high; IV, high/low/low. Signal-intensity types I, II, III and IV were seen in 22, 8, 17, and 22 subjects, respectively, with younger subjects showing type I or II intensity patterns and older subjects showing type III or IV. In addition, T1-weighted and FLAIR images of subjects with a type I intensity pattern showed a rim of an isointensity component around the PAS that histologically coincided with migrating glial cells. The low-intensity area on FLAIR and T2-WI images of subjects with a type IV intensity pattern may represent myelinated fibers of the subcallosal fasciculus (ScF). The intensity of the MR signals of the PAS changes with increasing age, and this change may reflect histological features. A better understanding of these characteristics may help us to clarify myelination abnormalities, particularly those related to the ScF in the frontal lobe in infants and children. (orig.)

  13. CT features of lymphobronchial tuberculosis in children, including complications and associated abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, Susan; Andronikou, Savvas; Goussard, Pierre; Gie, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Lymphobronchial tuberculosis (TB) is tuberculous lymphadenopathy involving the airways, which is particularly common in children. To describe CT findings of lymphobronchial TB in children, the parenchymal complications and associated abnormalities. CT scans of children with lymphobronchial TB were reviewed retrospectively. Lymphadenopathy, bronchial narrowing, parenchymal complications and associations were documented. Infants comprised 51% of patients. The commonest site of lymphadenopathy was the subcarinal mediastinum (97% of patients). Bronchial compression was seen in all children (259 bronchi, of these 28% the bronchus intermedius) with severe or complete stenosis in 23% of affected bronchi. Parenchymal complications were present in 94% of patients, including consolidation (88%), breakdown (42%), air trapping (38%), expansile pneumonia (28%), collapse (17%) and bronchiectasis (9%), all predominantly on the right side (63%). Associated abnormalities included ovoid lesions, miliary nodules, pleural disease and intracavitary bodies. Airway compression was more severe in infants and most commonly involved the bronchus intermedius. Numerous parenchymal complications were documented, all showing right-side predominance. (orig.)

  14. CT features of lymphobronchial tuberculosis in children, including complications and associated abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Susan; Andronikou, Savvas [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Radiology, Johannesburg (South Africa); Goussard, Pierre; Gie, Robert [Stellenbosch University, Department Paediatrics, Stellenbosch (South Africa)

    2012-08-15

    Lymphobronchial tuberculosis (TB) is tuberculous lymphadenopathy involving the airways, which is particularly common in children. To describe CT findings of lymphobronchial TB in children, the parenchymal complications and associated abnormalities. CT scans of children with lymphobronchial TB were reviewed retrospectively. Lymphadenopathy, bronchial narrowing, parenchymal complications and associations were documented. Infants comprised 51% of patients. The commonest site of lymphadenopathy was the subcarinal mediastinum (97% of patients). Bronchial compression was seen in all children (259 bronchi, of these 28% the bronchus intermedius) with severe or complete stenosis in 23% of affected bronchi. Parenchymal complications were present in 94% of patients, including consolidation (88%), breakdown (42%), air trapping (38%), expansile pneumonia (28%), collapse (17%) and bronchiectasis (9%), all predominantly on the right side (63%). Associated abnormalities included ovoid lesions, miliary nodules, pleural disease and intracavitary bodies. Airway compression was more severe in infants and most commonly involved the bronchus intermedius. Numerous parenchymal complications were documented, all showing right-side predominance. (orig.)

  15. Slowly progressive fluent aphasia; Clinical features and an imaging study including MRI, SPECT and PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Momose, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Iwata, Makoto (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Bando, Mitsuaki

    1991-05-01

    Three patients with slowly progressive fluent aphasia are reported. One of the patients presented with memory disturbance. They were characterized clinically by having selective deficits in vocabulary, which resulted in impairment of confrontation naming, and auditory comprehension. MRI showed an atrophy not only in the left temporal lobe (including the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri), hippocampus, parahippocampual gyrus, and fusiform gyrus, but also in the left parietal lobe. I-123 IMP SPECT and F-18 FDG PET were used to determine regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral metabolic rate, respectively. In addition to the decreased tracer uptake in the left temporal and/or parietal lobe, a decreased uptake was seen in the bilateral basal ganglia, the inner side of the temporal lobe (including the bilateral hippocampus), the right anterior temporal lobe, and the left thalamus. These findings may deny the previous thought that lesions are localized in slowly progressive fluent aphasia. Furthermore, noticeable difficulty in naming, i.e., patients unable to recognize the right answer, are considered attributable to widespread lesions from the whole left temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, to the right temporal lobe. (N.K.).

  16. Autosomal dominant epilepsy with auditory features : a new LGI1 family including a phenocopy with cortical dysplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Karl Martin; Pendziwiat, Manuela; Cohen, Rony; Appenzeller, Silke; de Kovel, Carolien G.F.; Rosenow, Felix; Koeleman, Bobby P.C.; Kuhlenbäumer, Gregor; Sheintuch, Liron; Veksler, Ronel; Friedman, Alon; Afawi, Zaid; Helbig, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    We report a new family with autosomal dominant epilepsy with auditory features (ADEAF) including focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) in the proband. We aim to identify the molecular cause in this family and clarify the relationship between FCD and ADEAF. A large Iranian Jewish family including 14

  17. Surface features of central North America: a synoptic view from computer graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    A digital shaded-relief image of the 48 contiguous United States shows the details of large- and small-scale landforms, including several linear trends. The features faithfully reflect tectonism, continental glaciation, fluvial activity, volcanism, and other surface-shaping events and processes. The new map not only depicts topography accurately and in its true complexity, but does so in one synoptic view that provides a regional context for geologic analysis unobscured by clouds, culture, vegetation, or artistic constraints. -Author

  18. Review of nuclear fuel cycle alternatives including certain features pertaining to weapon proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.C.; Rosenstroch, B.

    1978-01-01

    Largely as a result of concerns over nuclear weapon proliferation, the U.S. program to develop and commercialize the plutonium-fueled breeder reactor has been slowed down; interest in alternative fuel cycles has increased. The report offers an informal review of the various nuclear fuel cycle options including some aspects relevant to weapon proliferation, although no complete review of the latter subject is attempted. Basic principles governing breeding, reactor safety, and efficient utilization of fission energy resources (thorium and uranium) are discussed. The controversial problems of weapon proliferation and its relation to fuel reprocessing (which is essential for efficient fuel cycles) are reviewed and a number of proposed approaches to reducing proliferation risks are noted. Some representative specific reactor concepts are described, with emphasis on their development status, their potentials for resource utilization, and their implications for proliferation

  19. Thermal infrared remote sensing of surface features for renewable resource applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The subjects of infrared remote sensing of surface features for renewable resource applications is reviewed with respect to the basic physical concepts involved at the Earth's surface and up through the atmosphere, as well as the historical development of satellite systems which produce such data at increasingly greater spatial resolution. With this general background in hand, the growth of a variety of specific renewable resource applications using the developing thermal infrared technology are discussed, including data from HCMM investigators. Recommendations are made for continued growth in this field of applications.

  20. Time course of programmed cell death, which included autophagic features, in hybrid tobacco cells expressing hybrid lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Naoya; Nihei, Saori; Miyakawa, Naoto; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Kanekatsu, Motoki; Marubashi, Wataru; van Doorn, Wouter G; Yamada, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    PCD with features of vacuolar cell death including autophagy-related features were detected in hybrid tobacco cells, and detailed time course of features of vacuolar cell death were established. A type of interspecific Nicotiana hybrid, Nicotiana suaveolens × N. tabacum exhibits temperature-sensitive lethality. This lethality results from programmed cell death (PCD) in hybrid seedlings, but this PCD occurs only in seedlings and suspension-cultured cells grown at 28 °C, not those grown at 36 °C. Plant PCD can be classified as vacuolar cell death or necrotic cell death. Induction of autophagy, vacuolar membrane collapse and actin disorganization are each known features of vacuolar cell death, but observed cases of PCD showing all these features simultaneously are rare. In this study, these features of vacuolar cell death were evident in hybrid tobacco cells expressing hybrid lethality. Ion leakage, plasma membrane disruption, increased activity of vacuolar processing enzyme, vacuolar membrane collapse, and formation of punctate F-actin foci were each evident in these cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that macroautophagic structures formed and tonoplasts ruptured in these cells. The number of cells that contained monodansylcadaverine (MDC)-stained structures and the abundance of nine autophagy-related gene transcripts increased just before cell death at 28 °C; these features were not evident at 36 °C. We assessed whether an autophagic inhibitor, wortmannin (WM), influenced lethality in hybrid cells. After the hybrid cell began to die, WM suppressed increases in ion leakage and cell deaths, and it decreased the number of cells containing MDC-stained structures. These results showed that several features indicative of autophagy and vacuolar cell death were evident in the hybrid tobacco cells subject to lethality. In addition, we documented a detailed time course of these vacuolar cell death features.

  1. Supplementary Microstructural Features Induced During Laser Surface Melting of Thermally Sprayed Inconel 625 Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nauman; Voisey, K. T.; McCartney, D. G.

    2014-02-01

    Laser surface melting of thermally sprayed coatings has the potential to enhance their corrosion properties by incorporating favorable microstructural changes. Besides homogenizing the as-sprayed structure, laser melting may induce certain microstructural modifications (i.e., supplementary features) in addition to those that directly improve the corrosion performance. Such features, being a direct result of the laser treatment process, are described in this paper which is part of a broader study in which high velocity oxy-fuel sprayed Inconel 625 coatings on mild-steel substrates were treated with a diode laser and the modified microstructure characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The laser treated coating features several different zones, including a region with a microstructure in which there is a continuous columnar dendritic structure through a network of retained oxide stringers.

  2. Nonlocal continuum-based modeling of breathing mode of nanowires including surface stress and surface inertia effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem

    2014-01-01

    Nonlocal and surface effects significantly influence the mechanical response of nanomaterials and nanostructures. In this work, the breathing mode of a circular nanowire is studied on the basis of the nonlocal continuum model. Both the surface elastic properties and surface inertia effect are included. Nanowires can be modeled as long cylindrical solid objects. The classical model is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and Gurtin–Murdoch surface continuum elasticity formalism. A new frequency equation for the breathing mode of nanowires, including small scale effect, surface stress and surface inertia is presented by employing the Bessel functions. Numerical results are computed, and are compared to confirm the validity and accuracy of the proposed method. Furthermore, the model is used to elucidate the effect of nonlocal parameter, the surface stress, the surface inertia and the nanowire orientation on the breathing mode of several types of nanowires with size ranging from 0.5 to 4 nm. Our results reveal that the combined surface and small scale effects are significant for nanowires with diameter smaller than 4 nm.

  3. Nonlocal continuum-based modeling of breathing mode of nanowires including surface stress and surface inertia effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem

    2014-05-01

    Nonlocal and surface effects significantly influence the mechanical response of nanomaterials and nanostructures. In this work, the breathing mode of a circular nanowire is studied on the basis of the nonlocal continuum model. Both the surface elastic properties and surface inertia effect are included. Nanowires can be modeled as long cylindrical solid objects. The classical model is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and Gurtin-Murdoch surface continuum elasticity formalism. A new frequency equation for the breathing mode of nanowires, including small scale effect, surface stress and surface inertia is presented by employing the Bessel functions. Numerical results are computed, and are compared to confirm the validity and accuracy of the proposed method. Furthermore, the model is used to elucidate the effect of nonlocal parameter, the surface stress, the surface inertia and the nanowire orientation on the breathing mode of several types of nanowires with size ranging from 0.5 to 4 nm. Our results reveal that the combined surface and small scale effects are significant for nanowires with diameter smaller than 4 nm.

  4. Nanocoating of titanium implant surfaces with organic molecules. Polysaccharides including glycosaminoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurzawska, Katarzyna Aleksandra; Svava, Rikke; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2012-01-01

    Long-term stability of titanium implants are dependent on a variety of factors. Nanocoating with organic molecules is one of the method used to improve osseointegration. Nanoscale modification of titanium implants affects surface properties, such as hydrophilicity, biochemical bonding capacity...... with focus on polysaccharides including glycosaminoglycans, and how these molecules change surface properties, cell reactions and affect on osseointegartion. The included in vitro studies demonstrated increased cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization of a number of the tested polysaccharide...

  5. Oceanic whitecaps: Sea surface features detectable via satellite that ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Andreas et al (1995), and figure 1 of Monahan and Spillane (1984). et al (1995) made detailed measurements in a large wave basin of the increases in brightness tempera- ture associated with measured increases in stage A whitecap coverage. It follows that the fraction of the sea surface covered by stage A whitecaps can ...

  6. Surface and upper air meteorological features during onset phase of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Over the Bay of Bengal higher negative (air to sea) values of sensible flux prevailed before the monsoon onset which became less negative with the advance of monsoon over that region. The pre-onset period was characterized by large sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the Arabian Sea with rapid decrease ...

  7. FEATURES OF GEODEFORMATION CHANGES OF NEAR SURFACE SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Larionov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the deformation process in the near surface sedimentary rocks, which has been carried out in a seismically active region of Kamchatka peninsular since 2007,are presented. The peculiarity of the experiments on the registration of geodeformations is the application of a laser deformograph-interferometer constructed according to the Michelson interferometer scheme.

  8. Cryovolcanic features on Titan's surface as revealed by the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R.M.C.; Mitchell, K.L.; Stofan, E.R.; Lunine, J.I.; Lorenz, R.; Paganelli, F.; Kirk, R.L.; Wood, C.A.; Wall, S.D.; Robshaw, L.E.; Fortes, A.D.; Neish, Catherine D.; Radebaugh, J.; Reffet, E.; Ostro, S.J.; Elachi, C.; Allison, M.D.; Anderson, Y.; Boehmer, R.; Boubin, G.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Janssen, M.A.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.O.; Ori, G.; Orosei, R.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.E.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Soderblom, L.A.; Stiles, B.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.D.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper obtained Synthetic Aperture Radar images of Titan's surface during four fly-bys during the mission's first year. These images show that Titan's surface is very complex geologically, showing evidence of major planetary geologic processes, including cryovolcanism. This paper discusses the variety of cryovolcanic features identified from SAR images, their possible origin, and their geologic context. The features which we identify as cryovolcanic in origin include a large (180 km diameter) volcanic construct (dome or shield), several extensive flows, and three calderas which appear to be the source of flows. The composition of the cryomagma on Titan is still unknown, but constraints on rheological properties can be estimated using flow thickness. Rheological properties of one flow were estimated and appear inconsistent with ammonia-water slurries, and possibly more consistent with ammonia-water-methanol slurries. The extent of cryovolcanism on Titan is still not known, as only a small fraction of the surface has been imaged at sufficient resolution. Energetic considerations suggest that cryovolcanism may have been a dominant process in the resurfacing of Titan. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc.

  9. A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration light reflecting surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, R.H.; Sweatt, W.

    1985-11-21

    A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration bendable light reflecting surface is disclosed herein. This apparatus includes a structural assembly comprised of a rectangular plate which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, and which has a front side defining the multi-aberration light reflecting surface and an opposite back side, and a plurality of straight leg members rigidly connected with the back side of the plate and extending rearwardly therefrom. The apparatus also includes a number of different adjustment mechanisms, each of which is connected with specific ones of the leg members. These mechanisms are adjustably movable in different ways for applying corresponding forces to the leg members in order to bend the rectangular plate and light reflecting surface into different predetermined curvatures and which specifically include quadratic and cubic curvatures corresponding to different optical aberrations.

  10. Lipase degradation of plasticized polyvinyl chloride endotracheal tube surfaces to create nanoscale features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Mary C; Webster, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) endotracheal tubes (ETTs) nanoetched with a fungal lipase have been shown to reduce bacterial growth and biofilm formation and could be an inexpensive solution to the complex problem of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Although bacterial growth and colonization on these nanoetched materials have been well characterized, little is known about the mechanism by which the fungal lipase degrades the PVC and, thus, alters its properties to minimize bacteria functions. This study used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to better describe the surface chemistry of both unetched and lipase nanoetched PVC ETT. ATR-FTIR analysis of the unetched and treated surfaces showed a similar presence of a plasticizer. This was confirmed by XPS analysis, which showed an increase of carbon and the presence of oxygen on both unetched and nanoetched surfaces. A quantitative comparison of the FTIR spectra revealed significant correlations (Pearson's correlation, R =0.997 [ R 2 =0.994, P degradation of the plasticizer by the fungal lipase. In contrast, results from this study did demonstrate significantly increased nanoscale surface features on the lipase etched compared to non-etched PVC ETTs. This led to a change in surface energetics, which altered ion adsorption to the ETTs. Thus, these results showed that PVC surfaces nanoetched with a 0.1% lipase solution for 48 hours have no significant change on surface chemistry but do significantly increase nanoscale surface roughness and alters ion adsorption, which suggests that the unique properties of these materials, including their previously reported ability to decrease bacterial adhesion and growth, are due to the changes in the degree of the nanoscale roughness, not changes in their surface chemistry.

  11. An algorithm for analytical solution of basic problems featuring elastostatic bodies with cavities and surface flaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkov, V. B.; Levina, L. V.; Novikova, O. S.; Shulmin, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    Herein we propose a methodology for structuring a full parametric analytical solution to problems featuring elastostatic media based on state-of-the-art computing facilities that support computerized algebra. The methodology includes: direct and reverse application of P-Theorem; methods of accounting for physical properties of media; accounting for variable geometrical parameters of bodies, parameters of boundary states, independent parameters of volume forces, and remote stress factors. An efficient tool to address the task is the sustainable method of boundary states originally designed for the purposes of computerized algebra and based on the isomorphism of Hilbertian spaces of internal states and boundary states of bodies. We performed full parametric solutions of basic problems featuring a ball with a nonconcentric spherical cavity, a ball with a near-surface flaw, and an unlimited medium with two spherical cavities.

  12. The Impact of Solid Surface Features on Fluid-Fluid Interface Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, J. B.; Brusseau, M. L. L.

    2017-12-01

    Pore-scale fluid processes in geological media are critical for a broad range of applications such as radioactive waste disposal, carbon sequestration, soil moisture distribution, subsurface pollution, land stability, and oil and gas recovery. The continued improvement of high-resolution image acquisition and processing have provided a means to test the usefulness of theoretical models developed to simulate pore-scale fluid processes, through the direct quantification of interfaces. High-resolution synchrotron X-ray microtomography is used in combination with advanced visualization tools to characterize fluid distributions in natural geologic media. The studies revealed the presence of fluid-fluid interface associated with macroscopic features on the surfaces of the solids such as pits and crevices. These features and respective fluid interfaces, which are not included in current theoretical or computational models, may have a significant impact on accurate simulation and understanding of multi-phase flow, energy, heat and mass transfer processes.

  13. Feature-based handling of surface faults in compact disc players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a novel method called feature-based control is presented. The method is designed to improve compact disc players’ handling of surface faults on the discs. The method is based on a fault-tolerant control scheme, which uses extracted features of the surface faults to remove those from...... the detector signals used for control during the occurrence of surface faults. The extracted features are coefficients of Karhunen–Loève approximations of the surface faults. The performance of the feature-based control scheme controlling compact disc players playing discs with surface faults has been...... validated experimentally. The proposed scheme reduces the control errors due to the surface faults, and in some cases where the standard fault handling scheme fails, our scheme keeps the CD-player playing....

  14. Engineered biomimicry: polymeric replication of surface features found on insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsifer, Drew P.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Pantano, Carlo G.

    2011-04-01

    By combining the modified conformal-evaporated-film-by-rotation (M-CEFR) technique with nickel electroforming, we have produced master negatives of nonplanar biotemplates. An approximately 250-nm-thick conformal coating of nanocrystaline nickel is deposited on a surface structure of interest found in class Insecta, and the coating is then reinforced with a roughly 60-μm-thick structural layer of nickel by electroforming. This structural layer endows the M-CEFR coating with the mechanical robustness necessary for casting or stamping multiple polymer replicas of the biotemplate. We have made master negatives of blowfly corneas, beetle elytrons, and butterfly wings.

  15. Texture-based segmentation with Gabor filters, wavelet and pyramid decompositions for extracting individual surface features from areal surface topography maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senin, Nicola; Leach, Richard K; Pini, Stefano; Blunt, Liam A

    2015-01-01

    Areal topography segmentation plays a fundamental role in those surface metrology applications concerned with the characterisation of individual topography features. Typical scenarios include the dimensional inspection and verification of micro-structured surface features, and the identification and characterisation of localised defects and other random singularities. While morphological segmentation into hills or dales is the only partitioning operation currently endorsed by the ISO specification standards on surface texture metrology, many other approaches are possible, in particular adapted from the literature on digital image segmentation. In this work an original segmentation approach is introduced and discussed, where topography partitioning is driven by information collected through the application of texture characterisation transforms popular in digital image processing. Gabor filters, wavelets and pyramid decompositions are investigated and applied to a selected set of test cases. The behaviour, performance and limitations of the proposed approach are discussed from the viewpoint of the identification and extraction of individual surface topography features. (paper)

  16. Full-dimensional diabatic potential energy surfaces including dissociation: the ²E″ state of NO₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisfeld, Wolfgang; Vieuxmaire, Olivier; Viel, Alexandra

    2014-06-14

    A scheme to produce accurate full-dimensional coupled diabatic potential energy surfaces including dissociative regions and suitable for dynamical calculations is proposed. The scheme is successfully applied to model the two-sheeted surface of the (2)E″ state of the NO3 radical. An accurate potential energy surface for the NO₃⁻ anion ground state is developed as well. Both surfaces are based on high-level ab initio calculations. The model consists of a diabatic potential matrix, which is expanded to higher order in terms of symmetry polynomials of symmetry coordinates. The choice of coordinates is key for the accuracy of the obtained potential energy surfaces and is discussed in detail. A second central aspect is the generation of reference data to fit the expansion coefficients of the model for which a stochastic approach is proposed. A third ingredient is a new and simple scheme to handle problematic regions of the potential energy surfaces, resulting from the massive undersampling by the reference data unavoidable for high-dimensional problems. The final analytical diabatic surfaces are used to compute the lowest vibrational levels of NO₃⁻ and the photo-electron detachment spectrum of NO₃⁻ leading to the neutral radical in the (2)E″ state by full dimensional multi-surface wave-packet propagation for NO3 performed using the Multi-Configuration Time Dependent Hartree method. The achieved agreement of the simulations with available experimental data demonstrates the power of the proposed scheme and the high quality of the obtained potential energy surfaces.

  17. Local-Scale Simulations of Nucleate Boiling on Micrometer-Featured Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitaraman, Hariswaran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moreno, Gilberto [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dede, Ercan M. [Toyota Research Institute of North America; Joshi, Shailesh N. [Toyota Research Institute of North America; Zhou, Feng [Toyota Research Institute of North America

    2017-07-12

    A high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based model for bubble nucleation of the refrigerant HFE7100 on micrometer-featured surfaces is presented in this work. The single-fluid incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, along with energy transport and natural convection effects are solved on a featured surface resolved grid. An a priori cavity detection method is employed to convert raw profilometer data of a surface into well-defined cavities. The cavity information and surface morphology are represented in the CFD model by geometric mesh deformations. Surface morphology is observed to initiate buoyancy-driven convection in the liquid phase, which in turn results in faster nucleation of cavities. Simulations pertaining to a generic rough surface show a trend where smaller size cavities nucleate with higher wall superheat. This local-scale model will serve as a self-consistent connection to larger device scale continuum models where local feature representation is not possible.

  18. Local-Scale Simulations of Nucleate Boiling on Micrometer Featured Surfaces: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitaraman, Hariswaran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moreno, Gilberto [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dede, Ercan M. [Toyota Research Institute of North America; Joshi, Shailesh N. [Toyota Research Institute of North America; Zhou, Feng [Toyota Research Institute of North America

    2017-08-03

    A high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based model for bubble nucleation of the refrigerant HFE7100 on micrometer-featured surfaces is presented in this work. The single-fluid incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, along with energy transport and natural convection effects are solved on a featured surface resolved grid. An a priori cavity detection method is employed to convert raw profilometer data of a surface into well-defined cavities. The cavity information and surface morphology are represented in the CFD model by geometric mesh deformations. Surface morphology is observed to initiate buoyancy-driven convection in the liquid phase, which in turn results in faster nucleation of cavities. Simulations pertaining to a generic rough surface show a trend where smaller size cavities nucleate with higher wall superheat. This local-scale model will serve as a self-consistent connection to larger device scale continuum models where local feature representation is not possible.

  19. Improving weather predictability by including land-surface model parameter uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Dutra, Emanuel; Pappenberger, Florian

    2016-04-01

    The land surface forms an important component of Earth system models and interacts nonlinearly with other parts such as ocean and atmosphere. To capture the complex and heterogenous hydrology of the land surface, land surface models include a large number of parameters impacting the coupling to other components of the Earth system model. Focusing on ECMWF's land-surface model HTESSEL we present in this study a comprehensive parameter sensitivity evaluation using multiple observational datasets in Europe. We select 6 poorly constrained effective parameters (surface runoff effective depth, skin conductivity, minimum stomatal resistance, maximum interception, soil moisture stress function shape, total soil depth) and explore their sensitivity to model outputs such as soil moisture, evapotranspiration and runoff using uncoupled simulations and coupled seasonal forecasts. Additionally we investigate the possibility to construct ensembles from the multiple land surface parameters. In the uncoupled runs we find that minimum stomatal resistance and total soil depth have the most influence on model performance. Forecast skill scores are moreover sensitive to the same parameters as HTESSEL performance in the uncoupled analysis. We demonstrate the robustness of our findings by comparing multiple best performing parameter sets and multiple randomly chosen parameter sets. We find better temperature and precipitation forecast skill with the best-performing parameter perturbations demonstrating representativeness of model performance across uncoupled (and hence less computationally demanding) and coupled settings. Finally, we construct ensemble forecasts from ensemble members derived with different best-performing parameterizations of HTESSEL. This incorporation of parameter uncertainty in the ensemble generation yields an increase in forecast skill, even beyond the skill of the default system. Orth, R., E. Dutra, and F. Pappenberger, 2016: Improving weather predictability by

  20. Polymer Nanocomposites with Cellulose Nanocrystals Featuring Adaptive Surface Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natterodt, Jens C; Sapkota, Janak; Foster, E Johan; Weder, Christoph

    2017-02-13

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are mechanically rigid, toxicologically benign, fiber-like nanoparticles. They can easily be extracted from renewable biosources and have attracted significant interest as reinforcing fillers in polymers. We here report the modification of CNCs with the 2-ureido-4[1H]pyrimidinone (UPy) motif as an adaptive compatibilizer, which permits the dispersion of UPy-modified CNCs in nonpolar as well as polar media. In toluene, the UPy motifs appear to form intra-CNC dimers, so that the particles are somewhat hydrophobized and well-dispersible in this nonpolar solvent. By contrast, the UPy motifs dissociate in DMF and promote dispersibility through interactions with this polar solvent. We have exploited this adaptiveness and integrated UPy-modified CNCs into nonpolar and polar host polymers, which include different poly(ethylene)s, a polystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene elastomer and poly(ethylene oxide-co-epichlorohydrin). All nanocomposites display an increase of stiffness and strength in comparison to the neat polymer, and some compositions retain a high elongation at break, even at a filler content of 15% w/w.

  1. Systems and methods for producing metal clusters; functionalized surfaces; and droplets including solvated metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Li, Anyin; Luo, Qingjie

    2017-08-01

    The invention generally relates to systems and methods for producing metal clusters; functionalized surfaces; and droplets including solvated metal ions. In certain aspects, the invention provides methods that involve providing a metal and a solvent. The methods additionally involve applying voltage to the solvated metal to thereby produce solvent droplets including ions of the metal containing compound, and directing the solvent droplets including the metal ions to a target. In certain embodiments, once at the target, the metal ions can react directly or catalyze reactions.

  2. Thermal Infrared Spectra of Microcrystalline Sedimentary Phases: Effects of Natural Surface Roughness on Spectral Feature Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardgrove, C.; Rogers, A. D.

    2012-03-01

    Thermal infrared spectral features of common microcrystalline phases (chert, alabaster, micrite) are presented. Spectra are sensitive to mineralogy and micron-scale (~1-25 µm) surface roughness. Roughness is on the scale of the average crystal size.

  3. Lipase degradation of plasticized polyvinyl chloride endotracheal tube surfaces to create nanoscale features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado MC

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mary C Machado,1 Thomas J Webster2 1Center for Biomedical Engineering, Division of Engineering Brown University, Providence, RI, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Polyvinyl chloride (PVC endotracheal tubes (ETTs nanoetched with a fungal lipase have been shown to reduce bacterial growth and biofilm formation and could be an inexpensive solution to the complex problem of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP. Although bacterial growth and colonization on these nanoetched materials have been well characterized, little is known about the mechanism by which the fungal lipase degrades the PVC and, thus, alters its properties to minimize bacteria functions. This study used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR to better describe the surface chemistry of both unetched and lipase nanoetched PVC ETT. ATR-FTIR analysis of the unetched and treated surfaces showed a similar presence of a plasticizer. This was confirmed by XPS analysis, which showed an increase of carbon and the presence of oxygen on both unetched and nanoetched surfaces. A quantitative comparison of the FTIR spectra revealed significant correlations (Pearson’s correlation, R=0.997 [R2=0.994, P<0.001] between the unetched and nanomodified PVC ETT spectra, demonstrating similar surface chemistry. This analysis showed no shifting or widening of the bands in the spectra and no significant changes in the intensity of the infrared peaks due to the degradation of the plasticizer by the fungal lipase. In contrast, results from this study did demonstrate significantly increased nanoscale surface features on the lipase etched compared to non-etched PVC ETTs. This led to a change in surface energetics, which altered ion adsorption to the ETTs. Thus, these results showed that PVC surfaces nanoetched with a 0.1% lipase solution for 48 hours have no significant change

  4. Autosomal dominant epilepsy with auditory features: a new LGI1 family including a phenocopy with cortical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Karl Martin; Pendziwiat, Manuela; Cohen, Rony; Appenzeller, Silke; de Kovel, Carolien G F; Rosenow, Felix; Koeleman, Bobby P C; Kuhlenbäumer, Gregor; Sheintuch, Liron; Veksler, Ronel; Friedman, Alon; Afawi, Zaid; Helbig, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    We report a new family with autosomal dominant epilepsy with auditory features (ADEAF) including focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) in the proband. We aim to identify the molecular cause in this family and clarify the relationship between FCD and ADEAF. A large Iranian Jewish family including 14 individuals with epileptic seizures was phenotyped including high-resolution 3-T MRI. We performed linkage analysis and exome sequencing. LGI1, KANK1 and RELN were Sanger sequenced. Seizure semiology of 11 individuals was consistent with ADEAF. The proband underwent surgery for right mesiotemporal FCD. 3-T MRIs in four individuals were unremarkable. Linkage analysis revealed peaks on chromosome 9p24 (LOD 2.43) and 10q22-25 (LOD 2.04). A novel heterozygous LGI1 mutation was identified in all affected individuals except for the proband indicating a phenocopy. Exome sequencing did not reveal variants within the chromosome 9p24 region. Closely located variants in KANK1 and a RELN variant did not segregate with the phenotype. We provide detailed description of the phenotypic spectrum within a large ADEAF family with a novel LGI1 mutation that was conspicuously absent in the proband with FCD, demonstrating that despite identical clinical symptoms, phenocopies in ADEAF families may exist. This family illustrates that rare epilepsy syndromes within a single family can have both genetic and structural etiologies.

  5. Feature extraction and classifcation in surface grading application using multivariate statistical projection models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats-Montalbán, José M.; López, Fernando; Valiente, José M.; Ferrer, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an innovative way to simultaneously perform feature extraction and classification for the quality control issue of surface grading by applying two well known multivariate statistical projection tools (SIMCA and PLS-DA). These tools have been applied to compress the color texture data describing the visual appearance of surfaces (soft color texture descriptors) and to directly perform classification using statistics and predictions computed from the extracted projection models. Experiments have been carried out using an extensive image database of ceramic tiles (VxC TSG). This image database is comprised of 14 different models, 42 surface classes and 960 pieces. A factorial experimental design has been carried out to evaluate all the combinations of several factors affecting the accuracy rate. Factors include tile model, color representation scheme (CIE Lab, CIE Luv and RGB) and compression/classification approach (SIMCA and PLS-DA). In addition, a logistic regression model is fitted from the experiments to compute accuracy estimates and study the factors effect. The results show that PLS-DA performs better than SIMCA, achieving a mean accuracy rate of 98.95%. These results outperform those obtained in a previous work where the soft color texture descriptors in combination with the CIE Lab color space and the k-NN classi.er achieved a 97.36% of accuracy.

  6. Evaluation of the susceptibility to pitting corrosion of structural steels, including steels with modified surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunarska, E.; Nikiforow, K.

    2001-01-01

    Although the low alloy ferrite-perlite and bainite-martensite steels mostly undergo the general corrosion, pitting corrosion occurring under certain conditions jeopardizes the safety of installations, causing perforation of walls or initiation of crack. On the basis of electrochemical, corrosion and microscopic examinations, the conditions simulating typical industrial corrosion environments, containing Cl - ions have been selected, to which the parts of machines, devices and installation are subjected. The test parameters provide the preferential pitting corrosion without prevailing general corrosion, and provide the similar type of corrosion of different kinds of ferrite-perlite and bainite-martensite steels, including steels with modified surface layer. The proposed express method allows to evaluate the susceptibility to pitting corrosion and to evaluate the effect of surface modification on susceptibility to pitting corrosion in environments containing Cl - ions. The method may be applied for the proper selection of materials exploited under pitting corrosion conditions and for preparation of precorroded samples for mechanical testing. (author)

  7. SHARC: ab Initio Molecular Dynamics with Surface Hopping in the Adiabatic Representation Including Arbitrary Couplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Martin; Marquetand, Philipp; González-Vázquez, Jesús; Sola, Ignacio; González, Leticia

    2011-05-10

    We present a semiclassical surface-hopping method which is able to treat arbitrary couplings in molecular systems including all degrees of freedom. A reformulation of the standard surface-hopping scheme in terms of a unitary transformation matrix allows for the description of interactions like spin-orbit coupling or transitions induced by laser fields. The accuracy of our method is demonstrated in two systems. The first one, consisting of two model electronic states, validates the semiclassical approach in the presence of an electric field. In the second one, the dynamics in the IBr molecule in the presence of spin-orbit coupling after laser excitation is investigated. Due to an avoided crossing that originates from spin-orbit coupling, IBr dissociates into two channels: I + Br((2)P3/2) and I + Br*((2)P1/2). In both systems, the obtained results are in very good agreement with those calculated from exact quantum dynamical simulations.

  8. A novel technique for including surface tension in PLIC-VOF methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, M.; Yadigaroglu, G. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Nuclear Engineering Lab. ETH-Zentrum, CLT, Zurich (Switzerland); Smith, B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. for Thermal-Hydraulics

    2002-02-01

    Various versions of Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) methods have been used successfully for the numerical simulation of gas-liquid flows with an explicit tracking of the phase interface. Of these, Piecewise-Linear Interface Construction (PLIC-VOF) appears as a fairly accurate, although somewhat more involved variant. Including effects due to surface tension remains a problem, however. The most prominent methods, Continuum Surface Force (CSF) of Brackbill et al. and the method of Zaleski and co-workers (both referenced later), both induce spurious or 'parasitic' currents, and only moderate accuracy in regards to determining the curvature. We present here a new method to determine curvature accurately using an estimator function, which is tuned with a least-squares-fit against reference data. Furthermore, we show how spurious currents may be drastically reduced using the reconstructed interfaces from the PLIC-VOF method. (authors)

  9. Fractal Features and Surface Micromorphology of Unworn Surfaces of Rigid Gas Permeable Contact Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ţălu, Ştefan; Bramowicz, Miroslaw; Kulesza, Slawomir; Fiorillo, Ilenia; Giovanzana, Stefano

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the micromorphology of surfaces of rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses (CLs) using atomic force microscopy (AFM) followed by fractal analysis. In order to characterize in a quantitative manner the micromorphology of surfaces of new and unworn RGP CLs made of twelve different materials, AFM was taken and then analyzed using fractal methods. Surface topography was sampled in an intermittent-contact mode in air, on square areas of 5 × 5 µm 2 (MultiMode with Nanoscope V (Bruker). Spatial characteristics of 3-D surface texture were obtained using parameters defined in ISO 25178-2: 2012 norm. The surface texture turned out to have complex 3-D nanoscale geometry. For quantitative characterization of the properties of surface geometry at nanometer level of CL on the global scale, a series of fractal parameters was used. Statistical and fractal parameters of 3-D surfaces can be used by manufacturers to assess the micromorphology of CLs in order to improve their 3-D surface texture characteristics. These parameters can also be used in an elastic-plastic finite element model with contact elements to simulate the friction, wear and micro-elastohydrodynamic lubrication at a nanometer scale between the CL with the corneal surface.

  10. Clinical and structural features of sperm head vacuoles in men included in the in vitro fertilization programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekonja, Nina; Štrus, Jasna; Tušek Žnidarič, Magda; Knez, Katja; Vrtacnik Bokal, Eda; Verdenik, Ivan; Virant-Klun, Irma

    2014-01-01

    The human sperm head vacuoles and their role in male infertility are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and ultrastructural features of human sperm head vacuoles in men included in the in vitro fertilization programme: men with normal (normozoospermia) and impaired sperm morphology (teratozoospermia). The sperm samples were observed under 6000-time magnification using motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME). The proportion of sperm with head vacuoles was evaluated and related to the outcome of in vitro fertilization. The sperm of men with impaired sperm morphology was characterized by a higher proportion of sperm head vacuoles. The sperm head vacuoles were related to impaired semen quality (sperm concentration, motility, and morphology) but were not influenced by male factors (semen volume, height, age, weight, or body mass index). Moreover, sperm head vacuoles were related to impaired fertilization rate merely after classical in vitro fertilization (IVF), while there was no relation to pregnancy. In a subgroup of men, the sperm was fixed and observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The ultrastructural study revealed that sperm head vacuoles are large nuclear indentations of various sizes and positions, packed with membranous material organized in membrane whorls (MW).

  11. The first missense mutation of NHS gene in a Tunisian family with clinical features of NHS syndrome including cardiac anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chograni, Manèl; Rejeb, Imen; Jemaa, Lamia Ben; Châabouni, Myriam; Bouhamed, Habiba Chaabouni

    2011-08-01

    Nance-Horan Syndrome (NHS) or X-linked cataract-dental syndrome is a disease of unknown gene action mechanism, characterized by congenital cataract, dental anomalies, dysmorphic features and, in some cases, mental retardation. We performed linkage analysis in a Tunisian family with NHS in which affected males and obligate carrier female share a common haplotype in the Xp22.32-p11.21 region that contains the NHS gene. Direct sequencing of NHS coding exons and flanking intronic sequences allowed us to identify the first missense mutation (P551S) and a reported SNP-polymorphism (L1319F) in exon 6, a reported UTR-SNP (c.7422 C>T) and a novel one (c.8239 T>A) in exon 8. Both variations P551S and c.8239 T>A segregate with NHS phenotype in this family. Although truncations, frame-shift and copy number variants have been reported in this gene, no missense mutations have been found to segregate previously. This is the first report of a missense NHS mutation causing NHS phenotype (including cardiac defects). We hypothesize also that the non-reported UTR-SNP of the exon 8 (3'-UTR) is specific to the Tunisian population.

  12. Consistent retrieval of land surface radiation products from EO, including traceable uncertainty estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Thomas; Pinty, Bernard; Voßbeck, Michael; Lopatka, Maciej; Gobron, Nadine; Robustelli, Monica

    2017-05-01

    Earth observation (EO) land surface products have been demonstrated to provide a constraint on the terrestrial carbon cycle that is complementary to the record of atmospheric carbon dioxide. We present the Joint Research Centre Two-stream Inversion Package (JRC-TIP) for retrieval of variables characterising the state of the vegetation-soil system. The system provides a set of land surface variables that satisfy all requirements for assimilation into the land component of climate and numerical weather prediction models. Being based on a 1-D representation of the radiative transfer within the canopy-soil system, such as those used in the land surface components of advanced global models, the JRC-TIP products are not only physically consistent internally, but they also achieve a high degree of consistency with these global models. Furthermore, the products are provided with full uncertainty information. We describe how these uncertainties are derived in a fully traceable manner without any hidden assumptions from the input observations, which are typically broadband white sky albedo products. Our discussion of the product uncertainty ranges, including the uncertainty reduction, highlights the central role of the leaf area index, which describes the density of the canopy. We explain the generation of products aggregated to coarser spatial resolution than that of the native albedo input and describe various approaches to the validation of JRC-TIP products, including the comparison against in situ observations. We present a JRC-TIP processing system that satisfies all operational requirements and explain how it delivers stable climate data records. Since many aspects of JRC-TIP are generic, the package can serve as an example of a state-of-the-art system for retrieval of EO products, and this contribution can help the user to understand advantages and limitations of such products.

  13. A new procedure for characterizing textured surfaces with a deterministic pattern of valley features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Kühle, A; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there has been the development of a high number of manufacturing methods for creating textured surfaces which often present deterministic patterns of valley features. Unfortunately, suitable methodologies for characterizing them are lacking. Existing standards cannot in fact...... properly characterize such surfaces, providing at times unreasonable values. In this paper, a new procedure for characterizing such surfaces is proposed, relying on advanced filtering and feature recognition and separation. Existing advanced filtering methods do not always eliminate all distortions......, therefore some modifications are investigated. In particular the robust Gaussian regression filter has been modified providing an envelope first-guess in order to always fit the mean line through the plateau region. Starting from a filtered and aligned profile, the feature thresholds recognition...

  14. Remote sensing of coastal sea-surface features off northern British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, I.D.; Thomson, K.A.; LeBlond, P.H.; Foreman, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents an overview of surface oceanographic features identified by AVHRR imagery in Hecate Strait and adjacent waters surrounding the Queen Charlotte Islands, Canada, an area still poor in in situ observations. The observed features and their temporal variability are interpreted in terms of meteorological and hydrological forcing. The effects of tidal mixing are discussed through the application of a finite element numerical model

  15. Comparing experts and novices in Martian surface feature change detection and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlaw, Jessica; Sprinks, James; Houghton, Robert; Muller, Jan-Peter; Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Bamford, Steven; Marsh, Stuart

    2018-02-01

    Change detection in satellite images is a key concern of the Earth Observation field for environmental and climate change monitoring. Satellite images also provide important clues to both the past and present surface conditions of other planets, which cannot be validated on the ground. With the volume of satellite imagery continuing to grow, the inadequacy of computerised solutions to manage and process imagery to the required professional standard is of critical concern. Whilst studies find the crowd sourcing approach suitable for the counting of impact craters in single images, images of higher resolution contain a much wider range of features, and the performance of novices in identifying more complex features and detecting change, remains unknown. This paper presents a first step towards understanding whether novices can identify and annotate changes in different geomorphological features. A website was developed to enable visitors to flick between two images of the same location on Mars taken at different times and classify 1) if a surface feature changed and if so, 2) what feature had changed from a pre-defined list of six. Planetary scientists provided ;expert; data against which classifications made by novices could be compared when the project subsequently went public. Whilst no significant difference was found in images identified with surface changes by expert and novices, results exhibited differences in consensus within and between experts and novices when asked to classify the type of change. Experts demonstrated higher levels of agreement in classification of changes as dust devil tracks, slope streaks and impact craters than other features, whilst the consensus of novices was consistent across feature types; furthermore, the level of consensus amongst regardless of feature type. These trends are secondary to the low levels of consensus found, regardless of feature type or classifier expertise. These findings demand the attention of researchers who

  16. Design data and safety features of commercial nuclear power plants including cumulative index for Volumes I--VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heddleson, F.A.

    1977-01-01

    Design data, safety features, and site characteristics are summarized for 12 nuclear power units in 6 power stations in the United States. Six pages of data are presented for each station, consisting of thermal-hydraulic and nuclear factors, containment features, emergency-core-cooling systems, site features, circulating water system data, and miscellaneous factors. In addition, an aerial perspective is presented for each plant. This volume covers plants with docket numbers 50-553 through 50-569 (Phipps Bend, Black Fox, Yellow Creek, and NEP) and two earlier plants not previously reported--Hope Creek (50-354, 50-355) and WPPSS 1 and 4 (50-460, 50-513). Indexes for this volume and the five earlier volumes are presented in three forms--by docket number, by plant name, and by participating utility

  17. Design data and safety features of commercial nuclear power plants including cumulative index for Volumes I--VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heddleson, F.A.

    1977-05-13

    Design data, safety features, and site characteristics are summarized for 12 nuclear power units in 6 power stations in the United States. Six pages of data are presented for each station, consisting of thermal-hydraulic and nuclear factors, containment features, emergency-core-cooling systems, site features, circulating water system data, and miscellaneous factors. In addition, an aerial perspective is presented for each plant. This volume covers plants with docket numbers 50-553 through 50-569 (Phipps Bend, Black Fox, Yellow Creek, and NEP) and two earlier plants not previously reported--Hope Creek (50-354, 50-355) and WPPSS 1 and 4 (50-460, 50-513). Indexes for this volume and the five earlier volumes are presented in three forms--by docket number, by plant name, and by participating utility.

  18. Shape based automated detection of pulmonary nodules with surface feature based false positive reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Y.; Itoh, H.; Masutani, Y.; Ohtomo, K.; Maeda, E.; Yoshikawa, T.; Hayashi, N.

    2007-01-01

    We proposed a shape based automated detection of pulmonary nodules with surface feature based false positive (FP) reduction. In the proposed system, the FP existing in internal of vessel bifurcation is removed using extracted surface of vessels and nodules. From the validation with 16 chest CT scans, we find that the proposed CAD system achieves 18.7 FPs/scan at 90% sensitivity, and 7.8 FPs/scan at 80% sensitivity. (orig.)

  19. Surface feature congruency effects in the object-reviewing paradigm are dependent on task memory demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Pirkner, Yossef

    2014-08-01

    Perception of object continuity depends on establishing correspondence between objects viewed across disruptions in visual information. The role of spatiotemporal information in guiding object continuity is well documented; the role of surface features, however, is controversial. Some researchers have shown an object-specific preview benefit (OSPB)-a standard index of object continuity-only when correspondence could be based on an object's spatiotemporal information, whereas others have found color-based OSPB, suggesting that surface features can also guide object continuity. This study shows that surface feature-based OSPB is dependent on the task memory demands. When the task involved letters and matching just one target letter to the preview ones, no color congruency effect was found under spatiotemporal discontinuity and spatiotemporal ambiguity (Experiments 1-3), indicating that the absence of feature-based OSPB cannot be accounted for by salient spatiotemporal discontinuity. When the task involved complex shapes and matching two target shapes to the preview ones, color-based OSPB was obtained. Critically, however, when a visual working memory task was performed concurrently with the matching task, the presence of a nonspatial (but not a spatial) working memory load eliminated the color-based OSPB (Experiments 4 and 5). These results suggest that the surface feature congruency effects that are observed in the object-reviewing paradigm (with the matching task) reflect memory-based strategies that participants use to solve a memory-demanding task; therefore, they are not reliable measures of online object continuity and cannot be taken as evidence for the role of surface features in establishing object correspondence.

  20. Separation of Atmospheric and Surface Spectral Features in Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Christensen, Philip R.

    2000-01-01

    We present two algorithms for the separation of spectral features caused by atmospheric and surface components in Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data. One algorithm uses radiative transfer and successive least squares fitting to find spectral shapes first for atmospheric dust, then for water-ice aerosols, and then, finally, for surface emissivity. A second independent algorithm uses a combination of factor analysis, target transformation, and deconvolution to simultaneously find dust, water ice, and surface emissivity spectral shapes. Both algorithms have been applied to TES spectra, and both find very similar atmospheric and surface spectral shapes. For TES spectra taken during aerobraking and science phasing periods in nadir-geometry these two algorithms give meaningful and usable surface emissivity spectra that can be used for mineralogical identification.

  1. Technology of surface wastewater purification, including high-rise construction areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyba, Anna; Skolubovich, Yury

    2018-03-01

    Despite on the improvements in the quality of high-rise construction areas and industrial wastewater treatment, the pollution of water bodies continues to increase. This is due to the organized and unorganized surface untreated sewage entry into the reservoirs. The qualitative analysis of some cities' surface sewage composition is carried out in the work. Based on the published literature review, the characteristic contamination present in surface wastewater was identified. The paper proposes a new technology for the treatment of surface sewage and presents the results of preliminary studies.

  2. Electron density in reasonably real metallic surfaces, including interchange and correlation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraga, L.A.; Martinez, G.

    1981-01-01

    By means of a new method, the electron density in a jellium surface is calculated taking in account interchange and correlation effects; reproducing, in this way, the Lang and Kohn results. The new method is self-consistent but not iterative and hence is possible extend it to the solution of the same problem in more reasonably real metallic surfaces. (L.C.) [pt

  3. Dynamics of Soil Deflation Features in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland Revealed by Variations in Lichen Diameters on Exposed Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, R. C.; Kelly, M. A.; Virginia, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about the pervasive soil deflation features in the Kangerlussuaq region, West Greenland, an area deglaciated between ~6,800 and 150 years ago. While the majority of the landscape is vegetated with low-lying shrubs and graminoids, wind erosion has removed loess and vegetation from distinct patches ranging in size from a few to tens of meters across, leaving the underlying glacial till or bedrock exposed. Although previous work has considered aeolian landforms and regional loess deposition along the Watson River Valley, these deflation features have not been investigated in detail. We aim to determine both the timing and mechanisms of formation of the deflation features and will examine whether these mechanisms were related to regional climatic conditions, such as increased aridity, to fluctuations in the Greenland Ice Sheet, or to other factors. Our ongoing research investigating these features includes geomorphic mapping using field observations and satellite imagery, lichenometry of the exposed surfaces, and cosmogenic nuclide dating of boulders and bedrock within and near the deflation features. Here we present initial results from our lichenometry studies. During the summer of 2013, we measured maximum lichen (Rhizocarpon sp.) diameters on boulder and bedrock surfaces in 15 soil deflation features located between Kangerlussuaq and the ice sheet margin. Lichen diameters vary from only a few millimeters at the outer margins of deflation features to multiple centimeters (maximum ~50 mm) in the centers of the unvegetated patches. This distinct pattern suggests that the outer margins of the soil deflation features are currently active. Based on a previously established lichen growth curve for Rhizocarpon sp. in West Greenland, our results indicate that the features are expanding at a rate of ~1.5 m per 100 yrs. In addition, the large lichen diameters (~40-50 mm) that occur in the centers of deflation features suggest that the formation mechanism has

  4. Thermal Behaviour of Unusual Local-Scale Surface Features on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, F.; Capria, M. T.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Palomba, E.; Grassi, D.; Capaccioni, F.; Ammannito, E.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Sunshine, J. M.; McCord, T. B.; hide

    2012-01-01

    On Vesta, the region of the infrared spectrum beyond approximately 3.5 micrometers is dominated by the thermal emission of the asteroid's surface, which can be used to determine surface temperature by means of temperature-retrieval algorithms. The thermal behavior of areas of unusual albedo seen at the local scale can be related to physical properties that can provide information about the origin of those materials. Dawn's Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIR) hyperspectral cubes are used to retrieve surface temperatures, with high accuracy as long as temperatures are greater than 180 K. Data acquired in the Survey phase (23 July through 29 August 2011) show several unusual surface features: 1) high-albedo (bright) and low-albedo (dark) material deposits, 2) spectrally distinct ejecta, 3) regions suggesting finer-grained materials. Some of the unusual dark and bright features were re-observed by VIR in the subsequent High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) phases at increased pixel resolution. To calculate surface temperatures, we applied a Bayesian approach to nonlinear inversion based on the Kirchhoff law and the Planck function. These results were cross-checked through application of alternative methods. Here we present temperature maps of several local-scale features that were observed by Dawn under different illumination conditions and different local solar times. Some bright terrains have an overall albedo in the visible as much as 40% brighter than surrounding areas. Data from the IR channel of VIR show that bright regions generally correspond to regions with lower thermal emission, i.e. lower temperature, while dark regions correspond to areas with higher thermal emission, i.e. higher temperature. This behavior confirms that many of the dark appearances in the VIS mainly reflect albedo variations. In particular, it is shown that during maximum daily insolation, dark features in the equatorial region may rise to

  5. Microwave effective surface impedance of structures including a high-Tc superconducting film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartemann, P.

    1992-01-01

    The microwave effective surface impedances of different stacks made of high-temperature superconducting films, dielectric materials and bulk normal metals were computed. The calculations were based on the two-fluid model of superconductors and the conventional transmission line theory. These effective impedances are compared to the calculated intrinsic surface impedances of the stacked superconducting films. The considered superconducting material has been the oxide YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 epitaxially grown on crystalline substrates (MgO, LaAlO 3 , SrTiO 3 ), the film thickness ranging from a few nm to 1μm. Discrepancies between the effective surface resistances or reactances and the corresponding intrinsic values were determined at 10 GHz for non resonant or resonant structures. At resonance the surface resistance discrepancy exhibits a sharp peak which reaches 10 4 or more in relative value according to the geometry and the used materials. Obviously the effective surface reactance shows also huge variations about the resonance and may be negative. Moreover geometries allowing to obtain an effective resistance smaller than the film intrinsic value have been found. The effects of the resonance phenomenon on the electromagnetic wave reflectivity and reflection phase shift are investigated. Therefore the reported theoretical results demonstrate that the effective surface impedance of YBCO films with a thickness smaller than 500 nm can be very different from the intrinsic film impedance according to the structures. (Author). 3 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  6. A surface defect detection method based on multi-feature fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaojun; Xiong, Huijiang; Yu, Zhiyang; Wen, Peizhi

    2017-07-01

    Automatic inspection takes a great role in guaranteeing the product quality. But one of the limitations of current inspection algorithms is either product specific or problem specific. In this paper, we propose a defect detection method based on three image features fusion for variety of industrial products surface detection. The proposed method learns sub-image gray level difference, color histogram and pixel regularity of qualified images off-line and test the images based on the detection results of these three image features. It avoids the feature training of defect products as it is difficult to collect large amount of defect samples. The experimental results show that the detection accuracy is between 93% and 98% and the approach is efficient for the real time applications of industrial product inspect.

  7. Relationship between iris surface features and angle width in Asian eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhartha, Elizabeth; Nongpiur, Monisha Esther; Cheung, Carol Y; He, Mingguang; Wong, Tien Yin; Aung, Tin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2014-10-23

    To examine the associations between iris surface features with anterior chamber angle width in Asian eyes. In this prospective cross-sectional study, we recruited 600 subjects from a large population-based study, the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases (SEED) study. We obtained standardized digital slit-lamp iris photographs and graded the iris crypts (by number and size), furrows (by number and circumferential extent), and color (higher grade denoting darker iris). Vertical and horizontal cross-sections of anterior chamber were imaged using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Angle opening distance (AOD), angle recess area (ARA), and trabecular-iris space area (TISA) were measured using customized software. Associations of the angle width with the iris surface features in the subject's right eyes were assessed using linear regression analysis. A total of 464 eyes of the 464 subjects (mean age: 57.5 ± 8.6 years) had complete and gradable data for crypts and color, and 423 eyes had gradable data for furrows. After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, pupil size, and corneal arcus, higher crypt grade was independently associated with wider AOD750 (β [change in angle width per grade higher] = 0.018, P = 0.023), ARA750 (β = 0.022, P = 0.049), and TISA750 (β = 0.011, P = 0.019), and darker iris was associated narrower ARA750 (β = -0.025, P = 0.044) and TISA750 (β = -0.013, P = 0.011). Iris surface features, assessed and measured from slit-lamp photographs, correlated well with anterior chamber angle width; irises with more crypts and lighter color were associated with wider angle. These findings may provide another imaging modality to assess angle closure risk based on iris surface features. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  8. Memory for surface features of unfamiliar melodies: independent effects of changes in pitch and tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Stalinski, Stephanie M; Marks, Bradley M

    2014-01-01

    A melody's identity is determined by relations between consecutive tones in terms of pitch and duration, whereas surface features (i.e., pitch level or key, tempo, and timbre) are irrelevant. Although surface features of highly familiar recordings are encoded into memory, little is known about listeners' mental representations of melodies heard once or twice. It is also unknown whether musical pitch is represented additively or interactively with temporal information. In two experiments, listeners heard unfamiliar melodies twice in an initial exposure phase. In a subsequent test phase, they heard the same (old) melodies interspersed with new melodies. Some of the old melodies were shifted in key, tempo, or key and tempo. Listeners' task was to rate how well they recognized each melody from the exposure phase while ignoring changes in key and tempo. Recognition ratings were higher for old melodies that stayed the same compared to those that were shifted in key or tempo, and detrimental effects of key and tempo changes were additive in between-subjects (Experiment 1) and within-subjects (Experiment 2) designs. The results confirm that surface features are remembered for melodies heard only twice. They also imply that key and tempo are processed and stored independently.

  9. Compressive Fracture of Brittle Geomaterial: Fractal Features of Compression-Induced Fracture Surfaces and Failure Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Compressive fracture is one of the most common failure patterns in geotechnical engineering. For better understanding of the local failure mechanism of compressive fractures of brittle geomaterials, three compressive fracture tests were conducted on sandstone. Edge cracked semicircular bend specimens were used and, consequently, fresh and unfilled compressive fracture surfaces were obtained. A laser profilometer was employed to measure the topography of each rough fracture surface, followed by fractal analysis of the irregularities of the obtained compression-induced fracture surfaces using the cubic cover method. To carry out a contrastive analysis with the results of compressive fracture tests, three tension mode fracture tests were also conducted and the fractal features of the obtained fracture surfaces were determined. The obtained average result of the fractal dimensions of the compression-induced surfaces was 2.070, whereas the average result was 2.067 for the tension-induced fracture surfaces. No remarkable differences between the fractal dimensions of the compression-induced and tension-induced fracture surfaces may indicate that compressive fracture may occur, at least on the investigative scale of this work, in a similar manner to tension fracture.

  10. Surface and morphological features of laser-irradiated silicon under vacuum, nitrogen and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, Asma, E-mail: asmahayat@gcu.edu.pk; Bashir, Shazia; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Iqbal, Muhammad Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Laser irradiation effects on Si surface have been explored. • An Excimer Laser was used as a source. • SEM analysis was performed to explore surface morphology. • Raman spectroscopy analysis was carried out to find crystallographical alterations. - Abstract: Laser-induced surface and structural modification of silicon (Si) has been investigated under three different environments of vacuum, nitrogen (100 Torr) and ethanol. The interaction of 1000 pulses of KrF (λ ≈ 248 nm, τ ≈ 18 ns, repetition rate ≈ 30 Hz) Excimer laser at two different fluences of 2.8 J/cm{sup 2} and 4 J/cm{sup 2} resulted in formation of various kinds of features such as laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), spikes, columns, cones and cracks. Surface morphology has been observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Whereas, structural modification of irradiated targets is explored by Raman spectroscopy. SEM analysis exhibits a non-uniform distribution of micro-scale pillars and spikes at the central ablated regime of silicon irradiated at low laser fluence of 2.8 J/cm{sup 2} under vacuum. Whereas cones, pits, cavities and ripples like features are seen at the boundaries. At higher fluence of 4 J/cm{sup 2}, laser induced periodic structures as well as micro-columns are observed. In the case of ablation in nitrogen environment, melting, splashing, self-organized granular structures and cracks along with redeposition are observed at lower fluence. Such types of small scaled structures in nitrogen are attributed to confinement and shielding effects of nitrogen plasma. Whereas, a crater with multiple ablative layers is formed in the case of ablation at higher fluence. Significantly different surface morphology of Si is observed in the case of ablation in ethanol. It reveals the formation of cavities along with small scale pores and less redeposition. These results reveal that the growth of surface and morphological features of irradiated Si are strongly

  11. Observation of surface features on an active landslide, and implications for understanding its history of movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parise

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface features are produced as a result of internal deformation of active landslides, and are continuously created and destroyed by the movement. Observation of their presence and distribution, and surveying of their evolution may provide insights for the zonation of the mass movement in sectors characterized by different behaviour. The present study analyses and describes some example of surface features observed on an active mass movement, the Slumgullion earthflow, in the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado. The Slumgullion earthflow is one of the most famous and spectacular landslides in the world; it consists of a younger, active part which moves on and over an older, much larger, inactive part. Total length of the earthflow is 6.8 km, with an estimated volume of 170 × 10 6 m 3 . Its nearly constant rate of movement (ranging from about 2 m per year at the head, to a maximum of 6–7 m per year at its narrow and central part, to values between 1.3 and 2 m per year at the active toe, and the geological properties of moving material, are well suited for the observation of the development and evolution of surface features. In the last 11 years, repeated surveying at the Slumgullion site has been performed through recognition of surface features, measurements of their main characteristics, and detailed mapping. In this study, two sectors of the Slumgullion earthflow are analysed through comparison of the features observed in this time span, and evaluation of the changes occurred: they are the active toe and an area located at the left flank of the landslide. Choice of the sectors was dictated in the first case, by particular activity of movement and the nearby presence of elements at risk (highway located only 250 m downhill from the toe; and in the second case, by the presence of many surface features, mostly consisting of several generations of flank ridges. The active toe of the landslide is characterized by continuous movement

  12. Simultaneous measurements of work function and H‒ density including caesiation of a converter surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofaro, S.; Friedl, R.; Fantz, U.

    2017-08-01

    Negative hydrogen ion sources rely on the surface conversion of neutral atomic hydrogen and positive hydrogen ions to H-. The efficiency of this process depends on the actual work function of the converter surface. By introducing caesium into the source the work function decreases, enhancing the negative ion yield. In order to study the impact of the work function on the H- surface production at similar conditions to the ones in ion sources for fusion devices like ITER and DEMO, fundamental investigations are performed in a flexible laboratory experiment. The work function of the converter surface can be absolutely measured by photoelectric effect, while a newly installed cavity ring-down spectroscopy system (CRDS) measures the H- density. The CRDS is firstly tested and characterized by investigations on H- volume production. Caesiation of a stainless steel sample is then performed in vacuum and the plasma effect on the Cs layer is investigated also for long plasma-on times. A minimum work function of (1.9±0.1) eV is reached after some minutes of plasma treatment, resulting in a reduction by a value of 0.8 eV compared to vacuum measurements. The H- density above the surface is (2.1±0.5)×1015 m-3. With further plasma exposure of the caesiated surface, the work function increases up to 3.75 eV, due to the impinging plasma particles which gradually remove the Cs layer. As a result, the H- density decreases by a factor of at least 2.

  13. Surface wave site characterization at 27 locations near Boston, Massachusetts, including 2 strong-motion stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eric M.; Carkin, Bradley A.; Baise, Laurie G.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The geotechnical properties of the soils in and around Boston, Massachusetts, have been extensively studied. This is partly due to the importance of the Boston Blue Clay and the extent of landfill in the Boston area. Although New England is not a region that is typically associated with seismic hazards, there have been several historical earthquakes that have caused significant ground shaking (for example, see Street and Lacroix, 1979; Ebel, 1996; Ebel, 2006). The possibility of strong ground shaking, along with heightened vulnerability from unreinforced masonry buildings, motivates further investigation of seismic hazards throughout New England. Important studies that are pertinent to seismic hazards in New England include source-parameter studies (Somerville and others, 1987; Boore and others, 2010), wave-propagation studies (Frankel, 1991; Viegas and others, 2010), empirical ground-motion prediction equations (GMPE) for computing ground-motion intensity (Tavakoli and Pezeshk, 2005; Atkinson and Boore, 2006), site-response studies (Hayles and others, 2001; Ebel and Kim, 2006), and liquefaction studies (Brankman and Baise, 2008). The shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles collected for this report are pertinent to the GMPE, site response, and liquefaction aspects of seismic hazards in the greater Boston area. Besides the application of these data for the Boston region, the data may be applicable throughout New England, through correlations with geologic units (similar to Ebel and Kim, 2006) or correlations with topographic slope (Wald and Allen, 2007), because few VS measurements are available in stable tectonic regions.Ebel and Hart (2001) used felt earthquake reports to infer amplification patterns throughout the greater Boston region and noted spatial correspondence with the dominant period and amplification factors obtained from ambient noise (horizontal-to-vertical ratios) by Kummer (1998). Britton (2003) compiled geotechnical borings in the area and produced a

  14. In vitro bioactivity of micro metal injection moulded stainless steel with defined surface features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Brose

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Micrometre- and nanometre-scale surface structuring with ordered topography features may dramatically enhance orthopaedic implant integration. In this study we utilised a previously optimised micron metal injection moulding (µ-MIM process to produce medical grade stainless steel surfaces bearing micrometre scale, protruding, hemispheres of controlled dimensions and spatial distribution. Additionally, the structured surfaces were characterised by the presence of submicrometre surface roughness resulting from metal grain boundary formation. Following cytocompatibility (cytotoxicity evaluation using 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line, the effect on primary human cell functionality was assessed focusing on cell attachment, shape and cytoskeleton conformation. In this respect, and by day 7 in culture, significant increase in focal adhesion size was associated with the microstructured surfaces compared to the planar control. The morphological conformation of the seeded cells, as revealed by fluorescence cytoskeleton labelling, also appeared to be guided in the vertical dimension between the hemisphere bodies. Quantitative evaluation of this guidance took place using live cytoplasm fluorescence labelling and image morphometry analysis utilising both, compactness and elongation shape descriptors. Significant increase in cell compactness was associated with the hemisphere arrays indicating collective increase in focused cell attachment to the hemisphere bodies across the entire cell population. Micrometre-scale hemisphere array patterns have therefore influenced cell attachment and conformation. Such influence may potentially aid in enhancing key cellular events such as, for example, neo-osteogenesis on implanted orthopaedic surfaces.

  15. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students' Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of…

  16. On the modelling of semi-insulating GaAs including surface tension and bulk stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, W.; Duderstadt, F.

    2004-07-01

    Necessary heat treatment of single crystal semi-insulating Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), which is deployed in micro- and opto- electronic devices, generate undesirable liquid precipitates in the solid phase. The appearance of precipitates is influenced by surface tension at the liquid/solid interface and deviatoric stresses in the solid. The central quantity for the description of the various aspects of phase transitions is the chemical potential, which can be additively decomposed into a chemical and a mechanical part. In particular the calculation of the mechanical part of the chemical potential is of crucial importance. We determine the chemical potential in the framework of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law which gives an appropriate stress/strain relation for many solids in the small strain regime. We establish criteria, which allow the correct replacement of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law by the simpler Hooke law. The main objectives of this study are: (i) We develop a thermo-mechanical model that describes diffusion and interface motion, which both are strongly influenced by surface tension effects and deviatoric stresses. (ii) We give an overview and outlook on problems that can be posed and solved within the framework of the model. (iii) We calculate non-standard phase diagrams, i.e. those that take into account surface tension and non-deviatoric stresses, for GaAs above 786 C, and we compare the results with classical phase diagrams without these phenomena. (orig.)

  17. Exploring microstructure and surface features of Chinese coins using non-invasive approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Ruishi; Li, Yuanli; Guo, Baogang; Hu, Hailong; Jiang, Linhai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The microstructure and surface features of Chinese coins were systematically explored. • The application of non-invasive techniques enables unambiguous explorations of the component, morphology, microstructure and physical properties of the coins. • This work provides a new insight into exploration of surface properties of precious metal objects, metallic artefacts as well as monuments without causing any damage to them. - Abstract: Despite the apparent significance of Chinese coins, the knowledge about the surface properties of the coins is still largely unknown. To date, most analytical techniques (e.g., cross-section analysis, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, thermal analysis) require the partial or total destruction of the investigated sample, which is fatal to precious objects (e.g., artefacts and monuments). Herein, we systematically investigate the surface of a series of one yuan Chinese coins to disclose their chemical composition, morphology, and microstructure features using non-invasive techniques. Investigations were performed with scanning electron microscopy, coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The application of these approaches enables unambiguous explorations of the component, morphology, microstructure and physical properties of the samples without destroying them. The identification of the coins was achieved in light of the name of issuing authority and floral pattern. The morphology observations of the samples display that these coins possess mostly homogeneous surfaces; hence such a finding allows the formulation of a possible minting technology. Besides, the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy has proved of great role in exploring these coins, mainly because of its detectability to easily probe the presence of certain minor elements, which is critical in understanding surface finishing technologies, and production processes. The findings manifest that the coins were made

  18. A carpal tunnel grading system including combined sensory index-diagnosed mild cases: Relation to presenting features and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Pandey, Dilip K

    2018-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated superiority of the combined sensory index (CSI) algorithm in diagnosing mild carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and have compared presenting symptoms to CTS grade. However, CTS symptoms, signs, and outcomes, including CSI-diagnosed cases, have not been compared with CTS grade. We retrospectively studied 294 CTS hands from 2010 to 2013; stratified them into mild, moderate, and severe grades; and analyzed the association between CTS grade and presenting symptoms/signs and outcomes. Sensorimotor symptoms (P = 0.017) and signs (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with CTS grade. Regardless of CTS grade, 94% of hands improved with surgery compared with 42% with conservative treatment (P < 0.001). Even in mild CTS, 100% improved with surgery vs. 33% with conservative management (P = 0.011). These results corroborate prior studies that compared symptoms to CTS grade and suggest that more objective signs associate even better. CTS grades associate with outcomes, but additional studies are required. Muscle Nerve 57: 45-48, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Linear and Nonlinear Gait Features in Older Adults Walking on Inclined Surfaces at Different Speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Marcus Fraga; Rodrigues, Fábio Barbosa; de Sá E Souza, Gustavo Souto; Magnani, Rina Márcia; Lehnen, Georgia Cristina; Andrade, Adriano O

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated linear and nonlinear gait features in healthy older adults walking on inclined surfaces at different speeds. Thirty-seven active older adults (experimental group) and fifty young adults (control group) walked on a treadmill at 100% and ±20% of their preferred walking speed for 4 min under horizontal (0%), upward (UP) (+8%), and downward (DOWN) (-8%) conditions. Linear gait variability was assessed using the average standard deviation of trunk acceleration between strides (VAR). Gait stability was assessed using the margin of stability (MoS). Nonlinear gait features were assessed by using the maximum Lyapunov exponent, as a measure of local dynamic stability (LDS), and sample entropy (SEn), as a measure of regularity. VAR increased for all conditions, but the interaction effects between treadmill inclination and age, and speed and age were higher for young adults. DOWN conditions showed the lowest stability in the medial-lateral MoS, but not in LDS. LDS was smaller in UP conditions. However, there were no effects of age for either MoS or LDS. The values of SEn decreased almost linearly from the DOWN to the UP conditions, with significant interaction effects of age for anterior-posterior SEn. The overall results supported the hypothesis that inclined surfaces modulate nonlinear gait features and alter linear gait variability, particularly in UP conditions, but there were no significant effects of age for active older adults.

  20. Virtual laparoscopy: Initial experience with three-dimensional ultrasonography to characterize hepatic surface features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekimoto, Tadashi, E-mail: tad_sekimoto@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Maruyama, Hitoshi, E-mail: maru-cib@umin.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Kondo, Takayuki, E-mail: takakondonaika@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Shimada, Taro, E-mail: bobtaro51@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Takahashi, Masanori, E-mail: machat1215@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Yokosuka, Osamu, E-mail: yokosukao@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Otsuka, Masayuki, E-mail: otsuka-m@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of General Surgery, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Miyazaki, Masaru, E-mail: masaru@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of General Surgery, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Mine, Yoshitaka, E-mail: yoshitaka.mine@toshiba.co.jp [Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Ultrasound Systems Division, Ultrasound Systems Development Department, Otawara, Tochigi (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    Objective: To examine the potential utility of 3D-reconstructed sonograms to distinguish cirrhotic from non-cirrhotic livers by demonstrating hepatic surface characteristics. Materials and methods: A preliminary phantom study was performed to examine the potential resolution of 3D images, recognizing surface irregularities as a difference in height. In a prospective clinical study of 31 consecutive patients with ascites (21 cirrhosis, 10 non-cirrhosis), liver volume data were acquired by transabdominal mechanical scanning. The hepatic surface features of cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients were compared by 2 independent reviewers. Intra- and inter-operator/reviewer agreements were also examined. Results: The phantom study revealed that 0.4 mm was the minimum recognizable difference in height on the 3D sonograms. The hepatic surface image was successfully visualized in 74% patients (23/31). Success depended on the amount of ascites; visualization was 100% with ascites of 10 mm or more between the hepatic surface and abdominal wall. The images showed irregularity of the hepatic surface in all cirrhotic patients. The surface appearance was confirmed as being very similar in 3 patients who had both 3D sonogram and liver resection for transplantation. The ability to distinguish cirrhotic liver from non-cirrhotic liver improved with the use of combination of 2D- and 3D-imaging versus 2D-imaging alone (sensitivity, p = 0.02; accuracy, p = 0.02) or 3D-imaging alone (sensitivity, p = 0.03). Intra-/inter-operator and inter-reviewer agreement were excellent (κ = 1.0). Conclusion: 3D-based sonographic visualization of the hepatic surface showed high reliability and reproducibility, acting as a virtual laparoscopy method, and the technique has the potential to improve the diagnosis of cirrhosis.

  1. Virtual laparoscopy: Initial experience with three-dimensional ultrasonography to characterize hepatic surface features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Tadashi; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Kondo, Takayuki; Shimada, Taro; Takahashi, Masanori; Yokosuka, Osamu; Otsuka, Masayuki; Miyazaki, Masaru; Mine, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the potential utility of 3D-reconstructed sonograms to distinguish cirrhotic from non-cirrhotic livers by demonstrating hepatic surface characteristics. Materials and methods: A preliminary phantom study was performed to examine the potential resolution of 3D images, recognizing surface irregularities as a difference in height. In a prospective clinical study of 31 consecutive patients with ascites (21 cirrhosis, 10 non-cirrhosis), liver volume data were acquired by transabdominal mechanical scanning. The hepatic surface features of cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients were compared by 2 independent reviewers. Intra- and inter-operator/reviewer agreements were also examined. Results: The phantom study revealed that 0.4 mm was the minimum recognizable difference in height on the 3D sonograms. The hepatic surface image was successfully visualized in 74% patients (23/31). Success depended on the amount of ascites; visualization was 100% with ascites of 10 mm or more between the hepatic surface and abdominal wall. The images showed irregularity of the hepatic surface in all cirrhotic patients. The surface appearance was confirmed as being very similar in 3 patients who had both 3D sonogram and liver resection for transplantation. The ability to distinguish cirrhotic liver from non-cirrhotic liver improved with the use of combination of 2D- and 3D-imaging versus 2D-imaging alone (sensitivity, p = 0.02; accuracy, p = 0.02) or 3D-imaging alone (sensitivity, p = 0.03). Intra-/inter-operator and inter-reviewer agreement were excellent (κ = 1.0). Conclusion: 3D-based sonographic visualization of the hepatic surface showed high reliability and reproducibility, acting as a virtual laparoscopy method, and the technique has the potential to improve the diagnosis of cirrhosis

  2. Surface Features and Cathodoluminescence (CL) Characteristics of Corundum Gems from Eastern of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsoong, A.

    2017-12-01

    Thailand has long been well known as a supplier of gemstones and also one of the world's color stone centers for decades. The principal gemstones are corundum, garnet and zircon. The corundum deposits of Chanthaburi-Trat Provinces form the most significant ruby-sapphire concentration in Thailand. Corundums are commonly found in secondary deposits (alluvium, elluvial, residual-soil and colluvium deposits as well as stream sediments) with the thickness of the gem-bearing layer varying from 10-100cm and the thickness of the overburden ranging up to 15m. A number of corundum samples were collected from each of the twenty-nine corundum deposits in the Chanthaburi-Trat gem fields, eastern of Thailand. Corundum varies in colour across the region with colours associated with three geographic zones; a western zone, characterized by blue, green and yellow sapphires; a middle zone with blue, green sapphires plus rubies; and an eastern zone yielding mainly rubies. This project has aim to study surface features and characterize the Cathodoluminescence (CL) of corundum gems in the Chanthaburi-Trat gem fields, Thailand. Surfaces of the corundums under a scanning electron microscope show triangular etch features and randomly oriented needle-like patterns. These reveal that the corundums have interacted with the magma during their ascent to the Earth's surface. Surface features attributable to transport and weathering processes are scratches, conchoidal fractures and a spongy surface appearance. Clay minerals and Fe-Ti oxide minerals deposited on the spongy surfaces of some corundums also indicate that these grains experienced chemical weathering or reacted with the soil solution while they were in the alluvium. Cathodoluminescence shows some blue sapphires to exhibit dull blue luminescence. The main cause of the CL appearance of sapphires is likely to be a quench centre, Fe2+ in their structure. The bright red luminescence in corundum reflects a high Cr3+ content and is always

  3. Results of Vertical Scanning Interferometry (VSI) of Dissolved Borosilicate Glass: Evidence for Variable Surface Features and Global Surface Retreat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Luttge, Andreas; McGrail, B. Peter; Beig, Mikhala S.; Arvidson, Rolf S.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Steele, Jackie L.; Baum, Steven R.

    2003-10-29

    Two disparate reaction mechanisms have been invoked to explain the reactivity of glass in contact with aqueous solution. One model is based on arguments from Transition State Theory (TST), which postulates that glass dissolution rates are surface reaction controlled. Alternatively, the second model argues that release of elements from glass to solution is governed by diffusion through an altered layer that forms on the surface of glass. Vertical Scanning Interferometry (VSI) is a new technique that allows one to observe surface features of specimens exposed to solution and may, potentially, be used to distinguish between competing models. We performed a series of dissolution experiments with a suite of glass compositions from chemically simple (sodium borosilicate) to complex (sixteen component borosilicate). Dissolution rates were determined using single-pass flow-through (SPFT) apparatus at 90ºC and pH = 9 and over a solution saturation interval. Upon termination of the experiments, glass coupons were examined by VSI techniques. Effluent chemistry and VSI measurements indicate a nearly constant rate of 2.2 to 3.4 g m-2 d-1 over the solution interval; rates calculated from both methods are identical within experimental uncertainty. We argue that this glass is phase separated, and propose a model for dissolution based on the relative rates of dissolution of the two glass compositions. The data are consistent with a modified version of TST and indicate the potency of VSI methods to elucidate glass reaction mechanisms.

  4. Determining surface wave attenuation by modeling surface wave amplitudes including finite-frequency focusing and defocusing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z.; Masters, G.

    2011-12-01

    We have developed a technique that uses cluster analysis method to efficiently measure Rayleigh wave phase and amplitude anomalies. Amplitude anomaly measurements have been made on the vertical components of all permanent stations recording LHZ data from IRIS. We currently consider earthquakes with Ms>5.5 between 1990 and 2004 and correct for source phase and magnitude according to the CMT. This technique leads to a large set of amplitude measurements at 7mHz, 10mHz, 15mHz and 20mHz. We discard data with erroneously large amplitude anomalies (|dlnA|>1) and inconsistent instrument responses and we only use earthquakes recorded by more than 30 stations. Out of about 250000 raw measurements for each frequency, about 140000 measurements are retained for inverting for attenuation structure. Similar to Dalton and Ekstrom (2006), phase and amplitude data are inverted together for phase velocity maps, attenuation maps, and source and receiver terms. However, we use the 2D finite frequency amplitude kernel of Zhou et al, (2004) to model the focusing-defocusing effects. Ray theory, which has been used to date, gives amplitude anomaly predictions which depend strongly on short wavelength structure and so are very sensitive to how phase velocity maps are smoothed. Our resulting attenuation maps show structures correlating well with surface tectonics, with high attenuation in regions of ridges, back-arc basins and western North America, and low attenuation in stable continental shields. The success of getting reasonable attenuation structures demonstrates the feasibility of applying 2D finite frequency amplitude kernel to real data.

  5. Biomaterial design for specific cellular interactions: Role of surface functionalization and geometric features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolhar, Poornima

    The areas of drug delivery and tissue engineering have experienced extraordinary growth in recent years with the application of engineering principles and their potential to support and improve the field of medicine. The tremendous progress in nanotechnology and biotechnology has lead to this explosion of research and development in biomedical applications. Biomaterials can now be engineered at a nanoscale and their specific interactions with the biological tissues can be modulated. Various design parameters are being established and researched for design of drug-delivery carriers and scaffolds to be implanted into humans. Nanoparticles made from versatile biomaterial can deliver both small-molecule drugs and various classes of bio-macromolecules, such as proteins and oligonucleotides. Similarly in the field of tissue engineering, current approaches emphasize nanoscale control of cell behavior by mimicking the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) unlike, traditional scaffolds. Drug delivery and tissue engineering are closely connected fields and both of these applications require materials with exceptional physical, chemical, biological, and biomechanical properties to provide superior therapy. In the current study the surface functionalization and the geometric features of the biomaterials has been explored. In particular, a synthetic surface for culture of human embryonic stem cells has been developed, demonstrating the importance of surface functionalization in maintaining the pluripotency of hESCs. In the second study, the geometric features of the drug delivery carriers are investigated and the polymeric nanoneedles mediated cellular permeabilization and direct cytoplasmic delivery is reported. In the third study, the combined effect of surface functionalization and geometric modification of carriers for vascular targeting is enunciated. These studies illustrate how the biomaterials can be designed to achieve various cellular behaviors and control the

  6. HYDROLOGIC AND FEATURE-BASED SURFACE ANALYSIS FOR TOOL MARK INVESTIGATION ON ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kovács

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of detailed surface documentation methods provides unique tool mark-study opportunities in the field of archaeological researches. One of these data collection techniques is short-range laser scanning, which creates a digital copy of the object’s morphological characteristics from high-resolution datasets. The aim of our work was the accurate documentation of a Bronze Age sluice box from Mitterberg, Austria with a spatial resolution of 0.2 mm. Furthermore, the investigation of the entirely preserved tool marks on the surface of this archaeological find was also accomplished by these datasets. The methodology of this tool mark-study can be summarized in the following way: At first, a local hydrologic analysis has been applied to separate the various patterns of tools on the finds’ surface. As a result, the XYZ coordinates of the special points, which represent the edge lines of the sliding tool marks, were calculated by buffer operations in a GIS environment. During the second part of the workflow, these edge points were utilized to manually clip the triangle meshes of these patterns in reverse engineering software. Finally, circle features were generated and analysed to determine the different sections along these sliding tool marks. In conclusion, the movement of the hand tool could be reproduced by the spatial analysis of the created features, since the horizontal and vertical position of the defined circle centre points indicated the various phases of the movements. This research shows an exact workflow to determine the fine morphological structures on the surface of the archaeological find.

  7. Measurements of land surface features using an airborne laser altimeter: the HAPEX-Sahel experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.C.; Menenti, M.; Weltz, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    An airborne laser profiling altimeter was used to measure surface features and properties of the landscape during the HAPEX-Sahel Experiment in Niger, Africa in September 1992. The laser altimeter makes 4000 measurements per second with a vertical resolution of 5 cm. Airborne laser and detailed field measurements of vegetation heights had similar average heights and frequency distribution. Laser transects were used to estimate land surface topography, gully and channel morphology, and vegetation properties ( height, cover and distribution). Land surface changes related to soil erosion and channel development were measured. For 1 km laser transects over tiger bush communities, the maximum vegetation height was between 4-5 and 6-5 m, with an average height of 21 m. Distances between the centre of rows of tiger bush vegetation averaged 100 m. For two laser transects, ground cover for tiger bush was estimated to be 225 and 301 per cent for vegetation greater than 0-5m tall and 190 and 25-8 per cent for vegetation greater than 10m tall. These values are similar to published values for tiger bush. Vegetation cover for 14 and 18 km transects was estimated to be 4 per cent for vegetation greater than 0-5 m tall. These cover values agree within 1-2 per cent with published data for short transects (⩾ 100 m) for the area. The laser altimeter provided quick and accurate measurements for evaluating changes in land surface features. Such information provides a basis for understanding land degradation and a basis for management plans to rehabilitate the landscape. (author)

  8. Effective Detection of Sub-Surface Archeological Features from Laser Scanning Point Clouds and Imagery Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryskowska, A.; Kedzierski, M.; Walczykowski, P.; Wierzbicki, D.; Delis, P.; Lada, A.

    2017-08-01

    The archaeological heritage is non-renewable, and any invasive research or other actions leading to the intervention of mechanical or chemical into the ground lead to the destruction of the archaeological site in whole or in part. For this reason, modern archeology is looking for alternative methods of non-destructive and non-invasive methods of new objects identification. The concept of aerial archeology is relation between the presence of the archaeological site in the particular localization, and the phenomena that in the same place can be observed on the terrain surface form airborne platform. One of the most appreciated, moreover, extremely precise, methods of such measurements is airborne laser scanning. In research airborne laser scanning point cloud with a density of 5 points/sq. m was used. Additionally unmanned aerial vehicle imagery data was acquired. Test area is located in central Europe. The preliminary verification of potentially microstructures localization was the creation of digital terrain and surface models. These models gave an information about the differences in elevation, as well as regular shapes and sizes that can be related to the former settlement/sub-surface feature. The paper presents the results of the detection of potentially sub-surface microstructure fields in the forestry area.

  9. EFFECTIVE DETECTION OF SUB-SURFACE ARCHEOLOGICAL FEATURES FROM LASER SCANNING POINT CLOUDS AND IMAGERY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fryskowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The archaeological heritage is non-renewable, and any invasive research or other actions leading to the intervention of mechanical or chemical into the ground lead to the destruction of the archaeological site in whole or in part. For this reason, modern archeology is looking for alternative methods of non-destructive and non-invasive methods of new objects identification. The concept of aerial archeology is relation between the presence of the archaeological site in the particular localization, and the phenomena that in the same place can be observed on the terrain surface form airborne platform. One of the most appreciated, moreover, extremely precise, methods of such measurements is airborne laser scanning. In research airborne laser scanning point cloud with a density of 5 points/sq. m was used. Additionally unmanned aerial vehicle imagery data was acquired. Test area is located in central Europe. The preliminary verification of potentially microstructures localization was the creation of digital terrain and surface models. These models gave an information about the differences in elevation, as well as regular shapes and sizes that can be related to the former settlement/sub-surface feature. The paper presents the results of the detection of potentially sub-surface microstructure fields in the forestry area.

  10. The mid-IR spectral effects of darkening agents and porosity on the silicate surface features of airless bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. L.; Wray, J. J.; Poston, M.; Hand, K. P.; Carlson, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    The surfaces of airless bodies present opportunities to investigate the physical processes acting on planetary systems over time, without the need to account for surface-atmosphere interactions. Silicate surfaces mixed with fine-grained optically dark material with varying degrees of porosity are ubiquitous on many airless bodies (e.g., Earth's Moon, Deimos, Phobos, asteroids, meteorites, and moons of the outer solar system). Although the mid-IR is rich in emissivity features of important minerals and molecular groups, including organics [e.g., 1], it is less studied for airless conditions and presents challenges in signal-to-noise ratio, especially for the colder outer solar system bodies with fined-grained surfaces [2, 3]. We systematically measured the mid-IR spectra of different mixtures of three silicates (antigorite, lizardite, and pure silica) with varying porosities and amounts of darkening agent (iron oxide and carbon). Serpentines, such as antigorite and lizardite, are common to airless surfaces, and their mid-IR spectra in the presence of darkening agents and different surface porosities would be typical for those measured by spacecraft. Although pure silica has only been measured in the plumes of Enceladus, it presents exciting possibilities for other Saturn-system surfaces due to long range transport [4], and it is therefore important to investigate how its spectral signature would be manifested in the mid-IR. Overall, this work provides a library of mineral mixtures to facilitate dealing with current and future mid-IR datasets of airless bodies. These results are also applicable to the development of future missions to airless bodies, and our continuing efforts will help determine if mid-IR spectrometry is worthwhile for surface compositional studies of icy bodies. The mixtures presented here could be useful for testing future mid-IR instruments by confirming detectability of spectral features for typical materials on the surfaces of interest. [1

  11. A Novel Feature Optimization for Wearable Human-Computer Interfaces Using Surface Electromyography Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The novel human-computer interface (HCI using bioelectrical signals as input is a valuable tool to improve the lives of people with disabilities. In this paper, surface electromyography (sEMG signals induced by four classes of wrist movements were acquired from four sites on the lower arm with our designed system. Forty-two features were extracted from the time, frequency and time-frequency domains. Optimal channels were determined from single-channel classification performance rank. The optimal-feature selection was according to a modified entropy criteria (EC and Fisher discrimination (FD criteria. The feature selection results were evaluated by four different classifiers, and compared with other conventional feature subsets. In online tests, the wearable system acquired real-time sEMG signals. The selected features and trained classifier model were used to control a telecar through four different paradigms in a designed environment with simple obstacles. Performance was evaluated based on travel time (TT and recognition rate (RR. The results of hardware evaluation verified the feasibility of our acquisition systems, and ensured signal quality. Single-channel analysis results indicated that the channel located on the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU performed best with mean classification accuracy of 97.45% for all movement’s pairs. Channels placed on ECU and the extensor carpi radialis (ECR were selected according to the accuracy rank. Experimental results showed that the proposed FD method was better than other feature selection methods and single-type features. The combination of FD and random forest (RF performed best in offline analysis, with 96.77% multi-class RR. Online results illustrated that the state-machine paradigm with a 125 ms window had the highest maneuverability and was closest to real-life control. Subjects could accomplish online sessions by three sEMG-based paradigms, with average times of 46.02, 49.06 and 48.08 s

  12. Surface feature characterization test plan: Conceptual design of a high level nuclear waste repository in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This report presents the Surface Feature Characterization Test Plan for conceptual design. The Test Plan is part of the surface feature characterization program for conceptual design which will obtain information on site topography, hydrology, stratigraphy, and soil and rock engineering properties. The information will be obtained by the Geologic Project Manager (GPM). This Test Plan provides guidance to the GPM as to (1) the kinds of data to be collected, (2) anticipated methods, (3) the level of detail required, (4) interpretation to be made, and (5) the format for presentation. Based on this Test Plan and on conditions at the site that is selected, the GPM will develop an Activity Plan describing the methods to be used in obtaining the needed information. For each item of information, the Test Plan describes those facilities which require it for their design. The GPM can then determine the appropriate methods and level of effort for obtaining the information, taking into account its use and conditions at the selected site. 7 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Assessment of iris surface features and their relationship with iris thickness in Asian eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhartha, Elizabeth; Gupta, Preeti; Liao, Jiemin; Tham, Yih-Chung; Cheung, Carol Y; He, Mingguang; Wong, Tien Y; Aung, Tin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2014-05-01

    To assess iris surface features in Asian eyes and examine their associations with iris thickness measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS OCT). Cross-sectional study. We recruited 250 subjects from the Singapore Malay Eye Study. We obtained standardized slit-lamp photographs and developed a grading system assessing iris crypts (by number and size), furrows (by number and circumferential extent), and color (higher grade denoting darker iris). Vertical and horizontal cross-sections of the anterior chamber were imaged using AS OCT. Intragrader and intergrader agreements in the grading of iris surface were assessed by weighted κ (κ(w)) statistic. Associations of the average iris thickness with the grade of iris features were assessed using linear regression analysis. Frequency and size of iris crypts, furrows, and color; iris thickness at 750 μm (IT750) and 2000 μm (IT2000) from the scleral spur; and maximum iris thickness (ITM) averaged from the 4 quarters. Three hundred sixty-four eyes had complete and gradable data for crypts and color; 330 eyes were graded for furrows. The grading scheme showed good intragrader (crypt κ(w) = 0.919, furrow κ(w) =0.901, color κ(w) = 0.925) and intergrader (crypt κ(w) = 0.775, furrow κ(w) = 0.836, color κ(w) = 0.718) agreements. Higher crypt grade was associated independently with thinner IT750 (β [change in iris thickness per grade higher] = -0.007; P = 0.029), IT2000 (β = -0.018; P iris was also associated with thicker IT750 (β = 0.014; P = 0.001). Iris surface features, assessed and measured from slit-lamp photographs, correlate well with iris thickness. Irises with more crypts are thinner; irises with more extensive furrows and darker color are thicker peripherally. These findings may provide another means to assess angle closure risk based on iris features. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CosmoQuest - Mapping Surface Features Across the Inner Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Jennifer A.; Richardson, Matthew; Gay, Pamela L.; Lehan, Cory; Owens, Ryan; Robbins, Stuart J.; DellaGiustina, Daniella; Bennett, Carina; Runco, Susan; Graff, Paige

    2017-10-01

    The CosmoQuest Virtual Research Facility allows research scientists to work together with citizen scientists in ‘big data’ investigations. Some research requires the examination of vast numbers of images - partnering with engaged and trained citizen scientists allows for that research to be completed in a thorough and timely manner. The techniques used by CosmoQuest to collect impact crater data have been validated to ensure robustness (Robbins et al., 2014), and include software tools that accurately identify crater clusters, and multiple crater identifications. CosmoQuest has current or up-and-coming projects that span much of the inner solar system. “Moon Mappers” gives the public a chance to learn about the importance of cratered surfaces, and investigate factors that effect the identification and measurement of impact craters such as incidence angle. In the “Mars Mappers” program citizens map small craters in valley networks. These will be used to estimate times of ancient water flow. In “Mercury Mappers” the public learns about other issues related to crater counting, such as secondaries. On Mercury, secondaries appear to dominate counts up to 10km. By mapping these craters, we will be able to better understand the maximum diameter of secondaries relative to the parent primary. The public encounters Vesta in “Vesta Mappers,” a project that contributes data to the overall crater counting efforts on that body. Asteroid investigations do not end there - the OSIRIS-REx team is collaborating with CosmoQuest to create a science campaign to generate boulder and crater counting datasets of the asteroid Bennu. This “Bennu Mappers” project will inform the final selection of the sample return site. The Earth is the target for the “Image Detective” project, which uses the 2 million images returned from crewed space flight. These images are rich in information about our changing Earth, as well as phenomena like aurora. Citizens tag these images

  15. Stream/Bounce Event Perception Reveals a Temporal Limit of Motion Correspondence Based on Surface Feature over Space and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuke Kawachi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined how stream/bounce event perception is affected by motion correspondence based on the surface features of moving objects passing behind an occlusion. In the stream/bounce display two identical objects moving across each other in a two-dimensional display can be perceived as either streaming through or bouncing off each other at coincidence. Here, surface features such as colour (Experiments 1 and 2 or luminance (Experiment 3 were switched between the two objects at coincidence. The moment of coincidence was invisible to observers due to an occluder. Additionally, the presentation of the moving objects was manipulated in duration after the feature switch at coincidence. The results revealed that a postcoincidence duration of approximately 200 ms was required for the visual system to stabilize judgments of stream/bounce events by determining motion correspondence between the objects across the occlusion on the basis of the surface feature. The critical duration was similar across motion speeds of objects and types of surface features. Moreover, controls (Experiments 4a–4c showed that cognitive bias based on feature (colour/luminance congruency across the occlusion could not fully account for the effects of surface features on the stream/bounce judgments. We discuss the roles of motion correspondence, visual feature processing, and attentive tracking in the stream/bounce judgments.

  16. Mining for diagnostic information in body surface potential maps: A comparison of feature selection techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCullagh Paul J

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In body surface potential mapping, increased spatial sampling is used to allow more accurate detection of a cardiac abnormality. Although diagnostically superior to more conventional electrocardiographic techniques, the perceived complexity of the Body Surface Potential Map (BSPM acquisition process has prohibited its acceptance in clinical practice. For this reason there is an interest in striking a compromise between the minimum number of electrocardiographic recording sites required to sample the maximum electrocardiographic information. Methods In the current study, several techniques widely used in the domains of data mining and knowledge discovery have been employed to mine for diagnostic information in 192 lead BSPMs. In particular, the Single Variable Classifier (SVC based filter and Sequential Forward Selection (SFS based wrapper approaches to feature selection have been implemented and evaluated. Using a set of recordings from 116 subjects, the diagnostic ability of subsets of 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 32 electrocardiographic recording sites have been evaluated based on their ability to correctly asses the presence or absence of Myocardial Infarction (MI. Results It was observed that the wrapper approach, using sequential forward selection and a 5 nearest neighbour classifier, was capable of choosing a set of 24 recording sites that could correctly classify 82.8% of BSPMs. Although the filter method performed slightly less favourably, the performance was comparable with a classification accuracy of 79.3%. In addition, experiments were conducted to show how (a features chosen using the wrapper approach were specific to the classifier used in the selection model, and (b lead subsets chosen were not necessarily unique. Conclusion It was concluded that both the filter and wrapper approaches adopted were suitable for guiding the choice of recording sites useful for determining the presence of MI. It should be noted however

  17. Expansion Hamiltonian model for a diatomic molecule adsorbed on a surface: Vibrational states of the CO/Cu(100) system including surface vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Qingyong, E-mail: mengqingyong@dicp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road 457, 116023 Dalian (China); Meyer, Hans-Dieter, E-mail: hans-dieter.meyer@pci.uni-heidelberg.de [Theoretische Chemie, Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-10-28

    Molecular-surface studies are often done by assuming a corrugated, static (i.e., rigid) surface. To be able to investigate the effects that vibrations of surface atoms may have on spectra and cross sections, an expansion Hamiltonian model is proposed on the basis of the recently reported [R. Marquardt et al., J. Chem. Phys. 132, 074108 (2010)] SAP potential energy surface (PES), which was built for the CO/Cu(100) system with a rigid surface. In contrast to other molecule-surface coupling models, such as the modified surface oscillator model, the coupling between the adsorbed molecule and the surface atoms is already included in the present expansion SAP-PES model, in which a Taylor expansion around the equilibrium positions of the surface atoms is performed. To test the quality of the Taylor expansion, a direct model, that is avoiding the expansion, is also studied. The latter, however, requests that there is only one movable surface atom included. On the basis of the present expansion and direct models, the effects of a moving top copper atom (the one to which CO is bound) on the energy levels of a bound CO/Cu(100) system are studied. For this purpose, the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree calculations are carried out to obtain the vibrational fundamentals and overtones of the CO/Cu(100) system including a movable top copper atom. In order to interpret the results, a simple model consisting of two coupled harmonic oscillators is introduced. From these calculations, the vibrational levels of the CO/Cu(100) system as function of the frequency of the top copper atom are discussed.

  18. Surface feature based classification of plant organs from 3D laserscanned point clouds for plant phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Stefan; Dupuis, Jan; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2013-07-27

    Laserscanning recently has become a powerful and common method for plant parameterization and plant growth observation on nearly every scale range. However, 3D measurements with high accuracy, spatial resolution and speed result in a multitude of points that require processing and analysis. The primary objective of this research has been to establish a reliable and fast technique for high throughput phenotyping using differentiation, segmentation and classification of single plants by a fully automated system. In this report, we introduce a technique for automated classification of point clouds of plants and present the applicability for plant parameterization. A surface feature histogram based approach from the field of robotics was adapted to close-up laserscans of plants. Local geometric point features describe class characteristics, which were used to distinguish among different plant organs. This approach has been proven and tested on several plant species. Grapevine stems and leaves were classified with an accuracy of up to 98%. The proposed method was successfully transferred to 3D-laserscans of wheat plants for yield estimation. Wheat ears were separated with an accuracy of 96% from other plant organs. Subsequently, the ear volume was calculated and correlated to the ear weight, the kernel weights and the number of kernels. Furthermore the impact of the data resolution was evaluated considering point to point distances between 0.3 and 4.0 mm with respect to the classification accuracy. We introduced an approach using surface feature histograms for automated plant organ parameterization. Highly reliable classification results of about 96% for the separation of grapevine and wheat organs have been obtained. This approach was found to be independent of the point to point distance and applicable to multiple plant species. Its reliability, flexibility and its high order of automation make this method well suited for the demands of high throughput phenotyping.

  19. Morphological analysis of the left ventricular endocardial surface using a bag-of-features descriptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Qian, Zhen; Bhandarkar, Suchendra M; Liu, Tianming; Voros, Szilard; Rinehart, Sarah

    2015-07-01

    The limitations of conventional imaging techniques have hitherto precluded a thorough and formal investigation of the complex morphology of the left ventricular (LV) endocardial surface and its relation to the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, recent developments in high-resolution multirow-detector computed tomography (MDCT) scanner technology have enabled the imaging of the complex LV endocardial surface morphology in a single heartbeat. Analysis of high-resolution computed tomography images from a 320-MDCT scanner allows for the noninvasive study of the relationship between the percent diameter stenosis (DS) values of the major coronary arteries and localization of the cardiac segments affected by coronary arterial stenosis. In this paper, a novel approach for the analysis of the nonrigid LV endocardial surface from MDCT images, using a combination of rigid body transformation-invariant shape descriptors and a more generalized isometry-invariant Bag-of-Features descriptor, is proposed and implemented. The proposed approach is shown to be successful in identifying, localizing, and quantifying the incidence and extent of CAD and, thus, is seen to have a potentially significant clinical impact. Specifically, the association between the incidence and extent of CAD, determined via the percent DS measurements of the major coronary arteries, and the alterations in the endocardial surface morphology is formally quantified. The results of the proposed approach on 16 normal datasets and 16 abnormal datasets exhibiting CAD with varying levels of severity are presented. A multivariable regression test is employed to test the effectiveness of the proposed morphological analysis approach. Experiments performed on a strictly leave-one-out basis are shown to exhibit a distinct and interesting pattern in terms of the correlation coefficient values within the cardiac segments, where the incidence of coronary arterial stenosis is localized.

  20. Short term memory for single surface features and bindings in ageing: A replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isella, Valeria; Molteni, Federica; Mapelli, Cristina; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    In the present study we replicated a previous experiment investigating visuo-spatial short term memory binding in young and older healthy individuals, in the attempt to verify the pattern of impairment that can be observed in normal elderly for short term memory for single items vs short term memory for bindings. Assessing a larger sample size (25 young and 25 older subjects), using a more appropriate measure of accuracy for a change detection task (A'), and adding the evaluation of speed of performance, we confirmed that old normals show a decline in short term memory for bindings of shape and colour that is of comparable extent, and not major, to the decline in memory for single shapes and single colours. The absence of a specific deficit of short term memory for conjunctions of surface features seems to distinguish cognitive ageing from Alzheimer's Disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Surface Replication of Molded Products with Microneedle Features in Injection Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiumi, Kazuyasu; Takayama, Tetsuo; Ito, Hiroshi; Inou, Akinori

    Micro-molding of microneedle features was conducted using several injection-molding techniques. Injection compression molding and injection molding were performed with supercritical carbon dioxide fluid and with or without vacuum processing inside the mold cavity. Effects of process parameters on processability and surface replication of the molded parts were evaluated. The height replication ratio for microneedles was improved using injection compression molding. At a shorter compression stroke, the needle height was improved, and the influence of compression delay time was also small. Moreover, the effects of vacuum processing inside the mold cavity under the filling process were slight. The height replication ratio for microneedles showed the highest values using injection molding using supercritical carbon dioxide fluid with vacuum inside the mold cavity.

  2. Crystal surface analysis using matrix textural features classified by a Probabilistic Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, C.R.; Quach, V.T.; Nason, D.; van den Berg, L.

    1991-01-01

    A system is under development in which surface quality of a growing bulk mercuric iodide crystal is monitored by video camera at regular intervals for early detection of growth irregularities. Mercuric iodide single crystals are employed in radiation detectors. A microcomputer system is used for image capture and processing. The digitized image is divided into multiple overlappings subimage and features are extracted from each subimage based on statistical measures of the gray tone distribution, according to the method of Haralick [1]. Twenty parameters are derived from each subimage and presented to a Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) [2] for classification. This number of parameters was found to be optimal for the system. The PNN is a hierarchical, feed-forward network that can be rapidly reconfigured as additional training data become available. Training data is gathered by reviewing digital images of many crystals during their growth cycle and compiling two sets of images, those with and without irregularities. 6 refs., 4 figs

  3. Specific Features of Chip Making and Work-piece Surface Layer Formation in Machining Thermal Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Yaroslavtsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of unique engineering structural and performance properties inherent in metallic composites characterizes wear- and erosion-resistant high-temperature coatings made by thermal spraying methods. This allows their use both in manufacturing processes to enhance the wear strength of products, which have to operate under the cyclic loading, high contact pressures, corrosion and high temperatures and in product renewal.Thermal coatings contribute to the qualitative improvement of the technical level of production and product restoration using the ceramic composite materials. However, the possibility to have a significantly increased product performance, reduce their factory labour hours and materials/output ratio in manufacturing and restoration is largely dependent on the degree of the surface layer quality of products at their finishing stage, which is usually provided by different kinds of machining.When machining the plasma-sprayed thermal coatings, a removing process of the cut-off layer material is determined by its distinctive features such as a layered structure, high internal stresses, low ductility material, high tendency to the surface layer strengthening and rehardening, porosity, high abrasive properties, etc. When coatings are machined these coating properties result in specific characteristics of chip formation and conditions for formation of the billet surface layer.The chip formation of plasma-sprayed coatings was studied at micro-velocities using an experimental tool-setting microscope-based setup, created in BMSTU. The setup allowed simultaneous recording both the individual stages (phases of the chip formation process and the operating force factors.It is found that formation of individual chip elements comes with the multiple micro-cracks that cause chipping-off the small particles of material. The emerging main crack in the cut-off layer of material leads to separation of the largest chip element. Then all the stages

  4. Relating sub-surface ice features to physiological stress in a climate sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, Jennifer L; Ray, Chris; Varner, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The American pika (Ochotona princeps) is considered a sentinel species for detecting ecological effects of climate change. Pikas are declining within a large portion of their range, and ongoing research suggests loss of sub-surface ice as a mechanism. However, no studies have demonstrated physiological responses of pikas to sub-surface ice features. Here we present the first analysis of physiological stress in pikas living in and adjacent to habitats underlain by ice. Fresh fecal samples were collected non-invasively from two adjacent sites in the Rocky Mountains (one with sub-surface ice and one without) and analyzed for glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM). We also measured sub-surface microclimates in each habitat. Results indicate lower GCM concentration in sites with sub-surface ice, suggesting that pikas are less stressed in favorable microclimates resulting from sub-surface ice features. GCM response was well predicted by habitat characteristics associated with sub-surface ice features, such as lower mean summer temperatures. These results suggest that pikas inhabiting areas without sub-surface ice features are experiencing higher levels of physiological stress and may be more susceptible to changing climates. Although post-deposition environmental effects can confound analyses based on fecal GCM, we found no evidence for such effects in this study. Sub-surface ice features are key to water cycling and storage and will likely represent an increasingly important component of water resources in a warming climate. Fecal samples collected from additional watersheds as part of current pika monitoring programs could be used to further characterize relationships between pika stress and sub-surface ice features.

  5. Relating sub-surface ice features to physiological stress in a climate sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Wilkening

    Full Text Available The American pika (Ochotona princeps is considered a sentinel species for detecting ecological effects of climate change. Pikas are declining within a large portion of their range, and ongoing research suggests loss of sub-surface ice as a mechanism. However, no studies have demonstrated physiological responses of pikas to sub-surface ice features. Here we present the first analysis of physiological stress in pikas living in and adjacent to habitats underlain by ice. Fresh fecal samples were collected non-invasively from two adjacent sites in the Rocky Mountains (one with sub-surface ice and one without and analyzed for glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM. We also measured sub-surface microclimates in each habitat. Results indicate lower GCM concentration in sites with sub-surface ice, suggesting that pikas are less stressed in favorable microclimates resulting from sub-surface ice features. GCM response was well predicted by habitat characteristics associated with sub-surface ice features, such as lower mean summer temperatures. These results suggest that pikas inhabiting areas without sub-surface ice features are experiencing higher levels of physiological stress and may be more susceptible to changing climates. Although post-deposition environmental effects can confound analyses based on fecal GCM, we found no evidence for such effects in this study. Sub-surface ice features are key to water cycling and storage and will likely represent an increasingly important component of water resources in a warming climate. Fecal samples collected from additional watersheds as part of current pika monitoring programs could be used to further characterize relationships between pika stress and sub-surface ice features.

  6. Polarization controlled deep sub-wavelength periodic features written by femtosecond laser on nanodiamond thin film surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Kuntumalla, Mohan; Srikanth, Vadali V. S. S., E-mail: vvsssse@uohyd.ernet.in [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Rajamudili, Kuladeep; Rao Desai, Narayana [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2014-04-21

    Deep sub-wavelength (Λ/λ = ∼0.22) periodic features are induced uniformly on a nanodiamond (ND) thin film surface using femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation (pulse duration = ∼110 fs and central wavelength of ∼800 nm). The topography of the surface features is controlled by the laser polarization. Orientation of features is perpendicular to laser polarization. Periodicity (spatial periodicity of < λ/4) of the surface features is less than the laser wavelength. This work gives an experimental proof of polarization controlled surface plasmon-fs laser coupling mechanism prompting the interaction between fs laser and solid matter (here ND thin film) which in turn is resulting in the periodic surface features. Scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with micro Raman scattering, X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy are carried out to extract surface morphology and phase information of the laser irradiated regions. This work demonstrates an easy and efficient surface fabrication technique.

  7. Glazed ceramic roof tiles: influence of surface features in the solar reflectance index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoli, Leitcia Silva de; Stapait, Camila Cristina; Marinoski, Deivis Luis; Fredel, Marcio Celso; Schabbach, Luciana M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study the influence of surface features of ceramic roof tiles in the solar reflectance index were evaluated. Two glazed ceramic roof tiles (type stoneware) with the same color (ivory) but with different appearance (matte and brilliant) were the focus of the analysis. The Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of the roofs tiles were determined by the solar reflectance values (UV-VIS-NIR) and emittance, measured in laboratory. The samples showed SRI> 39 in accordance with LEED certification criteria (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), contributing to minimizing the Heat Island Effects. Although the matte roof tile shows a slightly higher SRI value (82) than the brilliant one (78), the results for the variables that composes the SRI value (reflectance and emittance) were very similar. Analysis of XRD, SEM and EDS performed on the surfaces of the two roofs indicated for the matte glaze the presence of microcrystals (with barium and zinc) that can contribute to the slightly highest value of SRI. The roughness (optical interferometer white light) and the brightness (brightness meter) of the samples were also measured. (author)

  8. Thermal measurements of dark and bright surface features on Vesta as derived from Dawn/VIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Federico; Capria, Maria Teresa; De Sanctis, M.C.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Zambon, F.; Nathues, A.; Schröder, S.E.; Li, J.-Y.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Blewett, D.T.; Denevi, B.W.; Palmer, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Ammannito, E.; Titus, Timothy N.; Mittlefehldt, D.W.; Sunshine, J.M.; Russell, C.T.; Raymond, C.A.; Dawn/VIR Team,

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing data acquired during Dawn’s orbital mission at Vesta showed several local concentrations of high-albedo (bright) and low-albedo (dark) material units, in addition to spectrally distinct meteorite impact ejecta. The thermal behavior of such areas seen at local scale (1-10 km) is related to physical properties that can provide information about the origin of those materials. We use Dawn’s Visible and InfraRed (VIR) mapping spectrometer hyperspectral data to retrieve surface temperatures and emissivities, with high accuracy as long as temperatures are greater than 220 K. Some of the dark and bright features were observed multiple times by VIR in the various mission phases at variable spatial resolution, illumination and observation angles, local solar time, and heliocentric distance. This work presents the first temperature maps and spectral emissivities of several kilometer-scale dark and bright material units on Vesta. Results retrieved from the infrared data acquired by VIR show that bright regions generally correspond to regions with lower temperature, while dark regions correspond to areas with higher temperature. During maximum daily insolation and in the range of heliocentric distances explored by Dawn, i.e. 2.23-2.54 AU, the warmest dark unit found on Vesta rises to a temperature of 273 K, while bright units observed under comparable conditions do not exceed 266 K. Similarly, dark units appear to have higher emissivity on average compared to bright units. Dark-material units show a weak anticorrelation between temperature and albedo, whereas the relation is stronger for bright material units observed under the same conditions. Individual features may show either evanescent or distinct margins in the thermal images, as a consequence of the cohesion of the surface material. Finally, for the two categories of dark and bright materials, we were able to highlight the influence of heliocentric distance on surface temperatures, and estimate an

  9. THE SORPTION EXTRACTION FEATURES OF KARMOAZONATE MERCURY(I COMPLE X BY ANION EXCHANGER AV-17-8 SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. M. Guzenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic and kinetic curves were analyzed, they were obtained by karmoazonate mercury(I complex extraction by anion exchanger AV-17-8 surface, and also calculated values of sorption process speed factor have allowed to establish the features of the adsorption layers formation on the resin surface.

  10. What is included with your online e-cigarette order? An analysis of e-cigarette shipping, product and packaging features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Amanda Y; Derrick, Jason C; Abrantes, Anthony S; Williams, Rebecca S

    2016-06-29

    The electronic cigarette industry is growing, with youth using e-cigarettes at higher rates than they are using cigarettes, and retail and online sales projected to reach $10 billion in 2017. Minimal regulation of the production and marketing of e-cigarettes exists to date, which has allowed companies to promote unsupported claims. We assessed the shipping, product features and packaging of a wide variety of e-cigarettes purchased online by adults and youth. The most popular internet e-cigarette vendors were identified from a larger study of internet tobacco vendors. Between August 2013 and June 2014, adults made 56 purchase attempts from online vendors, and youth made 98 attempts. Packages received were assessed for exterior and internal packaging features, including product information, health warnings and additional materials. We analysed a total of 125 orders featuring 86 unique brands of e-cigarettes. The contents were rarely indicated on package exteriors. Product information came with just 60% of orders and just 38.4% included an instruction manual. Only 44.6% of products included a health warning, and some had unsupported claims, such as lack of secondhand smoke exposure. Additionally, some products were leaking e-liquid and battery fluid on arrival. A large variety of e-cigarette products are manufactured and marketed to consumers. Many products do not include instructions for use, and unsupported claims are being presented to consumers. Effective federal regulation of the manufacturing, packaging, product information and health claims surrounding e-cigarettes is necessary to ensure consumers are presented with accurate e-cigarette use information. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Comparison of Surface Flow Features from Lidar-Derived Digital Elevation Models with Historical Elevation and Hydrography Data for Minnehaha County, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppenga, Sandra K.; Worstell, Bruce B.; Stoker, Jason M.; Greenlee, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has taken the lead in the creation of a valuable remote sensing product by incorporating digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) into the National Elevation Dataset (NED), the elevation layer of 'The National Map'. High-resolution lidar-derived DEMs provide the accuracy needed to systematically quantify and fully integrate surface flow including flow direction, flow accumulation, sinks, slope, and a dense drainage network. In 2008, 1-meter resolution lidar data were acquired in Minnehaha County, South Dakota. The acquisition was a collaborative effort between Minnehaha County, the city of Sioux Falls, and the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. With the newly acquired lidar data, USGS scientists generated high-resolution DEMs and surface flow features. This report compares lidar-derived surface flow features in Minnehaha County to 30- and 10-meter elevation data previously incorporated in the NED and ancillary hydrography datasets. Surface flow features generated from lidar-derived DEMs are consistently integrated with elevation and are important in understanding surface-water movement to better detect surface-water runoff, flood inundation, and erosion. Many topographic and hydrologic applications will benefit from the increased availability of accurate, high-quality, and high-resolution surface-water data. The remotely sensed data provide topographic information and data integration capabilities needed for meeting current and future human and environmental needs.

  12. Uncontrolled methane emissions from a MSW landfill surface: influence of landfill features and side slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Trapani, Daniele; Di Bella, Gaetano; Viviani, Gaspare

    2013-10-01

    Sanitary landfills for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal have been identified as one of the most important anthropogenic sources of methane (CH4) emissions; in order to minimize its negative effects on the environment, landfill gas (LFG) recovery is a suitable tool to control CH4 emissions from a landfill site; further, the measurement of CH4 emissions can represent a good way to evaluate the effectiveness of LFG recovering systems. In general, LFG will escape through any faults in the landfill capping or in the LFG collection system. Indeed, some areas of the capping can be more permeable than others (e.g. portions of a side slope), especially when considering a temporarily capped zone (covered area that is not expected to receive any further waste for a period of at least 3 months, but for engineering reasons does not have a permanent cap yet). These areas, which are characterized by abnormal emissions, are usually defined as "features": in particular, a feature is a small, discrete area or an installation where CH4 emissions significantly differ from the surrounding zones. In the present study, the influence that specific features have on CH4 emissions has been investigated, based on direct measurements carried out in different seasons by means of a flux chamber to the case study of Palermo (IT) landfill (Bellolampo). The results showed that the flux chamber method is reliable and easy to perform, and the contoured flux maps, obtained by processing the measured data were found to be a suitable tool for identifying areas with abnormal (high) emissions. Further, it was found that a relationship between methane emission rates and landfill side slope can be established. Concerning the influence of the temporary HDPE cover system on CH4 recovery efficiency, it contributed to a significant decrease of the free surface area available for uncontrolled emissions; this aspect, coupled to the increase of the CH4 volumes collected by the LFG recovery system, led to a

  13. Features of protein-protein interactions that translate into potent inhibitors: topology, surface area and affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew C; Gestwicki, Jason E

    2012-07-26

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) control the assembly of multi-protein complexes and, thus, these contacts have enormous potential as drug targets. However, the field has produced a mix of both exciting success stories and frustrating challenges. Here, we review known examples and explore how the physical features of a PPI, such as its affinity, hotspots, off-rates, buried surface area and topology, might influence the chances of success in finding inhibitors. This analysis suggests that concise, tight binding PPIs are most amenable to inhibition. However, it is also clear that emerging technical methods are expanding the repertoire of 'druggable' protein contacts and increasing the odds against difficult targets. In particular, natural product-like compound libraries, high throughput screens specifically designed for PPIs and approaches that favour discovery of allosteric inhibitors appear to be attractive routes. The first group of PPI inhibitors has entered clinical trials, further motivating the need to understand the challenges and opportunities in pursuing these types of targets.

  14. Accessible surface area of proteins from purely sequence information and the importance of global features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraggi, Eshel; Zhou, Yaoqi; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    We present a new approach for predicting the accessible surface area of proteins. The novelty of this approach lies in not using residue mutation profiles generated by multiple sequence alignments as descriptive inputs. Rather, sequential window information and the global monomer and dimer compositions of the chain are used. We find that much of the lost accuracy due to the elimination of evolutionary information is recouped by the use of global features. Furthermore, this new predictor produces similar results for proteins with or without sequence homologs deposited in the Protein Data Bank, and hence shows generalizability. Finally, these predictions are obtained in a small fraction (1/1000) of the time required to run mutation profile based prediction. All these factors indicate the possible usability of this work in de-novo protein structure prediction and in de-novo protein design using iterative searches. Funded in part by the financial support of the National Institutes of Health through Grants R01GM072014 and R01GM073095, and the National Science Foundation through Grant NSF MCB 1071785.

  15. Local Chromatin Features Including PU.1 and IKAROS Binding and H3K4 Methylation Shape the Repertoire of Immunoglobulin Kappa Genes Chosen for V(DJ Recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise S. Matheson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available V(DJ recombination is essential for the generation of diverse antigen receptor (AgR repertoires. In B cells, immunoglobulin kappa (Igκ light chain recombination follows immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh recombination. We recently developed the DNA-based VDJ-seq assay for the unbiased quantitation of Igh VH and DH repertoires. Integration of VDJ-seq data with genome-wide datasets revealed that two chromatin states at the recombination signal sequence (RSS of VH genes are highly predictive of recombination in mouse pro-B cells. It is unknown whether local chromatin states contribute to Vκ gene choice during Igκ recombination. Here we adapt VDJ-seq to profile the Igκ VκJκ repertoire and present a comprehensive readout in mouse pre-B cells, revealing highly variable Vκ gene usage. Integration with genome-wide datasets for histone modifications, DNase hypersensitivity, transcription factor binding and germline transcription identified PU.1 binding at the RSS, which was unimportant for Igh, as highly predictive of whether a Vκ gene will recombine or not, suggesting that it plays a binary, all-or-nothing role, priming genes for recombination. Thereafter, the frequency with which these genes recombine was shaped both by the presence and level of enrichment of several other chromatin features, including H3K4 methylation and IKAROS binding. Moreover, in contrast to the Igh locus, the chromatin landscape of the promoter, as well as of the RSS, contributes to Vκ gene recombination. Thus, multiple facets of local chromatin features explain much of the variation in Vκ gene usage. Together, these findings reveal shared and divergent roles for epigenetic features and transcription factors in AgR V(DJ recombination and provide avenues for further investigation of chromatin signatures that may underpin V(DJ-mediated chromosomal translocations.

  16. Ten-year outcome including patterns of failure and toxicity for adjuvant whole abdominopelvic irradiation in high-risk and poor histologic feature patients with endometrial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Kimberly D.; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Weiner, Sheldon; Podratz, Karl; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Schray, Mark; Mitchell, Christina; Sherman, Alfred; Chen, Peter; Brabbins, Donald A.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term results of treatment using adjuvant whole abdominal irradiation (WAPI) with a pelvic/vaginal boost in patients with Stage I-III endometrial carcinoma at high risk of intra-abdominopelvic recurrence, including clear cell (CC) and serous-papillary (SP) histologic features. Methods and Materials: In a prospective nonrandomized trial, 119 patients were treated with adjuvant WAPI between November 1981 and April 2000. All patients were analyzed, including those who did not complete therapy. The mean age at diagnosis was 66 years (range 39-88). Thirty-eight patients (32%) had 1989 FIGO Stage I-II disease and 81 (68%) had Stage III. The pathologic features included the following: 64 (54%) with deep myometrial invasion, 48 (40%) with positive peritoneal cytologic findings, 69 (58%) with high-grade lesions, 21 (18%) with positive pelvic/para-aortic lymph nodes, and 44 (37%) with SP or CC histologic findings. Results: The mean follow-up was 5.8 years (range 0.2-14.7). For the entire group, the 5- and 10-year cause-specific survival (CSS) rate was 75% and 69% and the disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 58% and 48%, respectively. When stratified by histologic features, the 5- and 10-year CSS rate for adenocarcinoma was 76% and 71%, and for serous papillary/CC subtypes, it was 74% and 63%, respectively (p=0.917). The 5- and 10-year DFS rate for adenocarcinoma was 60% and 50% and was 54% and 37% serous papillary/CC subtypes, respectively (p=0.498). For surgical Stage I-II, the 5-year CSS rate was 82% for adenocarcinoma and 87% for SP/CC features (p=0.480). For Stage III, it was 75% and 57%, respectively (p=0.129). Thirty-seven patients had a relapse, with the first site of failure the abdomen/pelvis in 14 (38%), lung in 8 (22%), extraabdominal lymph nodes in 7 (19%), vagina in 6 (16%), and other in 2 (5%). When stratified by histologic variant, 32% of patients with adenocarcinoma and 30% with the SP/CC subtype developed recurrent disease. Most

  17. Relating Sub-Surface Ice Features to Physiological Stress in a Climate Sensitive Mammal, the American Pika (Ochotona princeps)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkening, Jennifer L.; Ray, Chris; Varner, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The American pika (Ochotona princeps) is considered a sentinel species for detecting ecological effects of climate change. Pikas are declining within a large portion of their range, and ongoing research suggests loss of sub-surface ice as a mechanism. However, no studies have demonstrated physiological responses of pikas to sub-surface ice features. Here we present the first analysis of physiological stress in pikas living in and adjacent to habitats underlain by ice. Fresh fecal samples were...

  18. Replication of micro and nano-features on iPP by injection molding with fast cavity surface temperature evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speranzaa, Vito; Liparotia, Sara; Calaon, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    The production of polymeric components with functional structures in the micrometer and sub-micrometer range is a complex challenge for the injection molding process, since it suffers the use of low cavity surface temperatures that induce the fast formation of a frozen layer, thus preventing...... was sufficient to obtain accurate replication, with adequate surface temperatures. In the case of nano-features, the replication accuracy was affected by the morphology developed on the molding surface, that is aligned along the flow direction with dimensions comparable with the dimension of the nano...

  19. How do features of dressage arenas influence training surface properties which are potentially associated with lameness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Rachel C; Walters, Juli; Snart, Hannah; Dyson, Sue; Parkin, Tim

    2010-11-01

    Results from a previous study indicated that there are specific arena surface characteristics that are associated with an increased likelihood of lameness in dressage horses. It is important to understand what modifiable arena factors lead to these detrimental surface characteristics. The aim of this study was to describe the use of training surfaces and arenas for United Kingdom dressage horses and to investigate any relationships between arena/surface variables and detrimental surface characteristics. Data from a questionnaire returned by 22.5% of all 11,363 registered members of British Dressage were used for the study. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were developed with each of the previously identified surface characteristics as dependent variables. Respondents reported that the majority of arenas were privately owned, sized 20 × 40 m and had a sand and rubber surface. The results indicated that wax-coated and sand and rubber surfaces were associated with less detrimental surface properties than sand, sand and PVC, woodchips or grass. Woodchips were most strongly associated with the detrimental characteristic of slipping, and sand with tripping. The findings indicated that any arena surface should have a base, with limestone the recommended surface, and that crushed concrete was best avoided. This information supported previous studies in racehorses that indicated that surface maintenance is essential, especially when many horses are using an arena daily. Problems were less likely if an arena was privately owned. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Influence of Structural Features and Fracture Processes on Surface Roughness: A Case Study from the Krosno Sandstones of the Górka–Mucharz Quarry (Little Beskids, Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieczara Łukasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of analysis of surface roughness parameters in the Krosno Sandstones of Mucharz, southern Poland. It was aimed at determining whether these parameters are influenced by structural features (mainly the laminar distribution of mineral components and directional distribution of non-isometric grains and fracture processes. The tests applied in the analysis enabled us to determine and describe the primary statistical parameters used in the quantitative description of surface roughness, as well as specify the usefulness of contact profilometry as a method of visualizing spatial differentiation of fracture processes in rocks. These aims were achieved by selecting a model material (Krosno Sandstones from the Górka-Mucharz Quarry and an appropriate research methodology. The schedule of laboratory analyses included: identification analyses connected with non-destructive ultrasonic tests, aimed at the preliminary determination of rock anisotropy, strength point load tests (cleaved surfaces were obtained due to destruction of rock samples, microscopic analysis (observation of thin sections in order to determine the mechanism of inducing fracture processes and a test method of measuring surface roughness (two- and three-dimensional diagrams, topographic and contour maps, and statistical parameters of surface roughness. The highest values of roughness indicators were achieved for surfaces formed under the influence of intragranular fracture processes (cracks propagating directly through grains. This is related to the structural features of the Krosno Sandstones (distribution of lamination and bedding.

  1. Application of Amniotic Membrane in Ocular Surface Diseases: Clinical Features and Treatment Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Cindarik

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To investigate the effectiveness of amniotic membrane transplantation in cases with corneal thinning, desmatocele and refractive corneal ulcer. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Fifty-four eyes of 54 patients who were applied amniotic membrane transplantation for various ocular surface disease between January 2004 and February 2009 in Çukurova University Ophthalmology Department were included in the study. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed. Corneal culture and corneal cytology samples were collected from the patients with the diagnosis of corneal ulcers. The patients were informed about the surgical procedure and the possible complications and informed consent was obtained. The amniotic membranes that were prepared under optimal conditions and protected in frozen forms were used in the operations. Follow-up examinations were done at postoperative 1st day, 1st week, 1st month, 3rd month, 6th month and then once in a year. Re sults: Of 54 patients, 26 (48.1% were men and 28 (51.8% were women. The mean age of patients was 52.53±19.75 (2-87 years. The cases were separated into 2 groups according to the etiology: group 1 - eyes with corneal ulcer (n:26 and group 2 - eyes with corneal stromal thinning, persistent epithelial defects and desmatocel (n:28. The transplantations were performed using cover technique in 17 eyes (31.4%, graft technique in 37 eyes (68.5% and graft technique with corneal patch in 2 eyes (3.7%. Partial penetrating keratoplasty was required in 38 of 54 eyes (70.3%. One eye was enucleated. Dis cus si on: The amniotic membrane transplantation has advantages like: it can be prepared easily and is cost-effective. It is a safe and effective procedure in ocular surface disease. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 177-82

  2. Scanning electron microscopy of surface features of hamster embryo cells transformed in vitro by x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.; Fenoglio, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope studies were carried out on Syrian hamster embryo cells transformed in vitro by x-irradiation (300 rads) (x-ray transformed) and on normal nonirradiated and irradiated nontransformed controls. Transformed cells appeared in scanning electron microscopy as pleomorphic, thick cells piling up over each other and exhibiting extensive surface features consisting of microvilli, blebs, and ruffles. These surface structures were seen on single as well as on densely cultured transformed cells during both interphase and mitosis. The complex surface was observed shortly after transformation (on cells of a 20-day-old clone) and seems a permanent feature of the x-ray transformed cells (present after 8 years in culture). All controls appeared by scanning electron microscopy as regular, flat, and smooth cells which grew in high-density cultures to seemingly contact-inhibited monolayers. During mitosis the normal cells (control, nontransformed) displayed surface excrescences similar to those of the transformed cells making the mitotic normal cells indistinguishable from transformed cells. The complex surface features in the normal cells were temporary and reversed back to characteristic smoothness upon reentrance into interphase

  3. Physiological and genomic features of a novel violacein-producing bacterium isolated from surface seawater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Hong Wu

    Full Text Available Strains JW1T and JW3, isolated from surface seawater of the Arabian Sea, were subjected to polyphasic taxonomic analysis. Cells of both strains were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, and rod-shaped. They formed violet pigment and produced violacein. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strains JW1T and JW3 showed high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Pseudoalteromonas byunsanensis JCM12483T (98.2%, P. shioyasakiensis SE3T (97.8%, P. arabiensis JCM 17292T (97.3%, and P. gelatinilytica NH153T (97.1%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between JW1T and JW3 was 100%. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that both strains fell within the cluster of the genus Pseudoalteromonas and represented an independent lineage. The average nucleotide identity and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values between JW1T and type strains of the closely related Pseudoalteromonas species were 70.9-83.3% and 20.0-26.4%, respectively. The sole respiratory quinone in both strains is ubiquinone 8 (Q-8. The principal fatty acids are summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2OH, C18:1ω7c, and C16:0. The major polar lipids are phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified glycolipid, one unidentified aminolipid, and one unidentified phospholipid. The DNA G+C content was 43.3 mol%. Differential phylogenetic distinctiveness, chemotaxonomic differences, and phenotypic properties indicated that strains JW1T and JW3 could be differentiated from the Pseudoalteromonas species with validly published names. Therefore, it is proposed that strains JW1T and JW3 represent a novel species of the genus Pseudoalteromonas, for which the name Pseudoalteromonas amylolytica sp. nov. (type strain, JW1T = CGMCC 1.15681T = KCTC 52406T = MCCC 1K02162T is proposed.

  4. Analysis of progression of fatigue conditions in biceps brachii muscles using surface electromyography signals and complexity based features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthick, P A; Makaram, Navaneethakrishna; Ramakrishnan, S

    2014-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a neuromuscular condition where muscle performance decreases due to sustained or intense contraction. It is experienced by both normal and abnormal subjects. In this work, an attempt has been made to analyze the progression of muscle fatigue in biceps brachii muscles using surface electromyography (sEMG) signals. The sEMG signals are recorded from fifty healthy volunteers during dynamic contractions under well defined protocol. The acquired signals are preprocessed and segmented in to six equal parts for further analysis. The features, such as activity, mobility, complexity, sample entropy and spectral entropy are extracted from all six zones. The results are found showing that the extracted features except complexity feature have significant variations in differentiating non-fatigue and fatigue zone respectively. Thus, it appears that, these features are useful in automated analysis of various neuromuscular activities in normal and pathological conditions.

  5. Surface potential based modeling of charge, current, and capacitances in DGTFET including mobile channel charge and ambipolar behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Prateek; Yadav, Chandan; Agarwal, Amit; Chauhan, Yogesh Singh

    2017-08-01

    We present a surface potential based analytical model for double gate tunnel field effect transistor (DGTFET) for the current, terminal charges, and terminal capacitances. The model accounts for the effect of the mobile charge in the channel and captures the device physics in depletion as well as in the strong inversion regime. The narrowing of the tunnel barrier in the presence of mobile charges in the channel is incorporated via modeling of the inverse decay length, which is constant under channel depletion condition and bias dependent under inversion condition. To capture the ambipolar current behavior in the model, tunneling at the drain junction is also included. The proposed model is validated against TCAD simulation data and it shows close match with the simulation data.

  6. Secondary shock features for large surface explosions: results from the Sayarim Military Range, Israel and other experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitterman, Y.

    2014-05-01

    A series of surface explosions was designed and conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel at the Sayarim Military Range in the Negev desert, including two large-scale explosions: approx. 82 tons of high explosives in 2009, and approx. 100 tons of low-grade ANFO explosives in 2011. The main goal of the explosions was to provide large controlled sources for calibration of global infrasound stations designated for monitoring nuclear tests; however, the geophysical experiment also provided valuable observations for shock wave research. High-pressure gauges were deployed at distances between 100 and 600 m to record air blast properties and to provide reliable estimation of the true charge yield compared to the design value. Secondary shock phenomena were clearly observed at all near-source gauges as characteristic shock wave shapes. Secondary shocks were also observed at numerous seismic and acoustic sensors deployed in the range 0.3-20 km as acoustic phases. Empirical relationships for standard air blast parameters (peak pressure and impulse) and for a new parameter called secondary shock time delay, as a function of distance, were established and analyzed. The standard parameters, scaled by the cubic root of the estimated TNT yield, were found to be consistent for all analyzed explosions. However, the scaled secondary shock delays were clearly separated for the 2009 and 2011 explosions, thus demonstrating dependence on the explosive type. Additionally, air blast records from other experiments were used to extend the charge and distance ranges for the secondary shock observation, and showed consistency with the Sayarim data. Analysis and interpretation of observed features of the secondary shock phenomenon are proposed and a new empirical relationship of scaled secondary shock delay versus scaled distance is established. The results suggest that the secondary shock delay can be used as a new additional waveform feature for simple and cost-effective explosive

  7. Use of the discriminant Fourier-derived cepstrum with feature-level post-processing for surface electromyographic signal classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xinpu; Zhu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Dingguo

    2009-01-01

    Myoelectrical pattern classification is a crucial part in multi-functional prosthesis control. This paper investigates a discriminant Fourier-derived cepstrum (DFC) and feature-level post-processing (FLPP) to discriminate hand and wrist motions using the surface electromyographic signal. The Fourier-derived cepstrum takes advantage of the Fourier magnitude or sub-band power energy of signals directly and provides flexible use of spectral information changing with different motions. Appropriate cepstral coefficients are selected by a proposed separability criterion to construct DFC features. For the post-processing, FLPP which combines features from several analysis windows is used to improve the feature performance further. In this work, two classifiers (a linear discriminant classifier and quadratic discriminant classifier) without hyper-parameter optimization are employed to simplify the training procedure and avoid the possible bias of feature evaluation. Experimental results of the 11-motion problem show that the proposed DFC feature outperforms traditional features such as time-domain statistics and autoregressive-derived cepstrum in terms of the classification accuracy, and it is a promising method for the multi-functionality and high-accuracy control of myoelectric prostheses

  8. Computer vision-based apple grading for golden delicious apples based on surface features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payman Moallem

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a computer vision-based algorithm for golden delicious apple grading is proposed which works in six steps. Non-apple pixels as background are firstly removed from input images. Then, stem end is detected by combination of morphological methods and Mahalanobis distant classifier. Calyx region is also detected by applying K-means clustering on the Cb component in YCbCr color space. After that, defects segmentation is achieved using Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP neural network. In the next step, stem end and calyx regions are removed from defected regions to refine and improve apple grading process. Then, statistical, textural and geometric features from refined defected regions are extracted. Finally, for apple grading, a comparison between performance of Support Vector Machine (SVM, MLP and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN classifiers is done. Classification is done in two manners which in the first one, an input apple is classified into two categories of healthy and defected. In the second manner, the input apple is classified into three categories of first rank, second rank and rejected ones. In both grading steps, SVM classifier works as the best one with recognition rate of 92.5% and 89.2% for two categories (healthy and defected and three quality categories (first rank, second rank and rejected ones, among 120 different golden delicious apple images, respectively, considering K-folding with K = 5. Moreover, the accuracy of the proposed segmentation algorithms including stem end detection and calyx detection are evaluated for two different apple image databases.

  9. Clinical and Immunological Features of Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome in the Era of Neuronal Cell Surface Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armangué, Thaís; Sabater, Lidia; Torres-Vega, Estefanía; Martínez-Hernández, Eugenia; Ariño, Helena; Petit-Pedrol, Mar; Planagumà, Jesús; Bataller, Luis; Dalmau, Josep; Graus, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    Most studies on opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) in adults are based on small case series before the era of neuronal cell surface antibody discovery. To report the clinical and immunological features of idiopathic OMS (I-OMS) and paraneoplastic OMS (P-OMS), the occurrence of antibodies to cell surface antigens, and the discovery of a novel cell surface epitope. Retrospective cohort study and laboratory investigations of 114 adult patients with OMS at a center for autoimmune neurological disorders done between January 2013 and September 2015. Review of clinical records. Immunohistochemistry on rat brain and cultured neurons as well as cell-based assays were used to identify known autoantibodies. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were used to characterize novel antigens. Of the 114 patients (62 [54%] female; median age, 45 years; interquartile range, 32-60 years), 45 (39%) had P-OMS and 69 (61%) had I-OMS. In patients with P-OMS, the associated tumors included lung cancer (n = 19), breast cancer (n = 10), other cancers (n = 5), and ovarian teratoma (n = 8); 3 additional patients without detectable cancer were considered to have P-OMS because they had positive results for onconeuronal antibodies. Patients with I-OMS, compared with those who had P-OMS, were younger (median age, 38 [interquartile range, 31-50] vs 54 [interquartile range, 45-65] years; P OMS with lung cancer (21% vs 5% in patients with OMS without lung cancer; P = .02); however, a similar frequency of glycine receptor antibodies was found in patients with lung cancer without OMS (13 of 65 patients [20%]). A novel cell surface epitope, human natural killer 1 (HNK-1), was the target of the antibodies in 3 patients with lung cancer and P-OMS. Patients with I-OMS responded better to treatment and had fewer relapses than those with P-OMS. Older age and encephalopathy, significantly associated with P-OMS, are clinical clues suggesting an underlying tumor. Glycine receptor antibodies occur

  10. Crystal structure and nanotopographical features on the surface of heat-treated and anodized porous titanium biomaterials produced using selective laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin Yavari, S., E-mail: s.aminyavari@tudelft.nl [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); FT Innovations BV, Braamsluiper 1, 5831 PW Boxmeer (Netherlands); Wauthle, R. [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Section Production Engineering, Machine Design and Automation (PMA), Celestijnenlaan 300B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); LayerWise NV, Kapeldreef 60, Leuven (Belgium); Böttger, A.J. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Schrooten, J. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44 PB 2450, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Weinans, H. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Department of Orthopedics and Department of Rheumatology, UMC Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Zadpoor, A.A. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-01-30

    Porous titanium biomaterials manufactured using additive manufacturing techniques such as selective laser melting are considered promising materials for orthopedic applications where the biomaterial needs to mimic the properties of bone. Despite their appropriate mechanical properties and the ample pore space they provide for bone ingrowth and osseointegration, porous titanium structures have an intrinsically bioinert surface and need to be subjected to surface bio-functionalizing procedures to enhance their in vivo performance. In this study, we used a specific anodizing process to build a hierarchical oxide layer on the surface of porous titanium structures made by selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V ELI powder. The hierarchical structure included both nanotopographical features (nanotubes) and micro-features (micropits). After anodizing, the biomaterial was heat treated in Argon at different temperatures ranging between 400 and 600 °C for either 1 or 2 h to improve its bioactivity. The effects of applied heat treatment on the crystal structure of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes and the nanotopographical features of the surface were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was shown that the transition from the initial crystal structure, i.e. anatase, to rutile occurs between 500 and 600 °C and that after 2 h of heat treatment at 600 °C the crystal structure is predominantly rutile. The nanotopographical features of the surface were found to be largely unchanged for heat treatments carried out at 500 °C or below, whereas they were partially or largely disrupted after heat treatment at 600 °C. The possible implications of these findings for the bioactivity of porous titanium structures are discussed.

  11. Investigation of Selected Surface Integrity Features of Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) after Turning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krolczyk, G.; Nieslony, P.; Legutko, S.; Hloch, Sergej; Samardžić, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2015), s. 91-94 ISSN 0543-5846 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : duplex stainless steel * machining * turning * surface integrity * surface roughness Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014 http://hrcak.srce.hr/126702

  12. Effective aerodynamic roughness estimated from airborne laser altimeter measurements of surface features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, AC; Kustas, WP; Ritchie, JC; Klaassen, W; Menenti, M; Rango, A; Prueger, JH

    2003-01-01

    Aerodynamic roughness length (z(0)) and displacement height (d(0)) are important surface parameters for estimating surface fluxes in numerical models. These parameters are generally determined from wind flow characteristics using logarithmic wind profiles measured at a meteorological tower or by

  13. Predicting internal white oak (Quercus alba) log defect features using surface defect indicator measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph E. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    As hardwood trees grow and develop, surface defects such as limb stubs and wounds are overgrown and encapsulated into the tree. Evidence of these defects can remain on the tree's surface for decades and in many instances for the life of the tree. The location and severity of internal defects dictate the quality and value of products that can be obtained from logs...

  14. Ultrastructural features of the internodes’ surface in horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myroslava Stakhiv

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of the outer surface of the common horsetail stem was studied. Through electron microscopic analysis we showed that silica plates on the surface of Equisetum arvense L. stem are distributed evenly, not tight, in thin layer. Thus, compact arrangement of particles on the internodes causes high mechanical strength and stiffness of the E. arvensestem and lateral branches.

  15. Computation of fractal features based on the fractal analysis of surface electromyogram to estimate force of contraction of different muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poosapadi Arjunan, Sridhar; Kumar, Dinesh Kant

    2014-01-01

    This research study investigates the fractal properties of surface Electromyogram (sEMG) to estimate the force levels of contraction of three muscles with different cross-sectional areas (CSA): m. quadriceps--vastus lateralis, m. biceps brachii, andm. flexor digitorum superficialis. The fractal features were computed based on the fractal analysis of sEMG, signal recorded while performing sustained muscle contraction at different force levels. A comparison was performed between the fractal features and five other features reported in the literature. Linear regression analysis was carried out to determine the relationship between the force of contraction (20-100%) and features of sEMG. The results from the coefficients of regression r² show that the new fractal feature, maximum fractal length of the signal has highest correlation (range 0.88-0.90) when compared with other features which ranges from 0.34 to 0.74 for the three different muscles. This study suggests that the estimation of various levels of sustained contraction of muscles with varied CSA will provide a better insight into the biomechanics model that involves muscle properties and muscle activation.

  16. An Investigation Into Time Domain Features of Surface Electromyography to Estimate the Elbow Joint Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwiyanto Triwiyanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In literature, it is well established that feature extraction and pattern classification algorithms play essential roles in accurate estimation of the elbow joint angle. The problem with these algorithms, however, is that they require a learning stage to recognize the pattern as well as capture the variability associated with every subject when estimating the elbow joint angle. As EMG signals can be used to represent motion, we developed a non-pattern recognition method to estimate the elbow joint angle based on twelve time-domain features extracted from EMG signals recorded from bicep muscles alone. The extracted features were smoothed using a second order Butterworth low pass filter to produce the estimation. The accuracy of the estimated angles was evaluated by using the Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient (PCC and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE.The regression parameters (Euclidean distance, R^2 and slope were calculated to observe the response of the features to the elbow-joint angle. From the investigation, we found, in the period of motion 10s, MYOP features have the best accuracy: 0.97±0.02 (Mean±SD and 11.37±3.04˚ (Mean±SD for correlation coefficient and RMSE respectively. MYOP features also showed the highest R^2 and slope value 0.986±0.0083 (Mean±SD and 0.746±0.17 (Mean±SD respectively for flexion and extension motion and all periods of motion.

  17. Features of Wear-Resistant Cast Iron Coating Formation During Plasma-Powder Surfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovin, K. N.; Emelyushin, A. N.; Nefed'ev, S. P.

    2017-09-01

    The structure of coatings deposited on steel 45 by plasma-powder surfacing of white wear-resistant cast iron is studied. The effects of surfacing regime and additional production effects on the welding bath during surfacing produced by current modulation, accelerated cooling of the deposited beads by blowing with air, and accelerated cooling of the substrate with running water on the structure, are determined. A new composition is suggested for powder material for depositing wear-resistant and corrosion-resistant coatings on a carbon steel by the plasma-powder process.

  18. Off-Center Rotation of CuPc Molecular Rotor on a Bi(111) Surface and the Chiral Feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Tao, Min-Long; Tu, Yu-Bing; Wang, Jun-Zhong

    2017-05-04

    Molecular rotors with an off-center axis and the chiral feature of achiral CuPc molecules on a semi-metallic Bi(111) surface have been investigated by means of a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at liquid nitrogen (LN₂) temperature. The rotation axis of each CuPc molecular rotor is located at the end of a phthalocyanine group. As molecular coverage increases, the CuPc molecules are self-assembled into various nanoclusters and finally into two-dimensional (2D) domains, in which each CuPc molecule exhibits an apparent chiral feature. Such chiral features of the CuPc molecules can be attributed to the combined effect of asymmetric charge transfer between the CuPc and Bi(111) substrate, and the intermolecular van der Waals interactions.

  19. [Quantitative analysis of thiram by surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy combined with feature extraction Algorithms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao-hua; Jiang, Yong-cheng; Sha, Wen; Zhang, Xian-yi; Cui, Zhi-feng

    2015-02-01

    Three feature extraction algorithms, such as the principal component analysis (PCA), the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and the non-negative factorization (NMF), were used to extract the main information of the spectral data in order to weaken the influence of the spectral fluctuation on the subsequent quantitative analysis results based on the SERS spectra of the pesticide thiram. Then the extracted components were respectively combined with the linear regression algorithm--the partial least square regression (PLSR) and the non-linear regression algorithm--the support vector machine regression (SVR) to develop the quantitative analysis models. Finally, the effect of the different feature extraction algorithms on the different kinds of the regression algorithms was evaluated by using 5-fold cross-validation method. The experiments demonstrate that the analysis results of SVR are better than PLSR for the non-linear relationship between the intensity of the SERS spectrum and the concentration of the analyte. Further, the feature extraction algorithms can significantly improve the analysis results regardless of the regression algorithms which mainly due to extracting the main information of the source spectral data and eliminating the fluctuation. Additionally, PCA performs best on the linear regression model and NMF is best on the non-linear model, and the predictive error can be reduced nearly three times in the best case. The root mean square error of cross-validation of the best regression model (NMF+SVR) is 0.0455 micormol x L(-1) (10(-6) mol x L(-1)), and it attains the national detection limit of thiram, so the method in this study provides a novel method for the fast detection of thiram. In conclusion, the study provides the experimental references the selecting the feature extraction algorithms on the analysis of the SERS spectrum, and some common findings of feature extraction can also help processing of other kinds of spectroscopy.

  20. Trichodesmium blooms and warm-core ocean surface features in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothibabu, R; Karnan, C; Jagadeesan, L; Arunpandi, N; Pandiarajan, R S; Muraleedharan, K R; Balachandran, K K

    2017-08-15

    Trichodesmium is a bloom-forming, diazotrophic, non-heterocystous cyanobacteria widely distributed in the warmer oceans, and their bloom is considered a 'biological indication' of stratification and nitrogen limitation in the ocean surface layer. In the first part of this paper, based on the retrospective analyses of the ocean surface mesoscale features associated with 59 Trichodesmium bloom incidences recorded in the past, 32 from the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, and 27 from the rest of the world, we have showed that warm-core features have an inducing effect on bloom formation. In the second part, we have considered the environmental preferences of Trichodesmium bloom based on laboratory and field studies across the globe, and proposed a view about how warm-core features could provide an inducing pre-requisite condition for the bloom formation in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Proposed that the subsurface waters of warm-core features maintain more likely chances for the conducive nutrient and light conditions required for the triggering of the blooms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Developments in convective heat transfer models featuring seamless and selected detail surfaces, employing electroless plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmach, C. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Several model/instrument concepts employing electroless metallic skin were considered for improvement of surface condition, accuracy, and cost of contoured-geometry convective heat transfer models. A plated semi-infinite slab approach was chosen for development and evaluation in a hypersonic wind tunnel. The plated slab model consists of an epoxy casting containing fine constantan wires accurately placed at specified surface locations. An electroless alloy was deposited on the plastic surface that provides a hard, uniformly thick, seamless skin. The chosen alloy forms a high-output thermocouple junction with each exposed constantan wire, providing means of determining heat transfer during tunnel testing of the model. A selective electroless plating procedure was used to deposit scaled heatshield tiles on the lower surface of a 0.0175-scale shuttle orbiter model. Twenty-five percent of the tiles were randomly selected and plated to a height of 0.001-inch. The purpose was to assess the heating effects of surface roughness simulating misalignment of tiles that may occur during manufacture of the spacecraft.

  2. Osteoblast maturation and new bone formation in response to titanium implant surface features are reduced with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Navarrete, Rene; Raines, Andrew L; Hyzy, Sharon L; Park, Jung Hwa; Hutton, Daphne L; Cochran, David L; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi

    2012-08-01

    The surface properties of materials contribute to host cellular response and play a significant role in determining the overall success or failure of an implanted biomaterial. Rough titanium (Ti) surface microtopography and high surface free energy have been shown to enhance osteoblast maturation in vitro and increase bone formation in vivo. Whereas the surface properties of Ti are known to affect osteoblast response, host bone quality also plays a significant role in determining successful osseointegration. One factor affecting host bone quality is patient age. We examined both in vitro and in vivo whether response to Ti surface features was affected by animal age. Calvarial osteoblasts isolated from 1-, 3-, and 11-month-old rats all displayed a reduction in cell number and increases in alkaline phosphatase-specific activity and osteocalcin in response to increasing Ti surface microtopography and surface energy. Further, osteoblasts from the three ages examined displayed increased production of osteocalcin and local factors osteoprotegerin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and active transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in response to increasing Ti surface roughness and surface energy. Latent TGF-β1 only increased in cultures of osteoblasts from 1- and 3-month-old rats. Treatment with the systemic osteotropic hormone 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) further enhanced the response of osteoblasts to Ti surface features for all three age groups. However, osteoblasts derived from 11-month-old animals had a reduced response to 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) compared to osteoblasts derived from 1- or 3-month-old animals. These results were confirmed in vivo. Ti implants placed in the femoral intramedullary canal of old (9-month-old) mice yielded lower bone-to-implant contact and neovascularization in response to Ti surface roughness and energy compared to younger (2-month-old) mice. These results show that rodent osteoblast maturation in vitro as well as new bone formation in vivo is

  3. Seasonal features of atmospheric surface-layer characteristics over a tropical coastal station in Southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Prasad, K.B.R.R.; Srinivas, C.V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    Dispersion of air-borne effluents occurs in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) where turbulence is the main physical processes. In the surface layer of ABL, the mechanical (shear) generation of turbulence exceeds the buoyant generation or consumption of turbulence. In this layer, under steady state and horizontally homogeneous conditions various forces in the governing equation can be neglected and one can apply Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) to estimate the turbulent fluxes and other surface layer variables. Understanding the turbulent characteristics of the surface layer is vital for modeling of turbulent diffusion in regional numerical weather and pollution dispersion models. The objective of this study is to verify the validity of the MOST at the coastal site Kalpakkam under various atmospheric stability conditions with respect to different seasons for modeling atmospheric dispersion of radioactive effluents

  4. Simulation study and guidelines to generate Laser-induced Surface Acoustic Waves for human skin feature detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Fu, Xing; Chen, Kun; Dorantes-Gonzalez, Dante J.; Li, Yanning; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaotang

    2015-12-01

    Despite the seriously increasing number of people contracting skin cancer every year, limited attention has been given to the investigation of human skin tissues. To this regard, Laser-induced Surface Acoustic Wave (LSAW) technology, with its accurate, non-invasive and rapid testing characteristics, has recently shown promising results in biological and biomedical tissues. In order to improve the measurement accuracy and efficiency of detecting important features in highly opaque and soft surfaces such as human skin, this paper identifies the most important parameters of a pulse laser source, as well as provides practical guidelines to recommended proper ranges to generate Surface Acoustic Waves (SAWs) for characterization purposes. Considering that melanoma is a serious type of skin cancer, we conducted a finite element simulation-based research on the generation and propagation of surface waves in human skin containing a melanoma-like feature, determine best pulse laser parameter ranges of variation, simulation mesh size and time step, working bandwidth, and minimal size of detectable melanoma.

  5. Modification of the iron mechanical- and corrosion features by ion implantation in surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumvol, I.J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The physical mechanisms responsable by the tin ion implantation in the iron surface at moderated doses are studied. Several techniques are used such as alpha-particle Rutherford backscattering, conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. (L.C.) [pt

  6. Outstanding Antibiofilm Features of Quanta-CuO Film on Glass Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Nirmalya; Ahmad, Rafiq; Bang, Seung Hyuck; Khang, Gilson; Min, Jiho; Hahn, Yoon-Bong

    2016-06-22

    Intelligently designed surface nanoarchitecture provides defined control over the behavior of cells and biomolecules at the solid-liquid interface. In this study, CuO quantum dots (quanta-CuO; ∼3-5 nm) were synthesized by a simple, low-temperature solution process and further formulated as paint to construct quanta-CuO thin film on glass. Surface morphological characterizations of the as-coated glass surface reveal a uniform film thickness (∼120 ± 10 nm) with homogeneous distribution of quanta-CuO. The antibiofilm assay showed a very high contact bacteria-killing capacity of as-coated quanta-CuO glass surfaces toward Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. This efficient antibacterial/antibiofilm activity was ascribed to the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the quanta-CuO attached to the bacterial cells, which leads to an oxidative assault and finally results in bacterial cell death. Although there is a significant debate regarding the CuO nanostructure's antibacterial mode of action, we propose both contact killing and/or copper ion release killing mechanisms for the antibiofilm activity of quanta-CuO paint. Moreover, synergism of quanta-CuO with conventional antibiotics was also found to further enhance the antibacterial efficacy of commonly used antibiotics. Collectively, this state-of-the-art design of quanta-CuO coated glass can be envisioned as promising candidates for various biomedical and environmental device coatings.

  7. A Three-Dimensional View of Titan's Surface Features from Cassini RADAR Stereogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, R. L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Redding, B. L.; Becker, T. L.; Lee, E. M.; Stiles, B. W.; Hensley, S.; Hayes, A.; Lopes, R. M.; Lorenz, R. D.; Mitchell, K. L.; Radebaugh, J.; Paganelli, F.; Soderblom, L. A.; Stofan, E. R.; Wood, C. A.; Wall, S. D.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2008-12-01

    As of the end of its four-year Prime Mission, Cassini has obtained 300-1500 m resolution synthetic aperture radar images of the surface of Titan during 19 flybys. The elongated image swaths overlap extensively, and ~2% of the surface has now been imaged two or more times. The majority of image pairs have different viewing directions, and thus contain stereo parallax that encodes information about Titan's surface relief over distances of ~1 km and greater. As we have previously reported, the first step toward extracting quantitative topographic information was the development of rigorous "sensor models" that allowed the stereo systems previously used at the USGS and JPL to map Venus with Magellan images to be used for Titan mapping. The second major step toward extensive topomapping of Titan has been the reprocessing of the RADAR images based on an improved model of the satellite's rotation. Whereas the original images (except for a few pairs obtained at similar orbital phase, some of which we have mapped previously) were offset by as much as 30 km, the new versions align much better. The remaining misalignments, typically carbono)logic" cycle of precipitation, evaporation, and surface and subsurface fluid flow?

  8. Geological History of the Tyre Region of Europa: A Regional Perspective on Europan Surface Features and Ice Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadel, Steven D.; Chuang, Frank C.; Greeley, Ronald; Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2000-01-01

    Galileo images of the Tyre Macula region of Europa at regional (170 m/pixel) and local (approx. 40 m/pixel) scales allow mapping and understanding of surface processes and landforms. Ridged plains, doublet and complex ridges, shallow pits, domes, "chaos" areas. impact structures, tilted blocks and massifs, and young fracture systems indicate a complex history of surface deformation on Europa. Regional and local morphologies of the Tyre region of Europa suggest that an impactor penetrated through several kilometers of water ice tc a mobile layer below. The surface morphology was initially dominated by formation of ridged plains, followed by development of ridge bands and doublet ridges, with chaos and fracture formation dominating the latter part of the geologic history of the Tyre region. Two distinct types of chaos have been identified which, along with upwarped dome materials, appear to represent a continuum of features (domes-play chaos-knobby chaos) resulting from increasing degree of surface disruption associated with local lithospheric heating and thinning. Local and regional stratigraphic relationships, block heights, and the morphology of the Tyre impact structure suggest the presence of low-viscosity ice or liquid water beneath a thin (severa1 kilometers) surface ice shell at the time of the impact. The very low impact crater density on the surface of Europa suggests that this thin shell has either formed or been thoroughly resurfaced in the very recent past.

  9. Influence of surface features on the adhesion of Staphyloccocus epidermidis to Ag–TiCN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Isabel; Almeida Alves, Cristiana Filipa; Carvalho, Sandra; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, João Carlos; Piedade, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as one of the major nosocomial pathogens associated with infections of implanted medical devices. The initial adhesion of these organisms to the surface of biomaterials is assumed to be an important stage in their colonization. The main objective of this work is to assess the influence of surface features on the adhesion of S. epidermidis to Ag–TiCN coatings deposited by dc reactive magnetron sputtering. The structural results obtained by x-ray diffraction show that the coatings crystallize in a B1-NaCl crystal structure typical of TiC 0.3 N 0.7 . The increase of Ag content promoted the formation of Ag crystalline phases. According to the results obtained with atomic force microscopy, a decrease on the surface roughness of the films from 39 to 7 nm is observed as the Ag content increases from 0 to 15 at.%. Surface energy results show that the increase of Ag promotes an increase in hydrophobicity. Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on coatings were assessed by the enumeration of the number of viable cells. The results showed that the surface with lower roughness and higher hydrophobicity leads to greater bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, highlighting that surface morphology and hydrophobicity rule the colonization of materials. (paper)

  10. Local changes of work function near rough features on Cu surfaces operated under high external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djurabekova, Flyura, E-mail: flyura.djurabekova@helsinki.fi; Ruzibaev, Avaz; Parviainen, Stefan [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Holmström, Eero [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences, UCL Earth Sciences, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hakala, Mikko [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-12-28

    Metal surfaces operated under high electric fields produce sparks even if they are held in ultra high vacuum. In spite of extensive research on the topic of vacuum arcs, the mystery of vacuum arc origin still remains unresolved. The indications that the sparking rates depend on the material motivate the research on surface response to extremely high external electric fields. In this work by means of density-functional theory calculations we analyze the redistribution of electron density on (100) Cu surfaces due to self-adatoms and in presence of high electric fields from −1 V/nm up to −2 V/nm (−1 to −2 GV/m, respectively). We also calculate the partial charge induced by the external field on a single adatom and a cluster of two adatoms in order to obtain reliable information on charge redistribution on surface atoms, which can serve as a benchmarking quantity for the assessment of the electric field effects on metal surfaces by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, we investigate the modifications of work function around rough surface features, such as step edges and self-adatoms.

  11. COMPUTER GRAPHICS MEETS IMAGE FUSION: THE POWER OF TEXTURE BAKING TO SIMULTANEOUSLY VISUALISE 3D SURFACE FEATURES AND COLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Verhoeven

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Since a few years, structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo pipelines have become omnipresent in the cultural heritage domain. The fact that such Image-Based Modelling (IBM approaches are capable of providing a photo-realistic texture along the threedimensional (3D digital surface geometry is often considered a unique selling point, certainly for those cases that aim for a visually pleasing result. However, this texture can very often also obscure the underlying geometrical details of the surface, making it very hard to assess the morphological features of the digitised artefact or scene. Instead of constantly switching between the textured and untextured version of the 3D surface model, this paper presents a new method to generate a morphology-enhanced colour texture for the 3D polymesh. The presented approach tries to overcome this switching between objects visualisations by fusing the original colour texture data with a specific depiction of the surface normals. Whether applied to the original 3D surface model or a lowresolution derivative, this newly generated texture does not solely convey the colours in a proper way but also enhances the smalland large-scale spatial and morphological features that are hard or impossible to perceive in the original textured model. In addition, the technique is very useful for low-end 3D viewers, since no additional memory and computing capacity are needed to convey relief details properly. Apart from simple visualisation purposes, the textured 3D models are now also better suited for on-surface interpretative mapping and the generation of line drawings.

  12. Computer Graphics Meets Image Fusion: the Power of Texture Baking to Simultaneously Visualise 3d Surface Features and Colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, G. J.

    2017-08-01

    Since a few years, structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo pipelines have become omnipresent in the cultural heritage domain. The fact that such Image-Based Modelling (IBM) approaches are capable of providing a photo-realistic texture along the threedimensional (3D) digital surface geometry is often considered a unique selling point, certainly for those cases that aim for a visually pleasing result. However, this texture can very often also obscure the underlying geometrical details of the surface, making it very hard to assess the morphological features of the digitised artefact or scene. Instead of constantly switching between the textured and untextured version of the 3D surface model, this paper presents a new method to generate a morphology-enhanced colour texture for the 3D polymesh. The presented approach tries to overcome this switching between objects visualisations by fusing the original colour texture data with a specific depiction of the surface normals. Whether applied to the original 3D surface model or a lowresolution derivative, this newly generated texture does not solely convey the colours in a proper way but also enhances the smalland large-scale spatial and morphological features that are hard or impossible to perceive in the original textured model. In addition, the technique is very useful for low-end 3D viewers, since no additional memory and computing capacity are needed to convey relief details properly. Apart from simple visualisation purposes, the textured 3D models are now also better suited for on-surface interpretative mapping and the generation of line drawings.

  13. Morphological features of the copper surface layer under sliding with high density electric current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadin, V. V., E-mail: fvv@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Aleutdinova, M. I., E-mail: aleut@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Seversk Technological Institute, Branch of State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education “National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Seversk, 636036 (Russian Federation); Rubtsov, V. Ye., E-mail: rvy@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Aleutdinova, V. A., E-mail: valery-aleut@yandex.ru [National Research St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, St. Petersburg, 195251 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    Conductivity and wear intensity of copper under the influence of dry friction and electric current with contact density higher 100 A/cm{sup 2} are presented. It is shown that an increase in hardness and heat outflow from a friction zone leads to the reduction of wear intensity and current contact density increase corresponding to the beginning of catastrophic wear. Structural changes, such as the formation of FeO oxide and α-Fe particles in the copper surface layer, have also been found. It is observed that a worn surface is deformed according to a viscous liquid mechanism. Such singularity is explained in terms of appearance of high-excited atomic states in deforming micro-volumes near contact spots that lead to easy stress relaxation by local plastic shears in the vicinity of stress concentrators. In common this effect allows to achieve high wear resistance.

  14. Structural features and activity of Brazzein and its mutants upon substitution of a surfaced exposed alanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanavatian, Parisa; Khalifeh, Khosrow; Jafarian, Vahab

    2016-12-01

    Brazzein (Brz) is a member of sweet-tasting protein containing four disulfide bonds. It was reported as a compact and heat-resistant protein. Here, we have used site-directed mutagenesis and replaced a surface-exposed alanine with aspartic acid (A19D mutant), lysine (A19K mutant) and glycine (A19G mutant). Activity comparisons of wild-type (WT) and mutants using taste panel test procedure showed that A19G variant has the same activity as WT protein. However, introduction of a positive charge in A19K mutant led to significant increase in Brz's sweetness, while A19D has reduced sweetness compared to WT protein. Docking studies showed that mutation at position 19 results in slight chain mobility of protein at the binding surface and changing the patterns of interactions toward more effective binding of E9K variant in the concave surface of sweet taste receptor. Far-UV CD data spectra have a characteristic shape of beta structure for all variants, however different magnitudes of spectra suggest that beta-sheet structure in WT and A19G is more stable than that of A19D and A19K. Equilibrium unfolding studies with fluorescence spectroscopy and using urea and dithiothritol (DTT) as chemical denaturants indicates that A19G mutant gains more stability against urea denaturation; while conformational stability of A19D and A19K decreases when compared with WT and A19G variants. We concluded that the positive charge at the surface of protein is important factor responsible for the interaction of protein with the human sweet receptor and Ala 19 can be considered as a key region for investigating the mechanism of the interaction of Brz with corresponding receptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  15. Wide-field surface plasmon microscopy of nano- and microparticles: features, benchmarking, limitations, and bioanalytical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamov, Shavkat; Scherbahn, Vitali; Mirsky, Vladimir M.

    2017-05-01

    Detection of nano- and micro-particles is an important task for chemical analytics, food industry, biotechnology, environmental monitoring and many other fields of science and industry. For this purpose, a method based on the detection and analysis of minute signals in surface plasmon resonance images due to adsorption of single nanopartciles was developed. This new technology allows one a real-time detection of interaction of single nano- and micro-particles with sensor surface. Adsorption of each nanoparticle leads to characteristic diffraction image whose intensity depends on the size and chemical composition of the particle. The adsorption rate characterizes volume concentration of nano- and micro-particles. Large monitored surface area of sensor enables a high dynamic range of counting and to a correspondingly high dynamic range in concentration scale. Depending on the type of particles and experimental conditions, the detection limit for aqueous samples can be below 1000 particles per microliter. For application of method in complex media, nanoparticle images are discriminated from image perturbations due to matrix components. First, the characteristic SPRM images of nanoparticles (templates) are collected in aqueous suspensions or spiked real samples. Then, the detection of nanoparticles in complex media using template matching is performed. The detection of various NPs in consumer products like cosmetics, mineral water, juices, and wines was shown at sub-ppb level. The method can be applied for ultrasensitive detection and analysis of nano- and micro-particles of biological (bacteria, viruses, endosomes), biotechnological (liposomes, protein nanoparticles for drug delivery) or technical origin.

  16. Preparation of porous polymer monoliths featuring enhanced surface coverage with gold nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Lv, Yongqin

    2012-10-01

    A new approach to the preparation of porous polymer monoliths with enhanced coverage of pore surface with gold nanoparticles has been developed. First, a generic poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith was reacted with cystamine followed by the cleavage of its disulfide bonds with tris(2-carboxylethyl)phosphine, which liberated the desired thiol groups. Dispersions of gold nanoparticles with sizes varying from 5 to 40. nm were then pumped through the functionalized monoliths. The materials were then analyzed using both energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. We found that the quantity of attached gold was dependent on the size of nanoparticles, with the maximum attachment of more than 60. wt% being achieved with 40. nm nanoparticles. Scanning electron micrographs of the cross sections of all the monoliths revealed the formation of a non-aggregated, homogenous monolayer of nanoparticles. The surface of the bound gold was functionalized with 1-octanethiol and 1-octadecanethiol, and these monolithic columns were used successfully for the separations of proteins in reversed phase mode. The best separations were obtained using monoliths modified with 15, 20, and 30. nm nanoparticles since these sizes produced the most dense coverage of pore surface with gold. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Horizontal transport of the regolith, modification of features, and erosion rates on the lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R.; Drozd, R. J.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Morgan, C. J.; Poupeau, G.

    1975-01-01

    Impact-ejecta systematics are developed for the smaller cratering events which, with cumulative crater populations observed in young mare regions and on Copernicus ejecta fields, yield rates and a range distribution for the horizontal transport of material by impact processes. The deposition rate for material originating more than 1 m away is found to be about 8 mm per million years. Material from 10 km away accumulates at a rate of about 0.08 mm per million years, providing a steady influx of foreign material. From the degradation of boulder tracks, a rate of 5 plus or minus 3 cm per million years is computed for the filling of shallow lunar depressions on slopes. Mass wastage and downslope movement of bedrock outcroppings on Hadley Rille seem to be proceeding at a rate of about 8 mm per million years. The Camelot profile is suggestive of a secondary impact feature.

  18. Addition of nanoscaled bioinspired surface features: A revolution for bone related implants and scaffolds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinink, Arie; Bitar, Malak; Pleskova, Miriam; Wick, Peter; Krug, Harald F; Maniura-Weber, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Our expanding ability to handle the "literally invisible" building blocks of our world has started to provoke a seismic shift on the technology, environment and health sectors of our society. During the last two decades, it has become increasingly evident that the "nano-sized" subunits composing many materials—living, natural and synthetic—are becoming more and more accessible for predefined manipulations at the nanosize scale. The use of equally nanoscale sized or functionalised tools may, therefore, grant us unprecedented prospects to achieve many therapeutic aims. In the past decade it became clear that nano-scale surface topography significantly influences cell behaviour and may, potentially, be utilised as a powerful tool to enhance the bioactivity and/ or integration of implanted devices. In this review, we briefly outline the state of the art and some of the current approaches and concepts for the future utilisation of nanotechnology to create biomimetic implantable medical devices and scaffolds for in vivo and in vitro tissue engineering,with a focus on bone. Based on current knowledge it must be concluded that not the materials and surfaces themselves but the systematic biological evaluation of these new material concepts represent the bottleneck for new biomedical product development based on nanotechnological principles. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  19. Grain surface features and clay mineralogy of the quaternary sediments from Western Deccan Trap Region, India, and their palaeoclimatic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena U. Joshi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Quartz sand grains obtained from a deeply gullied topography along the banks of two tributaries of River Pravara in Maharashtra (India have been examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Quartz grains have been selected after a heavy mineral separation and micro-photographs of each grain were taken at various angles and magnifications. The sediments reveal features resulting from mechanical grinding as well as from chemical alteration. Conchoidal fractures, cleavage planes, grooves, v-shaped indentations etc. are the mechanical features documented on the grains whereas solution pits of varying sizes and intensity, precipitation surfaces, oriented v-pits, solution crevasses and etching are the features of chemical origin. Several evidences indicate that the samples have undergone digenetic changes. Few grains show the features of intense chemical breakdown. The overall assemblages of the grain surface features suggest that the samples have been subjected to subaqueous transport for a considerable period of time. The minor chemical features such as solution pits or semi circular arcuate steps found in abundance on these grains are due to the dissolution of the sediments in a low energy fluviatile environment. For clay mineralogy, fractions between <2 and <0.2 mm were separated out from the sediments. The clay fractions were then subjected to examination by X-ray diffraction (XRD of oriented K/Ca saturated samples using a Philips Diffractometer and Ni-filtered Cu Ka radiation with the scanning speed of 10 2Ө min -1. The main clay minerals for all the samples are identical and show the presence of hydroxy-interlayered smectites with minor quantities of mica, kaolinite, smectites, quartz and feldspar. The first weathering product of the Deccan Basalt (DB is the dioctahedral smectite. Since the present semi aridic climatic condition of the study area can not transform a smectite to HIS and either smectite to kaolin, it is quite likely that

  20. Multiscale feature based analysis of surface EMG signals under fatigue and non-fatigue conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneethakrishna, M; Ramakrishnan, S

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an attempt has been made to differentiate sEMG signals under muscle fatigue and non-fatigue conditions using multiscale features. Signals are recorded from biceps brachii muscle of 50 normal adults during repetitive dynamic contractions. After prescribed preprocessing, each signal is divided into six segments out of which first and last segments are considered in this analysis. Multiscale RMS (MSRMS) and Multiscale Permutation Entropy (MSPE) are computed for each subject in the time scales ranging from 1 to 50. The median values of the MSRMS and MSPE are calculated for further analysis. The results show an increase in amplitude for sEMG signals under fatigue condition. MSRMS values are found to be significantly higher in fatigue. An approximately constant difference in MSRMS value between fatigue and non-fatigue condition is observed over the entire time scale with a negative slope. Further, the median of MSRMS values for each subject is able to distinguish fatigue and non-fatigue conditions. Similar analysis on MSPE showed significant difference between fatigue and non-fatigue cases and lower values of MSPE is observed in fatigue. It is also observed that the median value of MSRMS and MSPE are able to distinguish these conditions. t-test for MSRMS, MSPE and their median value show high statistical significance. It appears that this method of analysis can be used for clinical evaluation of muscles.

  1. Some specific features of a surface-screw plasma instability in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavaev, G.F.; Tsipivka, Yu.I.

    1976-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the dispersion relation has been carried out, which enables to discover some new peculiarities in the behaviour of the surface helical instability (SHI) of a semiconductor plasma. To simplify the dispersion relation a semiconductor with nearly equal electron and hole mobilities has been considered. The dependences of threshold characteristics of SHI on a magnetic field H for different angular harmonics are represented graphically. A comparison of the formulas obtained shows that the approximation of truncated series yields an incorrect qualitative dependence of the wavelength on H, whereas asymptotic formulas in the range of strong magnetic fields yield not only a correct qualitative dependence of the threshold characteristics on H, but also a good quantitative agreement

  2. Visibility of lunar surface features - Apollo 14 orbital observations and lunar landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziedman, K.

    1972-01-01

    Description of an in-flight visibility test conducted during the Apollo 14 mission for the purpose of validating and extending the mathematical visibility models used previously in the course of the Apollo program to examine the constraints on descent operations imposed by lunar visibility limitations. Following a background review of the effects on mission planning of the visibility limitations due to downsun lunar surface detail 'washout' and a discussion of the visibility prediction techniques previously used for studying lunar visibility problems, the visibility test rationale and procedures are defined and the test results presented. The results appear to confirm the validity of the visibility prediction techniques employed in lunar visibility problem studies. These results provide also a basis for improving the accuracy of the prediction techniques by appropriate modifications.

  3. Statistical investigation of surface bound ions and further development of BION server to include pH and salt dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukh, Marharyta; Zhang, Min; Alexov, Emil

    2015-12-15

    Ions are engaged in multiple biological processes in cells. By binding to the macromolecules or being mobile in the solvent, they maintain the integrity of the structure of macromolecules; participate in their enzymatic activity; or screen electrostatic interactions. While experimental methods are not always able to assign the exact location of ions, computational methods are in demand. Although the majority of computational methods are successful in predicting the position of ions buried inside macromolecules, they are less effective in deciphering positions of surface bound ions. Here, we propose the new BION algorithm (http://compbio.clemson.edu/bion_server_ph/) that predicts the location of the surface bound ions. It is more efficient and accurate compared to the previous version since it uses more advanced clustering algorithm in combination with pairing rules. In addition, the BION webserver allows specifying the pH and the salt concentration in predicting ions positions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Multifocal metastatic chordoma to the soft tissues of the fingertips: a case report including sonographic features and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary; Girard, Nicole; Hansford, Barry G

    2018-03-01

    Chordoma is a rare, locally aggressive tumor which commonly metastasizes, most often to the lung, liver, and spine. In this case report, a 59-year-old male with history of sacral chordoma and pulmonary metastases presented to the emergency department with swelling and discoloration of multiple left fingertips. The initial radiographs led to a presumptive diagnosis of gout, which did not respond to medical therapy. An ultrasound demonstrated multiple solid masses with vascular hyperechoic septations which were subsequently biopsied and proven to be metastatic chordoma. Metastatic disease to the hand is a well documented but rare manifestation of many malignancies. The clinical presentation and radiographic features of multifocal hand metastases may mimic entities such as systemic deposition and granulomatous diseases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of soft tissue chordoma metastases to the fingertips as well as the first reported sonographic description of chordoma metastases.

  5. Measuring evapotranspiration: comparison of in situ micrometeorological methods including eddy covariance, scintillometer, Bowen ratio, and surface renewal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poznikova, G.; Fischer, M.; Orsag, M.; Trnka, M.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying evapotranspiration (ET) is a challenging task as different methods can induce large discrepancies. Comparisons of various techniques are not rare, however it is demanding to maintain several in situ measurements for longer time. In our study, we aimed to compare four micrometeorological methods measuring ET at relatively large homogeneous area. The study took place on a winter wheat field in Polkovice, the Czech Republic (49°23'42.8"N 17°14'47.3"E) from Jul 1st 2015 until Sep 15th 2015. In the centre of 26-ha experimental field we deployed the eddy covariance (EC) system, the Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) system, thermocouples for surface renewal technique, and the surface layer scintillometer with 106 m path length. Additionally, we installed the large aperture scintillometer with 617 m path length across the field. Our results showed good agreement of compared methods during the wetter periods of the measurements with slight overestimation of the scintillometry. The BREB method agreed the best with EC. Both scintillometers gave very consistent results throughout the whole measurement period. The EC tended to underestimate other methods. One of potential reasons is energy balance disclosure which reached 27.4 % for the measured period. The surface renewal method showed good potential however, need to be further tested in our conditions. Our experimental locality is one of several we are running as a part of ground based measurement network for ET estimation. Gained results helped us to enhance and optimise our network to ensure effective and reliable data acquisition for future validation of airborne images (satellite based drought monitoring).

  6. The Word Composite Effect Depends on Abstract Lexical Representations But Not Surface Features Like Case and Font.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Paulo; Fernandes, Tânia; Leite, Isabel; Almeida, Vítor B; Casqueiro, Inês; Wong, Alan C-N

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that words show a composite effect: When readers perform a same-different matching task on a target-part of a word, performance is affected by the irrelevant part, whose influence is severely reduced when the two parts are misaligned. However, the locus of this word composite effect is largely unknown. To enlighten it, in two experiments, Portuguese readers performed the composite task on letter strings: in Experiment 1, in written words varying in surface features (between-participants: courier, notera, alternating-cAsE), and in Experiment 2 in pseudowords. The word composite effect, signaled by a significant interaction between alignment of the two word parts and congruence between parts was found in the three conditions of Experiment 1, being unaffected by NoVeLtY of the configuration or by handwritten form. This effect seems to have a lexical locus, given that in Experiment 2 only the main effect of congruence between parts was significant and was not modulated by alignment. Indeed, the cross-experiment analysis showed that words presented stronger congruence effects than pseudowords only in the aligned condition, because when misaligned the whole lexical item configuration was disrupted. Therefore, the word composite effect strongly depends on abstract lexical representations, as it is unaffected by surface features and is specific to lexical items.

  7. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students’ Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of two question prompts. We asked four versions of the question with different combinations of the two plant species and order of prompts in an introductory cell biology course. We found that there was not a significant difference in the content of student responses to versions of the question stem with different species or order of prompts, using both computerized lexical analysis and expert scoring. We conducted 20 face-to-face interviews with students to further probe the effects of question wording on student responses. During the interviews, we found that students thought that the plant species was neither relevant nor confusing when answering the question. Students identified the prompts as both relevant and confusing. However, this confusion was not specific to a single version. PMID:25999312

  8. Radiation-curing of acrylate composites including carbon fibres: A customized surface modification for improving mechanical performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Arnaud; Pietras-Ozga, Dorota; Ponsaud, Philippe; Kowandy, Christelle; Barczak, Mariusz; Defoort, Brigitte; Coqueret, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The lower transverse mechanical properties of radiation-cured acrylate-based composites reinforced with carbon-fibre with respect to the thermosettable analogues was investigated from the viewpoint of chemical interactions at the interface between the matrix and the carbon material. XPS analysis of representative commercial carbon fibres revealed the presence of a significant amount of chemical functions potentially exerting an adverse effect on the initiation and propagation of the free radical polymerization initiated under high energy radiation. The EB-induced polymerization of n-butyl acrylate as a simple model monomer was conducted in the presence of various aromatic additives exhibiting a strong inhibiting effect, whereas thiols efficiently sensitize the initiation mechanism and undergo transfer reactions. A method based on the surface modification of sized fibres by thiomalic acid is proposed for overcoming the localized inhibition phenomenon and for improving the mechanical properties of the resulting acrylate-based composites. - Highlights: • Surface functions of C-fibres are analyzed for their effect on radical reaction. • Irradiation of nBu-acrylate in presence of aromatic additives reveals inhibition. • Thiol groups sensitize the radiation-initiated polymerization of nBu-acrylate. • Modification of C-fibres with thiomalic acid enhances composite properties

  9. A neural network potential energy surface for the F + CH4reaction including multiple channels based on coupled cluster theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Xin; Liu, Shu; Zhang, Dong H

    2018-03-22

    We report here a new global and full dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for the F + CH4 reaction. This PES was constructed by using neural networks (NN) fitting to about 99 000 ab initio energies computed at the UCCSD(T)-F12a/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory, and the correction terms considering the influence of a larger basis set as well as spin-orbit couplings were further implemented with a hierarchial scheme. This PES, covering both the abstraction and substitution channels, has an overall fitting error of 8.24 meV in total, and 4.87 meV for energies within 2.5 eV using a segmented NN fitting method, and is more accurate than the previous PESs.

  10. Estimates of effective elastic thickness of oceanic lithosphere using model including surface and subsurface loads and effective elastic thickness of subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, A.; Yongtao, F.

    2016-12-01

    The effective elastic thickness (Te) is an important parameter that characterizes the long term strength of the lithosphere, which has great significance on understanding the mechanical properties and evolution of the lithosphere. In contrast with many controversies regarding elastic thickness of continent lithosphere, the Te of oceanic lithosphere is thought to be in a simple way that is dependent on the age of the plate. However, rescent studies show that there is no simple relationship between Te and age at time of loading for both seamounts and subduction zones. As subsurface loading is very importand and has large influence in the estimate of Te for continent lithosphere, and many oceanic features such as subduction zones also have considerable subsurface loading. We introduce the method to estimate the effective elastic thickness of oceanic lithosphere using model including surface and subsurface loads by using free-air gravity anomaly and bathymetric data, together with a moving window admittance technique (MWAT). We use the multitaper spectral estimation method to calculate the power spectral density. Through tests with synthetic subduction zone like bathymetry and gravity data show that the Te can be recovered in an accurance similar to that in the continent and there is also a trade-off between spatial resolution and variance for different window sizes. We estimate Te of many subduction zones (Peru-Chile trench, Middle America trench, Caribbean trench, Kuril-Japan trench, Mariana trench, Tonga trench, Java trench, Ryukyu-Philippine trench) with an age range of 0-160 Myr to reassess the relationship between elastic thickness and the age of the lithosphere at the time of loading. The results do not show a simple relationship between Te and age.

  11. Integrated system for investigating sub-surface features of a rock formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre -Yves; Larmat, Carene S.

    2015-08-18

    A system for investigating non-linear properties of a rock formation around a borehole is provided. The system includes a first sub-system configured to perform data acquisition, control and recording of data; a second subsystem in communication with the first sub-system and configured to perform non-linearity and velocity preliminary imaging; a third subsystem in communication with the first subsystem and configured to emit controlled acoustic broadcasts and receive acoustic energy; a fourth subsystem in communication with the first subsystem and the third subsystem and configured to generate a source signal directed towards the rock formation; and a fifth subsystem in communication with the third subsystem and the fourth subsystem and configured to perform detection of signals representative of the non-linear properties of the rock formation.

  12. Is a Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Few Evidence-Based Features of Dietary Interventions Included in Photo Diet Tracking Mobile Apps for Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Sarah; Dunn, Caroline; Wilcox, Sara; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2016-11-01

    Apps using digital photos to track dietary intake and provide feedback are common, but currently there has been no research examining what evidence-based strategies are included in these apps. A content analysis of mobile apps for photo diet tracking was conducted, including whether effective techniques for interventions promoting behavior change, including self-regulation, for healthy eating (HE) are targeted. An initial search of app stores yielded 34 apps (n = 8 Android and Apple; n = 11 Android; n = 15 Apple). One app was removed (unable to download), and other apps (n = 4) were unable to be rated (no longer available). Remaining apps (n = 29) were downloaded, reviewed, and coded by 2 independent reviewers to determine the number of known effective self-regulation and other behavior change techniques included. The raters met to compare their coding of the apps, calculate interrater agreement, resolve any discrepancies, and come to a consensus. Six apps (21%) did not utilize any of the behavior change techniques examined. Three apps (10%) provided feedback to users via crowdsourcing or collective feedback from other users and professionals, 7 apps (24%) used crowdsourcing or collective feedback, 1 app (3%) used professionals, and 18 apps (62%) did not provide any dietary feedback to users. Few photo diet-tracking apps include evidence-based strategies to improve dietary intake. Use of photos to self-monitor dietary intake and receive feedback has the potential to reduce user burden for self-monitoring, yet photo diet tracking apps need to incorporate known effective behavior strategies for HE, including self-regulation. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  13. Locating critical points on multi-dimensional surfaces by genetic algorithm: test cases including normal and perturbed argon clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Pinaki; Bhattacharyya, S. P.

    1999-03-01

    It is demonstrated that Genetic Algorithm in a floating point realisation can be a viable tool for locating critical points on a multi-dimensional potential energy surface (PES). For small clusters, the standard algorithm works well. For bigger ones, the search for global minimum becomes more efficient when used in conjunction with coordinate stretching, and partitioning of the strings into a core part and an outer part which are alternately optimized The method works with equal facility for locating minima, local as well as global, and saddle points (SP) of arbitrary orders. The search for minima requires computation of the gradient vector, but not the Hessian, while that for SP's requires the information of the gradient vector and the Hessian, the latter only at some specific points on the path. The method proposed is tested on (i) a model 2-d PES (ii) argon clusters (Ar 4-Ar 30) in which argon atoms interact via Lennard-Jones potential, (iii) Ar mX, m=12 clusters where X may be a neutral atom or a cation. We also explore if the method could also be used to construct what may be called a stochastic representation of the reaction path on a given PES with reference to conformational changes in Ar n clusters.

  14. SWRT: A package for semi-analytical solutions of surface wave propagation, including mode conversion, across transversely aligned vertical discontinuities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Datta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a suite of programs that implement decades-old algorithms for computation of seismic surface wave reflection and transmission coefficients at a welded contact between two laterally homogeneous quarter-spaces. For Love as well as Rayleigh waves, the algorithms are shown to be capable of modelling multiple mode conversions at a lateral discontinuity, which was not shown in the original publications or in the subsequent literature. Only normal incidence at a lateral boundary is considered so there is no Love–Rayleigh coupling, but incidence of any mode and coupling to any (other mode can be handled. The code is written in Python and makes use of SciPy's Simpson's rule integrator and NumPy's linear algebra solver for its core functionality. Transmission-side results from this code are found to be in good agreement with those from finite-difference simulations. In today's research environment of extensive computing power, the coded algorithms are arguably redundant but SWRT can be used as a valuable testing tool for the ever evolving numerical solvers of seismic wave propagation. SWRT is available via GitHub (https://github.com/arjundatta23/SWRT.git.

  15. SWRT: A package for semi-analytical solutions of surface wave propagation, including mode conversion, across transversely aligned vertical discontinuities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Arjun

    2018-03-01

    We present a suite of programs that implement decades-old algorithms for computation of seismic surface wave reflection and transmission coefficients at a welded contact between two laterally homogeneous quarter-spaces. For Love as well as Rayleigh waves, the algorithms are shown to be capable of modelling multiple mode conversions at a lateral discontinuity, which was not shown in the original publications or in the subsequent literature. Only normal incidence at a lateral boundary is considered so there is no Love-Rayleigh coupling, but incidence of any mode and coupling to any (other) mode can be handled. The code is written in Python and makes use of SciPy's Simpson's rule integrator and NumPy's linear algebra solver for its core functionality. Transmission-side results from this code are found to be in good agreement with those from finite-difference simulations. In today's research environment of extensive computing power, the coded algorithms are arguably redundant but SWRT can be used as a valuable testing tool for the ever evolving numerical solvers of seismic wave propagation. SWRT is available via GitHub (https://github.com/arjundatta23/SWRT.git).

  16. Measured Properties of Turbulent Premixed Flames for Model Assessment, Including Burning Velocities, Stretch Rates, and Surface Densities (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    conditions was stabilized on a large two-dimensional slot Bunsen burner . It was found that the turbulent burning velocity of Bunsen flames depends...burning velocity of Bunsen flames are inadequate because they should include two additional parameters: mean velocity Ū and burner width W. These...corru- gated) flame with well-defined boundary conditions was stabilized on a large two-dimensional slot Bunsen burner . It was found that the turbulent

  17. Spatial features of dose-surface maps from deformably-registered plans correlate with late gastrointestinal complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Calyn R.; House, Michael J.; Lye, Victoria; Tang, Colin I.; Krawiec, Michele; Joseph, David J.; Denham, James W.; Ebert, Martin A.

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the associations between spatial distribution of dose to the rectal surface and observed gastrointestinal toxicities after deformably registering each phase of a combined external beam radiotherapy (EBRT)/high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRBT) prostate cancer treatment. The study contains data for 118 patients where the HDRBT CT was deformably-registered to the EBRT CT. The EBRT and registered HDRBT TG43 dose distributions in a reference 2 Gy/fraction were 3D-summed. Rectum dose-surface maps (DSMs) were obtained by virtually unfolding the rectum surface slice-by-slice. Associations with late peak gastrointestinal toxicities were investigated using voxel-wise DSM analysis as well as parameterised spatial patterns. The latter were obtained by thresholding DSMs from 1-80 Gy (increment  =  1) and extracting inferior-superior extent, left-right extent, area, perimeter, compactness, circularity and ellipse fit parameters. Logistic regressions and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to correlate features with toxicities. Rectal bleeding, stool frequency, diarrhoea and urgency/tenesmus were associated with greater lateral and/or longitudinal spread of the high doses near the anterior rectal surface. Rectal bleeding and stool frequency were also influenced by greater low-intermediate doses to the most inferior 20% of the rectum and greater low-intermediate-high doses to 40-80% of the rectum length respectively. Greater low-intermediate doses to the superior 20% and inferior 20% of the rectum length were associated with anorectal pain and urgency/tenesmus respectively. Diarrhoea, completeness of evacuation and proctitis were also related to greater low doses to the posterior side of the rectum. Spatial features for the intermediate-high dose regions such as area, perimeter, compactness, circularity, ellipse eccentricity and confinement to ellipse fits were strongly associated with toxicities other than anorectal pain. Consequently, toxicity is

  18. Earth Surface Processes and Environmental Changes in Lake-catchment Systems(<Featured Article>Earth Surface Processes, Natural Disasters and Historical Environmental Changes)

    OpenAIRE

    Kenji, KASHIWAYA; Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University

    2012-01-01

    Lake-catchment systems including continuous records of various climatic regimes are discussed for combining earth surface processes with temporal environmental changes. Three types of external forces (climatic, tectonic and anthropogenic), which are printed in lacustrine sediments and drainage landforms, are significant for understanding processes and changes. Present observations on small lake-catchment systems in Japan and past information on large lake-catchment systems in east Eurasia sho...

  19. Crossing the dividing surface of transition state theory. IV. Dynamical regularity and dimensionality reduction as key features of reactive trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorquet, J C

    2017-04-07

    higher energies, these characteristics persist, but to a lesser degree. Recrossings of the dividing surface then become much more frequent and the phase space volumes of initial conditions that generate recrossing-free trajectories decrease. Altogether, one ends up with an additional illustration of the concept of reactive cylinder (or conduit) in phase space that reactive trajectories must follow. Reactivity is associated with dynamical regularity and dimensionality reduction, whatever the shape of the potential energy surface, no matter how strong its anharmonicity, and whatever the curvature of its reaction path. Both simplifying features persist during the entire reactive process, up to complete separation of fragments. The ergodicity assumption commonly assumed in statistical theories is inappropriate for reactive trajectories.

  20. Crossing the dividing surface of transition state theory. IV. Dynamical regularity and dimensionality reduction as key features of reactive trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorquet, J. C.

    2017-04-01

    energies, these characteristics persist, but to a lesser degree. Recrossings of the dividing surface then become much more frequent and the phase space volumes of initial conditions that generate recrossing-free trajectories decrease. Altogether, one ends up with an additional illustration of the concept of reactive cylinder (or conduit) in phase space that reactive trajectories must follow. Reactivity is associated with dynamical regularity and dimensionality reduction, whatever the shape of the potential energy surface, no matter how strong its anharmonicity, and whatever the curvature of its reaction path. Both simplifying features persist during the entire reactive process, up to complete separation of fragments. The ergodicity assumption commonly assumed in statistical theories is inappropriate for reactive trajectories.

  1. Comparing Multiple Evapotranspiration-calculating Methods, Including Eddy Covariance and Surface Renewal, Using Empirical Measurements from Alfalfa Fields in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, J.; Kent, E. R.; Leinfelder-Miles, M.; Lambert, J. J.; Little, C.; Paw U, K. T.; Snyder, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Eddy covariance and surface renewal measurements were used to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) over a variety of crop fields in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta during the 2016 growing season. However, comparing and evaluating multiple measurement systems and methods for determining ET was focused upon at a single alfalfa site. The eddy covariance systems included two systems for direct measurement of latent heat flux: one using a separate sonic anemometer and an open path infrared gas analyzer and another using a combined system (Campbell Scientific IRGASON). For these methods, eddy covariance was used with measurements from the Campbell Scientific CSAT3, the LI-COR 7500a, the Campbell Scientific IRGASON, and an additional R.M. Young sonic anemometer. In addition to those direct measures, the surface renewal approach included several energy balance residual methods in which net radiation, ground heat flux, and sensible heat flux (H) were measured. H was measured using several systems and different methods, including using multiple fast-response thermocouple measurements and using the temperatures measured by the sonic anemometers. The energy available for ET was then calculated as the residual of the surface energy balance equation. Differences in ET values were analyzed between the eddy covariance and surface renewal methods, using the IRGASON-derived values of ET as the standard for accuracy.

  2. Challenges related to flotation cleaning of oil shales. Issues due to compositional and surface features and post-grinding surface behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altun N. Emre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil shale is an important energy resource alternative. Despite its recognition as an unconventional oil source, oil shale is also considered as an important solid fossil fuel alternative to coal and lignites due to the solid form and remarkable extent of organic content. Utilization possibilites, similar to coal and lignites, have been considered in the past decades and direct use of oil shales in thermal power production has been possible in countries like Estonia and China. In the perspective of utilization of oil shales in a similar manner to coal and lignites, problems and restrictions related to the inorganic ash-making and potentially pollutant constituents are applied. In this respect, cleaning of this important energy source through mineral processing methods, particularly by flotation, is an outstanding option. However, on the basis of unique features and distinctive characteristics, treatment of oil shales like a type of coal is a big perception and may be highly misleading. This paper discusses specific challenges regarding flotation behavior of oil shales with reference to the surface characteristics and behavior of oil shale entities – probably the most important aspect that determines the efficiency and success of the flotation based cleaning process.

  3. Structure Crack Identification Based on Surface-mounted Active Sensor Network with Time-Domain Feature Extraction and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunling DU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work the condition of metallic structures are classified based on the acquired sensor data from a surface-mounted piezoelectric sensor/actuator network. The structures are aluminum plates with riveted holes and possible crack damage at these holes. A 400 kHz sine wave burst is used as diagnostic signals. The combination of time-domain S0 waves from received sensor signals is directly used as features and preprocessing is not needed for the dam age detection. Since the time sequence of the extracted S0 has a high dimension, principal component estimation is applied to reduce its dimension before entering NN (neural network training for classification. An LVQ (learning vector quantization NN is used to classify the conditions as healthy or damaged. A number of FEM (finite element modeling results are taken as inputs to the NN for training, since the simulated S0 waves agree well with the experimental results on real plates. The performance of the classification is then validated by using these testing results.

  4. Features, events, processes, and safety factor analysis applied to a near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, M.E.; Dolinar, G.M.; Lange, B.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An analysis of features, events, processes (FEPs) and other safety factors was applied to AECL`s proposed IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) near-surface LLRW disposal facility. The FEP analysis process which had been developed for and applied to high-level and transuranic disposal concepts was adapted for application to a low-level facility for which significant efforts in developing a safety case had already been made. The starting point for this process was a series of meetings of the project team to identify and briefly describe FEPs or safety factors which they thought should be considered. At this early stage participants were specifically asked not to screen ideas. This initial list was supplemented by selecting FEPs documented in other programs and comments received from an initial regulatory review. The entire list was then sorted by topic and common issues were grouped, and issues were classified in three priority categories and assigned to individuals for resolution. In this paper, the issue identification and resolution process will be described, from the initial description of an issue to its resolution and inclusion in the various levels of the safety case documentation.

  5. Lung injury induced by TiO2 nanoparticles depends on their structural features: size, shape, crystal phases, and surface coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangxue; Fan, Yubo

    2014-12-03

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology, a variety of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are being produced. Nanotoxicology has become a hot topic in many fields, as researchers attempt to elucidate the potential adverse health effects of NPs. The biological activity of NPs strongly depends on physicochemical parameters but these are not routinely considered in toxicity screening, such as dose metrics. In this work, nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO2), one of the most commonly produced and widely used NPs, is put forth as a representative. The correlation between the lung toxicity and pulmonary cell impairment related to TiO2 NPs and its unusual structural features, including size, shape, crystal phases, and surface coating, is reviewed in detail. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in pulmonary inflammation in response to the properties of TiO2 NPs is also briefly described. To fully understand the potential biological effects of NPs in toxicity screening, we highly recommend that the size, crystal phase, dispersion and agglomeration status, surface coating, and chemical composition should be most appropriately characterized.

  6. Evolution features of the surface latent heat flux anomalies over the tropical Pacific associated with two types of ENSO events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Lian-Tong

    2017-09-01

    The present study investigates the features of the surface latent heat flux (LHF) anomalies and their related variables over the tropical Pacific during two types of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events and seeks a possible candidate for the main contributions to the LHF anomalies. During El Niño Modoki and canonical El Niño events, the LHFs show positive anomalies over the equatorial central Pacific and in the areas immediately south of the equatorial eastern Pacific. In addition, the largest magnitudes and widest ranges of positive LHF anomalies for both types of events occur during their mature stages rather than during their developing or decaying phases. Analyses show that the positive LHF anomalies associated with both events are largely affected by the positive sea-air humidity difference anomalies. However, the negative surface wind speed anomalies associated with the canonical El Niño events clearly contribute to the decreases in the positive LHF anomalies over the central Pacific and in the area immediately north of the equatorial eastern Pacific due to the presence of westerly and northerly anomalies, respectively. Moreover, over the equatorial central Pacific and in the area immediately south of the eastern Pacific, the LHF anomalies are mainly influenced by oceanic variables during both types of ENSO events, indicating an atmospheric response to oceanic forcing. In contrast, outside of the area spanning 10° north and south of the equator in the tropical Pacific and with the exception of the southeastern region, the LHF anomalies are greatly influenced by atmospheric variables, suggesting an oceanic response to atmospheric forcing. Distinct differences exist during the mature event phase, with oceanic forcing dominating the equatorial central Pacific during El Niño Modoki events and the area immediately south of the equatorial eastern Pacific during canonical El Niño events. In addition, both types of ENSO events suggest the increasing

  7. Importance of including small-scale tile drain discharge in the calibration of a coupled groundwater-surface water catchment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Lausten; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Christensen, Britt Stenhøj Baun

    2013-01-01

    the catchment. In this study, a coupled groundwater-surface water model based on the MIKE SHE code was developed for the 4.7 km2 Lillebæk catchment in Denmark, where tile drain flow is a major contributor to the stream discharge. The catchment model was calibrated in several steps by incrementally including...... the observation data into the calibration to see the effect on model performance of including diverse data types, especially tile drain discharge. For the Lillebæk catchment, measurements of hydraulic head, daily stream discharge, and daily tile drain discharge from five small (1–4 ha) drainage areas exist....... The results showed that including tile drain data in the calibration of the catchment model improved its general performance for hydraulic heads and stream discharges. However, the model failed to correctly describe the local-scale dynamics of the tile drain discharges, and, furthermore, including the drain...

  8. Automatic construction of subject-specific human airway geometry including trifurcations based on a CT-segmented airway skeleton and surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Wenzel, Sally E.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method to construct three-dimensional airway geometric models based on airway skeletons, or centerlines (CLs). Given a CT-segmented airway skeleton and surface, the proposed CL-based method automatically constructs subject-specific models that contain anatomical information regarding branches, include bifurcations and trifurcations, and extend from the trachea to terminal bronchioles. The resulting model can be anatomically realistic with the assistance of an image-based surface; alternatively a model with an idealized skeleton and/or branch diameters is also possible. This method systematically identifies and classifies trifurcations to successfully construct the models, which also provides the number and type of trifurcations for the analysis of the airways from an anatomical point of view. We applied this method to 16 normal and 16 severe asthmatic subjects using their computed tomography images. The average distance between the surface of the model and the image-based surface was 11% of the average voxel size of the image. The four most frequent locations of trifurcations were the left upper division bronchus, left lower lobar bronchus, right upper lobar bronchus, and right intermediate bronchus. The proposed method automatically constructed accurate subject-specific three-dimensional airway geometric models that contain anatomical information regarding branches using airway skeleton, diameters, and image-based surface geometry. The proposed method can construct (i) geometry automatically for population-based studies, (ii) trifurcations to retain the original airway topology, (iii) geometry that can be used for automatic generation of computational fluid dynamics meshes, and (iv) geometry based only on a skeleton and diameters for idealized branches. PMID:27704229

  9. Characterization of genotoxic response to 15 multiwalled carbon nanotubes with variable physicochemical properties including surface functionalizations in the FE1-Muta(TM) mouse lung epithelial cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Petra; Kling, Kirsten; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Clausen, Per Axel; Madsen, Anne Mette; Wallin, Håkan; Vogel, Ulla

    2015-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes vary greatly in physicochemical properties. We compared cytotoxic and genotoxic response to 15 multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with varying physicochemical properties to identify drivers of toxic responses. The studied MWCNT included OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials (WPMN) (NM-401, NM-402, and NM-403), materials (NRCWE-026 and MWCNT-XNRI-7), and three sets of surface-modified MWCNT grouped by physical characteristics (thin, thick, and short I-III, respectively). Each Groups I-III included pristine, hydroxylated and carboxylated MWCNT. Group III also included an amino-functionalized MWCNT. The level of surface functionalization of the MWCNT was low. The level and type of elemental impurities of the MWCNT varied by <2% of the weight, with exceptions. Based on dynamic light scattering data, the MWCNT were well-dispersed in stock dispersion of nanopure water with 2% serum, but agglomerated and sedimented during exposure. FE1-Muta(TM) Mouse lung epithelial cells were exposed for 24 hr. The levels of DNA strand breaks (SB) were evaluated using the comet assay, a screening assay suitable for genotoxicity testing of nanomaterials. Exposure to MWCNT (12.5-200 µg/ml) did not induce significant cytotoxicity (viability above 92%). Cell proliferation was reduced in highest doses of some MWCNT after 24 hr, and was associated with generation of reactive oxygen species and high surface area. Increased levels of DNA SB were only observed for Group II consisting of MWCNT with large diameters and high Fe2 O3 and Ni content. Significantly, increased levels of SB were only observed at 200 µg/ml of MWCNT-042. Overall, the MWCNT were not cytotoxic and weakly genotoxic after 24 hr exposure to doses up to 200 µg/ml. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Disposal project for LLW and VLLW generated from research facilities in Japan: A feasibility study for the near surface disposal of VLLW that includes uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Akihiro; Hasegawa, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Nakatani, T.

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion and future work: • JAEA plans trench disposal of U-bearing waste with less than 100 Bq/g. • Two safety measures of trench disposal of U-bearing waste have been discussed taking into account increasing radioactivity over a long period of time. 1. First is to carry out dose assessment of site use scenario by using a conservatively stylized condition. 2. Second is to control the average concentration of U in the trench facilities based on the concept of the existing exposure situation. • We are continuously developing the method for safety measures of near surface disposal of VLLW including U-bearing waste.

  11. Solar Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.

  12. Terrestrial Analogs for Surface Properties Associated with Impact Cratering on the Moon - Self-secondary Impact Features at Kings Bowl, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiella Novak, M. A.; Zanetti, M.; Neish, C.; Kukko, A.; Fan, K.; Heldmann, J.; Hughes, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Kings Bowl (KB) eruptive fissure and lava field, located in the southern end of Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho, is an ideal location for planetary analogue field studies of surface properties related to volcanic and impact processes. Here we look at possible impact features present in the KB lava field near the main vent that resulted in squeeze-ups of molten lava from beneath a semi-solid lava lake crust. These may have been caused by the ejection of blocks during the phreatic eruption that formed the Kings Bowl pit, and their subsequent impact into a partially solidified lava pond. We compare and contrast these features with analogous self-secondary impact features, such as irregular, rimless secondary craters ("splash craters") observed in lunar impact melt deposits, to better understand how self-secondary impacts determine the surface properties of volcanic and impact crater terrains. We do this by analyzing field measurements of these features, as well as high-resolution DEM data collected through the Kinematic LiDAR System (KLS), both of which give us feature dimensions and distributions. We then compare these data with self-secondary impact features on the Moon and related surface roughness constrained through Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter observations (Mini-RF and LROC NACs). Possible self-secondary impact features can be found in association with many lunar impact craters. These are formed when ballistic ejecta from the crater falls onto the ejecta blanket and melt surrounding the newly formed crater. Self-secondary impact features involving impact melt deposits are particularly useful to study because the visibly smooth melt texture serves to highlight the impact points in spacecraft imagery. The unusual morphology of some of these features imply that they formed when the melt had not yet completely solidified, strongly suggesting a source of impactors from the primary crater itself. We will also discuss ongoing efforts to integrate field

  13. Fabrication of narrow surface relief features in a side-chain azobenzene polyester with a scanning near-field microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Holme, N. C. R.; Pedersen, M.

    2001-01-01

    We show that it is possible to fabricate topographic submicron features in a side-chain azobenzene polyester with a scanning near-field optical microscope, Through irradiation at a wavelength of 488 run at intensity levels of 12 W/cm(2), topographic features as narrow as 240 nm and as high as 6 nm...... in high-density optical storage and high-resolution lithography....

  14. Ultrastructural features of supraspinal muscles in rabbits after long-term transcutaneous lateral electrical surface stimulation (LESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Majewski

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Lateral electrical surface stimulation is one of methods used in the therapy of the progressive form of idiopathic scoliosis (IS in children and youth. However, there are data suggesting that this method may lead to serious adverse side effects, when used for a too long period of time per day. To clarify this issue, the present study was aimed at disclosing possible changes in the ultrastructural appearance of rabbit supraspinal muscles undergoing long-term stimulation (9 h per day, 3 months, an animal model successfully used to mimic the situation in humans. In comparison to the control animals, muscles of "overstimulated" rabbits exhibited clear signs of microscopical lesions, including depletion and disintegration of myofilaments, proliferation, dilatation and, sometimes, swelling of sarcoplasmic reticulum and/or mitochondria, as well as signs of destruction of the Z line. The above-mentioned abnormalities, especially the signs of degenerative processes associated with the Z line and the observed microlesions strongly suggest that the failure of the long-term LESS therapy of the IS may be attributable to these ultrastructural lesions.

  15. The analysis of quartz grain surface features as a complementary method for studying their provenance: the Guadalete River Basin (Cádiz, SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral-Cardona, J. P.; Bellón, A. Sdnchez; López-Aguayo, F.; Caballero, M. A.

    1996-10-01

    The analysis of quartz grain surface features from several sandy deposits of the Guadalete River basin-Guadalete terraces, Miocene calcarenites and Aljibe sandstones-have yielded data of considerable value in the study of the provenance of these materials. The majority of the quartz grains of the Miocene calcarenites present the same primitive surface features as those of the Aljibe sandstones (generalised polishing of their surface, mechanical marks enlarged by solution) and many conchoidal fractures and grooves corresponding to the high-energy environment in which they were deposited. The quartz grains of the Guadalete terraces are mainly derived from the Miocene calcarenites (they show numerous fractures and polished grooves) and have undergone a later stage of evolution, forming isolated Vs and silica deposits corresponding to a final fluvial means of transport. These data indicate a possible evolution as follows: (1) Aljibe sandstones; (2) Miocene calcarenites; (3) fluvial sands of the Quaternary terraces of the Guadalete River. This evolution has been confirmed by study of the heavy mineral associations and the petrology of these materials. Thus, quartz grain surface features may be an extremely useful instrument for studying provenance, determining the evolutionary path that various sediments of a region have taken, thereby complementing the data yielded by the mineralogy of heavy minerals and regional geology.

  16. Statistical characterization of surface features from tungsten-coated divertor inserts in the DIII-D Metal Rings Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jacob; Unterberg, Ezekial; Chrobak, Christopher; Stahl, Brian; Abrams, Tyler

    2017-10-01

    Continuing analysis of tungsten-coated inserts from the recent DIII-D Metal Rings Campaign utilizes a statistical approach to study carbon migration and deposition on W surfaces and to characterize the pre- versus post-exposure surface morphology. A TZM base was coated with W using both CVD and PVD and allowed for comparison between the two coating methods. The W inserts were positioned in the lower DIII-D divertor in both the upper (shelf) region and lower (floor) region and subjected to multiple plasma shots, primarily in H-mode. Currently, the post-exposure W inserts are being characterized using SEM/EDX to qualify the surface morphology and to quantify the surface chemical composition. In addition, profilometry is being used to measure the surface roughness of the inserts both before and after plasma exposure. Preliminary results suggest a correlation between the pre-exposure surface roughness and the level of carbon deposited on the surface. Furthermore, ongoing in-depth analysis may reveal insights into the formation mechanism of nanoscale bumps found in the carbon-rich regions of the W surfaces that have not yet been explained. Work supported in part by US DoE under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program and under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  17. Patch layout generation by detecting feature networks

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yuanhao

    2015-02-01

    The patch layout of 3D surfaces reveals the high-level geometric and topological structures. In this paper, we study the patch layout computation by detecting and enclosing feature loops on surfaces. We present a hybrid framework which combines several key ingredients, including feature detection, feature filtering, feature curve extension, patch subdivision and boundary smoothing. Our framework is able to compute patch layouts through concave features as previous approaches, but also able to generate nice layouts through smoothing regions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework by comparing with the state-of-the-art methods.

  18. Second-sphere complexation of thorium(IV) by cucurbit[6]uril with included perrhenate counterions. Crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuery, Pierre [CEA, IRAMIS, UMR 3685 NIMBE, Laboratoire de Chimie Moleculaire et Catalyse pour l' Energie (LCMCE), Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-04-15

    The reaction of thorium(IV) nitrate with cucurbit[6]uril (CB6) in the presence of perrhenic acid in water gives the complex [Th(NO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}][(ReO{sub 4})(CB6)](ReO{sub 4}){sub 2}.3H{sub 2}O (1). Aquated cations are held at both CB6 portals by ion-dipole and hydrogen-bonding interactions, and one of the ReO{sub 4}{sup -} anions is included in the CB6 cavity. The packing displays columns of alternate cations and encapsulated anions. Hirshfeld surfaces are used to visualize short contacts between the species present. (Copyright copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Local Chromatin Features Including PU.1 and IKAROS Binding and H3K4 Methylation Shape the Repertoire of Immunoglobulin Kappa Genes Chosen for V(D)J Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Louise S.; Bolland, Daniel J.; Chovanec, Peter; Krueger, Felix; Andrews, Simon; Koohy, Hashem; Corcoran, Anne E.

    2017-01-01

    V(D)J recombination is essential for the generation of diverse antigen receptor (AgR) repertoires. In B cells, immunoglobulin kappa (Igκ) light chain recombination follows immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) recombination. We recently developed the DNA-based VDJ-seq assay for the unbiased quantitation of Igh VH and DH repertoires. Integration of VDJ-seq data with genome-wide datasets revealed that two chromatin states at the recombination signal sequence (RSS) of VH genes are highly predictive of recombination in mouse pro-B cells. It is unknown whether local chromatin states contribute to Vκ gene choice during Igκ recombination. Here we adapt VDJ-seq to profile the Igκ VκJκ repertoire and present a comprehensive readout in mouse pre-B cells, revealing highly variable Vκ gene usage. Integration with genome-wide datasets for histone modifications, DNase hypersensitivity, transcription factor binding and germline transcription identified PU.1 binding at the RSS, which was unimportant for Igh, as highly predictive of whether a Vκ gene will recombine or not, suggesting that it plays a binary, all-or-nothing role, priming genes for recombination. Thereafter, the frequency with which these genes recombine was shaped both by the presence and level of enrichment of several other chromatin features, including H3K4 methylation and IKAROS binding. Moreover, in contrast to the Igh locus, the chromatin landscape of the promoter, as well as of the RSS, contributes to Vκ gene recombination. Thus, multiple facets of local chromatin features explain much of the variation in Vκ gene usage. Together, these findings reveal shared and divergent roles for epigenetic features and transcription factors in AgR V(D)J recombination and provide avenues for further investigation of chromatin signatures that may underpin V(D)J-mediated chromosomal translocations. PMID:29204143

  20. Local Chromatin Features Including PU.1 and IKAROS Binding and H3K4 Methylation Shape the Repertoire of Immunoglobulin Kappa Genes Chosen for V(D)J Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Louise S; Bolland, Daniel J; Chovanec, Peter; Krueger, Felix; Andrews, Simon; Koohy, Hashem; Corcoran, Anne E

    2017-01-01

    V(D)J recombination is essential for the generation of diverse antigen receptor (AgR) repertoires. In B cells, immunoglobulin kappa ( Igκ ) light chain recombination follows immunoglobulin heavy chain ( Igh ) recombination. We recently developed the DNA-based VDJ-seq assay for the unbiased quantitation of Igh VH and DH repertoires. Integration of VDJ-seq data with genome-wide datasets revealed that two chromatin states at the recombination signal sequence (RSS) of VH genes are highly predictive of recombination in mouse pro-B cells. It is unknown whether local chromatin states contribute to Vκ gene choice during Igκ recombination. Here we adapt VDJ-seq to profile the Igκ VκJκ repertoire and present a comprehensive readout in mouse pre-B cells, revealing highly variable Vκ gene usage. Integration with genome-wide datasets for histone modifications, DNase hypersensitivity, transcription factor binding and germline transcription identified PU.1 binding at the RSS, which was unimportant for Igh , as highly predictive of whether a Vκ gene will recombine or not, suggesting that it plays a binary, all-or-nothing role, priming genes for recombination. Thereafter, the frequency with which these genes recombine was shaped both by the presence and level of enrichment of several other chromatin features, including H3K4 methylation and IKAROS binding. Moreover, in contrast to the Igh locus, the chromatin landscape of the promoter, as well as of the RSS, contributes to Vκ gene recombination. Thus, multiple facets of local chromatin features explain much of the variation in Vκ gene usage. Together, these findings reveal shared and divergent roles for epigenetic features and transcription factors in AgR V(D)J recombination and provide avenues for further investigation of chromatin signatures that may underpin V(D)J-mediated chromosomal translocations.

  1. Effects of charge design features on parameters of acoustic and seismic waves and cratering, for SMR chemical surface explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitterman, Y.

    2012-04-01

    A series of experimental on-surface shots was designed and conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel at Sayarim Military Range (SMR) in Negev desert, including two large calibration explosions: about 82 tons of strong IMI explosives in August 2009, and about 100 tons of ANFO explosives in January 2011. It was a collaborative effort between Israel, CTBTO, USA and several European countries, with the main goal to provide fully controlled ground truth (GT0) infrasound sources in different weather/wind conditions, for calibration of IMS infrasound stations in Europe, Middle East and Asia. Strong boosters and the upward charge detonation scheme were applied to provide a reduced energy release to the ground and an enlarged energy radiation to the atmosphere, producing enhanced infrasound signals, for better observation at far-regional stations. The following observations and results indicate on the required explosives energy partition for this charge design: 1) crater size and local seismic (duration) magnitudes were found smaller than expected for these large surface explosions; 2) small test shots of the same charge (1 ton) conducted at SMR with different detonation directions showed clearly lower seismic amplitudes/energy and smaller crater size for the upward detonation; 3) many infrasound stations at local and regional distances showed higher than expected peak amplitudes, even after application of a wind-correction procedure. For the large-scale explosions, high-pressure gauges were deployed at 100-600 m to record air-blast properties, evaluate the efficiency of the charge design and energy generation, and provide a reliable estimation of the charge yield. Empirical relations for air-blast parameters - peak pressure, impulse and the Secondary Shock (SS) time delay - depending on distance, were developed and analyzed. The parameters, scaled by the cubic root of estimated TNT equivalent charges, were found consistent for all analyzed explosions, except of SS

  2. [Age-related characteristics of the surface bioelectrical potential of human, canine and rat teeth and features of its distribution over the surface of the crown].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donskiĭ, G I; Pavliuchenko, O N; Palamarchuk, Iu N; Makarova, N Ia

    1989-01-01

    Using a digital electron voltmeter, bioelectrical potentials (BEPs) of dental crowns have been recorded in 180 patients, 36 dogs, and 93 white non-inbred rats. It has been established that the surface BEP is a marker of dental enamel maturation and does not depend on the species of mammals. On the other hand maturation processes differ in their rate on the cutting edge, equator, and neck: with advancing age algebraic difference between the magnitudes of surface BEPs decreases in humans and increases in dogs and rats.

  3. Significant Enhancement of the Chiral Correlation Length in Nematic Liquid Crystals by Gold Nanoparticle Surfaces Featuring Axially Chiral Binaphthyl Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Taizo; Sharma, Anshul; Hegmann, Torsten

    2016-01-26

    Chirality is a fundamental scientific concept best described by the absence of mirror symmetry and the inability to superimpose an object onto its mirror image by translation and rotation. Chirality is expressed at almost all molecular levels, from single molecules to supramolecular systems, and present virtually everywhere in nature. Here, to explore how chirality propagates from a chiral nanoscale surface, we study gold nanoparticles functionalized with axially chiral binaphthyl molecules. In particular, we synthesized three enantiomeric pairs of chiral ligand-capped gold nanoparticles differing in size, curvature, and ligand density to tune the chirality transfer from nanoscale solid surfaces to a bulk anisotropic liquid crystal medium. Ultimately, we are examining how far the chirality from a nanoparticle surface reaches into a bulk material. Circular dichroism spectra of the gold nanoparticles decorated with binaphthyl thiols confirmed that the binaphthyl moieties form a cisoid conformation in isotropic organic solvents. In the chiral nematic liquid crystal phase, induced by dispersing the gold nanoparticles into an achiral anisotropic nematic liquid crystal solvent, the binaphthyl moieties on the nanoparticle surface form a transoid conformation as determined by imaging the helical twist direction of the induced cholesteric phase. This suggests that the ligand density on the nanoscale metal surfaces provides a dynamic space to alter and adjust the helicity of binaphthyl derivatives in response to the ordering of the surrounding medium. The helical pitch values of the induced chiral nematic phase were determined, and the helical twisting power (HTP) of the chiral gold nanoparticles calculated to elucidate the chirality transfer efficiency of the binaphthyl ligand capped gold nanoparticles. Remarkably, the HTP increases with increasing diameter of the particles, that is, the efficiency of the chirality transfer of the binaphthyl units bound to the nanoparticle

  4. Carabelli's trait revisited: an examination of mesiolingual features at the enamel-dentine junction and enamel surface of Pan and Homo sapiens upper molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Alejandra; Skinner, Matthew M; Bailey, Shara E; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2012-10-01

    Carabelli's trait is a morphological feature that frequently occurs on the mesiolingual aspect of Homo sapiens upper molars. Similar structures also referred to as Carabelli's trait have been reported in apes and fossil hominins. However, the morphological development and homology of these mesiolingual structures among hominoids are poorly understood. In this study, we employ micro-computed tomography to image the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) and outer enamel surface (OES) of Pan (n = 48) and H. sapiens (n = 52) upper molars. We investigate the developmental origin of mesiolingual features in these taxa and establish the relative contribution of the EDJ and enamel cap to feature expression. Results demonstrate that mesiolingual features of H. sapiens molars develop at the EDJ and are similarly expressed at the OES. Morphological variation at both surfaces in this taxon can satisfactorily be assessed using standards for Carabelli's trait developed by the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System (ASUDAS). Relative to H. sapiens, Pan has an even greater degree of correspondence in feature expression between the EDJ and OES. Morphological manifestations in Pan molars are not necessarily limited to the protocone and are best characterized by a lingual cingulum that cannot be captured by the ASUDAS. Cusp-like structures, similar to those seen in marked Carabelli's trait expressions in H. sapiens, were not found in Pan. This study provides a foundation for further analyses on the evolutionary history of mesiolingual dental traits within the hominoid lineage. It also highlights the wealth of morphological data that can be obtained at the EDJ for understanding tooth development and for characterizing tooth crown variation in worn fossil teeth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Variable domain N-linked glycosylation and negative surface charge are key features of monoclonal ACPA: implications for B-cell selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Katy A; Steen, Johanna; Amara, Khaled; Titcombe, Philip J; Israelsson, Lena; Lundström, Susanna L; Zhou, Diana; Zubarev, Roman A; Reed, Evan; Piccoli, Luca; Gabay, Cem; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Baeten, Dominique; Lundberg, Karin; Mueller, Daniel L; Klareskog, Lars; Malmström, Vivianne; Grönwall, Caroline

    2018-03-07

    Autoreactive B cells have a central role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and recent findings have proposed that anti-citrullinated protein autoantibodies (ACPA) may be directly pathogenic. Herein, we demonstrate the frequency of variable-region glycosylation in single-cell cloned mAbs. A total of 14 ACPA mAbs were evaluated for predicted N-linked glycosylation motifs in silico, and compared to 452 highly-mutated mAbs from RA patients and controls. Variable region N-linked motifs (N-X-S/T) were strikingly prevalent within ACPA (100%) compared to somatically hypermutated (SHM) RA bone marrow plasma cells (21%), and synovial plasma cells from seropositive (39%) and seronegative RA (7%). When normalized for SHM, ACPA still had significantly higher frequency of N-linked motifs compared to all studied mAbs including highly-mutated HIV broadly-neutralizing and malaria-associated mAbs. The Fab glycans of ACPA-mAbs were highly sialylated, contributed to altered charge, but did not influence antigen binding. The analysis revealed evidence of unusual B-cell selection pressure and SHM-mediated decreased in surface charge and isoelectric point in ACPA. It is still unknown how these distinct features of anti-citrulline immunity may have an impact on pathogenesis. However, it is evident that they offer selective advantages for ACPA+ B cells, possibly also through non-antigen driven mechanisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Fibroblast activation protein-α, a stromal cell surface protease, shapes key features of cancer associated fibroblasts through proteome and degradome alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczorowska, M M; Tholen, S; Bucher, F; Lutz, L; Kizhakkedathu, J N; De Wever, O; Wellner, U F; Biniossek, M L; Stahl, A; Lassmann, S; Schilling, O

    2016-01-01

    Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) constitute an abundant stromal component of most solid tumors. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) α is a cell surface protease that is expressed by CAFs. We corroborate this expression profile by immunohistochemical analysis of colorectal cancer specimens. To better understand the tumor-contextual role of FAPα, we investigate how FAPα shapes functional and proteomic features of CAFs using loss- and gain-of function cellular model systems. FAPα activity has a strong impact on the secreted CAF proteome ("secretome"), including reduced levels of anti-angiogenic factors, elevated levels of transforming growth factor (TGF) β, and an impact on matrix processing enzymes. Functionally, FAPα mildly induces sprout formation by human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Moreover, loss of FAPα leads to a more epithelial cellular phenotype and this effect was rescued by exogenous application of TGFβ. In collagen contraction assays, FAPα induced a more contractile cellular phenotype. To characterize the proteolytic profile of FAPα, we investigated its specificity with proteome-derived peptide libraries and corroborated its preference for cleavage carboxy-terminal to proline residues. By "terminal amine labeling of substrates" (TAILS) we explored FAPα-dependent cleavage events. Although FAPα acts predominantly as an amino-dipeptidase, putative FAPα cleavage sites in collagens are present throughout the entire protein length. In contrast, putative FAPα cleavage sites in non-collagenous proteins cluster at the amino-terminus. The degradomic study highlights cell-contextual proteolysis by FAPα with distinct positional profiles. Generally, our findings link FAPα to key aspects of CAF biology and attribute an important role in tumor-stroma interaction to FAPα. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Kinetics and thermodynamics studies on the BMP-2 adsorption onto hydroxyapatite surface with different multi-morphological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Zhiwei; Huangfu, Changxin; Wang, Yanying; Ge, Hongwei; Yao, Yao; Zou, Ping; Wang, Guangtu [College of Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya' an 625014 (China); He, Hua [Institute of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Sichuan 611130 (China); Rao, Hanbing, E-mail: rhbscu@gmail.com [College of Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya' an 625014 (China)

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the surface topography on protein adsorption process is of great significance for designing hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic material surfaces. In this work, three different topographies of HA materials HA-sheet, HA-rod, and HA-whisker were synthesized and testified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). We have systematically investigated the adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2) on the three different topography surfaces of HA, respectively. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacities of HA-sheet, HA-rod and HA-whisker were (219.96 ± 10.18), (247.13 ± 12.35), and (354.67 ± 17.73) μg · g{sup −1}, respectively. Kinetic parameters, rate constants, equilibrium adsorption capacities and related correlation coefficients, for each kinetic model were calculated as well as discussed. It demonstrated that the adsorption of BMP-2 onto HA could be described by the pseudo second-order equation. Adsorption of BMP-2 onto HA followed the Langmuir isotherm. It confirmed that compared with other samples HA-whisker had more adsorption sites for its high specific surface area which could provide more opportunities for protein molecules. The adsorption processes were endothermic (ΔH > 0), spontaneous (ΔG < 0) and entropy increasing (ΔS > 0). A possible adsorption mechanism has been proposed. In addition, the BMP-2 could be adsorbed to the surface which existed slight conformational changes by FT-IR. - Highlights: • A novel protein adsorption studies based on sheet, rod and whisker of HA were designed. • Kinetic and thermodynamics parameters of BMP-2 and HA bonded materials were evaluated. • Surface topographies of the HA effect BMP-2 adsorption • The HA-whisker material had excellent adsorption performance for protein enrichment. • The electrostatic interaction is responsible for the

  8. Kinetics and thermodynamics studies on the BMP-2 adsorption onto hydroxyapatite surface with different multi-morphological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zhiwei; Huangfu, Changxin; Wang, Yanying; Ge, Hongwei; Yao, Yao; Zou, Ping; Wang, Guangtu; He, Hua; Rao, Hanbing

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the surface topography on protein adsorption process is of great significance for designing hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic material surfaces. In this work, three different topographies of HA materials HA-sheet, HA-rod, and HA-whisker were synthesized and testified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). We have systematically investigated the adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2) on the three different topography surfaces of HA, respectively. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacities of HA-sheet, HA-rod and HA-whisker were (219.96 ± 10.18), (247.13 ± 12.35), and (354.67 ± 17.73) μg · g −1 , respectively. Kinetic parameters, rate constants, equilibrium adsorption capacities and related correlation coefficients, for each kinetic model were calculated as well as discussed. It demonstrated that the adsorption of BMP-2 onto HA could be described by the pseudo second-order equation. Adsorption of BMP-2 onto HA followed the Langmuir isotherm. It confirmed that compared with other samples HA-whisker had more adsorption sites for its high specific surface area which could provide more opportunities for protein molecules. The adsorption processes were endothermic (ΔH > 0), spontaneous (ΔG < 0) and entropy increasing (ΔS > 0). A possible adsorption mechanism has been proposed. In addition, the BMP-2 could be adsorbed to the surface which existed slight conformational changes by FT-IR. - Highlights: • A novel protein adsorption studies based on sheet, rod and whisker of HA were designed. • Kinetic and thermodynamics parameters of BMP-2 and HA bonded materials were evaluated. • Surface topographies of the HA effect BMP-2 adsorption • The HA-whisker material had excellent adsorption performance for protein enrichment. • The electrostatic interaction is responsible for the BMP-2

  9. Renal Epithelial Cell Injury Induced by Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Depends on their Structural Features: Size, Surface, and Crystalline Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin-Yuan; Ouyang, Jian-Ming; Gan, Qiong-Zhi; Liu, Ai-Jie

    2016-11-01

    Urinary crystals in normal and kidney stone patients often differ in crystal sizes and surface structures, but the effects of different crystal properties on renal tubular epithelial cells remain unclear. This study aimed to compare the cytotoxicity of micron/nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals with sizes of 50 nm, 200 nm, 1 μm, 3 μm, and 10 μm to African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells, to reveal the effect of crystal size and surface structure on cell injury, and to investigate the pathological mechanism of calcium oxalate kidney stones. Cell viability, cellular biochemical parameters, and internalized crystal amount in Vero cells were closely associated with the size of COM crystals. At the same concentration (200 μg/mL), COM-1 μm induced the most serious injury to Vero cells and caused the most significant change to cellular biochemical parameters, which were related to the specific porous structure and highest internalized amount in Vero cells. By contrast, COM-50 nm and COM-200 nm crystals lost their small size effect because of serious aggregation and weakened their toxicity to cells. COM-3 μm and COM-10 μm crystals were too large for cells to completely internalize; these crystals also exhibited a low specific surface area and thus weakened their toxicity. The excessive expression of intracellular ROS and reduction of the free-radical scavenger SOD were the main reasons for cell injury and eventually caused necrotic cell death. Crystal size, surface structure, aggregation, and internalization amount were closely related to the cytotoxicity of COM crystals.

  10. Feature displacement interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Andresen, Per Rønsholt

    1998-01-01

    Given a sparse set of feature matches, we want to compute an interpolated dense displacement map. The application may be stereo disparity computation, flow computation, or non-rigid medical registration. Also estimation of missing image data, may be phrased in this framework. Since the features...... often are very sparse, the interpolation model becomes crucial. We show that a maximum likelihood estimation based on the covariance properties (Kriging) show properties more expedient than methods such as Gaussian interpolation or Tikhonov regularizations, also including scale......-selection. The computational complexities are identical. We apply the maximum likelihood interpolation to growth analysis of the mandibular bone. Here, the features used are the crest-lines of the object surface....

  11. Structural features and seismotectonic implications of coseismic surface ruptures produced by the 2016 M w 7.1 Kumamoto earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Aiming

    2017-09-01

    Field investigations and analyses of satellite images and aerial photographs reveal that the 2016 M w 7.1 (Mj 7.3) Kumamoto earthquake produced a ˜40-km surface rupture zone striking NE-SW on central Kyushu Island, Japan. Coseismic surface ruptures were characterized by shear faults, extensional cracks, and mole tracks, which mostly occurred along the pre-existing NE-SW-striking Hinagu-Futagawa fault zone in the southwest and central segments, and newly identified faults in the northeast segment. This study shows that (i) the Hinagu-Futagawa fault zone triggered the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake and controlled the spatial distribution of coseismic surface ruptures; (ii) the southwest and central segments were dominated by right-lateral strike-slip movement with a maximum in-site measured displacement of up to 2.5 m, accompanied by a minor vertical component. In contrast, the northeast segment was dominated by normal faulting with a maximum vertical offset of up to 1.75 m with a minor horizontal component that formed graben structures inside Aso caldera; (iii) coseismic rupturing initiated at the jog area between the Hinagu and Futagawa faults, then propagated northeastward into Aso caldera, where it terminated. The 2016 M w 7.1 Kumamoto earthquake therefore offers a rare opportunity to study the relationships between coseismic rupture processes and pre-existing active faults, as well as the seismotectonics of Aso volcano.

  12. The Significance of Immunohistochemical Staining, Including that for Glucose Transporter Protein Isoform 1, as Related to the Clinical and Angiographic Features of Adult Soft-Tissue Hemangioma and Arteriovenous Malformation in the Head and Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ha Young; Kim, Seon Mi; Choi, Jin Woo

    2009-01-01

    Glucose transporter protein isoform 1 (GLUT1) has been introduced to diagnose the hemangiomas of infancy. We investigated the usefulness of several immunohistochemical markers, including GLUT1, as related with the clinical and radiologic findings for making the diagnosis of adult subcutaneous vascular lesions in the head and neck. Materials and Methods: The 24 patients who underwent operations for soft tissue vascular lesion during the previous 7 years were included in this study. We analyzed the angiographic data, the clinical data and the immunohistochemical study results, including the GLUT1, S-100 protein and Movat pentichrome staining. Results: Twenty-two patients were confirmed to have arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and two hemangiomas, respectively. The number of lesions with positive Movat pentichrome, S-100 and GLUT1 staining in the patients with AVM and those patients with hemangioma were 22/22, 20/22 and 0/22, and 0/2, 0/2 and 0/2, respectively. For the 22 patients with AVMs, eight had a soft tissue vascular lesion at birth, 13 had cutaneous change and 15 had a change of the size of the lesion. For the 2 patients with one hemangioma each, neither patient had a soft tissue vascular lesion at birth, and both patients had cutaneous change and a change of the size of the lesion. The angiograms revealed a focal hypervascular mass (19/24) or diffuse staining (5/24) without showing significant features for making the definitive differential diagnosis. Our study revealed that none of the patients with AVM or hemangioma had GLUT1 positivity, and an arteriovenous malformation was more common than the adult-type hemangioma

  13. Hyperspatial Thermal Imaging of Surface Hydrothermal Features at Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska using a small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselwimmer, C. E.; Wilson, R.; Upton, C.; Prakash, A.; Holdmann, G.; Walker, G.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal remote sensing provides a valuable tool for mapping and monitoring surface hydrothermal features associated with geothermal activity. The increasing availability of low-cost, small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) with integrated thermal imaging sensors offers a means to undertake very high spatial resolution (hyperspatial), quantitative thermal remote sensing of surface geothermal features in support of exploration and long-term monitoring efforts. Results from the deployment of a quadcopter sUAS equipped with a thermal camera over Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska for detailed mapping and heat flux estimation for hot springs, seeps, and thermal pools are presented. Hyperspatial thermal infrared imagery (4 cm pixels) was acquired over Pilgrim Hot Springs in July 2013 using a FLIR TAU 640 camera operating from an Aeryon Scout sUAS flying at an altitude of 40m. The registered and mosaicked thermal imagery is calibrated to surface temperature values using in-situ measurements of uniform blackbody tarps and the temperatures of geothermal and other surface pools acquired with a series of water temperature loggers. Interpretation of the pre-processed thermal imagery enables the delineation of hot springs, the extents of thermal pools, and the flow and mixing of individual geothermal outflow plumes with an unprecedented level of detail. Using the surface temperatures of thermal waters derived from the FLIR data and measured in-situ meteorological parameters the hot spring heat flux and outflow rate is calculated using a heat budget model for a subset of the thermal drainage. The heat flux/outflow rate estimates derived from the FLIR data are compared against in-situ measurements of the hot spring outflow rate recorded at the time of the thermal survey.

  14. The color enhancement and collimation features of the multi-colored LEDs with different periodic microstructure on the top surface of TIR lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Shang-Ping; Fu, Han-Kuei

    2017-09-01

    Due to the advantages, such as high efficiency, power consumption reduction, no mercury, pure saturated color, high reliability and long lifetime, the solid-state lighting based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has become very popular at this stage. In the lighting applications such as spot lighting, downlighting, architectural and show lighting, the colortunable properties with collimating beam of LEDs are highly demanded. The color-tunable lighting is easily achieved using multi-colored LEDs instead of inefficient color filters. However, the applications of multi-colored LEDs usually appear the undesirable light patterns such as color separation or color fringes. At the meantime, the use of TIR (total internal reflection) lens for multi-colored LEDs to collimate the light from the LEDs with different color will introduce seriously undesirable artifacts. Thus, a periodic microstructure surface on the top surface of the TIR lens would be used to reshape the light from the different colored LED chips in the multi-colored LEDs, and then decrease the color separation and color nonuniformity. In this study, the TIR lens with periodic microstructure surface on the top surface would be used to collimate the light from multi-colored LEDs with low color separation or color fringes. The analysis of color enhancement and collimation features of the multi-colored LEDs with different periodic microstructure on the top surface of the TIR lens is presented.

  15. Equipment for decontamination of inner vessel surfaces featuring sound or ultrasound transducer on float inside liquid-filled vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar, J.; Straka, M.

    1982-01-01

    The equipment for the decontamination of the inner surfaces of vessels consists of an immersion float which is provided with a screw, an electric motor, a rudder and at least one float chamber, and a remotely controlled valve. The float is provided with a power source, a high frequency a.c. current generator and a control panel outside the vessel. The float is connected to parts of the equipment outside the vessel by a multi-core cable. The immersion float may also be provided with a detector for measuring the quantity of ionizing radiation whose display is placed outside the vessel being decontaminated. (B.S.)

  16. De novo synthesis of a metal-organic framework material featuring ultrahigh surface area and gas storage capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farha, Omar K; Yazaydın, A Özgür; Eryazici, Ibrahim; Malliakas, Christos D; Hauser, Brad G; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Nguyen, SonBinh T; Snurr, Randall Q; Hupp, Joseph T

    2010-11-01

    Metal-organic frameworks--a class of porous hybrid materials built from metal ions and organic bridges--have recently shown great promise for a wide variety of applications. The large choice of building blocks means that the structures and pore characteristics of the metal-organic frameworks can be tuned relatively easily. However, despite much research, it remains challenging to prepare frameworks specifically tailored for particular applications. Here, we have used computational modelling to design and predictively characterize a metal-organic framework (NU-100) with a particularly high surface area. Subsequent experimental synthesis yielded a material, matching the calculated structure, with a high BET surface area (6,143 m(2) g(-1)). Furthermore, sorption measurements revealed that the material had high storage capacities for hydrogen (164 mg g(-1)) and carbon dioxide (2,315 mg g(-1))--gases of high importance in the contexts of clean energy and climate alteration, respectively--in excellent agreement with predictions from modelling.

  17. Application of atomic mutations included in nuclear reactions, 40Ar(γ, p)39Cl(β decay)39Ar, to surface study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkuma, Juzo

    1987-01-01

    It has been found that the nuclear transformation processes which are initiated by photonuclear reactions can be used for studying the adsorption and chemical reactions taking place on solid surfaces. Chemically reactive 39 Cl was produced by irradiating 40 Ar with high-energy bremsstrahlung, and its blow was directed onto several material surfaces. The amount of chlorine adsorption was ascertained by detecting its radioactivity. Desorption without heating the adsorber samples inevitably occurred owing to the nuclear decay of 39 Cl. The adsorption and desorption rates were compared for several elements. A fast growth of oxide islands on sample surfaces was observed during the adsorption-desorption process. (author)

  18. System and method for investigating sub-surface features of a rock formation with acoustic sources generating conical broadcast signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre -Yves; Larmat, Carene S.

    2015-08-18

    A method of interrogating a formation includes generating a conical acoustic signal, at a first frequency--a second conical acoustic signal at a second frequency each in the between approximately 500 Hz and 500 kHz such that the signals intersect in a desired intersection volume outside the borehole. The method further includes receiving, a difference signal returning to the borehole resulting from a non-linear mixing of the signals in a mixing zone within the intersection volume.

  19. Controlling Cell Functions and Fate with Surfaces and Hydrogels: The Role of Material Features in Cell Adhesion and Signal Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Ventre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In their natural environment, cells are constantly exposed to a cohort of biochemical and biophysical signals that govern their functions and fate. Therefore, materials for biomedical applications, either in vivo or in vitro, should provide a replica of the complex patterns of biological signals. Thus, the development of a novel class of biomaterials requires, on the one side, the understanding of the dynamic interactions occurring at the interface of cells and materials; on the other, it requires the development of technologies able to integrate multiple signals precisely organized in time and space. A large body of studies aimed at investigating the mechanisms underpinning cell-material interactions is mostly based on 2D systems. While these have been instrumental in shaping our understanding of the recognition of and reaction to material stimuli, they lack the ability to capture central features of the natural cellular environment, such as dimensionality, remodelling and degradability. In this work, we review the fundamental traits of material signal sensing and cell response. We then present relevant technologies and materials that enable fabricating systems able to control various aspects of cell behavior, and we highlight potential differences that arise from 2D and 3D settings.

  20. Detailed gravimetric geoid confirmation of short wavelength features of sea surface topography detected by the Skylab S-193 altimeter in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J. G.; Vincent, S.; Mcclinton, A. T.; Chang, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid was computed for the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea area in support of the calibration and evaluation of the GEOS-C altimeter. This geoid, computed on a 15 ft. x 15 ft. grid was based upon a combination of surface gravity data with the GSFC GEM-6 satellite derived gravity data. A comparison of this gravimetric geoid with 10 passes of SKYLAB altimeter data is presented. The agreement of the two data types is quite good with the differences generally less than 2 meters. Sea surface manifestations of numerous short wavelength (approximately 100 km) oceanographic features are now indicated in the gravimetric geoid and are also confirmed by the altimetry data.

  1. LDRD final report : on the development of hybrid level-set/particle methods for modeling surface evolution during feature-scale etching and deposition processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, Cory L.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Musson, Lawrence Cale

    2005-01-01

    Two methods for creating a hybrid level-set (LS)/particle method for modeling surface evolution during feature-scale etching and deposition processes are developed and tested. The first method supplements the LS method by introducing Lagrangian marker points in regions of high curvature. Once both the particle set and the LS function are advanced in time, minimization of certain objective functions adjusts the LS function so that its zero contour is in closer alignment with the particle locations. It was found that the objective-minimization problem was unexpectedly difficult to solve, and even when a solution could be found, the acquisition of it proved more costly than simply expanding the basis set of the LS function. The second method explored is a novel explicit marker-particle method that we have named the grid point particle (GPP) approach. Although not a LS method, the GPP approach has strong procedural similarities to certain aspects of the LS approach. A key aspect of the method is a surface rediscretization procedure--applied at each time step and based on a global background mesh--that maintains a representation of the surface while naturally adding and subtracting surface discretization points as the surface evolves in time. This method was coded in 2-D, and tested on a variety of surface evolution problems by using it in the ChISELS computer code. Results shown for 2-D problems illustrate the effectiveness of the method and highlight some notable advantages in accuracy over the LS method. Generalizing the method to 3D is discussed but not implemented

  2. Identifying significant environmental features using feature recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Department of Environmental Analysis at the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet has expressed an interest in feature-recognition capability because it may help analysts identify environmentally sensitive features in the landscape, : including those r...

  3. Correlation between phonon anomaly along [211] and the Fermi surface nesting features with associated electron-phonon interactions in Ni2FeGa: A first principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabungbam, Satyananda; Sahariah, Munima B.

    2015-01-01

    First principles calculation reaffirms the presence of phonon anomaly along [211] direction in Ni 2 FeGa shape memory alloy supporting the experimental findings of J. Q. Li et al. Fermi surface scans have been performed in both austenite and martensite phase to see the possible Fermi nesting features in this alloy. The magnitude of observed Fermi surface nesting vectors in (211) plane exactly match the phonon anomaly wavevectors along [211] direction. Electron-phonon calculation in the austenite phase shows that there is significant electron-phonon coupling in this alloy which might arise out of the lattice coupling between lower acoustic modes and higher optical modes combined with the observed strong Fermi nesting features in the system. - Highlights: • Transverse acoustic (TA 2 ) modes show anomaly along [211] direction in Ni 2 FeGa. • The phonon anomaly wavevector has been correlated with the Fermi nesting vectors. • Electron-phonon coupling calculation shows significant coupling in this system. • Max. el-ph coupling occurs in transition frequencies from acoustic to optical modes

  4. Data acquisition and processing system and method for investigating sub-surface features of a rock formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Cung Khac; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S

    2015-01-27

    A system and a method includes generating a first signal at a first frequency; and a second signal at a second frequency. Respective sources are positioned within the borehole and controllable such that the signals intersect in an intersection volume outside the borehole. A receiver detects a difference signal returning to the borehole generated by a non-linear mixing process within the intersection volume, and records the detected signal and stores the detected signal in a storage device and records measurement parameters including a position of the first acoustic source, a position of the second acoustic source, a position of the receiver, elevation angle and azimuth angle of the first acoustic signal and elevation angle and azimuth angle of the second acoustic signal.

  5. System and method for investigating sub-surface features of a rock formation using compressional acoustic sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S.

    2016-09-27

    A system and method for investigating rock formations outside a borehole are provided. The method includes generating a first compressional acoustic wave at a first frequency by a first acoustic source; and generating a second compressional acoustic wave at a second frequency by a second acoustic source. The first and the second acoustic sources are arranged within a localized area of the borehole. The first and the second acoustic waves intersect in an intersection volume outside the borehole. The method further includes receiving a third shear acoustic wave at a third frequency, the third shear acoustic wave returning to the borehole due to a non-linear mixing process in a non-linear mixing zone within the intersection volume at a receiver arranged in the borehole. The third frequency is equal to a difference between the first frequency and the second frequency.

  6. Surface and sub-surface anatomy of the landscape: integrating Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Structure from Motion (UAV-SfM) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GRP) to investigate sedimentary features in the field. - an example from NW Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callow, Nik; Leopold, Matthias; May, Simon Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Geomorphology is confronted by the challenge of reconstructing landscape features at appropriate scales, resolution and accuracy, that allows meaningful analysis of environmental processes and their implications. Field geomorphology offers a discrete snapshot (i.e. one or two field campaigns) to reconstruct how features have changed, evolved or responded over time. We explore the application of an emerging photogrammetry technique called Structure-from-Motion (SfM), which uses multiple photographs of the same feature (but taken at different locations) to create high-accuracy three-dimensional models of surface of sedimentary fans formed by extreme wave events. This approach is complimented by investigation of the sub-surface morphology using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). Using an UAV "octocopter", we captured 1208 photos with a DSLR camera (Canon EoS-M) at the height of 50m with a ground pixel resolution of 9mm, above a cyclone wash-over fan in the Exmouth Gulf (Western Australia) that measured about 500m inland by 300m wide. Based on 38 ground control point targets (with between 4 and 45 individual photographs per target) the SfM surface had an absolute total (XYZ) accuracy of 51mm (39mm X, 29mm Y and 14mm Y), based on RTK-DGPS surveying from a local ground reference station (with an absolute AUSPOS accuracy of 57mm X, 6mm Y, 50mm Z to AHD) and an overall relative point accuracy of 7mm. A sparse point cloud of over 5.5 million data points was generated using only points with a reconstruction accuracy of Python. The output was then manually classified into ground and non-ground points, and the geostatistical analyst functionality of ArcGIS used to produce a final bare-earth DEM. This approach has allowed the study team to economically collect an unprecedented high-resolution and accuracy topographic model of this feature to compliment on-ground sediment, geophysics and dating work to analyse the complex evolution structure of the wash-over sequence and the

  7. A Homology Model Reveals Novel Structural Features and an Immunodominant Surface Loop/Opsonic Target in the Treponema pallidum BamA Ortholog TP_0326.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Amit; Anand, Arvind; Hawley, Kelly L; LeDoyt, Morgan; La Vake, Carson J; Caimano, Melissa J; Cruz, Adriana R; Salazar, Juan C; Radolf, Justin D

    2015-06-01

    We recently demonstrated that TP_0326 is a bona fide rare outer membrane protein (OMP) in Treponema pallidum and that it possesses characteristic BamA bipartite topology. Herein, we used immunofluorescence analysis (IFA) to show that only the β-barrel domain of TP_0326 contains surface-exposed epitopes in intact T. pallidum. Using the solved structure of Neisseria gonorrhoeae BamA, we generated a homology model of full-length TP_0326. Although the model predicts a typical BamA fold, the β-barrel harbors features not described in other BamAs. Structural modeling predicted that a dome comprised of three large extracellular loops, loop 4 (L4), L6, and L7, covers the barrel's extracellular opening. L4, the dome's major surface-accessible loop, contains mainly charged residues, while L7 is largely neutral and contains a polyserine tract in a two-tiered conformation. L6 projects into the β-barrel but lacks the VRGF/Y motif that anchors L6 within other BamAs. IFA and opsonophagocytosis assay revealed that L4 is surface exposed and an opsonic target. Consistent with B cell epitope predictions, immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed that L4 is an immunodominant loop in T. pallidum-infected rabbits and humans with secondary syphilis. Antibody capture experiments using Escherichia coli expressing OM-localized TP_0326 as a T. pallidum surrogate further established the surface accessibility of L4. Lastly, we found that a naturally occurring substitution (Leu(593) → Gln(593)) in the L4 sequences of T. pallidum strains affects antibody binding in sera from syphilitic patients. Ours is the first study to employ a "structure-to-pathogenesis" approach to map the surface topology of a T. pallidum OMP within the context of syphilitic infection. Previously, we reported that TP_0326 is a bona fide rare outer membrane protein (OMP) in Treponema pallidum and that it possesses the bipartite topology characteristic of a BamA ortholog. Using a homology

  8. Analysis of a Free Surface Film from a Controlled Liquid Impinging Jet over a Rotating Disk Including Conjugate Effects, with and without Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Subramanian (Technical Monitor); Rice, Jeremy; Faghri, Amir; Cetegen, Baki M.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the liquid film characteristics and the accompanying heat transfer of a free surface controlled liquid impinging jet onto a rotating disk are presented. The computations were run on a two-dimensional axi-symmetric Eulerian mesh while the free surface was calculated with the volume of fluid method. Flow rates between 3 and 15 1pm with rotational speeds between 50 and 200 rpm are analyzed. The effects of inlet temperature on the film thickness and heat transfer are characterized as well as evaporative effects. The conjugate heating effect is modeled, and was found to effect the heat transfer results the most at both the inner and outer edges of the heated surface. The heat transfer was enhanced with both increasing flow rate and increasing rotational speeds. When evaporative effects were modeled, the evaporation was found to increase the heat transfer at the lower flow rates the most because of a fully developed thermal field that was achieved. The evaporative effects did not significantly enhance the heat transfer at the higher flow rates.

  9. Address Points, This is a point feature class depicting site access points for every address in Washburn County. Points were derived from 2004 6inch Orthophotos and field survey/GSP efforts. Attributes included in this data set include; road name, suffix, address numbe, Published in 2008, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Washburn County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Address Points dataset current as of 2008. This is a point feature class depicting site access points for every address in Washburn County. Points were derived from...

  10. Surface Tension of Binary Mixtures Including Polar Components Modeled by the Density Gradient Theory Combined with the PC-SAFT Equation of State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinš, Václav; Planková, Barbora; Hrubý, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 5 (2013), s. 792-812 ISSN 0195-928X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905; GA ČR(CZ) GPP101/11/P046; GA ČR GA101/09/1633 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : chemical polarity * gradient theory * surface tension Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.623, year: 2013 http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&id=doi:10.1007/s10765-012-1207-z

  11. The Plasmodium falciparum transcriptome in severe malaria reveals altered expression of genes involved in important processes including surface antigen–encoding var genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin-Hill, Gerry Q.; Trianty, Leily; Noviyanti, Rintis; Nguyen, Hanh H. T.; Sebayang, Boni F.; Lampah, Daniel A.; Marfurt, Jutta; Cobbold, Simon A.; Rambhatla, Janavi S.; McConville, Malcolm J.; Rogerson, Stephen J.; Brown, Graham V.; Day, Karen P.; Price, Ric N.; Anstey, Nicholas M.

    2018-01-01

    Within the human host, the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is exposed to multiple selection pressures. The host environment changes dramatically in severe malaria, but the extent to which the parasite responds to—or is selected by—this environment remains unclear. From previous studies, the parasites that cause severe malaria appear to increase expression of a restricted but poorly defined subset of the PfEMP1 variant, surface antigens. PfEMP1s are major targets of protective immunity. Here, we used RNA sequencing (RNAseq) to analyse gene expression in 44 parasite isolates that caused severe and uncomplicated malaria in Papuan patients. The transcriptomes of 19 parasite isolates associated with severe malaria indicated that these parasites had decreased glycolysis without activation of compensatory pathways; altered chromatin structure and probably transcriptional regulation through decreased histone methylation; reduced surface expression of PfEMP1; and down-regulated expression of multiple chaperone proteins. Our RNAseq also identified novel associations between disease severity and PfEMP1 transcripts, domains, and smaller sequence segments and also confirmed all previously reported associations between expressed PfEMP1 sequences and severe disease. These findings will inform efforts to identify vaccine targets for severe malaria and also indicate how parasites adapt to—or are selected by—the host environment in severe malaria. PMID:29529020

  12. Characterization of Genotoxic Response to 15 Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes with Variable Physicochemical Properties Including Surface Functionalizations in the FE1-Muta(TM) Mouse Lung Epithelial Cell Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Kling, Kirsten; Jensen, Keld Alstrup

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes vary greatly in physicochemical properties. We compared cytotoxic and genotoxic response to 15 multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with varying physicochemical properties to identify drivers of toxic responses. The studied MWCNT included OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanoma...

  13. Surface for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Make Microsoft's Surface work-and play-just the way you want it to Microsoft's Surface tablet has the features and personality you're looking for, with a robust environment for business computing that doesn't skimp on fun. Surface for Dummies, 2nd Edition explains how Windows 8.1 Pro and Windows RT differ, and helps you decide which Surface model is best for you. Step by step, this book walks you through both the hardware and software features of the Surface, including the touch cover and type cover, Windows RT and Windows 8.1 Pro operating systems, and the coveted Office Home & Student 2013 s

  14. Glazed ceramic roof tiles: influence of surface features in the solar reflectance index; Influencia das caracteristicas da superficie no indice de refletancia solar de telhas ceramicas esmaltadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoli, Leitcia Silva de; Stapait, Camila Cristina; Marinoski, Deivis Luis; Fredel, Marcio Celso; Schabbach, Luciana M., E-mail: luciana.maccarini@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Blumenau, SC (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    In this study the influence of surface features of ceramic roof tiles in the solar reflectance index were evaluated. Two glazed ceramic roof tiles (type stoneware) with the same color (ivory) but with different appearance (matte and brilliant) were the focus of the analysis. The Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of the roofs tiles were determined by the solar reflectance values (UV-VIS-NIR) and emittance, measured in laboratory. The samples showed SRI> 39 in accordance with LEED certification criteria (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), contributing to minimizing the Heat Island Effects. Although the matte roof tile shows a slightly higher SRI value (82) than the brilliant one (78), the results for the variables that composes the SRI value (reflectance and emittance) were very similar. Analysis of XRD, SEM and EDS performed on the surfaces of the two roofs indicated for the matte glaze the presence of microcrystals (with barium and zinc) that can contribute to the slightly highest value of SRI. The roughness (optical interferometer white light) and the brightness (brightness meter) of the samples were also measured. (author)

  15. Online feature selection with streaming features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xindong; Yu, Kui; Ding, Wei; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xingquan

    2013-05-01

    We propose a new online feature selection framework for applications with streaming features where the knowledge of the full feature space is unknown in advance. We define streaming features as features that flow in one by one over time whereas the number of training examples remains fixed. This is in contrast with traditional online learning methods that only deal with sequentially added observations, with little attention being paid to streaming features. The critical challenges for Online Streaming Feature Selection (OSFS) include 1) the continuous growth of feature volumes over time, 2) a large feature space, possibly of unknown or infinite size, and 3) the unavailability of the entire feature set before learning starts. In the paper, we present a novel Online Streaming Feature Selection method to select strongly relevant and nonredundant features on the fly. An efficient Fast-OSFS algorithm is proposed to improve feature selection performance. The proposed algorithms are evaluated extensively on high-dimensional datasets and also with a real-world case study on impact crater detection. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithms achieve better compactness and higher prediction accuracy than existing streaming feature selection algorithms.

  16. Surface Textures and Features Indicative of Endogenous Growth at the McCartys Flow Field, NM, as an Analog to Martian Volcanic Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Crumpler, L. S.; Garry, W. B.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Self, S.; Aubele, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Basaltic lavas typically form channels or tubes, which are recognized on the Earth and Mars. Although largely unrecognized in the planetary community, terrestrial inflated sheet flows also display morphologies that share many commonalities with lava plains on Mars. The McCartys lava flow field is among the youngest (approx.3000 yrs) basaltic flows in the continental United States. The southwest sections of the flow displays smooth, flat-topped plateaus with irregularly shaped pits and hummocky inter-plateau units that form a polygonal surface. Plateaus are typically elongate in map view, up to 20 m high and display lineations within the glassy crust. Lineated surfaces occasionally display small < 1m diameter lava coils. Lineations are generally straight and parallel each other, sometimes for over 100 meters. The boundaries between plateaus and depressions are also lineated and tilted to angles sometimes approaching vertical. Plateau-parallel cracks, sometimes containing squeeze-ups, mark the boundary between tilted crust and plateau. Some plateau depressions display level floors with hummocky surfaces, while some are bowl shaped with floors covered in broken lava slabs. The lower walls of pits sometimes display lateral, sagged lava wedges. Infrequently, pit floors display the upper portion of a tumulus from an older flow. In some places the surface crust has been disrupted forming a slabby texture. Slabs are typically on the scale of a meter or less across and no less than 7-10 cm thick. The slabs preserve the lineated textures of the undisturbed plateau crust. It appears that this style of terrain represents the emplacement of an extensive sheet that experiences inflation episodes within preferred regions where lateral spreading of the sheet is inhibited, thereby forming plateaus. Rough surfaces represent inflation-related disruption of pahoehoe lava and not a a lava. Depressions are often the result of non-inflation and can be clearly identified by lateral

  17. Cosmic ray exposure dating of geo-morphic surface features using in situ-produced 10Be: tectonic and climatic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siame, L.; Bellier, O.; Sebrier, M.; Braucher, R.; Bourles, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of continental landforms is mainly modulated by the impact of climatic and tectonic processes. Because of their distinctive morphology and the periodicity of their deposition, climatically induced landforms such as alluvial fans or terraces are well suited to infer rates of tectonic and continental climatic processes. Within tectonically active regions, an important step consists in dating displaced geomorphic features to calculate slip rates on active faults. Dating is probably the most critical tool because it is generally much more simpler to measure deformation resulting from tectonic activity than it is to accurately date when that deformation occurred. Recent advances in analytical chemistry and nuclear physics (accelerator mass spectrometry) now allow quantitative abundance measurements of the extremely rare isotopes produced by the interaction of cosmic rays with surface rocks and soils, the so-called in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides ( 3 He, 10 Be, 21 Ne, 26 Al, 36 Cl), and allow to directly date the duration that a landform has been exposed to cosmic rays at the Earth's surface (Lal, 1991; Nishiizumi et al., 1993; Cerling and Craig, 1994; Clark et al., 1995]. In fact, the abundance of these cosmo-nuclides is proportional to landscape stability and, under favorable circumstances, their abundance within surface rocks can be used as a proxy for erosion rate or exposure age. These cosmo-nuclides thus provide geomorphologists with the opportunity to constrain rates of landscape evolution. This paper presents a new approach that combines cosmic ray exposure (CRE) dating using in situ-produced 10 Be and geomorphic as well as structural analyse. This approach has been applied on two active strike-slip and reverse faults located in the Andean fore-land of western Argentina. These two case studies illustrate how CRE dating using in situ-produced 10 Be is particularly well suited for geomorphic studies that aim to estimate the respective control of

  18. Efficacy of humidity retention bags for the reduced adsorption and improved cleaning of tissue proteins including prion-associated amyloid to surgical stainless steel surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secker, T J; Pinchin, H E; Hervé, R C; Keevil, C W

    2015-01-01

    Increasing drying time adversely affects attachment of tissue proteins and prion-associated amyloid to surgical stainless steel, and reduces the efficacy of commercial cleaning chemistries. This study tested the efficacy of commercial humidity retention bags to reduce biofouling on surgical stainless steel and to improve subsequent cleaning. Surgical stainless steel surfaces were contaminated with ME7-infected brain homogenates and left to dry for 15 to 1,440 min either in air, in dry polythene bags or within humidity retention bags. Residual contamination pre/post cleaning was analysed using Thioflavin T/SYPRO Ruby dual staining and microscope analysis. An increase in biofouling was observed with increased drying time in air or in sealed dry bags. Humidity retention bags kept both protein and prion-associated amyloid minimal across the drying times both pre- and post-cleaning. Therefore, humidity bags demonstrate a cheap, easy to implement solution to improve surgical instrument reprocessing and to potentially reduce associated hospital acquired infections.

  19. Renner-Teller effect in linear tetra-atomic molecules. I. Variational method including couplings between all degrees of freedom on six-dimensional potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutier, L.; Léonard, C.; Gatti, F.

    2009-04-01

    For electronically degenerate states of linear tetra-atomic molecules, a new method is developed for the variational treatment of the Renner-Teller and spin-orbit couplings. The approach takes into account all rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom, the dominant couplings between the corresponding angular momenta as well as the couplings with the electronic and electron spin angular momenta. The complete rovibrational kinetic energy operator is expressed in Jacobi coordinates, where the rovibrational angular momenta ĴN have been replaced by L̂ez-Ŝ and the spin-orbit coupling has been described by the perturbative term ASO×L̂ezṡŜz. Attention has been paid on the electronic wave functions, which require additional phase for linear tetra-atomic molecules. Our implemented rovibrational basis functions and the integration of the different parts of the total Hamiltonian operator are described. This new variational approach is tested on the electronic ground state X Π2u of HCCH+ for which new six-dimensional potential energy surfaces have been computed using the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction method and the cc-pV5Z basis set. The calculated rovibronic energies and their comparisons with previous theoretical and experimental works are presented in the next paper.

  20. Development of symmetric composition-gradient materials including hard particles in its surface layer; Hyosobu ni koshitsu ryushi wo fukumu taishogata sosei keisha zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Development of new materials with both thermal resistance and thermal shock resistance was studied on the basis of symmetric ceramics/metal/ceramics gradient composition. Al2O3/TiC/Ni/TiC/Al2O3 was used as material model of basic composition, and the system was selected where WC-Co system alloy hard particles were dispersed into the Al2O3 ceramic surface layer. The layered material was sintered in N2 gas atmosphere by SHS/HIP method using exothermic caused by nitriding reaction. Since cracks were generated in some specimens of 5-layer structure, improved specimens of 7-layer structure were prepared. To examine the effect of a particle size on toughness, WC-Co system alloy specimens with different particle sizes were also prepared. As a result, no cracks were found, and residual stress and fracture toughness were affected by particle size. In addition, the following were studied: technique of mass production, observation of fine structures, analysis of thermal stress, thermal shock resistance, and friction and abrasion characteristics. 13 refs., 65 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Determination of drugs in surface water and wastewater samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: Methods and preliminary results including toxicity studies with Vibrio fischeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farre, M.; Ferrer, I.; Ginebreda, A.; Figueras, M.; Olivella, L.; Tirapu, L.; Vilanova, M.; Barcelo, D.

    2001-01-01

    In the present work a combined analytical method involving toxicity and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) was developed for the determination of pharmaceutical compounds in water samples. The drugs investigated were the analgesics: ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, and diclofenac, the decomposition product of the acetyl salicylic acid: salicylic acid and one lipid lowering agent, gemfibrozil. The selected compounds are acidic substances, very polar and all of them are analgesic compounds that can be purchased without medical prescription. The developed protocol consisted, first of all, on the use Microtox?? and ToxAlert??100 toxicity tests with Vibrio fischeri for the different pharmaceutical drugs. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) values and the toxicity units (TU) were determined for every compound using both systems. Sample enrichment of water samples was achieved by solid-phase extraction procedure (SPE), using the Merck LiChrolut?? EN cartridges followed by LC-ESI-MS. Average recoveries loading 1 l of samples with pH=2 varied from 69 to 91% and the detection limits in the range of 15-56 ng/l. The developed method was applied to real samples from wastewater and surface-river waters of Catalonia (north-east of Spain). One batch of samples was analyzed in parallel also by High Resolution Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (HRGC-MS) and the results have been compared with the LC-ESI-MS method developed in this work. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Drone Use in Monioring Open Ocean Surface Debris, Including Paired Manta and Tucker Trawls for Relateing Sea State to Vertical Debris Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattin, G.

    2016-02-01

    Monitoring debris at sea presents challenges not found in beach or riverine habitats, and is typically done with trawl nets of various apertures and mesh sizes, which limits the size of debris captured and the area surveyed. To partially overcome these limitations in monitoring floating debris, a Quadcopter drone with video transmitting and recording capabilities was deployed at the beginning and the end of manta trawl transects within the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre's eastern convergence zone. Subsurface tucker trawls at 10 meters were conducted at the same time as the manta trawls, in order to assess the effect of sea state on debris dispersal. Trawls were conducted on an 11 station grid used repeatedly since 1999. For drone observations, the operator and observer were stationed on the mother ship while two researchers collected observed debris using a rigid inflatable boat (RIB). The drone was flown to a distance of approximately 100 meters from the vessel in a zigzag or circular search pattern. Here we examine issues arising from drone deployment during the survey: 1) relation of area surveyed by drone to volume of water passing through trawl; 2) retrieval of drone-spotted and associated RIB spotted debris. 3) integrating post- flight image analysis into retrieved debris quantification; and 4) factors limiting drone effectiveness at sea. During the survey, debris too large for the manta trawl was spotted by the drone, and significant debris not observed using the drone was recovered by the RIB. The combination of drone sightings, RIB retrieval, and post flight image analysis leads to improved monitoring of debris at sea. We also examine the issue of the distribution of floating debris during sea states varying from 0-5 by comparing quantities from surface manta trawls to the tucker trawls at a nominal depth of 10 meters.

  3. Water Distribution Lines, Includes water pipes (not connections to structures, fire hydrants and other features. Capture in Microstation and does not contain attribution. Has annotation and is converted to GIS semi-anually. Only available upon permission., Published in 2011, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Howard County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Water Distribution Lines dataset current as of 2011. Includes water pipes (not connections to structures, fire hydrants and other features. Capture in Microstation...

  4. Occurrence and Ecotoxicological Effects of Free, Conjugated, and Halogenated Steroids Including 17α-Hydroxypregnanolone and Pregnanediol in Swiss Wastewater and Surface Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Zhao, Yanbin; Fent, Karl

    2017-06-06

    Apart from estrogens, the occurrence and ecotoxicity of steroids in aquatic environments is poorly known. Here, we analyzed 33 steroids, including estrogens, androgens, progestins, and glucocorticoids, in hospital wastewaters, river water, and municipal wastewater treatment plant (WTP) influents and effluents at different sites in Switzerland. In addition, wastewater from different treatment steps of two WTPs with advanced treatment, such as ozonation or pulverized activated carbon, were analyzed to study the steroid's behavior during treatment. Considerable levels of different steroids occurred in hospital and raw municipal wastewater, but they were low (lower than 1 ng/L) or below the detection level in effluents of WTPs and river water. In WTP influents, estrogens (estrone, 17β-estradiol, and estriol), androgens (androstenedione, androsterone, trans-androsterone, and testosterone), progestins and metabolites (progesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, megestrol acetate, mifepristone, pregnanediol, 17α-hydroxypregnanolone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, and 21α-hydroxyprogesterone) were detected and removed effectively during biological treatment. Ozonation further removed the steroids. Exposure of zebrafish embryos demonstrated negligible effects of pregnanediol and 17α-hydroxypregnanolone, while mixtures that mimic wastewater and river water composition affected embryo development and led to the alteration of steroidogenesis gene transcripts at nanogram per liter concentrations. Although steroid concentrations are low in Swiss rivers, the possibility of additive effects may be of concern.

  5. The effect of graphene oxide on surface features, biological performance and bio-stability of calcium phosphate coating applied by pulse electrochemical deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathyunes, Leila; Khalil-Allafi, Jafar

    2018-04-01

    In the current study, the effect of second phase of graphene oxide (GO) on the surface features and biological behavior of calcium phosphate (CaP) coating was evaluated. To do so, the GO-CaP composite coating was applied on TiO2 nanotubular arrays using pulse electrochemical deposition. The SEM and AFM images showed that, the CaP-based coating with uniform and refined microstructure could be formed through its compositing with GO sheets. The biological assessment of the coatings was also conducted by cell culture test and MTT assay. Based on findings, the GO-CaP coating showed the better biocompatibility compared to the CaP coating. This could be owing to the fact that the composite coating provided the lower roughness, moderately wettable surface with a contact angle of 23.5° ± 2.6° and the higher stability in the biological environments because of being involved with only the stable phase of CHA. However, in the CaP coating, spreading of cells could be limited by the plate-like crystals with larger size. The higher solubility of the CaP coating in the cell culture medium possibly owing to the existence of some metastable CaP phases like OCP in addition to the dominant phase of CHA in this coating could be another reason for its less biocompatibility. At last, the CaP coating showed the higher apatite-forming ability in SBF solution after its compositing with GO.

  6. Skin physiology in men and women: in vivo evaluation of 300 people including TEWL, SC hydration, sebum content and skin surface pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebberding, S; Krueger, N; Kerscher, M

    2013-10-01

    Evidence is given that differences in skin physiological properties exist between men and women. However, despite an assessable number of available publications, the results are still inconsistent. Therefore, the aim of this clinical study is the first systematic assessment of gender-related differences in skin physiology in men and women, with a special focus on changes over lifetime. A total of 300 healthy male and female subjects (20-74 years) were selected following strict criteria including age, sun behaviour or smoking habits. TEWL, hydration level, sebum production and pH value were measured with worldwide-acknowledged biophysical measuring methods at forehead, cheek, neck, volar forearm and dorsum of hand. Until the age of 50 men's TEWL is significantly lower than the water loss of women of the same age, regardless of the location. With ageing gender-related differences in TEWL assimilate. Young men show higher SC hydration in comparison with women. But, whereas SC hydration is stable or even increasing in women over lifetime, the skin hydration in men is progressively decreasing, beginning at the age of 40. Sebum production in male skin is always higher and stays stable with increasing age, whereas sebum production in women progressively decreases over lifetime. Across all localizations and age groups, the pH value in men is below 5, the pH value of female subjects is, aside from limited expectations, higher than 5. Skin physiological distinctions between the sexes exist and are particularly remarkable with regard to sebum production and pH value. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  7. Analysis of the Geometrical Evolution in On-the-Fly Surface-Hopping Nonadiabatic Dynamics with Machine Learning Dimensionality Reduction Approaches: Classical Multidimensional Scaling and Isometric Feature Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xusong; Xie, Yu; Hu, Deping; Lan, Zhenggang

    2017-10-10

    On-the-fly trajectory-based nonadiabatic dynamics simulation has become an important approach to study ultrafast photochemical and photophysical processes in recent years. Because a large number of trajectories are generated from the dynamics simulation of polyatomic molecular systems with many degrees of freedom, the analysis of simulation results often suffers from the large amount of high-dimensional data. It is very challenging but meaningful to find dominating active coordinates from very complicated molecular motions. Dimensionality reduction techniques provide ideal tools to realize this purpose. We apply two dimensionality reduction approaches (classical multidimensional scaling and isometric feature mapping) to analyze the results of the on-the-fly surface-hopping nonadiabatic dynamics simulation. Two representative model systems, CH 2 NH 2 + and the phytochromobilin chromophore model, are chosen to examine the performance of these dimensionality reduction approaches. The results show that these approaches are very promising, because they can extract the major molecular motion from complicated time-dependent molecular evolution without preknown knowledge.

  8. Relative Path Impact Index (RPII): a morphometric approach to quantify the effect of anthropogenic features on surface flow processes in agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, P.; Prosdocimi, M.; Sofia, G.; Preti, F.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2014-12-01

    Soil erosion in cultivated land is one of the main critical issue because of its significant economic consequences, especially whether it occurs in hilly and mountainous environments. Among the cultivated lands, vineyards deserve a particular attention. In fact, they not only represent one of the most important crop in terms of income and employment, but they also constitute the form of agricultural land use that causes the highest soil loss. In these cultivated lands, the construction of terraces is one of the most widely used system for soil and water conservation measures. However, while favoring agricultural activities, terraces may cause local instabilities as well, if they are not properly maintained. Terraced fields are also served by agricultural roads and the construction of these anthropogenic features can have deep effects on water flows and instabilities. In fact, the plane surface of roads can intercept the overland and the subsurface flow and can modify the natural flow directions expanding the drainage network. The main objective of this work is to use high-resolution topography derived from lidar technology for a hydro-geomorphological analysis of terraced vineyards. We considered few case studies located in Italy. At first, the Relative Path Impact Index (RPII) is used to identify likely sections of terraces and agricultural roads subject to potential landsliding or erosion. Statistical thresholds of RPII are then defined to label the most critical areas. Afterwards, using the index and the defined thresholds, different scenarios of soil conservation measures are simulated, to establish the optimal solution for erosion reduction. The results prove the effectiveness of high-resolution topography in the analysis of surface erosion in terraced vineyards, when the surface water flow is the main factor triggering the instabilities. This preliminary analysis can help in scheduling a suitable planning to mitigate the consequences of the anthropogenic

  9. Development of a Repeatable Protocol to Uniformly Coat Internal Complex Geometries of Fine Featured 3D Printed Objects with Ceramic Material, including Determination of Viscosity Limits to Properly Coat Certain Pore Sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-18

    HEPA filters are commonly used in air filtration systems ranging in application from simple home systems to the more advanced networks used in research and development. Currently, these filters are most often composed of glass fibers with diameter on the order of one micron with polymer binders. These fibers, as well as the polymers used, are known to be fragile and can degrade or become extremely brittle with heat, severely limiting their use in high temperature applications. Ceramics are one promising alternative and can enhance the filtration capabilities compared to the current technology. Because ceramic materials are more thermally resistant and chemically stable, there is great interest in developing a repeatable protocol to uniformly coat fine featured polymer objects with ceramic material for use as a filter. The purpose of this experiment is to determine viscosity limits that are able to properly coat certain pore sizes in 3D printed objects, and additionally to characterize the coatings themselves. Latex paint was used as a surrogate because it is specifically designed to produce uniform coatings.

  10. Nutrient dynamics and oceanographic features in the central Namibian upwelling region as reflected in δ15N-signals of suspended matter and surface sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Meisel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the modern situation of the northern Benguela Upwelling, directing particular attention to the shelf region off central Namibia (21 to 24° S. At the centre of the investigation is the comparison of δ15N-records in surface sediments (δ15Nsediment with suspended particulate matter (δ15NSPM from the surface ocean. In addition to that, water column profiles (including hydrographic data provide an insight into changes of δ15NSPM with depth and elucidate potential offsets between δ15NSPM and δ15Nsediment. The parallel spatial trend of δ15Nsediment and surface ocean δ15NSPM shows that secondary processes are not so pronounced as to obliterate the signal generated in the surface waters. Highest δ15N-signatures are found right off the coast where water temperatures are lowest. Concomitantly high productivity rates and low bottom oxygen suggest the upwelling of denitrified source waters. With increasing distance offshore, δ15N declines unexpectedly, reaching a minimum above the shelf break. Beyond that, the trend reverses to "normal" with δ15N-signals continuously increasing towards the mesopelagic ocean. The decrease in δ15Nsediment and surface ocean δ15NSPM with increasing distance to the coast disagrees with the concept of Rayleigh fractionation kinetics, viz. the progressive 15N-enrichment of the nitrate pool as it is gradually used up by phytoplankton growth. On the basis of the available evidence, the downward trend of δ15N results from decreased relative nitrate consumption, resting on a combination of reduced primary production and the existence of an ulterior source of nutrients. Nutrient replenishment seems to occur via an additional upwelling front at the edge of the shelf as well as tapping of subsurface nitrate through sufficiently deep penetration of wind- and wave-induced mixing over large areas of the shelf. Both mechanisms are considered capable of working against the expected nutrient drawdown (i.e. 15

  11. Yield Surface for Bars Including Warping Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    Kreyenhagen Stragetic Air Command Columbia University ATTN: NRI-STINFO Library ATTN: H. Bleich ATTN: F. Dimaggio DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY University of Denver...TIC-Library SRI International ATTN: G. Abrahamson M & T Company ATTN: W. Wilkinson ATTN: D. McNaight ATTN: A. Florence Management Science Associates

  12. Fire Hydrants, Fire hydrants outside the City of Wichita. Primary attributes include hydrant number and ID. Layer is under development by Sedgwick County Fire Department. Primary attributes include GPS status, feature-mapped-to, hydrants ID, address, situs city, mai, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Fire Hydrants dataset current as of 2008. Fire hydrants outside the City of Wichita. Primary attributes include hydrant number and ID. Layer is under development by...

  13. MLPA analysis for a panel of syndromes with mental retardation reveals imbalances in 5.8% of patients with mental retardation and dysmorphic features, including duplications of the Sotos syndrome and Williams-Beuren syndrome regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhoff, Maria; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Bryndorf, Thue

    2007-01-01

    -Beuren, Prader-Willi, Angelman, Miller-Dieker, Smith-Magenis, and 22q11-deletion syndromes). Patients were initially referred for HR-CGH analysis and MRS-MLPA was performed retrospectively. MRS-MLPA analysis revealed imbalances in 15/258 patients (5.8%). Ten deletions were identified, including deletions of 1p36......MLPA analysis for a panel of syndromes with mental retardation (MRS-MLPA) was used for investigation of 258 mentally retarded and dysmorphic patients with normal conventional karyotypes (P064 probe set, MRC-Holland, for detection of (micro)deletions associated with 1p36-deletion, Sotos, Williams......, 5q35 (Sotos syndrome), 7q11 (Williams-Beuren syndrome), 17p11 (Smith-Magenis syndrome), 15q11 (Angelman syndrome) and 22q11. Duplications were detected in 5q35, 7q11, 17p13, 17p11 and 22q11. We reviewed another 170 patients referred specifically for MRS-MLPA analysis. Eighty of these patients were...

  14. Detection of anomalous features in an earthen dam using inversion of P-wave first-arrival times and surface-wave dispersion curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. Y.; Jeon, K. M.; Hong, M. H.; Park, Young-gyu

    2011-02-01

    To locate anomalous features including seepage pathways through the Daeryong earth-fill dam, P and Rayleigh waves were recorded along a 250-m profile on the crest of the dam. Seismic energy was generated using a 5-kg sledgehammer and detected by 24 4.5-Hz vertical-axis geophones installed at 3-m intervals. P-wave and apparent S-wave velocities of the reservoir dam and underlying bedrock were then inverted from first-arrival traveltimes and dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves, respectively. Apparent dynamic Poisson's ratios as high as 0.46 were obtained at the base of the dam near its north-east end, where an outlet conduit occurs, and in the clay core body near the south-west end of the profile where the dam was repeatedly grouted to abate seepage before our survey. These anomalies of higher Poisson's ratios in the upper part of clay core were also associated with effusion of grout on the downstream slope of the dam during post-survey grouting to abate leakage. Combining P-wave traveltime tomography and inversion of Rayleigh wave velocities was very effective in detecting potential pathways for seepage and previous grouted zones in this earthen dam.

  15. Dynamics of Back Electron Transfer in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Featuring 4-tert-Butyl-Pyridine and Atomic-Layer-Deposited Alumina as Surface Modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Michael J; Vermeer, Michael J DeVries; Farha, Omar K; Pellin, Michael J; Hupp, Joseph T

    2015-06-18

    A series of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) was constructed with TiO2 nanoparticles and N719 dye. The standard I3(-)/I(-) redox shuttle and the Co(1,10-phenanthroline)3(3+/2+) shuttle were employed. DSCs were modified with atomic-layered-deposited (ALD) coatings of Al2O3 and/or with the surface-adsorbing additive 4-tert-butyl-pyridine. Current-voltage data were collected to ascertain the influence of each modification upon the back electron transfer (ET) dynamics of the DSCs. The primary effect of the additives alone or in tandem is to increase the open-circuit voltage. A second is to alter the short-circuit current density, JSC. With dependence on the specifics of the system examined, any of a myriad of dynamics-related effects were observed to come into play, in both favorable (efficiency boosting) and unfavorable (efficiency damaging) ways. These effects include modulation of (a) charge-injection yields, (b) rates of interception of injected electrons by redox shuttles, and (c) rates of recombination of injected electrons with holes on surface-bound dyes. In turn, these influence charge-collection lengths, charge-collection yields, and onset potentials for undesired dark current. The microscopic origins of the effects appear to be related mainly to changes in driving force and/or electronic coupling for underlying component redox reactions. Perhaps surprisingly, only a minor role for modifier-induced shifts in conduction-band-edge energy was found. The combination of DSC-efficiency-relevant effects engendered by the modifiers was found to vary substantially as a function of the chemical identity of the redox shuttle employed. While types of modifiers are effective, a challenge going forward will be to construct systems in ways in which the benefits of organic and inorganic modifiers can be exploited in fully additive, or even synergistic, fashion.

  16. Systematic evaluation program review of NRC Safety Topic VI-10.A associated with the electrical, instrumentation and control portions of the testing of reactor trip system and engineered safety features, including response time for the Dresden station, Unit II nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Leger-Barter, G.

    1980-11-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation and review of NRC Safety Topic VI-10.A, associated with the electrical, instrumentation, and control portions of the testing of reactor trip systems and engineered safety features including response time for the Dresden II nuclear power plant, using current licensing criteria

  17. Reactor protection system including engineered features actuation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmaers, W.

    1982-01-01

    The safety concept requires to ensure that - the reactor protection system - the active engineered safeguard - and the necessary auxiliary systems are so designed and interfaced in respect of design and mode of action that, in the event of single component failure reliable control of the consequences of accidents remains ensured at all times and that the availability of the power plant is not limited unnecessarily. In order to satisfy these requirements due, importance was attached to a consistent spacial separation of the mutually redundant subsystems of the active safety equipment. The design and layout of the reactor protection system, of the power supply (emergency power supply), and of the auxiliary systems important from the safety engineering point of view, are such that their subsystems also largely satisfy the requirements of independence and spacial separation. (orig./RW)

  18. Glacial Features (Point) - Quad 168 (EPPING, NH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of New Hampshire — The Glacial Features (Point) layer describes point features associated with surficial geology. These glacial features include, but are not limited to, delta forsets,...

  19. Different features of the MHC class I heterodimer have evolved at different rates. Chicken B-F and beta 2-microglobulin sequences reveal invariant surface residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, J; Andersen, R; Avila, D

    1992-01-01

    of small exons in the cytoplasmic region. The cDNA sequences were compared to turkey beta 2m, the apparent allele B-F12 alpha and other vertebrate homologs, using the 2.6 A structure of the human HLA-A2 molecule as a model. Both chicken alpha 1 and alpha 2 domains resemble mammalian classical class I......Chicken beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) and class I (B-F19 alpha chain) cDNA clones were isolated and the sequences compared to those of B-F Ag isolated from chicken E. These clones represent the major expressed class I molecules on E, with B-F alpha size variants evidently due to alternative use...... composition in B-F compared to class I molecules from other taxa. Many of the surface residues are quite diverged, particularly in alpha 3 and beta 2m. There are fewer changes in intra- and interdomain contact sites. Some residues with important functions are invariant, including seven residues that bind...

  20. Understanding Legacy Features with Featureous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    Feature-centric comprehension of source code is essential during software evolution. However, such comprehension is oftentimes difficult to achieve due the discrepancies between structural and functional units of object-oriented programs. We present a tool for feature-centric analysis of legacy...

  1. Site Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of various site features from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times...

  2. Feature Extraction

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Feature selection and reduction are key to robust multivariate analyses. In this talk I will focus on pros and cons of various variable selection methods and focus on those that are most relevant in the context of HEP.

  3. Container Surface Evaluation by Function Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, James G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-03

    Container images are analyzed for specific surface features, such as, pits, cracks, and corrosion. The detection of these features is confounded with complicating features. These complication features include: shape/curvature, welds, edges, scratches, foreign objects among others. A method is provided to discriminate between the various features. The method consists of estimating the image background, determining a residual image and post processing to determine the features present. The methodology is not finalized but demonstrates the feasibility of a method to determine the kind and size of the features present.

  4. PECULIAR FEATURES OF MACHINING MARKS FORMATION ON SURFACE ОF TITANIUM SPECIMEN WITH SINGLE ELECTRO CONTACT ACTION OF WIRE ELECTRODE-TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Kiselev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an investigation of shape and geometry parameters of machining marks obtained on the surface of titanium specimen with a single electro contact action of a wire electrode-tool. A description of the developed unit and methodology for execution of experimental investigations has been given in the paper. The paper provides and analyzes experimentally obtained data showing the effect of conditions and modes of single electro contact action of wire tool-electrode on the shape and geometrical parameters of machining marks obtained on the surface of titanium specimen. It is shown that the formation of these traces occurs in the context of joint action of both the electrical erosion and mechanical action of the working part of the wire electrode-tool on the surface of the titanium specimen that expands technological capabilities of electro contact treatment while  solving problems associated with targeted modification of the original work-piece surfaces.

  5. Hypercrosslinked large surface area porous polymer monoliths for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography of small molecules featuring zwitterionic functionalities attached to gold nanoparticles held in layered structure

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Yongqin; Lin, Zhixing; Svec, Frantisek

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach to porous polymer monoliths hypercrosslinked to obtain large surface areas and modified with zwitterionic functionalities through the attachment of gold nanoparticles in a layered architecture has been developed. The capillary columns were used for the separation of small molecules in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mode. First, a monolith with a very large surface area of 430 m2/g was prepared by hypercrosslinking from a generic poly(4-methylstyrene-co-vinylben...

  6. Studying the hydrological cycle in the Iberian Peninsula using the LEAFHYDRO LSM: Influence of groundwater dynamics on soil moisture and land-atmosphere coupling. Impacts of artificial water extraction in the regional water cycle, including land-surface f

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A.; Miguez-Macho, G.

    2012-04-01

    We perform long-term (10 year) simulations over the Iberian Peninsula at 2.5 km resolution with the LEAFHYDRO LSM, which includes groundwater dynamics and river routing. Atmospheric forcing comes from ERA-interim and a regional high-resolution analysis of precipitation over Spain and Portugal. The model simulates the coupled evolution of the groundwater, land surface (soil moisture and vegetation) and river reservoirs and we validate the simulation with all available observations of river flow and water table depth. In an experiment, we impose an artificial water extraction rate from the groundwater reservoir based on observations and estimations of irrigation withdrawals and we investigate the impact on the regional water cycle. The extraction rates induce a depression of the water table that over the years becomes quite significant and that matches observed decreasing rates of water table levels. The depressed water table discontinues groundwater input into rivers and the stream flow is diminished notably, in particular during the dry summer. Moreover, in areas with semiarid climate where the water table was naturally relatively shallow and connected to soil moisture and vegetation, which include most of the agricultural areas inland Spain, the depression of the water table has a significant impact on soil moisture and land-surface fluxes, with a decrease of root zone soil water availability and evapotranspiration and increasing water stress for the vegetation. The land hydrology alteration is more pronounced in the summer when there is an absence of precipitation, and as the model shows, through the induced changes in land-surface fluxes can potentially have a noticeably impact on the regional climate.

  7. Features of static and dynamic friction profiles in one and two dimensions on polymer and atomically flat surfaces using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G S; Watson, J A

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we correlate the Atomic Force Microscope probe movement with surface location while scanning in the imaging and Force versus distance modes. Static and dynamic stick-slip processes are described on a scale of nanometres to microns on a range of samples. We demonstrate the limits and range of the tip apex being fixed laterally in the force versus distance mode and static friction slope dependence on probe parameters. Micron scale static and dynamic friction can be used to purposefully manipulate soft surfaces to produce well defined frictional gradients

  8. CBFS: high performance feature selection algorithm based on feature clearness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minseok Seo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The goal of feature selection is to select useful features and simultaneously exclude garbage features from a given dataset for classification purposes. This is expected to bring reduction of processing time and improvement of classification accuracy. METHODOLOGY: In this study, we devised a new feature selection algorithm (CBFS based on clearness of features. Feature clearness expresses separability among classes in a feature. Highly clear features contribute towards obtaining high classification accuracy. CScore is a measure to score clearness of each feature and is based on clustered samples to centroid of classes in a feature. We also suggest combining CBFS and other algorithms to improve classification accuracy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: From the experiment we confirm that CBFS is more excellent than up-to-date feature selection algorithms including FeaLect. CBFS can be applied to microarray gene selection, text categorization, and image classification.

  9. Effect of Surface Roughness and Structure Features on Tribological Properties of Electrodeposited Nanocrystalline Ni and Ni/Al2O3 Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Anna; Lityńska-Dobrzyńska, Lidia; Kot, Marcin

    2017-05-01

    Metal matrix composite coatings obtained by electrodeposition are one of the ways of improving the surfaces of materials to enhance their durability and properties required in different applications. This paper presents an analysis of the surface topography, microstructure and properties (residual stresses, microhardness, wear resistance) of Ni/Al2O3 nanocomposite coatings electrodeposited on steel substrates from modified Watt's-type baths containing various concentrations of Al2O3 nanoparticles and a saccharin additive. The residual stresses measured in the Ni/Al2O3 coatings decreased with an increasing amount of the co-deposited ceramics. It was established that the addition of Al2O3 powder significantly improved the coatings' microhardness. The wear mechanism changed from adhesive-abrasive to abrasive with a rising amount of Al2O3 particles and coating microhardness. Nanocomposite coatings also exhibited a lower coefficient of friction than that of a pure Ni-electrodeposited coating. The friction was found to depend on the surface roughness, and the smoother surfaces gave lower friction coefficients.

  10. A level set methodology for predicting the effect of mask wear on surface evolution of features in abrasive jet micro-machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burzynski, T; Papini, M

    2012-01-01

    A previous implementation of narrow-band level set methodology developed by the authors was extended to allow for the modelling of mask erosive wear in abrasive jet micro-machining (AJM). The model permits the prediction of the surface evolution of both the mask and the target simultaneously, by representing them as a hybrid and continuous mask–target surface. The model also accounts for the change in abrasive mass flux incident to both the target surface and, for the first time, the eroding mask edge, that is brought about by the presence of the mask edge itself. The predictions of the channel surface and eroded mask profiles were compared with measurements on channels machined in both glass and poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) targets at both normal and oblique incidence, using tempered steel and elastomeric masks. A much better agreement between the predicted and measured profiles was found when mask wear was taken into account. Mask wear generally resulted in wider and deeper glass target profiles and wider PMMA target profiles, respectively, when compared to cases where no mask wear was present. This work has important implications for the AJM of complex MEMS and microfluidic devices that require longer machining times. (paper)

  11. Influence of grain orientation on evolution of surface features in fatigued polycrystalline copper: a comparison of thermal and uniaxial mechanical fatigue results

    CERN Document Server

    Aicheler, M

    2010-01-01

    Surface state plays a major role in the crack nucleation process of pure metals in the High-Cycle-Fatigue (HCF) as well as in the Ultra-High-Cycle-Fatigue (UHCF) regime. Therefore, in studies dealing with HCF or UHCF, special attention is paid to the evolution of surface degradation during fatigue life. The accelerating structures of the future Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) under study at CERN will be submitted to a high number of thermal-mechanical fatigue cycles, arising from Radio Frequency (RF) induced eddy currents, causing local superficial cyclic heating. The number of cycles during the foreseen lifetime of CLIC reaches 2x10(11). Fatigue may limit the lifetime of CLIC structures. In order to assess the effects of superficial fatigue, specific tests are defined and performed on polycrystalline Oxygen Free Electronic (OFE) grade Copper, a candidate material for the structures. Surface degradation depends on the orientation of near-surface grains. Copper samples thermally fatigued in two different fatigu...

  12. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two

  13. PDMS-SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-CaO hybrid materials – Cytocompatibility and nanoscale surface features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, J. Carlos [CICECO - Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Wacha, András [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Magyar Tudósok körútja 2, Budapest 1117 (Hungary); Gomes, Pedro S.; Fernandes, M. Helena R. [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Fernandes, M. Helena Vaz [CICECO - Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Salvado, Isabel M. Miranda, E-mail: isabelmsalvado@ua.pt [CICECO - Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-07-01

    Two PDMS-SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-CaO porous hybrid materials were prepared using the same base composition, precursors, and solvents, but following two different sol-gel procedures, based on the authors' previous works where for the first time, in this hybrid system, calcium acetate was used as calcium source. The two different procedures resulted in monolithic materials with different structures, microstructures, and surface wettability. Even though both are highly hydrophobic (contact angles of 127.2° and 150.6°), and present different filling regimes due to different surface topographies, they have demonstrated to be cytocompatible when tested with human osteoblastic cells, against the accepted idea that high-hydrophobic surfaces are not suitable to cell adhesion and proliferation. At the nanoscale, the existence of hydrophilic silica domains containing calcium, where water molecules are physisorbed, is assumed to support this capability, as discussed. - Highlights: • Two hybrid materials were prepared following two different sol-gel procedures. • Both are highly hydrophobic but demonstrated to be cytocompatible. • Different filling regimes were observed.

  14. Hydrogeochemical features of surface water and groundwater contaminated with acid mine drainage (AMD) in coal mining areas: a case study in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhardi, Juliana Aparecida; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2016-09-01

    Effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) were investigated in surface waters (Laranjinha River and Ribeirão das Pedras stream) and groundwaters from a coal mining area sampled in two different seasons at Figueira city, Paraná State, Brazil. The spatial data distribution indicated that the acid effluents favor the chemical elements leaching and transport from the tailings pile into the superficial water bodies or aquifers, modifying their quality. The acid groundwaters in both sampling periods (dry: pH 2.94-6.04; rainy: pH 3.25-6.63) were probably due to the AMD generation and infiltration, after the oxidation of sulfide minerals. Such acid effluents cause an increase of the solubilization rate of metals, mainly iron and aluminum, contributing to both groundwater and surface water contamination. Sulfate in high levels is a result of waters' pollution due to AMD. In some cases, high sulfate and low iron contents, associated with less acidic pH values, could indicate that AMD, previously generated, is nowadays being neutralized. The chemistry of the waters affected by AMD is controlled by the pH, sulfide minerals' oxidation, oxygen, iron content, and microbial activity. It is also influenced by seasonal variations that allow the occurrence of dissolution processes and the concentration of some chemical elements. Under the perspective of the waters' quality evaluation, the parameters such as conductivity, dissolved sodium, and sulfate concentrations acted as AMD indicators of groundwaters and surface waters affected by acid effluents.

  15. Lipoprotein hydrophobic core lipids are partially extruded to surface in smaller HDL: “Herniated” HDL, a common feature in diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigó, Núria; Mallol, Roger; Heras, Mercedes; Martínez-Hervás, Sergio; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Plana, Núria; Yanes, Óscar; Masana, Lluís; Correig, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that pharmacological increases in HDL cholesterol concentrations do not necessarily translate into clinical benefits for patients, raising concerns about its predictive value for cardiovascular events. Here we hypothesize that the size-modulated lipid distribution within HDL particles is compromised in metabolic disorders that have abnormal HDL particle sizes, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). By using NMR spectroscopy combined with a biochemical volumetric model we determined the size and spatial lipid distribution of HDL subclasses in a cohort of 26 controls and 29 DM2 patients before and after two drug treatments, one with niacin plus laropiprant and another with fenofibrate as an add-on to simvastatin. We further characterized the HDL surface properties using atomic force microscopy and fluorescent probes to show an abnormal lipid distribution within smaller HDL particles, a subclass particularly enriched in the DM2 patients. The reduction in the size, force cholesterol esters and triglycerides to emerge from the HDL core to the surface, making the outer surface of HDL more hydrophobic. Interestingly, pharmacological interventions had no effect on this undesired configuration, which may explain the lack of clinical benefits in DM2 subjects. PMID:26778677

  16. JCE Feature Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-05-01

    The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using these links you can easily find abstracts of additional articles that are related by topic. Of course, JCE Online+ subscribers are then just one click away from the entire article. Finding related articles is easy because each feature column "site" contains links to the online abstracts of all the articles that have appeared in the column. In addition, you can find the mission statement for the column and the email link to the column editor that I mentioned above. At the discretion of its editor, a feature column site may contain additional resources. As an example, the Chemical Information Instructor column edited by Arleen Somerville will have a periodically updated bibliography of resources for teaching and using chemical information. Due to the increase in the number of these resources available on the WWW, it only makes sense to publish this information online so that you can get to these resources with a simple click of the mouse. We expect that there will soon be additional information and resources at several other feature column sites. Following in the footsteps of the Chemical Information Instructor, up-to-date bibliographies and links to related online resources can be made available. We hope to extend the online component of our feature columns with moderated online discussion forums. If you have a suggestion for an online resource you would like to see included, let the feature editor or JCE Online (jceonline@chem.wisc.edu) know about it. JCE Internet Features JCE Internet also has several feature columns: Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Equipment Buyers Guide, Hal's Picks, Mathcad

  17. Feature curve extraction from point clouds via developable strip intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wah Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the problem of computing smooth feature curves from CAD type point clouds models. The proposed method reconstructs feature curves from the intersections of developable strip pairs which approximate the regions along both sides of the features. The generation of developable surfaces is based on a linear approximation of the given point cloud through a variational shape approximation approach. A line segment sequencing algorithm is proposed for collecting feature line segments into different feature sequences as well as sequential groups of data points. A developable surface approximation procedure is employed to refine incident approximation planes of data points into developable strips. Some experimental results are included to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

  18. Hypercrosslinked large surface area porous polymer monoliths for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography of small molecules featuring zwitterionic functionalities attached to gold nanoparticles held in layered structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yongqin; Lin, Zhixing; Svec, Frantisek

    2012-10-16

    A novel approach to porous polymer monoliths hypercrosslinked to obtain large surface areas and modified with zwitterionic functionalities through the attachment of gold nanoparticles in a layered architecture has been developed. The capillary columns were used for the separation of small molecules in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mode. First, a monolith with a very large surface area of 430 m(2)/g was prepared by hypercrosslinking from a generic poly(4-methylstyrene-co-vinylbenzyl chloride-co-divinylbenzene) monolith via a Friedel-Crafts reaction catalyzed with iron chloride. Free radical bromination then provided this hypercrosslinked monolith with 5.7 at % Br that further reacted with cystamine under microwave irradiation, resulting in a product containing 3.8 at % sulfur. Clipping the disulfide bonds with tris(2-carboxylethyl) phosphine liberated the desired thiol groups that bind the first layer of gold nanoparticles. These immobilized nanoparticles were an intermediate ligand enabling the attachment of polyethyleneimine as a spacer followed by immobilization of the second layer of gold nanoparticles which were eventually functionalized with zwitterionic cysteine. This layered architecture, prepared using 10 nm nanoparticles, contains 17.2 wt % Au, more than twice than that found in the first layer alone. Chromatographic performance of these hydrophilic monolithic columns was demonstrated with the separation of mixtures of nucleosides and peptides in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) mode. A column efficiency of 51,000 plates/m was achieved for retained analyte cytosine.

  19. New features in MEDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, K. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    MEDM, which is derived from Motif Editor and Display Manager, is the primary graphical interface to the EPICS control system. This paper describes new features that have been added to MEDM in the last two years. These features include new editing capabilities, a PV Info dialog box, a means of specifying limits and precision, a new implementation of the Cartesian Plot, new features for several objects, new capability for the Related Display, help, a user-configurable Execute Menu, reconfigured start-up options, and availability for Windows 95/98/NT. Over one hundred bugs have been fixed, and the program is quite stable and in extensive use

  20. Featuring animacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ritter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Algonquian languages are famous for their animacy-based grammatical properties—an animacy based noun classification system and direct/inverse system which gives rise to animacy hierarchy effects in the determination of verb agreement. In this paper I provide new evidence for the proposal that the distinctive properties of these languages is due to the use of participant-based features, rather than spatio-temporal ones, for both nominal and verbal functional categories (Ritter & Wiltschko 2009, 2014. Building on Wiltschko (2012, I develop a formal treatment of the Blackfoot aspectual system that assumes a category Inner Aspect (cf. MacDonald 2008, Travis 1991, 2010. Focusing on lexical aspect in Blackfoot, I demonstrate that the classification of both nouns (Seinsarten and verbs (Aktionsarten is based on animacy, rather than boundedness, resulting in a strikingly different aspectual system for both categories. 

  1. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  2. Development and featuring of hemispherical photomultipliers for cosmic ray detection - calibration of surface detectors and analysis of horizontal showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornic, D.

    2006-09-01

    The large photomultipliers (PMT) are currently used in astro-particle and neutrino experiments where they have to detect low levels of light. We have studied and characterised large PMTs developed by the PHOTONIS Group Company. The first part of this thesis is dedicated to the full characterization of two types of multipliers currently used in large PMTs. Then, we present results of a new photocathode process, applied on the XPI805 (PMT used in the Pierre Auger Observatory) in order to improve the quantum efficiency. Finally, we study the PMT diameter influence on main parameters (5, 8 and 10 inches). The second part is devoted to the study of the water Cerenkov tank (WCD) response to the shower particles and the horizontal air showers analysis with the Pierre Auger Observatory. The main parameters of a WCD simulation developed in the Auger IPN group were calibrated with several measurements on vertical and inclined muons, performed on dedicated test tanks. The kind of detector used in the surface detector allows detecting very inclined events with a good sensitivity (zenith angle superior to 70 degrees). We have established specific methods to analyze these events (selection and reconstruction). These methods were applied to the Auger data in order to obtain the energy spectrum of the horizontal events. Finally, we detailed two methods to test directly the hadronic models predictions by studying the air showers muonic component. (author)

  3. Dependency Parsing with Transformed Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxiang Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependency parsing is an important subtask of natural language processing. In this paper, we propose an embedding feature transforming method for graph-based parsing, transform-based parsing, which directly utilizes the inner similarity of the features to extract information from all feature strings including the un-indexed strings and alleviate the feature sparse problem. The model transforms the extracted features to transformed features via applying a feature weight matrix, which consists of similarities between the feature strings. Since the matrix is usually rank-deficient because of similar feature strings, it would influence the strength of constraints. However, it is proven that the duplicate transformed features do not degrade the optimization algorithm: the margin infused relaxed algorithm. Moreover, this problem can be alleviated by reducing the number of the nearest transformed features of a feature. In addition, to further improve the parsing accuracy, a fusion parser is introduced to integrate transformed and original features. Our experiments verify that both transform-based and fusion parser improve the parsing accuracy compared to the corresponding feature-based parser.

  4. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  5. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  6. Superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Evelyn N; McCarthy, Matthew; Enright, Ryan; Culver, James N; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Ghodssi, Reza

    2015-03-24

    Surfaces having a hierarchical structure--having features of both microscale and nanoscale dimensions--can exhibit superhydrophobic properties and advantageous condensation and heat transfer properties. The hierarchical surfaces can be fabricated using biological nanostructures, such as viruses as a self-assembled nanoscale template.

  7. Parabolic features and the erosion rate on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    The impact cratering record on Venus consists of 919 craters covering 98 percent of the surface. These craters are remarkably well preserved, and most show pristine structures including fresh ejecta blankets. Only 35 craters (3.8 percent) have had their ejecta blankets embayed by lava and most of these occur in the Atla-Beta Regio region; an area thought to be recently active. parabolic features are associated with 66 of the 919 craters. These craters range in size from 6 to 105 km diameter. The parabolic features are thought to be the result of the deposition of fine-grained ejecta by winds in the dense venusian atmosphere. The deposits cover about 9 percent of the surface and none appear to be embayed by younger volcanic materials. However, there appears to be a paucity of these deposits in the Atla-Beta Regio region, and this may be due to the more recent volcanism in this area of Venus. Since parabolic features are probably fine-grain, wind-deposited ejecta, then all impact craters on Venus probably had these deposits at some time in the past. The older deposits have probably been either eroded or buried by eolian processes. Therefore, the present population of these features is probably associated with the most recent impact craters on the planet. Furthermore, the size/frequency distribution of craters with parabolic features is virtually identical to that of the total crater population. This suggests that there has been little loss of small parabolic features compared to large ones, otherwise there should be a significant and systematic paucity of craters with parabolic features with decreasing size compared to the total crater population. Whatever is erasing the parabolic features apparently does so uniformly regardless of the areal extent of the deposit. The lifetime of parabolic features and the eolian erosion rate on Venus can be estimated from the average age of the surface and the present population of parabolic features.

  8. Glacial Features (Point) - Quad 186 (HAMPTON, NH-MA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of New Hampshire — The Glacial Features (Point) layer describes point features associated with surficial geology. These glacial features include, but are not limited to, delta forsets,...

  9. Superhydrophobic surfaces engineered using diatomaceous earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Nuno M; Reis, Rui L; Mano, João F

    2013-05-22

    We present a simple method to prepare superhydrophobic surfaces using siliceous exoskeleton of diatoms, a widespread group of algae. This makes diatomaceous earth an accessible and cheap natural material. A micro/nanoscale hierarchical topography was achieved by coating a glass surface with diatomaceous earth, giving rise to a superhydrophilic surface. Superhydrophobic surfaces were obtained by a further surface chemical modification through fluorosilanization. The wettability of the superhydrophobic surface can be modified by Argon plasma treatment in a controlled way by exposure time variation. The chemical surface modification by fluorosilanization and posterior fluorinated SH surface modification by plasma treatment was analyzed by XPS. Using appropriated hollowed masks only specific areas on the surface were exposed to plasma permitting to pattern hydrophilic features with different geometries on the superhydrophobic surface. We showed that the present strategy can be also applied in other substrates, including thermoplastics, enlarging the potential applicability of the resulting surfaces.

  10. Complex Topographic Feature Ontology Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.; Jerris, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic ontologies are examined as effective data models for the representation of complex topographic feature types. Complex feature types are viewed as integrated relations between basic features for a basic purpose. In the context of topographic science, such component assemblages are supported by resource systems and found on the local landscape. Ontologies are organized within six thematic modules of a domain ontology called Topography that includes within its sphere basic feature types, resource systems, and landscape types. Context is constructed not only as a spatial and temporal setting, but a setting also based on environmental processes. Types of spatial relations that exist between components include location, generative processes, and description. An example is offered in a complex feature type ‘mine.’ The identification and extraction of complex feature types are an area for future research.

  11. Imaging features of thalassemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunaci, M.; Tunaci, A.; Engin, G.; Oezkorkmaz, B.; Acunas, G.; Acunas, B. [Dept. of Radiology, Istanbul Univ. (Turkey); Dincol, G. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Univ. (Turkey)

    1999-07-01

    Thalassemia is a kind of chronic, inherited, microcytic anemia characterized by defective hemoglobin synthesis and ineffective erythropoiesis. In all thalassemias clinical features that result from anemia, transfusional, and absorptive iron overload are similar but vary in severity. The radiographic features of {beta}-thalassemia are due in large part to marrow hyperplasia. Markedly expanded marrow space lead to various skeletal manifestations including spine, skull, facial bones, and ribs. Extramedullary hematopoiesis (ExmH), hemosiderosis, and cholelithiasis are among the non-skeletal manifestations of thalassemia. The skeletal X-ray findings show characteristics of chronic overactivity of the marrow. In this article both skeletal and non-skeletal manifestations of thalassemia are discussed with an overview of X-ray findings, including MRI and CT findings. (orig.)

  12. Beds: practical pressure management for surfaces/mattresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Linda; Coutts, Patricia; Sibbald, R Gary

    2011-07-01

    The prevention and management of pressure ulcers, including support surface selection, are a primary focus of healthcare providers. This article discusses the forces contributing to pressure ulcer formation and explores choosing therapeutic support surface features based on the patient's clinical needs and on using the evidence-informed support surface algorithm and decision trees.

  13. Confidence-Based Feature Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; desJardins, Marie; MacGlashan, James

    2010-01-01

    Confidence-based Feature Acquisition (CFA) is a novel, supervised learning method for acquiring missing feature values when there is missing data at both training (learning) and test (deployment) time. To train a machine learning classifier, data is encoded with a series of input features describing each item. In some applications, the training data may have missing values for some of the features, which can be acquired at a given cost. A relevant JPL example is that of the Mars rover exploration in which the features are obtained from a variety of different instruments, with different power consumption and integration time costs. The challenge is to decide which features will lead to increased classification performance and are therefore worth acquiring (paying the cost). To solve this problem, CFA, which is made up of two algorithms (CFA-train and CFA-predict), has been designed to greedily minimize total acquisition cost (during training and testing) while aiming for a specific accuracy level (specified as a confidence threshold). With this method, it is assumed that there is a nonempty subset of features that are free; that is, every instance in the data set includes these features initially for zero cost. It is also assumed that the feature acquisition (FA) cost associated with each feature is known in advance, and that the FA cost for a given feature is the same for all instances. Finally, CFA requires that the base-level classifiers produce not only a classification, but also a confidence (or posterior probability).

  14. Feature dimensionality reduction for myoelectric pattern recognition: a comparison study of feature selection and feature projection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the effect of the feature dimensionality reduction strategies on the classification of surface electromyography (EMG) signals toward developing a practical myoelectric control system. Two dimensionality reduction strategies, feature selection and feature projection, were tested on both EMG feature sets, respectively. A feature selection based myoelectric pattern recognition system was introduced to select the features by eliminating the redundant features of EMG recordings instead of directly choosing a subset of EMG channels. The Markov random field (MRF) method and a forward orthogonal search algorithm were employed to evaluate the contribution of each individual feature to the classification, respectively. Our results from 15 healthy subjects indicate that, with a feature selection analysis, independent of the type of feature set, across all subjects high overall accuracies can be achieved in classification of seven different forearm motions with a small number of top ranked original EMG features obtained from the forearm muscles (average overall classification accuracy >95% with 12 selected EMG features). Compared to various feature dimensionality reduction techniques in myoelectric pattern recognition, the proposed filter-based feature selection approach is independent of the type of classification algorithms and features, which can effectively reduce the redundant information not only across different channels, but also cross different features in the same channel. This may enable robust EMG feature dimensionality reduction without needing to change ongoing, practical use of classification algorithms, an important step toward clinical utility. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance Tests of Snow-Related Variables Over the Tibetan Plateau and Himalayas Using a New Version of NASA GEOS-5 Land Surface Model that Includes the Snow Darkening Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Tppei J.; Lau, K.-U.; Koster, Randal D.; Suarez, Max; Mahanama, Sarith; Dasilva, Arlindo M.; Colarco, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    The snow darkening effect, i.e. the reduction of snow albedo, is caused by absorption of solar radiation by absorbing aerosols (dust, black carbon, and organic carbon) deposited on the snow surface. This process is probably important over Himalayan and Tibetan glaciers due to the transport of highly polluted Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). This effect has been incorporated into the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System model, version 5 (GEOS-5) atmospheric transport model. The Catchment land surface model (LSM) used in GEOS-5 considers 3 snow layers. Code was developed to track the mass concentration of aerosols in the three layers, taking into account such processes as the flushing of the compounds as liquid water percolates through the snowpack. In GEOS-5, aerosol emissions, transports, and depositions are well simulated in the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GO CART) module; we recently made the connection between GOCART and the GEOS-5 system fitted with the revised LSM. Preliminary simulations were performed with this new system in "replay" mode (i.e., with atmospheric dynamics guided by reanalysis) at 2x2.5 degree horizontal resolution, covering the period 1 November 2005 - 31 December 2009; we consider the final three years of simulation here. The three simulations used the following variants of the LSM: (1) the original Catchment LSM with a fixed fresh snowfall density of 150 kg m-3 ; (2) the LSM fitted with the new snow albedo code, used here without aerosol deposition but with changes in density formulation and melting water effect on snow specific surface area, (3) the LSM fitted with the new snow albedo code as same as (2) but with fixed aerosol deposition rates (computed from GOCART values averaged over the Tibetan Plateau domain [Ion.: 60-120E; lat.: 20-50N] during March-May 2008) applied to all grid points at every time step. For (2) and (3), the same setting on the fresh snowfall density as in (1

  16. Meteorite Impact "Earthquake" Features (Rock Liquefaction, Surface Wave Deformations, Seismites) from Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Geoelectric Complex Resistivity/Induced Polarization (IP) Measurements, Chiemgau (Alpine Foreland, Southeast Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstson, K.; Poßekel, J.

    2017-12-01

    Densely spaced GPR and complex resistivity measurements on a 30,000 square meters site in a region of enigmatic sinkhole occurrences in unconsolidated Quaternary sediments have featured unexpected and highlighting results from both a meteorite impact research and an engineering geology point of view. The GPR measurements and a complex resistivity/IP electrical imaging revealed extended subrosion depressions related with a uniformly but in various degrees of intensity deformed loamy and gravelly ground down to at least 10 m depth. Two principle observations could be made from both the GPR high-resolution measurements and the more integrating resistivity and IP soundings with both petrophysical evidences in good complement. Subrosion can be shown to be the result of prominent sandy-gravelly intrusions and extrusions typical of rock liquefaction processes well known to occur during strong earthquakes. Funnel-shaped structures with diameters up to 25 m near the surface and reaching down to the floating ground water level at 10 m depth were measured. GPR radargrams could trace prominent gravelly-material transport bottom-up within the funnels. Seen in both GPR tomography and resistivity/IP sections more or less the whole investigated area is overprinted by wavy deformations of the unconsolidated sediments with wavelengths of the order of 5 - 10 m and amplitudes up to half a meter, likewise down to 10 m depth. Substantial earthquakes are not known in this region. Hence, the observed heavy underground disorder is considered the result of the prominent earthquake shattering that must have occurred during the Holocene (Bronze Age/Celtic era) Chiemgau meteorite impact event that produced a 60 km x 30 km sized crater strewn field directly hosting the investigated site. Depending on depth and size of floating aquifers local concentrations of rock liquefaction and seismic surface waves (probably LOVE waves) to produce the wavy deformations could develop, when the big

  17. Performance tests of snow-related variables over the Tibetan Plateau and Himalayas using a new version of NASA GEOS-5 land surface model that includes the snow darkening effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, T. J.; Lau, W. K.; Koster, R. D.; Suarez, M.; Mahanama, S. P.; da Silva, A.; Colarco, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    The snow darkening effect, i.e. the reduction of snow albedo, is caused by absorption of solar radiation by absorbing aerosols (dust, black carbon, and organic carbon) deposited on the snow surface. This process is probably important over Himalayan and Tibetan glaciers due to the transport of highly polluted Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). This effect has been incorporated into the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System model, version 5 (GEOS-5) atmospheric transport model. The Catchment land surface model (LSM) used in GEOS-5 considers 3 snow layers. Code was developed to track the mass concentration of aerosols in the three layers, taking into account such processes as the flushing of the compounds as liquid water percolates through the snowpack. In GEOS-5, aerosol emissions, transports, and depositions are well simulated in the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) module; we recently made the connection between GOCART and the GEOS-5 system fitted with the revised LSM. Preliminary simulations were performed with this new system in "replay" mode (i.e., with atmospheric dynamics guided by reanalysis) at 2x2.5 degree horizontal resolution, covering the period 1 November 2005 - 31 December 2009; we consider the final three years of simulation here. The three simulations used the following variants of the LSM: (1) the original Catchment LSM with a fixed fresh snowfall density of 150 kg m-3; (2) the LSM fitted with the new snow albedo code, used here without aerosol deposition but with changes in density formulation and melting water effect on snow specific surface area, (3) the LSM fitted with the new snow albedo code as same as (2) but with fixed aerosol deposition rates (computed from GOCART values averaged over the Tibetan Plateau domain [lon.: 60-120E; lat.: 20-50N] during March-May 2008) applied to all grid points at every time step. For (2) and (3), the same setting on the fresh snowfall density as in (1) was

  18. Banks and Financial Services, The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009 with the intent to map critical infrastructure in the Coastal Zone. The initial four parishes included Lafourche, Plaquemine, St. , Published in 2011, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Banks and Financial Services dataset current as of 2011. The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was...

  19. Banks and Financial Services, The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009 with the intent to map critical infrastructure in the Coastal Zone. The initial four parishes included Lafourche, Plaquemine, St. , Published in 2011, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Banks and Financial Services dataset current as of 2011. The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was...

  20. Hospitals, The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009 with the intent to map critical infrastructure in the Coastal Zone. The initial four parishes included Lafourche, Plaquemine, St. , Published in 2011, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Hospitals dataset current as of 2011. The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009...

  1. Hospitals, The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009 with the intent to map critical infrastructure in the Coastal Zone. The initial four parishes included Lafourche, Plaquemine, St., Published in 2011, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Hospitals dataset current as of 2011. The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009...

  2. Dynamics at Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvia Ceyer, Nancy Ryan Gray

    2010-05-04

    The 2009 Gordon Conference on Dynamics at Surfaces is the 30th anniversary of a meeting held every two years that is attended by leading researchers in the area of experimental and theoretical dynamics at liquid and solid surfaces. The conference focuses on the dynamics of the interaction of molecules with either liquid or solid surfaces, the dynamics of the outermost layer of liquid and solid surfaces and the dynamics at the liquid-solid interface. Specific topics that are featured include state-to-state dynamics, non-adiabatic interactions in molecule-metal systems, photon induced desorption from semiconductor and metal surfaces, ultrafast x-ray and electron diffraction as probes of the dynamics of ablation, ultrafast vibrational spectroscopy of water surface dynamics, dynamics of a single adsorbate, growth at nano-scale mineral surfaces, dynamics of atom recombination on interstellar dust grains and the dynamics of the interaction of water with lipid bilayers. The conference brings together investigators from a variety of scientific disciplines including chemistry, physics, materials science, geology and biophysics.

  3. Surface modification of tribological components in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, G.R.

    1992-11-01

    This paper reviews a number of programs funded through the Engineered Tribological Interfaces (ETI) Task area of the Tribology Program that utilize energetic beams of atoms to enhance the mechanical and microstructural properties of near-surface regions to improve the tribological performance of critical components. The processes used in these programs include techniques based on chemical vapor deposition, physical vapor deposition, and ion implantation. A common feature of these techniques is their ability to produce dense and adherent modified surfaces without need for subsequent grinding/polishing treatments. Another feature of these techniques is their ability to introduce a wide range of elements into near-surface regions.

  4. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  5. Object feature extraction and recognition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Min; Xiang Rujian; Wan Yongxing

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of objects, especially flying objects, are analyzed, which include characteristics of spectrum, image and motion. Feature extraction is also achieved. To improve the speed of object recognition, a feature database is used to simplify the data in the source database. The feature vs. object relationship maps are stored in the feature database. An object recognition model based on the feature database is presented, and the way to achieve object recognition is also explained

  6. Mobius syndrome: MRI features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markarian, Maria F.; Villarroel, Gonzalo M.; Nagel, Jorge R.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Mobius Syndrome or congenital facial diplegia is associated with paralysis of the lateral gaze movements. This syndrome may include other cranial nerve palsies and be associated to musculoskeletal anomalies. Our objective is to show the MRI findings in Mobius Syndrome. Material and methods: MRI study was performed in 3 patients with clinic diagnosis of Mobius Syndrome. RMI (1.5T); exams included axial FSE (T1 and T2), FLAIR, SE/EPI, GRE/20, sagittal FSE T2 , coronal T1, diffusion, angio MRI and Spectroscopy sequences. Results: The common features of this syndrome found in MRI were: depression or straightening of the floor of the fourth ventricle, brainstem anteroposterior diameter diminution, morphologic alteration of the pons and medulla oblongata and of the hypoglossal nuclei as well as severe micrognathia. Conclusion: The morphologic alterations of Mobius Syndrome can be clearly identified by MRI; this method has proved to be a useful diagnostic examination. (author)

  7. Unsupervised Feature Subset Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndberg-Madsen, Nicolaj; Thomsen, C.; Pena, Jose

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies filter and hybrid filter-wrapper feature subset selection for unsupervised learning (data clustering). We constrain the search for the best feature subset by scoring the dependence of every feature on the rest of the features, conjecturing that these scores discriminate some...... irrelevant features. We report experimental results on artificial and real data for unsupervised learning of naive Bayes models. Both the filter and hybrid approaches perform satisfactorily....

  8. Spatial features register: toward standardization of spatial features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Janette

    1994-01-01

    As the need to share spatial data increases, more than agreement on a common format is needed to ensure that the data is meaningful to both the importer and the exporter. Effective data transfer also requires common definitions of spatial features. To achieve this, part 2 of the Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS) provides a model for a spatial features data content specification and a glossary of features and attributes that fit this model. The model provides a foundation for standardizing spatial features. The glossary now contains only a limited subset of hydrographic and topographic features. For it to be useful, terms and definitions must be included for other categories, such as base cartographic, bathymetric, cadastral, cultural and demographic, geodetic, geologic, ground transportation, international boundaries, soils, vegetation, water, and wetlands, and the set of hydrographic and topographic features must be expanded. This paper will review the philosophy of the SDTS part 2 and the current plans for creating a national spatial features register as one mechanism for maintaining part 2.

  9. Effective medium potentials for molecule-surface interactions: H2 on Cu and Ni surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1989-01-01

    outside metal surfaces and the applicability is illustrated for H2 adsorbing on various Cu and Ni surfaces. Although very approximate, the calculated potentials seem to include a number of features observed experimentally: Ni is more active in dissociating H2 than Cu, and open surfaces are more active...... than close-packed ones. Moreover, the method is simple enough that one can contemplate studying variations in dissociation pathways over the surface unit cell. For the Cu surfaces these variations are substantial accounting for at least part of the variation of the sticking coefficient with the kinetic...

  10. Bottom-of-sulcus dysplasia: imaging features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Paul A M; Fitt, Gregory J; Harvey, A Simon; Kuzniecky, Ruben I; Jackson, Graeme

    2011-04-01

    Dysplasia at the bottom of a sulcus is a subtle but distinct malformation of cortical development relevant to epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to review the imaging features important to the clinical diagnosis of this lesion. All cases recognized as typical bottom-of-sulcus dysplasia in our comprehensive epilepsy program over the period 2002-2007 were included in the study. In the 20 cases recognized, three major features were identified: cortical thickening at the bottom of a sulcus; a funnel-shaped extension of the lesion toward the ventricular surface, commonly with abnormal signal intensity; and an abnormal gyral pattern related to the bottom-of-sulcus dysplasia, sometimes with a puckered appearance. The pathologic features of the resected lesions were typical of focal cortical dysplasia. Bottom-of-sulcus dysplasia is a distinctive malformation of cortical development that can be diagnosed on the basis of imaging characteristics. Reliable identification of this type of malformation of cortical development is difficult but clinically important because the lesion appears to be highly epileptogenic and because the prognosis for seizure control is excellent after focal resection.

  11. Automatic Feature Extraction from Planetary Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troglio, Giulia; Le Moigne, Jacqueline; Benediktsson, Jon A.; Moser, Gabriele; Serpico, Sebastiano B.

    2010-01-01

    With the launch of several planetary missions in the last decade, a large amount of planetary images has already been acquired and much more will be available for analysis in the coming years. The image data need to be analyzed, preferably by automatic processing techniques because of the huge amount of data. Although many automatic feature extraction methods have been proposed and utilized for Earth remote sensing images, these methods are not always applicable to planetary data that often present low contrast and uneven illumination characteristics. Different methods have already been presented for crater extraction from planetary images, but the detection of other types of planetary features has not been addressed yet. Here, we propose a new unsupervised method for the extraction of different features from the surface of the analyzed planet, based on the combination of several image processing techniques, including a watershed segmentation and the generalized Hough Transform. The method has many applications, among which image registration and can be applied to arbitrary planetary images.

  12. [Clinicopathologic features of atypical type A thymoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y C; Di, J X; Da, J P

    2017-05-08

    Objective: To study the clinicopathologic features, immunophenotype and differential diagnosis of atypical type A thymoma. Methods: Clinicopathologic and follow-up data of three cases of atypical type A thymoma from 2004 to 2016 were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining was performed. Results: All three patients were male with average age of 59 years. Clinically, the lesions presented as anterior mediastinal masses. Grossly, the tumor ranged in size from 4 to 6 cm in greatest dimension and partially enclosed within fibrous capsule. The cut surface was homogenously fleshy, tan to brown in color, with multinodular and lobulated configurations. Cystic changes and necrosis were seen. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of plump spindle or oval-shaped cells arranged in storiform, microcystic, glandular, rosettes-like and hemangiopericytoma-like histological patterns. The tumor cells showed mild cytological atypia and mitotic activity ranged from 4 to 5/10HPF. Necrosis was present in all tumors. All tumors showed diffuse CK(AE1/AE3), CK19, p63 and vimentin expression. TdT, CK20, CD20, CD5 and CD117 were negative. The proliferative index, as measured with Ki-67, was 15.2% to 26.4%. None of the cases had recurrence or metastases during the follow-up period (9 to 27 months). Conclusions: Atypical type A thymoma presents atypical features including tumor necrosis and increased mitotic activity. However, the implications of such atypical features to the biological behavior of the tumor remain to be determined.

  13. Surfaces of Building Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Surynková, Petra

    2009-01-01

    My diploma thesis Surfaces of Building Practice deals with the basic properties of surfaces, their mathematical description, categorization, and application in technical practice. Each studied surface is defined and its process of construction and parametrical description is listed. The thesis studies selected types of surfaces in details - these surfaces include surfaces of revolution, ruled surfaces, screw surfaces, and translational surfaces. An application of each studied surfaces is show...

  14. Surface Modification and Surface - Subsurface Exchange Processes on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C. B.; Molaro, J.; Hand, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    The surface of Jupiter's moon Europa is modified by exogenic processes such as sputtering, gardening, radiolysis, sulfur ion implantation, and thermal processing, as well as endogenic processes including tidal shaking, mass wasting, and the effects of subsurface tectonic and perhaps cryovolcanic activity. New materials are created or deposited on the surface (radiolysis, micrometeorite impacts, sulfur ion implantation, cryovolcanic plume deposits), modified in place (thermal segregation, sintering), transported either vertically or horizontally (sputtering, gardening, mass wasting, tectonic and cryovolcanic activity), or lost from Europa completely (sputtering, plumes, larger impacts). Some of these processes vary spatially, as visible in Europa's leading-trailing hemisphere brightness asymmetry. Endogenic geologic processes also vary spatially, depending on terrain type. The surface can be classified into general landform categories that include tectonic features (ridges, bands, cracks); disrupted "chaos-type" terrain (chaos blocks, matrix, domes, pits, spots); and impact craters (simple, complex, multi-ring). The spatial distribution of these terrain types is relatively random, with some differences in apex-antiapex cratering rates and latitudinal variation in chaos vs. tectonic features. In this work, we extrapolate surface processes and rates from the top meter of the surface in conjunction with global estimates of transport and resurfacing rates. We combine near-surface modification with an estimate of surface-subsurface (and vice versa) transport rates for various geologic terrains based on an average of proposed formation mechanisms, and a spatial distribution of each landform type over Europa's surface area. Understanding the rates and mass balance for each of these processes, as well as their spatial and temporal variability, allows us to estimate surface - subsurface exchange rates over the average surface age ( 50myr) of Europa. Quantifying the timescale

  15. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  16. Hydrography, HydroBndy-The data set is a line feature containing representing the outline ponds and small reservoirs. It consists of more than 150 lines representing natural and engineered surface water bodies., Published in 2005, Davis County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Hydrography dataset current as of 2005. HydroBndy-The data set is a line feature containing representing the outline ponds and small reservoirs. It consists of more...

  17. Feature Selection by Reordering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiřina, Marcel; Jiřina jr., M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2005), s. 155-161 ISSN 1738-6438 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : feature selection * data reduction * ordering of features Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  18. The Featurization of Journalism

    OpenAIRE

    Steensen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    Feature journalism has developed from being an insignificant supplement to news journalism to a family of genres that today dominates newspapers. The present article explores the growing importance of feature journalism and attempts to understand its social function, how it has changed and why it has become so important. Based on an analysis of influential textbooks on feature journalism, the paper argues that feature journalism has traditionally been dominated by a literary d...

  19. Election Districts and Precincts, Election districts within Sedgwick County, including voter precinct, BOE, BOCC, Council, Senate, and State Representative districts. This layer is maintained interactively by GIS staff. The cityhold cover is used as a source for features and attributes., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Election Districts and Precincts dataset current as of 2008. Election districts within Sedgwick County, including voter precinct, BOE, BOCC, Council, Senate, and...

  20. Intersection of Feature Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.

    In this paper, we present an algorithm for the construction of the intersection of two feature models. The feature models are allowed to have "requires" and "excludes" constraints, and should be parent-compatible. The algorithm is applied to the problem of combining feature models from stakeholders

  1. Merging Feature Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.; Galvao, I.; Noppen, J.A.R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of merging feature models which consist of trees with "requires" and "excludes" constraints. For any two such feature models which are parent-compatible, their merge is defined to be the smallest parent-compatible feature model which has all products of the

  2. Surface boxplots

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-22

    In this paper, we introduce a surface boxplot as a tool for visualization and exploratory analysis of samples of images. First, we use the notion of volume depth to order the images viewed as surfaces. In particular, we define the median image. We use an exact and fast algorithm for the ranking of the images. This allows us to detect potential outlying images that often contain interesting features not present in most of the images. Second, we build a graphical tool to visualize the surface boxplot and its various characteristics. A graph and histogram of the volume depth values allow us to identify images of interest. The code is available in the supporting information of this paper. We apply our surface boxplot to a sample of brain images and to a sample of climate model outputs.

  3. The theory of development of surface morphology by sputter erosion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    When a surface is bombarded by an energetic ion flux a rich variety of surface structures are observed to develop at the atomic, microscopic and macroscopic scales. Such structures include elevated, with respect to the surrounding surface, features such as mesas or plateaux, ridges, cones and pyramids and depressed features such as etch pits and cavities. These elementary features may be isolated or in profusion and frequently repetitive patterns of coordinated pyramidal structures, etch pits, surface ledges or facets and ripple or wave-like structures occur. The majority of the features arise rather directly from the erosion action of the sputtering process, particularly from differential erosion processes at different surface localities. The authors outline a general approach to sputter erosion induced surface morphology development based on the concept of the surface as an advancing wave. (Auth.)

  4. RIPPLE: A new model for incompressible flows with free surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, D. B.; Mjolsness, R. C.

    1991-09-01

    A new free surface flow model, RIPPLE, is summarized. RIPPLE obtains finite difference solutions for incompressible flow problems having strong surface tension forces at free surfaces of arbitrarily complex topology. The key innovation is the Continuum Surface Force (CSF) model which represents surface tension as a (strongly) localized volume force. Other features include a high-order momentum advection model, a volume-of-fluid free surface treatment, and an efficient two-step projection solution method. RIPPLE'S unique capabilities are illustrated with two example problems: low-gravity jet-induced tank flow, and the collision and coalescence of two cylindrical rods.

  5. RIPPLE - A new model for incompressible flows with free surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, D. B.; Mjolsness, R. C.

    1991-09-01

    A new free surface flow model, RIPPLE, is summarized. RIPPLE obtains finite difference solutions for incompressible flow problems having strong surface tension forces at free surfaces of arbitrarily complex topology. The key innovation is the continuum surface force model which represents surface tension as a (strongly) localized volume force. Other features include a higher-order momentum advection model, a volume-of-fluid free surface treatment, and an efficient two-step projection solution method. RIPPLE's unique capabilities are illustrated with two example problems: low-gravity jet-induced tank flow, and the collision and coalescence of two cylindrical rods.

  6. Temporal properties of material categorization and material rating: visual vs non-visual material features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takehiro; Matsushima, Toshiki; Koida, Kowa; Tani, Yusuke; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2015-10-01

    Humans can visually recognize material categories of objects, such as glass, stone, and plastic, easily. However, little is known about the kinds of surface quality features that contribute to such material class recognition. In this paper, we examine the relationship between perceptual surface features and material category discrimination performance for pictures of materials, focusing on temporal aspects, including reaction time and effects of stimulus duration. The stimuli were pictures of objects with an identical shape but made of different materials that could be categorized into seven classes (glass, plastic, metal, stone, wood, leather, and fabric). In a pre-experiment, observers rated the pictures on nine surface features, including visual (e.g., glossiness and transparency) and non-visual features (e.g., heaviness and warmness), on a 7-point scale. In the main experiments, observers judged whether two simultaneously presented pictures were classified as the same or different material category. Reaction times and effects of stimulus duration were measured. The results showed that visual feature ratings were correlated with material discrimination performance for short reaction times or short stimulus durations, while non-visual feature ratings were correlated only with performance for long reaction times or long stimulus durations. These results suggest that the mechanisms underlying visual and non-visual feature processing may differ in terms of processing time, although the cause is unclear. Visual surface features may mainly contribute to material recognition in daily life, while non-visual features may contribute only weakly, if at all. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF FEATURE DETECTORS FOR PLANETARY ROVER MAPPING AND LOCALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Feature detection and matching are key techniques in computer vision and robotics, and have been successfully implemented in many fields. So far there is no performance comparison of feature detectors and matching methods for planetary mapping and rover localization using rover stereo images. In this research, we present a comprehensive evaluation and comparison of six feature detectors, including Moravec, Förstner, Harris, FAST, SIFT and SURF, aiming for optimal implementation of feature-based matching in planetary surface environment. To facilitate quantitative analysis, a series of evaluation criteria, including distribution evenness of matched points, coverage of detected points, and feature matching accuracy, are developed in the research. In order to perform exhaustive evaluation, stereo images, simulated under different baseline, pitch angle, and interval of adjacent rover locations, are taken as experimental data source. The comparison results show that SIFT offers the best overall performance, especially it is less sensitive to changes of image taken at adjacent locations.

  8. Human red blood cell recognition enhancement with three-dimensional morphological features obtained by digital holographic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaferzadeh, Keyvan; Moon, Inkyu

    2016-12-01

    The classification of erythrocytes plays an important role in the field of hematological diagnosis, specifically blood disorders. Since the biconcave shape of red blood cell (RBC) is altered during the different stages of hematological disorders, we believe that the three-dimensional (3-D) morphological features of erythrocyte provide better classification results than conventional two-dimensional (2-D) features. Therefore, we introduce a set of 3-D features related to the morphological and chemical properties of RBC profile and try to evaluate the discrimination power of these features against 2-D features with a neural network classifier. The 3-D features include erythrocyte surface area, volume, average cell thickness, sphericity index, sphericity coefficient and functionality factor, MCH and MCHSD, and two newly introduced features extracted from the ring section of RBC at the single-cell level. In contrast, the 2-D features are RBC projected surface area, perimeter, radius, elongation, and projected surface area to perimeter ratio. All features are obtained from images visualized by off-axis digital holographic microscopy with a numerical reconstruction algorithm, and four categories of biconcave (doughnut shape), flat-disc, stomatocyte, and echinospherocyte RBCs are interested. Our experimental results demonstrate that the 3-D features can be more useful in RBC classification than the 2-D features. Finally, we choose the best feature set of the 2-D and 3-D features by sequential forward feature selection technique, which yields better discrimination results. We believe that the final feature set evaluated with a neural network classification strategy can improve the RBC classification accuracy.

  9. High-surface-area silica nanospheres (KCC-1) with a fibrous morphology

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2010-08-02

    Fibrous nanosilica: A new family of high-surface-area silica nanospheres (KCC-1) have been prepared (see picture). KCC-1 features excellent physical properties, including high surface area, unprecedented fibrous surface morphology, high thermal (up to 950 °C) and hydrothermal stabilities, and high mechanical stability. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Retention capacity of random surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Craig L; Trump, Walter; Ben-Avraham, Daniel; Ziff, Robert M

    2012-01-27

    We introduce a "water retention" model for liquids captured on a random surface with open boundaries and investigate the model for both continuous and discrete surface heights 0,1,…,n-1 on a square lattice with a square boundary. The model is found to have several intriguing features, including a nonmonotonic dependence of the retention on the number of levels: for many n, the retention is counterintuitively greater than that of an (n+1)-level system. The behavior is explained using percolation theory, by mapping it to a 2-level system with variable probability. Results in one dimension are also found.

  11. Structure of the moon's surface

    CERN Document Server

    Fielder, Gilbert

    1961-01-01

    Structure of the Moon's Surface aims to assemble and marshal relevant matter, and to produce a largely unprejudiced text which brings lunar studies up to date and stresses the importance of certain features of the Moon which have frequently been disregarded in the past, largely because of lack of knowledge about them. The book contains 14 chapters organized into two parts. Part I reviews and summarizes important physical problems. These include the liberations of the moon; height determinations of points of the moon's surface; the figure of the moon; and the moon's temperature and atmosphere.

  12. Dynamical features of nuclear fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This feature can also be expected from the microscopic theories of one-body dissipation [8,22], where the incoherent ... in the enhancement of neutron multiplicity for 217Fr when shell effects are not included in the calculation. ... This enhancement also reduces the best-fit β values in comparison to those in figure 3 at higher ...

  13. Correlative feature analysis on FFDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yading; Giger, Maryellen L.; Li Hui; Sennett, Charlene

    2008-01-01

    Identifying the corresponding images of a lesion in different views is an essential step in improving the diagnostic ability of both radiologists and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems. Because of the nonrigidity of the breasts and the 2D projective property of mammograms, this task is not trivial. In this pilot study, we present a computerized framework that differentiates between corresponding images of the same lesion in different views and noncorresponding images, i.e., images of different lesions. A dual-stage segmentation method, which employs an initial radial gradient index (RGI) based segmentation and an active contour model, is applied to extract mass lesions from the surrounding parenchyma. Then various lesion features are automatically extracted from each of the two views of each lesion to quantify the characteristics of density, size, texture and the neighborhood of the lesion, as well as its distance to the nipple. A two-step scheme is employed to estimate the probability that the two lesion images from different mammographic views are of the same physical lesion. In the first step, a correspondence metric for each pairwise feature is estimated by a Bayesian artificial neural network (BANN). Then, these pairwise correspondence metrics are combined using another BANN to yield an overall probability of correspondence. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the performance of the individual features and the selected feature subset in the task of distinguishing corresponding pairs from noncorresponding pairs. Using a FFDM database with 123 corresponding image pairs and 82 noncorresponding pairs, the distance feature yielded an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.81±0.02 with leave-one-out (by physical lesion) evaluation, and the feature metric subset, which included distance, gradient texture, and ROI-based correlation, yielded an AUC of 0.87±0.02. The improvement by using multiple feature metrics was statistically

  14. Automatic extraction of planetary image features

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline J. (Inventor); Troglio, Giulia (Inventor); Benediktsson, Jon A. (Inventor); Serpico, Sebastiano B. (Inventor); Moser, Gabriele (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for the extraction of Lunar data and/or planetary features is provided. The feature extraction method can include one or more image processing techniques, including, but not limited to, a watershed segmentation and/or the generalized Hough Transform. According to some embodiments, the feature extraction method can include extracting features, such as, small rocks. According to some embodiments, small rocks can be extracted by applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient. According to some embodiments, applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient can allow regions that appear as close contours in the gradient to be segmented.

  15. Incorporating Stream Features into Groundwater Contouring Tools Within GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Roger; Kennelly, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogeologists often are called upon to estimate surfaces from discrete, sparse data points. This estimation is often accomplished by manually drawing contours on maps using interpolation methods between points of known value while accounting for features known to influence the water table's surface. By contrast, geographic information systems (GIS) are good at creating smooth continuous surfaces from limited data points and allowing the user to represent the resulting surface resulting with contours, but these automated methods often fail to meet the expectations of many hydrogeologists because they do not include knowledge of other influences on the water table. In this study, we seek to fill this gap in the GIS-based methodology for hydrogeologists through an interactive tool that shapes an interpolated surface based on additional knowledge of the water table inferred from gaining or losing streams. The modified surface is reflected in water table contours that, for example, "V" upstream for gaining streams, and can be interactively adjusted to fit the user's expectations. By modifying not only the contours but also the associated interpolated surface, additional contours will follow the same trend, and the modified surface can be used for other analyses like calculating average gradients and flow paths. The tool leverages Esri's ArcGIS Desktop software, building upon a robust suite of mapping tools. We see this as a prototype for other tools that could be developed for hydrogeologists to account for variations in the water table inferred from local topographic trends, pumping or injection wells, and other hydrogeologic features. © 2015, National Ground Water Association.

  16. Development of antifouling surfaces to reduce bacterial attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mary Viola

    Bacteria are exceptionally good at adhering to surfaces and forming complex structures known as biofilms. This process, known as biofouling, can cause problems for infrastructure (eg, clogging and damaging pipes), for the food industry (eg, contamination of processing surfaces and equipment, and for the medical industry (eg, contamination of indwelling medical devices). Accordingly, multiple strategies have been explored to combat biofouling, including chemical modification of surfaces, development of antibiotic coatings, and more recently, the use of engineered surface topography. When designed properly, engineered surface topographies can significantly reduce bacterial surface attachment, ultimately limiting surface colonization. In this work, we hypothesized that the morphology, size, spacing, and surface pre-treatment of topographical features should directly correlate with the size and shape of target organisms, in order to reduce biofouling. Topographical features with size and spacing from 0.25 to 2 mum were fabricated in silicone elastomer and tested against rod shaped bacteria with an average size of 0.5 x 2 mum and spherical bacteria (cocci) ranging from 0.5 - 1 μm in diameter. Antifouling properties of the different topographical features were tested in both static and flow-based assays, and under oxygen plasma-treated (hydrophilic) and untreated (hydrophobic) surface conditions. We found that surface pre-treatment universally affects the ability bacteria to attach to surfaces, while surface topography limits attachment in a manner dependent on the bacterial size/shape and the size/spacing of the topography.

  17. Discrete-Feature Model Implementation of SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, Joel

    2010-03-01

    A discrete-feature model (DFM) was implemented for the Forsmark repository site based on the final site descriptive model from surface based investigations. The discrete-feature conceptual model represents deformation zones, individual fractures, and other water-conducting features around a repository as discrete conductors surrounded by a rock matrix which, in the present study, is treated as impermeable. This approximation is reasonable for sites in crystalline rock which has very low permeability, apart from that which results from macroscopic fracturing. Models are constructed based on the geological and hydrogeological description of the sites and engineering designs. Hydraulic heads and flows through the network of water-conducting features are calculated by the finite-element method, and are used in turn to simulate migration of non-reacting solute by a particle-tracking method, in order to estimate the properties of pathways by which radionuclides could be released to the biosphere. Stochastic simulation is used to evaluate portions of the model that can only be characterized in statistical terms, since many water-conducting features within the model volume cannot be characterized deterministically. Chapter 2 describes the methodology by which discrete features are derived to represent water-conducting features around the hypothetical repository at Forsmark (including both natural features and features that result from the disturbance of excavation), and then assembled to produce a discrete-feature network model for numerical simulation of flow and transport. Chapter 3 describes how site-specific data and repository design are adapted to produce the discrete-feature model. Chapter 4 presents results of the calculations. These include utilization factors for deposition tunnels based on the emplacement criteria that have been set forth by the implementers, flow distributions to the deposition holes, and calculated properties of discharge paths as well as

  18. SAPHO: Treatment options including bisphosphonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaenepoel, Tom; Vlam, Kurt de

    2016-10-01

    Both the diagnosis and treatment of the syndrome of synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis (SAPHO) remain difficult. We describe a case series of 21 patients with SAPHO and their response to several pharmacological treatments. Clinical and biochemical data, along with medical imaging, were collected from the medical records of 21 patients, diagnosed as SAPHO during follow-up between 2005 and 2013. Symptoms and inflammatory markers were recorded twice, once at first patient presentation, and once at the end of follow-up. Synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis were labeled as defining features. All treatment options were categorized according to their respective responses (full remission, partial remission, and no disease control). There was a female predominance and a median age of 32 years (range: 12-54 years). Median follow-up duration was 45 months (range: 0-188 months). Total prevalence of defining features in this cohort increased for each defining feature during follow-up, except for acne. All patients reached full or partial remission at the end of follow-up. A total of 14 patients were treated with bisphosphonates. Of which 8 of them went into full or partial remission. In our case series, none of the patients had the full presentation of SAPHO at the first consultation. Some presented with symptoms suggestive for psoriatic arthritis. This explains why diagnosis of SAPHO can be challenging. Full remission was induced in the majority of individuals. Bisphosphonates seem to be a noteworthy treatment option. We suggest a prospective placebo-controlled clinical trial with bisphosphonates to confirm this observation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Recent Development of the Two-Stroke Engine. II - Design Features. 2; Design Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, J.

    1945-01-01

    Completing the first paper dealing with charging methods and arrangements, the present paper discusses the design forms of two-stroke engines. Features which largely influence piston running are: (a) The shape and surface condition of the sliding parts. (b) The cylinder and piston materials. (c) Heat conditions in the piston, and lubrication. There is little essential difference between four-stroke and two-stroke engines with ordinary pistons. In large engines, for example, are always found separately cast or welded frames in which the stresses are taken up by tie rods. Twin piston and timing piston engines often differ from this design. Examples can be found in many engines of German or foreign make. Their methods of operation will be dealt with in the third part of the present paper, which also includes the bibliography. The development of two-stroke engine design is, of course, mainly concerned with such features as are inherently difficult to master; that is, the piston barrel and the design of the gudgeon pin bearing. Designers of four-stroke engines now-a-days experience approximately the same difficulties, since heat stresses have increased to the point of influencing conditions in the piston barrel. Features which notably affect this are: (a) The material. (b) Prevailing heat conditions.

  20. Bonding and interaction of molecules with surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    In this lecture it is intended to discuss some general features of bonding and interaction of molecules with surfaces. The geometry of surface complexes is sufficiently difficult and the interaction mechanisms are sufficiently subtle. That all possible theoretical models need to be exploited such as: i) Semiempirical - including Huckel molecular orbital theory; ii)first principles including self-consistent-field Hartree-Fock and Local Density approaches; iii)explicitly correlated, including C.I., Generalized Valence Bond, Coupled Cluster Perturbation Theory and Many Body Perturbation Theory. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  1. Musculoskeletal mnemonics: differentiating features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Jonathan W; Davis, Kirkland W; Lafita, Vaishali S; Blankenbaker, Donna G; De Smet, Arthur A; Rosas, Humberto; Lee, Kenneth S

    2011-01-01

    Mnemonics are often used in musculoskeletal radiology to help radiologists remember long differential diagnoses. However, unless the specific appearance of each entity on a differential is also recalled, mnemonics become useless. This article presents 8 mnemonics with their corresponding differential diagnoses and distinguishing features. Bubbly lucent lesions of bone are recalled with the FEGNOMASHIC mnemonic, but when only lucent lesions of the diaphysis are included, a more appropriate mnemonic is FEMALE. The lucent lesions of bone differentials often can be narrowed based on specific characteristics of the lesion but radiographic findings elsewhere and clinical information often help. Osseous metastases may present as lucent or sclerotic lesions; when sclerotic, the differential is best remembered with the mnemonic 5 "BEES" Like Pollen. The mnemonic for Wormian bones is PORKCHOPS. The Wormian bones in most of these entities are indistinguishable, so one must rely on radiographic findings outside the skull for diagnosis. By contrast, differentiating causes of acro-osteolysis is often possible with findings seen only on the hand radiographs; the mnemonic for acro-osteolysis is RADSHIP. In skeletally immature patients with frayed metaphyses, the mnemonic is CHARMS. Although the appearance of the fraying is seldom diagnostic, findings in the adjacent portions of the long bones may be characteristic. FETISH is the mnemonic used to remember the entities for the differential diagnosis of vertebra plana. Age of the patient, clinical history, and findings in the adjacent spine often help to provide the specific diagnosis. Nearly all the entities on the differential diagnosis for distal clavicle erosion (mnemonic: SHIRT Pocket) are included in other differentials in this article. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stormwater Infrastructure and other features - Linear Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This data was collected and compiled for various towns in watersheds (currently including the Missisquoi Basin, Winooski Basin, Connecticut River Basin, Lamoille...

  3. Stormwater Infrastructure and other features - Point Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This data was collected and compiled for various towns in watersheds (currently including the Missisquoi Basin, Winooski Basin, Connecticut River Basin, Lamoille...

  4. Stormwater Infrastructure and other features - Area Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This data was collected and compiled for various towns in watersheds (currently including the Missisquoi Basin, Winooski Basin, Connecticut River Basin, Lamoille...

  5. SARS – clinical features

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SARS – clinical features. Fever - > 38C; Respiratory symptoms, eg cough, difficulty in breathing; OR; Unexplained respiratory distress leading to death; AND; Close contact or travel to Asia within 10 days of onset of illness.

  6. Volcanic features of Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M.H.; Masursky, H.; Strom, R.G.; Terrile, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Volcanic activity is apparently higher on Io than on any other body in the Solar System. Its volcanic landforms can be compared with features on Earth to indicate the type of volcanism present on Io. ?? 1979 Nature Publishing Group.

  7. Coloring local feature extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Van De Weijer, Joost; Schmid, Cordelia

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Although color is commonly experienced as an indispensable quality in describing the world around us, state-of-the art local feature-based representations are mostly based on shape description, and ignore color information. The description of color is hampered by the large amount of variations which causes the measured color values to vary significantly. In this paper we aim to extend the description of local features with color information. To accomplish a wide applic...

  8. Feature selection toolbox

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Somol, Petr; Pudil, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 12 (2002), s. 2749-2759 ISSN 0031-3203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 187; GA ČR GA402/01/0981 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : pattern recognition * feature selection * subset search Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 1.038, year: 2002 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/somol- feature selection toolbox.pdf

  9. Feature Binding in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Neri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Binding operations are primarily ascribed to cortex or similarly complex avian structures. My experiments show that the zebrafish, a lower vertebrate lacking cortex, supports visual feature binding of form and motion for the purpose of social behavior. These results challenge the notion that feature binding may require highly evolved neural structures and demonstrate that the nervous system of lower vertebrates can afford unexpectedly complex computations.

  10. Mapping soil features from multispectral scanner data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristof, S. J.; Zachary, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    In being able to identify quickly gross variations in soil features, the computer-aided classification of multispectral scanner data can be an effective aid to soil surveying. Variations in soil tone are easily seen as well as variations in features related to soil tone, e.g., drainage patterns and organic matter content. Changes in surface texture also affect the reflectance properties of soils. Inasmuch as conventional soil classes are based on both surface and subsurface soil characteristics, the technique described here can be expected only to augment and not replace traditional soil mapping.

  11. Features from a Single Vector Pressure Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Freehand sketching in a real-time 3D styling system presents a different way to create a 3D model from the traditional CAD system. Strokes are the most common and useful objects in the expression of a stylist’s intention by using the gesture commands and in the construction of geometries. Not only are they sketched freely as drawing on a paper with a pen, but also they can be converted automatically into spline curves and then can be used to form a surface. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the features of stroke, the extraction and identification of these features, and the applications. Here, the features from a single vector pressure stroke have been discussed in detail according to their applications in an automotive freehand styling system in the early stage of conceptual design. The features have been divided into three parts: the input features, the calculable feature, and the added features. Over a hundred features have been defined and classified with the geometry or performance attributes. The features proposed have been applied in the identification of gesture commands, the expression of art vector stroke by pseudoantialiasing method, and a novel method to generate a spatial curve directly by the pressure of stroke in AutoSketch system.

  12. Manipulating scattering features by metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review on manipulations of electromagnetic scattering features by using metamaterials or metasurfaces. Several approaches in controlling the scattered fields of objects are presented, including invisibility cloaks and radar illusions based on transformation optics, carpet cloak using gradient metamaterials, dc cloaks, mantle cloaks based on scattering cancellation, “skin” cloaks using phase compensation, scattering controls with coding/programmable metasurfaces, and scattering reductions by multilayered structures. Finally, the future development of metamaterials on scattering manipulation is predicted.

  13. Flexible feature interface for multimedia sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffland, Douglas R [Livermore, CA

    2009-06-09

    A flexible feature interface for multimedia sources system that includes a single interface for the addition of features and functions to multimedia sources and for accessing those features and functions from remote hosts. The interface utilizes the export statement: export "C" D11Export void FunctionName(int argc, char ** argv,char * result, SecureSession *ctrl) or the binary equivalent of the export statement.

  14. Less common CT features of medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, C.S; Segall, H.D.; Miller, C.; Ahmad, J.; McComb, J.G.; Han, J.S.; Park, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    While many medulloblastomas have characteristic features on computed tomography (CT), a significant number have atypical features, including a cystic or necrotic component, calcification, hemorrhage, lack of contrast enhancement, and eccentric location, and/or direct supratentorial extension. Of 30 consecutive untreated cases reviewed by the authors, 14 (47%) had such findings. Failure to make the proper diagnosis will result in some cases if these features are not recognized as possible signs of medulloblastoma

  15. Electrochemical cell structure including an ionomeric barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Timothy N.; Hibbs, Michael

    2017-06-20

    An apparatus includes an electrochemical half-cell comprising: an electrolyte, an anode; and an ionomeric barrier positioned between the electrolyte and the anode. The anode may comprise a multi-electron vanadium phosphorous alloy, such as VP.sub.x, wherein x is 1-5. The electrochemical half-cell is configured to oxidize the vanadium and phosphorous alloy to release electrons. A method of mitigating corrosion in an electrochemical cell includes disposing an ionomeric barrier in a path of electrolyte or ion flow to an anode and mitigating anion accumulation on the surface of the anode.

  16. Regularity of Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Tromba, Anthony J; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    "Regularity of Minimal Surfaces" begins with a survey of minimal surfaces with free boundaries. Following this, the basic results concerning the boundary behaviour of minimal surfaces and H-surfaces with fixed or free boundaries are studied. In particular, the asymptotic expansions at interior and boundary branch points are derived, leading to general Gauss-Bonnet formulas. Furthermore, gradient estimates and asymptotic expansions for minimal surfaces with only piecewise smooth boundaries are obtained. One of the main features of free boundary value problems for minimal surfaces is t

  17. Examining Brain Morphometry Associated with Self-Esteem in Young Adults Using Multilevel-ROI-Features-Based Classification Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Lu, Jieru; Saxena, Aditya; Zhou, Zhiyong; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Suhong; Dai, Yakang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study is to exam self-esteem related brain morphometry on brain magnetic resonance (MR) images using multilevel-features-based classification method. Method: The multilevel region of interest (ROI) features consist of two types of features: (i) ROI features, which include gray matter volume, white matter volume, cerebrospinal fluid volume, cortical thickness, and cortical surface area, and (ii) similarity features, which are based on similarity calculation of cortical thickness between ROIs. For each feature type, a hybrid feature selection method, comprising of filter-based and wrapper-based algorithms, is used to select the most discriminating features. ROI features and similarity features are integrated by using multi-kernel support vector machines (SVMs) with appropriate weighting factor. Results: The classification performance is improved by using multilevel ROI features with an accuracy of 96.66%, a specificity of 96.62%, and a sensitivity of 95.67%. The most discriminating ROI features that are related to self-esteem spread over occipital lobe, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, limbic lobe, temporal lobe, and central region, mainly involving white matter and cortical thickness. The most discriminating similarity features are distributed in both the right and left hemisphere, including frontal lobe, occipital lobe, limbic lobe, parietal lobe, and central region, which conveys information of structural connections between different brain regions. Conclusion: By using ROI features and similarity features to exam self-esteem related brain morphometry, this paper provides a pilot evidence that self-esteem is linked to specific ROIs and structural connections between different brain regions. PMID:28588470

  18. New 1,3,4-thiadiazole compounds including pyrazine moiety: Synthesis, structural properties and antimicrobial features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Mahmut; Şener, Nesrin; Muğlu, Halit; Çavuş, M. Serdar; Özkan, Osman Emre; Kandemirli, Fatma; Şener, İzzet

    2017-07-01

    In the study, some new 1,3,4-thiadiazole compounds were synthesized and we have reported identification of the structures by using UV-Vis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectroscopic methods. Antimicrobial activities of the compounds against three microorganisms, namely, Candida albicans ATCC 26555, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 were investigated by using disk diffusion method. These thiadiazoles exhibited an antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The experimental data was supported by the quantum chemical calculations. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to obtain the ground state optimized geometries of the molecules using the B3LYP, M06 and PBE1PBE methods with 3-21 g, 4-31 g, 6-311++g(2d,2p), cc-pvtz and cc-pvqz basis sets in the different combinations. Frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) energies, band gap energies and some chemical reactivity parameters were calculated by using the aforementioned methods and basis sets, and the results were also compared with the experimental UV-Vis data.

  19. Annexes to the lecture on reactor protection system including engineered features actuation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmaers, W.

    1982-01-01

    The present paper deals with the fundamentals for a reactor protection system and discusses the following topics: - System lay-out - Analog measured data acquisition - Analog measured data processing - Limit value generation and logical gating - Procesing of the reactor protection actuation signals - Decoupling of the reactor protection system - Mechanical lay-out - Monitoring system and - Emergency control station. (orig./RW)

  20. Method and system for laser-based formation of micro-shapes in surfaces of optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Isaac Louis; Guss, Gabriel Mark

    2013-03-05

    A method of forming a surface feature extending into a sample includes providing a laser operable to emit an output beam and modulating the output beam to form a pulse train having a plurality of pulses. The method also includes a) directing the pulse train along an optical path intersecting an exposed portion of the sample at a position i and b) focusing a first portion of the plurality of pulses to impinge on the sample at the position i. Each of the plurality of pulses is characterized by a spot size at the sample. The method further includes c) ablating at least a portion of the sample at the position i to form a portion of the surface feature and d) incrementing counter i. The method includes e) repeating steps a) through d) to form the surface feature. The sample is free of a rim surrounding the surface feature.

  1. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  2. New insight in the structural features of haloadaptation in α-amylases from halophilic Archaea following homology modeling strategy: folded and stable conformation maintained through low hydrophobicity and highly negative charged surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorgani, Mohamed Amine; Patron, Kevin; Desvaux, Mickaël

    2014-07-01

    Proteins from halophilic archaea, which live in extreme saline conditions, have evolved to remain folded, active and stable at very high ionic strengths. Understanding the mechanism of haloadaptation is the first step toward engineering of halostable biomolecules. Amylases are one of the main enzymes used in industry. Yet, no three-dimensional structure has been experimentally resolved for α-amylases from halophilic archaea. In this study, homology structure modeling of α-amylases from the halophilic archaea Haloarcula marismortui, Haloarcula hispanica, and Halalkalicoccus jeotgali were performed. The resulting models were subjected to energy minimization, evaluation, and structural analysis. Calculations of the amino acid composition, salt bridges and hydrophobic interactions were also performed and compared to a set of non-halophilic counterparts. It clearly appeared that haloarchaeal α-amylases exhibited lower propensities for helix formation and higher propensities for coil-forming regions. Furthermore, they could maintain a folded and stable conformation in high salt concentration through highly negative charged surface with over representation of acidic residues, especially Asp, and low hydrophobicity with increase of salt bridges and decrease in hydrophobic interactions on the protein surface. This study sheds some light on the stability of α-amylases from halophilic archaea and provides strong basis not only to understand haloadaptation mechanisms of proteins in microorganisms from hypersalines environments but also for biotechnological applications.

  3. The synthesis of Ba2+ doped multiferroic BiFeO3 nanoparticles by using a hydrothermal approach in the presence of different surface activators and the investigation of structural and magnetic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardani, Reza

    2017-05-01

    In this work, Bi1-x Ba x FeO3 nanoparticles were synthesized by a hydrothermal method in the presence of various surface activators, and different amounts of barium were inserted in a bismuth ferrite (x  =  0.1, 0.15, 0.2) structure instead of bismuth. The structural and magnetic properties, morphology, and size of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated by XRD, FT-IR, FE-SEM, TEM, DLS and VSM. The XRD analysis results reveal that the synthetic nanoparticles have a single phase. A phase shift from a rhombohedral structure to a tetragonal structure occurs due to the enhanced barium amount in the bismuth ferrite structure. The SEM analysis exhibits a uniform shape of the Bi0.85Ba0.15FeO3 particles and the image observed by TEM clarifies the size of the particles as 11 nm. Furthermore, the effect of the diverse surfaces of activators in the synthesis of Bi0.85Ba0.15FeO3 nanoparticles was studied, revealing that when sugar was used as a surfactant, the particle size reduced and the magnetic properties increased notably.

  4. Vehicle barriers: emphasis on natural features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, K.G.; Roscoe, B.J.

    1985-07-01

    The recent increase in the use of car and truck bombs by terrorist organizations has led NRC to evaluate the adequacy of licensee security against such threats. As part of this evaluation, one of the factors is the effectiveness of terrain and vegetation in providing barriers against the vehicle entry. The effectiveness of natural features is presented in two contexts. First, certain natural features are presented. Second, the effectiveness of combinations of features is presented. In addition to the discussion of natural features, this report provides a discussion of methods to slow vehicles. Also included is an overview of man-made barrier systems, with particular attention to ditches. 17 refs., 49 figs

  5. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  6. Text feature extraction based on deep learning: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hong; Sun, Xiao; Sun, Yunlei; Gao, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Selection of text feature item is a basic and important matter for text mining and information retrieval. Traditional methods of feature extraction require handcrafted features. To hand-design, an effective feature is a lengthy process, but aiming at new applications, deep learning enables to acquire new effective feature representation from training data. As a new feature extraction method, deep learning has made achievements in text mining. The major difference between deep learning and conventional methods is that deep learning automatically learns features from big data, instead of adopting handcrafted features, which mainly depends on priori knowledge of designers and is highly impossible to take the advantage of big data. Deep learning can automatically learn feature representation from big data, including millions of parameters. This thesis outlines the common methods used in text feature extraction first, and then expands frequently used deep learning methods in text feature extraction and its applications, and forecasts the application of deep learning in feature extraction.

  7. Surface Modification and Surface - Subsurface Exchange Processes on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Cynthia B.; Molaro, Jamie; Hand, Kevin P.

    2017-10-01

    The surface of Jupiter’s moon Europa is modified by exogenic processes such as sputtering, gardening, radiolysis, sulfur ion implantation, and thermal processing, as well as endogenic processes including tidal shaking, mass wasting, and the effects of subsurface tectonic and perhaps cryovolcanic activity. New materials are created or deposited on the surface (radiolysis, micrometeorite impacts, sulfur ion implantation, cryovolcanic plume deposits), modified in place (thermal segregation, sintering), transported either vertically or horizontally (sputtering, gardening, mass wasting, tectonic and cryovolcanic activity), or lost from Europa completely (sputtering, plumes, larger impacts). Some of these processes vary spatially, as visible in Europa’s leading-trailing hemisphere brightness asymmetry.Endogenic geologic processes also vary spatially, depending on terrain type. The surface can be classified into general landform categories that include tectonic features (ridges, bands, cracks); disrupted “chaos-type” terrain (chaos blocks, matrix, domes, pits, spots); and impact craters (simple, complex, multi-ring). The spatial distribution of these terrain types is relatively random, with some differences in apex-antiapex cratering rates and latitudinal variation in chaos vs. tectonic features.In this work, we extrapolate surface processes and rates from the top meter of the surface in conjunction with global estimates of transport and resurfacing rates. We combine near-surface modification with an estimate of surface-subsurface (and vice versa) transport rates for various geologic terrains based on an average of proposed formation mechanisms, and a spatial distribution of each landform type over Europa’s surface area.Understanding the rates and mass balance for each of these processes, as well as their spatial and temporal variability, allows us to estimate surface - subsurface exchange rates over the average surface age (~50myr) of Europa. Quantifying the

  8. Key Features of oxypnictides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Key Features of oxypnictides. Metal –insulator boundary. Quasi 2D structure. Doping important. Charge transfer (redox behaviour). Normal resistivity : mohms (little higher in oxypnictides). Near antiferromagnetic ground state. Superexchange through Fe-As-Fe (Cu-O-Cu) ...

  9. Volcanic Rocks and Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanoes have contributed significantly to the formation of the surface of our planet. Volcanism produced the crust we live on and most of the air we breathe. The...

  10. System and method for investigating sub-surface features and 3D imaging of non-linear property, compressional velocity VP, shear velocity VS and velocity ratio VP/VS of a rock formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S.

    2015-06-02

    A system and a method for generating a three-dimensional image of a rock formation, compressional velocity VP, shear velocity VS and velocity ratio VP/VS of a rock formation are provided. A first acoustic signal includes a first plurality of pulses. A second acoustic signal from a second source includes a second plurality of pulses. A detected signal returning to the borehole includes a signal generated by a non-linear mixing process from the first and second acoustic signals in a non-linear mixing zone within an intersection volume. The received signal is processed to extract the signal over noise and/or signals resulting from linear interaction and the three dimensional image of is generated.

  11. Structural features on 4Vesta: Observations and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, D.; Kahn, E.; Barnouin, O. S.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Gaskell, R. W.; Yingst, R.; Williams, D. A.; Garry, W. B.; LeCorre, L.; Nathues, A.; Scully, J. E.; Blewett, D. T.; Hiesinger, H.; Schenk, P.; Mest, S. C.; Schmedemann, N.; Krohn, K.; Jaumann, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Reddy, V.; Denevi, B. W.; Filacchione, G.; Pieters, C. M.; Russell, C. T.

    2011-12-01

    Images of 4Vesta taken by the Framing Camera (FC) instrument on the Dawn spacecraft reveal the presence of large-scale structural features on the surface of the asteroid. We map these structures directly onto the Vesta shape model, using the Small Body Mapping Tool (SBMT). The structures can thus be modeled to define planes that cut through the asteroid, and the pole of the plane described by each individual lineament can be determined. We then compare these poles to determine if they are similarly oriented or if visual identification is confused by the shape of the asteroid. Structural features observed to date include an equatorial set of wide flat-floor troughs, bounded by steep scarps. In some regions of the asteroid these troughs are preferentially expressed as pit crater chains, a type of feature commonly associated with graben on other planetary bodies. A relatively muted flat-floor trough starting at ~75°E longitude extends to the northwest at an angle from the equatorial troughs; a set of grooves are similarly oriented and appear to be associated structures. At least two sets of grooves and ridges are identified on the floor of the South Polar Feature. The more prominent set of structures appear to trend along a north-south line and several cut the central hill. However, a set of smaller features are observed trending east-west. Analysis of these structures will contribute to our knowledge of the stress history of 4Vesta and may support models for the formation of the South Polar Feature. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Dawn Instrument, Operations, and Science Teams.

  12. Unifying all elementary particle forces including gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, H.

    1979-01-01

    It is a final goal in physics to unify all four basic forces, strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravitational. First, the unified gauge theories of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed. There are two standard models, the model of Pati and Salam in which leptons have the fourth color, and the model of Georgi and Glashow in which a simple group SU (5) is assumed for grand unification. Two mass relations for leptons and quarks were derived, and the extension of the Georgi-Glashow model to a grand unified model of SU (6) gauge group has been made. The quantization of the electric charge of elementary particles is one of the most satisfactory features in grand unified gauge theories. The constraint relations between the gauge couplings, the weak mixing angle and the mass scale of symmetry breaking owing to the renormalization effect are not so severe as those in the grand unified models. However, the mass scale becomes far above the Planck mass in some cases. The baryon number non-conservation is one of the most intriguing features common to grand unified gauge theories. The unified models of all elementary particle forces including gravity are discussed. The discovery of weak vector bosons and the production of subquark pairs are anticipated. (Kako, I.)

  13. Method and Apparatus for Creating a Topography at a Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David P.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Mayer, Thomas M.; Vasile, Michael J.; Sweatt, William C.

    2008-11-11

    Methods and apparatus whereby an optical interferometer is utilized to monitor and provide feedback control to an integrated energetic particle column, to create desired topographies, including the depth, shape and/or roughness of features, at a surface of a specimen. Energetic particle columns can direct energetic species including, ions, photons and/or neutral particles to a surface to create features having in-plane dimensions on the order of 1 micron, and a height or depth on the order of 1 nanometer. Energetic processes can include subtractive processes such as sputtering, ablation, focused ion beam milling and, additive processes, such as energetic beam induced chemical vapor deposition. The integration of interferometric methods with processing by energetic species offers the ability to create desired topographies at surfaces, including planar and curved shapes.

  14. Unsupervised feature learning for autonomous rock image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Lei; McIsaac, Kenneth; Osinski, Gordon R.; Francis, Raymond

    2017-09-01

    Autonomous rock image classification can enhance the capability of robots for geological detection and enlarge the scientific returns, both in investigation on Earth and planetary surface exploration on Mars. Since rock textural images are usually inhomogeneous and manually hand-crafting features is not always reliable, we propose an unsupervised feature learning method to autonomously learn the feature representation for rock images. In our tests, rock image classification using the learned features shows that the learned features can outperform manually selected features. Self-taught learning is also proposed to learn the feature representation from a large database of unlabelled rock images of mixed class. The learned features can then be used repeatedly for classification of any subclass. This takes advantage of the large dataset of unlabelled rock images and learns a general feature representation for many kinds of rocks. We show experimental results supporting the feasibility of self-taught learning on rock images.

  15. Features, Events and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Persoff

    2005-08-04

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the unsaturated zone (UZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling that supports the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) for a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for the screening decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 173273]. The FEPs deal with UZ flow and radionuclide transport, including climate, surface water infiltration, percolation, drift seepage, and thermally coupled processes. This analysis summarizes the implementation of each FEP in TSPA-LA (that is, how the FEP is included) and also provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (that is, why the FEP is excluded). This report supports TSPA-LA.

  16. Features, Events, and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persoff, P.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the unsaturated zone (UZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling that supports the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) for a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded'', is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for the screening decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs deal with UZ flow and radionuclide transport, including climate, surface water infiltration, percolation, drift seepage, and thermally coupled processes. This analysis summarizes the implementation of each FEP in TSPA-LA (that is, how the FEP is included) and also provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (that is, why the FEP is excluded). This report supports TSPA-LA

  17. Features, Events and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Persoff

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the unsaturated zone (UZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling that supports the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) for a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for the screening decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 173273]. The FEPs deal with UZ flow and radionuclide transport, including climate, surface water infiltration, percolation, drift seepage, and thermally coupled processes. This analysis summarizes the implementation of each FEP in TSPA-LA (that is, how the FEP is included) and also provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (that is, why the FEP is excluded). This report supports TSPA-LA

  18. Feature extraction of multispectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, R. B.; Crimmins, T.; Reyer, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    A method is presented for feature extraction of multispectral scanner data. Non-training data is used to demonstrate the reduction in processing time that can be obtained by using feature extraction rather than feature selection.

  19. Model Checking Feature Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Olsen, Petur; Pedersen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an offline approach to analyzing feature interactions in embedded systems. The approach consists of a systematic process to gather the necessary information about system components and their models. The model is first specified in terms of predicates, before being refined to t...... to timed automata. The consistency of the model is verified at different development stages, and the correct linkage between the predicates and their semantic model is checked. The approach is illustrated on a use case from home automation....

  20. Sexual dimorphism in medulloblastoma features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannoni, Gian Franco; Ciucci, Alessandra; Marucci, Gianluca; Travaglia, Daniele; Stigliano, Egidio; Foschini, Maria Pia; Scambia, Giovanni; Gallo, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Male sex is a risk factor for medulloblastoma (MB), and is also a negative predictor for clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to assess sex differences in tumour biological features and hormone receptor profiles in a cohort of MB patients. Sixty-four MBs and five normal cerebella were included in the study. Cell proliferation (Ki67), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3) and microvessel density (CD31) were evaluated in tumours by immunohistochemistry. Tissues were analysed for oestrogen receptor (ER)α, ERβ1, ERβ2, ERβ5 and androgen receptor (AR) expression. The results demonstrated sex-specific features in MBs, with tumours from females showing a higher apoptosis/proliferation ratio and less tumour vascularization than tumours from males. MBs were negative for ERα and AR, but expressed ERβ isoforms at similar levels between the sexes. Altogether, these findings indicate that signalling mechanisms that control cell turnover and angiogenesis operate more efficiently in females than in males. The lack of sex differences in the hormone receptor profiles suggests that circulating oestrogens could be the major determinants of the sexual dimorphism observed in MB features. Here, we provide molecular support for epidemiological data showing sex differences in MB incidence and outcome, completely defining the hormone receptor profile of the tumours. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Ontology patterns for complex topographic feature yypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2011-01-01

    Complex feature types are defined as integrated relations between basic features for a shared meaning or concept. The shared semantic concept is difficult to define in commonly used geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing technologies. The role of spatial relations between complex feature parts was recognized in early GIS literature, but had limited representation in the feature or coverage data models of GIS. Spatial relations are more explicitly specified in semantic technology. In this paper, semantics for topographic feature ontology design patterns (ODP) are developed as data models for the representation of complex features. In the context of topographic processes, component assemblages are supported by resource systems and are found on local landscapes. The topographic ontology is organized across six thematic modules that can account for basic feature types, resource systems, and landscape types. Types of complex feature attributes include location, generative processes and physical description. Node/edge networks model standard spatial relations and relations specific to topographic science to represent complex features. To demonstrate these concepts, data from The National Map of the U. S. Geological Survey was converted and assembled into ODP.

  2. Differential geometry curves, surfaces, manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kühnel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This carefully written book is an introduction to the beautiful ideas and results of differential geometry. The first half covers the geometry of curves and surfaces, which provide much of the motivation and intuition for the general theory. The second part studies the geometry of general manifolds, with particular emphasis on connections and curvature. The text is illustrated with many figures and examples. The prerequisites are undergraduate analysis and linear algebra. This new edition provides many advancements, including more figures and exercises, and-as a new feature-a good number of so

  3. Feature Tracking Using Reeb Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Gunther H.; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.; Pascucci, Valerio

    2010-08-02

    Tracking features and exploring their temporal dynamics can aid scientists in identifying interesting time intervals in a simulation and serve as basis for performing quantitative analyses of temporal phenomena. In this paper, we develop a novel approach for tracking subsets of isosurfaces, such as burning regions in simulated flames, which are defined as areas of high fuel consumption on a temperature isosurface. Tracking such regions as they merge and split over time can provide important insights into the impact of turbulence on the combustion process. However, the convoluted nature of the temperature isosurface and its rapid movement make this analysis particularly challenging. Our approach tracks burning regions by extracting a temperature isovolume from the four-dimensional space-time temperature field. It then obtains isosurfaces for the original simulation time steps and labels individual connected 'burning' regions based on the local fuel consumption value. Based on this information, a boundary surface between burning and non-burning regions is constructed. The Reeb graph of this boundary surface is the tracking graph for burning regions.

  4. Aerosol simulation including chemical and nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwil, E.S.; Lemmon, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The numerical simulation of aerosol transport, including the effects of chemical and nuclear reactions presents a challenging dynamic accounting problem. Particles of different sizes agglomerate and settle out due to various mechanisms, such as diffusion, diffusiophoresis, thermophoresis, gravitational settling, turbulent acceleration, and centrifugal acceleration. Particles also change size, due to the condensation and evaporation of materials on the particle. Heterogeneous chemical reactions occur at the interface between a particle and the suspending medium, or a surface and the gas in the aerosol. Homogeneous chemical reactions occur within the aersol suspending medium, within a particle, and on a surface. These reactions may include a phase change. Nuclear reactions occur in all locations. These spontaneous transmutations from one element form to another occur at greatly varying rates and may result in phase or chemical changes which complicate the accounting process. This paper presents an approach for inclusion of these effects on the transport of aerosols. The accounting system is very complex and results in a large set of stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The techniques for numerical solution of these ODEs require special attention to achieve their solution in an efficient and affordable manner. 4 refs

  5. Characterization and anti-settlement aspects of surface micro-structures from Cancer pagurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T; Regan, F; McGuinness, K; Connor, N E O’

    2014-01-01

    Tuning surface and material properties to inhibit or prevent settlement and attachment of microorganisms is of interest for applications such as antifouling technologies. Here, optimization of nano- and microscale structures on immersed surfaces can be utilized to improve cell removal while reducing adhesion strength and the likelihood of initial cellular attachment. Engineered surfaces capable of controlling cellular behaviour under natural conditions are challenging to design due to the diversity of attaching cell types in environments such as marine waters, where many variations in cell shape, size and adhesion strategy exist. Nevertheless, understanding interactions between a cell and a potential substrate for adhesion, including topographically driven settlement cues, offers a route to designing surfaces capable of controlling cell settlement. Biomimetic design of artificial surfaces, based upon microscale features from natural surfaces, can be utilized as model surfaces to understand cell–surface interactions. The microscale surface features of the carapace from the crustacean Cancer pagurus has been previously found to influence the rate of attachment of particular organisms when compared to smooth controls. However, the nature of microscale topographic features from C. pagurus have not been examined in sufficient detail to allow design of biomimetic surfaces. In this work, the spatial distribution, chemical composition, size and shape descriptors of microscale surface features from C. pagurus are characterized in detail for the first time. Additionally, the influence of topography from C. pagurus on the settlement of marine diatoms is examined under field conditions. (paper)

  6. Exploring Language-Independent Emotional Acoustic Features via Feature Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Shaukat, Arslan; Chen, Ke

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel feature selection strategy to discover language-independent acoustic features that tend to be responsible for emotions regardless of languages, linguistics and other factors. Experimental results suggest that the language-independent feature subset discovered yields the performance comparable to the full feature set on various emotional speech corpora.

  7. Prediction of protein modification sites of pyrrolidone carboxylic acid using mRMR feature selection and analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Lu Zheng

    Full Text Available Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (PCA is formed during a common post-translational modification (PTM of extracellular and multi-pass membrane proteins. In this study, we developed a new predictor to predict the modification sites of PCA based on maximum relevance minimum redundancy (mRMR and incremental feature selection (IFS. We incorporated 727 features that belonged to 7 kinds of protein properties to predict the modification sites, including sequence conservation, residual disorder, amino acid factor, secondary structure and solvent accessibility, gain/loss of amino acid during evolution, propensity of amino acid to be conserved at protein-protein interface and protein surface, and deviation of side chain carbon atom number. Among these 727 features, 244 features were selected by mRMR and IFS as the optimized features for the prediction, with which the prediction model achieved a maximum of MCC of 0.7812. Feature analysis showed that all feature types contributed to the modification process. Further site-specific feature analysis showed that the features derived from PCA's surrounding sites contributed more to the determination of PCA sites than other sites. The detailed feature analysis in this paper might provide important clues for understanding the mechanism of the PCA formation and guide relevant experimental validations.

  8. Mesoblastic nephroma: Pathological features

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N.M. El-Badawy

    months of life and may even present in utero with associated hydramnios due to excessive fetal urine production [3]. On gross examination, the tumor is solid, yellowish gray to tan, with a whorled cut surface reminiscent of uterine leiomyoma. Most tumors are located near the hilus of the kidney. The tumor is usu- ally well ...

  9. Dropwise Condensation Enhancement on Geometric Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yajing; Preston, Daniel J.; Lu, Zhengmao; Wang, Evelyn N.

    Dropwise condensation, which has been demonstrated to exhibit a 5-7X higher heat transfer coefficient compared with state-of-the-art filmwise condensation, contributes to energy savings in a wide range of applications such as desalination systems, steam cycles and dew harvesting. In order to enhance dropwise condensation performance, previous studies have investigated the effects of surface geometric features on droplet growth rates and found that bumps protruding from surfaces can effectively promote dropwise condensation. In this work, we show that while bumps on surfaces enable droplets to grow faster in some cases, there are also cases where bumps on surfaces actually degrade dropwise condensation. We numerically simulated and experimentally demonstrated that even the same surface geometric feature can exert completely opposite effects on dropwise condensation of water under two different working conditions (pure vapor vs. air vapor mixture). This phenomenon is explained by comparing the heat and mass transfer resistance of the surface structure to that of the vapor transport during dropwise condensation. We expect that the fundamental understanding developed in this study will provide useful guidelines for relevant condensation applications.

  10. Estimating renewable water flux from landscape features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Heidi; Nieber, John; Kanivetsky, Roman; Shmagin, Boris

    2010-05-01

    Water level fluctuations are not always an indicator of ground water recharge or discharge. Fluctuations occurring over a period of decades can be attributed to naturally occurring climatic changes or anthropogenic activities including land use changes, pumping, irrigation and other engineering modifications. When long-term ground water extraction exceeds recharge, impacts on the natural hydrodynamics of the ground water system, including decreases in the hydrologic unit storage and hydraulic head, may occur. If extraction limitations are set, these ground water units can still take decades to centuries to recover. The complexity of vadose zone, ground water and surface water interactions presents hydrological research challenges for the development of operational hierarchies and up-scaling from reaches to watersheds. Multiple techniques for quantifying ground and surface water exchanges, specifically Geographic Information System (GIS) technology, numerical models and statistical analyses must be applied to overcome these challenges. These techniques promote a multidisciplinary and multi-scale approach to addressing hydrologic system research. By using watershed boundaries as a quantification unit and applying the three types of flow systems resulting from Laplace equation solutions (Tóth, 1963), regional, intermediate and local systems could be addressed. Multivariate exploratory data analysis techniques were used to establish watershed interconnections based on the spatio-temporal structure of annual, seasonal, monthly and minimal monthly runoff. The analysis of an initial dataset of 129 watersheds spanning the State of Minnesota, USA, and split into three varying time periods, resulted in five hydrologic regimes with either a positive, negative or absence of trend in annual stream discharge. At a given point on the earth's surface, a combination of different layers, each representing fundamental landscape components, yields unique features related to

  11. Features of MCNP6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goorley, T.; James, M.; Booth, T.; Brown, F.; Bull, J.; Cox, L.J.; Durkee, J.; Elson, J.; Fensin, M.; Forster, R.A.; Hendricks, J.; Hughes, H.G.; Johns, R.; Kiedrowski, B.; Martz, R.; Mashnik, S.; McKinney, G.; Pelowitz, D.; Prael, R.; Sweezy, J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MCNP6 is simply and accurately described as the merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX capabilities, but it is much more than the sum of these two computer codes. • MCNP6 is the result of six years of effort by the MCNP5 and MCNPX code development teams. • These groups of people, residing in Los Alamos National Laboratory’s X Computational Physics Division, Monte Carlo Codes Group (XCP-3) and Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Radiation Transport Modeling Team (NEN-5) respectively, have combined their code development efforts to produce the next evolution of MCNP. • While maintenance and major bug fixes will continue for MCNP5 1.60 and MCNPX 2.7.0 for upcoming years, new code development capabilities only will be developed and released in MCNP6. • In fact, the initial release of MCNP6 contains numerous new features not previously found in either code. • These new features are summarized in this document. • Packaged with MCNP6 is also the new production release of the ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data files usable by MCNP. • The high quality of the overall merged code, usefulness of these new features, along with the desire in the user community to start using the merged code, have led us to make the first MCNP6 production release: MCNP6 version 1. • High confidence in the MCNP6 code is based on its performance with the verification and validation test suites, comparisons to its predecessor codes, our automated nightly software debugger tests, the underlying high quality nuclear and atomic databases, and significant testing by many beta testers. - Abstract: MCNP6 can be described as the merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX capabilities, but it is much more than the sum of these two computer codes. MCNP6 is the result of six years of effort by the MCNP5 and MCNPX code development teams. These groups of people, residing in Los Alamos National Laboratory’s X Computational Physics Division, Monte Carlo Codes Group (XCP-3) and Nuclear Engineering and

  12. Genome features of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.T.O. Nascimento

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available We report novel features of the genome sequence of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni, a highly invasive spirochete. Leptospira species colonize a significant proportion of rodent populations worldwide and produce life-threatening infections in mammals. Genomic sequence analysis reveals the presence of a competent transport system with 13 families of genes encoding for major transporters including a three-member component efflux system compatible with the long-term survival of this organism. The leptospiral genome contains a broad array of genes encoding regulatory system, signal transduction and methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins, reflecting the organism's ability to respond to diverse environmental stimuli. The identification of a complete set of genes encoding the enzymes for the cobalamin biosynthetic pathway and the novel coding genes related to lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis should bring new light to the study of Leptospira physiology. Genes related to toxins, lipoproteins and several surface-exposed proteins may facilitate a better understanding of the Leptospira pathogenesis and may serve as potential candidates for vaccine.

  13. Bio-inspired functional surfaces for advanced applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malshe, Ajay; Rajurkar, Kamlakar; Samant, Anoop

    2013-01-01

    , are being evolved to a higher state of intelligent functionality. These surfaces became more efficient by using combinations of available materials, along with unique physical and chemical strategies. Noteworthy physical strategies include features such as texturing and structure, and chemical strategies...

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging features of allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattapuram, S.V.; Rosol, M.S.; Rosenthal, D.I.; Palmer, W.E.; Mankin, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    enhancement observed on MRI during the first few months to 2 years following surgery represents vascular ingrowth and early skeletal repair. The zone of periosteal enhancement could also include the new bone laid on the surface of the allograft through which the soft tissues bind to the cortex. The exact reason for the inhomogeneity in the marrow signal, and the diffuse, inhomogeneous marrow enhancement is not clear. This may represent saponified and/or necrotic marrow fat interspersed with the fibrovascular tissue. The features noted here should provide radiologists with useful information regarding imaging characteristics they can expect to see in other allograft replacement patients. (orig.)

  15. Pulmonary vasculitis: imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Joon Beom; Im, Jung Gi; Chung, Jin Wook; Goo, Jin Mo; Park, Jae Hyung; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Song, Jae Woo

    1999-01-01

    Vasculitis is defined as an inflammatory process involving blood vessels, and can lead to destruction of the vascular wall and ischemic damage to the organs supplied by these vessels. The lung is commonly affected. A number of attempts have been made to classify and organize pulmonary vasculitis, but because the clinical manifestations and pathologic features of the condition overlap considerably, these afforts have failed to achieve a consensus. We classified pulmonary vasculitis as belonging to either the angitiis-granulomatosis group, the diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage with capillaritis group, or 'other'. Characteristic radiographic and CT findings of the different types of pulmonary vasculitis are illustrated, with a brief discussion of the respective disease entities

  16. Onychomatricoma with misleading features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, J; Baran, R; Perrin, C; Labrousse, F

    2000-01-01

    Onychomatricoma is a rare tumour of the nail matrix with peculiar clinical and histological features and electron microscopic findings. We report on 5 cases with appearances which were misleading. Three presented as longitudinal melanonychia, a previously unreported observation. One case had the appearance of a cutaneous horn. In 3 of the 5 cases the tumour was associated with an onychomycosis and this may thus have been a predisposing factor in the secondary fungal infestation. Onychomatricoma appears as a multi-faceted tumour which can be mimicked by longitudinal melanonychia and/or onychomycosis.

  17. Simultaneous Channel and Feature Selection of Fused EEG Features Based on Sparse Group Lasso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Jia Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction and classification of EEG signals are core parts of brain computer interfaces (BCIs. Due to the high dimension of the EEG feature vector, an effective feature selection algorithm has become an integral part of research studies. In this paper, we present a new method based on a wrapped Sparse Group Lasso for channel and feature selection of fused EEG signals. The high-dimensional fused features are firstly obtained, which include the power spectrum, time-domain statistics, AR model, and the wavelet coefficient features extracted from the preprocessed EEG signals. The wrapped channel and feature selection method is then applied, which uses the logistical regression model with Sparse Group Lasso penalized function. The model is fitted on the training data, and parameter estimation is obtained by modified blockwise coordinate descent and coordinate gradient descent method. The best parameters and feature subset are selected by using a 10-fold cross-validation. Finally, the test data is classified using the trained model. Compared with existing channel and feature selection methods, results show that the proposed method is more suitable, more stable, and faster for high-dimensional feature fusion. It can simultaneously achieve channel and feature selection with a lower error rate. The test accuracy on the data used from international BCI Competition IV reached 84.72%.

  18. MR features of ectopic pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamai, Ken; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Koyama, Takashi [Kyoto University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kyoto (Japan)

    2007-12-15

    Ectopic pregnancy (EP), in which a fertilized ovum implants outside the uterine cavity, is the leading cause of pregnancy-related death in the first trimester. EP is usually suspected by a positive pregnancy test and an empty uterus on transvaginal sonography (TVS). Although TVS is the initial modality of choice, it may occasionally fail to demonstrate the implantation site. When TVS findings are indeterminate, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may provide better delineation of the focus of EP owing to its excellent tissue contrast. The key MRI features of EP include gestational sac (GS)-like structures that typically appear as a cystic sac-like structure, frequently associated with surrounding acute hematoma of distinct low intensity on T2-weighted images. In tubal pregnancy, an enhanced tubal wall on postcontrast images may be another diagnostic finding. Ruptured EP is inevitably associated with acute hematoma outside these structures. In intrauterine EP, recognition of the relationship between GS-like structure and the myometrium can aid in differentiating from normal pregnancy. Diagnostic pitfalls include heterotopic pregnancy, decidual changes in endometrial cyst and theca lutein cysts mimicking GS-like structures. Knowledge of a spectrum of clinical and MRI features of EP is essential for establishing an accurate diagnosis and determining appropriate management. (orig.)

  19. MR features of ectopic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Ken; Togashi, Kaori; Koyama, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy (EP), in which a fertilized ovum implants outside the uterine cavity, is the leading cause of pregnancy-related death in the first trimester. EP is usually suspected by a positive pregnancy test and an empty uterus on transvaginal sonography (TVS). Although TVS is the initial modality of choice, it may occasionally fail to demonstrate the implantation site. When TVS findings are indeterminate, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may provide better delineation of the focus of EP owing to its excellent tissue contrast. The key MRI features of EP include gestational sac (GS)-like structures that typically appear as a cystic sac-like structure, frequently associated with surrounding acute hematoma of distinct low intensity on T2-weighted images. In tubal pregnancy, an enhanced tubal wall on postcontrast images may be another diagnostic finding. Ruptured EP is inevitably associated with acute hematoma outside these structures. In intrauterine EP, recognition of the relationship between GS-like structure and the myometrium can aid in differentiating from normal pregnancy. Diagnostic pitfalls include heterotopic pregnancy, decidual changes in endometrial cyst and theca lutein cysts mimicking GS-like structures. Knowledge of a spectrum of clinical and MRI features of EP is essential for establishing an accurate diagnosis and determining appropriate management. (orig.)

  20. Mars Surface Change Detection from Multi-temporal Orbital Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di, Kaichang; Liu, Yiliang; Hu, Wenmin; Yue, Zongyu; Liu, Zhaoqin

    2014-01-01

    A vast amount of Mars images have been acquired by orbital missions in recent years. With the increase of spatial resolution to metre and decimetre levels, fine-scale geological features can be identified, and surface change detection is possible because of multi-temporal images. This study briefly reviews detectable changes on the Mars surface, including new impact craters, gullies, dark slope streaks, dust devil tracks and ice caps. To facilitate fast and efficient change detection for subsequent scientific investigations, a featured-based change detection method is developed based on automatic image registration, surface feature extraction and difference information statistics. Experimental results which use multi-temporal images demonstrate the promising potential of the proposed method

  1. Ice Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Mary Jane

    2017-05-01

    Ice is a fundamental solid with important environmental, biological, geological, and extraterrestrial impact. The stable form of ice at atmospheric pressure is hexagonal ice, Ih. Despite its prevalence, Ih remains an enigmatic solid, in part due to challenges in preparing samples for fundamental studies. Surfaces of ice present even greater challenges. Recently developed methods for preparation of large single-crystal samples make it possible to reproducibly prepare any chosen face to address numerous fundamental questions. This review describes preparation methods along with results that firmly establish the connection between the macroscopic structure (observed in snowflakes, microcrystallites, or etch pits) and the molecular-level configuration (detected with X-ray or electron scattering techniques). Selected results of probing interactions at the ice surface, including growth from the melt, surface vibrations, and characterization of the quasi-liquid layer, are discussed.

  2. Diffusion processes in bombardment-induced surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    The bombardment of surfaces with moderate energy ions can lead to the development of various micron-sized surface structures. These structures include ridges, ledges, flat planes, pits and cones. The causal phenomena in the production of these features are sputtering, ion reflection, redeposition of sputtered material, and surface diffusion of both impurity and target-atom species. The authors concentrate on the formation of ion bombardment-induced surface topography wherein surface diffusion is a dominant process. The most thoroughly understood aspect of this topography development is the generation of cone-like structures during sputtering. The formation of cones during sputtering has been attributed to three effects. These are: (1) the presence of asperities, defects, or micro-inclusions in the surface layers, (2) the presence of impurities on the surfaces, and (3) particular crystal orientations. (Auth.)

  3. Imaging features of pancreatoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebuck, D.J.; Yuen, M.K.; Wong, Y.C.; Shing, M.K.; Li, C.K.; Lee, C.W.

    2001-01-01

    Background. Pancreatoblastoma is a rare tumour of childhood. Reports of the imaging appearances are limited. Objective. To define the imaging features of pancreatoblastoma by analysis of four previously unreported cases and review of the literature. Materials and methods. Findings at CT (n = 4), US (n = 3) and MRI (n = 2) were retrospectively reviewed in four patients with pancreatoblastoma. A Medline search was performed to identify relevant literature. Results. Pancreatoblastoma arises most frequently in the body and/or tail, or involves the entire pancreas. Ultrasonography, CT and MRI show variable imaging features, but should in most cases permit preoperative distinction of pancreatoblastoma from other tumours that occur in this region in infancy and childhood. Detection of metastases in the liver, lymph nodes and peritoneal cavity is not significantly better with any one of these three modalities. Conclusion. Preoperative imaging with US, CT and/or MRI will usually suggest a correct diagnosis of pancreatoblastoma. Contrary to previous reports, the tumour arises in the pancreatic head in a minority of cases. (orig.)

  4. Complete Edentulous Rehabilitation Using an Immediate Function Protocol and an Implant Design Featuring a Straight Body, Anodically Oxidized Surface, and Narrow Tip with Engaging Threads Extending to the Apex of the Implant: A 5-year Retrospective Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maló, Paulo; de Araújo Nobre, Miguel; Lopes, Armando; Ferro, Ana; Gravito, Inês

    2016-01-01

    To report the 5-year outcome of NobelSpeedy design implants in immediate function fixed prosthetic rehabilitations. This retrospective clinical study included 46 consecutive patients (29 women and 17 men) with an average age of 55 years (range, 32 to 78 years) who were rehabilitated between 2003 and 2004 with full-arch restorations supported by dental implants in immediate function. The primary outcome measures were implant survival calculated based on implant function and using life tables. The secondary outcome measures were marginal bone levels measured at 3 and 5 years, and the incidence of mechanical and biologic complications. Five patients with 21 study implants dropped out (11%). One-hundred eighty-nine implants were inserted in the maxilla (n = 166) and mandible (n = 23). Five patients lost five implants, giving a cumulative survival rate of 97.3% at 5 years of follow-up. The average (SD) marginal bone levels were 1.45 mm (0.83 mm) and 1.72 mm (1.04 mm) at 5 years of follow-up. The incidence of mechanical complications in the provisional and definitive prostheses was registered in 14 and 6 patients, respectively: prosthetic screw loosening (n = 4 provisional prostheses, n = 3 definitive prostheses), abutment screw loosening (n = 5 provisional prostheses), fracture of the acrylic resin prostheses (n = 5 provisional prostheses, n = 1 definitive prosthesis), chipping of a ceramic crown (n = 1 definitive prosthesis), and fracture of a ceramic crown (n = 1 definitive prosthesis). The incidence of biologic complications (peri-implant pathology) was registered in 6 patients and 12 implants (7.1%). Within the limitations of this study, it is possible to conclude that implants of the NobelSpeedy type used in immediate function for support of fixed prosthetic full-arch rehabilitations are a valid option, with a high survival rate.

  5. Titan's Ammonia Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, W.; Nelson, R.; Boryta, M.; Choukroun, M.

    2011-01-01

    NH3 has long been considered an important component in the formation and evolution of the outer planet satellites. NH3 is particularly important for Titan, since it may serve as the reservoir for atmospheric nitrogen. A brightening seen on Titan starting in 2004 may arise from a transient low-lying fog or surface coating of ammonia. The spectral shape suggests the ammonia is anhydrous, a molecule that hydrates quickly in the presence of water.

  6. MCNP4A: Features and philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes MCNP, states its philosophy, introduces a number of new features becoming available with version MCNP4A, and answers a number of questions asked by participants in the workshop. MCNP is a general-purpose three-dimensional neutron, photon and electron transport code. Its philosophy is ''Quality, Value and New Features.'' Quality is exemplified by new software quality assurance practices and a program of benchmarking against experiments. Value includes a strong emphasis on documentation and code portability. New features are the third priority. MCNP4A is now available at Los Alamos. New features in MCNP4A include enhanced statistical analysis, distributed processor multitasking, new photon libraries, ENDF/B-VI capabilities, X-Windows graphics, dynamic memory allocation, expanded criticality output, periodic boundaries, plotting of particle tracks via SABRINA, and many other improvements. 23 refs

  7. Sea Surface Scanner: An advanced catamaran to study the sea surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurl, O.; Mustaffa, N. I. H.; Ribas Ribas, M.

    2016-02-01

    The Sea Surface Scanner is a remote-controlled catamaran with the capability to sample the sea-surface microlayer in high resolution. The catamaran is equipped with a suite of sensors to scan the sea surface on chemical, biological and physical parameters. Parameters include UV absorption, fluorescence spectra, chlorophyll-a, photosynthetic efficiency, chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, and salinity. A further feature is a capability to collect remotely discrete water samples for detailed lab analysis. We present the first high-resolution (< 30 sec) data on the sea surface microlayer. We discuss the variability of biochemical properties of the sea surface and its implication on air-sea interaction.

  8. Solving jigsaw puzzles using image features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ture R.; Drewsen, Peter; Hansen, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe a method for automatic solving of the jigsaw puzzle problem based on using image features instead of the shape of the pieces. The image features are used for obtaining an accurate measure for edge similarity to be used in a new edge matching algorithm. The algorithm...... algorithm which exploits the divide and conquer paradigm to reduce the combinatorially complex problem by classifying the puzzle pieces and comparing pieces drawn from the same group. The paper includes a brief preliminary investigation of some image features used in the classification....

  9. A micromanipulation cell including a tool changer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clévy, Cédric; Hubert, Arnaud; Agnus, Joël; Chaillet, Nicolas

    2005-10-01

    This paper deals with the design, fabrication and characterization of a tool changer for micromanipulation cells. This tool changer is part of a manipulation cell including a three linear axes robot and a piezoelectric microgripper. All these parts are designed to perform micromanipulation tasks in confined spaces such as a microfactory or in the chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tool changer principle is to fix a pair of tools (i.e. the gripper tips) either on the tips of the microgripper actuator (piezoceramic bulk) or on a tool magazine. The temperature control of a thermal glue enables one to fix or release this pair of tools. Liquefaction and solidification are generated by surface mounted device (SMD) resistances fixed on the surface of the actuator or magazine. Based on this principle, the tool changer can be adapted to other kinds of micromanipulation cells. Hundreds of automatic tool exchanges were performed with a maximum positioning error between two consecutive tool exchanges of 3.2 µm, 2.3 µm and 2.8 µm on the X, Y and Z axes respectively (Z refers to the vertical axis). Finally, temperature measurements achieved under atmospheric pressure and in a vacuum environment and pressure measurements confirm the possibility of using this device in the air as well as in a SEM.

  10. Lubricant-impregnated surfaces for electrochemical applications, and devices and systems using same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, Brian Richmond; Chen, Xinwei; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2018-04-17

    In certain embodiments, the invention relates to an electrochemical device having a liquid lubricant impregnated surface. At least a portion of the interior surface of the electrochemical device includes a portion that includes a plurality of solid features disposed therein. The plurality of solid features define a plurality of regions therebetween. A lubricant is disposed in the plurality of regions which retain the liquid lubricant in the plurality of regions during operation of the device. An electroactive phase comes in contact with at least the portion of the interior surface. The liquid lubricant impregnated surface introduces a slip at the surface when the electroactive phase flows along the surface. The electroactive phase may be a yield stress fluid.

  11. Karst Feature Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Southeastern Minnesota is part of the Upper Mississippi Valley Karst (Hedges and Alexander, 1985) that includes southwestern Wisconsin and northeastern Iowa. Karst...

  12. An observation of distribution features of cobalt rich manganese deposits

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yamazaki, T.; Tsurusaki, K.; Handa, K.; Tomishima, Y.; Sharma, R.

    Evaluation of seafloor stereo photographs, video data, and large diameter gravity core samples shows a variety of surface features associated with the crusts, nodules, and sediments covering mid Pacific seamounts. A set of deep sea stereo camera...

  13. Anomalous water dynamics at surfaces and interfaces: synergistic effects of confinement and surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rajib; Bagchi, Biman

    2018-01-01

    In nature, water is often found in contact with surfaces that are extended on the scale of molecule size but small on a macroscopic scale. Examples include lipid bilayers and reverse micelles as well as biomolecules like proteins, DNA and zeolites, to name a few. While the presence of surfaces and interfaces interrupts the continuous hydrogen bond network of liquid water, confinement on a mesoscopic scale introduces new features. Even when extended on a molecular scale, natural and biological surfaces often have features (like charge, hydrophobicity) that vary on the scale of the molecular diameter of water. As a result, many new and exotic features, which are not seen in the bulk, appear in the dynamics of water close to the surface. These different behaviors bear the signature of both water–surface interactions and of confinement. In other words, the altered properties are the result of the synergistic effects of surface–water interactions and confinement. Ultrafast spectroscopy, theoretical modeling and computer simulations together form powerful synergistic approaches towards an understanding of the properties of confined water in such systems as nanocavities, reverse micelles (RMs), water inside and outside biomolecules like proteins and DNA, and also between two hydrophobic walls. We shall review the experimental results and place them in the context of theory and simulations. For water confined within RMs, we discuss the possible interference effects propagating from opposite surfaces. Similar interference is found to give rise to an effective attractive force between two hydrophobic surfaces immersed and kept fixed at a separation of d, with the force showing an exponential dependence on this distance. For protein and DNA hydration, we shall examine a multitude of timescales that arise from frustration effects due to the inherent heterogeneity of these surfaces. We pay particular attention to the role of orientational correlations and modification of

  14. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Jose M.; Madureira, Antonio J.; Vieira, Alberto; Ramos, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis

  15. Multispectral Image Feature Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Aguilera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel feature point descriptor for the multispectral image case: Far-Infrared and Visible Spectrum images. It allows matching interest points on images of the same scene but acquired in different spectral bands. Initially, points of interest are detected on both images through a SIFT-like based scale space representation. Then, these points are characterized using an Edge Oriented Histogram (EOH descriptor. Finally, points of interest from multispectral images are matched by finding nearest couples using the information from the descriptor. The provided experimental results and comparisons with similar methods show both the validity of the proposed approach as well as the improvements it offers with respect to the current state-of-the-art.

  16. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jose M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: jmpjesus@yahoo.com; Madureira, Antonio J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Vieira, Alberto [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Ramos, Isabel [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)

    2005-08-01

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis.

  17. Odontogenic keratocyst radiographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nartey, N. O.; Saini, T.

    1990-01-01

    The clinical features often patients with odontogenic keratocysts were studied. One patient had Gorlin-GoJtz syndrome. A total of fourteen radiolucent lesions were observed on radiographic examination. All the fourteen lesions were diagnosed as odontogenic keratocyst after histopathclogical examination of biopsied tissue from the patients. The age at diagnosis ranged from 25-72 years with a mean age of 37.6 years. The male : female ratio was 2.3:1. Thirteen of these lesions occurred in the mandible, nine involved the mandibular third molar region. Involvement of the ramus of the mandible produced a sausage-shaped radiolucency. Cystic lesions which have been present for long periods of time showed scalloped margins, due to the regional resorption of the surrounding bone. The bony ledges present on the cortical bones simulated multilocular appearance in such cases. It was also observed that the lesions in older individuals perforated the cortical plates rather than eliciting a periostally induced bony expansion. (author)

  18. Dynamic features of combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic features of combustion are discussed for four important cases: ignition, inflammation, explosion, and detonation. Ignition, the initiation of a self-sustained exothermic process, is considered in the simplest case of a closed thermodynamic system and its stochastic distribution. Inflammation, the initiation and propagation of self-sustained flames, is presented for turbulent flow. Explosion, the dynamic effects caused by the deposition of exothermic energy in a compressible medium, is illustrated by self-similar blast waves with energy deposition at the front and the adiabatic non-self-similar wave. Detonation, the most comprehensive illustration of all the dynamic effects of combustion, is discussed with a phenomenological account of the development and structure of the wave.

  19. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R.; King, S.J.; Day, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of 26 Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of 10 Be, 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 59 Ni and 129 I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs

  20. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S.J.; Day, J.P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-12-31

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  1. Variational mesh segmentation via quadric surface fitting

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2012-11-01

    We present a new variational method for mesh segmentation by fitting quadric surfaces. Each component of the resulting segmentation is represented by a general quadric surface (including plane as a special case). A novel energy function is defined to evaluate the quality of the segmentation, which combines both L2 and L2 ,1 metrics from a triangle to a quadric surface. The Lloyd iteration is used to minimize the energy function, which repeatedly interleaves between mesh partition and quadric surface fitting. We also integrate feature-based and simplification-based techniques in the segmentation framework, which greatly improve the performance. The advantages of our algorithm are demonstrated by comparing with the state-of-the-art methods. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Surface Prognostic Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Prognostic Charts are historical surface prognostic (forecast) charts created by the United States Weather Bureau. They include fronts, isobars, cloud, and...

  3. A prototype feature system for feature retrieval using relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Usery, E.L.

    2009-01-01

    Using a feature data model, geographic phenomena can be represented effectively by integrating space, theme, and time. This paper extends and implements a feature data model that supports query and visualization of geographic features using their non-spatial and temporal relationships. A prototype feature-oriented geographic information system (FOGIS) is then developed and storage of features named Feature Database is designed. Buildings from the U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina and subways in Chicago, Illinois are used to test the developed system. The results of the applications show the strength of the feature data model and the developed system 'FOGIS' when they utilize non-spatial and temporal relationships in order to retrieve and visualize individual features.

  4. Collaborative Tracking of Image Features Based on Projective Invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinwei

    In past manned lunar landing missions, such as Apollo 14, spatial disorientation of astronauts substantially compromised the productivities of astronauts, and caused safety and mission success problems. The non-GPS lunar environment has micro-gravity field, and lacks both spatial recognition cues and reference objects which are familiar to the human biological sensors related to spatial recognition (e.g. eyes). Such an environment causes misperceptions of the locations of astronauts and targets and their spatial relations, as well as misperceptions of the heading direction and travel distances of astronauts. These spatial disorientation effects can reduce productivity and cause life risks in lunar manned missions. A navigation system, which is capable of locating astronauts and tracking the movements of them on the lunar surface, is critical for future lunar manned missions where multiple astronauts will traverse more than 100km from the lander or the base station with the assistance from roving vehicle, and need real-time navigation support for effective collaborations among them. Our earlier research to solve these problems dealt with developing techniques to enable a precise, flexible and reliable Lunar Astronaut Spatial Orientation and Information System (LASOIS) capable of delivering real-time navigation information to astronauts on the lunar surface. The LASOIS hardware was a sensor network composed of orbital, ground and on-suit sensors: the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC), radio beacons, the on-suit cameras, and shoe-mounted Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The LASOIS software included efficient and robust algorithms for estimating trajectory from IMU signals, generating heading information from imagery acquired from on-suit cameras, and an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based approach for integrating these spatial information components to generate the trajectory of an astronaut with meter-level accuracy. Moreover, LASOIS emphasized multi

  5. Mixed features in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Eva; Garriga, Marina; Valentí, Marc; Vieta, Eduard

    2017-04-01

    Mixed affective states, defined as the coexistence of depressive and manic symptoms, are complex presentations of manic-depressive illness that represent a challenge for clinicians at the levels of diagnosis, classification, and pharmacological treatment. The evidence shows that patients with bipolar disorder who have manic/hypomanic or depressive episodes with mixed features tend to have a more severe form of bipolar disorder along with a worse course of illness and higher rates of comorbid conditions than those with non-mixed presentations. In the updated Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5), the definition of "mixed episode" has been removed, and subthreshold nonoverlapping symptoms of the opposite pole are captured using a "with mixed features" specifier applied to manic, hypomanic, and major depressive episodes. However, the list of symptoms proposed in the DSM-5 specifier has been widely criticized, because it includes typical manic symptoms (such as elevated mood and grandiosity) that are rare among patients with mixed depression, while excluding symptoms (such as irritability, psychomotor agitation, and distractibility) that are frequently reported in these patients. With the new classification, mixed depressive episodes are three times more common in bipolar II compared with unipolar depression, which partly contributes to the increased risk of suicide observed in bipolar depression compared to unipolar depression. Therefore, a specific diagnostic category would imply an increased diagnostic sensitivity, would help to foster early identification of symptoms and ensure specific treatment, as well as play a role in suicide prevention in this population.

  6. Navigating features: a topologically informed chart of electromyographic features space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinyomark, Angkoon; Khushaba, Rami N; Ibáñez-Marcelo, Esther; Patania, Alice; Scheme, Erik; Petri, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    The success of biological signal pattern recognition depends crucially on the selection of relevant features. Across signal and imaging modalities, a large number of features have been proposed, leading to feature redundancy and the need for optimal feature set identification. A further complication is that, due to the inherent biological variability, even the same classification problem on different datasets can display variations in the respective optimal sets, casting doubts on the generalizability of relevant features. Here, we approach this problem by leveraging topological tools to create charts of features spaces. These charts highlight feature sub-groups that encode similar information (and their respective similarities) allowing for a principled and interpretable choice of features for classification and analysis. Using multiple electromyographic (EMG) datasets as a case study, we use this feature chart to identify functional groups among 58 state-of-the-art EMG features, and to show that they generalize across three different forearm EMG datasets obtained from able-bodied subjects during hand and finger contractions. We find that these groups describe meaningful non-redundant information, succinctly recapitulating information about different regions of feature space. We then recommend representative features from each group based on maximum class separability, robustness and minimum complexity. © 2017 The Authors.

  7. Variability in leaf surface features and water efficiency utilisation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alloteropsis semialata (R. Br.) Hitchc. Occupies a unique position both taxonomically and physiologically in the Gramineae in that C3 and C4 photosynthetic and anatomical forms exist within a single taxonomic species. Both forms have been collected from a single ecological niche in the Transvaal highveld. This study ...

  8. Surface and upper air meteorological features during onset phase of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    quality data for the study of monsoon onset processes. The present work aims at gaining more insight into the monsoon onset processes utilizing. ARMEX-II data, especially the thermodynamical structure of the troposphere and air–sea interaction characteristics over the sea areas during pre-onset and onset periods of the ...

  9. Upwelling filaments are cold, typically narrow features in surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Ciencia y Tecnología of Spain. We thank our many colleagues in the project for their help and advice. E. Navarro-Pérez was supported by European Union studentships CEC/910792 and 913012. LITERATURE CITED. ALLEN, J. S., WALSTAD, L. J. and P. A. NEWBERGER 1991 —. Dynamics of the coastal transition zone ...

  10. Variability in leaf surface features and water efficiency utilisation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The C4 form was found to be more efficient with respect to water utilization efficiency. Keywords: alloteropsis semialata; botany; characteristics; distribution; grasses; leaves; photosynthetic rate; plant physiology; south africa; stomatal resistance; transpiration rate; transvaal highveld; water use efficiency; water utilization ...

  11. Oceanic whitecaps: Sea surface features detectable via satellite that ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    experiments the microwave brightness temperature was measured with a radiometer suspended over the center of the basin. The whitecap coverage was measured with video cameras, one mounted with the radiometer, and others mounted around the perimeter of the basin. The trace gases were first infused into the water ...

  12. Mesoscale Surface Pressure and Temperature Features Associated with Bow Echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    contain several bowing segments. These multiple segments could occur at the same time and be located within the same bow, such as the serial derecho ...Examination of derecho environments using proximity soundings. Wea. Forecasting, 16, 329–342. Fovell, R. G., 2002: Upstream influence of numerically...Se- vere Local Storms, Hyannis, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 4.6. Johns, R. H., and W. D. Hirt, 1987: Derechos : Widespread con- vectively induced

  13. Surface and upper air meteorological features during onset phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There was a sharp fall in the temperature difference between 850 and 500 hPa, and the height of zero degree isotherm about 2–3 days before the monsoon onset. The flux of sensible heat was positive (sea to air) over south Arabian Sea during the onset phase. Over the Bay of Bengal higher negative (air to sea) values of ...

  14. Localized scleroderma: imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.; Uziel, Y.; Chuang, S.; Silverman, E.; Krafchik, B.; Laxer, R.

    1994-01-01

    Localized scleroderma is distinct from the diffuse form of scleroderma and does not show Raynaud's phenomenon and visceral involvement. The imaging features in 23 patients ranging from 2 to 17 years of age (mean 11.1 years) were reviewed. Leg length discrepancy and muscle atrophy were the most common findings (five patients), with two patients also showing modelling deformity of the fibula. One patient with lower extremity involvement showed abnormal bone marrow signals on MR. Disabling joint contracture requiring orthopedic intervention was noted in one patient. In two patients with ''en coup de sabre'' facial deformity, CT and MR scans revealed intracranial calcifications and white matter abnormality in the ipsilateral frontal lobes, with one also showing migrational abnormality. In a third patient, CT revealed white matter abnormality in the ipsilateral parietal lobe. In one patient with progressive facial hemiatrophy, CT and MR scans showed the underlying hypoplastic left maxillary antrum and cheek. Imaging studies of areas of clinical concern revealed positive findings in half our patients. (orig.)

  15. Rhabdomyolysis featuring muscular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoria, Rajat; Milone, Margherita

    2016-02-15

    Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life threatening condition of various etiology. The association between rhabdomyolysis and muscular dystrophies is under-recognized in clinical practice. To identify muscular dystrophies presenting with rhabdomyolysis at onset or as predominant feature. We retrospectively reviewed clinical and laboratory data of patients with a genetically confirmed muscular dystrophy in whom rhabdomyolysis was the presenting or main clinical manifestation. Thirteen unrelated patients (males=6; females=7) were identified. Median age at time of rhabdomyolysis was 18 years (range, 2-47) and median duration between the first episode of rhabdomyolysis and molecular diagnosis was 2 years. Fukutin-related protein (FKRP) muscular dystrophy (n=6) was the most common diagnosis, followed by anoctaminopathy-5 (n=3), calpainopathy-3 (n=2) and dystrophinopathy (n=2). Four patients experienced recurrent rhabdomyolysis. Eight patients were asymptomatic and 3 reported myalgia and exercise intolerance prior to the rhabdomyolysis. Exercise (n=6) and fever (n=4) were common triggers; rhabdomyolysis was unprovoked in 3 patients. Twelve patients required hospitalization. Baseline CK levels were elevated in all patients (median 1200 IU/L; range, 600-3600). Muscular dystrophies can present with rhabdomyolysis; FKRP mutations are particularly frequent in causing such complication. A persistently elevated CK level in patients with rhabdomyolysis warrants consideration for underlying muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. FEATURES OF STUDENTS` BLOOD MICROCIRCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horban D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental research included the study of the functional state of blood microcirculation by means of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF. Allowing to assess the condition of tissue blood flow and to detect the features of the microcirculation under different types of higher nervous activity. The obtained results showed that at most of students high-amplitude LDF was registered. Determining the characteristics of students` blood microcirculation with different types of higher nervous activity among healthy students 17-22 years showed that the prevailing strong and active types of temperament (choleric and sanguine students hiperemichnym type of temperament. Percentage strong, but few mobile (phlegmatic students was minimal and there was a greater number of students with hiperemichnym type of microcirculation, and the percentage weak sedentary (melancholic type had a mean and often observed in students from normoemichnym type of blood microcirculation.

  17. FEATURES OF STUDENTS` BLOOD MICROCIRCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Horban

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental research included the study of the functional state of blood microcirculation by means of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF. Allowing to assess the condition of tissue blood flow and to detect the features of the microcirculation under different types of higher nervous activity. The obtained results showed that at most of students high-amplitude LDF was registered. Determining the characteristics of students` blood microcirculation with different types of higher nervous activity among healthy students 17-22 years showed that the prevailing strong and active types of temperament (choleric and sanguine students hiperemichnym type of temperament. Percentage strong, but few mobile (phlegmatic students was minimal and there was a greater number of students with hiperemichnym type of microcirculation, and the percentage weak sedentary (melancholic type had a mean and often observed in students from normoemichnym type of blood microcirculation. Keywords: the blood microcirculation, LDF-metry, the higher nervous activity, temperament.

  18. Currency features for visually impaired people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Sandra L.; Legge, Gordon E.; Shannon, Robert R.; Baer, Norbert S.

    1996-03-01

    The estimated 3.7 million Americans with low vision experience a uniquely difficult task in identifying the denominations of U.S. banknotes because the notes are remarkably uniform in size, color, and general design. The National Research Council's Committee on Currency Features Usable by the Visually Impaired assessed features that could be used by people who are visually disabled to distinguish currency from other documents and to denominate and authenticate banknotes using available technology. Variation of length and height, introduction of large numerals on a uniform, high-contrast background, use of different colors for each of the six denominations printed, and the introduction of overt denomination codes that could lead to development of effective, low-cost devices for examining banknotes were all deemed features available now. Issues affecting performance, including the science of visual and tactile perception, were addressed for these features, as well as for those features requiring additional research and development. In this group the committee included durable tactile features such as those printed with transparent ink, and the production of currency with holes to indicate denomination. Among long-range approaches considered were the development of technologically advanced devices and smart money.

  19. Recognition of Handwritten Character by Fuzzy Neighbor Mesh Feature

    OpenAIRE

    "王,暁文/橋本,禮治"; "/ハシモト, レイジ"; "Wang,Xiaowen/Hashimoto,Reiji"

    1993-01-01

    "The fuzzy mesh feature (FM-feature) which is proposed in our previous work has been proved that it can absorb some handwriting variation. But the recognition rate got there is still not sufficient, one reason of which may be that this feature includes limited structural information about the character. In this work, we consider a modified fuzzy feature of mesh pattern (FNM-feature) by utilizing the neighbor meshes. And by the experiment about that, we have got the result that FNM-feature imp...

  20. Present SLAC accelerator computer control system features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, V.; Johnson, R.

    1981-02-01

    The current functional organization and state of software development of the computer control system of the Stanford Linear Accelerator is described. Included is a discussion of the distribution of functions throughout the system, the local controller features, and currently implemented features of the touch panel portion of the system. The functional use of our triplex of PDP11-34 computers sharing common memory is described. Also included is a description of the use of pseudopanel tables as data tables for closed loop control functions

  1. Computer aided surface representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhill, R E

    1987-11-01

    The aims of this research are the creation of new surface forms and the determination of geometric and physical properties of surfaces. The full sweep from constructive mathematics through the implementation of algorithms and the interactive computer graphics display of surfaces is utilized. Both three-dimensional and multi- dimensional surfaces are considered. Particular emphasis is given to the scientific computing solution of Department of Energy problems. The methods that we have developed and that we are proposing to develop allow applications such as: Producing smooth contour maps from measured data, such as weather maps. Modeling the heat distribution inside a furnace from sample measurements. Terrain modeling based on satellite pictures. The investigation of new surface forms includes the topics of triangular interpolants, multivariate interpolation, surfaces defined on surfaces and monotone and/or convex surfaces. The geometric and physical properties considered include contours, the intersection of surfaces, curvatures as a interrogation tool, and numerical integration.

  2. Pharmacological features of osthole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Jarząb

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Coumarins are a group of naturally occurring compounds common in the plant world. These substances and their derivatives exhibit a broad range of biological activities.One of the naturally occurring coumarins is osthole, which can most frequently be found in plants of the Apiaceae family. Cnidium monnieri (L. Cusson ex Juss. Angelica pubescens Maxim. and Peucedanum ostruthium (L.. It has anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant, and antiallergic properties; apart from that, inhibition of platelet aggregation has also been proved. The impact of osthole on bone metabolism has been demonstrated; also its hepatoprotective and neuroprotective properties have been confirmed. The inhibitory effect of this metokcompound on the development of neurodegenerative diseases has been proved in experimental models. Anticancer features of osthole have been also demonstrated both in vitro on different cell lines, and in vivo using animals xenografts. Osthole inhibited proliferation, motility and invasiveness of tumor cells, which may be associated with the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle slowdown. The exact molecular mechanism of osthole anti-cancer mode of action has not been fully elucidated. A synergistic effect of osthole with other anti-tumor substances has been also reported. Modification of its chemical structure led to the synthesis of many derivatives with significant anticancer effects.To sum up, osthole is an interesting therapeutic option, due to both its direct effect on tumor cells, as well as its neuroprotective or anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, there is a chance to use osthole or its synthetic derivatives in the treatment of cancer.

  3. DYNAMIC FEATURE SELECTION FOR WEB USER IDENTIFICATION ON LINGUISTIC AND STYLISTIC FEATURES OF ONLINE TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Vorobeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with identification and authentication of web users participating in the Internet information processes (based on features of online texts.In digital forensics web user identification based on various linguistic features can be used to discover identity of individuals, criminals or terrorists using the Internet to commit cybercrimes. Internet could be used as a tool in different types of cybercrimes (fraud and identity theft, harassment and anonymous threats, terrorist or extremist statements, distribution of illegal content and information warfare. Linguistic identification of web users is a kind of biometric identification, it can be used to narrow down the suspects, identify a criminal and prosecute him. Feature set includes various linguistic and stylistic features extracted from online texts. We propose dynamic feature selection for each web user identification task. Selection is based on calculating Manhattan distance to k-nearest neighbors (Relief-f algorithm. This approach improves the identification accuracy and minimizes the number of features. Experiments were carried out on several datasets with different level of class imbalance. Experiment results showed that features relevance varies in different set of web users (probable authors of some text; features selection for each set of web users improves identification accuracy by 4% at the average that is approximately 1% higher than with the use of static set of features. The proposed approach is most effective for a small number of training samples (messages per user.

  4. Associations Between Spondyloarthritis Features and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbak, Bodil; Grethe Jurik, Anne; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim

    2016-01-01

    were 1) to estimate the prevalence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and clinical features included in the ASAS criteria for SpA and 2) to explore the associations between MRI findings and clinical features. METHODS: We included patients ages 18-40 years with persistent low back pain who had...... been referred to the Spine Centre of Southern Denmark. We collected information on clinical features (including HLA-B27 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) and MRI findings in the spine and sacroiliac (SI) joints. RESULTS: Of 1,020 included patients, 537 (53%) had at least 1 of the clinical...... features included in the ASAS criteria for SpA. Three clinical features were common-inflammatory back pain according to the ASAS criteria, a good response to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and family history of SpA. The prevalence of these features ranged from 15% to 17%. Sacroiliitis on MRI...

  5. The Influence of the Tool Surface Texture on Friction and the Surface Layers Properties of Formed Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šugárová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphological texturing of forming tool surfaces has high potential to reduce friction and tool wear and also has impact on the surface layers properties of formed material. In order to understand the effect of different types of tool textures, produced by nanosecond fibre laser, on the tribological conditions at the interface tool-formed material and on the integrity of formed part surface layers, the series of experimental investigations have been carried out. The coefficient of friction for different texture parameters (individual feature shape, including the depth profile of the cavities and orientation of the features relative to the material flow was evaluated via a Ring Test and the surface layers integrity of formed material (surface roughness and subsurface micro hardness was also experimentally analysed. The results showed a positive effect of surface texturing on the friction coefficients and the strain hardening of test samples material. Application of surface texture consisting of dimple-like depressions arranged in radial layout contributed to the most significant friction reduction of about 40%. On the other hand, this surface texture contributed to the increase of surface roughness parameters, Ra parameter increased from 0.49 μm to 2.19 μm and the Rz parameter increased from 0.99 μm to 16.79 μm.

  6. A new karren feature: hummocky karren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plan Lukas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Karren are small-scale landforms on karst surfaces and many types have been described so far. Here we present an apparently new feature which was found on the Hochschwab karst massive in the Northern Calcareous Alps of Austria. So far only few outcrops each having less than 1 m² within a very restricted area have been found. Morphometric analysis reveals that the karren consist of a randomly distributed, dispersed assemblage of small hummocks and depressions in between. The mean distance between neighbouring hummocks is 4 to 5 cm and the mean height is 0.85 cm. Longitudinal sections are gently sinuous. The occurrences are delimited by thin soil cover with grassy vegetation and the karren continue below that vegetation cover. Therefore, it is clear that the features have formed subcutaneously. Corroded fissures where water could infiltrate into the epikarst are absent. The bedrock lithology is Middle Triassic limestone of the Wetterstein Formation in lagoonal facies. Geological structures do not govern the feature. The surface is not a bedding plane and small joints and fractures do not govern the arrangement of the hummocks. Thin section analysis regarding rock texture and dolomite components show that there is no compositional difference between hummocks and depressions. Geochemical analyses show that the limestone is very pure with a very low content of Magnesia. Slightly higher Magnesia contents at the hummock surfaces are significant. The data obtained so far only indicate that some dissolution mechanism but not any rock property governs the irregular array. As there exist no descriptions of comparable features in literature, the name “hummocky karren” is suggested for that type of karren landform.

  7. Analysis of a cryolava flow-like feature on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Corre L.; Le, Mouelic S.; Sotin, Christophe; Combe, J.-P.; Rodriguez, S.; Barnes, J.W.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Jaumann, R.; Soderblom, J.; Soderblom, L.A.; Clark, R.; Baines, K.H.; Nicholson, P.D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the analysis of the highest spatial resolution hyperspectral images acquired by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft during its prime mission. A bright area matches a flow-like feature coming out of a caldera-like feature observed in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data recorded by the Cassini radar experiment [Lopes et al., 2007. Cryovolcanic features on Titan's surface as revealed by the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper. Icarus 186, 395-412, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2006.09.006]. In this SAR image, the flow extends about 160 km east of the caldera. The contrast in brightness between the flow and the surroundings progressively vanishes, suggesting alteration or evolution of the composition of the cryolava during the lifetime of the eruptions. Dunes seem to cover part of this flow on its eastern end. We analyze the different terrains using the Spectral Mixing Analysis (SMA) approach of the Multiple-Endmember Linear Unmixing Model (MELSUM, Combe et al., 2008). The study area can be fully modeled by using only two types of terrains. Then, the VIMS spectra are compared with laboratory spectra of known materials in the relevant atmospheric windows (from 1 to 2.78 ??m). We considered simple molecules that could be produced during cryovolcanic events, including H2O, CO2 (using two different grain sizes), CH4 and NH3. We find that the mean spectrum of the cryoflow-like feature is not consistent with pure water ice. It can be best fitted by linear combinations of spectra of the candidate materials, showing that its composition is compatible with a mixture of H2O, CH4 and CO2.. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. REGISTRATION OF LASER SCANNING POINT CLOUDS AND AERIAL IMAGES USING EITHER ARTIFICIAL OR NATURAL TIE FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rönnholm

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Integration of laser scanning data and photographs is an excellent combination regarding both redundancy and complementary. Applications of integration vary from sensor and data calibration to advanced classification and scene understanding. In this research, only airborne laser scanning and aerial images are considered. Currently, the initial registration is solved using direct orientation sensors GPS and inertial measurements. However, the accuracy is not usually sufficient for reliable integration of data sets, and thus the initial registration needs to be improved. A registration of data from different sources requires searching and measuring of accurate tie features. Usually, points, lines or planes are preferred as tie features. Therefore, the majority of resent methods rely highly on artificial objects, such as buildings, targets or road paintings. However, in many areas no such objects are available. For example in forestry areas, it would be advantageous to be able to improve registration between laser data and images without making additional ground measurements. Therefore, there is a need to solve registration using only natural features, such as vegetation and ground surfaces. Using vegetation as tie features is challenging, because the shape and even location of vegetation can change because of wind, for example. The aim of this article was to compare registration accuracies derived by using either artificial or natural tie features. The test area included urban objects as well as trees and other vegetation. In this area, two registrations were performed, firstly, using mainly built objects and, secondly, using only vegetation and ground surface. The registrations were solved applying the interactive orientation method. As a result, using artificial tie features leaded to a successful registration in all directions of the coordinate system axes. In the case of using natural tie features, however, the detection of correct heights was

  9. Biomimicking micropatterned surfaces and their effect on marine biofouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowska, Agata M; Parra-Velandia, Fernando J; Quintana, Robert; Xiaoying, Zhu; Lee, Serina S C; Chin-Sing, Lim; Jańczewski, Dominik; Teo, Serena L-M; Vancso, Julius G

    2014-08-05

    When synthetic materials are submerged in marine environments, dissolved matter and marine organisms attach to their surfaces by a process known as marine fouling. This phenomenon may lead to diminished material performance with detrimental consequences. Bioinspired surface patterning and chemical surface modifications present promising approaches to the design of novel functional surfaces that can prevent biofouling phenomena. In this study, we report the synergistic effects of surface patterns, inspired by the marine decapod crab Myomenippe hardwickii in combination with chemical surface modifications toward suppressing marine fouling. M. hardwickii is known to maintain a relatively clean carapace although the species occurs in biofouling communities of tropical shallow subtidal coastal waters. Following the surface analysis of selected specimens, we designed hierarchical surface microtopographies that replicate the critical features observed on the crustacean surface. The micropatterned surfaces were modified with zwitterionic polymer brushes or with layer-by-layer deposited polyelectrolyte multilayers to enhance their antifouling and/or fouling-release potential. Chemically modified and unmodified micropatterned surfaces were subjected to extensive fouling tests, including laboratory assays against barnacle settlement and algae adhesion, and field static immersion tests. The results show a statistically significant reduction in settlement on the micropatterned surfaces as well as a synergistic effect when the microtopographies are combined with grafted polymer chains.

  10. Equine Odontoclastic Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis: Histopathologic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, R C; Earley, E T; Galloway, S S; Baratt, R M; Rawlinson, J E

    2015-09-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) is a painful progressive condition of older horses that involves multiple teeth, including canines and incisors. EOTRH is uncommonly recognized by veterinary pathologists and in some cases may be misdiagnosed as cementoblastoma. The cause is unknown. The goals of this study were to describe the histopathologic features of EOTRH in 17 affected horses from the United States and to increase awareness of this condition. Samples ranged from affected tooth to the entire rostral mandible and maxilla. Affected teeth exhibited cemental hyperplasia and lysis. The marked proliferation of cementum in severe cases caused bulbous enlargement of the intra-alveolar portions of affected teeth. Several teeth contained necrotic debris, bacteria, and plant material in the regions of cemental lysis. All horses exhibited dentinal lysis in at least affected tooth, and several contained necrotic debris in these regions. Endodontic disease was often present with inflammation, lysis, necrotic debris, fibrosis, and/or a thin rim of atubular mineralized tissue in the pulp cavity. Periodontal disease was a common feature that was primarily characterized by moderate lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Resorption with secondary hypercementosis appears to begin on the external surface of the teeth rather than within the pulp cavity. Distinguishing EOTRH from other diseases requires a complete history that includes the number and location of affected teeth, a gross description of regional hard/soft tissue health, and radiographic findings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Discrete Feature Model (DFM) User Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, Joel

    2008-06-01

    This manual describes the Discrete-Feature Model (DFM) software package for modelling groundwater flow and solute transport in networks of discrete features. A discrete-feature conceptual model represents fractures and other water-conducting features around a repository as discrete conductors surrounded by a rock matrix which is usually treated as impermeable. This approximation may be valid for crystalline rocks such as granite or basalt, which have very low permeability if macroscopic fractures are excluded. A discrete feature is any entity that can conduct water and permit solute transport through bedrock, and can be reasonably represented as a piecewise-planar conductor. Examples of such entities may include individual natural fractures (joints or faults), fracture zones, and disturbed-zone features around tunnels (e.g. blasting-induced fractures or stress-concentration induced 'onion skin' fractures around underground openings). In a more abstract sense, the effectively discontinuous nature of pathways through fractured crystalline bedrock may be idealized as discrete, equivalent transmissive features that reproduce large-scale observations, even if the details of connective paths (and unconnected domains) are not precisely known. A discrete-feature model explicitly represents the fundamentally discontinuous and irregularly connected nature of systems of such systems, by constraining flow and transport to occur only within such features and their intersections. Pathways for flow and solute transport in this conceptualization are a consequence not just of the boundary conditions and hydrologic properties (as with continuum models), but also the irregularity of connections between conductive/transmissive features. The DFM software package described here is an extensible code for investigating problems of flow and transport in geological (natural or human-altered) systems that can be characterized effectively in terms of discrete features. With this software, the

  12. Discrete Feature Model (DFM) User Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, Joel (Clearwater Hardrock Consulting, Corvallis, OR (United States))

    2008-06-15

    This manual describes the Discrete-Feature Model (DFM) software package for modelling groundwater flow and solute transport in networks of discrete features. A discrete-feature conceptual model represents fractures and other water-conducting features around a repository as discrete conductors surrounded by a rock matrix which is usually treated as impermeable. This approximation may be valid for crystalline rocks such as granite or basalt, which have very low permeability if macroscopic fractures are excluded. A discrete feature is any entity that can conduct water and permit solute transport through bedrock, and can be reasonably represented as a piecewise-planar conductor. Examples of such entities may include individual natural fractures (joints or faults), fracture zones, and disturbed-zone features around tunnels (e.g. blasting-induced fractures or stress-concentration induced 'onion skin' fractures around underground openings). In a more abstract sense, the effectively discontinuous nature of pathways through fractured crystalline bedrock may be idealized as discrete, equivalent transmissive features that reproduce large-scale observations, even if the details of connective paths (and unconnected domains) are not precisely known. A discrete-feature model explicitly represents the fundamentally discontinuous and irregularly connected nature of systems of such systems, by constraining flow and transport to occur only within such features and their intersections. Pathways for flow and solute transport in this conceptualization are a consequence not just of the boundary conditions and hydrologic properties (as with continuum models), but also the irregularity of connections between conductive/transmissive features. The DFM software package described here is an extensible code for investigating problems of flow and transport in geological (natural or human-altered) systems that can be characterized effectively in terms of discrete features. With this

  13. Organometallic chemistry of metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muetterties, E.L.

    1981-06-01

    The organometallic chemistry of metal surfaces is defined as a function of surface crystallography and of surface composition for a set of cyclic hydrocarbons that include benzene, toluene, cyclohexadienes, cyclohexene, cyclohexane, cyclooctatetraene, cyclooctadienes, cyclooctadiene, cycloheptatriene and cyclobutane. 12 figures

  14. Capability of geometric features to classify ships in SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Haitao; Wu, Siwen; Lai, Quan; Ma, Li

    2016-10-01

    Ship classification in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery has become a new hotspot in remote sensing community for its valuable potential in many maritime applications. Several kinds of ship features, such as geometric features, polarimetric features, and scattering features have been widely applied on ship classification tasks. Compared with polarimetric features and scattering features, which are subject to SAR parameters (e.g., sensor type, incidence angle, polarization, etc.) and environment factors (e.g., sea state, wind, wave, current, etc.), geometric features are relatively independent of SAR and environment factors, and easy to be extracted stably from SAR imagery. In this paper, the capability of geometric features to classify ships in SAR imagery with various resolution has been investigated. Firstly, the relationship between the geometric feature extraction accuracy and the SAR imagery resolution is analyzed. It shows that the minimum bounding rectangle (MBR) of ship can be extracted exactly in terms of absolute precision by the proposed automatic ship-sea segmentation method. Next, six simple but effective geometric features are extracted to build a ship representation for the subsequent classification task. These six geometric features are composed of length (f1), width (f2), area (f3), perimeter (f4), elongatedness (f5) and compactness (f6). Among them, two basic features, length (f1) and width (f2), are directly extracted based on the MBR of ship, the other four are derived from those two basic features. The capability of the utilized geometric features to classify ships are validated on two data set with different image resolutions. The results show that the performance of ship classification solely by geometric features is close to that obtained by the state-of-the-art methods, which obtained by a combination of multiple kinds of features, including scattering features and geometric features after a complex feature selection process.

  15. Clinical features of paralytic strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Ling Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical features of paralytic strabismus and analyze its etiology.METHODS: Eighty-nine cases(97 eyeswere diagnosed with paralytic strabismus and recruited in this study in the Department of Ophthalmology, the Fourth Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University between July 2008 and February 2013. The clinical data were recorded including the general and ophthalmic history, symptom, visual acuity, fundus, pupil, eyelid, visual field, eye movement, synoptophore, acting countervail head, ultrasound of eyeball and ocular muscle, color Doppler ultrasonography of the carotid artery, orbital computed tomography(CT, brain magnetic resonance imaging(MRI, blood biochemistry and immunologic tests.RESULTS: The medical history disclosed that among these cases, hypertension in 36 cases, diabetic mellitus in 28 cases, hyperlipidemia in 19 cases, heart diseases in 17 cases, ischemic cerebrovascular disease in 12 cases and hyperthyroidism in 3 cases. Symptoms included vertigo in 47 cases and binocular temporal amaurosis in 36 cases. The horizontal restriction was manifested in 38 cases 45 eyes, vertical restriction in 42 cases with 42 eyes, and horizontal-and-vertical restriction in 9 cases with 10 eyes. CONCLUSION: Brain vascular ischemic disease is one of the top reasons causing paralytic strabismus. Systemic disease history was found in a high proportion of the cases. It is of great essence to detect the life-threatening ischemia of vertebrobasilar artery system and take priority for treatment.

  16. Novel features of nuclear chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J. [Stanford University, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2017-03-15

    I review a number of QCD topics where the nuclear environment provides new insights into fundamental aspects of the strong interactions. The topics include novel perspectives for nuclear physics, such as the hidden color of nuclear form factors, the relation of the nuclear force at short distances to quark interchange interactions, the effects of ''color transparency'' on the baryon-to-meson anomaly in hard heavy-ion collisions, flavor-dependent antishadowing, novel exotic multiquark states, the anomalous nuclear dependence of quarkonium hadroproduction, flavor-dependent antishadowing, and the breakdown of sum rules for nuclear structure functions. I also briefly discuss the insights into hadron physics and color confinement that one obtains from light-front holography, including supersymmetric features of the hadron spectrum. I also note that the virtual Compton amplitude on a proton (or nucleus) can be measured for two spacelike photons q{sup 2}{sub 1}, q{sup 2}{sub 2} < 0 using positronium-proton scattering [e{sup +}e{sup -}]p → e{sup +}e{sup -}p{sup '}. (orig.)

  17. Tracking hydrothermal feature changes in response to seismicity and deformation at Mud Volcano thermal area, Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, A. K.; Hurwitz, S.; Murphy, F.; Evans, W.

    2013-12-01

    The Mud Volcano thermal area in Yellowstone National Park comprises many hydrothermal features including fumaroles, mudpots, springs, and thermal pools. Observations of hydrothermal changes have been made for decades in the Mud Volcano thermal area, and include reports of significant changes (the appearance of new features, increased water levels in pools, vigor of activity, and tree mortality) following an earthquake swarm in 1978 that took place beneath the area. However, no quantitative method to map and measure surface feature changes through time has been applied. We present an analysis of aerial photographs from 1954 to present to track temporal changes in the boundaries between vegetated and thermally barren areas, as well as location, extent, color, clarity, and runoff patterns of hydrothermal features within the Mud Volcano thermal area. This study attempts to provide a detailed, long-term (>50 year) inventory of hydrothermal features and change detection at Mud Volcano thermal area that can be used to identify changes in hydrothermal activity in response to seismicity, uplift and subsidence episodes of the adjacent Sour Creek resurgent dome, or other potential causes.

  18. Dermatologic features of Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin-Moreau, Morgane; Colin, Estelle; Nguyen, Sylvie; Andrieux, Joris; de Leersnyder, Hélène; Bonneau, Dominique; Martin, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is characterized by distinctive facial and skeletal features, developmental delay, cognitive impairment, and behavioral abnormalities, including self-injurious behaviors. We aimed to investigate whether cutaneous features are common in SMS. We performed a complete skin examination in 20 young SMS patients. Skin features secondary to self-injurious behavior, such as bites, abrasions, dystrophic scars, limited spots of hyperkeratosis, anomalies of the nails, and whitlows, were found in the majority of patients. Acral pachydermia and fissured plantar keratoderma were common. Xerosis was constant and associated with extensive keratosis pilaris in the majority of patients. Dermatofibromas were frequent in older patients. The hair was dense and shiny, with an unusual hairline. Eyelash trichomegaly and heavy brows were common, as well as folliculitis on the back. The skin features of SMS have rarely been reported in the literature. Some of these are the consequence of neurobehavioral features, but some cutaneous features and abnormalities of appendages have not been reported in other related syndromes. Skin manifestations of SMS are varied, sometimes induced by self-injurious behavior and sometimes more specific. It remains to be determined whether the combination of the two kinds of signs could contribute to early diagnosis of the syndrome. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Multispectral image feature fusion for detecting land mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.A.; Fields, D.J.; Sherwood, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-11-15

    Our system fuses information contained in registered images from multiple sensors to reduce the effect of clutter and improve the the ability to detect surface and buried land mines. The sensor suite currently consists if a camera that acquires images in sixible wavelength bands, du, dual-band infrared (5 micron and 10 micron) and ground penetrating radar. Past research has shown that it is extremely difficult to distinguish land mines from background clutter in images obtained from a single sensor. It is hypothesized, however, that information fused from a suite of various sensors is likely to provide better detection reliability, because the suite of sensors detects a variety of physical properties that are more separate in feature space. The materials surrounding the mines can include natural materials (soil, rocks, foliage, water, holes made by animals and natural processes, etc.) and some artifacts.

  20. Surface physics : experimental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padalia, B.D.

    1978-01-01

    In this report, discussion is confined to some important ultra high vacuum surface techniques such as ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and the low energy electron diffraction (LEED). An attempt is made to cover the basic principles and the experimental details of XPS and AES. Selected examples illustrating the potentialities of the above techniques to solve the important basic as well as applied problems relating to surfaces are presented. Salient features of the available commercial machines in which UPS, AES and LEED are combined to facilitate surface examination sequentially or simultaneously under identical experimental conditions are indicated. (auth.)

  1. 5 CFR 9901.311 - Major features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT... (NSPS) Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9901.311 Major features. Through the issuance...) Policies on base salary administration, including movement between career groups, positions, pay schedules...

  2. Classifying web pages with visual features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, V.; van Someren, M.; Lupascu, T.; Filipe, J.; Cordeiro, J.

    2010-01-01

    To automatically classify and process web pages, current systems use the textual content of those pages, including both the displayed content and the underlying (HTML) code. However, a very important feature of a web page is its visual appearance. In this paper, we show that using generic visual

  3. Advanced Surface Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per; Nielsen, Lars Pleht

    This new significant book on advanced modern surface technology in all its variations, is aimed at both teaching at engineering schools and practical application in industry. The work covers all the significant aspects of modern surface technology and also describes how new advanced techniques make...... of the components. It covers everything from biocompatible surfaces of IR absorbent or reflective surfaces to surfaces with specific properties within low friction, hardness, corrosion, colors, etc. The book includes more than 400 pages detailing virtually all analysis methods for examining at surfaces....

  4. Supai salt karst features: Holbrook Basin, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.T.

    1994-12-31

    More than 300 sinkholes, fissures, depressions, and other collapse features occur along a 70 km (45 mi) dissolution front of the Permian Supai Formation, dipping northward into the Holbrook Basin, also called the Supai Salt Basin. The dissolution front is essentially coincident with the so-called Holbrook Anticline showing local dip reversal; rather than being of tectonic origin, this feature is likely a subsidence-induced monoclinal flexure caused by the northward migrating dissolution front. Three major areas are identified with distinctive attributes: (1) The Sinks, 10 km WNW of Snowflake, containing some 200 sinkholes up to 200 m diameter and 50 m depth, and joint controlled fissures and fissure-sinks; (2) Dry Lake Valley and contiguous areas containing large collapse fissures and sinkholes in jointed Coconino sandstone, some of which drained more than 50 acre-feet ({approximately}6 {times} 10{sup 4} m{sup 3}) of water overnight; and (3) the McCauley Sinks, a localized group of about 40 sinkholes 15 km SE of Winslow along Chevelon Creek, some showing essentially rectangular jointing in the surficial Coconino Formation. Similar salt karst features also occur between these three major areas. The range of features in Supai salt are distinctive, yet similar to those in other evaporate basins. The wide variety of dissolution/collapse features range in development from incipient surface expression to mature and old age. The features began forming at least by Pliocene time and continue to the present, with recent changes reportedly observed and verified on airphotos with 20 year repetition. The evaporate sequence along interstate transportation routes creates a strategic location for underground LPG storage in leached caverns. The existing 11 cavern field at Adamana is safely located about 25 miles away from the dissolution front, but further expansion initiatives will require thorough engineering evaluation.

  5. Features partnership in auditing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Bondar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion of «institution partnerships in the audit» and its importance in Ukraine. Done overview of international experience in the Institute of partnerships in the audit business. Determined the nature of the audit, rights, duties and powers of the partnership during the audit. Done distribution of functions between the partner and the engagement partner in the synthesis of these blocks: taking on a new customer service or continued cooperation with existing customers (clients; familiarization with activities of customer audits, including an understanding of its internal control system; identification and assessment of risks of material misstatement of accounting; audit process and the audit and the formation of the final judgment. On the basis of the distribution of functions between the partner and the engagement partner, defined the overall structure of management system auditing firm. These conditions for implementation of partnerships in the audit business, and identified a number of advantages and disadvantages of partnerships for auditing.

  6. Internet marketing global features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakita Branko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Business environment incessantly bringing a yard of a new challenges to market entities. One of the greatest challenges that companies faced during the last couple of decades was development of information systems as well as a large scale usage of world's greatest computer network - Internet - no matter how big they were or what their activities included. There are many papers about Internet, its development, social and economic significance. However, there is no paper or article written by a local author that systematically and thoroughly treats marketing importance of Internet. This paper presents potentials and business importance of internet marketing in new millennium. It considers internet as a communication, trade and distribution channel. In addition, the paper highlights research potentials of Internet.

  7. Mutual information-based feature selection for radiomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubel, Estanislao; Beaumont, Hubert; Iannessi, Antoine

    2016-03-01

    Background The extraction and analysis of image features (radiomics) is a promising field in the precision medicine era, with applications to prognosis, prediction, and response to treatment quantification. In this work, we present a mutual information - based method for quantifying reproducibility of features, a necessary step for qualification before their inclusion in big data systems. Materials and Methods Ten patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) lesions were followed over time (7 time points in average) with Computed Tomography (CT). Five observers segmented lesions by using a semi-automatic method and 27 features describing shape and intensity distribution were extracted. Inter-observer reproducibility was assessed by computing the multi-information (MI) of feature changes over time, and the variability of global extrema. Results The highest MI values were obtained for volume-based features (VBF). The lesion mass (M), surface to volume ratio (SVR) and volume (V) presented statistically significant higher values of MI than the rest of features. Within the same VBF group, SVR showed also the lowest variability of extrema. The correlation coefficient (CC) of feature values was unable to make a difference between features. Conclusions MI allowed to discriminate three features (M, SVR, and V) from the rest in a statistically significant manner. This result is consistent with the order obtained when sorting features by increasing values of extrema variability. MI is a promising alternative for selecting features to be considered as surrogate biomarkers in a precision medicine context.

  8. Poly-lactic-glycolic-acid surface nanotopographies selectively decrease breast adenocarcinoma cell functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Webster, Thomas J.

    2012-04-01

    The ability of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA, 50:50 PLG/PGA, wt%) nanotopographies to decrease lung epithelial carcinoma cell functions (including adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion) has been previously reported. Specifically, results demonstrated decreased lung epithelial carcinoma cell VEGF synthesis on 23 nm surface-featured PLGA compared to traditional nanosmooth PLGA. However, clearly, different cell lines could have different behaviors on similar biomaterials. Thus, to investigate the universality of nanopatterned PLGA substrates to inhibit numerous cancer cell functions, here, breast epithelial adenocarcinoma cell (MCF-7) adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis and VEGF secretion were determined on different PLGA nanometer surface topographies. To isolate surface nanotopographical effects from all other surface properties, PLGA surfaces with various nanotopographies but similar chemistry and hydrophobicity were fabricated here. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) verified the varied nanotopographies on the PLGA surfaces prepared in this study. Importantly, results demonstrated for the first time significantly decreased breast adenocarcinoma cell functions (including decreased proliferation rate, increased apoptosis and decreased VEGF synthesis) on 23 nm featured PLGA surfaces compared to all other PLGA surface topographies fabricated (specifically, nanosmooth, 300 and 400 nm surface-featured PLGA surfaces). In contrast, healthy breast epithelial cells proliferated more (24%) on the 23 nm featured PLGA surfaces compared to all other PLGA samples. In summary, these results provided further insights into understanding the role PLGA surface nanotopographies can have on cancer cell functions and, more importantly, open the possibility of using polymer nanotopographies for a wide range of anticancer regenerative medicine applications (without resorting to the use of chemotherapeutics).

  9. Unoccupied surface electronic structure of Gd(0001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Dowben, P.A.; Ortega, J.E.; Himpsel, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    The unoccupied surface electronic structure of Gd(0001) was investigated with high-resolution inverse-photoemission spectroscopy. An empty surface state near E F is observed at bar Γ. Two other surface-sensitive features are also revealed at 1.2 and 3.1 eV above the Fermi level. Hydrogen adsorption on Gd surfaces was used to distinguish the surface-sensitive features from the bulk features. The unoccupied bulk-band critical points are determined to be Γ 3 + at 1.9 eV and A 1 at 0.8 eV

  10. FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR EMG BASED PROSTHESES CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aishwarya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of prosthetic limb would be more effective if it is based on Surface Electromyogram (SEMG signals from remnant muscles. The analysis of SEMG signals depend on a number of factors, such as amplitude as well as time- and frequency-domain properties. Time series analysis using Auto Regressive (AR model and Mean frequency which is tolerant to white Gaussian noise are used as feature extraction techniques. EMG Histogram is used as another feature vector that was seen to give more distinct classification. The work was done with SEMG dataset obtained from the NINAPRO DATABASE, a resource for bio robotics community. Eight classes of hand movements hand open, hand close, Wrist extension, Wrist flexion, Pointing index, Ulnar deviation, Thumbs up, Thumb opposite to little finger are taken into consideration and feature vectors are extracted. The feature vectors can be given to an artificial neural network for further classification in controlling the prosthetic arm which is not dealt in this paper.

  11. Feature selection using feature dissimilarity measure and density ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-28

    Sep 28, 2015 ... ical data for improving the models involved in sequence analysis, microarray analysis, spectral analysis, literature mining, etc. 21. Feature selection is useful for multiple reasons. The main objectives of feature selection are as follows: (a) accelerating the model creation task; (b) avoiding model over-fitting or ...

  12. Feature selection using feature dissimilarity measure and density ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reduction of dimensionality has emerged as a routine process in modelling complex biological systems. A large number of feature selection techniques have been reported in the literature to improve model performance in terms of accuracy and speed. In the present article an unsupervised feature selection technique is ...

  13. Emergent interfaces for feature modularization

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, Márcio; Brabrand, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Developers frequently introduce errors into software systems when they fail to recognise module dependencies. Using forty-three software families and Software Product Lines (SPLs), where the majority are commonly used in industrial practice, the authors reports on the feature modularization problem and provides a study of how often it may occur in practice. To solve the problem they present the concept of emergent feature modularization which aims to establish contracts between features to prevent developers from breaking other features when performing a maintenance task.

  14. Development and featuring of hemispherical photomultipliers for cosmic ray detection - calibration of surface detectors and analysis of horizontal showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory; Developpement et caracterisation de photomultiplicateurs hemispheriques pour les experiences d'astroparticules - etalonnage des detecteurs de surface et analyse des gerbes horizontales de l'Observatoire Pierre Auger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornic, D

    2006-09-15

    The large photomultipliers (PMT) are currently used in astro-particle and neutrino experiments where they have to detect low levels of light. We have studied and characterised large PMTs developed by the PHOTONIS Group Company. The first part of this thesis is dedicated to the full characterization of two types of multipliers currently used in large PMTs. Then, we present results of a new photocathode process, applied on the XPI805 (PMT used in the Pierre Auger Observatory) in order to improve the quantum efficiency. Finally, we study the PMT diameter influence on main parameters (5, 8 and 10 inches). The second part is devoted to the study of the water Cerenkov tank (WCD) response to the shower particles and the horizontal air showers analysis with the Pierre Auger Observatory. The main parameters of a WCD simulation developed in the Auger IPN group were calibrated with several measurements on vertical and inclined muons, performed on dedicated test tanks. The kind of detector used in the surface detector allows detecting very inclined events with a good sensitivity (zenith angle superior to 70 degrees). We have established specific methods to analyze these events (selection and reconstruction). These methods were applied to the Auger data in order to obtain the energy spectrum of the horizontal events. Finally, we detailed two methods to test directly the hadronic models predictions by studying the air showers muonic component. (author)

  15. Automated Fluid Feature Extraction from Transient Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimes, Robert

    2000-01-01

    In the past, feature extraction and identification were interesting concepts, but not required in understanding the physics of a steady flow field. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like iso-surfaces, cuts and streamlines, were more interactive and easily abstracted so they could be represented to the investigator. These tools worked and properly conveyed the collected information at the expense of a great deal of interaction. For unsteady flow-fields, the investigator does not have the luxury of spending time scanning only one 'snap-shot' of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas of potential interest contained within the flow. This must not require a heavy compute burden (the visualization should not significantly slow down the solution procedure for co-processing environments like pV3). And methods must be developed to abstract the feature and display it in a manner that physically makes sense.

  16. Featured Image: Diamonds in a Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    This unique image which measures only 60 x 80 micrometers across reveals details in the Kapoeta meteorite, an 11-kg stone that fell in South Sudan in 1942. The sparkle in the image? A cluster of nanodiamonds discovered embedded in the stone in a recent study led by Yassir Abdu (University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates). Abdu and collaborators showed that these nanodiamonds have similar spectral features to the interiors of dense interstellar clouds and they dont show any signs of shock features. This may suggest that the nanodiamonds were formed by condensation of nebular gases early in the history of the solar system. The diamonds were trapped in the surface material of the Kapoeta meteorites parent body, thought to be the asteroid Vesta. To read more about the authors study, check out the original article below.CitationYassir A. Abdu et al 2018 ApJL 856 L9. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aab433

  17. Microbial Surface Colonization and Biofilm Development in Marine Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hongyue; Lovell, Charles R

    2016-03-01

    Biotic and abiotic surfaces in marine waters are rapidly colonized by microorganisms. Surface colonization and subsequent biofilm formation and development provide numerous advantages to these organisms and support critical ecological and biogeochemical functions in the changing marine environment. Microbial surface association also contributes to deleterious effects such as biofouling, biocorrosion, and the persistence and transmission of harmful or pathogenic microorganisms and their genetic determinants. The processes and mechanisms of colonization as well as key players among the surface-associated microbiota have been studied for several decades. Accumulating evidence indicates that specific cell-surface, cell-cell, and interpopulation interactions shape the composition, structure, spatiotemporal dynamics, and functions of surface-associated microbial communities. Several key microbial processes and mechanisms, including (i) surface, population, and community sensing and signaling, (ii) intraspecies and interspecies communication and interaction, and (iii) the regulatory balance between cooperation and competition, have been identified as critical for the microbial surface association lifestyle. In this review, recent progress in the study of marine microbial surface colonization and biofilm development is synthesized and discussed. Major gaps in our knowledge remain. We pose questions for targeted investigation of surface-specific community-level microbial features, answers to which would advance our understanding of surface-associated microbial community ecology and the biogeochemical functions of these communities at levels from molecular mechanistic details through systems biological integration. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. STUDY ON SHADOW EFFECTS OF VARIOUS FEATURES ON CLOSE RANGE THERMAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Liao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared data become more popular in remote sensing investigation, for it could be acquired both in day and night. The change of temperature has special characteristic in natural environment, so the thermal infrared images could be used in monitoring volcanic landform, the urban development, and disaster prevention. Heat shadow is formed by reflecting radiating capacity which followed the objects. Because of poor spatial resolution of thermal infrared images in satellite sensor, shadow effects were usually ignored. This research focus on discussing the shadow effects of various features, which include metals and nonmetallic materials. An area-based thermal sensor, FLIR-T360 was selected to acquire thermal images. Various features with different emissivity were chosen as reflective surface to obtain thermal shadow in normal atmospheric temperature. Experiments found that the shadow effects depend on the distance between sensors and features, depression angle, object temperature and emissivity of reflective surface. The causes of shadow effects have been altered in the experiment for analyzing the variance in thermal infrared images. The result shows that there were quite different impacts by shadow effects between metals and nonmetallic materials. The further research would be produced a math model to describe the shadow effects of different features in the future work.

  19. [Bacterial colangitis: therapeutic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, M.; Carmellino, S.; Russo, G.

    1999-01-01

    Cholangitis results from the combination of bactibilia and biliary tract obstruction. In recent years considerable progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of cholangitis; advances in endoscopic techniques and antibiotic therapy have ameliorated the prognosis of cholangitis. The choice of an antimicrobial regimen for cholangitis should take into account the antibiotic sensitivities of bacteria colonizing biliary tree, the antibiotic excretion into bile and whether biliary obstruction or bacteremia is present. Successful treatment depends on relieving biliary obstruction and administering antibiotics effective against bacteria implicated. The initial therapy should be active against E. coli and Klebsiella spp., while it is controversial whether the empirical antibiotic regimen should also include coverage against Enterococcus, Pseudomonas and anaerobes. The ureidopenicillins are the preferred initial treatment; the combination piperacillin-tazobactam may be active against the resistant species. Second generation cephalosporins like cefamandole and cefoxitin are still useful, cefoperazone gives excellent coverage against gram-negative bacteria, while cefepime may be suitable as treatment for acute cholangitis. In severe cholangitis an aminoglycoside can be added to the beta-lactamin; once-daily aminoglycoside administration is associated with a reduced incidence of nephrotoxicity also in patients with cholestasis. Whether the fluoroquinolones are effective in treatment for cholangitis has not been fully evaluated. In patients with suppurative cholangitis prompt endoscopic drainage is mandatory, since antibiotics alone will not sterilize the biliary tract in the face of obstruction. Antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent cholangitis after ERCP should be administered particularly to patients in whom biliary drainage is expected to be difficult; antimicrobial prophylaxis with piperacillin effectively prevents ERCPinduced cholangitis. Antibiotic maintenance

  20. New PAMTRAK features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahly, B.; Anspach, J.

    1995-01-01

    Sandia is developing a Personnel and Material Tracking System (PAMTRAK) which uses a variety of techniques to monitor material inside a vault in real-time. It can detect material movement using video cameras inside the vault or motion sensors attached to the material. It also contains two prototype attribute monitoring systems that continuously measure material weight, temperature or movement. A site can use any of these alone or together to extend physical inventory intervals. PAMTRAK can reduce the cost of storing material by reducing inventory frequency and radiation exposure to workers. Analysis at Savannah River in 1992 estimated that installing PAMTRAK in the 7 active and future vaults at that site would save $1,073,000 per year by reducing inventory frequency from monthly to yearly. Performing similar calculations now, assuming lower radiation exposure limits of 700m Rem per year, new inventory reduction guidelines allowing a baseline interval of 6 months, and an achieved inventory interval of 3 years, results in an estimated average savings of $400,000 per year. PAMTRAK, since it is real-time, can detect theft or diversion soon enough to give the guard force a chance of recovering the material and apprehending the perpetrator. In performing an inventory a site typically checks only a fraction of the material using random, statistical sampling, while PAMTRAK monitors all material in the vault. In addition to static environments such as vaults, PAMTRAK can be used to protect material in active work areas. Several of the sensor types can ignore activity around material but still report alarms if the material is moved or handled. PAMTRAK includes a personnel tracking capability that allows a site to monitor and restrict personnel movements. It can exclude workers from designated areas unless they have explicit permission to be there. It can also enforce the 2-person rule by requiring a worker to be accompanied by at least one other qualified worker