Sample records for surface fault rupture

  1. Historic Surface Rupture Informing Probabilistic Fault Displacement Analysis: New Zealand Case Studies (United States)

    Villamor, P.; Litchfield, N. J.; Van Dissen, R. J.; Langridge, R.; Berryman, K. R.; Baize, S.


    Surface rupture associated with the 2010 Mw7.1 Darfield Earthquake (South Island, New Zealand) was extremely well documented, thanks to an immediate field mapping response and the acquisition of LiDAR data within days of the event. With respect to informing Probabilistic Fault Displacement Analysis (PFDHA) the main insights and outcomes from this rupture through Quaternary gravel are: 1) significant distributed deformation either side of the main trace (30 to 300 m wide deformation zone) and how the deformation is distributed away from the main trace; 2) a thorough analysis of uncertainty of the displacement measures obtained using the LIDAR data and repeated measurements from several scientists; and 3) the short surface rupture length for the reported magnitude, resulting from complex fault rupture with 5-6 reverse and strike-slip strands, most of which had no surface rupture. While the 2010 event is extremely well documented and will be an excellent case to add to the Surface Rupture during Earthquakes database (SURE), other NZ historical earthquakes that are not so well documented, but can provide important information for PFDHA. New Zealand has experienced about 10 historical surface fault ruptures since 1848, comprising ruptures on strike-slip, reverse and normal faults. Mw associated with these ruptures ranges between 6.3 and 8.1. From these ruptures we observed that the surface expression of deformation can be influenced by: fault maturity; the type of Quaternary sedimentary cover; fault history (e.g., influence of inversion tectonics, flexural slip); fault complexity; and primary versus secondary rupture. Other recent >Mw 6.6 earthquakes post-2010 that did not rupture the ground surface have been documented with InSAR and can inform Mw thresholds for surface fault rupture. It will be important to capture all this information and that of similar events worldwide to inform the SURE database and ultimately PFDHA.

  2. Width of surface rupture zone for thrust earthquakes: implications for earthquake fault zoning

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    P. Boncio


    Full Text Available The criteria for zoning the surface fault rupture hazard (SFRH along thrust faults are defined by analysing the characteristics of the areas of coseismic surface faulting in thrust earthquakes. Normal and strike–slip faults have been deeply studied by other authors concerning the SFRH, while thrust faults have not been studied with comparable attention. Surface faulting data were compiled for 11 well-studied historic thrust earthquakes occurred globally (5.4 ≤ M ≤ 7.9. Several different types of coseismic fault scarps characterize the analysed earthquakes, depending on the topography, fault geometry and near-surface materials (simple and hanging wall collapse scarps, pressure ridges, fold scarps and thrust or pressure ridges with bending-moment or flexural-slip fault ruptures due to large-scale folding. For all the earthquakes, the distance of distributed ruptures from the principal fault rupture (r and the width of the rupture zone (WRZ were compiled directly from the literature or measured systematically in GIS-georeferenced published maps. Overall, surface ruptures can occur up to large distances from the main fault ( ∼ 2150 m on the footwall and  ∼  3100 m on the hanging wall. Most of the ruptures occur on the hanging wall, preferentially in the vicinity of the principal fault trace ( >   ∼  50 % at distances  <   ∼  250 m. The widest WRZ are recorded where sympathetic slip (Sy on distant faults occurs, and/or where bending-moment (B-M or flexural-slip (F-S fault ruptures, associated with large-scale folds (hundreds of metres to kilometres in wavelength, are present. A positive relation between the earthquake magnitude and the total WRZ is evident, while a clear correlation between the vertical displacement on the principal fault and the total WRZ is not found. The distribution of surface ruptures is fitted with probability density functions, in order to define a criterion to

  3. Study on conditional probability of surface rupture: effect of fault dip and width of seismogenic layer (United States)

    Inoue, N.


    The conditional probability of surface ruptures is affected by various factors, such as shallow material properties, process of earthquakes, ground motions and so on. Toda (2013) pointed out difference of the conditional probability of strike and reverse fault by considering the fault dip and width of seismogenic layer. This study evaluated conditional probability of surface rupture based on following procedures. Fault geometry was determined from the randomly generated magnitude based on The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (2017) method. If the defined fault plane was not saturated in the assumed width of the seismogenic layer, the fault plane depth was randomly provided within the seismogenic layer. The logistic analysis was performed to two data sets: surface displacement calculated by dislocation methods (Wang et al., 2003) from the defined source fault, the depth of top of the defined source fault. The estimated conditional probability from surface displacement indicated higher probability of reverse faults than that of strike faults, and this result coincides to previous similar studies (i.e. Kagawa et al., 2004; Kataoka and Kusakabe, 2005). On the contrary, the probability estimated from the depth of the source fault indicated higher probability of thrust faults than that of strike and reverse faults, and this trend is similar to the conditional probability of PFDHA results (Youngs et al., 2003; Moss and Ross, 2011). The probability of combined simulated results of thrust and reverse also shows low probability. The worldwide compiled reverse fault data include low fault dip angle earthquake. On the other hand, in the case of Japanese reverse fault, there is possibility that the conditional probability of reverse faults with less low dip angle earthquake shows low probability and indicates similar probability of strike fault (i.e. Takao et al., 2013). In the future, numerical simulation by considering failure condition of surface by the source

  4. Late Pleistocene surface rupture history of the Paeroa Fault, Taupo Rift, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, K.R.; Villamor, P.; Nairn, I.A.; Van Dissen, R.J.; Begg, J.G.; Lee, J.M.


    The 30 km long Paeroa Fault is one of the largest and fastest slipping (c. 1.5 mm/yr vertical displacement rate) normal faults of the currently active Taupo Rift of North Island, New Zealand. Along its northern section, seven trenches excavated across 5 of 11 subparallel fault strands show that successive ruptures of individual strands probably occurred at the same time, but were individually and collectively highly variable in size and recurrence, and most fault strands have ruptured three or four times in the past 16 kyr. In the c. 16 kyr timeframe, four surface-rupturing earthquakes took place when Okataina volcano was erupting, and six occurred between eruptions. Large earthquakes on the Paeroa Fault comprise a significant component of the seismic hazard in the region between the Okataina and Taupo Volcanic Centres, and there are partial associations between these large earthquakes and volcanism. (author). 36 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Surface rupturing earthquakes repeated in the 300 years along the ISTL active fault system, central Japan (United States)

    Katsube, Aya; Kondo, Hisao; Kurosawa, Hideki


    Surface rupturing earthquakes produced by intraplate active faults generally have long recurrence intervals of a few thousands to tens of thousands of years. We here report the first evidence for an extremely short recurrence interval of 300 years for surface rupturing earthquakes on an intraplate system in Japan. The Kamishiro fault of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL) active fault system generated a Mw 6.2 earthquake in 2014. A paleoseismic trench excavation across the 2014 surface rupture showed the evidence for the 2014 event and two prior paleoearthquakes. The slip of the penultimate earthquake was similar to that of 2014 earthquake, and its timing was constrained to be after A.D. 1645. Judging from the timing, the damaged area, and the amount of slip, the penultimate earthquake most probably corresponds to a historical earthquake in A.D. 1714. The recurrence interval of the two most recent earthquakes is thus extremely short compared with intervals on other active faults known globally. Furthermore, the slip repetition during the last three earthquakes is in accordance with the time-predictable recurrence model rather than the characteristic earthquake model. In addition, the spatial extent of the 2014 surface rupture accords with the distribution of a serpentinite block, suggesting that the relatively low coefficient of friction may account for the unusually frequent earthquakes. These findings would affect long-term forecast of earthquake probability and seismic hazard assessment on active faults.

  6. Rupture Dynamics along Thrust Dipping Fault: Inertia Effects due to Free Surface Wave Interactions (United States)

    Vilotte, J. P.; Scala, A.; Festa, G.


    We numerically investigate the dynamic interaction between free surface and up-dip, in-plane rupture propagation along thrust faults, under linear slip-weakening friction. With reference to shallow along-dip rupture propagation during large subduction earthquakes, we consider here low dip-angle fault configurations with fixed strength excess and depth-increasing initial stress. In this configuration, the rupture undergoes a break of symmetry with slip-induced normal stress perturbations triggered by the interaction with reflected waves from the free surface. We found that both body-waves - behind the crack front - and surface waves - at the crack front - can trigger inertial effects. When waves interact with the rupture before this latter reaches its asymptotic speed, the rupture can accelerate toward the asymptotic speed faster than in the unbounded symmetric case, as a result of these inertial effects. Moreover, wave interaction at the crack front also affects the slip rate generating large ground motion on the hanging wall. Imposing the same initial normal stress, frictional strength and stress drop while varying the static friction coefficient we found that the break of symmetry makes the rupture dynamics dependent on the absolute value of friction. The higher the friction the stronger the inertial effect both in terms of rupture acceleration and slip amount. When the contact condition allows the fault interface to open close to the free surface, the length of the opening zone is shown to depend on the propagation length, the initial normal stress and the static friction coefficient. These new results are shown to agree with analytical results of rupture propagation in bounded media, and open new perspectives for understanding the shallow rupture of large subduction earthquakes and tsunami sources.

  7. Timing of Late Holocene surface rupture of the Wairau Fault, Marlborough, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariasen, J.; Berryman, K.R.; Langridge, R.M.; Prentice, C.; Rymer, M.; Stirling, M.W.; Villamor, P.


    Three trenches excavated across the central portion of the right-lateral strike-slip Wairau Fault in South Island, New Zealand, exposed a complex set of fault strands that have displaced a sequence of late Holocene alluvial and colluvial deposits. Abundant charcoal fragments provide age control for various stratigraphic horizons dating back to c. 5610 yr ago. Faulting relations from the Wadsworth trench show that the most recent surface rupture event occurred at least 1290 yr and at most 2740 yr ago. Drowned trees in landslide-dammed Lake Chalice, in combination with charcoal from the base of an unfaulted colluvial wedge at Wadsworth trench, suggest a narrower time bracket for this event of 1811-2301 cal. yr BP. The penultimate faulting event occurred between c. 2370 and 3380 yr, and possibly near 2680 ± 60 cal. yr BP, when data from both the Wadsworth and Dillon trenches are combined. Two older events have been recognised from Dillon trench but remain poorly dated. A probable elapsed time of at least 1811 yr since the last surface rupture, and an average slip rate estimate for the Wairau Fault of 3-5 mm/yr, suggests that at least 5.4 m and up to 11.5 m of elastic shear strain has accumulated since the last rupture. This is near to or greater than the single-event displacement estimates of 5-7 m. The average recurrence interval for surface rupture of the fault determined from the trench data is 1150-1400 yr. Although the uncertainties in the timing of faulting events and variability in inter-event times remain high, the time elapsed since the last event is in the order of 1-2 times the average recurrence interval, implying that the Wairau Fault is near the end of its interseismic period. (author). 44 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  8. Analog modeling of strike-slip surface ruptures: Implications for Greendale Fault (New Zealand) mechanics and paleoseismology (United States)

    Sasnett, P.; Quigley, M.; Cruden, A. R.; Boutelier, D. A.; Villamor, P.


    Analog modeling of strike-slip faulting provides insight into the development and behavior of surface ruptures with progressive slip, with relevance for understanding how coseismic displacements from fault ruptures are recorded in paleoseismic trenches. Patterns of surface deformation were investigated in analogue experiments using cohesive and non-cohesive granular materials above a vertical, planar, strike-slip basement fault. Surface deformation during the experiments was monitored by 3D PIV (Particle Imaging Velocimetry) and 2D time-lapse photography. Analysis of the experiments focused on fault zone morphology and development, as well as comparisons between the models and surface deformation observed along the Greendale Fault that resulted from the 2010 Darfield earthquake, New Zealand. Complex surface rupture patterns with similar characteristics to the Greendale Fault (en echelon fractures, Riedel shears, pop-up structures, etc.) were generated by a simple fault plane of uniform dip, slip, and frictional properties. The main controls on surface rupture morphology were found to be the properties and thickness of the overburden, the nature of the material surface, and the overall displacement of the underlying fault. Mapping the evolution of fracture patterns with progressive shear strain reveals that Riedel shears, striking 0-30° from the underlying basement fault, are more frequently reactivated during multiple displacement (earthquake) cycles, and are thus most likely to provide reliable paleoseismic records. This information will assist in the identification of suitable locations for paleoseismic trenches and in the interpretation of trench records from the Greendale Fault and other active, strike-slip faults in analogous geologic settings. The results also highlight the tendency of trenching studies of faults of this type to underestimate the number of and displacements on previous ruptures, which potentially leads to an underestimate of the magnitude

  9. Mineralogical compositions of fault rocks from surface ruptures of Wenchuan earthquake and implication of mineral transformation during the seismic cycle along Yingxiu-Beichuan fault, Sichuan Province, China (United States)

    Dang, Jiaxiang; Zhou, Yongsheng; He, Changrong; Ma, Shengli


    There are two co-seismic bedrock surface ruptures from the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the northern and central parts of the Beichuan-Yingxiu fault, Sichuan Province, southwest China. In this study, we report on the macrostructure of the fault rocks and results from X-ray powder diffraction analysis of minerals from rocks in the fault zone. The most recent fault gouge (the gouge produced by the most recent co-seismic fault movement) in all the studied outcrops is dark or grayish-black, totally unconsolidated and ultrafine-grained. Older fault gouges in the same outcrops are grayish or yellowish and weakly consolidated. X-ray powder diffraction analysis results show that mineral assemblages in both the old fault gouge and the new fault gouge are more complicated than the mineral assemblages in the bedrock as the fault gouge is rich in clay minerals. The fault gouge inherited its major rock-forming minerals from the parent rocks, but the clay minerals in the fault gouge were generated in the fault zone and are therefore authigenic and synkinematic. In profiles across the fault, clay mineral abundances increase as one traverses from the bedrock to the breccia to the old gouge and from the old gouge to the new gouge. Quartz and illite are found in all collected gouge samples. The dominant clay minerals in the new fault gouge are illite and smectite along the northern part of the surface rupture and illite/smectite mixed-layer clay in the middle part of the rupture. Illite/smectite mixed-layer clay found in the middle part of the rupture indicates that fault slip was accompanied by K-rich fluid circulation. The existence of siderite, anhydrite, and barite in the northern part of the rupture suggests that fault slip at this locality was accompanied by acidic fluids containing ions of Fe, Ca, and Ba.

  10. Which Fault Segments Ruptured in the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and Which Did Not? New Evidence from Near‐Fault 3D Surface Displacements Derived from SAR Image Offsets

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    Feng, Guangcai


    The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake ruptured a complex thrust‐faulting system at the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau and west of Sichuan basin. Though the earthquake has been extensively studied, several details about the earthquake, such as which fault segments were activated in the earthquake, are still not clear. This is in part due to difficult field access to the fault zone and in part due to limited near‐fault observations in Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations because of decorrelation. In this study, we address this problem by estimating SAR image offsets that provide near‐fault ground displacement information and exhibit clear displacement discontinuities across activated fault segments. We begin by reanalyzing the coseismic InSAR observations of the earthquake and then mostly eliminate the strong ionospheric signals that were plaguing previous studies by using additional postevent images. We also estimate the SAR image offsets and use their results to retrieve the full 3D coseismic surface displacement field. The coseismic deformation from the InSAR and image‐offset measurements are compared with both Global Positioning System and field observations. The results indicate that our observations provide significantly better information than previous InSAR studies that were affected by ionospheric disturbances. We use the results to present details of the surface‐faulting offsets along the Beichuan fault from the southwest to the northeast and find that there is an obvious right‐lateral strike‐slip component (as well as thrust faulting) along the southern Beichuan fault (in Yingxiu County), which was strongly underestimated in earlier studies. Based on the results, we provide new evidence to show that the Qingchuan fault was not ruptured in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, a topic debated in field observation studies, but show instead that surface faulting occurred on a northward extension of the Beichuan fault during

  11. A 3000-year record of surface-rupturing earthquakes at Günalan: variable fault-rupture lengths along the 1939 Erzincan earthquake-rupture segment of the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey

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    Jeffrey George Fraser


    Full Text Available The North Anatolian Fault is a ca. 1200-km-long, right-lateral, strike-slip fault that forms the northern boundary of the Anatolian plate. A damaging sequence of earthquakes ruptured almost the entire fault in the twentieth century. This study adds to the growing number of paleoseismic investigations of the 350-km-long 1939 Erzincan earthquake-rupture segment, which is towards the eastern end of the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey. Using three paleoseismic trenches located along ca. 2 km of the principal fault strand, this study determines the timing of five earthquakes prior to the 1939 earthquake. The first three of these earthquakes are correlated to historical earthquakes in A.D. 1668, 1254 and 499, and two further events were identified as occurring from 881-673 B.C. and from 1406-1291 B.C. (2v age ranges. By comparing the earthquake timing determined in this study to results from other paleoseismic investigations of the 1939 rupture segment, it becomes clear that this historical rupture segment does not always rupture in unison. This analysis indicates that the A.D. 499 earthquake was the last time the 1939 rupture segment ruptured in unison; partial ruptures of the 1939 rupture segment occur more frequently, and can also produce large magnitude earthquakes (MW >7.

  12. Holocene surface-faulting earthquakes at the Spring Lake and North Creek Sites on the Wasatch Fault Zone: Evidence for complex rupture of the Nephi Segment (United States)

    Duross, Christopher; Hylland, Michael D.; Hiscock, Adam; Personius, Stephen; Briggs, Richard; Gold, Ryan D.; Beukelman, Gregg; McDonald, Geg N; Erickson, Ben; McKean, Adam; Angster, Steve; King, Roselyn; Crone, Anthony J.; Mahan, Shannon


    The Nephi segment of the Wasatch fault zone (WFZ) comprises two fault strands, the northern and southern strands, which have evidence of recurrent late Holocene surface-faulting earthquakes. We excavated paleoseismic trenches across these strands to refine and expand their Holocene earthquake chronologies; improve estimates of earthquake recurrence, displacement, and fault slip rate; and assess whether the strands rupture separately or synchronously in large earthquakes. Paleoseismic data from the Spring Lake site expand the Holocene record of earthquakes on the northern strand: at least five to seven earthquakes ruptured the Spring Lake site at 0.9 ± 0.2 ka (2σ), 2.9 ± 0.7 ka, 4.0 ± 0.5 ka, 4.8 ± 0.8 ka, 5.7 ± 0.8 ka, 6.6 ± 0.7 ka, and 13.1 ± 4.0 ka, yielding a Holocene mean recurrence of ~1.2–1.5 kyr and vertical slip rate of ~0.5–0.8 mm/yr. Paleoseismic data from the North Creek site help refine the Holocene earthquake chronology for the southern strand: at least five earthquakes ruptured the North Creek site at 0.2 ± 0.1 ka (2σ), 1.2 ± 0.1 ka, 2.6 ± 0.9 ka, 4.0 ± 0.1 ka, and 4.7 ± 0.7 ka, yielding a mean recurrence of 1.1–1.3 kyr and vertical slip rate of ~1.9–2.0 mm/yr. We compare these Spring Lake and North Creek data with previous paleoseismic data for the Nephi segment and report late Holocene mean recurrence intervals of ~1.0–1.2 kyr for the northern strand and ~1.1–1.3 kyr for the southern strand. The northern and southern strands have similar late Holocene earthquake histories, which allow for models of both independent and synchronous rupture. However, considering the earthquake timing probabilities and per-event vertical displacements, we have the greatest confidence in the simultaneous rupture of the strands, including rupture of one strand with spillover rupture to the other. Ultimately, our results improve the surface-faulting earthquake history of the Nephi segment and enhance our understanding of how structural barriers

  13. Dynamic rupture activation of backthrust fault branching (United States)

    Xu, Shiqing; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Ampuero, Jean-Paul


    We perform dynamic rupture simulations to investigate the possible reactivation of backthrust branches triggered by ruptures along a main thrust fault. Simulations with slip-weakening fault friction and uniform initial stress show that fast propagation speed or long propagation distance of the main rupture promotes reactivation of backthrust over a range of branch angles. The latter condition may occur separately from the former if rupture speed is limited by an increasing slip-weakening distance towards the junction direction. The results suggest a trade-off between the amplitude and duration of the dynamic stress near the main rupture front for backthrust reactivation. Termination of the main rupture by a barrier can provide enhanced loading amplitude and duration along a backthrust rooted near the barrier, facilitating its reactivation especially with a high frictional resistance. The free surface and depth-dependent initial stress can have several additional effects. The sign of the triggered motion along the backthrust can be reversed from thrust to normal if a deeply nucleated main rupture breaks the free surface, while it is preserved as thrust if the main rupture is terminated by a barrier at depth. The numerical results are discussed in relation to several recent megathrust earthquakes in Sumatra, Chile, and Japan, and related topics such as branch feedbacks to the main fault. The dynamic view on backthrust fault branching provided by the study fills a gap not covered by quasi-static models or observations. A specific examined case of antithetic fault branching may be useful for indicating a barrier-like behavior along the main fault.

  14. Structure of the 1906 near-surface rupture zone of the San Andreas Fault, San Francisco Peninsula segment, near Woodside, California (United States)

    Rosa, C.M.; Catchings, R.D.; Rymer, M.J.; Grove, Karen; Goldman, M.R.


    High-resolution seismic-reflection and refraction images of the 1906 surface rupture zone of the San Andreas Fault near Woodside, California reveal evidence for one or more additional near-surface (within about 3 meters [m] depth) fault strands within about 25 m of the 1906 surface rupture. The 1906 surface rupture above the groundwater table (vadose zone) has been observed in paleoseismic trenches that coincide with our seismic profile and is seismically characterized by a discrete zone of low P-wave velocities (Vp), low S-wave velocities (Vs), high Vp/Vs ratios, and high Poisson’s ratios. A second near-surface fault strand, located about 17 m to the southwest of the 1906 surface rupture, is inferred by similar seismic anomalies. Between these two near-surface fault strands and below 5 m depth, we observed a near-vertical fault strand characterized by a zone of high Vp, low Vs, high Vp/Vs ratios, and high Poisson’s ratios on refraction tomography images and near-vertical diffractions on seismic-reflection images. This prominent subsurface zone of seismic anomalies is laterally offset from the 1906 surface rupture by about 8 m and likely represents the active main (long-term) strand of the San Andreas Fault at 5 to 10 m depth. Geometries of the near-surface and subsurface (about 5 to 10 m depth) fault zone suggest that the 1906 surface rupture dips southwestward to join the main strand of the San Andreas Fault at about 5 to 10 m below the surface. The 1906 surface rupture forms a prominent groundwater barrier in the upper 3 to 5 m, but our interpreted secondary near-surface fault strand to the southwest forms a weaker barrier, suggesting that there has been less or less-recent near-surface slip on that strand. At about 6 m depth, the main strand of the San Andreas Fault consists of water-saturated blue clay (collected from a hand-augered borehole), which is similar to deeply weathered serpentinite observed within the main strand of the San Andreas Fault at

  15. Geometry, slip distribution, and kinematics of surface rupture on the Sakarya fault segment during the 17 August 1999 İzmit, Turkey, earthquake (United States)

    Langridge, R.M.; Stenner, Heidi D.; Fumal, T.E.; Christofferson, S.A.; Rockwell, T.K.; Hartleb, R.D.; Bachhuber, J.; Barka, A.A.


    The Mw 7.4 17 August 1999 İzmit earthquake ruptured five major fault segments of the dextral North Anatolian Fault Zone. The 26-km-long, N86°W-trending Sakarya fault segment (SFS) extends from the Sapanca releasing step-over in the west to near the town of Akyazi in the east. The SFS emerges from Lake Sapanca as two distinct fault traces that rejoin to traverse the Adapazari Plain to Akyazi. Offsets were measured across 88 cultural and natural features that cross the fault, such as roads, cornfield rows, rows of trees, walls, rails, field margins, ditches, vehicle ruts, a dike, and ground cracks. The maximum displacement observed for the İzmit earthquake (∼5.1 m) was encountered on this segment. Dextral displacement for the SFS rises from less than 1 m at Lake Sapanca to greater than 5 m near Arifiye, only 3 km away. Average slip decreases uniformly to the east from Arifiye until the fault steps left from Sagir to Kazanci to the N75°W, 6-km-long Akyazi strand, where slip drops to less than 1 m. The Akyazi strand passes eastward into the Akyazi Bend, which consists of a high-angle bend (18°-29°) between the Sakarya and Karadere fault segments, a 6-km gap in surface rupture, and high aftershock energy release. Complex structural geometries exist between the İzmit, Düzce, and 1967 Mudurnu fault segments that have arrested surface ruptures on timescales ranging from 30 sec to 88 days to 32 yr. The largest of these step-overs may have acted as a rupture segmentation boundary in previous earthquake cycles.

  16. Late Quaternary Surface Rupture and Associated Transpressive Uplift on a Section of the State Line Fault in the south-central Amargosa Desert Basin, Southwestern Nevada (United States)

    Menges, C. M.; Fridrich, C.; Blakely, R. J.; Thompson, R. A.


    New geomorphic, geophysical, and structural data indicate that a section of the Pahrump-Stewart Valley (State Line) fault on the northern piedmont of the Resting Spring Range is associated with late Quaternary surface rupture and related transpressive domal uplift. Detailed aeromagnetic and gravity data clearly image this northwest-trending strike-slip fault in the subsurface as a continuous multi-strand fault system that continues >35 km further northwest into the south-central Amargosa Desert basin than previously established. This continuation of the fault consists of a sigmoidal bend characterized by a constraining bend on the north flank of the Resting Spring Range, paired with a releasing bend on the north flank of the southeastern Funeral Mountains. Bedrock mapping in the Amargosa Desert indicates a cumulative late Cenozoic right-lateral displacement of ˜15 km across the entire fault zone. In the Resting Spring area, the major central strand of the State Line fault zone is inactive but offsets playa facies of the Artists Drive Formation (equivalent), internally folded into a giant southeast-plunging chevron syncline, against fluvial and playa margin facies of the same formation that are folded into a broad northwest-plunging anticline. These deformed Tertiary strata are exposed in the core of a large (10 x 18 km) domal Quaternary uplift, centered on the northern piedmont of the range, that coincides with a major transpressive left-step in the adjoining active trace of the fault zone. The domal uplift is indicated by persistent incision into Tertiary bedrock (1-5+ m deep) beneath stepped sequences of straths capped by thin and locally warped mid-Pleistocene to Holocene alluvial-gravel veneers. Quaternary activity on the fault zone in this area is now focused on a strand along the northern and eastern border of the uplifted area marked by a discontinuous, 8-10 km long series of aligned, en-echelon, or anastomosing fault scarps that commonly bound linear

  17. On Offset Stream Measurements and Recent Coseismic Surface Rupture in the Carrizo Section of the San Andreas Fault (United States)

    Brooks, B. A.; Hudnut, K. W.; Akciz, S. O.; Delano, J.; Glennie, C. L.; Prentice, C. S.; DeLong, S.


    Recent studies using airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) topographic data have provoked debate about whether the Mw 7.9 Fort Tejon 1857 earthquake produced ~5m or ~10m of surface strike-slip displacement in the Carrizo section of the south-central San Andreas fault. Resolution of this discrepancy is important not only for understanding the proposed role of the Carrizo section in controlling repeated south-central San Andreas rupture but also for understanding the general utility of stream offset measurements for earthquake process studies. To explore if higher-resolution topographic data of the offset features would help reconcile the different interpretations, we used a mobile laser scanning (MLS) backpack-mounted system to survey 11 ~5m offset streams given 'high' quality rankings by previous studies. In our surveys, point density was on the order of 1000s pts/m^2 in comparison to 1-4 pts/m^2 for the ALSM data, enabling us to faithfully make digital elevation models with grid spacing smaller than 10cm. We adapt a geometric method that relies on a small number of user-dependent decisions to produce an offset estimate from a set of geomorphic markers (thalweg, channel margins, channel shoulders) from upstream and downstream locations. We typically derive an ensemble of at least 10 offset measurements per stream channel and from these calculate a mean and standard deviation. We also explore using gradient changes in long profiles of the offset stream reaches to diagnose the possibility of a ~10m channel experiencing 2 ~5m slip events. Preliminary results suggest a tendency towards the higher value offset estimates, although this does not necessarily preclude the possibility of two or more events causing the cumulative offset.

  18. Temporal fault slip rate and rupture patterns on the Genoa fault, central eastern Sierra Nevada, integrating ground-based LiDAR, Be-10 surface exposure dating, and paleoseismology (United States)

    Rood, D. H.; Harvey, J. E.; Ramelli, A.; Burbank, D. W.; Bookhagen, B.


    Using an integrated geomorphic-paleoseismic approach, we evaluate temporal patterns of fault-related, late Quaternary deformation along the Genoa fault at the eastern boundary of the central Sierra Nevada, California-Nevada. The Genoa fault is experiencing some of the highest strain rates and fastest Holocene slip rates in the western Great Basin. This fault was the site of at least two Holocene M~7 earthquakes, including a pre-historic, but less than ~600 yr BP event with co-seismic displacement of 4-6 m and a penultimate event at ~2000-2500 yr BP (Ramelli et al., 1999). Its long-term slip rate history is only well-studied at one site on the southern segment: 0.4 +0.3/-0.1 mm/yr over both ~20 ky and ~150 ky time scales along the West Fork of the Carson River at Woodfords, CA (Rood et al, 2011). Over 10- to 200-ky time scales, our geomorphic approach is to quantify fault displacements of multiple geomorphic features, including 2 glacial outwash terraces and 2 alluvial fans. We use dGPS and ground-based LiDAR topographic data to model fault slip at the Woodfords, Mott Canyon, and Corsser Creek sites. We determine the age of offset features using Be-10 surface exposure dating techniques, including ~50 new Be-10 analyses. Paired surface boulders and depth profiles for each landform allow more accurate, high-resolution chronologies to be developed. By comparing offsets of different ages along individual fault segments and modeling their slip rates and uncertainties, we define how the locus, magnitude, and rate of fault slip changes through time. Paleoseismic trench studies reduce uncertainty concerning how these geomorphic offsets are produced by fault rupture. New trench data from the Fay Canyon site permits comparison of rupture patterns on the neighboring central and southern fault segments, where differences in the timing of earthquake events, displacement magnitude/event, and geometry of underlying faults are compared to the slip-rates calculated from offset

  19. Active faults, paleoseismology, and historical fault rupture in northern Wairarapa, North Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schermer, E.R.; Van Dissen, R.; Berryman, K.R.; Kelsey, H.M.; Cashman, S.M.


    Active faulting in the upper plate of the Hikurangi subduction zone, North Island, New Zealand, represents a significant seismic hazard that is not yet well understood. In northern Wairarapa, the geometry and kinematics of active faults, and the Quaternary and historical surface-rupture record, have not previously been studied in detail. We present the results of mapping and paleoseismicity studies on faults in the northern Wairarapa region to document the characteristics of active faults and the timing of earthquakes. We focus on evidence for surface rupture in the 1855 Wairarapa (M w 8.2) and 1934 Pahiatua (M w 7.4) earthquakes, two of New Zealand's largest historical earthquakes. The Dreyers Rock, Alfredton, Saunders Road, Waitawhiti, and Waipukaka faults form a northeast-trending, east-stepping array of faults. Detailed mapping of offset geomorphic features shows the rupture lengths vary from c. 7 to 20 km and single-event displacements range from 3 to 7 m, suggesting the faults are capable of generating M >7 earthquakes. Trenching results show that two earthquakes have occurred on the Alfredton Fault since c. 2900 cal. BP. The most recent event probably occurred during the 1855 Wairarapa earthquake as slip propagated northward from the Wairarapa Fault and across a 6 km wide step. Waipukaka Fault trenches show that at least three surface-rupturing earthquakes have occurred since 8290-7880 cal. BP. Analysis of stratigraphic and historical evidence suggests the most recent rupture occurred during the 1934 Pahiatua earthquake. Estimates of slip rates provided by these data suggest that a larger component of strike slip than previously suspected is occurring within the upper plate and that the faults accommodate a significant proportion of the dextral component of oblique subduction. Assessment of seismic hazard is difficult because the known fault scarp lengths appear too short to have accommodated the estimated single-event displacements. Faults in the region are

  20. Experimental evidence that thrust earthquake ruptures might open faults. (United States)

    Gabuchian, Vahe; Rosakis, Ares J; Bhat, Harsha S; Madariaga, Raúl; Kanamori, Hiroo


    Many of Earth's great earthquakes occur on thrust faults. These earthquakes predominantly occur within subduction zones, such as the 2011 moment magnitude 9.0 eathquake in Tohoku-Oki, Japan, or along large collision zones, such as the 1999 moment magnitude 7.7 earthquake in Chi-Chi, Taiwan. Notably, these two earthquakes had a maximum slip that was very close to the surface. This contributed to the destructive tsunami that occurred during the Tohoku-Oki event and to the large amount of structural damage caused by the Chi-Chi event. The mechanism that results in such large slip near the surface is poorly understood as shallow parts of thrust faults are considered to be frictionally stable. Here we use earthquake rupture experiments to reveal the existence of a torquing mechanism of thrust fault ruptures near the free surface that causes them to unclamp and slip large distances. Complementary numerical modelling of the experiments confirms that the hanging-wall wedge undergoes pronounced rotation in one direction as the earthquake rupture approaches the free surface, and this torque is released as soon as the rupture breaks the free surface, resulting in the unclamping and violent 'flapping' of the hanging-wall wedge. Our results imply that the shallow extent of the seismogenic zone of a subducting interface is not fixed and can extend up to the trench during great earthquakes through a torquing mechanism.

  1. Insights into earthquake rupture and recovery from paleoseismic faults (United States)

    Rowe, C. D.; Griffith, W. A.; Ross, C.; Melosh, B. L.; Young, E.


    There are two key factors distinguishing earthquake slip from creep that have the potential to be preserved in rocks from ancient fault zones. First, slip velocity is sufficiently high that the frictional heat production on the slip surface outpaces conductive heat dissipation, resulting in a net temperature rise. If the slip is sufficiently localized and the normal stress is high enough, this temperature rise can dissociate hydrous minerals, cause rapid maturation of organic compounds, and melt fault rock. These reactions are recorded in fault rock mineralogy and composition and can be used to estimate coseismic temperatures from 250 C to greater than 1400 C. Second, seismic slip is *dynamic*, that is, that the slipping area expands in size at rates comparable to the shear wave velocity in the rocks ( 3 km/s), which results in extreme stress gradients in the wall rock at the rupture tip. The stressing rate exceeds the speed at which fractures can propagate through the wall rock, resulting in distinctive patterns of very tightly spaced and branching fractures, and sometimes pulverization. These fractures can be the dominant form of off-fault damage and may cause permeability spikes through the fresh fracture networks. Using both types of fossil earthquake signatures, we can identify ancient seismic rupture planes and use these to map out the geometry of earthquake rupture networks at the outcrop scale (10^-3 - 10^3 meters), which is below the resolution and location uncertainty of earthquake seismology in most active faults. Using examples from the Pofadder and Norumbega Shear Zones, I will show that earthquakes can rupture multiple parallel and non-parallel surfaces simultaneously, and that healing during afterslip can affect damage zones as well as the rupture surface. Outcrop studies may be able to elucidate the consequences for slip distribution and help explain spatial variations in fracture energy and stress drop that are barely resolvable in seismic data.

  2. 3D Dynamic Rupture Simulations Across Interacting Faults: the Mw7.0, 2010, Haiti Earthquake (United States)

    Douilly, R.; Aochi, H.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.; Aagaard, B.


    The mechanisms controlling rupture propagation between fault segments during an earthquake are key to the hazard posed by fault systems. Rupture initiation on a fault segment sometimes transfers to a larger fault, resulting in a significant event (e.g.i, 2002 M7.9Denali and 2010 M7.1 Darfield earthquakes). In other cases rupture is constrained to the initial segment and does not transfer to nearby faults, resulting in events of moderate magnitude. This is the case of the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta and 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquakes which initiated on reverse faults abutting against a major strike-slip plate boundary fault but did not propagate onto it. Here we investigatethe rupture dynamics of the Haiti earthquake, seeking to understand why rupture propagated across two segments of the Léogâne fault but did not propagate to the adjacenent Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault, the major 200 km long plate boundary fault cutting through southern Haiti. We use a Finite Element Model to simulate the nucleation and propagation of rupture on the Léogâne fault, varying friction and background stress to determine the parameter set that best explains the observed earthquake sequence. The best-fit simulation is in remarkable agreement with several finite fault inversions and predicts ground displacement in very good agreement with geodetic and geological observations. The two slip patches inferred from finite-fault inversions are explained by the successive rupture of two fault segments oriented favorably with respect to the rupture propagation, while the geometry of the Enriquillo fault did not allow shear stress to reach failure. Although our simulation results replicate well the ground deformation consistent with the geodetic surface observation but convolving the ground motion with the soil amplification from the microzonation study will correctly account for the heterogeneity of the PGA throughout the rupture area.

  3. Multi-Fault Rupture Scenarios in the Brawley Seismic Zone (United States)

    Kyriakopoulos, C.; Oglesby, D. D.; Rockwell, T. K.; Meltzner, A. J.; Barall, M.


    Dynamic rupture complexity is strongly affected by both the geometric configuration of a network of faults and pre-stress conditions. Between those two, the geometric configuration is more likely to be anticipated prior to an event. An important factor in the unpredictability of the final rupture pattern of a group of faults is the time-dependent interaction between them. Dynamic rupture models provide a means to investigate this otherwise inscrutable processes. The Brawley Seismic Zone in Southern California is an area in which this approach might be important for inferring potential earthquake sizes and rupture patterns. Dynamic modeling can illuminate how the main faults in this area, the Southern San Andreas (SSAF) and Imperial faults, might interact with the intersecting cross faults, and how the cross faults may modulate rupture on the main faults. We perform 3D finite element modeling of potential earthquakes in this zone assuming an extended array of faults (Figure). Our results include a wide range of ruptures and fault behaviors depending on assumptions about nucleation location, geometric setup, pre-stress conditions, and locking depth. For example, in the majority of our models the cross faults do not strongly participate in the rupture process, giving the impression that they are not typically an aid or an obstacle to the rupture propagation. However, in some cases, particularly when rupture proceeds slowly on the main faults, the cross faults indeed can participate with significant slip, and can even cause rupture termination on one of the main faults. Furthermore, in a complex network of faults we should not preclude the possibility of a large event nucleating on a smaller fault (e.g. a cross fault) and eventually promoting rupture on the main structure. Recent examples include the 2010 Mw 7.1 Darfield (New Zealand) and Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah (Mexico) earthquakes, where rupture started on a smaller adjacent segment and later cascaded into a larger

  4. Scissoring Fault Rupture Properties along the Median Tectonic Line Fault Zone, Southwest Japan (United States)

    Ikeda, M.; Nishizaka, N.; Onishi, K.; Sakamoto, J.; Takahashi, K.


    The Median Tectonic Line fault zone (hereinafter MTLFZ) is the longest and most active fault zone in Japan. The MTLFZ is a 400-km-long trench parallel right-lateral strike-slip fault accommodating lateral slip components of the Philippine Sea plate oblique subduction beneath the Eurasian plate [Fitch, 1972; Yeats, 1996]. Complex fault geometry evolves along the MTLFZ. The geomorphic and geological characteristics show a remarkable change through the MTLFZ. Extensional step-overs and pull-apart basins and a pop-up structure develop in western and eastern parts of the MTLFZ, respectively. It is like a "scissoring fault properties". We can point out two main factors to form scissoring fault properties along the MTLFZ. One is a regional stress condition, and another is a preexisting fault. The direction of σ1 anticlockwise rotate from N170°E [Famin et al., 2014] in the eastern Shikoku to Kinki areas and N100°E [Research Group for Crustral Stress in Western Japan, 1980] in central Shikoku to N85°E [Onishi et al., 2016] in western Shikoku. According to the rotation of principal stress directions, the western and eastern parts of the MTLFZ are to be a transtension and compression regime, respectively. The MTLFZ formed as a terrain boundary at Cretaceous, and has evolved with a long active history. The fault style has changed variously, such as left-lateral, thrust, normal and right-lateral. Under the structural condition of a preexisting fault being, the rupture does not completely conform to Anderson's theory for a newly formed fault, as the theory would require either purely dip-slip motion on the 45° dipping fault or strike-slip motion on a vertical fault. The fault rupture of the 2013 Barochistan earthquake in Pakistan is a rare example of large strike-slip reactivation on a relatively low angle dipping fault (thrust fault), though many strike-slip faults have vertical plane generally [Avouac et al., 2014]. In this presentation, we, firstly, show deep subsurface

  5. Dynamic Rupture Simulations with Plastic Yielding in Fault Damage Zone (United States)

    Day, S. M.; Roten, D.; Olsen, K. B.; Cui, Y.


    Observations of fault-zone trapped waves indicate that faults are surrounded by damage zones with reduced seismic velocities. We investigate how plastic effects around the fault, enhanced by the reduced strength of pre-fractured rocks inside the low-velocity zone (LVZ), affect ground motions at various distances from the fault. 3-D dynamic rupture simulations are performed with the AWP-ODC finite difference code, using a slip-weakening fault friction law, a Drucker-Prager (DP) yield criterion and depth-dependent stress. We simulate M 7.5 earthquakes with a LVZ embedded in a horizontally layered model, as well as M 7.7 earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault with a LVZ added to the 3D heterogeneous mesh (SCEC CVM 3c). Within a 500 m wide and 4 km deep inner fault zone, we assume a 30% reduction in shear-wave velocity with respect to wallrock, and a reduced Geological Strength Index (GSI) of 30, 50 or 75, representative of a fractured rock mass of poor, moderate and good quality, respectively. The Hoek-Brown criterion is then used to derive equivalent friction angles and cohesions, consistent with these GSI values, for the DP criterion. In the linear case, the presence of a LVZ increases mean near-surface peak slip rates by 50%, from 2 to 3 m/s. These amplifications are compensated by fault zone plasticity in poor and moderate quality rock masses, where near-surface peak slip rates average to 0.5 m/s and 1.5 m/s, respectively; no significant reduction is obtained in good quality (almost unfractured) fault zones. Trapping of seismic waves inside the LVZ results in reduced peak ground velocities (PGVs) outside of the fault zone even in the linear case; these reductions are more pronounced if plasticity is taken into account. Plasticity acts by truncating frequency-distribution curves of PGVs obtained near the fault. In the horizontally layered medium, the highest PGVs are reduced from 2.6 m/s to 2.2 for moderate, and to 1.7 m/s for poor quality fault zones. In

  6. Field evidences of secondary surface ruptures occurred during the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surface rupture and source fault of the 20 February 1956 Eskişehir earthquake have been a matter of debate that potentially contributes towards the understanding of the active deformation and seismic risk in the highly populated NW Anatolia. Field observations on the two fault segments (namely Kavacık and Uludere ...

  7. Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance Report on the Performance of Structures in Densely Urbanized Areas Affected by Surface Fault Rupture During the August 24, 2014 M6 South Napa Earthquake, California, USA. (United States)

    Cohen-Waeber, J.; Lanzafame, R.; Bray, J.; Sitar, N.


    The August 24, 2014, M­w 6.0 South Napa earthquake is the largest seismic event to have occurred in the San Francisco Bay Region, California, USA, since the Mw 6.9 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The event epicenter occurred at the South end of the Napa Valley, California, principally rupturing northwest along parts of the active West Napa fault zone. Bound by two major fault zones to the East and West (Calaveras and Rogers Creek, respectively), the Napa Valley is filled with up to 170 m. of alluvial deposits and is considered to be moderately to very highly susceptible to liquefaction and has the potential for violent shaking. While damage due to strong ground shaking was significant, remarkably little damage due to liquefaction or landslide induced ground deformations was observed. This may be due to recent drought in the region. Instead, the South Napa earthquake is the first to produce significant surface rupture in this area since the Mw 7.9 1906 San Andreas event, and the first in Northern California to rupture through a densely urbanized environment. Clear expressions of surface fault rupture extended approximately 12 - 15 km northward from the epicenter and approximately 1-2 km southeast with a significant impact to infrastructure, including roads, lifelines and residential structures. The National Science Foundation funded Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance (GEER) Association presents here its observations on the performance of structures affected by surface fault rupture, in a densely populated residential neighborhood located approximately 10 km north of the epicenter. Based on the detailed mapping of 27 residential structures, a preliminary assessment of the quantitative descriptions of damage shows certain characteristic interactions between surface fault rupture and the overlying infrastructure: 48% of concrete slabs cracked up to 8 cm wide, 19% of structures shifted up to 11 cm off of their foundation and 44% of foundations cracked up to 3 cm

  8. Inelastic off-fault response and three-dimensional dynamics of earthquake rupture on a strike-slip fault (United States)

    Andrews, D.J.; Ma, Shuo


    Large dynamic stress off the fault incurs an inelastic response and energy loss, which contributes to the fracture energy, limiting the rupture and slip velocity. Using an explicit finite element method, we model three-dimensional dynamic ruptures on a vertical strike-slip fault in a homogeneous half-space. The material is subjected to a pressure-dependent Drucker-Prager yield criterion. Initial stresses in the medium increase linearly with depth. Our simulations show that the inelastic response is confined narrowly to the fault at depth. There the inelastic strain is induced by large dynamic stresses associated with the rupture front that overcome the effect of the high confining pressure. The inelastic zone increases in size as it nears the surface. For material with low cohesion (~5 MPa) the inelastic zone broadens dramatically near the surface, forming a "flowerlike" structure. The near-surface inelastic strain occurs in both the extensional and the compressional regimes of the fault, induced by seismic waves ahead of the rupture front under a low confining pressure. When cohesion is large (~10 MPa), the inelastic strain is significantly reduced near the surface and confined mostly to depth. Cohesion, however, affects the inelastic zone at depth less significantly. The induced shear microcracks show diverse orientations near the surface, owing to the low confining pressure, but exhibit mostly horizontal slip at depth. The inferred rupture-induced anisotropy at depth has the fast wave direction along the direction of the maximum compressive stress.

  9. Paleoearthquakes on the Anninghe and Zemuhe fault along the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and implications for fault rupture behavior at fault bends on strike-slip faults (United States)

    Wang, Hu; Ran, Yongkang; Chen, Lichun; Li, Yanbao


    Fault bends can serve as fault segment boundaries and are used in seismic hazard assessment. Recent studies addressing whether rupture propagation would be arrested at such structural complexities have commonly focused on computational modeling. However, multi-cycle paleoseismic rupture observations through fault bends have seldom been reported. In this study, we used trenching and radiocarbon dating to reveal paleoseismic rupture histories on the southern segment of the Anninghe fault (ANHF) along the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau to explore multi-cycle surface rupture behavior at an extensional fault bend (with an angle of about 30°) at Xichang between the ANHF and Zemuhe fault (ZMHF). Specifically, nine trenches were opened in a fault depression at Maoheshan site and five paleoseismic events were identified. These have been named E1 through E5 respectively corresponding to events at 1400-935 BCE, 420-875 CE, 830-1360 CE, 1295-1715 CE, and 1790 CE-Present. After comparison with the historical records of earthquakes around Xichang and previous paleoseismic results, we suggest that the five seismic events are constrained at: 1365 BCE-935 BCE, 814 CE, 950 CE- 1145 CE, 1536 CE and 1850 CE, respectively. The average recurrence interval of earthquakes along the southern segment of the ANHF is about 700-800 yr. Furthermore, the evidence indicates that surface-faulting events along the southern segment of the ANHF appear to be unevenly spaced in time. Moreover, based on comparisons of seismic events along the ANHF and ZMHF, we find that two fault segments simultaneous ruptured during the 814 CE and 1850 CE earthquakes, event E3 and the 1536 CE earthquake ruptured the ANHF but not rupture the ZMHF. We suggest that the Xichang fault bend is not a persistent fault boundary, indicating that extensional fault bends with an angle of about 30° may not effectively terminate seismic ruptures on strike-slip faults.

  10. Modelling earthquake ruptures with dynamic off-fault damage (United States)

    Okubo, Kurama; Bhat, Harsha S.; Klinger, Yann; Rougier, Esteban


    Earthquake rupture modelling has been developed for producing scenario earthquakes. This includes understanding the source mechanisms and estimating far-field ground motion with given a priori constraints like fault geometry, constitutive law of the medium and friction law operating on the fault. It is necessary to consider all of the above complexities of a fault systems to conduct realistic earthquake rupture modelling. In addition to the complexity of the fault geometry in nature, coseismic off-fault damage, which is observed by a variety of geological and seismological methods, plays a considerable role on the resultant ground motion and its spectrum compared to a model with simple planer fault surrounded by purely elastic media. Ideally all of these complexities should be considered in earthquake modelling. State of the art techniques developed so far, however, cannot treat all of them simultaneously due to a variety of computational restrictions. Therefore, we adopt the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM), which can effectively deal with pre-existing complex fault geometry such as fault branches and kinks and can describe coseismic off-fault damage generated during the dynamic rupture. The advantage of FDEM is that it can handle a wide range of length scales, from metric to kilometric scale, corresponding to the off-fault damage and complex fault geometry respectively. We used the FDEM-based software tool called HOSSedu (Hybrid Optimization Software Suite - Educational Version) for the earthquake rupture modelling, which was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. We firstly conducted the cross-validation of this new methodology against other conventional numerical schemes such as the finite difference method (FDM), the spectral element method (SEM) and the boundary integral equation method (BIEM), to evaluate the accuracy with various element sizes and artificial viscous damping values. We demonstrate the capability of the FDEM tool for

  11. Influence of fault steps on rupture termination of strike-slip earthquake faults (United States)

    Li, Zhengfang; Zhou, Bengang


    A statistical analysis was completed on the rupture data of 29 historical strike-slip earthquakes across the world. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of fault steps on the rupture termination of these events. The results show good correlations between the type and length of steps with the seismic rupture and a poor correlation between the step number and seismic rupture. For different magnitude intervals, the smallest widths of the fault steps (Lt) that can terminate the rupture propagation are variable: Lt = 3 km for Ms 6.5 6.9, Lt = 4 km for Ms 7.0 7.5, Lt = 6 km for Ms 7.5 8.0, and Lt = 8 km for Ms 8.0 8.5. The dilational fault step is easier to rupture through than the compression fault step. The smallest widths of the fault step for the rupture arrest can be used as an indicator to judge the scale of the rupture termination of seismic faults. This is helpful for research on fault segmentation, as well as estimating the magnitude of potential earthquakes, and is thus of significance for the assessment of seismic risks.

  12. Dynamic rupture models of earthquakes on the Bartlett Springs Fault, Northern California (United States)

    Lozos, Julian C.; Harris, Ruth A.; Murray, Jessica R.; Lienkaemper, James J.


    The Bartlett Springs Fault (BSF), the easternmost branch of the northern San Andreas Fault system, creeps along much of its length. Geodetic data for the BSF are sparse, and surface creep rates are generally poorly constrained. The two existing geodetic slip rate inversions resolve at least one locked patch within the creeping zones. We use the 3-D finite element code FaultMod to conduct dynamic rupture models based on both geodetic inversions, in order to determine the ability of rupture to propagate into the creeping regions, as well as to assess possible magnitudes for BSF ruptures. For both sets of models, we find that the distribution of aseismic creep limits the extent of coseismic rupture, due to the contrast in frictional properties between the locked and creeping regions.

  13. Modeling fault rupture hazard for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppersmith, K.J.; Youngs, R.R.


    In this paper as part of the Electric Power Research Institute's High Level Waste program, the authors have developed a preliminary probabilistic model for assessing the hazard of fault rupture to the proposed high level waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The model is composed of two parts: the earthquake occurrence model that describes the three-dimensional geometry of earthquake sources and the earthquake recurrence characteristics for all sources in the site vicinity; and the rupture model that describes the probability of coseismic fault rupture of various lengths and amounts of displacement within the repository horizon 350 m below the surface. The latter uses empirical data from normal-faulting earthquakes to relate the rupture dimensions and fault displacement amounts to the magnitude of the earthquake. using a simulation procedure, we allow for earthquake occurrence on all of the earthquake sources in the site vicinity, model the location and displacement due to primary faults, and model the occurrence of secondary faulting in conjunction with primary faulting

  14. Standards for Documenting Finite‐Fault Earthquake Rupture Models

    KAUST Repository

    Mai, Paul Martin


    In this article, we propose standards for documenting and disseminating finite‐fault earthquake rupture models, and related data and metadata. A comprehensive documentation of the rupture models, a detailed description of the data processing steps, and facilitating the access to the actual data that went into the earthquake source inversion are required to promote follow‐up research and to ensure interoperability, transparency, and reproducibility of the published slip‐inversion solutions. We suggest a formatting scheme that describes the kinematic rupture process in an unambiguous way to support subsequent research. We also provide guidelines on how to document the data, metadata, and data processing. The proposed standards and formats represent a first step to establishing best practices for comprehensively documenting input and output of finite‐fault earthquake source studies.



    Takashi, NAKATA; Kiyoshi, YOMOGIDA; Professor, Department of Geography, Hiroshima University:Associate Professor, Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Hiroshima University; Professor, Department of Geography, Hiroshima University:Associate Professor, Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Hiroshima University


    Distinctive ruptures in the surface faulting that generated the destructive 1995 Hyogoken-nambu earthquake (Ms = 7.2) appeared along the Nojima fault, an active fault on the northwestern coast of Awaji Island, Japan. These surface fault ruptures extend continuously southwestward for 10 km from Ezaki lighthouse, near the epicenter to Toshima Town in Hokudan, and display prominent right-lateral off-sets of roads, paddy dikes and so on of 1.9 m maximum with vertical displacement of 1.2 m maximum...

  16. Field evidences of secondary surface ruptures occurred during the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some rock slides of several tens of meters in size that obviously require significantly high ground shaking were also developed on steep fault scarps. The orientation of the principal stress tensor as deduced from the surface rupture of the Eskisehir earthquake displays clear inconsistency with the geometry of prominent ...

  17. Field evidences of secondary surface ruptures occurred during the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The orientation of the principal stress tensor as deduced from the surface rupture of the Eskisehir earthquake ... history extended back to late Oligocene exhuma- tion of the Uludag massif (Okay et al 2008) and the ensuing ... accepted this view estimating stress directions from slip measurements in the main bounding faults.

  18. 3D Dynamic Rupture Simulations along the Wasatch Fault, Utah, Incorporating Rough-fault Topography (United States)

    Withers, Kyle; Moschetti, Morgan


    Studies have found that the Wasatch Fault has experienced successive large magnitude (>Mw 7.2) earthquakes, with an average recurrence interval near 350 years. To date, no large magnitude event has been recorded along the fault, with the last rupture along the Salt Lake City segment occurring 1300 years ago. Because of this, as well as the lack of strong ground motion records in basins and from normal-faulting earthquakes worldwide, seismic hazard in the region is not well constrained. Previous numerical simulations have modeled deterministic ground motion in the heavily populated regions of Utah, near Salt Lake City, but were primarily restricted to low frequencies ( 1 Hz). Our goal is to better assess broadband ground motions from the Wasatch Fault Zone. Here, we extend deterministic ground motion prediction to higher frequencies ( 5 Hz) in this region by using physics-based spontaneous dynamic rupture simulations along a normal fault with characteristics derived from geologic observations. We use a summation by parts finite difference code (Waveqlab3D) with rough-fault topography following a self-similar fractal distribution (over length scales from 100 m to the size of the fault) and include off-fault plasticity to simulate ruptures > Mw 6.5. Geometric complexity along fault planes has previously been shown to generate broadband sources with spectral energy matching that of observations. We investigate the impact of varying the hypocenter location, as well as the influence that multiple realizations of rough-fault topography have on the rupture process and resulting ground motion. We utilize Waveqlab3's computational efficiency to model wave-propagation to a significant distance from the fault with media heterogeneity at both long and short spatial wavelengths. These simulations generate a synthetic dataset of ground motions to compare with GMPEs, in terms of both the median and inter and intraevent variability.

  19. Factors for simultaneous rupture assessment of active fault. Part 1. Fault geometry and slip-distribution based on tectonic geomorphological and paleoseismological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toshinori; Ueta, Keiichi


    It is important to evaluate the magnitude of an earthquake caused by multiple active faults, taking into account the simultaneous effects. The simultaneity of adjacent active faults is often decided on the basis of geometric distances except for the cases in which paleoseismic records of these faults are well known. We have been studying the step area between the Nukumi fault and the Neodani fault, which appeared as consecutive ruptures in the 1891 Nobi earthquake, since 2009. The purpose of this study is to establish innovation in valuation technique of the simultaneity of adjacent active faults in addition to the techniques based on the paleoseismic record and the geometric distance. The present work is intended to clarify the distribution of tectonic geomorphology along the Nukumi fault and the Neodani fault by high-resolution interpretations of airborne LiDAR DEM and aerial photograph, and the field survey of outcrops and location survey. As a result of topographic survey, we found consecutive tectonic topography which is left lateral displacement of ridge and valley lines and reverse scarplets along these faults in dense vegetation area. We have found several new outcrops in this area where the surface ruptures of the 1891 Nobi earthquake have not been known. At the several outcrops, humic layer whose age is from 14th century to 19th century by 14C age dating was deformed by the active fault. We conclude that the surface rupture of Nukumi fault in the 1891 Nobi earthquake is continuous to 12km southeast of Nukumi village. In other words, these findings indicate that there is 10-12km parallel overlap zone between the surface rupture of the southeastern end of Nukumi fault and the northwestern end of Neodani fault. (author)

  20. 3D Dynamic Rupture Simulation Across a Complex Fault System: the Mw7.0, 2010, Haiti Earthquake (United States)

    Douilly, R.; Aochi, H.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.


    Earthquakes ruptures sometimes take place on a secondary fault and surprisingly do not activate an adjacent major one. The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake is a classic case where rupture occurred on a blind thrust while the adjacent San Andreas Fault was not triggered during the process. Similar to Loma Prieta, the Mw7.0, January 12 2010, Haiti earthquake also ruptured a secondary blind thrust, the Léogâne fault, adjacent to the main plate boundary, the Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault, which did not rupture during this event. Aftershock relocalizations delineate the Léogâne rupture with two north dipping segments with slightly different dip, where the easternmost segment had mostly dip-slip motion and the westernmost one had mostly strike-slip motion. In addition, an offshore south dipping structure inferred from the aftershocks to the west of the rupture zone coincides with the offshore Trois Baies reverse fault, a region of increase in Coulomb stress increase. In this study, we investigate the rupture dynamics of the Haiti earthquake in a complex fault system of multiple segments identified by the aftershock relocations. We suppose a background stress regime that is consistent with the type of motion of each fault and with the regional tectonic regime. We initiate a nucleation on the east segment of the Léogâne fault by defining a circular region with a 2 km radius where shear stress is slightly greater than the yield stress. By varying friction on faults and background stress, we find a range of plausible scenarios. In the absence of near-field seismic records of the event, we score the different models against the static deformation field derived from GPS and InSAR at the surface. All the plausible simulations show that the rupture propagates from the eastern to the western segment along the Léogâne fault, but not on the Enriquillo fault nor on the Trois Baies fault. The best-fit simulation shows a significant increase of shear stresses on the Trois Baies

  1. Pulse-Like Rupture Induced by Three-Dimensional Fault Zone Flower Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Pelties, Christian


    © 2014, Springer Basel. Faults are often embedded in low-velocity fault zones (LVFZ) caused by material damage. Previous 2D dynamic rupture simulations (Huang and Ampuero, 2011; Huang et al., 2014) showed that if the wave velocity contrast between the LVFZ and the country rock is strong enough, ruptures can behave as pulses, i.e. with local slip duration (rise time) much shorter than whole rupture duration. Local slip arrest (healing) is generated by waves reflected from the LVFZ–country rock interface. This effect is robust against a wide range of fault zone widths, absence of frictional healing, variation of initial stress conditions, attenuation, and off-fault plasticity. These numerical studies covered two-dimensional problems with fault-parallel fault zone structures. Here, we extend previous work to 3D and geometries that are more typical of natural fault zones, including complexities such as flower structures with depth-dependent velocity and thickness, and limited fault zone depth extent. This investigation requires high resolution and flexible mesh generation, which are enabled here by the high-order accurate arbitrary high-order derivatives discontinuous Galerkin method with an unstructured tetrahedral element discretization (Peltieset al., 2012). We show that the healing mechanism induced by waves reflected in the LVFZ also operates efficiently in such three-dimensional fault zone structures and that, in addition, a new healing mechanism is induced by unloading waves generated when the rupture reaches the surface. The first mechanism leads to very short rise time controlled by the LVFZ width to wave speed ratio. The second mechanism leads to generally longer, depth-increasing rise times, is also conditioned by the existence of an LVFZ, and persists at some depth below the bottom of the LVFZ. Our simulations show that the generation of slip pulses by these two mechanisms is robust to the depth extent of the LVFZ and to the position of the hypocenter

  2. Three dimensional modelling of earthquake rupture cycles on frictional faults (United States)

    Simpson, Guy; May, Dave


    We are developing an efficient MPI-parallel numerical method to simulate earthquake sequences on preexisting faults embedding within a three dimensional viscoelastic half-space. We solve the velocity form of the elasto(visco)dynamic equations using a continuous Galerkin Finite Element Method on an unstructured pentahedral mesh, which thus permits local spatial refinement in the vicinity of the fault. Friction sliding is coupled to the viscoelastic solid via rate- and state-dependent friction laws using the split-node technique. Our coupled formulation employs a picard-type non-linear solver with a fully implicit, first order accurate time integrator that utilises an adaptive time step that efficiently evolves the system through multiple seismic cycles. The implementation leverages advanced parallel solvers, preconditioners and linear algebra from the Portable Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computing (PETSc) library. The model can treat heterogeneous frictional properties and stress states on the fault and surrounding solid as well as non-planar fault geometries. Preliminary tests show that the model successfully reproduces dynamic rupture on a vertical strike-slip fault in a half-space governed by rate-state friction with the ageing law.

  3. Dynamic rupture models of subduction zone earthquakes with off-fault plasticity (United States)

    Wollherr, S.; van Zelst, I.; Gabriel, A. A.; van Dinther, Y.; Madden, E. H.; Ulrich, T.


    Modeling tsunami-genesis based on purely elastic seafloor displacement typically underpredicts tsunami sizes. Dynamic rupture simulations allow to analyse whether plastic energy dissipation is a missing rheological component by capturing the complex interplay of the rupture front, emitted seismic waves and the free surface in the accretionary prism. Strike-slip models with off-fault plasticity suggest decreasing rupture speed and extensive plastic yielding mainly at shallow depths. For simplified subduction geometries inelastic deformation on the verge of Coulomb failure may enhance vertical displacement, which in turn favors the generation of large tsunamis (Ma, 2012). However, constraining appropriate initial conditions in terms of fault geometry, initial fault stress and strength remains challenging. Here, we present dynamic rupture models of subduction zones constrained by long-term seismo-thermo-mechanical modeling (STM) without any a priori assumption of regions of failure. The STM model provides self-consistent slab geometries, as well as stress and strength initial conditions which evolve in response to tectonic stresses, temperature, gravity, plasticity and pressure (van Dinther et al. 2013). Coseismic slip and coupled seismic wave propagation is modelled using the software package SeisSol (, suited for complex fault zone structures and topography/bathymetry. SeisSol allows for local time-stepping, which drastically reduces the time-to-solution (Uphoff et al., 2017). This is particularly important in large-scale scenarios resolving small-scale features, such as the shallow angle between the megathrust fault and the free surface. Our dynamic rupture model uses a Drucker-Prager plastic yield criterion and accounts for thermal pressurization around the fault mimicking the effect of pore pressure changes due to frictional heating. We first analyze the influence of this rheology on rupture dynamics and tsunamigenic properties, i.e. seafloor

  4. Repeated fault rupture recorded by paleoenvironmental changes in a wetland sedimentary sequence ponded against the Alpine Fault, New Zealand (United States)

    Clark, K.; Berryman, K. R.; Cochran, U. A.; Bartholomew, T.; Turner, G. M.


    cycles were repeated 18 times at Hokuri Creek. Evidence that fault rupture was responsible for the cyclical paleoenvironmental changes at Hokuri Creek include: the average time period for each organic- and clastic-rich couplet to be deposited approximately equals the long-term average Alpine Fault recurrence interval, and the most recent events recorded at Hokuri correlate to an earthquake dated in paleoseismic trenches 100 km along strike; fault rupture is the only mechanism that can create accommodation space for 18 m of sediment to accumulate, and the sedimentary units can be traced from the outcrop to the fault trace and show tectonic deformation. The record of 18 fault rupture events at Hokuri Creek is one of the longest records of surface ruptures on a major plate boundary fault. High-resolution dating and statistical treatment of the radiocarbon data (Biasi et al., this meeting) has resulted in major advances in understanding the long-term behaviour of the Alpine Fault (Berryman et al., this meeting).

  5. Loading of the San Andreas fault by flood-induced rupture of faults beneath the Salton Sea (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel; Kilb, Debi; Luttrell, Karen; Driscoll, Neal W.; Kent, Graham


    The southern San Andreas fault has not experienced a large earthquake for approximately 300 years, yet the previous five earthquakes occurred at ~180-year intervals. Large strike-slip faults are often segmented by lateral stepover zones. Movement on smaller faults within a stepover zone could perturb the main fault segments and potentially trigger a large earthquake. The southern San Andreas fault terminates in an extensional stepover zone beneath the Salton Sea—a lake that has experienced periodic flooding and desiccation since the late Holocene. Here we reconstruct the magnitude and timing of fault activity beneath the Salton Sea over several earthquake cycles. We observe coincident timing between flooding events, stepover fault displacement and ruptures on the San Andreas fault. Using Coulomb stress models, we show that the combined effect of lake loading, stepover fault movement and increased pore pressure could increase stress on the southern San Andreas fault to levels sufficient to induce failure. We conclude that rupture of the stepover faults, caused by periodic flooding of the palaeo-Salton Sea and by tectonic forcing, had the potential to trigger earthquake rupture on the southern San Andreas fault. Extensional stepover zones are highly susceptible to rapid stress loading and thus the Salton Sea may be a nucleation point for large ruptures on the southern San Andreas fault.

  6. Creeping Guanxian-Anxian Fault ruptured in the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake (United States)

    He, X.; Li, H.; Wang, H.; Zhang, L.; Si, J.


    Crustal active faults can slide either steadily by aseismic creep, or abruptly by earthquake rupture. Creep can relax continuously the stress and reduce the occurrence of large earthquakes. Identifying the behaviors of active faults plays a crucial role in predicting and preventing earthquake disasters. Based on multi-scale structural analyses for fault rocks from the GAF surface rupture zone and the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Zone Science Drilling borehole 3P, we detect the analogous "mylonite structures" develop pervasively in GAF fault rocks. Such specious "ductile deformations", showing intensive foliation, spindly clasts, tailing structure, "boudin structure", "augen structure" and S-C fabrics, are actually formed in brittle faulting, which indicates the creeping behavior of the GAF. Furthermore, some special structures hint the creeping mechanism. The cracks and veins developed in fractured clasts imply pressure and fluid control in the faulting. Under the effect of fluid, clasts are dissolved in pressing direction, and solutions are transferred to stress vacancy area at both ends of clasts and deposit to regenerate clay minerals. The clasts thus present spindly shape and are surrounded by orientational clay minerals constituting continuous foliation structure. The clay minerals are dominated by phyllosilicates that can weaken faults and promote pressure solution. Therefore, pressure solution creep and phyllosilicates weakening reasonably interpret the creeping of GAF. Additionally, GPS velocity data show slip rates of the GAF are respectively 1.5 and 12 mm/yr during 1998-2008 and 2009-2011, which also indicate the GAF is in creeping during interseismic period. According to analysis on aftershocks distribution and P-wave velocity with depth and geological section in the Longmenshan thrust belt, we suggest the GAF is creeping in shallow (<10 km) and locked in deep (10-20 km). Comprehensive research shows stress propagated from the west was concentrated near the

  7. A case for historic joint rupture of the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults


    Lozos, Julian C.


    The San Andreas fault is considered to be the primary plate boundary fault in southern California and the most likely fault to produce a major earthquake. I use dynamic rupture modeling to show that the San Jacinto fault is capable of rupturing along with the San Andreas in a single earthquake, and interpret these results along with existing paleoseismic data and historic damage reports to suggest that this has likely occurred in the historic past. In particular, I find that paleoseismic data...

  8. Paleoearthquakes at Frazier Mountain, California delimit extent and frequency of past San Andreas Fault ruptures along 1857 trace (United States)

    Scharer, Katherine M.; Weldon, Ray; Streig, Ashley; Fumal, Thomas


    Large earthquakes are infrequent along a single fault, and therefore historic, well-characterized earthquakes exert a strong influence on fault behavior models. This is true of the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake (estimated M7.7–7.9) on the southern San Andreas Fault (SSAF), but an outstanding question is whether the 330 km long rupture was typical. New paleoseismic data for six to seven ground-rupturing earthquakes on the Big Bend of the SSAF restrict the pattern of possible ruptures on the 1857 stretch of the fault. In conjunction with existing sites, we show that over the last ~650 years, at least 75% of the surface ruptures are shorter than the 1857 earthquake, with estimated rupture lengths of 100 to <300 km. These results suggest that the 1857 rupture was unusual, perhaps leading to the long open interval, and that a return to pre-1857 behavior would increase the rate of M7.3–M7.7 earthquakes.

  9. Simulation of Co-Seismic Secondary Fracture Displacements: Effects of Rupture Propagation, Fault Properties and Rupture Arrest (United States)

    Fälth, B.; Lund, B.; Hökmark, H.


    Using dynamic earthquake simulations we calculate co-seismic secondary fracture shear displacements induced by dynamic and static stress variations. Our results are aimed at improved safety assessment of geological nuclear waste repositories. We use a model with a pre-defined earthquake fault plane (primary fault) surrounded by smaller discontinuities (target fractures) representing faults on which shear movements may be induced by the earthquake. Trying two different methods for propagating the earthquake rupture, we study how the propagation mechanism impacts the amount of target fracture shear displacement. In the first method, which we have adopted in previous studies, we apply a time-weakening algorithm and a pre-defined, constant, rupture velocity. In the second method, we apply the slip-weakening law, i.e. the rupture propagates spontaneously and the strength breakdown takes place over a pre-defined slip-weakening distance. To have relevant cases at hand for our method comparison, we perform several simulations that cover ranges of rupture velocity, strength breakdown time and slip-weakening distance. Furthermore, by applying spatial fault shear strength variations (following both regular sinusoidal strength distributions and self-similar fractal distributions) we study how inhomogeneous fault properties may influence the results. Finally, motivated by observations made in previous studies of extensive secondary effects along sharp rupture area tips that generate exaggerated slip gradients, we examine how more realistic slip gradients may influence the results. Our preliminary results indicate that (i) for similar rupture velocities, the two rupture propagation methods yield secondary displacements at short fault-fracture distances that differ 30%, at most, (ii) fault inhomogeneities may increase the maximum displacements by about 30%, and (iii) the displacements close to the rupture area tip are reduced by more than 35% when more realistic slip gradients

  10. Dynamic rupture simulations of the 2016 Mw7.8 Kaikōura earthquake: a cascading multi-fault event (United States)

    Ulrich, T.; Gabriel, A. A.; Ampuero, J. P.; Xu, W.; Feng, G.


    The Mw7.8 Kaikōura earthquake struck the Northern part of New Zealand's South Island roughly one year ago. It ruptured multiple segments of the contractional North Canterbury fault zone and of the Marlborough fault system. Field observations combined with satellite data suggest a rupture path involving partly unmapped faults separated by large stepover distances larger than 5 km, the maximum distance usually considered by the latest seismic hazard assessment methods. This might imply distant rupture transfer mechanisms generally not considered in seismic hazard assessment. We present high-resolution 3D dynamic rupture simulations of the Kaikōura earthquake under physically self-consistent initial stress and strength conditions. Our simulations are based on recent finite-fault slip inversions that constrain fault system geometry and final slip distribution from remote sensing, surface rupture and geodetic data (Xu et al., 2017). We assume a uniform background stress field, without lateral fault stress or strength heterogeneity. We use the open-source software SeisSol ( which is based on an arbitrary high-order accurate DERivative Discontinuous Galerkin method (ADER-DG). Our method can account for complex fault geometries, high resolution topography and bathymetry, 3D subsurface structure, off-fault plasticity and modern friction laws. It enables the simulation of seismic wave propagation with high-order accuracy in space and time in complex media. We show that a cascading rupture driven by dynamic triggering can break all fault segments that were involved in this earthquake without mechanically requiring an underlying thrust fault. Our prefered fault geometry connects most fault segments: it does not features stepover larger than 2 km. The best scenario matches the main macroscopic characteristics of the earthquake, including its apparently slow rupture propagation caused by zigzag cascading, the moment magnitude and the overall inferred slip

  11. Quantification of Fault-Zone Plasticity Effects with Spontaneous Rupture Simulations (United States)

    Roten, D.; Olsen, K. B.; Day, S. M.; Cui, Y.


    Previous studies have shown that plastic yielding in crustal rocks in the fault zone may impose a physical limit to extreme ground motions. We explore the effects of fault-zone non-linearity on peak ground velocities (PGVs) by simulating a suite of surface-rupturing strike-slip earthquakes in a medium governed by Drucker-Prager plasticity using the AWP-ODC finite-difference code. Our simulations cover magnitudes ranging from 6.5 to 8.0, three different rock strength models, and average stress drops of 3.5 and 7.0 MPa, with a maximum frequency of 1 Hz and a minimum shear-wave velocity of 500 m/s. Friction angles and cohesions in our rock models are based on strength criteria which are frequently used for fractured rock masses in civil and mining engineering. For an average stress drop of 3.5 MPa, plastic yielding reduces near-fault PGVs by 15-30% in pre-fractured, low strength rock, but less than 1% in massive, high-quality rock. These reductions are almost insensitive to magnitude. If the stress drop is doubled, plasticity reduces near-fault PGVs by 38-45% and 5-15% in rocks of low and high strength, respectively. Because non-linearity reduces slip rates and static slip near the surface, plasticity acts in addition to, and may partially be emulated by, a shallow velocity-strengthening layer. The effects of plasticity are exacerbated if a fault damage zone with reduced shear-wave velocities and reduced rock strength is present. In the linear case, fault-zone trapped waves result in higher near-surface peak slip rates and ground velocities compared to simulations without a low-velocity zone. These amplifications are balanced out by fault-zone plasticity if rocks in the damage zone exhibit low-to-moderate strength throughout the depth extent of the low-velocity zone (˜5 km). We also perform dynamic non-linear simulations of a high stress drop (8 MPa) M 7.8 earthquake rupturing the southern San Andreas fault along 250 km from Indio to Lake Hughes. Non-linearity in the

  12. Fracture surface energy of the Punchbowl fault, San Andreas system. (United States)

    Chester, Judith S; Chester, Frederick M; Kronenberg, Andreas K


    Fracture energy is a form of latent heat required to create an earthquake rupture surface and is related to parameters governing rupture propagation and processes of slip weakening. Fracture energy has been estimated from seismological and experimental rock deformation data, yet its magnitude, mechanisms of rupture surface formation and processes leading to slip weakening are not well defined. Here we quantify structural observations of the Punchbowl fault, a large-displacement exhumed fault in the San Andreas fault system, and show that the energy required to create the fracture surface area in the fault is about 300 times greater than seismological estimates would predict for a single large earthquake. If fracture energy is attributed entirely to the production of fracture surfaces, then all of the fracture surface area in the Punchbowl fault could have been produced by earthquake displacements totalling <1 km. But this would only account for a small fraction of the total energy budget, and therefore additional processes probably contributed to slip weakening during earthquake rupture.

  13. Pseudodynamic Source Characterization for Strike-Slip Faulting Including Stress Heterogeneity and Super-Shear Ruptures

    KAUST Repository

    Mena, B.


    Reliable ground‐motion prediction for future earthquakes depends on the ability to simulate realistic earthquake source models. Though dynamic rupture calculations have recently become more popular, they are still computationally demanding. An alternative is to invoke the framework of pseudodynamic (PD) source characterizations that use simple relationships between kinematic and dynamic source parameters to build physically self‐consistent kinematic models. Based on the PD approach of Guatteri et al. (2004), we propose new relationships for PD models for moderate‐to‐large strike‐slip earthquakes that include local supershear rupture speed due to stress heterogeneities. We conduct dynamic rupture simulations using stochastic initial stress distributions to generate a suite of source models in the magnitude Mw 6–8. This set of models shows that local supershear rupture speed prevails for all earthquake sizes, and that the local rise‐time distribution is not controlled by the overall fault geometry, but rather by local stress changes on the faults. Based on these findings, we derive a new set of relations for the proposed PD source characterization that accounts for earthquake size, buried and surface ruptures, and includes local rise‐time variations and supershear rupture speed. By applying the proposed PD source characterization to several well‐recorded past earthquakes, we verify that significant improvements in fitting synthetic ground motion to observed ones is achieved when comparing our new approach with the model of Guatteri et al. (2004). The proposed PD methodology can be implemented into ground‐motion simulation tools for more physically reliable prediction of shaking in future earthquakes.

  14. The 2015 M w 6.0 Mt. Kinabalu earthquake: an infrequent fault rupture within the Crocker fault system of East Malaysia (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wei, Shengji; Wang, Xin; Lindsey, Eric O.; Tongkul, Felix; Tapponnier, Paul; Bradley, Kyle; Chan, Chung-Han; Hill, Emma M.; Sieh, Kerry


    The M w 6.0 Mt. Kinabalu earthquake of 2015 was a complete (and deadly) surprise, because it occurred well away from the nearest plate boundary in a region of very low historical seismicity. Our seismological, space geodetic, geomorphological, and field investigations show that the earthquake resulted from rupture of a northwest-dipping normal fault that did not reach the surface. Its unilateral rupture was almost directly beneath 4000-m-high Mt. Kinabalu and triggered widespread slope failures on steep mountainous slopes, which included rockfalls that killed 18 hikers. Our seismological and morphotectonic analyses suggest that the rupture occurred on a normal fault that splays upwards off of the previously identified normal Marakau fault. Our mapping of tectonic landforms reveals that these faults are part of a 200-km-long system of normal faults that traverse the eastern side of the Crocker Range, parallel to Sabah's northwestern coastline. Although the tectonic reason for this active normal fault system remains unclear, the lengths of the longest fault segments suggest that they are capable of generating magnitude 7 earthquakes. Such large earthquakes must occur very rarely, though, given the hitherto undetectable geodetic rates of active tectonic deformation across the region.

  15. How Fault Geometry Affects Dynamic Rupture Models of Earthquakes in San Gorgonio Pass, CA (United States)

    Tarnowski, J. M.; Oglesby, D. D.; Cooke, M. L.; Kyriakopoulos, C.


    We use 3D dynamic finite element models to investigate potential rupture paths of earthquakes propagating along faults in the western San Gorgonio Pass (SGP) region of California. The SGP is a structurally complex area along the southern California portion of the San Andreas fault system (SAF). It has long been suspected that this structural knot, which consists of the intersection of various non-planar strike-slip and thrust fault segments, may inhibit earthquake rupture propagation between the San Bernardino and Banning strands of the SAF. The above condition may limit the size of potential earthquakes in the region. Our focus is on the San Bernardino strand of the SAF and the San Gorgonio Pass Fault zone, where the fault connectivity is not well constrained. We use the finite element code FaultMod (Barall, 2009) to investigate how fault connectivity, nucleation location, and initial stresses influence rupture propagation and ground motion, including the likelihood of through-going rupture in this region. Preliminary models indicate that earthquakes that nucleate on the San Bernardino strand and propagate southward do not easily transfer rupture to the thrust faults of the San Gorgonio Pass fault zone. However, under certain assumptions, earthquakes that nucleate along the San Gorgonio Pass fault zone can transfer rupture to the San Bernardino strand.

  16. Fault geometry, rupture dynamics and ground motion from potential earthquakes on the North Anatolian Fault under the Sea of Marmara

    KAUST Repository

    Oglesby, David D.


    Using the 3-D finite-element method, we develop dynamic spontaneous rupture models of earthquakes on the North Anatolian Fault system in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey, considering the geometrical complexity of the fault system in this region. We find that the earthquake size, rupture propagation pattern and ground motion all strongly depend on the interplay between the initial (static) regional pre-stress field and the dynamic stress field radiated by the propagating rupture. By testing several nucleation locations, we observe that those far from an oblique normal fault stepover segment (near Istanbul) lead to large through-going rupture on the entire fault system, whereas nucleation locations closer to the stepover segment tend to produce ruptures that die out in the stepover. However, this pattern can change drastically with only a 10° rotation of the regional stress field. Our simulations also reveal that while dynamic unclamping near fault bends can produce a new mode of supershear rupture propagation, this unclamping has a much smaller effect on the speed of the peak in slip velocity along the fault. Finally, we find that the complex fault geometry leads to a very complex and asymmetric pattern of near-fault ground motion, including greatly amplified ground motion on the insides of fault bends. The ground-motion pattern can change significantly with different hypocentres, even beyond the typical effects of directivity. The results of this study may have implications for seismic hazard in this region, for the dynamics and ground motion of geometrically complex faults, and for the interpretation of kinematic inverse rupture models.

  17. Holocene rupture of the Repongaere Fault, Gisborne : implications for Raukumara Peninsula deformation and impact on the Waipaoa sedimentary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, K.R.; Marden, M.; Palmer, A.; Litchfield, N.J.


    The Repongaere Fault is one of a series of active normal faults within the Raukumara Peninsula, eastern North Island, New Zealand. These faults appear to form in response to rapid uplift of the Raukumara Range and related extensional strain. However, the activity of these normal faults is poorly constrained. This paper presents new mapping of the active surface trace of the Repongaere Fault, c. 18 km northwest of Gisborne, and the results of two paleoseismic trenches. These results are then used to assess the seismic hazard posed by this fault and impacts on the Waipaoa Sedimentary System in which the fault is situated. Active traces can be mapped for c. 4.5 km, but we infer the surface rupture length to be at least 9 km. Tephras within the trenches constrain the timing of the most recent surface rupture event to have occurred during deposition of the Waimihia Tephra (c. 3400 cal. yr BP), and at least one event in the period c. 13 800-C5470 cal. yr BP, with single-event displacements of ≥0.4-1.1 m. From these data a mean dip-slip rate of c. 0.1 mm/yr and a maximum recurrence interval of 4490-6900 yr, can be calculated. If the Repongaere Fault is representative of other Raukumara Peninsula normal faults, then this relatively low rate of activity supports the interpretation that these faults are not contributing significantly to the deformation of the Raukumara Peninsula. The low rate of activity is also consistent with the very localised evidence for landscape impacts, a calculated moderate M w of 6.3-6.7, and the fault's location within the lower part of the Waipaoa River catchment. Together, these observations suggest that Repongaere Fault earthquakes have minimal, localised impact on the Waipaoa Sedimentary System. (author). 64 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Index for simultaneous rupture assessment of active faults. Part 3. Subsurface structure deduced from geophysical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Yasuhira


    Tomographic inversion was carried out in the northern source region of the 1891 Nobi earthquake, the largest inland earthquake (M8.0) in Japan to detect subsurface structure to control simultaneous rupture of active fault system. In the step-over between the two ruptured fault segments in 1891, a remarkable low velocity zone is found between the Nukumi and Ibigawa faults at the depth shallower than 3-5 km. The low velocity zone forms a prism-like body narrowing down in the deeper. Hypocenters below the low velocity zone connecting the two ruptured segments indicate the possibility of their convergence in the seismogenic zone. Northern tip of the Neodani fault locates in the low velocity zone. The results show that fault rupture is easy to propagate in the low velocity zone between two parallel faults. In contrast an E-W cross-structure is found in the seismogenic depth between the Nobi earthquake and the 1948 Fukui earthquake (M7.1) source regions. It runs parallel to the Hida gaien belt, a major geologic structure in the district. P-wave velocity is lower and the hypocenter depths are obviously shallower in north of the cross-structure. Since a few faults lie in E-W direction just above it, a cross-structure zone including the Hida gaien belt might terminate the fault rupture. The results indicate fault rupture is difficult to propagate beyond major cross-structure. The length ratio of cross-structure to fault segment (PL/FL) is proposed to use for simultaneous rupture assessment. Some examples show that fault ruptures perhaps (PL/FL>3-4), maybe (∼1), and probably (<1) cut through such cross-structures. (author)

  19. The Effects of Pre-stress Assumptions on Dynamic Rupture with Complex Fault Geometry in the San Gorgonio Pass, CA Region (United States)

    Kyriakopoulos, C.; Tarnowski, J. M.; Oglesby, D. D.


    We use 3D dynamic finite element models to investigate potential rupture paths of earthquakes propagating along faults in the western San Gorgonio Pass (SGP) region. The SGP is a structurally complex region along the San Andreas fault system (SAF) in southern California. We focus on the San Bernardino strand of the SAF, the San Gorgonio Pass Fault Zone, and a portion of the Garnet Hill strand of the SAF. The San Bernardino and Garnet Hill strands are predominately right-lateral strike-slip faults. Thrust faults dominate the San Gorgonio Pass Fault Zone, with small right-lateral tear faults between the thrust faults. We use the finite element code FaultMod (Barall, 2009) to observe differences in rupture propagation along a meshed fault geometry that reflects most of the surface trace complexity. We test three different types of pre-stress assumptions: 1) constant tractions, 2) regional stress regimes, and 3) long-term stressing rates from quasi-static crustal deformation modeling. Models with constant tractions assume pure right-lateral strike-slip motion on the San Bernardino and Garnet Hill strands and oblique thrust/right-lateral strike-slip motion on the San Gorgonio Pass Fault Zone. Preliminary results from models with constant tractions suggest that the complexity of the fault geometry may inhibit rupture propagation, depending on nucleation location.

  20. Why Did the Fault Rupture of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake Propagate Predominately Northeastwards? (United States)

    Zhu, S.; Yuan, J.


    The rupture processes of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake are much complex. The rupture propagated northeastward a large distance as long as 300 km, but rupture length is short in the southwest direction. Although a great deal of attention has been paid to why the rupture propagated preponderantly northeastward in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the physical mechanism remains unclear. By means of finite element model, in which bimaterial contrast across the Longmen Shan fault is taken into account, nucleation process is initiated at the center of the fault, ruptures then spread out outward spontaneously in both directions. The simulated results show that the different materials between both sides of the fault lead to tensile changes of normal stresses on the fault, which enhance the propagation of the ruptures in northeastward direction. We found that bimaterial mechanism is important for earthquake ruptures, and mode II rupture evolves with propagation distance along a bimaterial interface to a unilateral wrinkle-like Weertman pulse in the direction of slip on the more compliant side of the fault, namely in the positive direction (i.e, the northeast direction in the study). The Weertman pulse can be self-amplified, self-sustained and self-healing, which gives rise to little frictional energy and long propagation distance. This may be the reason why the Wenchuan earthquake is a unilateral fault rupture and a high seismic magnitude. In addition, the modelling results suggest that the rupture distance is much smaller if the material in the model is homogeneous, in which no huge earthquakes can occur like the 2008 Wenchan event. This research was jointly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41574041), Beijing Natural Science Foundation (8152034), and by Basic Research Project (ZDJ2017-08).

  1. Methodology for earthquake rupture rate estimates of fault networks: example for the western Corinth rift, Greece (United States)

    Chartier, Thomas; Scotti, Oona; Lyon-Caen, Hélène; Boiselet, Aurélien


    Modeling the seismic potential of active faults is a fundamental step of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA). An accurate estimation of the rate of earthquakes on the faults is necessary in order to obtain the probability of exceedance of a given ground motion. Most PSHA studies consider faults as independent structures and neglect the possibility of multiple faults or fault segments rupturing simultaneously (fault-to-fault, FtF, ruptures). The Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast version 3 (UCERF-3) model takes into account this possibility by considering a system-level approach rather than an individual-fault-level approach using the geological, seismological and geodetical information to invert the earthquake rates. In many places of the world seismological and geodetical information along fault networks is often not well constrained. There is therefore a need to propose a methodology relying on geological information alone to compute earthquake rates of the faults in the network. In the proposed methodology, a simple distance criteria is used to define FtF ruptures and consider single faults or FtF ruptures as an aleatory uncertainty, similarly to UCERF-3. Rates of earthquakes on faults are then computed following two constraints: the magnitude frequency distribution (MFD) of earthquakes in the fault system as a whole must follow an a priori chosen shape and the rate of earthquakes on each fault is determined by the specific slip rate of each segment depending on the possible FtF ruptures. The modeled earthquake rates are then compared to the available independent data (geodetical, seismological and paleoseismological data) in order to weight different hypothesis explored in a logic tree.The methodology is tested on the western Corinth rift (WCR), Greece, where recent advancements have been made in the understanding of the geological slip rates of the complex network of normal faults which are accommodating the ˜ 15 mm yr-1 north

  2. Modeling the dynamic rupture propagation on heterogeneous faults with rate- and state-dependent friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cocco


    Full Text Available We investigate the effects of non-uniform distribution of constitutive parameters on the dynamic propagation of an earthquake rupture. We use a 2D finite difference numerical method and we assume that the dynamic rupture propagation is governed by a rate- and state-dependent constitutive law. We first discuss the results of several numerical experiments performed with different values of the constitutive parameters a (to account for the direct effect of friction, b (controlling the friction evolution and L (the characteristic length-scale parameter to simulate the dynamic rupture propagation on homogeneous faults. Spontaneous dynamic ruptures can be simulated on velocity weakening (a < b fault patches: our results point out the dependence of the traction and slip velocity evolution on the adopted constitutive parameters. We therefore model the dynamic rupture propagation on heterogeneous faults. We use in this study the characterization of different frictional regimes proposed by Boatwright and Cocco (1996 based on different values of the constitutive parameters a, b and L. Our numerical simulations show that the heterogeneities of the L parameter affect the dynamic rupture propagation, control the peak slip velocity and weakly modify the dynamic stress drop and the rupture velocity. Moreover, a barrier can be simulated through a large contrast of L parameter. The heterogeneity of a and b parameters affects the dynamic rupture propagation in a more complex way. A velocity strengthening area (a > b can arrest a dynamic rupture, but can be driven to an instability if suddenly loaded by the dynamic rupture front. Our simulations provide a picture of the complex interactions between fault patches having different frictional properties and illustrate how the traction and slip velocity evolutions are modified during the propagation on heterogeneous faults. These results involve interesting implications for slip duration and fracture

  3. A case for historic joint rupture of the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults. (United States)

    Lozos, Julian C


    The San Andreas fault is considered to be the primary plate boundary fault in southern California and the most likely fault to produce a major earthquake. I use dynamic rupture modeling to show that the San Jacinto fault is capable of rupturing along with the San Andreas in a single earthquake, and interpret these results along with existing paleoseismic data and historic damage reports to suggest that this has likely occurred in the historic past. In particular, I find that paleoseismic data and historic observations for the ~M7.5 earthquake of 8 December 1812 are best explained by a rupture that begins on the San Jacinto fault and propagates onto the San Andreas fault. This precedent carries the implications that similar joint ruptures are possible in the future and that the San Jacinto fault plays a more significant role in seismic hazard in southern California than previously considered. My work also shows how physics-based modeling can be used for interpreting paleoseismic data sets and understanding prehistoric fault behavior.

  4. A case for historic joint rupture of the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults (United States)

    Lozos, Julian C.


    The San Andreas fault is considered to be the primary plate boundary fault in southern California and the most likely fault to produce a major earthquake. I use dynamic rupture modeling to show that the San Jacinto fault is capable of rupturing along with the San Andreas in a single earthquake, and interpret these results along with existing paleoseismic data and historic damage reports to suggest that this has likely occurred in the historic past. In particular, I find that paleoseismic data and historic observations for the ~M7.5 earthquake of 8 December 1812 are best explained by a rupture that begins on the San Jacinto fault and propagates onto the San Andreas fault. This precedent carries the implications that similar joint ruptures are possible in the future and that the San Jacinto fault plays a more significant role in seismic hazard in southern California than previously considered. My work also shows how physics-based modeling can be used for interpreting paleoseismic data sets and understanding prehistoric fault behavior. PMID:27034977

  5. Rupture Complexity Promoted by Damaged Fault Zones in Earthquake Cycle Models (United States)

    Idini, B.; Ampuero, J. P.


    Pulse-like ruptures tend to be more sensitive to stress heterogeneity than crack-like ones. For instance, a stress-barrier can more easily stop the propagation of a pulse than that of a crack. While crack-like ruptures tend to homogenize the stress field within their rupture area, pulse-like ruptures develop heterogeneous stress fields. This feature of pulse-like ruptures can potentially lead to complex seismicity with a wide range of magnitudes akin to the Gutenberg-Richter law. Previous models required a friction law with severe velocity-weakening to develop pulses and complex seismicity. Recent dynamic rupture simulations show that the presence of a damaged zone around a fault can induce pulse-like rupture, even under a simple slip-weakening friction law, although the mechanism depends strongly on initial stress conditions. Here we aim at testing if fault zone damage is a sufficient ingredient to generate complex seismicity. In particular, we investigate the effects of damaged fault zones on the emergence and sustainability of pulse-like ruptures throughout multiple earthquake cycles, regardless of initial conditions. We consider a fault bisecting a homogeneous low-rigidity layer (the damaged zone) embedded in an intact medium. We conduct a series of earthquake cycle simulations to investigate the effects of two fault zone properties: damage level D and thickness H. The simulations are based on classical rate-and-state friction, the quasi-dynamic approximation and the software QDYN ( Selected fully-dynamic simulations are also performed with a spectral element method. Our numerical results show the development of complex rupture patterns in some damaged fault configurations, including events of different sizes, as well as pulse-like, multi-pulse and hybrid pulse-crack ruptures. We further apply elasto-static theory to assess how D and H affect ruptures with constant stress drop, in particular the flatness of their slip profile

  6. Surface Rupture Effects on Earthquake Moment-Area Scaling Relations (United States)

    Luo, Yingdi; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Miyakoshi, Ken; Irikura, Kojiro


    Empirical earthquake scaling relations play a central role in fundamental studies of earthquake physics and in current practice of earthquake hazard assessment, and are being refined by advances in earthquake source analysis. A scaling relation between seismic moment ( M 0) and rupture area ( A) currently in use for ground motion prediction in Japan features a transition regime of the form M 0- A 2, between the well-recognized small (self-similar) and very large (W-model) earthquake regimes, which has counter-intuitive attributes and uncertain theoretical underpinnings. Here, we investigate the mechanical origin of this transition regime via earthquake cycle simulations, analytical dislocation models and numerical crack models on strike-slip faults. We find that, even if stress drop is assumed constant, the properties of the transition regime are controlled by surface rupture effects, comprising an effective rupture elongation along-dip due to a mirror effect and systematic changes of the shape factor relating slip to stress drop. Based on this physical insight, we propose a simplified formula to account for these effects in M 0- A scaling relations for strike-slip earthquakes.

  7. Analysis of fault rupture potential resulting from large-scale groundwater withdrawal: application to Spring Valley, Nevada (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Schumer, R.; McCoy, S. W.; Hammond, W. C.


    Hydrospheric mass changes create subsurface stress perturbations on a scale that can trigger seismic events or accelerate frequency of seismicity on proximal faults. For example, groundwater pumping has been implicated in the 2011 Mw 5.1 earthquake in Lorca, Spain and the 2010 Mw 7.1 El-Mayor Cucapah earthquake in northern Baja California. Previous work on effects of pumping on seismicity is retrospective. We propose a method to assess changes in rupture potential on faults near areas of large-scale groundwater withdrawal ahead before pumping begins. Changes in potentiometric head due to pumping predicted by (MODFLOW) groundwater flow models can be used as the change in surface load input for analytical solutions from Boussinesq [1885] to resolve changes in the subsurface state of stress. Coulomb stress, which quantifies a fault's tendency toward failure, is then resolved on proximal faults. These stress changes can be compared with a 10 kPa stress threshold developed in previous work from statistical correlation of aftershock occurrence with spatial patterns of post-seismic Coulomb stress change on surrounding faults. Stress changes on critical to near-critically stressed faults above the threshold represent a higher likelihood of seismic rupture. The method is applied to a proposed groundwater development project in Spring Valley, Nevada. Proposed pumping in excess of 50 years will result in stress change on the proximal normal fault exceeding the 10 kPa threshold. This change in Coulomb stress is in the realm of earthquake-inducing pumping. However, the low seismic hazard in the region determined from geodetic and paleo-seismic analysis does not suggest imminent rupture.

  8. Characterization of the Fault Core and Damage Zone of the Borrego Fault, 2010 M7.2 Rupture (United States)

    Dorsey, M. T.; Rockwell, T. K.; Girty, G.; Ostermeijer, G.; Mitchell, T. M.; Fletcher, J. M.


    We collected a continuous sample of the fault core and 23 samples of the damage zone out to 52 m across the rupture trace of the 2010 M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapa earthquake to characterize the physical damage and chemical transformations associated with this active seismic source. In addition to quantifying fracture intensity from macroscopic analysis, we cut a continuous thin section through the fault core and from various samples in the damage zone, and ran each sample for XRD analyses for clay mineralogy, XRF for bulk geochemical analyses, and bulk and grain density from which porosity and volumetric strain were derived. The parent rock is a hydrothermally-altered biotite tonalite, with biotite partially altered to chlorite. The presence of epidote with chlorite suggests that these rocks were subjected to relatively high temperatures of 300-400° C. Adjacent to the outermost damage zone is a chaotic breccia zone with distinct chemical and physical characteristics, indicating possible connection to an ancestral fault to the southwest. The damage zone consists of an outer zone of protocataclasite, which grades inward towards mesocataclasite with seams of ultracataclasite. The fault core is anomalous in that it is largely composed of a sliver of marble that has been translated along the fault, so direct comparison with the damage zone is impaired. From collected data, we observe that chloritization increases into the breccia and damage zones, as does the presence of illite. Porosity reaches maximum values in the damage zone adjacent to the core, and closely follows trends in fracture intensity. Statistically significant gains in Mg, Na, K, Mn, and total bulk mass occurred within the inner damage zone, with losses of Ca and P mass, which led to the formation of chlorite and albite. The outer damage zone displays gains in Mg and Na mass with losses in Ca and P mass. The breccia zone shows gains in mass of Mg and Mn and loss in total bulk mass. A gain in LOI in both the

  9. A multiple fault rupture model of the November 13 2016, M 7.8 Kaikoura earthquake, New Zealand (United States)

    Benites, R. A.; Francois-Holden, C.; Langridge, R. M.; Kaneko, Y.; Fry, B.; Kaiser, A. E.; Caldwell, T. G.


    The rupture-history of the November 13 2016 MW7.8 Kaikoura earthquake recorded by near- and intermediate-field strong-motion seismometers and 2 high-rate GPS stations reveals a complex cascade of multiple crustal fault rupture. In spite of such complexity, we show that the rupture history of each fault is well approximated by simple kinematic model with uniform slip and rupture velocity. Using 9 faults embedded in a crustal layer 19 km thick, each with a prescribed slip vector and rupture velocity, this model accurately reproduces the displacement waveforms recorded at the near-field strong-motion and GPS stations. This model includes the `Papatea Fault' with a mixed thrust and strike-slip mechanism based on in-situ geological observations with up to 8 m of uplift observed. Although the kinematic model fits the ground-motion at the nearest strong station, it doesn not reproduce the one sided nature of the static deformation field observed geodetically. This suggests a dislocation based approach does not completely capture the mechanical response of the Papatea Fault. The fault system as a whole extends for approximately 150 km along the eastern side of the Marlborough fault system in the South Island of New Zealand. The total duration of the rupture was 74 seconds. The timing and location of each fault's rupture suggests fault interaction and triggering resulting in a northward cascade crustal ruptures. Our model does not require rupture of the underlying subduction interface to explain the data.

  10. Surface faulting during the August 24, 2016, central Italy earthquake (Mw 6.0: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz A. Livio


    Full Text Available We present some preliminary results on the mapping of coseismically-induced ground ruptures following the Aug. 24, 2016, Central Italy earthquake (Mw 6.0. The seismogenic source, as highlighted by InSAR and seismological data, ruptured across two adjacent structures: the Vettore and Laga faults. We collected field data on ground breaks along the whole deformed area and two different scenarios of on-fault coseismic displacement arise from these observations. To the north, along the Vettore fault, surface faulting can be mapped quite continuously along a well-defined fault strand while such features are almost absent to the south, along the Laga fault, where flysch-like marly units are present. A major lithological control, affects the surface expression of faulting, resulting in a complex deformation pattern.

  11. Structural features and seismotectonic implications of coseismic surface ruptures produced by the 2016 M w 7.1 Kumamoto earthquake (United States)

    Lin, Aiming


    Field investigations and analyses of satellite images and aerial photographs reveal that the 2016 M w 7.1 (Mj 7.3) Kumamoto earthquake produced a ˜40-km surface rupture zone striking NE-SW on central Kyushu Island, Japan. Coseismic surface ruptures were characterized by shear faults, extensional cracks, and mole tracks, which mostly occurred along the pre-existing NE-SW-striking Hinagu-Futagawa fault zone in the southwest and central segments, and newly identified faults in the northeast segment. This study shows that (i) the Hinagu-Futagawa fault zone triggered the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake and controlled the spatial distribution of coseismic surface ruptures; (ii) the southwest and central segments were dominated by right-lateral strike-slip movement with a maximum in-site measured displacement of up to 2.5 m, accompanied by a minor vertical component. In contrast, the northeast segment was dominated by normal faulting with a maximum vertical offset of up to 1.75 m with a minor horizontal component that formed graben structures inside Aso caldera; (iii) coseismic rupturing initiated at the jog area between the Hinagu and Futagawa faults, then propagated northeastward into Aso caldera, where it terminated. The 2016 M w 7.1 Kumamoto earthquake therefore offers a rare opportunity to study the relationships between coseismic rupture processes and pre-existing active faults, as well as the seismotectonics of Aso volcano.

  12. Dynamic rupture simulation of the 2017 Mw 7.8 Kaikoura (New Zealand) earthquake: Is spontaneous multi-fault rupture expected? (United States)

    Ando, R.; Kaneko, Y.


    The coseismic rupture of the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake propagated over the distance of 150 km along the NE-SW striking fault system in the northern South Island of New Zealand. The analysis of In-SAR, GPS and field observations (Hamling et al., 2017) revealed that the most of the rupture occurred along the previously mapped active faults, involving more than seven major fault segments. These fault segments, mostly dipping to northwest, are distributed in a quite complex manner, manifested by fault branching and step-over structures. Back-projection rupture imaging shows that the rupture appears to jump between three sub-parallel fault segments in sequence from the south to north (Kaiser et al., 2017). The rupture seems to be terminated on the Needles fault in Cook Strait. One of the main questions is whether this multi-fault rupture can be naturally explained with the physical basis. In order to understand the conditions responsible for the complex rupture process, we conduct fully dynamic rupture simulations that account for 3-D non-planar fault geometry embedded in an elastic half-space. The fault geometry is constrained by previous In-SAR observations and geological inferences. The regional stress field is constrained by the result of stress tensor inversion based on focal mechanisms (Balfour et al., 2005). The fault is governed by a relatively simple, slip-weakening friction law. For simplicity, the frictional parameters are uniformly distributed as there is no direct estimate of them except for a shallow portion of the Kekerengu fault (Kaneko et al., 2017). Our simulations show that the rupture can indeed propagate through the complex fault system once it is nucleated at the southernmost segment. The simulated slip distribution is quite heterogeneous, reflecting the nature of non-planar fault geometry, fault branching and step-over structures. We find that optimally oriented faults exhibit larger slip, which is consistent with the slip model of Hamling et al

  13. Rupture evolution of the 2006 Java tsunami earthquake and the possible role of splay faults (United States)

    Fan, Wenyuan; Bassett, Dan; Jiang, Junle; Shearer, Peter M.; Ji, Chen


    The 2006 Mw 7.8 Java earthquake was a tsunami earthquake, exhibiting frequency-dependent seismic radiation along strike. High-frequency global back-projection results suggest two distinct rupture stages. The first stage lasted ∼65 s with a rupture speed of ∼1.2 km/s, while the second stage lasted from ∼65 to 150 s with a rupture speed of ∼2.7 km/s. High-frequency radiators resolved with back-projection during the second stage spatially correlate with splay fault traces mapped from residual free-air gravity anomalies. These splay faults also colocate with a major tsunami source associated with the earthquake inferred from tsunami first-crest back-propagation simulation. These correlations suggest that the splay faults may have been reactivated during the Java earthquake, as has been proposed for other tsunamigenic earthquakes, such as the 1944 Mw 8.1 Tonankai earthquake in the Nankai Trough.

  14. Three-dimensional dynamic rupture simulations across interacting faults: The Mw7.0, 2010, Haiti earthquake (United States)

    Douilly, R.; Aochi, H.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.


    The mechanisms controlling rupture propagation between fault segments during a large earthquake are key to the hazard posed by fault systems. Rupture initiation on a smaller fault sometimes transfers to a larger fault, resulting in a significant event (e.g., 2002 M7.9 Denali USA and 2010 M7.1 Darfield New Zealand earthquakes). In other cases rupture is constrained to the initial fault and does not transfer to nearby faults, resulting in events of more moderate magnitude. This was the case of the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta and 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquakes which initiated on reverse faults abutting against a major strike-slip plate boundary fault but did not propagate onto it. Here we investigate the rupture dynamics of the Haiti earthquake, seeking to understand why rupture propagated across two segments of the Léogâne fault but did not propagate to the adjacent Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault, the major 200 km long plate boundary fault cutting through southern Haiti. We use a finite element model to simulate propagation of rupture on the Léogâne fault, varying friction and background stress to determine the parameter set that best explains the observed earthquake sequence, in particular, the ground displacement. The two slip patches inferred from finite fault inversions are explained by the successive rupture of two fault segments oriented favorably with respect to the rupture propagation, while the geometry of the Enriquillo fault did not allow shear stress to reach failure.

  15. Rupture Propagation through the Big Bend of the San Andreas Fault: A Dynamic Modeling Case Study of the Great Earthquake of 1857 (United States)

    Lozos, J.


    The great San Andreas Fault (SAF) earthquake of 9 January 1857, estimated at M7.9, was one of California's largest historic earthquakes. Its 360 km rupture trace follows the Carrizo and Mojave segments of the SAF, including the 30° compressional Big Bend in the fault. If 1857 were a characteristic rupture, the hazard implications for southern California would be dire, especially given the inferred 150 year recurrence interval for this section of the fault. However, recent paleoseismic studies in this region suggest that 1857-type events occur less frequently than single-segment Carrizo or Mojave ruptures, and that the hinge of the Big Bend is a barrier to through-going rupture. Here, I use 3D dynamic rupture modeling to attempt to reproduce the rupture length and surface slip distribution of the 1857 earthquake, to determine which physical conditions allow rupture to negotiate the Big Bend of the SAF. These models incorporate the nonplanar geometry of the SAF, an observation-based heterogeneous regional velocity structure (SCEC CVM), and a regional stress field from seismicity literature. Under regional stress conditions, I am unable to produce model events that both match the observed surface slip on the Carrizo and Mojave segments of the SAF and include rupture through the hinge of the Big Bend. I suggest that accumulated stresses at the bend hinge from multiple smaller Carrizo or Mojave ruptures may be required to allow rupture through the bend — a concept consistent with paleoseismic observations. This study may contribute to understanding the cyclicity of hazard associated with the southern-central SAF.

  16. Implications for San Andreas Fault Ruptures Based on New Evidence from the Cabazon, CA Paleoseismic Site, San Gorgonio Pass Fault Zone (United States)

    Scharer, K. M.; Yule, D.; Humbert, L. R.; Witkowsky, R.


    The 10-km section of the San Gorgonio Pass fault zone (SGPFZ) between the Banning and San Bernardino strands of the San Andreas fault is composed of roughly orthogonal, alternating strike slip and thrust fault sections. In order to investigate whether the complexity of the fault system is a barrier to thoroughgoing ruptures and consequently a limit on earthquake magnitude, we excavated a mega-trench across a compressional section of the SGPFZ approximately 2 km northeast of Cabazon, CA. The mega-trench was located at the base of the San Bernardino Mountains and exposed Pleistocene Cabazon Formation in the hanging wall block, thrust over Holocene alluvial units. Sediments in the 9-m-deep trench consisted of boulder to cobble debris flow deposits and silty sand fluvial sequences, which buried and were interbedded with incipient soil horizons. We present evidence for five earthquakes in the mega-trench, determined by several generations of fault scarps buried by progressively younger sediments. Vertical separation for each event was small, on the order of 30 to 60 cm at the paleo-ground surfaces. Preliminary radiocarbon dating of charcoal collected from the deformed sediments constrains the five observed events to the past ~6000 years and the most recent event to ca. 500-700 years ago; additional dates are pending that will enable us to determine the age of each earthquake. Based on the existing age control, the average earthquake recurrence interval for the SGPFZ is ~1400 years, seven times longer than the average interval for neighboring sections on the southern San Andreas fault. If the earthquakes recorded at the Cabazon site record great San Andreas fault ruptures like those modeled in the 2008 ShakeOut Scenario, much of the vertical slip must occur within the bedrock in the hanging wall or in blind faults in the alluvium below the site. Alternatively, these earthquakes may represent more local, M6-M7 events that rupture the San Gorgonio Pass and possibly

  17. Source properties of dynamic rupture pulses with off-fault plasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Gabriel, A.-A.


    Large dynamic stresses near earthquake rupture fronts may induce an inelastic response of the surrounding materials, leading to increased energy absorption that may affect dynamic rupture. We systematically investigate the effects of off-fault plastic energy dissipation in 2-D in-plane dynamic rupture simulations under velocity-and-state-dependent friction with severe weakening at high slip velocity. We find that plasticity does not alter the nature of the transitions between different rupture styles (decaying versus growing, pulse-like versus crack-like, and subshear versus supershear ruptures) but increases their required background stress and nucleation size. We systematically quantify the effect of amplitude and orientation of background shear stresses on the asymptotic properties of self-similar pulse-like ruptures: peak slip rate, rupture speed, healing front speed, slip gradient, and the relative contribution of plastic strain to seismic moment. Peak slip velocity and rupture speed remain bounded. From fracture mechanics arguments, we derive a nonlinear relation between their limiting values, appropriate also for crack-like and supershear ruptures. At low background stress, plasticity turns self-similar pulses into steady state pulses, for which plastic strain contributes significantly to the seismic moment. We find that the closeness to failure of the background stress state is an adequate predictor of rupture speed for relatively slow events. Our proposed relations between state of stress and earthquake source properties in the presence of off-fault plasticity may contribute to the improved interpretation of earthquake observations and to pseudodynamic source modeling for ground motion prediction.

  18. Fan-head shear rupture mechanism as a source of off-fault tensile cracking (United States)

    Tarasov, Boris


    This presentation discusses the role of a recently identified fan-head shear rupture mechanism [1] in the creation of off-fault tensile cracks observed in earthquake laboratory experiments conducted on brittle photoelastic specimens [2,3]. According to the fan-mechanism the shear rupture propagation is associated with consecutive creation of small slabs in the fracture tip which, due to rotation caused by shear displacement of the fracture interfaces, form a fan-structure representing the fracture head. The fan-head combines such unique features as: extremely low shear resistance (below the frictional strength) and self-sustaining tensile stress intensification along one side of the interface. The variation of tensile stress within the fan-head zone is like this: it increases with distance from the fracture tip up to a maximum value and then decreases. For the initial formation of the fan-head high local stresses corresponding to the fracture strength should be applied in a small area, however after completions of the fan-head it can propagate dynamically through the material at low shear stresses (even below the frictional strength). The fan-mechanism allows explaining all unique features associated with the off-fault cracking process observed in photoelastic experiments [2,3]. In these experiments spontaneous shear ruptures were nucleated in a bonded, precut, inclined and pre-stressed interface by producing a local pressure pulse in a small area. Isochromatic fringe patterns around a shear rupture propagating along bonded interface indicate the following features of the off-fault tensile crack development: tensile cracks nucleate and grow periodically along one side of the interface at a roughly constant angle (about 80 degrees) relative to the shear rupture interface; the tensile crack nucleation takes place some distance behind the rupture tip; with distance from the point of nucleation tensile cracks grow up to a certain length within the rupture head zone

  19. Dynamic fracture network around faults: implications for earthquake ruptures, ground motion and energy budget (United States)

    Okubo, K.; Bhat, H. S.; Rougier, E.; Lei, Z.; Knight, E. E.; Klinger, Y.


    Numerous studies have suggested that spontaneous earthquake ruptures can dynamically induce failure in secondary fracture network, regarded as damage zone around faults. The feedbacks of such fracture network play a crucial role in earthquake rupture, its radiated wave field and the total energy budget. A novel numerical modeling tool based on the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM), which accounts for the main rupture propagation and nucleation/propagation of secondary cracks, was used to quantify the evolution of the fracture network and evaluate its effects on the main rupture and its associated radiation. The simulations were performed with the FDEM-based software tool, Hybrid Optimization Software Suite (HOSSedu) developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. We first modeled an earthquake rupture on a planar strike-slip fault surrounded by a brittle medium where secondary cracks can be nucleated/activated by the earthquake rupture. We show that the secondary cracks are dynamically generated dominantly on the extensional side of the fault, mainly behind the rupture front, and it forms an intricate network of fractures in the damage zone. The rupture velocity thereby significantly decreases, by 10 to 20 percent, while the supershear transition length increases in comparison to the one with purely elastic medium. It is also observed that the high-frequency component (10 to 100 Hz) of the near-field ground acceleration is enhanced by the dynamically activated fracture network, consistent with field observations. We then conducted the case study in depth with various sets of initial stress state, and friction properties, to investigate the evolution of damage zone. We show that the width of damage zone decreases in depth, forming "flower-like" structure as the characteristic slip distance in linear slip-weakening law, or the fracture energy on the fault, is kept constant with depth. Finally, we compared the fracture energy on the fault to the energy

  20. Dynamic Models of Earthquake Rupture along branch faults of the Eastern San Gorgonio Pass Region in CA using Complex Fault Structure (United States)

    Douilly, R.; Oglesby, D. D.; Cooke, M. L.; Beyer, J. L.


    Compilation of geomorphic and paleoseismic data have illustrated that the right-lateral Coachella segment of the southern San Andreas Fault is past its average recurrence time period. On its western edge, this fault segment is split into two branches: the Mission Creek strand, and the Banning fault strand, of the San Andreas. Depending on how rupture propagates through this region, there is the possibility of a through-going rupture that could lead to the channeling of damaging seismic energy into the Los Angeles Basin. The fault structures and rupture scenarios on these two strands are potentially very different, so it is important to determine which strand is a more likely rupture path, and under which circumstances rupture will take either one. In this study, we focus on the effect of different assumptions about fault geometry and stress pattern on the rupture process to test those scenarios and thus investigate the most likely path of a rupture that starts on the Coachella segment. We consider two types of fault geometry based on the SCEC Community Fault Model and create a 3D finite element mesh. These two meshes are then incorporated into the finite element method code FaultMod to compute a physical model for the rupture dynamics. We use the slip-weakening friction law, and we consider different assumptions of background stress such as constant tractions, regional stress regimes of different orientations, heterogeneous off-fault stresses and the results of long-term stressing rates from quasi-static crustal deformation models that consider time since last event on each fault segment. Both the constant and regional stress distribution show that it is more likely for the rupture to branch from the Coachella segment to the Mission Creek compared to the Banning fault segment. For the regional stress distribution, we encounter cases of super-shear rupture for one type of fault geometry and sub-shear rupture for the other one. The fault connectivity at this branch

  1. Large-displacement, hydrothermal frictional properties of DFDP-1 fault rocks, Alpine Fault, New Zealand: Implications for deep rupture propagation. (United States)

    Niemeijer, A R; Boulton, C; Toy, V G; Townend, J; Sutherland, R


    The Alpine Fault, New Zealand, is a major plate-bounding fault that accommodates 65-75% of the total relative motion between the Australian and Pacific plates. Here we present data on the hydrothermal frictional properties of Alpine Fault rocks that surround the principal slip zones (PSZ) of the Alpine Fault and those comprising the PSZ itself. The samples were retrieved from relatively shallow depths during phase 1 of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-1) at Gaunt Creek. Simulated fault gouges were sheared at temperatures of 25, 150, 300, 450, and 600°C in order to determine the friction coefficient as well as the velocity dependence of friction. Friction remains more or less constant with changes in temperature, but a transition from velocity-strengthening behavior to velocity-weakening behavior occurs at a temperature of T  = 150°C. The transition depends on the absolute value of sliding velocity as well as temperature, with the velocity-weakening region restricted to higher velocity for higher temperatures. Friction was substantially lower for low-velocity shearing ( V  Fault rocks at higher temperatures may pose a barrier for rupture propagation to deeper levels, limiting the possible depth extent of large earthquakes. Our results highlight the importance of strain rate in controlling frictional behavior under conditions spanning the classical brittle-plastic transition for quartzofeldspathic compositions.

  2. Transpressional rupture of an unmapped fault during the 2010 Haiti earthquake

    KAUST Repository

    Calais, Éric


    On 12 January 2010, a Mw7.0 earthquake struck the Port-au-Prince region of Haiti. The disaster killed more than 200,000 people and caused an estimated $8 billion in damages, about 100% of the country?s gross domestic product. The earthquake was initially thought to have ruptured the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault of the southern peninsula of Haiti, which is one of two main strike-slip faults inferred to accommodate the 2cmyr -1 relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates. Here we use global positioning system and radar interferometry measurements of ground motion to show that the earthquake involved a combination of horizontal and contractional slip, causing transpressional motion. This result is consistent with the long-term pattern of strain accumulation in Hispaniola. The unexpected contractional deformation caused by the earthquake and by the pattern of strain accumulation indicates present activity on faults other than the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault. We show that the earthquake instead ruptured an unmapped north-dipping fault, called the Léogâne fault. The Léogâne fault lies subparallel tog-but is different fromg-the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault. We suggest that the 2010 earthquake may have activated the southernmost front of the Haitian fold-and-thrust belt as it abuts against the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault. As the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault did not release any significant accumulated elastic strain, it remains a significant seismic threat for Haiti and for Port-au-Prince in particular. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  3. Eastern Denali Fault surface trace map, eastern Alaska and Yukon, Canada (United States)

    Bender, Adrian M.; Haeussler, Peter J.


    We map the 385-kilometer (km) long surface trace of the right-lateral, strike-slip Denali Fault between the Totschunda-Denali Fault intersection in Alaska, United States and the village of Haines Junction, Yukon, Canada. In Alaska, digital elevation models based on light detection and ranging and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data enabled our fault mapping at scales of 1:2,000 and 1:10,000, respectively. Lacking such resources in Yukon, we developed new structure-from-motion digital photogrammetry products from legacy aerial photos to map the fault surface trace at a scale of 1:10,000 east of the international border. The section of the fault that we map, referred to as the Eastern Denali Fault, did not rupture during the 2002 Denali Fault earthquake (moment magnitude 7.9). Seismologic, geodetic, and geomorphic evidence, along with a paleoseismic record of past ground-rupturing earthquakes, demonstrate Holocene and contemporary activity on the fault, however. This map of the Eastern Denali Fault surface trace complements other data sets by providing an openly accessible digital interpretation of the location, length, and continuity of the fault’s surface trace based on the accompanying digital topography dataset. Additionally, the digitized fault trace may provide geometric constraints useful for modeling earthquake scenarios and related seismic hazard.

  4. Ruptures of the San Andreas fault system in San Gorgonio Pass (United States)

    Yule, D.; Sieh, K. E.


    Fault behavior models for the San Andreas fault system in San Gorgonio Pass hinge upon contrasting interpretations of the structural complexity and diffuse seismicity in the Pass region. One model maintains that the fault system can rupture through the Pass in ~ M 7.8 earthquakes that extend from the Salton Sea to the Mojave Desert. Another model argues that the structural complexity here arrests San Andreas ruptures as they approach from either side of the Pass and limits their size to ~ M 7.5. One way to test these models is to examine the paleoseismic record of active faults in the Pass. Work at the Burro Flats site, located where the San Bernardino strand feeds into San Gorgonio Pass from the north, reveals evidence for at least nine earthquakes in the last 2000 yrs. The average earthquake recurrence is about 200 yrs with the maximum and minimum intervals between earthquakes equal to about 550 and 80 yrs, respectively. The average recurrence is considered to be a maximum value because a hiatus in sedimentation during the Early Middle Ages may ‘hide’ one or more event during this time period. The maximum recurrence interval of 550 yrs is likely an overestimate owing to the large errors in the timing of one event ~1300 yrs ago. In general, the Burro Flats event record and average recurrence is very similar to those at sites in the San Bernardino and Coachella Valley regions. The most recent rupture at Burro Flats cuts strata that contain European-introduced pollen and is interpreted to record the southeastern extent of the 1812 Wrightwood earthquake, a possible example of a ‘Pass-as-a-barrier’, moderate-sized event. The timing of pre-1812 events at Burro Flats correlate with the timing of San Andreas events in the San Bernardino and Coachella Valley regions, possible examples of through going, larger-sized earthquakes. Work at the Cabezon site, located on a thrust segment of the San Gorgonio Pass fault zone, shows evidence for two ruptures since ~ AD 1300

  5. Large-displacement, hydrothermal frictional properties of DFDP-1 fault rocks, Alpine Fault, New Zealand: Implications for deep rupture propagation (United States)

    Niemeijer, A. R.; Boulton, C.; Toy, V. G.; Townend, J.; Sutherland, R.


    The Alpine Fault, New Zealand, is a major plate-bounding fault that accommodates 65-75% of the total relative motion between the Australian and Pacific plates. Here we present data on the hydrothermal frictional properties of Alpine Fault rocks that surround the principal slip zones (PSZ) of the Alpine Fault and those comprising the PSZ itself. The samples were retrieved from relatively shallow depths during phase 1 of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-1) at Gaunt Creek. Simulated fault gouges were sheared at temperatures of 25, 150, 300, 450, and 600°C in order to determine the friction coefficient as well as the velocity dependence of friction. Friction remains more or less constant with changes in temperature, but a transition from velocity-strengthening behavior to velocity-weakening behavior occurs at a temperature of T = 150°C. The transition depends on the absolute value of sliding velocity as well as temperature, with the velocity-weakening region restricted to higher velocity for higher temperatures. Friction was substantially lower for low-velocity shearing (V rate-and-state friction, earthquake nucleation is most likely at an intermediate temperature of T = 300°C. The velocity-strengthening nature of the Alpine Fault rocks at higher temperatures may pose a barrier for rupture propagation to deeper levels, limiting the possible depth extent of large earthquakes. Our results highlight the importance of strain rate in controlling frictional behavior under conditions spanning the classical brittle-plastic transition for quartzofeldspathic compositions.

  6. Large‐displacement, hydrothermal frictional properties of DFDP‐1 fault rocks, Alpine Fault, New Zealand: Implications for deep rupture propagation (United States)

    Boulton, C.; Toy, V. G.; Townend, J.; Sutherland, R.


    Abstract The Alpine Fault, New Zealand, is a major plate‐bounding fault that accommodates 65–75% of the total relative motion between the Australian and Pacific plates. Here we present data on the hydrothermal frictional properties of Alpine Fault rocks that surround the principal slip zones (PSZ) of the Alpine Fault and those comprising the PSZ itself. The samples were retrieved from relatively shallow depths during phase 1 of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP‐1) at Gaunt Creek. Simulated fault gouges were sheared at temperatures of 25, 150, 300, 450, and 600°C in order to determine the friction coefficient as well as the velocity dependence of friction. Friction remains more or less constant with changes in temperature, but a transition from velocity‐strengthening behavior to velocity‐weakening behavior occurs at a temperature of T = 150°C. The transition depends on the absolute value of sliding velocity as well as temperature, with the velocity‐weakening region restricted to higher velocity for higher temperatures. Friction was substantially lower for low‐velocity shearing (V < 0.3 µm/s) at 600°C, but no transition to normal stress independence was observed. In the framework of rate‐and‐state friction, earthquake nucleation is most likely at an intermediate temperature of T = 300°C. The velocity‐strengthening nature of the Alpine Fault rocks at higher temperatures may pose a barrier for rupture propagation to deeper levels, limiting the possible depth extent of large earthquakes. Our results highlight the importance of strain rate in controlling frictional behavior under conditions spanning the classical brittle‐plastic transition for quartzofeldspathic compositions. PMID:27610290

  7. A preliminary study on surface ground deformation near shallow foundation induced by strike-slip faulting (United States)

    Wong, Pei-Syuan; Lin, Ming-Lang


    According to investigation of recent earthquakes, ground deformation and surface rupture are used to map the influenced range of the active fault. The zones of horizontal and vertical surface displacements and different features of surface rupture are investigated in the field, for example, the Greendale Fault 2010, MW 7.1 Canterbury earthquake. The buildings near the fault rotated and displaced vertically and horizontally due to the ground deformation. Besides, the propagation of fault trace detoured them because of the higher rigidity. Consequently, it's necessary to explore the ground deformation and mechanism of the foundation induced by strike-slip faulting for the safety issue. Based on previous study from scaled analogue model of strike-slip faulting, the ground deformation is controlled by material properties, depth of soil, and boundary condition. On the condition controlled, the model shows the features of ground deformation in the field. This study presents results from shear box experiment on small-scale soft clay models subjected to strike-slip faulting and placed shallow foundations on it in a 1-g environment. The quantifiable data including sequence of surface rupture, topography and the position of foundation are recorded with increasing faulting. From the result of the experiment, first en echelon R shears appeared. The R shears rotated to a more parallel angle to the trace and cracks pulled apart along them with increasing displacements. Then the P shears crossed the basement fault in the opposite direction appears and linked R shears. Lastly the central shear was Y shears. On the other hand, the development of wider zones of rupture, higher rising surface and larger the crack area on surface developed, with deeper depth of soil. With the depth of 1 cm and half-box displacement 1.2 cm, en echelon R shears appeared and the surface above the fault trace elevated to 1.15 mm (Dv), causing a 1.16 cm-wide zone of ground-surface rupture and deformation

  8. Unexpected earthquake hazard revealed by Holocene rupture on the Kenchreai Fault (central Greece): Implications for weak sub-fault shear zones (United States)

    Copley, Alex; Grützner, Christoph; Howell, Andy; Jackson, James; Penney, Camilla; Wimpenny, Sam


    High-resolution elevation models, palaeoseismic trenching, and Quaternary dating demonstrate that the Kenchreai Fault in the eastern Gulf of Corinth (Greece) has ruptured in the Holocene. Along with the adjacent Pisia and Heraion Faults (which ruptured in 1981), our results indicate the presence of closely-spaced and parallel normal faults that are simultaneously active, but at different rates. Such a configuration allows us to address one of the major questions in understanding the earthquake cycle, specifically what controls the distribution of interseismic strain accumulation? Our results imply that the interseismic loading and subsequent earthquakes on these faults are governed by weak shear zones in the underlying ductile crust. In addition, the identification of significant earthquake slip on a fault that does not dominate the late Quaternary geomorphology or vertical coastal motions in the region provides an important lesson in earthquake hazard assessment.

  9. Preliminary Results on Earthquake Recurrence Intervals, Rupture Segmentation, and Potential Earthquake Moment Magnitudes along the Tahoe-Sierra Frontal Fault Zone, Lake Tahoe, California (United States)

    Howle, J.; Bawden, G. W.; Schweickert, R. A.; Hunter, L. E.; Rose, R.


    frequency. Utilizing regressions of earthquake moment-magnitude (MW) and surface-rupture length from well-characterized historic normal faults by Wells and Coppersmith (1994), coseismic rupture of the range-front sections of the Echo Peak and Mt. Tallac segments would potentially generate an earthquake with Mw ranging from 6.5±0.25 and 6.7±0.25. If the entire mapped length of the Rubicon Peak segment were to rupture, Mw could range from 6.6±0.25 to 6.9±0.25. In a worst-case scenario, where the entire length of the Rubicon Peak fault ruptures coseismically with the Mt. Tallac fault, the potential Mw could range from 6.8±0.25 to 7.0±0.25. Fault scarps along the Mt. Tallac and Rubicon Peak segments differ in morphology, indicating that the Rubicon Peak segment probably did not rupture coseismically during the last ground-rupturing earthquake along the Mt. Tallac segment. On the basis of this qualitative comparison, the estimated timing of the most recent earthquake along the Mt. Tallac segment (4.3±0.7 ka), and the maximum estimate of earthquake recurrence intervals for the Rubicon Peak segment (2.8±1.0x103 years), we believe that the Rubicon Peak segment of the TSFFZ is overdue for a ground-rupturing earthquake

  10. Surface rupture of the 1933 M 7.5 Diexi earthquake in eastern Tibet: implications for seismogenic tectonics (United States)

    Ren, Junjie; Xu, Xiwei; Zhang, Shimin; Yeats, Robert S.; Chen, Jiawei; Zhu, Ailan; Liu, Shao


    The 1933 M 7.5 Diexi earthquake is another catastrophic event with the loss of over 10 000 lives in eastern Tibet comparable to the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. Because of its unknown surface rupture, the seismogenic tectonics of the 1933 earthquake remains controversial. We collected unpublished reports, literatures and old photos associated with the 1933 earthquake and conducted field investigations based on high-resolution Google Earth imagery. Combined with palaeoseismological analysis, radiocarbon dating and relocated earthquakes, our results demonstrate that the source of the 1933 earthquake is the northwest-trending Songpinggou fault. This quake produced a > 30 km long normal-faulting surface rupture with the coseismic offset of 0.9-1.7 m. Its moment magnitude (Mw) is ˜6.8. The Songpinggou fault undergoes an average vertical slip rate of ˜0.25 mm yr-1 and has a recurrence interval of ˜6700 yr of large earthquakes. The normal-faulting surface rupture of this quake is probably the reactivation of the Mesozoic Jiaochang tectonic belt in gravitational adjustment of eastern Tibet. Besides the major boundary faults, minor structures within continental blocks may take a role in strain partitioning of eastern Tibet and have the potential of producing large earthquake. This study contributes to a full understanding of seismotectonics of large earthquakes and strain partitioning in eastern Tibet.

  11. Long Return Periods for Earthquakes in San Gorgonio Pass and Implications for Large Ruptures of the San Andreas Fault in Southern California (United States)

    Yule, J.; McBurnett, P.; Ramzan, S.


    The largest discontinuity in the surface trace of the San Andreas fault occurs in southern California at San Gorgonio Pass. Here, San Andreas motion moves through a 20 km-wide compressive stepover on the dextral-oblique-slip thrust system known as the San Gorgonio Pass fault zone. This thrust-dominated system is thought to rupture during very large San Andreas events that also involve strike-slip fault segments north and south of the Pass region. A wealth of paleoseismic data document that the San Andreas fault segments on either side of the Pass, in the San Bernardino/Mojave Desert and Coachella Valley regions, rupture on average every ~100 yrs and ~200 yrs, respectively. In contrast, we report here a notably longer return period for ruptures of the San Gorgonio Pass fault zone. For example, features exposed in trenches at the Cabezon site reveal that the most recent earthquake occurred 600-700 yrs ago (this and other ages reported here are constrained by C-14 calibrated ages from charcoal). The rupture at Cabezon broke a 10 m-wide zone of east-west striking thrusts and produced a >2 m-high scarp. Slip during this event is estimated to be >4.5 m. Evidence for a penultimate event was not uncovered but presumably lies beneath ~1000 yr-old strata at the base of the trenches. In Millard Canyon, 5 km to the west of Cabezon, the San Gorgonio Pass fault zone splits into two splays. The northern splay is expressed by 2.5 ± 0.7 m and 5.0 ± 0.7 m scarps in alluvial terraces constrained to be ~1300 and ~2500 yrs old, respectively. The scarp on the younger, low terrace postdates terrace abandonment ~1300 yrs ago and probably correlates with the 600-700 yr-old event at Cabezon, though we cannot rule out that a different event produced the northern Millard scarp. Trenches excavated in the low terrace reveal growth folding and secondary faulting and clear evidence for a penultimate event ~1350-1450 yrs ago, during alluvial deposition prior to the abandonment of the low terrace

  12. The TR method: the use of slip preference to separate heterogeneous fault-slip data in compressional stress regimes. The surface rupture of the 1999 Chi-Chi Taiwan earthquake as a case study (United States)

    Tranos, Markos D.


    Synthetic contractional fault-slip data have been considered in order to examine the validity of widely applied criteria such as the slip preference, slip tendency, kinematic (P and T) axes, transport orientation and strain compatibility in different Andersonian compressional stress regimes. Radial compression (RC), radial-pure compression (RC-PC), pure compression (PC), pure compression-transpression (PC-TRP), and transpression (TRP) are examined with the aid of the Win-Tensor stress inversion software. Furthermore, the validity of the recently proposed graphical TR method, which uses the concept of slip preference for the separation of heterogeneous fault-slip data, is also examined for compressional stress regimes. In these regimes only contractional faults can be activated, and their slip preferences imply the distinction between “real”, i.e., RC, RC-PC and PC, and “hybrid”, i.e., PC-TRP and TRP stress regimes. For slip tendency values larger than 0.6, the activated faults dip at angles from 10° to 50°, but in the “hybrid” regimes faults can dip with even higher angles. The application of the TR method is here refined by introducing two controlling parameters, the coefficient of determination (R2) of the Final Tensor Ratio Line (FTRL) and the “normal” or “inverse” distribution of the faults plotted within the Final Tensor Ratio Belt (FTRB). The application of the TR method on fault-slip data of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan, allowed the meaningful separation of complex heterogeneous contractional fault-slip data into homogeneous groups. In turn, this allowed the identification of different compressional stress regimes and the determination of local stress perturbations of the regional or far-stress field generated by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. This includes clear examples of “stress permutation” and “stress partitioning” caused by pre-existing fault structures, such as the N-S trending Chelungpu thrust and the NE

  13. Variability of recurrence interval for New Zealand surface-rupturing paleoearthquakes (United States)

    Nicol, A., , Prof; Robinson, R., Jr.; Van Dissen, R. J.; Harvison, A.


    Recurrence interval (RI) for successive earthquakes on individual faults is recorded by paleoseismic datasets for surface-rupturing earthquakes which, in New Zealand, have magnitudes of >Mw ~6 to 7.2 depending on the thickness of the brittle crust. New Zealand faults examined have mean RI of ~130 to 8500 yrs, with an upper bound censored by the sample duration (arithmetic mean) values have been used to quantify RI variability for geological and simulated earthquakes on >100 New Zealand active faults. RI for individual faults can vary by more than an order of magnitude. CoV of RI for paleoearthquake data comprising 4-10 events ranges from ~0.2 to 1 with a mean of 0.6±0.2. These values are generally comparable to simulated earthquakes (>100 events per fault) and suggest that RI ranges from quasi periodic (e.g., ~0.2-0.5) to random (e.g., ~1.0). Comparison of earthquake simulation and paleoearthquake data indicates that the mean and CoV of RI can be strongly influenced by sampling artefacts including; the magnitude of completeness, the dimensionality of spatial sampling and the duration of the sample period. Despite these sampling issues RI for the best of the geological data (i.e. >6 events) and earthquake simulations are described by log-normal or Weibull distributions with long recurrence tails (~3 times the mean) and provide a basis for quantifying real RI variability (rather than sampling artefacts). Our analysis indicates that CoV of RI is negatively related to fault slip rate. These data are consistent with the notion that fault interaction and associated stress perturbations arising from slip on larger faults are more likely to advance or retard future slip on smaller faults than visa versa.

  14. The Elizabeth Lake paleoseismic site: Rupture pattern constraints for the past ~800 years for the Mojave section of the south-central San Andreas Fault (United States)

    Bemis, Sean; Scharer, Katherine M.; Dolan, James F.; Rhodes, Ed


    The southern San Andreas Fault in California has hosted two historic surface-rupturing earthquakes, the ~M7 1812 Wrightwood earthquake and the ~M7.9 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake (e.g., Sieh, 1978; Jacoby et al., 1988). Numerous paleoseismic studies have established chronologies of historic and prehistoric earthquakes at sites along the full length of the 1857 rupture (e.g., Sieh, 1978; Scharer et al., 2014). These studies provide an unparalleled opportunity to examine patterns of recent ruptures; however, at least two significant spatial gaps in high-quality paleoseismic sites remain. At ~100 km long each, these gaps contribute up to 100 km of uncertainty to paleo-rupture lengths and could also permit a surface rupture from an earthquake up to ~M7.2 to go undetected [using scaling relationships of Wells and Coppersmith (1994)]. Given the known occurrence of an ~M7 earthquake on this portion of the SAF (1812), it is critical to fill these gaps in order to better constrain paleo-rupture lengths and to increase the probability of capturing the full spatial record of surface rupturing earthquakes.   In this study, we target a new site within the 100 km long stretch of the San Andreas Fault between the Frazier Mountain and Pallett Creek paleoseismic sites (Figure 1), near Elizabeth Lake, California. Prior excavations at the site during 1998-1999 encountered promising stratigraphy but these studies were hindered by shallow groundwater throughout the site. We began our current phase of investigations in 2012, targeting the northwestern end of a 40 x 350 m fault-parallel depression that defines the site (Figure 2). Subsequent investigations in 2013 and 2014 focused on the southeastern end of the depression where the fault trace is constrained between topographic highs and is proximal to an active drainage. In total, our paleoseismic investigations consist of 10 fault-perpendicular trenches that cross the depression (Figure 2) and expose a >2000 year depositional record

  15. A grid-doubling finite-element technique for calculating dynamic three-dimensional spontaneous rupture on an earthquake fault (United States)

    Barall, Michael


    We present a new finite-element technique for calculating dynamic 3-D spontaneous rupture on an earthquake fault, which can reduce the required computational resources by a factor of six or more, without loss of accuracy. The grid-doubling technique employs small cells in a thin layer surrounding the fault. The remainder of the modelling volume is filled with larger cells, typically two or four times as large as the small cells. In the resulting non-conforming mesh, an interpolation method is used to join the thin layer of smaller cells to the volume of larger cells. Grid-doubling is effective because spontaneous rupture calculations typically require higher spatial resolution on and near the fault than elsewhere in the model volume. The technique can be applied to non-planar faults by morphing, or smoothly distorting, the entire mesh to produce the desired 3-D fault geometry. Using our FaultMod finite-element software, we have tested grid-doubling with both slip-weakening and rate-and-state friction laws, by running the SCEC/USGS 3-D dynamic rupture benchmark problems. We have also applied it to a model of the Hayward fault, Northern California, which uses realistic fault geometry and rock properties. FaultMod implements fault slip using common nodes, which represent motion common to both sides of the fault, and differential nodes, which represent motion of one side of the fault relative to the other side. We describe how to modify the traction-at-split-nodes method to work with common and differential nodes, using an implicit time stepping algorithm.

  16. Rupture model of the 2015 M7.2 Sarez, Central Pamir, earthquake and the importance of strike-slip faulting in the Pamir interior (United States)

    Metzger, S.; Schurr, B.; Schoene, T.; Zhang, Y.; Sudhaus, H.


    The Pamir mountain range, located in the Northwest of the India-Asia collision zone, accommodates approximately one third of the northward advance of the Indian continent at this longitude (i.e. 34 mm/yr) mostly by shortening at its northern thrust system. Geodetic and seismic data sets reveal here a narrow zone of high deformation and M7+ earthquakes of mostly thrust type with some dextral strike-slip faulting observed, too. The Pamir interior shows sinistral strike-slip and normal faulting indicating north-south compression and east-west extension. In this tectonic setting the two largest instrumentally recorded earthquakes, the M7+ 1911 and 2015 earthquake events in the central Pamir occurred with left-lateral shear along a NE-SW rupture plane. We present the co-seismic deformation field of the 2015 earthquake observed by Radar satellite interferometry (InSAR), SAR amplitude offsets and high-rate Global Positioning System (GPS). The InSAR and offset results reveal that the earthquake created a 50 km long surface rupture with maximum left-lateral offsets of more than two meters on a yet unmapped fault trace of the Sarez Karakul Fault System (SKFS). We further derive a distributed slip-model including a thorough model parameter uncertainty study. Using a two-step approach to first find the optimal rupture geometry and then invert for slip on discrete patches, we show that a data-driven patch resolution produces yields a better representation of the near-surface slip and an increased slip precision than a uniform patch approach without increasing the number of parameters and thus calculation time. Our best-fit model yields a sub-vertical fault plane with a strike of N39.5 degrees and a rupture area of 80 x 40 km2 with a maximum slip of 2 meters in the upper 10 km of the crust near the surface rupture. The 1911 and 2015 earthquakes demonstrate the importance of sinistral strike-slip faulting on the SKFS, contributing both to shear between the western and eastern

  17. Dynamic rupture scenarios from Sumatra to Iceland - High-resolution earthquake source physics on natural fault systems (United States)

    Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Madden, Elizabeth H.; Ulrich, Thomas; Wollherr, Stephanie


    Capturing the observed complexity of earthquake sources in dynamic rupture simulations may require: non-linear fault friction, thermal and fluid effects, heterogeneous fault stress and fault strength initial conditions, fault curvature and roughness, on- and off-fault non-elastic failure. All of these factors have been independently shown to alter dynamic rupture behavior and thus possibly influence the degree of realism attainable via simulated ground motions. In this presentation we will show examples of high-resolution earthquake scenarios, e.g. based on the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake, the 1994 Northridge earthquake and a potential rupture of the Husavik-Flatey fault system in Northern Iceland. The simulations combine a multitude of representations of source complexity at the necessary spatio-temporal resolution enabled by excellent scalability on modern HPC systems. Such simulations allow an analysis of the dominant factors impacting earthquake source physics and ground motions given distinct tectonic settings or distinct focuses of seismic hazard assessment. Across all simulations, we find that fault geometry concurrently with the regional background stress state provide a first order influence on source dynamics and the emanated seismic wave field. The dynamic rupture models are performed with SeisSol, a software package based on an ADER-Discontinuous Galerkin scheme for solving the spontaneous dynamic earthquake rupture problem with high-order accuracy in space and time. Use of unstructured tetrahedral meshes allows for a realistic representation of the non-planar fault geometry, subsurface structure and bathymetry. The results presented highlight the fact that modern numerical methods are essential to further our understanding of earthquake source physics and complement both physic-based ground motion research and empirical approaches in seismic hazard analysis.

  18. Style of the surface deformation by the 1999 Chichi earthquake at the central segment of Chelungpu fault, Taiwan, with special reference to the presence of the main and subsidiary faults and their progressive deformation in the Tsauton area (United States)

    Ota, Y.; Watanabe, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Yanagida, M.; Miyawaki, A.; Sawa, H.


    We describe the style of surface deformation in the 1999 Chichi earthquake in the central segment of the Chelungpu Fault. The study covers the Kung-fu village, north of Han River, to the south of Tsauton area. A characteristic style of the surface deformation is a convex scarp in profile and sinuous plan view, due to the low angle thrust fault. Two subparallel faults, including the west facing Tsauton West fault, and the east facing Tsauton East fault, limit the western and eastern margin of the Tsauton terraced area. The Tsauton West fault is the continuation of the main Chelungpu fault and the Tsauton East fault is located about 2 km apart. Both faults record larger amounts of vertical displacement on the older terraces. The 1999 surface rupture occurred exactly on a pre-existing fault scarp of the Tsauton West and East faults. Thus, repeated activities of these two faults during the Holocene, possibly since the late Quaternary, are confirmed. The amount of vertical offset of the Tsauton East fault is smaller, and about 40-50% of that of the Tsauton West fault for the pre-existing fault. This indicates that the Tsauton East fault is a subsidiary fault and moved together with the main fault, but accommodated less amount.

  19. Boosting the trench: Paleoseimic Record of Three Holocene Earthquakes Rupturing the Issyk-Ata Fault near Bishkek, North Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan (United States)

    Patyniak, Magda; Landgraf, Angela; Dzhumabaeva, Atyrgul; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbek; Rosenwinkel, Swenja; Strecker, Manfred; Korup, Oliver; Arrowsmith, Ramon


    The evaluation of thrust paleoearthquakes and associated fault scarps is often hampered by the size of their cumulative fault scarps and interaction with sedimentary processes during interseismic periods. This is especially true if these events occur in areas undergoing low strain accumulation with long recurrence intervals. Furthermore, the earthquakes might occur in environments that provide limited datable material, rendering an event chronology difficult to develop. Here we present a paleoseismological study from one site (Belek) along the Issyk-Ata fault, a major range-bounding fault that constitutes the northern edge of the Central Tien Shan. The historic and paleoseismic record of this fault is limited, although it defines the southern boundary of Bishkek, the Kyrgyz capital. The only historically known earthquake ruptured along the Issyk-Ata fault in 1885 AD (M6.9). We use a range of tools, including photogrammetry, differential GPS, and 3D visualization and modeling, combined with different chronometers (IRSL, Radiocarbon) to boost the production of an event chronology from the trench stratigraphy and fault geometry. Our age control from both trench walls shows consistent age data in stratigraphic order irrespective of the chronometer. We were able to distinguish three different surface rupturing paleoearthquakes that affected the area at 8.9 ± 0.3 cal kyr BP; 4.7 ± 2.0 cal kyr BP; and 700 ± 80 cal yr BP, and interpret an extended episode of loess accumulation against the scarp between the oldest identified and penultimate events. Associated paleomagnitudes for the last two earthquakes range between M6.7 - M7.4 with a cumulative slip rate of 0.7 ± 0.2 mm/a. We did not find evidence for the 1885 AD event at Belek. Combined our results underline two major points: first, the historic and paleoseismic catalogue is incomplete; second, single ruptures do not necessarily involve the entire extend of the Issyk-Ata fault but point to segmented rupture behavior

  20. Rupture Process During the Mw 8.1 2017 Chiapas Mexico Earthquake: Shallow Intraplate Normal Faulting by Slab Bending (United States)

    Okuwaki, R.; Yagi, Y.


    A seismic source model for the Mw 8.1 2017 Chiapas, Mexico, earthquake was constructed by kinematic waveform inversion using globally observed teleseismic waveforms, suggesting that the earthquake was a normal-faulting event on a steeply dipping plane, with the major slip concentrated around a relatively shallow depth of 28 km. The modeled rupture evolution showed unilateral, downdip propagation northwestward from the hypocenter, and the downdip width of the main rupture was restricted to less than 30 km below the slab interface, suggesting that the downdip extensional stresses due to the slab bending were the primary cause of the earthquake. The rupture front abruptly decelerated at the northwestern end of the main rupture where it intersected the subducting Tehuantepec Fracture Zone, suggesting that the fracture zone may have inhibited further rupture propagation.

  1. Near-Surface Fault Structures of the Seulimuem Segment Based on Electrical Resistivity Model (United States)

    Ismail, Nazli; Yanis, Muhammad; Idris, Syafrizal; Abdullah, Faisal; Hanafiah, Bukhari


    The Great Sumatran Fault (GSF) system is arc-parallel strike-slip fault system along the volcanic front related to the oblique subduction of the oceanic Indo-Australian plate. Large earthquakes along the southern GSF since 1892 have been reported, but the Seulimuem segment at the northernmost Sumatran has not produced large earthquakes in the past 100 years. The 200-km-long segment is considered to be a seismic gap. Detailed geological study of the fault and thus its surface trace locations, late Quaternary slip rate, and rupture history are urgently needed for earthquake disaster mitigation in the future. However, finding a suitable area for paleoseismic trenching is an obstacle when the fault traces are not clearly shown on the surface. We have conducted geoelectrical measurement in Lamtamot area of Aceh Besar District in order to locate the fault line for paleoseismic excavation. Apparent resistivity data were collected along 40 m profile parallel to the planned trenching site. The 2D electrical resistivity model provided evidence of some resistivity anomalies by high lateral contrast. This anomaly almost coincides with the topographic scarp which is modified by agriculture on the surface at the northern part of Lamtamot. The steep dipping electrical contrast may correspond to a fault. However, the model does not resolve well evidences from minor faults that can be related to the presence of surface ruptures. A near fault paleoseismic investigation requires trenching across the fault in order to detect and analyze the geological record of the past large earthquakes along the Seulimuem segment.

  2. Microtopographic evolution of mineral surfaces as a tool to identify and date young fault scarps in bedrock (United States)

    Mayer, Larry; Rakovan, John; Rufe, Eric


    Faulting that results in surface ruptures through bedrock can be particularly difficult to date. For example, stratigraphic control on the age of faulting, based on the age of the bedrock, often leaves unacceptably large uncertainty on the age of the faulting. From a paleoseismological perspective, there is a clear need to determine if a bedrock fault scarp is actually a young feature. For young fault ruptures that create fresh mineral surfaces, analysis of microtopography developed by weathering of the mineral surface may provide a quantifiable method for determining the fault age. The direct quantitative measurement of mineral surface microtopography using Atomic Force Microscopy affords a novel method to study the rupture ages of active faults. The method for using microtopographic evolution of mineral surfaces depends on three conditions. The first condition is that freshly exposed mineral cleavage surfaces, which can be described geometrically as planes, are formed during a rupture event. The formation of these fresh surfaces is analogous to the initiation of a weathering 'clock' that defines time t=0. Following cleavage formation dissolution of the planar mineral surface occurs. The rate of dissolution for a mineral species under given climatic conditions, governs the rate of mineral surface alteration. Thus as dissolution proceeds, the roughness of the mineral surface increases. We suggest that the progression of microtopographic roughness over time, which can be estimated by computing quantitative statistics derived from digital mineral surface topography, will systematically vary until a steady state surface topography is reached. The fractal dimension, Df, is one such measure of surface roughness where, Df at time t=0 is 2. The dissolution of the mineral surface increases the fractal dimension as the removal of material proceeds. We posit that somewhere between Df=2 and Df=3, the microtopography reaches a steady state. Therefore, in the pre-steady state

  3. Insights into the Fault Geometry and Rupture History of the 2016 MW 7.8 Kaikoura, New Zealand, Earthquake (United States)

    Adams, M.; Ji, C.


    The November 14th 2016 MW 7.8 Kaikoura, New Zealand earthquake occurred along the east coast of the northern part of the South Island. The local tectonic setting is complicated. The central South Island is dominated by oblique continental convergence, whereas the southern part of this island experiences eastward subduction of the Australian plate. Available information (e.g., Hamling et al., 2017; Bradley et al., 2017) indicate that this earthquake involved multiple fault segments of the Marlborough fault system (MFS) as the rupture propagated northwards for more than 150 km. Additional slip might also occur on the subduction interface of the Pacific plate under the Australian plate, beneath the MFS. However, the exact number of involved fault segments as well as the temporal co-seismic rupture sequence has not been fully determined with geodetic and geological observations. Knowledge of the kinematics of complex fault interactions has important implications for our understanding of global seismic hazards, particularly to relatively unmodeled multisegment ruptures. Understanding the Kaikoura earthquake will provide insight into how one incorporates multi-fault ruptures in seismic-hazard models. We propose to apply a multiple double-couple inversion to determine the fault geometry and spatiotemporal rupture history using teleseismic and strong motion waveforms, before constraining the detailed slip history using both seismic and geodetic data. The Kaikoura earthquake will be approximated as the summation of multiple subevents—each represented as a double-couple point source, characterized by i) fault geometry (strike, dip and rake), ii) seismic moment, iii) centroid time, iv) half-duration and v) location (latitude, longitude and depth), a total of nine variables. We progressively increase the number of point sources until the additional source cannot produce significant improvement to the observations. Our preliminary results using only teleseismic data indicate

  4. Earthquake Clustering on the Bear River Fault—Influence of Preexisting Structure on the Rupture Behavior of a New Normal Fault (United States)

    Hecker, S.; Schwartz, D. P.


    The Bear River normal fault is located on the eastern margin of basin and range extension in the Rocky Mountains of Utah and Wyoming. Interpretation of paleoseismic data from three sites supports the conclusion of an earlier study (West, 1993) that the fault, which appears to have reactivated a thrust ramp in the Sevier orogenic belt, first ruptured to the surface in the late Holocene. Our observations provide evidence and additional age control for two previously identified large earthquakes ( 4500 and 3000 yr B.P.) and for a newly recognized earthquake that occurred c. 200-300 yr B.P. (after development of a topsoil above a deposit with a date of A.D. 1630 and before the beginning of the historical period in 1850). These earthquakes, which were likely high-stress-drop events, cumulatively produced about 6-8 m of net vertical displacement on a zone 40 km long and up to 5 km wide. The complexity and evolution of rupture at the south end of the fault, mapped in detail using airborne lidar imagery, is strongly influenced by interaction with the Uinta arch, an east-west-trending (orthogonal) basement-cored uplift. The relatively rapid flurry of strain release and high slip rate ( 2 mm/yr), which make the Bear River fault one of the most active in the Basin and Range, occurred in a region of low crustal extension (geodetic velocity of 7) that should be considered for seismic hazard analysis.

  5. Seismotectonics and rupture process of the MW 7.1 2011 Van reverse-faulting earthquake, eastern Turkey, and implications for hazard in regions of distributed shortening (United States)

    Mackenzie, D.; Elliott, J. R.; Altunel, E.; Walker, R. T.; Kurban, Y. C.; Schwenninger, J.-L.; Parsons, B.


    The 2011 October 23 MW 7.1 Van earthquake in eastern Turkey caused ˜600 deaths and caused widespread damage and economic loss. The seismogenic rupture was restricted to 10-25 km in depth, but aseismic surface creep, coincident with outcrop fault exposures, was observed in the hours to months after the earthquake. We combine observations from radar interferometry, seismology, geomorphology and Quaternary dating to investigate the geological slip rate and seismotectonic context of the Van earthquake, and assess the implications for continuing seismic hazard in the region. Transient post-seismic slip on the upper Van fault started immediately following the earthquake, and decayed over a period of weeks; it may not fully account for our long-term surface slip-rate estimate of ≥0.5 mm yr-1. Post-seismic slip on the Bostaniçi splay fault initiated several days to weeks after the main shock, and we infer that it may have followed the MW 5.9 aftershock on the 9th November. The Van earthquake shows that updip segmentation can be important in arresting seismic ruptures on dip-slip faults. Two large, shallow aftershocks show that the upper 10 km of crust can sustain significant earthquakes, and significant slip is observed to have reached the surface in the late Quaternary, so there may be a continuing seismic hazard from the upper Van fault and the associated splay. The wavelength of folding in the hanging wall of the Van fault is dominated by the structure in the upper 10 km of the crust, masking the effect of deeper seismogenic structures. Thus, models of subsurface faulting based solely on surface folding and faulting in regions of reverse faulting may underestimate the full depth extent of seismogenic structures in the region. In measuring the cumulative post-seismic offsets to anthropogenic structures, we show that Structure-from-Motion can be rapidly deployed to create snapshots of post-seismic displacement. We also demonstrate the utility of declassified Corona

  6. Field and LiDAR observations of the Hector Mine California 1999 surface rupture (United States)

    Sousa, F.; Akciz, S. O.; Harvey, J. C.; Hudnut, K. W.; Lynch, D. K.; Scharer, K. M.; Stock, J. M.; Witkosky, R.; Kendrick, K. J.; Wespestad, C.


    We report new field- and computer-based investigations of the surface rupture of the October 16, 1999 Hector Mine Earthquake. Since May 2012, in cooperation with the United States Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC) at Twentynine Palms, CA, our team has been allowed ground and aerial access to the entire surface rupture. We have focused our new field-based research and imagery analysis along the ~10 kilometer-long maximum slip zone (MSZ) which roughly corresponds to the zone of >4 meter dextral horizontal offset. New data include: 1) a 1 km wide aerial LiDAR survey along the entire surface rupture (@ 10 shots/m2, May 2012,; 2) terrestrial LiDAR surveys at 5 sites within the MSZ (@ >1000 shots/m2, April 2014); 3) low altitude aerial photography and ground based photography of the entire MSZ; 4) a ground-truthed database of 87 out of the 94 imagery-based offset measurements made within the MSZ; and 5) a database of 50 new field-based offset measurements made within the MSZ by our team on the ground, 31 of which have also been made on the computer (Ladicaoz) with both the 2000 LiDAR data (@ 0.5 m DEM resolution; Chen et al, in review) and 2012 LiDAR data (@ 35 cm DEM resolution; our team). New results to date include 1) significant variability (> 2 m) in horizontal offsets measured along short distances of the surface rupture (~100 m) within segments of the surface rupture that are localized to a single fault strand; 2) strong dependence of decadal scale fault scarp preservation on local lithology (bedrock vs. alluvial fan vs. fine sediment) and geomorphology (uphill vs. downhill facing scarp); 3) newly observed offset features which were never measured during the post-event field response; 4) newly observed offset features too small to be resolved in airborne LiDAR data (judged by our team to warrant removal from the database due to incorrect feature reconstruction; and 6) significant variability in both accuracy of LiDAR offset

  7. 2001 Bhuj-Kachchh earthquake: surface faulting and its relation with neotectonics and regional structures, Gujarat, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Thakkar


    Full Text Available Primary and secondary surface deformation related to the 2001 Bhuj-Kachchh earthquake suggests that thrusting movement took place along an E-W fault near the western extension of the South Wagad Fault, a synthetic fault of the Kachchh Mainland Fault (KMF. Despite early reconnaissance reports that concluded there was no primary surface faulting, we describe an 830 m long, 15-35 cm high, east-west-trending thrust fault scarp near where the seismogenic fault plane would project to the surface, near Bharodiya village (between 23°34.912'N, 70°23.942'E and 23°34.304'N, 70°24.884'E. Along most of the scarp Jurassic bedrock is thrust over Quaternary deposits, but the fault scarp also displaces Holocene alluvium and an earth dam, with dips of 13° to 36° south. Secondary co-seismic features, mainly liquefaction and lateral spreading, dominate the area south of the thrust. Transverse right-lateral movement along the «Manfara Fault» and a parallel fault near Bharodiya suggests segmentation of the E-W master faults. Primary (thrust surface rupture had a length of 0.8 km, maximum displacement of about 35 cm, and average displacement of about 15 cm. Secondary (strike-slip faulting was more extensive, with a total end-to-end length of 15 km, maximum displacement of 35 cm, and average displacement of about 20 cm.

  8. Simulating Earthquake Rupture and Off-Fault Fracture Response: Application to the Safety Assessment of the Swedish Nuclear Waste Repository

    KAUST Repository

    Falth, B.


    To assess the long-term safety of a deep repository of spent nuclear fuel, upper bound estimates of seismically induced secondary fracture shear displacements are needed. For this purpose, we analyze a model including an earthquake fault, which is surrounded by a number of smaller discontinuities representing fractures on which secondary displacements may be induced. Initial stresses are applied and a rupture is initiated at a predefined hypocenter and propagated at a specified rupture speed. During rupture we monitor shear displacements taking place on the nearby fracture planes in response to static as well as dynamic effects. As a numerical tool, we use the 3Dimensional Distinct Element Code (3DEC) because it has the capability to handle numerous discontinuities with different orientations and at different locations simultaneously. In tests performed to benchmark the capability of our method to generate and propagate seismic waves, 3DEC generates results in good agreement with results from both Stokes solution and the Compsyn code package. In a preliminary application of our method to the nuclear waste repository site at Forsmark, southern Sweden, we assume end-glacial stress conditions and rupture on a shallow, gently dipping, highly prestressed fault with low residual strength. The rupture generates nearly complete stress drop and an M-w 5.6 event on the 12 km(2) rupture area. Of the 1584 secondary fractures (150 m radius), with a wide range of orientations and locations relative to the fault, a majority move less than 5 mm. The maximum shear displacement is some tens of millimeters at 200 m fault-fracture distance.

  9. High-precision geologic mapping to evaluate the potential for seismic surface rupture at TA-55, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, J.N.; Lavine, A.; Vaniman, D.; WoldeGabriel, G.


    In this report the authors document results of high-precision geologic mapping in the vicinity of TA-55 that has been done to identify parts of the southern portion of the Rendija Canyon Fault, or any other faults, with the potential for seismic surface rupture. To assess the potential for surface rupture at TA-55, an area of approximately 3 square miles that includes the Los Alamos County Landfill and Twomile, Mortandad, and Sandia Canyons has been mapped in detail. Map units are mostly cooling or flow units within the Tshirege Member (1.2 Ma) of the Bandelier Tuff. Stratigraphic markers that are useful for determining offsets in the map area include a distinct welding break at or near the cooling Unit 2-Unit 3 contact, and the Unit 3-Unit 4 contact. At the County Landfill the contact between the Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff and overlying Quaternary alluvium has also been mapped. The mapping indicates that there is no faulting in the near-surface directly below TA-55, and that the closest fault is about 1500 feet west of the Plutonium Facility. Faulting is more abundant on the western edge of the map area, west of TA-48 in uppermost Mortandad Canyon, upper Sandia Canyon, and at the County Landfill. Measured vertical offsets on the faults range from 1 to 8 feet on mapped Bandelier Tuff contacts. Faulting exposed at the Los Alamos County Landfill has deformed a zone over 1000 feet wide, and has a net vertical down-to-the-west displacement of at least 15 feet in the Bandelier Tuff. Individual faults at the landfill have from less than 1 foot to greater than 15 feet of vertical offset on the Bandelier Tuff. Most faults in the landfill trend N-S, N20W, or N45E. Results of the mapping indicate that the Rendija Canyon Fault does not continue directly south to TA-55. At present, the authors have insufficient data to connect faulting they have mapped to areas of known faulting to the north or south of the study area

  10. Paleoseismologic evidence for large-magnitude (Mw 7.5-8.0) earthquakes on the Ventura blind thrust fault: Implications for multifault ruptures in the Transverse Ranges of southern California (United States)

    McAuliffe, Lee J.; Dolan, James F.; Rhodes, Edward J.; Hubbard, Judith; Shaw, John H.; Pratt, Thomas L.


    Detailed analysis of continuously cored boreholes and cone penetrometer tests (CPTs), high-resolution seismic-reflection data, and luminescence and 14C dates from Holocene strata folded above the tip of the Ventura blind thrust fault constrain the ages and displacements of the two (or more) most recent earthquakes. These two earthquakes, which are identified by a prominent surface fold scarp and a stratigraphic sequence that thickens across an older buried fold scarp, occurred before the 235-yr-long historic era and after 805 ± 75 yr ago (most recent folding event[s]) and between 4065 and 4665 yr ago (previous folding event[s]). Minimum uplift in these two scarp-forming events was ∼6 m for the most recent earthquake(s) and ∼5.2 m for the previous event(s). Large uplifts such as these typically occur in large-magnitude earthquakes in the range of Mw7.5–8.0. Any such events along the Ventura fault would likely involve rupture of other Transverse Ranges faults to the east and west and/or rupture downward onto the deep, low-angle décollements that underlie these faults. The proximity of this large reverse-fault system to major population centers, including the greater Los Angeles region, and the potential for tsunami generation during ruptures extending offshore along the western parts of the system highlight the importance of understanding the complex behavior of these faults for probabilistic seismic hazard assessment.

  11. Geologic investigations of Australian earthquakes: Paleoseismicity and the recurrence of surface faulting in the stable regions of continents (United States)

    Machette, Michael; Crone, Anthony


    Earthquakes that occur in the stable regions of continents are very rare compared to those that occur along plate margins, such as the San Andreas fault system of western California. Worldwide, only 11 historic earthquakes in stable continental regions are known to have produced surface ruptures. Five of these have occurred in Australia since 1968 (see map, next page).

  12. Climate-modulated channel incision and rupture history of the San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain. (United States)

    Grant Ludwig, Lisa; Akçiz, Sinan O; Noriega, Gabriela R; Zielke, Olaf; Arrowsmith, J Ramón


    The spatial and temporal distribution of fault slip is a critical parameter in earthquake source models. Previous geomorphic and geologic studies of channel offset along the Carrizo section of the south central San Andreas Fault assumed that channels form more frequently than earthquakes occur and suggested that repeated large-slip earthquakes similar to the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake illustrate typical fault behavior. We found that offset channels in the Carrizo Plain incised less frequently than they were offset by earthquakes. Channels have been offset by successive earthquakes with variable slip since ~1400. This nonuniform slip history reveals a more complex rupture history than previously assumed for the structurally simplest section of the San Andreas Fault.

  13. Sentinel-1 observation of the 2017 Sangsefid earthquake, northeastern Iran: Rupture of a blind reserve-slip fault near the Eastern Kopeh Dagh (United States)

    Xu, Guangyu; Xu, Caijun; Wen, Yangmao


    New satellites are now revealing InSAR-based surface deformation within a week after natural hazard events. Quick hazard responses will be more publically accessible and provide information to responding agencies. Here we used Sentinel-1 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data to investigate coseismic deformation associated with the 2017 Sangsefid earthquake, which occurred in the southeast margin of the Kopeh Dagh fault system. The ascending and descending interferograms indicate thrust-dominated slip, with the maximum line-of-sight displacement of 10.5 and 13.7 cm, respectively. The detailed slip-distribution of the 2017 Sangsefid Mw6.1 earthquake inferred from geodetic data is presented here for the first time. Although the InSAR interferograms themselves do not uniquely constrain what the primary slip surface is, we infer that the source fault dips to southwest by analyzing the 2.5 D displacement field decomposed from the InSAR observations. The determined uniform slip fault model shows that the dip angle of the seimogenic fault is approximately 40°, with a strike of 120° except for a narrower fault width than that predicted by the empirical scaling law. We suggest that geometric complexities near the Kopeh Dagh fault system obstruct the rupture propagation, resulting in high slip occurred within a small area and much higher stress drop than global estimates. The InSAR-determined moment is 1.71 × 1018 Nm with a shear modulus of 3.32 × 1010 N/m2, equivalent to Mw 6.12, which is consistent with seismological results. The finite fault model (the west-dipping fault plane) reveals that the peak slip of 0.90 m occurred at a depth of 6.3 km, with substantial slip at a depth of 4-10 km and a near-uniform slip of 0.1 m at a depth of 0-2.5 km. We suggest that the Sangsefid earthquake occurred on an unknown blind reverse fault dipping southwest, which can also be recognised through observing the long-term surface effects due to the existence of the blind

  14. Numerical Methods for the Analysis of Power Transformer Tank Deformation and Rupture Due to Internal Arcing Faults (United States)

    Yan, Chenguang; Hao, Zhiguo; Zhang, Song; Zhang, Baohui; Zheng, Tao


    Power transformer rupture and fire resulting from an arcing fault inside the tank usually leads to significant security risks and serious economic loss. In order to reveal the essence of tank deformation or explosion, this paper presents a 3-D numerical computational tool to simulate the structural dynamic behavior due to overpressure inside transformer tank. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a 17.3MJ and a 6.3MJ arcing fault were simulated on a real full-scale 360MVA/220kV oil-immersed transformer model, respectively. By employing the finite element method, the transformer internal overpressure distribution, wave propagation and von-Mises stress were solved. The numerical results indicate that the increase of pressure and mechanical stress distribution are non-uniform and the stress tends to concentrate on connecting parts of the tank as the fault time evolves. Given this feature, it becomes possible to reduce the risk of transformer tank rupture through limiting the fault energy and enhancing the mechanical strength of the local stress concentrative areas. The theoretical model and numerical simulation method proposed in this paper can be used as a substitute for risky and costly field tests in fault overpressure analysis and tank mitigation design of transformers. PMID:26230392

  15. Numerical Methods for the Analysis of Power Transformer Tank Deformation and Rupture Due to Internal Arcing Faults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Yan

    Full Text Available Power transformer rupture and fire resulting from an arcing fault inside the tank usually leads to significant security risks and serious economic loss. In order to reveal the essence of tank deformation or explosion, this paper presents a 3-D numerical computational tool to simulate the structural dynamic behavior due to overpressure inside transformer tank. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a 17.3 MJ and a 6.3 MJ arcing fault were simulated on a real full-scale 360MVA/220kV oil-immersed transformer model, respectively. By employing the finite element method, the transformer internal overpressure distribution, wave propagation and von-Mises stress were solved. The numerical results indicate that the increase of pressure and mechanical stress distribution are non-uniform and the stress tends to concentrate on connecting parts of the tank as the fault time evolves. Given this feature, it becomes possible to reduce the risk of transformer tank rupture through limiting the fault energy and enhancing the mechanical strength of the local stress concentrative areas. The theoretical model and numerical simulation method proposed in this paper can be used as a substitute for risky and costly field tests in fault overpressure analysis and tank mitigation design of transformers.

  16. Numerical Methods for the Analysis of Power Transformer Tank Deformation and Rupture Due to Internal Arcing Faults. (United States)

    Yan, Chenguang; Hao, Zhiguo; Zhang, Song; Zhang, Baohui; Zheng, Tao


    Power transformer rupture and fire resulting from an arcing fault inside the tank usually leads to significant security risks and serious economic loss. In order to reveal the essence of tank deformation or explosion, this paper presents a 3-D numerical computational tool to simulate the structural dynamic behavior due to overpressure inside transformer tank. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a 17.3 MJ and a 6.3 MJ arcing fault were simulated on a real full-scale 360MVA/220kV oil-immersed transformer model, respectively. By employing the finite element method, the transformer internal overpressure distribution, wave propagation and von-Mises stress were solved. The numerical results indicate that the increase of pressure and mechanical stress distribution are non-uniform and the stress tends to concentrate on connecting parts of the tank as the fault time evolves. Given this feature, it becomes possible to reduce the risk of transformer tank rupture through limiting the fault energy and enhancing the mechanical strength of the local stress concentrative areas. The theoretical model and numerical simulation method proposed in this paper can be used as a substitute for risky and costly field tests in fault overpressure analysis and tank mitigation design of transformers.

  17. Investigating effects of near fault rupture directivity on seismic hazard assessment of the site of Tehran Research Reactor (TRR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepanloo, Kamran; Saberi, Reza [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alinejad, Majid [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bazarchi, Ehsan [Tabriz Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    It is estimated that the occurrence of a major-earthquake in Tehran, Iran, which is not far-fetched, would face the country with a huge amount of collapsed structures, economical losses and fatalities. The issue becomes more important while the site of interest is attributed to the nuclear facilities and any under-estimation in predicting the design ground motion may cause a real disaster. In this study, using calculations coded in MATLAB, PSHA was conducted for the site of TRR. It was concluded that most of the hazard for considered site in a 10000-year period comes from distances lower than 20 km and considering rupture directivity effects of the North Tehran fault, as the nearest seismicity source to considered site, using narrowband method affected the response spectrum significantly. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate the near fault rupture directivity effects into the higher levels of seismic hazard assessment attributed to important sites.

  18. Evaluation of the location and recency of faulting near prospective surface facilities in Midway Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Angell, M.M.; Thomas, A.P.; Whitney, J.W.; Gibson, J.D.


    Evaluation of surface faulting that may pose a hazard to prospective surface facilities is an important element of the tectonic studies for the potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository in southwestern Nevada. For this purpose, a program of detailed geologic mapping and trenching was done to obtain surface and near-surface geologic data that are essential for determining the location and recency of faults at a prospective surface-facilities site located east of Exile Hill in Midway Valley, near the eastern base of Yucca Mountain. The dominant tectonic features in the Midway Valley area are the north- to northeast-trending, west-dipping normal faults that bound the Midway Valley structural block-the Bow Ridge fault on the west side of Exile Hill and the Paint-brush Canyon fault on the east side of the valley. Trenching of Quaternary sediments has exposed evidence of displacements, which demonstrate that these block-bounding faults repeatedly ruptured the surface during the middle to late Quaternary. Geologic mapping, subsurface borehole and geophysical data, and the results of trenching activities indicate the presence of north- to northeast-trending faults and northwest-trending faults in Tertiary volcanic rocks beneath alluvial and colluvial sediments near the prospective surface-facilities site. North to northeast-trending faults include the Exile Hill fault along the eastern base of Exile Hill and faults to the east beneath the surficial deposits of Midway Valley. These faults have no geomorphic expression, but two north- to northeast-trending zones of fractures exposed in excavated profiles of middle to late Pleistocene deposits at the prospective surface-facilities site appear to be associated with these faults. Northwest-trending faults include the West Portal and East Portal faults, but no disruption of Quaternary deposits by these faults is evident. The western zone of fractures is associated with the Exile Hill fault. The eastern

  19. Evaluation of the location and recency of faulting near prospective surface facilities in Midway Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Angell, M.M.; Thomas, A.P.; Whitney, J.W.; Gibson, J.D.


    Evaluation of surface faulting that may pose a hazard to prospective surface facilities is an important element of the tectonic studies for the potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository in southwestern Nevada. For this purpose, a program of detailed geologic mapping and trenching was done to obtain surface and near-surface geologic data that are essential for determining the location and recency of faults at a prospective surface-facilities site located east of Exile Hill in Midway Valley, near the eastern base of Yucca Mountain. The dominant tectonic features in the Midway Valley area are the north- to northeast-trending, west-dipping normal faults that bound the Midway Valley structural block-the Bow Ridge fault on the west side of Exile Hill and the Paint-brush Canyon fault on the east side of the valley. Trenching of Quaternary sediments has exposed evidence of displacements, which demonstrate that these block-bounding faults repeatedly ruptured the surface during the middle to late Quaternary. Geologic mapping, subsurface borehole and geophysical data, and the results of trenching activities indicate the presence of north- to northeast-trending faults and northwest-trending faults in Tertiary volcanic rocks beneath alluvial and colluvial sediments near the prospective surface-facilities site. North to northeast-trending faults include the Exile Hill fault along the eastern base of Exile Hill and faults to the east beneath the surficial deposits of Midway Valley. These faults have no geomorphic expression, but two north- to northeast-trending zones of fractures exposed in excavated profiles of middle to late Pleistocene deposits at the prospective surface-facilities site appear to be associated with these faults. Northwest-trending faults include the West Portal and East Portal faults, but no disruption of Quaternary deposits by these faults is evident. The western zone of fractures is associated with the Exile Hill fault. The eastern

  20. Large-displacement, hydrothermal frictional properties of DFDP-1 fault rocks, Alpine Fault, New Zealand : Implications for deep rupture propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemeijer, A.R.; Boulton, C.; Toy, V.G.; Townend, J.; Sutherland, R.


    The Alpine Fault, New Zealand, is a major plate-bounding fault that accommodates 65–75% of the total relative motion between the Australian and Pacific plates. Here we present data on the hydrothermal frictional properties of Alpine Fault rocks that surround the principal slip zones (PSZ) of the

  1. Rupture of thin liquid films on structured surfaces. (United States)

    Ajaev, Vladimir S; Gatapova, Elizaveta Ya; Kabov, Oleg A


    We investigate stability and breakup of a thin liquid film on a solid surface under the action of disjoining pressure. The solid surface is structured by parallel grooves. Air is trapped in the grooves under the liquid film. Our mathematical model takes into account the effect of slip due to the presence of menisci separating the liquid film from the air inside the grooves, the deformation of these menisci due to local variations of pressure in the liquid film, and nonuniformities of the Hamaker constant which measures the strength of disjoining pressure. Both linear stability and strongly nonlinear evolution of the film are analyzed. Surface structuring results in decrease of the fastest growing instability wavelength and the rupture time. It is shown that a simplified description of film dynamics based on the standard formula for effective slip leads to significant deviations from the behavior seen in our simulations. Self-similar decay over several orders of magnitude of the film thickness near the rupture point is observed. We also show that the presence of the grooves can lead to instability in otherwise stable films if the relative groove width is above a critical value, found as a function of disjoining pressure parameters.

  2. Real-time inversions for finite fault slip models and rupture geometry based on high-rate GPS data (United States)

    Minson, Sarah E.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Gomberg, Joan S.


    We present an inversion strategy capable of using real-time high-rate GPS data to simultaneously solve for a distributed slip model and fault geometry in real time as a rupture unfolds. We employ Bayesian inference to find the optimal fault geometry and the distribution of possible slip models for that geometry using a simple analytical solution. By adopting an analytical Bayesian approach, we can solve this complex inversion problem (including calculating the uncertainties on our results) in real time. Furthermore, since the joint inversion for distributed slip and fault geometry can be computed in real time, the time required to obtain a source model of the earthquake does not depend on the computational cost. Instead, the time required is controlled by the duration of the rupture and the time required for information to propagate from the source to the receivers. We apply our modeling approach, called Bayesian Evidence-based Fault Orientation and Real-time Earthquake Slip, to the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake, and a simulated Hayward fault earthquake. In all three cases, the inversion recovers the magnitude, spatial distribution of slip, and fault geometry in real time. Since our inversion relies on static offsets estimated from real-time high-rate GPS data, we also present performance tests of various approaches to estimating quasi-static offsets in real time. We find that the raw high-rate time series are the best data to use for determining the moment magnitude of the event, but slightly smoothing the raw time series helps stabilize the inversion for fault geometry.

  3. Historical coseismic surface deformation of fluvial gravel deposits, Schafberg fault, Lower Rhine Graben, Germany (United States)

    Kübler, Simon; Friedrich, Anke M.; Gold, Ryan D.; Strecker, Manfred R.


    Intraplate earthquakes pose a significant seismic hazard in densely populated rift systems like the Lower Rhine Graben in Central Europe. While the locations of most faults in this region are well known, constraints on their seismogenic potential and earthquake recurrence are limited. In particular, the Holocene deformation history of active faults remains enigmatic. In an exposure excavated across the Schafberg fault in the southwestern Lower Rhine Graben, south of Untermaubach, in the epicentral region of the 1756 Düren earthquake ( M L 6.2), we mapped a complex deformation zone in Holocene fluvial sediments. We document evidence for at least one paleoearthquake that resulted in vertical surface displacement of 1.2 ± 0.2 m. The most recent earthquake is constrained to have occurred after 815 AD, and we have modeled three possible earthquake scenarios constraining the timing of the latest event. Coseismic deformation is characterized by vertical offset of sedimentary contacts distributed over a 10-m-wide central damage zone. Faults were identified where they fracture and offset pebbles in the vertically displaced gravel layers and fracture orientation is consistent with the orientation of the Schafberg fault. This study provides the first constraint on the most recent surface-rupturing earthquake on the Schafberg fault. We cannot rule out that this fault acted as the source of the 1756 Düren earthquake. Our study emphasizes the importance of, and the need for, paleoseismic studies in this and other intracontinental regions, in particular on faults with subtle geomorphic expression that would not typically be recognized as being potentially seismically active. Our study documents textural features in unconsolidated sediment that formed in response to coseismic rupturing of the underlying bedrock fault. We suggest that these features, e.g., abundant oriented transgranular fractures in their context, should be added to the list of criteria used to identify a fault

  4. Strong ground motion prediction applying dynamic rupture simulations for Beppu-Haneyama Active Fault Zone, southwestern Japan (United States)

    Yoshimi, M.; Matsushima, S.; Ando, R.; Miyake, H.; Imanishi, K.; Hayashida, T.; Takenaka, H.; Suzuki, H.; Matsuyama, H.


    We conducted strong ground motion prediction for the active Beppu-Haneyama Fault zone (BHFZ), Kyushu island, southwestern Japan. Since the BHFZ runs through Oita and Beppy cities, strong ground motion as well as fault displacement may affect much to the cities.We constructed a 3-dimensional velocity structure of a sedimentary basin, Beppu bay basin, where the fault zone runs through and Oita and Beppu cities are located. Minimum shear wave velocity of the 3d model is 500 m/s. Additional 1-d structure is modeled for sites with softer sediment: holocene plain area. We observed, collected, and compiled data obtained from microtremor surveys, ground motion observations, boreholes etc. phase velocity and H/V ratio. Finer structure of the Oita Plain is modeled, as 250m-mesh model, with empirical relation among N-value, lithology, depth and Vs, using borehole data, then validated with the phase velocity data obtained by the dense microtremor array observation (Yoshimi et al., 2016).Synthetic ground motion has been calculated with a hybrid technique composed of a stochastic Green's function method (for HF wave), a 3D finite difference (LF wave) and 1D amplification calculation. Fault geometry has been determined based on reflection surveys and active fault map. The rake angles are calculated with a dynamic rupture simulation considering three fault segments under a stress filed estimated from source mechanism of earthquakes around the faults (Ando et al., JpGU-AGU2017). Fault parameters such as the average stress drop, a size of asperity etc. are determined based on an empirical relation proposed by Irikura and Miyake (2001). As a result, strong ground motion stronger than 100 cm/s is predicted in the hanging wall side of the Oita plain.This work is supported by the Comprehensive Research on the Beppu-Haneyama Fault Zone funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT), Japan.

  5. Holocene Time-slip history of normal fault scarps in western Turkey: 36Cl surface exposure dating (United States)

    Mozafari Amiri, N.; Sümer, Ö.; Tikhomirov, D.; Özkaymak, Ç.; Uzel, B.; Ivy-Ochs, S.; Vockenhuber, C.; Sözbilir, H.; Akçar, N.


    Bedrock fault scarps built in carbonates are the most direct evidence of past earthquakes to reconstruct long-term seismic outline using 36Cl cosmogenic nuclides. The western Anatolia is an active seismic region, in which several major graben systems are formed mainly in carbonates commenced by roughly N-S extensional regime since the early Miocene. The oldest known earthquake in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East dates back to 464 B.C. However, to evaluate the earthquake pattern, a complete seismic data over a large time-scale is required. For modelling of seismic periods, a Matlab® code is used based on acceleration of production rate of 36Cl following exposure of fresh material to cosmic rays. By measuring the amount of cosmogenic 36Cl versus height on the fault surface, the timing of significant ruptures and vertical displacements are explored. The best scenario is obtained with the minimum difference between the modelled and measured 36Cl. An ideal target spot is a minimum-eroded surface with length of at least two meters from the intersection of the fault with colluvium. After continuous marking of 10 cm height and 15 cm width on the fault, the samples of 3 cm thick are collected. The geometrical factors of scarp dip, scarp height, top surface dip and colluvium dip are measured. Topographic shielding, density of the fault scarp and colluvium are also estimated. Afterwards, the samples are physically and chemically prepared in laboratory for elemental analysis and AMS measurements. In this study, we collected 584 samples from seven major faults in western Anatolia. Our first results indicate five earthquake sequences in the Priene-Sazlı fault since early Holocene with a recurrence interval of approximately 2000 years and slip of 1.3 to 2.9 meters. The two most recent ruptures are correlated with 1955 and 68 AD earthquakes. A slip rate of roughly 1 mm/yr throughout the activity periods is estimated. Regarding the rupture length, the fault has potential

  6. Rupture

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel


    Our Director-General is indifferent to the tradition of concertation foreseen in our statutes and is "culturally" unable to associate the Staff Association with problem-solving in staff matters. He drags his heels as long as possible before entering into negotiations, presents "often misleading" solutions at the last minute which he only accepts to change once a power struggle has been established. Faced with this rupture and despite its commitment to concertation between gentlemen. The results of the poll in which the staff is invited to participate this week. We therefore need your support to state our claims to the Governing Bodies. The Staff Association proposes a new medium of communication and thus hopes to show that it is ready for future negotiations. The pages devoted to the Staff Association are presented in a more informative, reactive and factual manner and in line with the evolution of the social situation at CERN. We want to establish strong and continuous ties between the members of CERN and ou...

  7. Quaternary Geology and Surface Faulting Hazard: Active and Capable Faults in Central Apennines, Italy (United States)

    Falcucci, E.; Gori, S.


    The 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.1), in central Italy, raised the issue of surface faulting hazard in Italy, since large urban areas were affected by surface displacement along the causative structure, the Paganica fault. Since then, guidelines for microzonation were drew up that take into consideration the problem of surface faulting in Italy, and laying the bases for future regulations about related hazard, similarly to other countries (e.g. USA). More specific guidelines on the management of areas affected by active and capable faults (i.e. able to produce surface faulting) are going to be released by National Department of Civil Protection; these would define zonation of areas affected by active and capable faults, with prescriptions for land use planning. As such, the guidelines arise the problem of the time interval and general operational criteria to asses fault capability for the Italian territory. As for the chronology, the review of the international literature and regulatory allowed Galadini et al. (2012) to propose different time intervals depending on the ongoing tectonic regime - compressive or extensional - which encompass the Quaternary. As for the operational criteria, the detailed analysis of the large amount of works dealing with active faulting in Italy shows that investigations exclusively based on surface morphological features (e.g. fault planes exposition) or on indirect investigations (geophysical data), are not sufficient or even unreliable to define the presence of an active and capable fault; instead, more accurate geological information on the Quaternary space-time evolution of the areas affected by such tectonic structures is needed. A test area for which active and capable faults can be first mapped based on such a classical but still effective methodological approach can be the central Apennines. Reference Galadini F., Falcucci E., Galli P., Giaccio B., Gori S., Messina P., Moro M., Saroli M., Scardia G., Sposato A. (2012). Time

  8. Rapid modeling of complex multi-fault ruptures with simplistic models from real-time GPS: Perspectives from the 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikoura earthquake (United States)

    Crowell, B.; Melgar, D.


    The 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikoura earthquake is one of the most complex earthquakes in recent history, rupturing across at least 10 disparate faults with varying faulting styles, and exhibiting intricate surface deformation patterns. The complexity of this event has motivated the need for multidisciplinary geophysical studies to get at the underlying source physics to better inform earthquake hazards models in the future. However, events like Kaikoura beg the question of how well (or how poorly) such earthquakes can be modeled automatically in real-time and still satisfy the general public and emergency managers. To investigate this question, we perform a retrospective real-time GPS analysis of the Kaikoura earthquake with the G-FAST early warning module. We first perform simple point source models of the earthquake using peak ground displacement scaling and a coseismic offset based centroid moment tensor (CMT) inversion. We predict ground motions based on these point sources as well as simple finite faults determined from source scaling studies, and validate against true recordings of peak ground acceleration and velocity. Secondly, we perform a slip inversion based upon the CMT fault orientations and forward model near-field tsunami maximum expected wave heights to compare against available tide gauge records. We find remarkably good agreement between recorded and predicted ground motions when using a simple fault plane, with the majority of disagreement in ground motions being attributable to local site effects, not earthquake source complexity. Similarly, the near-field tsunami maximum amplitude predictions match tide gauge records well. We conclude that even though our models for the Kaikoura earthquake are devoid of rich source complexities, the CMT driven finite fault is a good enough "average" source and provides useful constraints for rapid forecasting of ground motion and near-field tsunami amplitudes.

  9. Fault geometry of 2015, Mw7.2 Murghab, Tajikistan earthquake controls rupture propagation: Insights from InSAR and seismological data (United States)

    Sangha, Simran; Peltzer, Gilles; Zhang, Ailin; Meng, Lingsen; Liang, Cunren; Lundgren, Paul; Fielding, Eric


    Combining space-based geodetic and array seismology observations can provide detailed information about earthquake ruptures in remote regions. Here we use Landsat-8 imagery and ALOS-2 and Sentinel-1 radar interferometry data combined with data from the European seismology network to describe the source of the December 7, 2015, Mw7.2 Murghab (Tajikistan) earthquake. The earthquake reactivated a ∼79 km-long section of the Sarez-Karakul Fault, a NE oriented sinistral, trans-tensional fault in northern Pamir. Pixel offset data delineate the geometry of the surface break and line of sight ground shifts from two descending and three ascending interferograms constrain the fault dip and slip solution. Two right-stepping, NE-striking segments connected by a more easterly oriented segment, sub-vertical or steeply dipping to the west were involved. The solution shows two main patches of slip with up to 3.5 m of left lateral slip on the southern and central fault segments. The northern segment has a left-lateral and normal oblique slip of up to a meter. Back-projection of high-frequency seismic waves recorded by the European network, processed using the Multitaper-MUSIC approach, focuses sharply along the surface break. The time progression of the high-frequency radiators shows that, after a 10 second initiation phase at slow speed, the rupture progresses in 2 phases at super-shear velocity (∼4.3-5 km/s) separated by a 3 second interval of slower propagation corresponding to the passage through the restraining bend. The intensity of the high-frequency radiation reaches maxima during the initial and middle phases of slow propagation and is reduced by ∼50% during the super-shear phases of the propagation. These findings are consistent with studies of other strike-slip earthquakes in continental domain, showing the importance of fault geometric complexities in controlling the speed of fault propagation and related spatiotemporal pattern of the high-frequency radiation.

  10. Wavelet Packet based Detection of Surface Faults on Compact Discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Wickerhauser, Mladen Victor


    In this paper the detection of faults on the surface of a compact disc is addressed. Surface faults like scratches and fingerprints disturb the on-line measurement of the pick-up position relative to the track. This is critical since the pick-up is focused on and tracked at the information track...... based on these measurements. A precise detection of the surface fault is a prerequisite to a correct handling of the faults in order to protect the pick-up of the compact disc player from audible track losses. The actual fault handling which is addressed in other publications can be carried out...... by the use of dedicated filters adapted to remove the faults from the measurements. In this paper detection using wavelet packet filters is demonstrated. The filters are designed using the joint best basis method. Detection using these filters shows a distinct improvement compared to detection using ordinary...

  11. Hydraulic properties of a low permeable rupture zone on the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault activated during the Wenchuan earthquake, China : Implications for fluid conduction, fault sealing and dynamic weakening mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, Qingbao; Yang, Xiaosong; Chen, J.


    Fluid transport properties of fault rocks are crucial parameters that affect earthquake nucleation and rupture propagation. In this study, we examined the internal structure, mineral composition and fluid transport properties of fault rocks collected from two shallow boreholes penetrating a granitic

  12. The 2016 Kaikōura Earthquake Revealed by Kinematic Source Inversion and Seismic Wavefield Simulations: Slow Rupture Propagation on a Geometrically Complex Crustal Fault Network (United States)

    Holden, C.; Kaneko, Y.; D'Anastasio, E.; Benites, R.; Fry, B.; Hamling, I. J.


    The 2016 Kaikōura (New Zealand) earthquake generated large ground motions and resulted in multiple onshore and offshore fault ruptures, a profusion of triggered landslides, and a regional tsunami. Here we examine the rupture evolution using two kinematic modeling techniques based on analysis of local strong-motion and high-rate GPS data. Our kinematic models capture a complex pattern of slowly (Vr source region, mostly on the Kekerengu fault, 60 s after the origin time. Both models indicate rupture reactivation on the Kekerengu fault with the time separation of 11 s between the start of the original failure and start of the subsequent one. We further conclude that most near-source waveforms can be explained by slip on the crustal faults, with little (<8%) or no contribution from the subduction interface.

  13. The 2016 central Italy earthquake sequence: surface effects, fault model and triggering scenarios (United States)

    Chatzipetros, Alexandros; Pavlides, Spyros; Papathanassiou, George; Sboras, Sotiris; Valkaniotis, Sotiris; Georgiadis, George


    The results of fieldwork performed during the 2016 earthquake sequence around the karstic basins of Norcia and La Piana di Castelluccio, at an altitude of 1400 m, on the Monte Vettore (altitude 2476 m) and Vettoretto, as well as the three mapped seismogenic faults, striking NNW-SSW, are presented in this paper. Surface co-seismic ruptures were observed in the Vettore and Vettoretto segment of the fault for several kilometres ( 7 km) in the August earthquakes at high altitudes, and were re-activated and expanded northwards during the October earthquakes. Coseismic ruptures and the neotectonic Mt. Vettore fault zone were modelled in detail using images acquired from specifically planned UAV (drone) flights. Ruptures, typically with displacement of up to 20 cm, were observed after the August event both in the scree and weathered mantle (elluvium), as well as the bedrock, consisting mainly of fragmented carbonate rocks with small tectonic surfaces. These fractures expanded and new ones formed during the October events, typically of displacements of up to 50 cm, although locally higher displacements of up to almost 2 m were observed. Hundreds of rock falls and landslides were mapped through satellite imagery, using pre- and post- earthquake Sentinel 2A images. Several of them were also verified in the field. Based on field mapping results and seismological information, the causative faults were modelled. The model consists of five seismogenic sources, each one associated with a strong event in the sequence. The visualisation of the seismogenic sources follows INGV's DISS standards for the Individual Seismogenic Sources (ISS) layer, while strike, dip and rake of the seismic sources are obtained from selected focal mechanisms. Based on this model, the ground deformation pattern was inferred, using Okada's dislocation solution formulae, which shows that the maximum calculated vertical displacement is 0.53 m. This is in good agreement with the statistical analysis of the

  14. Seismic potential of weak, near-surface faults revealed at plate tectonic slip rates. (United States)

    Ikari, Matt J; Kopf, Achim J


    The near-surface areas of major faults commonly contain weak, phyllosilicate minerals, which, based on laboratory friction measurements, are assumed to creep stably. However, it is now known that shallow faults can experience tens of meters of earthquake slip and also host slow and transient slip events. Laboratory experiments are generally performed at least two orders of magnitude faster than plate tectonic speeds, which are the natural driving conditions for major faults; the absence of experimental data for natural driving rates represents a critical knowledge gap. We use laboratory friction experiments on natural fault zone samples at driving rates of centimeters per year to demonstrate that there is abundant evidence of unstable slip behavior that was not previously predicted. Specifically, weak clay-rich fault samples generate slow slip events (SSEs) and have frictional properties favorable for earthquake rupture. Our work explains growing field observations of shallow SSE and surface-breaking earthquake slip, and predicts that such phenomena should be more widely expected.

  15. Hazard-consistent ground motions generated with a stochastic fault-rupture model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Akemi, E-mail: [Center for Computational Science and e-Systems, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 178-4-4, Wakashiba, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0871 (Japan); Igarashi, Sayaka, E-mail: [Technology Center, Taisei Corporation, 344-1 Nase-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama 245-0051 (Japan); Sakamoto, Shigehiro, E-mail: [Technology Center, Taisei Corporation, 344-1 Nase-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama 245-0051 (Japan); Uchiyama, Yasuo, E-mail: [Technology Center, Taisei Corporation, 344-1 Nase-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama 245-0051 (Japan); Yamamoto, Yu, E-mail: [Technology Center, Taisei Corporation, 344-1 Nase-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama 245-0051 (Japan); Muramatsu, Ken, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Safety Engineering, Tokyo City University, 1-28-1 Tamazutsumi, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8557 (Japan); Takada, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: [Department of Architecture, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)


    obtain these acceleration deviations. A similar tendency can be found for some other seismic-source characteristics, meaning that ground motions obtained in this study cannot be generated by simulations of deterministic fault-rupture models with averaged seismic-source characteristics. Generated ground motions incorporate differences between each seismic-source characteristic, and they are effectively available for PRAs of structures.

  16. Fault type predictions from stress distributions on planetary surfaces - Importance of fault initiation depth (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.


    The prediction of fault type on planetary surfaces from model stresses calculated at depth is discussed. These fault-type predictions yield different faults than those predicted using the surface criteria commonly employed in geophysical models. For elastic-plate flexure models of mascon loading on the moon, stresses calculated at the surface predict the occurrence of strike-slip faulting at the radial distance where grabens are found. Normal faults bounding lunar grabens and thrust faults responsible for wrinkle ridges are analyzed. It is found that the former initiate at the mechanical discontinuity that separates the breccia of the megaregolith from in situ fractured rock and that the latter initiate at the mechanical discontinuity between basalt layers and the underlying basin floor. The difference between elastic constants for the outer few kilometers of brecciated megaregolith and the underlying lunar lithosphere are evaluated. Superposing nonisotropic stresses resulting from the weight of overburden to the depth of the relevant mechanical discontinuity yield stresses that predict wrinkle ridges in the basin centers and grabens outside the basin margin, and eliminate the predicted zone of strike-slip faults.

  17. Ground-rupturing earthquakes on the northern Big Bend of the San Andreas Fault, California, 800 A.D. to Present (United States)

    Scharer, Katherine M.; Weldon, Ray; Biasi, Glenn; Streig, Ashley; Fumal, Thomas E.


    Paleoseismic data on the timing of ground-rupturing earthquakes constrain the recurrence behavior of active faults and can provide insight on the rupture history of a fault if earthquakes dated at neighboring sites overlap in age and are considered correlative. This study presents the evidence and ages for 11 earthquakes that occurred along the Big Bend section of the southern San Andreas Fault at the Frazier Mountain paleoseismic site. The most recent earthquake to rupture the site was the Mw7.7–7.9 Fort Tejon earthquake of 1857. We use over 30 trench excavations to document the structural and sedimentological evolution of a small pull-apart basin that has been repeatedly faulted and folded by ground-rupturing earthquakes. A sedimentation rate of 0.4 cm/yr and abundant organic material for radiocarbon dating contribute to a record that is considered complete since 800 A.D. and includes 10 paleoearthquakes. Earthquakes have ruptured this location on average every ~100 years over the last 1200 years, but individual intervals range from ~22 to 186 years. The coefficient of variation of the length of time between earthquakes (0.7) indicates quasiperiodic behavior, similar to other sites along the southern San Andreas Fault. Comparison with the earthquake chronology at neighboring sites along the fault indicates that only one other 1857-size earthquake could have occurred since 1350 A.D., and since 800 A.D., the Big Bend and Mojave sections have ruptured together at most 50% of the time in Mw ≥ 7.3 earthquakes.

  18. Afterslip-dominated surface rupture in the M6.0 South Napa Earthquake as constrained by structure-from-motion analysis and terrestrial laser scanning (United States)

    DeLong, S. B.; Pickering, A.; Scharer, K. M.; Hudnut, K. W.; Lienkaemper, J. J.


    Near-fault surface deformation associated with the August 24, 2014 M6.0 South Napa earthquake included both coseismic and post-seismic slip. Initial synthesis of field observations and initial measurement and modeling of afterslip from traditional survey methods indicate that coseismic slip was minimal (study site is 6 km north of the southern end of the 15 km long surface rupture and 5 km south of the highest measured co-seismic slip. We used structure-from-motion (SfM) methods to mosaic, orthorectify, and generate dense point clouds from the photos. SfM data corroborates survey-based ground observations of limited (~5 cm or less) coseismic slip along the fault trace between CA State Highway 12 and Withers Road, on discontinuous left-stepping en echelon ruptures. By August 26, the surface rupture became nearly continuous, and cultural features extracted from the TLS point clouds indicate horizontal slip magnitudes between 15 and 27 cm, increasing northward. By September 22, slip magnitudes had increased to between 26 and 46 cm. The lower slip magnitudes are to the south at Withers Road, and the general trend is increased slip to the north, but there is more slip variability along the fault trace in the September 15 data. From August 26 to September 15, the west side of the fault trace uplifted between 0.5 and 5 cm relative to east side. Increased relief on the surface rupture itself indicated a slight compressional component of the deformation. These results confirm that post-event air photos can be useful for rapid 3D mapping, and that the unparalleled accuracy of TLS data can be used to quantify even very subtle deformation patterns in three dimensions and document changes through time.

  19. Earthquake rupture at focal depth, part II: mechanics of the 2004 M2.2 earthquake along the Pretorius Fault, TauTona Mine, South Africa (United States)

    Heesakkers, V.; Murphy, S.; Lockner, D.A.; Reches, Z.


    We analyze here the rupture mechanics of the 2004, M2.2 earthquake based on our observations and measurements at focal depth (Part I). This event ruptured the Archean Pretorius fault that has been inactive for at least 2 Ga, and was reactivated due to mining operations down to a depth of 3.6 km depth. Thus, it was expected that the Pretorius fault zone will fail similarly to an intact rock body independently of its ancient healed structure. Our analysis reveals a few puzzling features of the M2.2 rupture-zone: (1) the earthquake ruptured four, non-parallel, cataclasite bearing segments of the ancient Pretorius fault-zone; (2) slip occurred almost exclusively along the cataclasite-host rock contacts of the slipping segments; (3) the local in-situ stress field is not favorable to slip along any of these four segments; and (4) the Archean cataclasite is pervasively sintered and cemented to become brittle and strong. To resolve these observations, we conducted rock mechanics experiments on the fault-rocks and host-rocks and found a strong mechanical contrast between the quartzitic cataclasite zones, with elastic-brittle rheology, and the host quartzites, with damage, elastic–plastic rheology. The finite-element modeling of a heterogeneous fault-zone with the measured mechanical contrast indicates that the slip is likely to reactivate the ancient cataclasite-bearing segments, as observed, due to the strong mechanical contrast between the cataclasite and the host quartzitic rock.

  20. Spatial variations in fault friction related to lithology from rupture and afterslip of the 2014 South Napa, California, earthquake (United States)

    Michael Floyd,; Richard Walters,; John Elliot,; Funning, Gareth J.; Svarc, Jerry L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Andy Hooper,; Yngvar Larsen,; Petar Marinkovic,; Bürgmann, Roland; Johanson, Ingrid; Tim Wright,


    Following earthquakes, faults are often observed to continue slipping aseismically. It has been proposed that this afterslip occurs on parts of the fault with rate-strengthening friction that are stressed by the mainshock, but our understanding has been limited by a lack of immediate, high-resolution observations. Here we show that the behavior of afterslip following the 2014 South Napa earthquake varied over distances of only a few kilometers. This variability cannot be explained by coseismic stress changes alone. We present daily positions from continuous and survey GPS sites that we re-measured within 12 hours of the mainshock, and surface displacements from the new Sentinel-1 radar mission. This unique geodetic data set constrains the distribution and evolution of coseismic and postseismic fault slip with exceptional resolution in space and time. We suggest that the observed heterogeneity in behavior is caused by lithological controls on the frictional properties of the fault plane.

  1. S-wave attenuation in northeastern Sonora, Mexico, near the faults that ruptured during the earthquake of 3 May 1887 Mw 7.5. (United States)

    Villalobos-Escobar, Gina P; Castro, Raúl R


    We used a new data set of relocated earthquakes recorded by the Seismic Network of Northeastern Sonora, Mexico (RESNES) to characterize the attenuation of S-waves in the fault zone of the 1887 Sonora earthquake (M w 7.5). We determined spectral attenuation functions for hypocentral distances (r) between 10 and 140 km using a nonparametric approach and found that in this fault zone the spectral amplitudes decay slower with distance at low frequencies (f fault system that rupture during the 1887 event, in the north-south direction, are considerably lower than the average Q estimated using source-station paths from multiple stations and directions. These results indicate that near the fault zone S waves attenuate considerably more than at regional scale, particularly at low frequencies. This may be the result of strong scattering near the faults due to the fractured upper crust and higher intrinsic attenuation due to stress concentration near the faults.

  2. Fault detection by surface seismic scanning tunneling macroscope: Field test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.


    The seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) is proposed for detecting the presence of near-surface impedance anomalies and faults. Results with synthetic data are consistent with theory in that scatterers closer to the surface provide brighter SSTM profiles than those that are deeper. The SSTM profiles show superresolution detection if the scatterers are in the near-field region of the recording line. The field data tests near Gulf of Aqaba, Haql, KSA clearly show the presence of the observable fault scarp, and identify the subsurface presence of the hidden faults indicated in the tomograms. Superresolution detection of the fault is achieved, even when the 35 Hz data are lowpass filtered to the 5-10 Hz band.

  3. A Model of Rupturing Lithospheric Faults with Reoccurring Earthquakes Read More:

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubíček, Tomáš; Souček, O.; Vodička, R.


    Roč. 73, č. 4 (2013), s. 1460-1488 ISSN 0036-1399 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : seismic fault rupture * tectonic earthquakes * activated processes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.414, year: 2013

  4. Surface creep and slip-behavior segmentation along the northwestern Xianshuihe fault zone of southwestern China determined from decades of fault-crossing short-baseline and short-level surveys (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wen, Xue-ze; Cao, Jian-ling; Yan, Wei; Yang, Yong-lin; Su, Qin


    This study examines the 200-km-long northwestern Xianshuihe fault zone (NWXFZ), southwestern China, using more than three decades of geodetic observations from fault-crossing short-baseline and short-leveling surveys at seven sites. These data enable estimates of creep rates and depths, and examination of the long-term slip behavior. The surface motion of the NWXFZ is dominated by sinistral creep, although sinistral, transverse, and vertical slip components show spatio-temporal variations. Combining these slip variations with data of earthquake rupture, coseismic slip, seismicity, fault geometry, and far-fault movement velocity, and using the velocity-and-state friction theory, our analysis indicates that the surface slip behavior of the NWXFZ is segmented along strike. The 1973 rupture section of this fault zone exhibits spatio-temporally variable slip behavior, showing time-decaying post-1973 afterslip on the northwestern and southeastern parts of the rupture at depths above 5.8 - 7.0 km with average sinistral-creep rates of 1.3 and 3.5 mm/yr, respectively, but being relocked in the central part of the rupture. The 1923/1981 rupture section is generally in locking state, with postseismic and interseismic sinistral-creep at 1.1 mm/yr on its central part at depths above 2.0-2.8 km. The 1893 rupture section has been tightly locked without creep since at least the early 1980s. The thickness of the shallow velocity-strengthening (or creep) layer and the restraining bend geometry of the NWXFZ are the key factors that control spatio-temporal variations in surface creep rates. Two surface-observed locked fault portions are located within two different restraining bends in the NWXFZ, both of which act as compressive asperities and hence have enabled the long-term locking of these portions. Creep along the NWXFZ has also been affected to varying degrees by M6.5 - Mw9.2 earthquakes at distances of 50 - 3800 km from the fault zone. Most of these effects have been removed

  5. Reassessment of the 1892 Laguna Salada Earthquake: Fault Kinematics and Rupture Patterns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rockwell, T.K.; Fletcher, J.M.; Teran, O.J.; Hernandez, A.P.; Mueller, K.J.; Salisbury, J.B.; Akciz, S.O.; Štěpančíková, Petra


    Roč. 105, č. 6 (2015), s. 2885-2893 ISSN 0037-1106 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12078 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : paleoseismology * earthquakes * fault kinematics * Laguna Salada * Mexico Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.311, year: 2015

  6. Evaluating the potential for catastrophic fault-rupture-related hazards affecting a key hydroelectric and irrigation region in central Asia (United States)

    Rust, D.; Korjenkov, A.; Tibaldi, A.; Usmanova, M.


    The Toktogul hydroelectric and irrigation scheme is the largest in central Asia, with a reservoir containing almost 20 km3 of water behind a 230 m-high dam. Annually, the scheme generates 1200 MW of electricity that is distributed over Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Russia. The scheme is vital for the economic, social and agricultural stability and development of the emerging central Asian republics it serves and, since it is no longer administered centrally as it was in Soviet times, is increasingly the focus of cross-border tensions involving competing needs for irrigation water and power supplies. Our work aims to identify and evaluate potential geo-environmental threats to this region for the benefit of stakeholders; with recommendations for measures to mitigate a range of threat scenarios, presented in a user-friendly GIS format. Most notably these scenarios involve the potential for very large magnitude earthquakes, with associated widespread slope instability, occurring on the little known Talas - Fergana fault. This structure, some 700 km long, bisects the Toktogul region within the actively (~20 mm a-1) contracting Tien Shan mountain range and exhibits geological characteristics similar to large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas. Historical records are limited in this inaccessible mountainous region that, until Soviet times, was occupied by mainly nomadic peoples, but do not indicate recent fault rupture. This highlights the role of geological investigations in assembling a record of past catastrophic events to serve as a guide for what may be expected in the future, as well as the inherent difficulties in attempting geological forecasts to a precision that is useful on human timescales. Such forecasts in this region must also include the presence of some 23 uranium mining waste dumps within the mountain valleys, a legacy from Soviet times, as well as arsenic-rich waste dumps remaining from an earlier era of gold mining. Many

  7. Validation of meter-scale surface faulting offset measurements from high-resolution topographic data (United States)

    Salisbury, Barrett; Haddad, D.E.; Rockwell, T.K.; Arrowsmith, R.; Madugo, C.; Zielke, O.; Scharer, Katherine M.


    Studies of active fault zones have flourished with the availability of high-resolution topographic data, particularly where airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) and structure from motion (SfM) data sets provide a means to remotely analyze submeter-scale fault geomorphology. To determine surface offset at a point along a strike-slip earthquake rupture, geomorphic features (e.g., stream channels) are measured days to centuries after the event. Analysis of these and cumulatively offset features produces offset distributions for successive earthquakes that are used to understand earthquake rupture behavior. As researchers expand studies to more varied terrain types, climates, and vegetation regimes, there is an increasing need to standardize and uniformly validate measurements of tectonically displaced geomorphic features. A recently compiled catalog of nearly 5000 earthquake offsets across a range of measurement and reporting styles provides insight into quality rating and uncertainty trends from which we formulate best-practice and reporting recommendations for remote studies. In addition, a series of public and beginner-level studies validate the remote methodology for a number of tools and emphasize considerations to enhance measurement accuracy and precision for beginners and professionals. Our investigation revealed that (1) standardizing remote measurement methods and reporting quality rating schemes is essential for the utility and repeatability of fault-offset measurements; (2) measurement discrepancies often involve misinterpretation of the offset geomorphic feature and are a function of the investigator’s experience; (3) comparison of measurements made by a single investigator in different climatic regions reveals systematic differences in measurement uncertainties attributable to variation in feature preservation; (4) measuring more components of a displaced geomorphic landform produces more consistently repeatable estimates of offset; and (5

  8. Validation of meter-scale surface faulting offset measurements from high-resolution topographic data

    KAUST Repository

    Salisbury, J. Barrett


    Studies of active fault zones have flourished with the availability of high-resolution topographic data, particularly where airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) and structure from motion (SfM) data sets provide a means to remotely analyze submeter- scale fault geomorphology. To determine surface offset at a point along a strike-slip earthquake rupture, geomorphic features (e.g., stream channels) are measured days to centuries after the event. Analysis of these and cumulatively offset features produces offset distributions for successive earthquakes that are used to understand earthquake rupture behavior. As researchers expand studies to more varied terrain types, climates, and vegetation regimes, there is an increasing need to standardize and uniformly validate measurements of tectonically displaced geomorphic features. A recently compiled catalog of nearly 5000 earthquake offsets across a range of measurement and reporting styles provides insight into quality rating and uncertainty trends from which we formulate best-practice and reporting recommendations for remote studies. In addition, a series of public and beginner-level studies validate the remote methodology for a number of tools and emphasize considerations to enhance measurement accuracy and precision for beginners and professionals. Our investigation revealed that (1) standardizing remote measurement methods and reporting quality rating schemes is essential for the utility and repeatability of fault-offset measurements; (2) measurement discrepancies often involve misinterpretation of the offset geomorphic feature and are a function of the investigator\\'s experience; (3) comparison of measurements made by a single investigator in different climatic regions reveals systematic differences in measurement uncertainties attributable to variation in feature preservation; (4) measuring more components of a displaced geomorphic landform produces more consistently repeatable estimates of offset; and (5

  9. A Revision of Mars Seismicity from Surface Faulting (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.


    The seismic moment release of Mars is estimated from slip on faults visible on the surface through time and calibrated by the number of marsquakes expected throughout the lithosphere. Results indicate Mars is presently seismically active and a promising prospect for future seismic investigations.

  10. Rupture behaviors of the 2010 Jiashian and 2016 Meinong Earthquakes: Implication for interaction of two asperities on the Chishan Transfer Fault Zone in SW Taiwan. (United States)

    Jian, P. R.; Hung, S. H.; Chen, Y. L.; Meng, L.; Tseng, T. L.


    After about 45 years of seismic quiescence, southwest Taiwan was imperiled by two strong earthquakes, the 2010 Mw 6.2 Jiashian and deadly 2016 Mw 6.4 Meinong earthquakes in the last decade. The focal mechanisms and their aftershock distributions imply that both events occurred on NW-SE striking, shallow-dipping fault planes but at different depths of 21 and 16 km, respectively. Here we present the MUSIC back projection images using high-frequency P- and sP-waves recorded in the European and Australian seismic networks, the directivity analysis using global teleseismic P waves and relocated aftershocks to characterize the rupture behaviors of the two mainshocks and explore the potential connection between them. The results for the Meinong event indicate a unilateral, subhorizontal rupture propagating NW-ward 17 km and lasting for 6-7 s [Jian et al., 2017]. For the Jiashian event, the rupture initiated at a greater depth of 21 km and then propagated both NW-ward and up-dip ( 16o) on the fault plane, with a shorter rupture length of 10 km and duration of 4-5 s. The up-dip propagation is corroborated by the 3-D directivity analysis that leads to the widths of P-wave pulses increasing linearly with the directivity parameter. Moreover, relocation of aftershocks reveals that the Jiashian sequence is confined in a NW-SE elongated zone extending 15 km and 5 km shallower than the hypocenter. The Meinong aftershock sequence shows three clusters: one surrounding the mainshock hypocenter, another one distributed northwestern and deeper (>20 km) off the rupture plane beneath Tainan, and the other distant shallow-focus one (<10 km) beneath the southern Central Mountain Range. As evidenced by similar focal mechanism, rupture behaviors, as well as the spatial configuration of the mainshock rupture zones and aftershock distributions, we attribute the Jiashian and Meinong earthquakes to two asperities on a buried oblique fault that has been reactivated recently, the NW-SE striking

  11. A method and example of seismically imaging near‐surface fault zones in geologically complex areas using Vp, Vs, and their ratios (United States)

    Catchings, Rufus D.; Rymer, Michael J.; Goldman, Mark R.; Sickler, Robert R.; Criley, Coyn J.


    The determination of near‐surface (vadose zone and slightly below) fault locations and geometries is important because assessment of ground rupture, strong shaking, geologic slip rates, and rupture histories occurs at shallow depths. However, seismic imaging of fault zones at shallow depths can be difficult due to near‐surface complexities, such as weathering, groundwater saturation, massive (nonlayered) rocks, and vertically layered strata. Combined P‐ and S‐wave seismic‐refraction tomography data can overcome many of the near‐surface, fault‐zone seismic‐imaging problems because of differences in the responses of elastic (bulk and shear) moduli of P and S waves to shallow‐depth, fault‐zone properties. We show that high‐resolution refraction tomography images of P‐ to S‐wave velocity ratios (VP/VS) can reliably identify near‐surface faults. We demonstrate this method using tomography images of the San Andreas fault (SAF) surface‐rupture zone associated with the 18 April 1906 ∼M 7.9 San Francisco earthquake on the San Francisco peninsula in California. There, the SAF cuts through Franciscan mélange, which consists of an incoherent assemblage of greywacke, chert, greenstone, and serpentinite. A near‐vertical zone (∼75° northeast dip) of high P‐wave velocities (up to 3000  m/s), low S‐wave velocities (∼150–600  m/s), high VP/VS ratios (4–8.8), and high Poisson’s ratios (0.44–0.49) characterizes the main surface‐rupture zone to a depth of about 20 m and is consistent with nearby trench observations. We suggest that the combined VP/VSimaging approach can reliably identify most near‐surface fault zones in locations where many other seismic methods cannot be applied.

  12. A prediction of mars seismicity from surface faulting (United States)

    Golombek, M.P.; Banerdt, W.B.; Tanaka, K.L.; Tralli, D.M.


    The shallow seismicity of Mars has been estimated by measurement of the total slip on faults visible on the surface of the planet throughout geologic time. Seismicity was calibrated with estimates based on surface structures on the moon and measured lunar seismicity that includes the entire seismogenic lithosphere. Results indicate that Mars is seismically active today, with a sufficient number of detectable marsquakes to allow seismic investigations of its interior.

  13. Evaluation of surface blood flow in intact and ruptured canine cruciate ligaments using laser Doppler flowmetry. (United States)

    Testuz, Joakim; Howard, Judith; Pozzi, Antonio; Rytz, Ulrich; Krudewig, Christiane; Spreng, David; Forterre, Simone


    To evaluate the usefulness of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) to measure surface blood flow in canine cruciate ligaments, compare measurements in different sites of intact and partially ruptured canine cranial cruciate ligaments (CrCL) and intact caudal cruciate ligaments (CaCL), and investigate any association between surface blood flow in partially ruptured CrCL and synovitis or duration of clinical signs. Case-controlled clinical study. Sixteen dogs with partially ruptured CrCL and five dogs with intact CrCL. Blood cell flux (BCF) readings during three measurement cycles using LDF at two sites in each ligament (mid-substance and the distal portion of the CrCL, and mid-substance and the proximal portion of the CaCL) were recorded. Synovial changes were graded grossly and histologically using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International histopathology scoring system. The within-run coefficients of variation (CV) for a single BCF measurement cycle were 12.2% and 12.7% in the ruptured and intact CrCL groups, respectively. The between-run CV for three measurement cycles was 20.8% and 14.8%, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, absolute agreement) was 0.66 for a single measurement cycle and 0.86 for the average of three cycles. No difference in average BCF readings was found between any two sites in either group, but BCF readings in both CrCL sites were significantly higher in the ruptured CrCL group than the intact CrCL group. No associations between BCF and synovial grades or duration of lameness were identified. Laser Doppler flowmetry can be used to assess surface blood flow in intact and partially ruptured canine cruciate ligaments with acceptable precision. Using this method, surface blood flow appears greater in partially ruptured canine CrCL than intact CrCL. Further studies are required to determine if this is a sequela of trauma or synovitis.

  14. Dynamic surface fault tolerant control for underwater remotely operated vehicles. (United States)

    Baldini, Alessandro; Ciabattoni, Lucio; Felicetti, Riccardo; Ferracuti, Francesco; Freddi, Alessandro; Monteriù, Andrea


    In this paper, we present a two stages actuator Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) strategy for the trajectory tracking of a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). Dynamic Surface Control (DSC) is used to generate the moment and forces required by the vehicle to perform the desired motion. In the second stage of the control system, a fault tolerant thruster allocation policy is employed to distribute moment and forces among the thrusters. Exhaustive simulations have been carried out in order to compare the performance of the proposed solution with respect to different control techniques (i.e., PID, backstepping and sliding mode approaches). Saturations, actuator dynamics, sensor noises and time discretization are considered, in fault-free and faulty conditions. Furthermore, in order to provide a fair and exhaustive comparison of the control techniques, the same meta-heuristic approach, namely Artificial Bee Colony algorithm (ABC), has been employed to tune the controllers parameters. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Control Surface Fault Diagnosis for Small Autonomous Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren; Blanke, Mogens


    Small unmanned aerial vehicles require a large degree of fault-tolerance in order to fulfil their duties in an satisfactory way, both with respect to economy and safety in operation. Small aerial vehicles are commonly constructed without much redundancy in hardware, primarily for reasons of cost...... on hardware or are analytical, and formulates residuals from which faults can be prognosed or diagnosed. An approach is suggested where detailed modelling is not needed but normal behaviour is learned from short segments of flight data using adaptive methods for learning. Statistical characterisation...... of distributions and change detection methods are employed to reach decisions about not-normal behaviour and it is shown how control surface faults can be diagnosed for a specific UAV without adding additional hardware to the platform. Only telemetry data from the aircraft is used together with a basic model...

  16. Surface rupture characteristics of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake from field data and correlation of lidar and optical imagery (United States)

    Lajoie, L. J.; Nissen, E.; Hollingsworth, J.; Maruyama, T.; Chiba, T.


    The Kumamoto earthquake sequence of April, 2016 included a Mw 6.2 foreshock on April 14th, followed two days later by the Mw 7.0 mainshock. Here we present a preliminary investigation of the mainshock surface rupture and shallow slip characteristics, including an estimation of the shallow slip deficit and analysis of geometrical rupture propagation effects. We use a combination of fault offsets surveyed on the ground by the Geological Survey of Japan, together with near-field surface displacements calculated from lidar and optical image correlation. We use two 0.5 meter digital surface models provided by Asia Air Survey Co. that are derived from lidar data collected in surveys flown following the foreshock on April 15th, and eight days after the mainshock on April 24th. Although the surface models have not been processed to remove vegetation, the close temporal spacing of acquisitions minimizes non-tectonic surface changes. We also use 2 meter resolution SPOT 7 stereo images collected on December 12th, 2015 and April 20th, 2016. Although the elapsed time between acquisitions is larger for the SPOT 7 images than the lidar data (and includes foreshock surface deformation), it is possible to calculate 3-dimensional displacements using stereo-images and derivative digital elevation models. Lidar and optical datasets were each separately correlated using the COSI-Corr software package, allowing a qualitative comparison of the displacement fields from the two independent datasets. Ongoing work aims to compute the full 3-dimensional displacement field from both datasets.

  17. Deep underground recording of induced and natural earthquakes to investigate rupture processes and fault-zone strength (United States)

    McGarr, A.; Boettcher, M. S.; Fletcher, J. B.; Johnston, M. J.


    Seismic recording systems, installed at deep levels in mines or boreholes, yield seismograms from nearby earthquakes that are relatively free of ambient noise and secondary arrivals. This makes it straightforward to determine moment tensors and other source parameters of interest. The maximum slip within an earthquake rupture zone, inferred from the velocity pulse of the S wave, is combined with the seismic moment to define a laboratory stick-slip friction experiment that has the same maximum slip rate and yield stress as the earthquake. Ground motions from mining-induced earthquakes, of about M2, recorded using broadband stations installed at depths between 2 and 3.6 km in two of the deepest gold mines in South Africa were analyzed in this way to infer peak slip rates ranging up to about 10 m/s and yield stresses of as much as 150 MPa. Because the near-fault peak ground velocity is about half of the maximum slip rate, this result indicates that underground support should be capable of withstanding peak ground velocities of 5 m/s. Analysis of 11 mine tremors resulted in a median maximum slip rate of 3.8 m/s and a median yield stress of 62 MPa. The same analysis of ground motion from a M2.1 repeating earthquake near Parkfield, California, recorded in October 2003 using an extensive string of seismometers installed at depth in the SAFOD pilot hole, revealed similar results, a maximum slip rate of 4 m/s and a yield stress of 64 MPa. This similarity is somewhat unexpected in view of tectonic settings and pore pressures that are quite different. Whereas the mining-induced earthquakes occur in a stable tectonic setting and zero pore pressure environment, repeating earthquakes along the San Andreas are due to active plate-boundary faulting at hydrostatic pore pressure, at least near SAFOD. Analyses of heat flow data indicate that the shear strength of the San Andreas fault near SAFOD is less than 20 MPa and in situ stress measurements there show that the regional shear

  18. Soil gas distribution in the main coseismic surface rupture zone of the 1980, Ms = 6.9, Irpinia earthquake (southern Italy) (United States)

    Ciotoli, Giancarlo; Bigi, Sabina; Tartarello, Chiara; Sacco, Pietro; Lombardi, Salvatore; Ascione, Alessandra; Mazzoli, Stefano


    Soil gas measurements of different gas species with different geochemical behaviors were performed in the area of the Pecore Plain, a 200 m × 300 m sized, fault-bounded extensional basin located in the northern Mount Marzano massif, in the axial belt of the southern Apennine chain. The Pecore Plain area was affected by coseismic surface faulting during the Ms = 6.9, 1980 Irpinia earthquake, the strongest and most destructive seismic event of the last 30 years in southern Italy. The collected data and their geostatistical analysis provide new insights into the control exerted by active fault segments on deep-seated gas migration toward the surface. The results define anomalies that are aligned with the NW-SE trending coseismic rupture of the 1980 earthquake along the western border of the plain, as well as along the southern border of the plain where a hidden, E-W striking fault is inferred. Geospatial analysis highlights an anisotropic spatial behavior of 222Rn along the main NW-SE trend and of CO2 along the E-W trend. This feature suggests a correlation between the shape and orientation of the anomalies and the barrier/conduit behavior of fault zones in the area. Furthermore, our results show that gas migration through brittle deformation zones occurs by advective processes, as suggested by the relatively high migration rate needed to obtain anomalies of short-lived 222Rn in the soil pores.

  19. Tungsten surface evolution by helium bubble nucleation, growth and rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefta, Faiza; Wirth, Brian D.; Hammond, Karl D.; Juslin, Niklas


    Molecular dynamics simulations reveal sub-surface mechanisms likely involved in the initial formation of nanometre-sized ‘fuzz’ in tungsten exposed to low-energy helium plasmas. Helium clusters grow to over-pressurized bubbles as a result of repeated cycles of helium absorption and Frenkel pair formation. The self-interstitials either reach the surface as isolated adatoms or trap at the bubble periphery before organizing into prismatic 〈1 1 1〉 dislocation loops. Surface roughening occurs as single adatoms migrate to the surface, prismatic loops glide to the surface to form adatom islands, and ultimately as over-pressurized gas bubbles burst. (paper)

  20. Feature-based handling of surface faults in compact disc players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle


    In this paper a novel method called feature-based control is presented. The method is designed to improve compact disc players’ handling of surface faults on the discs. The method is based on a fault-tolerant control scheme, which uses extracted features of the surface faults to remove those from...... the detector signals used for control during the occurrence of surface faults. The extracted features are coefficients of Karhunen–Loève approximations of the surface faults. The performance of the feature-based control scheme controlling compact disc players playing discs with surface faults has been...... validated experimentally. The proposed scheme reduces the control errors due to the surface faults, and in some cases where the standard fault handling scheme fails, our scheme keeps the CD-player playing....

  1. The Surface faulting produced by the 30 October 2016 Mw 6.5 Central Italy earthquake: the Open EMERGEO Working Group experience (United States)

    Pantosti, Daniela


    The October 30, 2016 (06:40 UTC) Mw 6.5 earthquake occurred about 28 km NW of Amatrice village as the result of upper crust normal faulting on a nearly 30 km-long, NW-SE oriented, SW dipping fault system in the Central Apennines. This earthquake is the strongest Italian seismic event since the 1980 Mw 6.9 Irpinia earthquake. The Mw 6.5 event was the largest shock of a seismic sequence, which began on August 24 with a Mw 6.0 earthquake and also included a Mw 5.9 earthquake on October 26, about 9 and 35 km NW of Amatrice village, respectively. Field surveys of coseismic geological effects at the surface started within hours of the mainshock and were carried out by several national and international teams of earth scientists (about 120 people) from different research institutions and universities coordinated by the EMERGEO Working Group of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. This collaborative effort was focused on the detailed recognition and mapping of: 1) the total extent of the October 30 coseismic surface ruptures, 2) their geometric and kinematic characteristics, 3) the coseismic displacement distribution along the activated fault system, including subsidiary and antithetic ruptures. The huge amount of collected data (more than 8000 observation points of several types of coseismic effects at the surface) were stored, managed and shared using a specifically designed spreadsheet to populate a georeferenced database. More comprehensive mapping of the details and extent of surface rupture was facilitated by Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry surveys by means of several helicopter flights. An almost continuous alignment of ruptures about 30 km long, N150/160 striking, mainly SW side down was observed along the already known active Mt. Vettore - Mt. Bove fault system. The mapped ruptures occasionally overlapped those of the August 24 Mw 6.0 and October 26 Mw 5.9 shocks. The coincidence between the observed surface ruptures and the trace of active

  2. Fault Detection in Surface PMSM with Applications to Heavy Hybrid Vehicles


    Johnson, Scott; Meyer, Richard T; DeCarlo, Raymond A.; Pekarek, Steve


    This report explores detecting inter-turn short circuit (ITSC) faults in surface permanent magnet synchronous machines (SPMSM). ITSC faults are caused by electrical insulation failures in the stator windings and can lead to shorts to ground and even fires. This report proposes methods for detecting these faults using a moving horizon observer (MHO) to reduce the chance of electrical shocks and fires. Specifically, this report constructs a MHO for ITSC fault detection in SPMSM. ITSC fault t...

  3. Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake (United States)

    Hayes, G.P.; Briggs, R.W.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E.J.; Prentice, C.; Hudnut, K.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F.W.; Crone, A.J.; Gold, R.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.


    Initially, the devastating Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone. Here, we combine seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process may have involved slip on multiple faults. Primary surface deformation was driven by rupture on blind thrust faults with only minor, deep, lateral slip along or near the main Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone; thus the event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. Together with the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting, the lack of surface deformation implies that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone, as occurred in inferred Holocene and probable historic events. We suggest that the geological signature of this earthquakeg-broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zoneg-will not be easily recognized by standard palaeoseismic studies. We conclude that similarly complex earthquakes in tectonic environments that accommodate both translation and convergenceg-such as the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges of Californiag-may be missing from the prehistoric earthquake record. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  4. Pulsed strain release on the Altyn Tagh fault, northwest China (United States)

    Gold, Ryan D.; Cowgill, Eric; Arrowsmith, J. Ramón; Friedrich, Anke M.


    Earthquake recurrence models assume that major surface-rupturing earthquakes are followed by periods of reduced rupture probability as stress rebuilds. Although purely periodic, time- or slip-predictable rupture models are known to be oversimplifications, a paucity of long records of fault slip clouds understanding of fault behavior and earthquake recurrence over multiple ruptures. Here, we report a 16 kyr history of fault slip—including a pulse of accelerated slip from 6.4 to 6.0 ka—determined using a Monte Carlo analysis of well-dated offset landforms along the central Altyn Tagh strike-slip fault (ATF) in northwest China. This pulse punctuates a median rate of 8.1+1.2/−0.9 mm/a and likely resulted from either a flurry of temporally clustered ∼Mw 7.5 ground-rupturing earthquakes or a single large >Mw 8.2 earthquake. The clustered earthquake scenario implies rapid re-rupture of a fault reach >195 km long and indicates decoupled rates of elastic strain energy accumulation versus dissipation, conceptualized as a crustal stress battery. If the pulse reflects a single event, slip-magnitude scaling implies that it ruptured much of the ATF with slip similar to, or exceeding, the largest documented historical ruptures. Both scenarios indicate fault rupture behavior that deviates from classic time- or slip-predictable models.

  5. Thick deltaic sedimentation and detachment faulting delay the onset of continental rupture in the Northern Gulf of California: Analysis of seismic reflection profiles (United States)

    Martin, A.; González-Escobar, M.; Fletcher, J. M.; Pacheco, M.; Oskin, M. E.; Dorsey, R. J.


    The transition from distributed continental extension to the rupture of continental lithosphere is imaged in the northern Gulf of California across the obliquely conjugate Tiburón-Upper Delfín basin segment. Structural mapping on a 5-20 km grid of seismic reflection lines of Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) demonstrates that ~1000% extension is accommodated on a series of NNE-striking listric-normal faults that merge at depth into a detachment fault. The detachment juxtaposes a late-Neogene marine sequence over thinned continental crust and contains an intrabasinal divide due to footwall uplift. Two northwest striking, dextral-oblique faults bound both ends of the detachment and shear the continental crust parallel to the tectonic transport. A regional unconformity in the upper 0.5 seconds (TWTT) and crest erosion of rollover anticlines above the detachment indicates inversion and footwall uplift during the lithospheric rupture in the Upper Delfin and Lower Delfin basins. The maximum length of new crust in both Delfin basins is less than 40 km based on the lack of an acoustic basement and the absence of a lower sedimentary sequence beneath a wedge shaped upper sequence that reaches >5 km in thickness. A fundamental difference exists between the Tiburón-Delfin segment and the Guaymas segment to the south in terms of presence of low angle normal faults and amount of new oceanic lithosphere, which we attribute to thermal insulation, diffuse upper-plate extension, and slip on low angle normal faults engendered by a thick sedimentary lid.

  6. Rupture and Spreading Dynamics of Lipid Membranes on a Solid Surface (United States)

    Perazzo, Antonio; Shin, Sangwoo; Colosqui, Carlos; Young, Yuan-Nan; Stone, Howard A.


    The spreading of lipid membranes on solid surfaces is a dynamic phenomenon relevant to drug delivery, endocytosis, biofouling, and the synthesis of supported lipid bilayers. Current technological developments are limited by an incomplete understanding of the spreading and adhesion dynamics of a lipid bilayer under different physicochemical conditions. Here, we present recent experimental and theoretical results for the spreading of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), where the vesicle shell consists of a lipid bilayer. In particular, we study the effect of different background ion concentrations, osmolarity mismatches between the interior and the exterior of the vesicles, and different surface chemistries of the glass substrate. In all of the studied cases, we observe a delay time before a GUV in contact with the solid surface eventually ruptures. The rupture kinetics and subsequent spreading dynamics is controlled by the ionic screening within the thin film of liquid between the vesicle and the surface. Different rupture mechanisms, mobilities of the spreading vesicle, and degrees of substrate coverage are observed by varying the electrolyte concentration, solid surface charge, and osmolarity mismatch.

  7. Direct detection of near-surface faults by migration of back-scattered surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han


    We show that diffraction stack migration can be used to estimate the distribution of near-surface faults. The assumption is that near-surface faults generate detectable back-scattered surface waves from impinging surface waves. The processing steps are to isolate the back-scattered surface waves, and then migrate them by diffraction migration using the surface wave velocity as the migration velocity. Instead of summing events along trial quasi-hyperbolas, surface wave migration sums events along trial quasi-linear trajectories that correspond to the moveout of back-scattered surface waves. A deconvolution filter derived from the data can be used to collapse a dispersive arrival into a non-dispersive event. Results with synthetic data and field records validate the feasibility of this method. Applying this method to USArray data or passively recorded exploration data might open new opportunities in mapping tectonic features over the extent of the array.

  8. SEISMOLOGY: Watching the Hayward Fault. (United States)

    Simpson, R W


    The Hayward fault, located on the east side of the San Francisco Bay, represents a natural laboratory for seismologists, because it does not sleep silently between major earthquakes. In his Perspective, Simpson discusses the study by Bürgmann et al., who have used powerful new techniques to study the fault. The results indicate that major earthquakes cannot originate in the northern part of the fault. However, surface-rupturing earthquakes have occurred in the area, suggesting that they originated to the north or south of the segment studied by Bürgmann et al. Fundamental questions remain regarding the mechanism by which plate tectonic stresses are transferred to the Hayward fault.

  9. Paleoseismological evidence of surface faulting along the northeastern Himalayan front, India: Timing, size, and spatial extent of great earthquakes (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil; Wesnousky, Steven G.; Jayangondaperumal, R.; Nakata, T.; Kumahara, Y.; Singh, Vimal


    The ˜2500 km long Himalayan arc has experienced three large to great earthquakes of Mw 7.8 to 8.4 during the past century, but none produced surface rupture. Paleoseismic studies have been conducted during the last decade to begin understanding the timing, size, rupture extent, return period, and mechanics of the faulting associated with the occurrence of large surface rupturing earthquakes along the ˜2500 km long Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) system of India and Nepal. The previous studies have been limited to about nine sites along the western two-thirds of the HFT extending through northwest India and along the southern border of Nepal. We present here the results of paleoseismic investigations at three additional sites further to the northeast along the HFT within the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam. The three sites reside between the meizoseismal areas of the 1934 Bihar-Nepal and 1950 Assam earthquakes. The two westernmost of the sites, near the village of Chalsa and near the Nameri Tiger Preserve, show that offsets during the last surface rupture event were at minimum of about 14 m and 12 m, respectively. Limits on the ages of surface rupture at Chalsa (site A) and Nameri (site B), though broad, allow the possibility that the two sites record the same great historical rupture reported in Nepal around A.D. 1100. The correlation between the two sites is supported by the observation that the large displacements as recorded at Chalsa and Nameri would most likely be associated with rupture lengths of hundreds of kilometers or more and are on the same order as reported for a surface rupture earthquake reported in Nepal around A.D. 1100. Assuming the offsets observed at Chalsa and Nameri occurred synchronously with reported offsets in Nepal, the rupture length of the event would approach 700 to 800 km. The easternmost site is located within Harmutty Tea Estate (site C) at the edges of the 1950 Assam earthquake meizoseismal area. Here the most recent event

  10. Towards self-tuning residual generators for UAV control surface fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Hansen, Søren


    Control surface fault diagnosis is essential for timely detection of manoeuvring and stability risks for an unmanned aircraft. Timely detection is crucial since control surface related faults impact stability of flight and safety. Reliable diagnosis require well fitting dynamical models but with ...... flights with different members of a population of UAVs that have inherent model uncertainty from one member to another and from one flight to another. Events with actual faults on control surfaces demonstrates the efficacy of the approach....

  11. Rifting mechanisms constrained by InSAR, seismicity, GPS, and surface rupture from the Karonga earthquake sequence in northern Lake Malawi (Nyasa) (United States)

    Zheng, W.; Pritchard, M. E.; Henderson, S. T.; Gaherty, J. B.; Shillington, D. J.; Oliva, S. J.; Ebinger, C.; Nooner, S. L.; Elliott, J.; Saria, E.; Ntambila, D.; Chindandali, P. R. N.


    The Malawi rift is part of the archetypal East African rift where early-stage crustal extension is dominated by faulting. In the Karonga region of northern Malawi, a sequence of earthquakes in late 2009, with 15 teleseismically detected (Mw 4.5-6.0) over 13 days, provides a uniqueopportunity to evaluate faulting processes controlling present-day extension in an early-stage rift. We describe observations of this sequence including hundreds of aftershocks located by a temporary seismic array installed in 2010, ground deformation from satellite interferograms, and surface rupture from field surveys published by others. We use all of these data to model fault geometry and slip. The aftershocks from January-May 2010 suggest the involvement of multiple faults, and we test the extent that this can be resolved by the InSAR data. The InSAR and surface rupture both suggest that the major slip occurred at shallow depth (Study of Extension and maGmatism in Malawi aNd Tanzania) project, which includes the Karonga region and spans 2013-2015. We find 3 cm of potential ground movement at the location of the earthquake as determined by the SEGMeNT seismic array from Sentinel-1. Geodetic fault slip is consistent with the focal mechanism and depth determined by the local array. The location is at the northern end of the 2009-2010 aftershock zone, and aftershocks suggest some linkage with faults that slipped in 2009. InSAR observations do not provide any evidence for large aseismic slip or fluid movements during or after the 2014 sequence, which had <200 aftershocks above the network threshold. For example, we do not observe any deformation at Rungwe volcano above the 2 cm/yr detection threshold with InSAR time series from ALOS (2007-2010) or Sentinel-1 (10/2014 - 04/2017). The time series from SEGMeNT and other continuous GPS stations do not show transients related to the earthquakes, but are not optimally located in space or time.

  12. Mapping the Qademah Fault with Traveltime, Surface-wave, and Resistivity Tomograms

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.


    Traveltime, surface-wave, and resistivity tomograms are used to track the buried Qademah fault located near King Abdullah Economic City (KAEC), Saudi Arabia. The fault location is confirmed by the 1) resistivity tomogram obtained from an electrical resistivity experiment, 2) the refraction traveltime tomogram, 3) the reflection image computed from 2D seismic data set recorded at the northern part of the fault, and 4) the surface-wave tomogram.

  13. Fault roughness and strength heterogeneity control earthquake size and stress drop

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf


    An earthquake\\'s stress drop is related to the frictional breakdown during sliding and constitutes a fundamental quantity of the rupture process. High-speed laboratory friction experiments that emulate the rupture process imply stress drop values that greatly exceed those commonly reported for natural earthquakes. We hypothesize that this stress drop discrepancy is due to fault-surface roughness and strength heterogeneity: an earthquake\\'s moment release and its recurrence probability depend not only on stress drop and rupture dimension but also on the geometric roughness of the ruptured fault and the location of failing strength asperities along it. Using large-scale numerical simulations for earthquake ruptures under varying roughness and strength conditions, we verify our hypothesis, showing that smoother faults may generate larger earthquakes than rougher faults under identical tectonic loading conditions. We further discuss the potential impact of fault roughness on earthquake recurrence probability. This finding provides important information, also for seismic hazard analysis.

  14. Study on seismic hazard assessment of large active fault systems. Evolution of fault systems and associated geomorphic structures: fault model test and field survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, Keichi; Inoue, Daiei; Miyakoshi, Katsuyoshi; Miyagawa, Kimio; Miura, Daisuke


    Sandbox experiments and field surveys were performed to investigate fault system evolution and fault-related deformation of ground surface, the Quaternary deposits and rocks. The summary of the results is shown below. 1) In the case of strike-slip faulting, the basic fault sequence runs from early en echelon faults and pressure ridges through linear trough. The fault systems associated with the 2000 western Tottori earthquake are shown as en echelon pattern that characterize the early stage of wrench tectonics, therefore no thoroughgoing surface faulting was found above the rupture as defined by the main shock and aftershocks. 2) Low-angle and high-angle reverse faults commonly migrate basinward with time, respectively. With increasing normal fault displacement in bedrock, normal fault develops within range after reverse fault has formed along range front. 3) Horizontal distance of surface rupture from the bedrock fault normalized by the height of the Quaternary deposits agrees well with those of model tests. 4) Upward-widening damage zone, where secondary fractures develop, forms in the handing wall side of high-angle reverse fault at the Kamioka mine. (author)

  15. Where surface physics and fluid dynamics meet: rupture of an amphiphile layer by fluid flow. (United States)

    Bandi, M M; Goldburg, W I; Cressman, J R; Kellay, H


    We investigate the fluctuating pattern created by a jet of fluid impingent upon an amphiphile-covered surface. This microscopically thin layer is initially covered with 50 microm floating particles so that the layer can be visualized. A vertical jet of water located below the surface and directed upward drives a hole in this layer. The hole is particle-free and is surrounded by the particle-laden amphiphile region. The jet ruptures the amphiphile layer creating a particle-free region that is surrounded by the particle-covered surface. The aim of the experiment is to understand the (fluctuating) shape of the ramified interface between the particle-laden and particle-free regions.

  16. The effect of complex fault rupture on the distribution of landslides triggered by the 12 January 2010, Haiti earthquake (United States)

    Harp, Edwin L.; Jibson, Randall W.; Dart, Richard L.; Margottini, Claudio; Canuti, Paolo; Sassa, Kyoji


    The MW 7.0, 12 January 2010, Haiti earthquake triggered more than 7,000 landslides in the mountainous terrain south of Port-au-Prince over an area that extends approximately 50 km to the east and west from the epicenter and to the southern coast. Most of the triggered landslides were rock and soil slides from 25°–65° slopes within heavily fractured limestone and deeply weathered basalt and basaltic breccia. Landslide volumes ranged from tens of cubic meters to several thousand cubic meters. Rock slides in limestone typically were 2–5 m thick; slides within soils and weathered basalt typically were less than 1 m thick. Twenty to thirty larger landslides having volumes greater than 10,000 m3 were triggered by the earthquake; these included block slides and rotational slumps in limestone bedrock. Only a few landslides larger than 5,000 m3 occurred in the weathered basalt. The distribution of landslides is asymmetric with respect to the fault source and epicenter. Relatively few landslides were triggered north of the fault source on the hanging wall. The densest landslide concentrations lie south of the fault source and the Enriquillo-Plantain-Garden fault zone on the footwall. Numerous landslides also occurred along the south coast west of Jacmél. This asymmetric distribution of landsliding with respect to the fault source is unusual given the modeled displacement of the fault source as mainly thrust motion to the south on a plane dipping to the north at approximately 55°; landslide concentrations in other documented thrust earthquakes generally have been greatest on the hanging wall. This apparent inconsistency of the landslide distribution with respect to the fault model remains poorly understood given the lack of any strong-motion instruments within Haiti during the earthquake.

  17. Continuity of the West Napa Fault Zone Inferred from Aftershock Recordings on Fault-Crossing Arrays (United States)

    Catchings, R.; Goldman, M.; Slad, G. W.; Criley, C.; Chan, J. H.; Fay, R. P.; Fay, W.; Svitek, J. F.


    In an attempt to determine the continuity and lateral extent of the causative fault(s) of the 24 August 2014 Mw 6.0 Napa earthquake and possible interconnections with other mapped faults, we recorded aftershocks on three closely spaced (100 m) seismograph arrays that were positioned across the coseismic rupture zone and across mapped faults located north and south of coseismic rupture. Array 1 was located in northwest Napa, between Highway 29 and the intersection of Redwood and Mt. Veeder roads, array 2 was located southwest of Napa, ~1 km north of Cuttings Wharf, and array 3 was located south of San Pablo Bay, within the town of Alhambra. Our intent was to record high-amplitude guided waves that only travel within the causative fault zone and its extensions (Li and Vidale, 1996). Preliminary analysis of seismic data from an M 3.2 aftershock shows high-amplitude (up to 1 cm/s) seismic waves occurred on seismographs within 100 m of mapped surface ruptures and fault zones. Northwest of Napa, the high amplitudes along array 1 coincide with zones of structural damage and wide spread surface ground cracking, and along array 2 near Cuttings Wharf, the high amplitudes occur slightly east of surface ruptures seen along Los Amigas Road. We also observe relatively high-amplitude seismic waves across the Franklin Fault (array 3), approximately 32 km southeast of the mainshock epicenter; this observation suggests the West Napa and the Franklin faults may be continuous or connected. Existing fault maps show that the Franklin Fault extends at least 15 km southward to the Calaveras Fault zone and the West Napa Fault extends at least 25 km north of our array 1. Collectively, the mapped faults, surface ruptures, and guided waves suggest that the West Napa- Franklin Fault zone may extend more than 85 km before it merges with the Calaveras Fault. Assuming a continuous fault zone, the West Napa - Franklin Fault zone may be capable of generating a much larger magnitude earthquake that

  18. Missing link between the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults. (United States)

    Watt, Janet; Ponce, David; Parsons, Tom; Hart, Patrick


    The next major earthquake to strike the ~7 million residents of the San Francisco Bay Area will most likely result from rupture of the Hayward or Rodgers Creek faults. Until now, the relationship between these two faults beneath San Pablo Bay has been a mystery. Detailed subsurface imaging provides definitive evidence of active faulting along the Hayward fault as it traverses San Pablo Bay and bends ~10° to the right toward the Rodgers Creek fault. Integrated geophysical interpretation and kinematic modeling show that the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults are directly connected at the surface-a geometric relationship that has significant implications for earthquake dynamics and seismic hazard. A direct link enables simultaneous rupture of the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults, a scenario that could result in a major earthquake ( M = 7.4) that would cause extensive damage and loss of life with global economic impact.

  19. Detection of high-frequency tensile vibrations of a fault during shear rupturing: observations from the 2008 West Bohemia swarm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavryčuk, Václav


    Roč. 186, č. 3 (2011), s. 1404-1414 ISSN 0956-540X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300120801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : earthquake dynamics * earthquake source observations * body waves * dynamics and mechanics of faulting Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.420, year: 2011

  20. Small-displacement linear surface ruptures of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence detected by ALOS-2 SAR interferometry (United States)

    Fujiwara, Satoshi; Yarai, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tomokazu; Morishita, Yu; Nakano, Takayuki; Miyahara, Basara; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Miura, Yuji; Ueshiba, Haruka; Kakiage, Yasuaki; Une, Hiroshi


    We constructed and analyzed the ground surface displacement associated with the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence using satellite radar interferometry images of the Advanced Land Observing Satellite 2. The radar interferogram generally shows elastic deformation caused by the main earthquakes, but many other linear discontinuities showing displacement are also found. Approximately 230 lineaments are identified, some of which coincide with the positions of known active faults, such as the main earthquake faults belonging to the Futagawa and Hinagu fault zones and other minor faults; however, there are much fewer known active faults than lineaments. In each area, the lineaments have a similar direction and displacement to each other; therefore, they can be divided into several groups based on location and major features. Since the direction of the lineaments coincides with that of known active faults or their conjugate faults, the cause of the lineaments must be related to the tectonic stress field of this region. The lineaments are classified into the following two categories: (1) main earthquake faults and their branched subfaults and (2) secondary faults that are not directly related to the main earthquake but whose slip was probably triggered by the main earthquake or aftershocks.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Frictional strength heterogeneity and surface heat flow: Implications for the strength of the creeping San Andreas fault (United States)

    d'Alessio, M. A.; Williams, C.F.; Burgmann, R.


    Heat flow measurements along much of the San Andreas fault (SAF) constrain the apparent coefficient of friction (??app) of the fault to 0.2 should be detectable even with the sparse existing observations, implying that ??app for the creeping section is as low as the surrounding SAF. Because the creeping section does not slip in large earthquakes, the mechanism controlling its weakness is not related to dynamic processes resulting from high slip rate earthquake ruptures. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. 3D ground‐motion simulations of Mw 7 earthquakes on the Salt Lake City segment of the Wasatch fault zone: Variability of long‐period (T≥1  s) ground motions and sensitivity to kinematic rupture parameters (United States)

    Moschetti, Morgan P.; Hartzell, Stephen; Ramirez-Guzman, Leonardo; Frankel, Arthur; Angster, Stephen J.; Stephenson, William J.


    We examine the variability of long‐period (T≥1  s) earthquake ground motions from 3D simulations of Mw 7 earthquakes on the Salt Lake City segment of the Wasatch fault zone, Utah, from a set of 96 rupture models with varying slip distributions, rupture speeds, slip velocities, and hypocenter locations. Earthquake ruptures were prescribed on a 3D fault representation that satisfies geologic constraints and maintained distinct strands for the Warm Springs and for the East Bench and Cottonwood faults. Response spectral accelerations (SA; 1.5–10 s; 5% damping) were measured, and average distance scaling was well fit by a simple functional form that depends on the near‐source intensity level SA0(T) and a corner distance Rc:SA(R,T)=SA0(T)(1+(R/Rc))−1. Period‐dependent hanging‐wall effects manifested and increased the ground motions by factors of about 2–3, though the effects appeared partially attributable to differences in shallow site response for sites on the hanging wall and footwall of the fault. Comparisons with modern ground‐motion prediction equations (GMPEs) found that the simulated ground motions were generally consistent, except within deep sedimentary basins, where simulated ground motions were greatly underpredicted. Ground‐motion variability exhibited strong lateral variations and, at some sites, exceeded the ground‐motion variability indicated by GMPEs. The effects on the ground motions of changing the values of the five kinematic rupture parameters can largely be explained by three predominant factors: distance to high‐slip subevents, dynamic stress drop, and changes in the contributions from directivity. These results emphasize the need for further characterization of the underlying distributions and covariances of the kinematic rupture parameters used in 3D ground‐motion simulations employed in probabilistic seismic‐hazard analyses.

  3. Fault segmentation: New concepts from the Wasatch Fault Zone, Utah, USA (United States)

    Duross, Christopher; Personius, Stephen F.; Crone, Anthony J.; Olig, Susan S.; Hylland, Michael D.; Lund, William R.; Schwartz, David P.


    The question of whether structural segment boundaries along multisegment normal faults such as the Wasatch fault zone (WFZ) act as persistent barriers to rupture is critical to seismic hazard analyses. We synthesized late Holocene paleoseismic data from 20 trench sites along the central WFZ to evaluate earthquake rupture length and fault segmentation. For the youngest (segment boundaries, especially for the most recent earthquakes on the north-central WFZ, are consistent with segment-controlled ruptures. However, broadly constrained earthquake times, dissimilar event times along the segments, the presence of smaller-scale (subsegment) boundaries, and areas of complex faulting permit partial-segment and multisegment (e.g., spillover) ruptures that are shorter (~20–40 km) or longer (~60–100 km) than the primary segment lengths (35–59 km). We report a segmented WFZ model that includes 24 earthquakes since ~7 ka and yields mean estimates of recurrence (1.1–1.3 kyr) and vertical slip rate (1.3–2.0 mm/yr) for the segments. However, additional rupture scenarios that include segment boundary spatial uncertainties, floating earthquakes, and multisegment ruptures are necessary to fully address epistemic uncertainties in rupture length. We compare the central WFZ to paleoseismic and historical surface ruptures in the Basin and Range Province and central Italian Apennines and conclude that displacement profiles have limited value for assessing the persistence of segment boundaries but can aid in interpreting prehistoric spillover ruptures. Our comparison also suggests that the probabilities of shorter and longer ruptures on the WFZ need to be investigated.

  4. Ruptured Pebbles - a coseismic and paleoseismic indicator? (United States)

    Weismüller, Christopher; Reicherter, Klaus


    To increase the understanding of paleo-earthquakes and deformation patterns, and the propagation of surface waves in the proximity of active faults, we use the mainly disregarded features of ruptured or broken pebbles within in a clayey matrix. Deformation of unconsolidated sediments (alluvium, colluvium) due to earthquake ruptures is a long investigated topic, including the degradation of the fault scarp. However, during many trenching studies aligned pebbles along the fault planes have been described, and attributed to coseismic deformation. Over the last decades, we have found many ruptured pebbles in trenches at active faults with historic earthquakes, but also aligned (rotated?) pebbles. Here, we describe ruptured pebbles from a Pleistocene debris flow near the coastline between the towns Carboneras and Mojácar (SE Spain), East of the Sierra Cabrera. The outcrop is on-fault at the transition of the active Carboneras and Palomares faults (major historical earthquakes with M 7 in 1518 and 1522), implying proximity to the earthquakes epicenters. The Carboneras (NE-SW), Gafarillos (E-W) and Palomares (NNE-SSW) faults form major faults in eastern Andalucia. The outcrop contains ruptured pebbles in an only slightly consolidated, Pleistocene debris flow with 50 % matrix content. Similar near-fault ruptured pebbles have already been observed in the Carrizales quarry near Baelo Claudia, S Spain, and many other sites (e.g., Italy, Greece, Russia), but always in the proximity of active faults. We measured the fractures of 100 pebbles as planes, if possible, or trend, in case no measureable plane was accessible. Complementary 3D-models of the outcrop and each ruptured pebble were created using Structure from Motion, allowing us to further study the pebbles morphology and geometry. Mode II and conjugate fractures are prevailing in the pebbles and the lack of surface-loading such as striations and dissolution pits neglects clast-interaction. Un-cemented shear planes

  5. Control Surface Fault Diagnosis with Specified Detection Probability - Real Event Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren; Blanke, Mogens


    Diagnosis of actuator faults is crucial for aircraft since loss of actuation can have catastrophic consequences. For autonomous aircraft the steps necessary to achieve fault tolerance is limited when only basic and non-redundant sensor and actuators suites are present. Through diagnosis...... that exploits analytical redundancies it is, nevertheless, possible to cheaply enhance the level of safety. This paper presents a method for diagnosing control surface faults by using basic sensors and hardware available on an autonomous aircraft. The capability of fault diagnosis is demonstrated obtaining...... false alarm probability. A data based method is used to determine the validity of the methods proposed. Verification is achieved using real data and shows that the presented diagnosis method is efficient and could have avoided incidents where faults led to loss of aircraft....

  6. Source rupture process of the 2016 Kaikoura, New Zealand earthquake estimated from the kinematic waveform inversion of strong-motion data (United States)

    Zheng, Ao; Wang, Mingfeng; Yu, Xiangwei; Zhang, Wenbo


    On 2016 November 13, an Mw 7.8 earthquake occurred in the northeast of the South Island of New Zealand near Kaikoura. The earthquake caused severe damages and great impacts on local nature and society. Referring to the tectonic environment and defined active faults, the field investigation and geodetic evidence reveal that at least 12 fault sections ruptured in the earthquake, and the focal mechanism is one of the most complicated in historical earthquakes. On account of the complexity of the source rupture, we propose a multisegment fault model based on the distribution of surface ruptures and active tectonics. We derive the source rupture process of the earthquake using the kinematic waveform inversion method with the multisegment fault model from strong-motion data of 21 stations (0.05-0.35 Hz). The inversion result suggests the rupture initiates in the epicentral area near the Humps fault, and then propagates northeastward along several faults, until the offshore Needles fault. The Mw 7.8 event is a mixture of right-lateral strike and reverse slip, and the maximum slip is approximately 19 m. The synthetic waveforms reproduce the characteristics of the observed ones well. In addition, we synthesize the coseismic offsets distribution of the ruptured region from the slips of upper subfaults in the fault model, which is roughly consistent with the surface breaks observed in the field survey.

  7. Fault-tolerant control with mixed aerodynamic surfaces and RCS jets for hypersonic reentry vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing He


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a fault-tolerant strategy for hypersonic reentry vehicles with mixed aerodynamic surfaces and reaction control systems (RCS under external disturbances and subject to actuator faults. Aerodynamic surfaces are treated as the primary actuator in normal situations, and they are driven by a continuous quadratic programming (QP allocator to generate torque commanded by a nonlinear adaptive feedback control law. When aerodynamic surfaces encounter faults, they may not be able to provide sufficient torque as commanded, and RCS jets are activated to augment the aerodynamic surfaces to compensate for insufficient torque. Partial loss of effectiveness and stuck faults are considered in this paper, and observers are designed to detect and identify the faults. Based on the fault identification results, an RCS control allocator using integer linear programming (ILP techniques is designed to determine the optimal combination of activated RCS jets. By treating the RCS control allocator as a quantization element, closed-loop stability with both continuous and quantized inputs is analyzed. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Earthquake rupture in shallow, unconsolidated sediment (United States)

    Bullock, R. J.; De Paola, N.; Marco, S.; Holdsworth, R.


    Faults in shallow, unconsolidated sediment are often associated with aseismic creep, due to the velocity-strengthening behaviour of unconsolidated materials observed during lab experiments. They are expected to appear as broad zones of distributed deformation. However, large seismic ruptures can still propagate to the surface through shallow sediment, causing vast damage and destructive tsunamis. Our understanding of how seismic rupturing of shallow faults in unconsolidated sediment occurs in nature is limited due to the lack of direct observations constraining their structure, deformation patterns and mechanisms, and frictional behaviour. We studied syn-depositional normal faults, which deform unconsolidated, saturated lake sediments of the palaeo-Dead Sea. The sediments belong to the Lisan Formation (~70-18 Ka) and comprise alternating 1-3 mm thick laminae of aragonite and ultrafine-grained detritus. The faults formed at the surface, the only overburden being the overlying water column, and are known to have hosted seismic slip during large events (M ≥ 6), due to their association with seismites. The faults are discrete, localized structures, which sharply truncate laminae in the host sediment. Slip surfaces are sharp and straight and accompanied by a narrow slip zone, up to 1 cm wide, but often ≤ 1 mm wide, containing ultrafine-grained gouge. The majority of slip, up to 3 m, is concentrated in these slip zones. Faults can be categorised as having either simple geometry (one continuous fault strand accommodates all the displacement) or complex geometry (two or more fault segments share the overall displacement). Slip profiles constructed for simple geometry faults all have similar shapes, regardless of maximum displacement, whereas those for complex geometry faults are highly variable, due to segment interaction. It is apparent from the slip profiles that these faults grow and interact in the same way as 'brittle' faults in cohesive rocks. We will present

  9. Estimating rupture distances without a rupture (United States)

    Thompson, Eric M.; Worden, Charles


    Most ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) require distances that are defined relative to a rupture model, such as the distance to the surface projection of the rupture (RJB) or the closest distance to the rupture plane (RRUP). There are a number of situations in which GMPEs are used where it is either necessary or advantageous to derive rupture distances from point-source distance metrics, such as hypocentral (RHYP) or epicentral (REPI) distance. For ShakeMap, it is necessary to provide an estimate of the shaking levels for events without rupture models, and before rupture models are available for events that eventually do have rupture models. In probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, it is often convenient to use point-source distances for gridded seismicity sources, particularly if a preferred orientation is unknown. This avoids the computationally cumbersome task of computing rupture-based distances for virtual rupture planes across all strikes and dips for each source. We derive average rupture distances conditioned on REPI, magnitude, and (optionally) back azimuth, for a variety of assumed seismological constraints. Additionally, we derive adjustment factors for GMPE standard deviations that reflect the added uncertainty in the ground motion estimation when point-source distances are used to estimate rupture distances.

  10. New procedure to record the rupture of bonds between macromolecules and the surface of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). (United States)

    Dultsev, Fedor N; Kolosovsky, Eugeny A; Mik, Ivan A


    It is shown that an increase in the amplitude of QCM shear oscillations during frequency scanning around the resonance frequency is accompanied (at a definite voltage) by distortions in the amplitude-frequency dependence for QCM. We demonstrated that these distortions are connected to the rupture of macromolecules from the QCM surface. It is shown that the identification of the rupture of particles and macromolecules from the QCM surface can be carried out by relying on the analysis of these distortions of the amplitude-frequency dependence. The distortions were distinguished as a signal. The number of broken bonds can be estimated from the value of this distortion signal, and the threshold voltage applied to the system can be used to estimate the rupture force to high accuracy. Using the proposed method, we estimated the strength of a physical bond, which was 3 pN. This procedure can be useful for studying biological objects and represents an advanced step in the development of the REVS (rupture event scanning) technique.

  11. Late Quaternary offset of alluvial fan surfaces along the Central Sierra Madre Fault, southern California (United States)

    Burgette, Reed J.; Hanson, Austin; Scharer, Katherine M.; Midttun, Nikolas


    The Sierra Madre Fault is a reverse fault system along the southern flank of the San Gabriel Mountains near Los Angeles, California. This study focuses on the Central Sierra Madre Fault (CSMF) in an effort to provide numeric dating on surfaces with ages previously estimated from soil development alone. We have refined previous geomorphic mapping conducted in the western portion of the CSMF near Pasadena, CA, with the aid of new lidar data. This progress report focuses on our geochronology strategy employed in collecting samples and interpreting data to determine a robust suite of terrace surface ages. Sample sites for terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide and luminescence dating techniques were selected to be redundant and to be validated through relative geomorphic relationships between inset terrace levels. Additional sample sites were selected to evaluate the post-abandonment histories of terrace surfaces. We will combine lidar-derived displacement data with surface ages to estimate slip rates for the CSMF.

  12. Basement Surface Faulting and Topography for Savannah River Site and Vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumbest, R.J.


    This report integrates the data from more than 60 basement borings and over 100 miles of seismic reflection profiling acquired on the Savannah River Site to map the topography of the basement (unweathered rock) surface and faulting recorded on this surface

  13. Detailed mapping and rupture implications of the 1 km releasing bend in the Rodgers Creek Fault at Santa Rosa, northern California (United States)

    Hecker, Suzanne; Langenheim, Victoria; Williams, Robert; Hitchcock, Christopher S.; DeLong, Stephen B.


    Airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) topography reveals for the first time the trace of the Rodgers Creek fault (RCF) through the center of Santa Rosa, the largest city in the northern San Francisco Bay area. Vertical deformation of the Santa Rosa Creek floodplain expresses a composite pull‐apart basin beneath the urban cover that is part of a broader 1‐km‐wide right‐releasing bend in the fault. High‐resolution geophysical data illuminate subsurface conditions that may be responsible for the complex pattern of surface faulting, as well as for the distribution of seismicity and possibly for creep behavior. We identify a dense, magnetic basement body bounded by the RCF beneath Santa Rosa that we interpret as a strong asperity, likely part of a larger locked patch of the fault to the south. A local increase in frictional resistance associated with the basement body appears to explain (1) distributed fault‐normal extension above where the RCF intersects the body; (2) earthquake activity around the northern end of the body, notably the 1969 ML 5.6 and 5.7 events and aftershocks; and (3) creep rates on the RCF that are higher to the north of Santa Rosa than to the south. There is a significant probability of a major earthquake on the RCF in the coming decades, and earthquakes associated with the proposed asperity have the potential to release seismic energy into the Cotati basin beneath Santa Rosa, already known from damaging historical earthquakes to produce amplified ground shaking.

  14. Detecting tangential dislocations on planar faults from traction free surface observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, Ioan R; Volkov, Darko


    We propose in this paper robust reconstruction methods for tangential dislocations on planar faults. We assume that only surface observations are available, and that a traction free condition applies at that surface. This study is an extension to the full three dimensions of Ionescu and Volkov (2006 Inverse Problems 22 2103). We also explore in this present paper the possibility of detecting slow slip events (such as silent earthquakes, or earthquake nucleation phases) from GPS observations. Our study uses extensively an asymptotic estimate for the observed surface displacement. This estimate is first used to derive what we call the moments reconstruction method. Then it is also used for finding necessary conditions for a surface displacement field to have been caused by a slip on a fault. These conditions lead to the introduction of two parameters: the activation factor and the confidence index. They can be computed from the surface observations in a robust fashion. They indicate whether a measured displacement field is due to an active fault. We also infer a second, combined, reconstruction technique blending least square minimization and the moments method. We carefully assess how our reconstruction method is affected by the sensitivity of the observation apparatus and the stepsize for the grid of surface observation points. The maximum permissible stepsize for such a grid is computed for different values of fault depth and orientation. Finally we present numerical examples of reconstruction of faults. We demonstrate that our combined method is sharp, robust and computationally inexpensive. We also note that this method performs satisfactorily for shallow faults, despite the fact that our asymptotic formula deteriorates in that case

  15. Effect of position, time in the season, and playing surface on Achilles tendon ruptures in NFL games: a 2009-10 to 2016-17 review. (United States)

    Krill, Michael K; Borchers, James R; Hoffman, Joshua T; Krill, Matthew L; Hewett, Timothy E


    Achilles tendon (AT) ruptures are a potentially career-altering and ending injury. Achilles tendon ruptures have a below average return-to-play rate compared to other common orthopaedic procedures for National Football League (NFL) players. The objective of this study was to monitor the incidence and injury rates (IR) of AT ruptures that occurred during the regular season in order to evaluate the influence of player position, time of injury, and playing surface on rupture rates. A thorough online review was completed to identify published injury reports and public information regarding AT ruptures sustained during regular season and post-season games in the National Football League (NFL) during the 2009-10 to 2016-17 seasons. Team schedules, player position details and stadium information was used to determine period of the season of injury and playing surface. IRs were calculated per 100 team games (TG). Injury rate ratios (IRR) were utilized to compare IRs. During eight monitored seasons, there were 44 AT ruptures in NFL games. A majority of AT ruptures were sustained in the first eight games of the regular season (n = 32, 72.7%). There was a significant rate difference for the first and second four-game segments of the regular season compared to the last two four-game segments of the regular season. Defensive players suffered a majority of AT ruptures (n = 32, 72.7%). The IR on grass was 1.00 per 100 TG compared to 1.08 per 100 TG on artificial turf (IRR: 0.93, p = .80). A significant increase in AT ruptures occurred in the first and second four game segments of the regular season compared to the last two-four game segments of the regular season. Defensive players suffered a majority of AT ruptures compared to offensive or specialist players. There was no difference between AT rupture rates and playing surface in games.

  16. Near-surface fault detection by migrating back-scattered surface waves with and without velocity profiles

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han


    We demonstrate that diffraction stack migration can be used to discover the distribution of near-surface faults. The methodology is based on the assumption that near-surface faults generate detectable back-scattered surface waves from impinging surface waves. We first isolate the back-scattered surface waves by muting or FK filtering, and then migrate them by diffraction migration using the surface wave velocity as the migration velocity. Instead of summing events along trial quasi-hyperbolas, surface wave migration sums events along trial quasi-linear trajectories that correspond to the moveout of back-scattered surface waves. We have also proposed a natural migration method that utilizes the intrinsic traveltime property of the direct and the back-scattered waves at faults. For the synthetic data sets and the land data collected in Aqaba, where surface wave velocity has unexpected perturbations, we migrate the back-scattered surface waves with both predicted velocity profiles and natural Green\\'s function without velocity information. Because the latter approach avoids the need for an accurate velocity model in event summation, both the prestack and stacked migration images show competitive quality. Results with both synthetic data and field records validate the feasibility of this method. We believe applying this method to global or passive seismic data can open new opportunities in unveiling tectonic features.

  17. Seismic Hazard Analysis in EL Paso/juarez Area from Study of Young Fault Scarps (United States)

    ashenfelter, K. R.


    The El Paso-Juarez metropolitan area contains a known record of active faulting, but also has one of the most poorly known paleoseismic records. The scarcity of data means that nearly 2 million people are exposed to a seismic hazard with little known on the actual risk. Active faults are known along the eastern side of the Franklin Mountains as well as young ruptures within the Hueco Bolson in East El Paso, yet the only fault with paleoseismic studies is the East Franklin's fault. Recent population increases in the El Paso region have led to a construction boom in east El Paso, and many of these construction sites cross known Quaternary fault ruptures. This research project contains two potential components: 1) An exploratory component: students can use existing fault maps and high resolution aerial photography to seek out sites where active construction sites might be unearthing exposures of young fault ruptures. The study is exploratory, and involves carefully mapping using field GIS systems to document areas for potential study, map possible faults, etc. 2) An active fault study in an urbanized environment: The east Franklins fault is a known active fault. The scarp is exposed near trans-mountain road, and along some side streets in NE El Paso. Potential studies include careful mapping of fault scarp topographic profiles, and mapping surface traces.

  18. No difference between mechanical perturbation training with compliant surface and manual perturbation training on knee functional performance after ACL rupture. (United States)

    Nawasreh, Zakariya; Logerstedt, David; Failla, Mathew; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn


    Manual perturbation training improves dynamic knee stability and functional performance after anterior cruciate ligament rupture (ACL-rupture). However, it is limited to static standing position and does not allow time-specific perturbations at different phase of functional activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether administering mechanical perturbation training including compliant surface provides effects similar to manual perturbation training on knee functional measures after an acute ACL-rupture. Sixteen level I/II athletes with ACL-ruptures participated in this preliminary study. Eight patients received mechanical (Mechanical) and eight subjects received manual perturbation training (Manual). All patients completed a functional testing (isometric quadriceps strength, single-legged hop tests) and patient-reported measures (Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADLS), Global Rating Score (GRS), International Knee Documentation Committee 2000 (IKDC 2000) at pre- and post-training. 2 × 2 ANOVA was used for data analysis. No significant group-by-time interactions were found for all measures (p > 0.18). Main effects of time were found for single hop (Pre-testing: 85.14% ± 21.07; Post-testing: 92.49% ± 17.55), triple hop (Pre-testing: 84.64% ± 14.17; Post-testing: 96.64% ± 11.14), KOS-ADLS (Pre-testing: 81.13% ± 11.12; Post-testing: 88.63% ± 12.63), GRS (Pre-testing: 68.63% ± 15.73; Post-testing: 78.81% ± 13.85), and IKDC 2000 (Pre-testing: 66.66% ± 9.85; Post-testing: 76.05% ± 14.62) (p training using compliant surfaces induce effects similar to manual perturbation training on knee functional performance after acute ACL-rupture. The clinical significance is both modes of training improve patients' functional-performance and limb-to-limb movement symmetry, and enhancing the patients' self-reported of knee functional measures after ACL rupture. Mechanical

  19. Coseismic rupturing stopped by Aso volcano during the 2016 Mw 7.1 Kumamoto earthquake, Japan. (United States)

    Lin, A; Satsukawa, T; Wang, M; Mohammadi Asl, Z; Fueta, R; Nakajima, F


    Field investigations and seismic data show that the 16 April 2016 moment magnitude (M w ) 7.1 Kumamoto earthquake produced a ~40-kilometer-long surface rupture zone along the northeast-southwest-striking Hinagu-Futagawa strike-slip fault zone and newly identified faults on the western side of Aso caldera, Kyushu Island, Japan. The coseismic surface ruptures cut Aso caldera, including two volcanic cones inside it, but terminate therein. The data show that northeastward propagation of coseismic rupturing terminated in Aso caldera because of the presence of magma beneath the Aso volcanic cluster. The seismogenic faults of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake may require reassessment of the volcanic hazard in the vicinity of Aso volcano. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Accommodation of repetitive sensor faults - applied to surface faults on compact discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle


    Surface defects such as scratches and fingerprints on compact discs (CDs) can cause CD players to lose focus and tracking on the discs. A scheme for handling these defects has previously been proposed. In this brief, adaptive and predictive versions of this scheme are developed. The adaptive sche...

  1. Earthquake Hazard and Segmented Fault Evolution, Hat Creek Fault, Northern California (United States)

    Blakeslee, M. W.; Kattenhorn, S. A.


    Precise insight into surface rupture and the evolution and mechanical interaction of segmented normal fault systems is critical for assessing the potential seismic hazard. The Hat Creek fault is a ~35 km long, NNW trending segmented normal fault system located on the western boundary of the Modoc Plateau and within the extending backarc basin of the Cascadia subduction zone in northern California. The Hat Creek fault has a prominent surface rupture showing evidence of multiple events in the past 15 ka, although there have been no historic earthquakes. In response to interactions with volcanic activity, the fault system has progressively migrated several km westward, causing older scarps to become seemingly inactive, and producing three distinct, semi-parallel scarps with different ages. The oldest scarp, designated the “Rim”, is the farthest west and has up to 352 m of throw. The relatively younger “Pali” scarp has up to 174 m of throw. The young “Active” scarp has a maximum throw of 65 m in the 24±6 ka Hat Creek basalt, with 20 m of throw in ~15 ka glacial gravels (i.e., a Holocene slip rate of ~1.3 mm/yr). Changes in the geometry and kinematics of the separate scarps during the faulting history imply the orientation of the stress field has rotated clockwise, now inducing oblique right-lateral motion. Previous studies suggested that the Active scarp consists of 7 left-stepping segments with a cumulative length of 23.5 km. We advocate that the Active scarp is actually composed of 8 or 9 segments and extends 4 km longer than previous estimates. This addition to the active portion of the fault is based on detailed mapping of a young surface rupture in the northern portion of the fault system. This ~30 m high young scarp offsets lavas that erupted from Cinder Butte, a low shield volcano, but has a similar geometry and properties as the Active scarp in the Hat Creek basalt. At its northern end, the Active scarp terminates at Cinder Butte. Our mapping

  2. Are turtleback fault surfaces common structural elements of highly extended terranes? (United States)

    Çemen, Ibrahim; Tekeli, Okan; Seyitoğlu, Gűrol; Isik, Veysel


    The Death Valley region of the U.S.A. contains three topographic surfaces resembling the carapace of a turtle. These three surfaces are well exposed along the Black Mountain front and are named the Badwater, Copper Canyon, and Mormon Point Turtlebacks. It is widely accepted that the turtlebacks are also detachment surfaces that separate brittlely deformed Cenozoic volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the hanging wall from the strongly mylonitic, ductilely deformed pre-Cenozoic rocks of the footwall. We have found a turtleback-like detachment surface along the southern margin of the Alasehir (Gediz) Graben in western Anatolia, Turkey. This surface qualifies as a turtleback fault surface because it (a) is overall convex-upward and (b) separates brittlely deformed hanging wall Cenozoic sedimentary rocks from the ductilely to brittlely deformed, strongly mylonitic pre-Cenozoic footwall rocks. The surface, named here Horzum Turtleback, contains striations that overprint mylonitic stretching lineations indicating top to the NE sense of shear. This suggests that the northeasterly directed Cenozoic extension in the region resulted in a ductile deformation at depth and as the crust isostatically adjusted to the removal of the rocks in the hanging wall of the detachment fault, the ductilely deformed mylonitic rocks of the footwall were brought to shallower depths where they were brittlely deformed. The turtleback surfaces have been considered unique to the Death Valley region, although detachment surfaces, rollover folds, and other extensional structures have been well observed in other extended terranes of the world. The presence of a turtleback fault surface in western Anatolia, Turkey, suggests that the turtleback faults may be common structural features of highly extended terranes.

  3. Evaluation of potential surface rupture and review of current seismic hazards program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report summarizes the authors review and evaluation of the existing seismic hazards program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The report recommends that the original program be augmented with a probabilistic analysis of seismic hazards involving assignment of weighted probabilities of occurrence to all potential sources. This approach yields a more realistic evaluation of the likelihood of large earthquake occurrence particularly in regions where seismic sources may have recurrent intervals of several thousand years or more. The report reviews the locations and geomorphic expressions of identified fault lines along with the known displacements of these faults and last know occurrence of seismic activity. Faults are mapped and categorized into by their potential for actual movement. Based on geologic site characterization, recommendations are made for increased seismic monitoring; age-dating studies of faults and geomorphic features; increased use of remote sensing and aerial photography for surface mapping of faults; the development of a landslide susceptibility map; and to develop seismic design standards for all existing and proposed facilities at LANL

  4. Near-surface geophysical characterization of Holocene faults conducive to geothermal flow near Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, Colton; Dorsey, Alison; Louie, John [UNR; Schwering, Paul; Pullammanappallil, Satish


    Colton Dudley, Alison Dorsey, Paul Opdyke, Dustin Naphan, Marlon Ramos, John Louie, Paul Schwering, and Satish Pullammanappallil, 2013, Near-surface geophysical characterization of Holocene faults conducive to geothermal flow near Pyramid Lake, Nevada: presented at Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, Pacific Section Annual Meeting, Monterey, Calif., April 19-25.

  5. Evaluation of the potential for surface faulting at TA-63. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbe, T.; Sawyer, J.; Springer, J.; Olig, S.; Hemphill-Haley, M.; Wong, I.; Reneau, S.


    This report describes an investigation of the potential for surface faulting at the proposed sites for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RL)WF) and the Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility at TA-63 and TA-52 (hereafter TA-63), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This study was performed by Woodward-Clyde Federal Services (WCFS) at the request of the LANL. The projections of both the Guaje Mountain and Rendija Canyon faults are mapped in the vicinity of TA-63. Based on results obtained in the ongoing Seismic Hazard Evaluation Program of the LANL, displacement may have occurred on both the Guaje Mountain and Rendija Canyon faults in the past 11,000 years (Holocene time). Thus, in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders and Standards for seismic hazards evaluations and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Regulations for seismic standard requirements, a geologic study of the proposed TA-63 site was conducted

  6. Response of faults to climate-driven changes in ice and water volumes on Earth's surface. (United States)

    Hampel, Andrea; Hetzel, Ralf; Maniatis, Georgios


    Numerical models including one or more faults in a rheologically stratified lithosphere show that climate-induced variations in ice and water volumes on Earth's surface considerably affect the slip evolution of both thrust and normal faults. In general, the slip rate and hence the seismicity of a fault decreases during loading and increases during unloading. Here, we present several case studies to show that a postglacial slip rate increase occurred on faults worldwide in regions where ice caps and lakes decayed at the end of the last glaciation. Of note is that the postglacial amplification of seismicity was not restricted to the areas beneath the large Laurentide and Fennoscandian ice sheets but also occurred in regions affected by smaller ice caps or lakes, e.g. the Basin-and-Range Province. Our results do not only have important consequences for the interpretation of palaeoseismological records from faults in these regions but also for the evaluation of the future seismicity in regions currently affected by deglaciation like Greenland and Antarctica: shrinkage of the modern ice sheets owing to global warming may ultimately lead to an increase in earthquake frequency in these regions.

  7. Major earthquakes occur regularly on an isolated plate boundary fault. (United States)

    Berryman, Kelvin R; Cochran, Ursula A; Clark, Kate J; Biasi, Glenn P; Langridge, Robert M; Villamor, Pilar


    The scarcity of long geological records of major earthquakes, on different types of faults, makes testing hypotheses of regular versus random or clustered earthquake recurrence behavior difficult. We provide a fault-proximal major earthquake record spanning 8000 years on the strike-slip Alpine Fault in New Zealand. Cyclic stratigraphy at Hokuri Creek suggests that the fault ruptured to the surface 24 times, and event ages yield a 0.33 coefficient of variation in recurrence interval. We associate this near-regular earthquake recurrence with a geometrically simple strike-slip fault, with high slip rate, accommodating a high proportion of plate boundary motion that works in isolation from other faults. We propose that it is valid to apply time-dependent earthquake recurrence models for seismic hazard estimation to similar faults worldwide.

  8. Microstructural and geochemical evolution of sliding surfaces in landslides and comparisons with crustal fault zones (United States)

    Schäbitz, Maike; Janssen, Christoph; Wirth, Richard; Dresen, Georg


    The formation of basal sliding surfaces in mass movements is known to be associated with chemical and physical alteration of rock and regolith. To evaluate their microstructural and geochemical evolution we collected samples from bedrock, the sliding surface (gouge) and adjacent deposits within two different landslides in Central China. The sample locations reflect different geological conditions. Comparing qualitative and quantitative geochemical analysis we found indications for weathering of the sliding surface area and the accumulation and genesis of clay minerals, explaining its reduced shear strength. The cataclasites (gouge) are mainly composed of quartz, illite, calcite, pyrophyllite, kaolinite and feldspar with grain sizes in the range 0.5 - 5μm. XRF data show an increase in Al2O3, Fe2O3, K2O and decrease in SiO2 and CaO contents towards the sliding surface, pointing to alteration processes. The existence and increase of pyrophyllite content in sliding surface samples may indicate its initial formation to be caused by a high energy event, because pyrophyllite forms by hydrothermal alteration at approximately 450 ° C. The accumulation of pyrophyllite at the sliding surface is expected to result in reduced shear strength. Comparison of the microstructures, using transmission electron microscopy and focused ion beam technique for sample preparation shows a significant reduction of grain size and increase of pore space due to grain comminution by creeping and moving processes. High- angle annular dark field images show the occurrence of amorphous carbon which may indicate the occurrence of graphite. Graphitization (crystallization) of amorphous carbon was recognized in the slip zone of several fault zones, which underwent frictional heating due to rapid sliding. Graphite is well known as a solid lubricant in fault zones with a friction coefficient as low as that of smectite (μ = 0.1). The process of sliding surface formation in some landslides seems to be

  9. Imaging of the Rupture Zone of the Magnitude 6.2 Karonga Earthquake of 2009 using Electrical Resistivity Surveys (United States)

    Clappe, B.; Hull, C. D.; Dawson, S.; Johnson, T.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Nyalugwe, V.; Atekwana, E. A.; Salima, J.


    The 2009 Karonga earthquakes occurred in an area where active faults had not previously been known to exist. Over 5000 buildings were destroyed in the area and at least 4 people lost their lives as a direct result of the 19th of December magnitude 6.2 earthquake. The earthquake swarms occurred in the hanging wall of the main Livingstone border fault along segmented, west dipping faults that are synthetic to the Livingstone fault. The faults have a general trend of 290-350 degrees. Electrical resistivity surveys were conducted to investigate the nature of known rupture and seismogenic zones that resulted from the 2009 earthquakes in the Karonga, Malawi area. The goal of this study was to produce high-resolution images below the epicenter and nearby areas of liquefaction to determine changes in conductivity/resistivity signatures in the subsurface. An Iris Syscal Pro was utilized to conduct dipole-dipole resistivity measurements below the surface of soil at farmlands at 6 locations. Each transect was 710 meters long and had an electrode spacing of 10 meters. RES2DINV software was used to create 2-D inversion images of the rupture and seismogenic zones. We were able to observe three distinct geoelectrical layers to the north of the rupture zone and two south of the rupture zone with the discontinuity between the two marked by the location of the surface rupture. The rupture zone is characterized by ~80-meter wide area of enhanced conductivity, 5 m thick underlain by a more resistive layer dipping west. We interpret this to be the result of fine grain sands and silts brought up from depth to near surface as a result of shearing along the fault rupture or liquefaction. Electrical resistivity surveys are valuable, yet under-utilized tools for imaging near-surface effects of earthquakes.

  10. Paleoseismology of the 2010 Mw 7.1 Darfield (Canterbury) earthquake source, Greendale Fault, New Zealand (United States)

    Hornblow, S.; Quigley, M.; Nicol, A.; VanDissen, R.


    The previously unknown Greendale Fault ruptured in the moment magnitude (Mw) 7.1 Darfield earthquake and produced the first historical surface rupture on the Latest Pleistocene gravel surface of the Canterbury Plains west of Christchurch, New Zealand. Surface rupture fracture patterns and discrete and distributed displacements along the GF were measured with high precision using a combined approach of field mapping, airborne lidar, and terrestrial lidar. No unambiguous geomorphic evidence of a penultimate GF surface rupture was revealed from pre-2010 imagery. In order to constrain the displacement, timing and magnitude of paleo-earthquakes on the Greendale Fault, we conducted trenching investigations across the central part of the fault where the largest vertical and horizontal coseismic displacements were recorded. Riedel shear fractures were one of the most conspicuous features of the surface rupture deformation zone. Subsurface trenching reveals faulted stratigraphy of gravels interbedded with thin sand and silt paleochannels. At one site, a shallow channel 90 cm below the surface is offset 60×10 cm right laterally and 9×5 cm vertically across a discrete Riedel shear, similar to dextral displacement measurements at the ground surface of nearby cultural features. Offset of an underlying channel 3 m below the surface is 120× 15 cm right-lateral and 21× 5 cm vertical, interpreted to be the result of successive slip-at-a-point in both a penultimate earthquake and the Darfield earthquake. Data from a second trench reveals single-offset gravel 2.3 m below the surface which corroborates these findings and indicates lateral variation in the thickness of sediment deposited after the penultimate rupture. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of the channels yields an age of 22 × 2 ka for the single-offset sand and 28 × 2 ka for the twice-offset sand. We conclude that the penultimate Greendale Fault surface rupturing earthquake occurred across an actively

  11. Device to detect faults on the surfaces of work pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savidge, D.H.; Wadsworth, E.


    The surface of a work piece, e.g. a steel block, can be scanned by a high-frequency induced eddy current probe. The probe forms the inductive part of a tuned high-frequency oscillator circuit. A buffer amplifier separates the frequency and the amplitude of the output signals received by the oscillator circuit and feeds these to a double-channel receiver. The scanning head can also have several probe coils. (RW) [de

  12. Relationships between moment magnitude and fault parameters: theoretical and semi-empirical relationships (United States)

    Wang, Haiyun; Tao, Xiaxin


    Fault parameters are important in earthquake hazard analysis. In this paper, theoretical relationships between moment magnitude and fault parameters including subsurface rupture length, downdip rupture width, rupture area, and average slip over the fault surface are deduced based on seismological theory. These theoretical relationships are further simplified by applying similarity conditions and an unique form is established. Then, combining the simplified theoretical relationships between moment magnitude and fault parameters with seismic source data selected in this study, a practical semi-empirical relationship is established. The seismic source data selected is also to used to derive empirical relationships between moment magnitude and fault parameters by the ordinary least square regression method. Comparisons between semi-empirical relationships and empirical relationships show that the former depict distribution trends of data better than the latter. It is also observed that downdip rupture widths of strike slip faults are saturated when moment magnitude is more than 7.0, but downdip rupture widths of dip slip faults are not saturated in the moment magnitude ranges of this study.

  13. Dynamic mortar finite element method for modeling of shear rupture on frictional rough surfaces (United States)

    Tal, Yuval; Hager, Bradford H.


    This paper presents a mortar-based finite element formulation for modeling the dynamics of shear rupture on rough interfaces governed by slip-weakening and rate and state (RS) friction laws, focusing on the dynamics of earthquakes. The method utilizes the dual Lagrange multipliers and the primal-dual active set strategy concepts, together with a consistent discretization and linearization of the contact forces and constraints, and the friction laws to obtain a semi-smooth Newton method. The discretization of the RS friction law involves a procedure to condense out the state variables, thus eliminating the addition of another set of unknowns into the system. Several numerical examples of shear rupture on frictional rough interfaces demonstrate the efficiency of the method and examine the effects of the different time discretization schemes on the convergence, energy conservation, and the time evolution of shear traction and slip rate.

  14. Contemporaneous ring fault activity and surface deformation at subsiding calderas studied using analogue experiments (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-Kai; Ruch, Joël; Vasyura-Bathke, Hannes; Jónsson, Sigurjón


    Ground deformation analyses of several subsiding calderas have shown complex and overlapping deformation signals, with a broad deflation signal that affects the entire volcanic edifice and localized subsidence focused within the caldera. However, the relation between deep processes at subsiding calderas, including magmatic sources and faulting, and the observed surface deformation is still debated. Several recent examples of subsiding calderas in the Galápagos archipelago and at the Axial seamount in the Pacific Ocean indicate that ring fault activity plays an important role not only during caldera collapse, but also during initial stages of caldera subsidence. Nevertheless, ring fault activity has rarely been integrated into numerical models of subsiding calderas. Here we report on sandbox analogue experiments that we use to study the processes involved from an initial subsidence to a later collapse of calderas. The apparatus is composed of a subsiding half piston section connected to the bottom of a glass box and driven by a motor to control its subsidence. We analyze at the same time during the subsidence the 3D displacement at the model surface with a laser scanner and the 2D ring fault evolution on the side of the model (cross-section) with a side-view digital camera. We further use PIVLab, a time-resolved digital image correlation software tool, to extract strain and velocity fields at both the surface and in cross-section. This setup allows to track processes acting at depth and assess their relative importance as the collapse evolves. We further compare our results with the examples observed in nature as well as with numerical models that integrate ring faults.

  15. Insurance Applications of Active Fault Maps Showing Epistemic Uncertainty (United States)

    Woo, G.


    Insurance loss modeling for earthquakes utilizes available maps of active faulting produced by geoscientists. All such maps are subject to uncertainty, arising from lack of knowledge of fault geometry and rupture history. Field work to undertake geological fault investigations drains human and monetary resources, and this inevitably limits the resolution of fault parameters. Some areas are more accessible than others; some may be of greater social or economic importance than others; some areas may be investigated more rapidly or diligently than others; or funding restrictions may have curtailed the extent of the fault mapping program. In contrast with the aleatory uncertainty associated with the inherent variability in the dynamics of earthquake fault rupture, uncertainty associated with lack of knowledge of fault geometry and rupture history is epistemic. The extent of this epistemic uncertainty may vary substantially from one regional or national fault map to another. However aware the local cartographer may be, this uncertainty is generally not conveyed in detail to the international map user. For example, an area may be left blank for a variety of reasons, ranging from lack of sufficient investigation of a fault to lack of convincing evidence of activity. Epistemic uncertainty in fault parameters is of concern in any probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard, not least in insurance earthquake risk applications. A logic-tree framework is appropriate for incorporating epistemic uncertainty. Some insurance contracts cover specific high-value properties or transport infrastructure, and therefore are extremely sensitive to the geometry of active faulting. Alternative Risk Transfer (ART) to the capital markets may also be considered. In order for such insurance or ART contracts to be properly priced, uncertainty should be taken into account. Accordingly, an estimate is needed for the likelihood of surface rupture capable of causing severe damage. Especially where a

  16. The 2016-2017 Central Italy Seismic Sequence: Source Complexity Inferred from Rupture Models. (United States)

    Scognamiglio, L.; Tinti, E.; Casarotti, E.; Pucci, S.; Villani, F.; Cocco, M.; Magnoni, F.; Michelini, A.


    The Apennines have been struck by several seismic sequences in recent years, showing evidence of the activation of multiple segments of normal fault systems in a variable and, relatively short, time span, as in the case of the 1980 Irpinia earthquake (three shocks in 40 s), the 1997 Umbria-Marche sequence (four main shocks in 18 days) and the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake having three segments activated within a few weeks. The 2016-2017 central Apennines seismic sequence begin on August 24th with a MW 6.0 earthquake, which strike the region between Amatrice and Accumoli causing 299 fatalities. This earthquake ruptures a nearly 20 km long normal fault and shows a quite heterogeneous slip distribution. On October 26th, another main shock (MW 5.9) occurs near Visso extending the activated seismogenic area toward the NW. It is a double event rupturing contiguous patches on the fault segment of the normal fault system. Four days after the second main shock, on October 30th, a third earthquake (MW 6.5) occurs near Norcia, roughly midway between Accumoli and Visso. In this work we have inverted strong motion waveforms and GPS data to retrieve the source model of the MW 6.5 event with the aim of interpreting the rupture process in the framework of this complex sequence of moderate magnitude earthquakes. We noted that some preliminary attempts to model the slip distribution of the October 30th main shock using a single fault plane oriented along the Apennines did not provide convincing fits to the observed waveforms. In addition, the deformation pattern inferred from satellite observations suggested the activation of a multi-fault structure, that is coherent to the complexity and the extension of the geological surface deformation. We investigated the role of multi-fault ruptures and we found that this event revealed an extraordinary complexity of the rupture geometry and evolution: the coseismic rupture propagated almost simultaneously on a normal fault and on a blind fault

  17. A Fault Diagnosis Model of Surface to Air Missile Equipment Based on Wavelet Transformation and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhheng Ni


    Full Text Available At present, the fault signals of surface to air missile equipment are hard to collect and the accuracy of fault diagnosis is very low. To solve the above problems, based on the superiority of wavelet transformation on processing non-stationary signals and the advantage of SVM on pattern classification, this paper proposes a fault diagnosis model and takes the typical analog circuit diagnosis of one power distribution system as an example to verify the fault diagnosis model based on Wavelet Transformation and SVM. The simulation results show that the model is able to achieve fault diagnosis based on a small amount of training samples, which improves the accuracy of fault diagnosis.

  18. Extremely Shallow Extensional Faulting Near Geothermal Fields (United States)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Wei, S.; Donnellan, A.; Fielding, E. J.; Graves, R. W.; Helmberger, D. V.; Liu, Z.; Parker, J. W.; Treiman, J. A.


    Surface faulting has been discovered in association with a shallow extensional M 4.9 earthquake, the source properties of which have also been studied by modeling of broadband seismic data and geodetic imagery. This M 4.9 and also a M 4.6 shallow normal event occurred late in the Brawley Swarm of August 2012, a dominantly strike-slip sequence with events up to M 5.5 (Hauksson et al., SRL 2013 and Wei et al., GRL 2013). The point source waveform inversions reveal normal mechanisms and centroid depths of ~2.5 km for both events, while the modeling of the geodetic data indicates a compatible depth of ~2.0 km. The M 4.9 event had unusually large (~40 cm) and sudden (~1.0 - 1.5 km/sec) slip, considering its extremely shallow depth. The earlier and larger strike-slip events during the Aug. 2012 swarm were on a left-lateral SW-NE oriented vertical planar cross-fault, whereas the M 4.6 and M 4.9 occurred on a SSW-NNE oriented, west-dipping plane. Airborne imagery obtained using Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) revealed a surface fault rupture that was subsequently confirmed and documented in the field in May 2013. A pre-existing but previously un-mapped fault sustained west-down surface slip of up to 18 × 2 cm along breaks extending ~3.5 km along a NNE orientation, and ruptured beneath and under a railroad track and pipeline (without breaking them). UAVSAR and seismological data were used jointly to image the source properties of the M 4.9 earthquake in detail. Typically, the uppermost few kms of right-lateral faults in the Salton Trough exhibit creep, especially after larger earthquakes, as in 1979 and 1987. On this basis, general models of stable sliding within the uppermost few kms have been developed. In this case, however, the joint inversion indicates that seismic energy was radiated by slip of up to 40 cm on a fault plane extending from the surface to a depth of only ~3 km, extending ~4 km along-strike, and dipping ~45° west, with west

  19. From tomographic images to fault heterogeneities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amato


    Full Text Available Local Earthquake Tomography (LET is a useful tool for imaging lateral heterogeneities in the upper crust. The pattern of P- and S-wave velocity anomalies, in relation to the seismicity distribution along active fault zones. can shed light on the existence of discrete seismogenic patches. Recent tomographic studies in well monitored seismic areas have shown that the regions with large seismic moment release generally correspond to high velocity zones (HVZ's. In this paper, we discuss the relationship between the seismogenic behavior of faults and the velocity structure of fault zones as inferred from seismic tomography. First, we review some recent tomographic studies in active strike-slip faults. We show examples from different segments of the San Andreas fault system (Parkfield, Loma Prieta, where detailed studies have been carried out in recent years. We also show two applications of LET to thrust faults (Coalinga, Friuli. Then, we focus on the Irpinia normal fault zone (South-Central Italy, where a Ms = 6.9 earthquake occurred in 1980 and many thousands of attershock travel time data are available. We find that earthquake hypocenters concentrate in HVZ's, whereas low velocity zones (LVZ’ s appear to be relatively aseismic. The main HVZ's along which the mainshock rupture bas propagated may correspond to velocity weakening fault regions, whereas the LVZ's are probably related to weak materials undergoing stable slip (velocity strengthening. A correlation exists between this HVZ and the area with larger coseismic slip along the fault, according to both surface evidence (a fault scarp as high as 1 m and strong ground motion waveform modeling. Smaller wave-length, low-velocity anomalies detected along the fault may be the expression of velocity strengthening sections, where aseismic slip occurs. According to our results, the rupture at the nucleation depth (~ 10-12 km is continuous for the whole fault lenoth (~ 30 km, whereas at shallow depth

  20. Surface expression of intraplate postglacial faults in Sweden: from LiDAR data (United States)

    Abduljabbar, Mawaheb; Ask, Maria; Bauer, Tobias; Lund, Björn; Smith, Colby; Mikko, Henrik; Munier, Raymond


    Large intraplate earthquakes, up to magnitude 8.0±0.3 (Lindblom et al. 2015) are inferred to have occurred in northern Fennoscandia at the end of, or just after the Weichselian deglaciation. More than a dozen large so-called postglacial faults (PGF) have been found in the region. The present-day microseismic activity is rather high in north Sweden, and there is a correlation between microseismicity and mapped PGF scarps: 71% of the observed earthquakes north of 66°N locate within 30 km to the southeast and 10 km to the northwest of PGFs (Lindblom et al., 2015). Surface expressions of PGFs in Sweden have mainly been mapped using aerial photogrammetry and trenching (e.g. Lagerbäck & Sundh 2008). Their detailed surface geometry may be investigated using the new high-resolution elevation model of Sweden (NNH) that has a vertical- and lateral resolution of 2 m and 0.25 m, respectively. With NNH data, known PGFs have been modified, and a number of new potential PGFs have been identified (Smith et al. 2014; Mikko et al. 2015). However, the detailed variation of their surface expression remains to be determined. Our main objective is to constrain the strike and surface offset (i.e., apparent vertical throw because of soil cover overlays the bedrock) across the PGF scarps. We anticipate using the results to constrain direction of fault motion and paleomagnitudes of PGFs, and in numerical analyzes to investigate the nature of PGFs. We have developed a methodology for analyzing PGF-geomorphology from LiDAR data using two main software platforms (Ask et al. 2015): (1) Move2015 by Midland Valley has been used for constructing 3D models of the surface traces of the PGFs to determine apparent vertical throw. The apparent hanging- and footwall cut off lines are digitized, and subsequent computation of coordinates is rather time efficient and provide continuous data of fault and soil geomorphology that can be statistically analyzed; and (2) ArcGIS 10.3 by Esri has mostly been

  1. Complex rupture mechanism and topography control symmetry of mass - wasting pattern, 2010 Haiti earthquake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorum, T.; van Westen, C.J.; Korup, Oliver; van der Meijde, M.; Fan, Xuanmei; van der Meer, F.D.


    The 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake occurred in a complex deformation zone at the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Combined geodetic, geological and seismological data posited that surface deformation was driven by rupture on the Léogâne blind thrust fault, while

  2. Complex rupture process of the Mw 7.8, 2016, Kaikoura earthquake, New Zealand, and its aftershock sequence (United States)

    Cesca, S.; Zhang, Y.; Mouslopoulou, V.; Wang, R.; Saul, J.; Savage, M.; Heimann, S.; Kufner, S.-K.; Oncken, O.; Dahm, T.


    The M7.8 Kaikoura Earthquake that struck the northeastern South Island, New Zealand, on November 14, 2016 (local time), is one of the largest ever instrumentally recorded earthquakes in New Zealand. It occurred at the southern termination of the Hikurangi subduction margin, where the subducting Pacific Plate transitions into the dextral Alpine transform fault. The earthquake produced significant distributed uplift along the north-eastern part of the South Island, reaching a peak amplitude of ∼8 m, which was accompanied by large (≥10 m) horizontal coseismic displacements at the ground surface along discrete active faults. The seismic waveforms' expression of the main shock indicate a complex rupture process. Early automated centroid moment tensor solutions indicated a strong non-double-couple term, which supports a complex rupture involving multiple faults. The hypocentral distribution of aftershocks, which appears diffuse over a broad region, clusters spatially along lineaments with different orientations. A key question of global interest is to shed light on the mechanism with which such a complex rupture occurred, and whether the underlying plate-interface was involved in the rupture. The consequences for seismic hazard of such a distributed, shallow faulting is important to be assessed. We perform a broad seismological analysis, combining regional and teleseismic seismograms, GPS and InSAR, to determine the rupture process of the main shock and moment tensors of 118 aftershocks down to Mw 4.2. The joint interpretation of the main rupture and aftershock sequence allow reconstruction of the geometry, and suggests sequential activation and slip distribution on at least three major active fault domains. We find that the rupture nucleated as a weak strike-slip event along the Humps Fault, which progressively propagated northward onto a shallow reverse fault, where most of the seismic moment was released, before it triggered slip on a second set of strike


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsey, Alison; Dudley, Colton; Louie, John [UNR; Schwering, Paul; Pullammanappallil, Satish [Optim


    Linear deposits of calcium carbonate tufa columns mark recent faults that cut 11 ka Lake Lahontan sediments at Astor Pass, north of Pyramid Lake, Nevada. Throughout the Great Basin, faults appear to control the location of geothermal resources by providing pathways for fluid migration. Reservoir-depth (greater than 1 km) seismic imaging at Astor Pass reveals a fault that projects to one of the lines of tufa columns at the surface. The presence of the tufa deposits suggests this fault carried warm geothermal waters through the lakebed clay sediments in recent time. The warm fluids deposited the tufa when they hit cold Lake Lahontan water at the lakebed. Lake Lahontan covered this location 11 ka to a depth of at least 60 m. In collaboration with the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe, an Applied Geophysics class at UNR investigated the near-surface geophysical characteristics of this fault. The survey at and near the tufa columns comprises near-surface Pwave seismic reflection and refraction, electrical resistivity tomography, nearsurface refraction microtremor arrays, nine near-surface direct-current resistivity soundings, magnetic surveys, and gravity surveys. The refraction microtremor results show shear velocities near tufa and faults to be marginally lower, compared to Vs away from the faults. Overall, the 30-m depth-averaged shear velocities are low, less than 300 m/s, consistent with the lakebed clay deposits. These results indicate that no seismically fast (> 500 m/s) tufa deposits are present below the surface at or near the tufa columns. Vs30 averages were for example 274 ± 13 m/s on the fault, 287 ± 2 m/s at 150 m east of the fault, and 290 ± 15 m/s at 150 m west of the fault. The P-velocity refraction optimization results similarly indicate a lack of high-velocity tufa buried below the surface in the Lahontan sediments, reinforcing the idea that all tufa was deposited above the lakebed surface. The seismic results provide a negative test of the hypothesis that

  4. Paleoseismological investigations on a slow-moving active fault in central Anatolia, Tecer Fault, Sivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnu Serdar Akyuz


    Full Text Available Tecer Fault is a N60˚-70˚E-trending, left-lateral, strike-slip fault to the south of the town of Sivas, Turkey. This fault is considered as the eastward continuation of Deliler Fault, which was classified as a probably active, left-lateral fault on the Active Fault Map of Turkey. We investigated the field characteristics and paleoseismic history of Tecer Fault in detail. After analyzing aerial photographs and satellite images, we mapped the exact fault trace on a 1/25,000 scale topographic map, between the towns of Deliilyas in southwest and Bogazdere in northeast. Tecer Fault is characterized by morphological features such as offset streams and gullies, linear depressions and scarps, and elongated hills. Four paleoseismological trenches were excavated on the northeastern extent of the fault. Two past earthquakes were identified in these trenches, and the dates of the collected charcoal samples suggested that the first of these earthquakes occurred about 8000 B.C. while the more recent event took place around 3500 B.C. Field observations and paleoseismic data indicate that Tecer Fault is an active, pure sinistral, strike-slip fault, and that there is about a 4500 years time span between the two earthquakes. It is also clear that there has not been any surface-ruptured faulting over the last 800 years. Compared with the earthquake characteristics of other strike-slip fault zones in Turkey in terms of time-slip relations, the slip rate can be estimated as about 1 mm/yr on Tecer Fault.

  5. Frictional properties of DFDP-1 Alpine Fault rocks under hydrothermal conditions and high shear strain (United States)

    Niemeijer, André R.; Boulton, Carolyn; Toy, Virginia; Townend, John; Sutherland, Rupert


    The Alpine Fault, New Zealand, is a major plate-bounding fault that accommodates 65-75% of the total relative motion between the Australian and Pacific plates. Paleoseismic evidence of large-displacement surface-rupturing events, as well as an absence of measurable contemporary surface deformation, indicates that the fault slips mostly in quasi-periodic large-magnitude earthquakes (architecture and rupture of the Alpine Fault, New Zealand, Geology,40, 1143-1146, doi:10.1130/G33614.1. Toy, V.G., Craw, D., Cooper, A.F., and R.J. Norris (2010), Thermal regime in the central Alpine Fault zone, New Zealand: Constraints from microstructures, biotite chemistry and fluid inclusion data, Tectonophysics, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2009.12.013

  6. Microstructural investigations on carbonate fault core rocks in active extensional fault zones from the central Apennines (Italy) (United States)

    Cortinovis, Silvia; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Storti, Fabrizio


    The study of the microstructural and petrophysical evolution of cataclasites and gouges has a fundamental impact on both hydraulic and frictional properties of fault zones. In the last decades, growing attention has been payed to the characterization of carbonate fault core rocks due to the nucleation and propagation of coseismic ruptures in carbonate successions (e.g., Umbria-Marche 1997, L'Aquila 2009, Amatrice 2016 earthquakes in Central Apennines, Italy). Among several physical parameters, grain size and shape in fault core rocks are expected to control the way of sliding along the slip surfaces in active fault zones, thus influencing the propagation of coseismic ruptures during earthquakes. Nevertheless, the role of grain size and shape distribution evolution in controlling the weakening or strengthening behavior in seismogenic fault zones is still not fully understood also because a comprehensive database from natural fault cores is still missing. In this contribution, we present a preliminary study of seismogenic extensional fault zones in Central Apennines by combining detailed filed mapping with grain size and microstructural analysis of fault core rocks. Field mapping was aimed to describe the structural architecture of fault systems and the along-strike fault rock distribution and fracturing variations. In the laboratory we used a Malvern Mastersizer 3000 granulometer to obtain a precise grain size characterization of loose fault rocks combined with sieving for coarser size classes. In addition, we employed image analysis on thin sections to quantify the grain shape and size in cemented fault core rocks. The studied fault zones consist of an up to 5-10 m-thick fault core where most of slip is accommodated, surrounded by a tens-of-meters wide fractured damage zone. Fault core rocks consist of (1) loose to partially cemented breccias characterized by different grain size (from several cm up to mm) and variable grain shape (from very angular to sub

  7. Earthquake lights and rupture processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Losseva


    Full Text Available A physical model of earthquake lights is proposed. It is suggested that the magnetic diffusion from the electric and magnetic fields source region is a dominant process, explaining rather high localization of the light flashes. A 3D numerical code allowing to take into account the arbitrary distribution of currents caused by ground motion, conductivity in the ground and at its surface, including the existence of sea water above the epicenter or (and near the ruptured segments of the fault have been developed. Simulations for the 1995 Kobe earthquake were conducted taking into account the existence of sea water with realistic geometry of shores. The results do not contradict the eyewitness reports and scarce measurements of the electric and magnetic fields at large distances from the epicenter.

  8. Near surface structure of the North Anatolian Fault Zone near 30°E from Rayleigh and Love wave tomography using ambient seismic noise. (United States)

    Taylor, G.; Rost, S.; Houseman, G. A.; Hillers, G.


    By utilising short period surface waves present in the noise field, we can construct images of shallow structure in the Earth's upper crust: a depth-range that is usually poorly resolved in earthquake tomography. Here, we use data from a dense seismic array (Dense Array for Northern Anatolia - DANA) deployed across the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in the source region of the 1999 magnitude 7.6 Izmit earthquake in western Turkey. The NAFZ is a major strike-slip system that extends 1200 km across northern Turkey and continues to pose a high level of seismic hazard, in particular to the mega-city of Istanbul. We obtain maps of group velocity variation using surface wave tomography applied to short period (1- 6 s) Rayleigh and Love waves to construct high-resolution images of SV and SH-wave velocity in the upper 5 km of a 70 km x 35 km region centred on the eastern end of the fault segment that ruptured in the 1999 Izmit earthquake. The average Rayleigh wave group velocities in the region vary between 1.8 km/s at 1.5 s period, to 2.2 km/s at 6 s period. The NAFZ bifurcates into northern and southern strands in this region; both are active but only the northern strand ruptured in the 1999 event. The signatures of both the northern and southern branches of the NAFZ are clearly associated with strong gradients in seismic velocity that also denote the boundaries of major tectonic units. This observation implies that the fault zone exploits the pre-existing structure of the Intra-Pontide suture zone. To the north of the NAFZ, we observe low S-wave velocities ( 2.0 km/s) associated with the unconsolidated sediments of the Adapazari basin, and blocks of weathered terrigenous clastic sediments. To the south of the northern branch of the NAFZ in the Armutlu block, we detect higher velocities ( 2.9 km/s) associated with a shallow crystalline basement, in particular a block of metamorphosed schists and marbles that bound the northern branch of the NAFZ.

  9. Geotechnical and Surface Wave Investigation of Liquefaction and Strong Motion Instrumentation sites of the Denali Fault, Mw 7.9, Earthquake (United States)

    Kayen, R.; Thompson, E.; Minasian, D.; Collins, B.; Moss, R.; Sitar, N.; Carver, G.


    Following the Mw 7.9 earthquake on the Denali and Totschunda faults on 3 November 2002, we conducted two investigations to map the regional extent and severity of liquefaction ground failures and assess the geotechnical properties of these sites, as well as profile the soil properties beneath three seismometers located at Alyeska Pump Stations 9, 10, and 11. The most noteworthy observations are that liquefaction damage was focused towards the eastern end of the rupture area. For example, liquefaction features in the river bars of the Tanana River, north of the fault-break, are sparsely located from Fairbanks to Delta, but are pervasive throughout the eastern area of the break to Northway Junction, the eastern limit of our survey. Likewise, for the four glacier-proximal rivers draining toward the north, little or no liquefaction was observed on the western Delta and Johnson Rivers, whereas the eastern Robertson River and non-glacial Tok River, and especially the Nabesna River, had observable-to-abundant fissures and sand vents. Several rivers systems were studied in detail. The Nabesna River emerges from its glacier, and drains and fines northward as it crosses the fault zone resulting in an asymmetrical liquefaction pattern. South of the fault, falling liquefaction resistance of soil (fining from sandy gravel to gravely sand) and rising loads from ground motions (approaching the fault) abruptly intersect such that there is a well defined, narrow, soil transition from undisturbed-to-fully liquefied approximately 5 kilometers from the fault. North of the fault, both liquefaction resistance (continued fining) and ground motions fall in tandem, leaving a much broader zone of liquefaction. The Delta River liquefaction occurrence is more complex, where side-entering glacial rivers form non-liquefiable gravel fans and alter the composition and compactness of the main-stem deposits. Immediately upstream of the gravelly Canwell glacier tributary, and immediately at the

  10. Geometry of the Gerede Segment, North Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey (United States)

    Caglayan, A.; ISIK, V.


    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) is an active dextral strike-slip fault zone in northern Turkey. The NAFZ is approximately 1200 km in length which extends from Karliova in the east and to reach as far as the Gulf of Saros in the west. The NAFZ becomes wider geometry from east to west which are characterized by 9 destructive earthquake of Ms>7 in the 20th century. An earthquake on 1944 February 1 (Ms 7,3) caused 180 km long surface rupture associated with 2-6.5 m of right-lateral slip between Bayramören in the east and Abant Lake in the west along the NAFZ, which is called the Gerede Segment. This study describes internal geometrical characteristics and deformation mechanism of faults with fault surfaces in the Gerede Segment. The faults along the segment variously cut across Mesozoic-Cenozoic basement rocks and Quaternary alluvium deposits. They juxtapose not only different units of basement but also basement rocks and alluvium. We select typical fault surface that have been formed the best exposures in limestone in different locality, which define exhumed main faults along the segment. These faults strike N70°-80°E and dip 50°-85°NW. Slickenlines on these fault surface plunge shallowly to the NE and/or SW. Fault surface include brittle kinematic indicators indicating right-lateral strike-slip displacements. Some typical Riedel shear fractures (R- and P-fractures) around the main faults also show dextral displacements. Along the main faults two main architectural elements including fault core and fault damage zone is typical. The fault damage zones of these faults are characterized by both fault-related fracturing and fluid-assisted deformation processes. Although breccia is common fault rock in fault zones, gouge and cataclasite are seen in variable exposures. We have defined crackle, mosaic and chaotic type breccias using clast-size and clast proportion. Rock fragments within breccias have occurred mm-cm scale from angular to rounded clast. Sub

  11. A proposal of surveying and evaluating system of active faults for earthquake assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakoshi, Katsuyoshi; Ueta, Keiichi; Hataya; Ryuta; Abe, Shintaro; Miura, Daisuke; Hamada, Takaomi; Aoyagi, Yasuhira; Inoue, Daiei


    1. Paleoseismology of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line active fault system: We investigated co-seismic faulting activity of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line active fault system (ISTL) to clarify behavioral segmentation of long and massive faults. Geomorphologic and geologic surveys, trench excavation, and seismic reflection survey in the southern to central parts of ISTL revealed paleoseismologic faulting events occurred in the last thousands years and characteristics of geometric, structural, and geomorphologic segments. Each paleoseismic event, co-seismic displacement of deposit, average slip rate, and recurrence intervals suggest that the latest paleo-earthquake occurred in 1700 cal y BP and involved multiple segments in the Okaya to the Shimotsuburai faults. The estimated surface rupture length for this event is up to 77 km or possibly up to 94 km long. The another latest event occurred after 1200 cal y BP at the Ichinose fault and adjacent active faults. In addition, ca. 1200 cal y BP event at the Gofukuji fault occurred and involved multiple segments in the northern ISTL. Behavioral boundaries of these distinctive paleoseismic events were present in segment boundaries of geometric characters and slip rate variation. In the ISTL, geometric segmentation and slip-rate variation likely coincide with the estimated behavioral segmentation. Therefore, this finding suggests that geometric segment and slip-rate variation play an important role to determine the size of the maximum behavioral segment. 2. Active fault study on the 1999 Taiwan Chichi Earthquake area: The earthquake fault was appeared along the Chelungpu Fault while the 1999 Chichi Earthquake has occurred. The N-S striking fault has been recognized as an active fault, however E-W direction earthquake fault has not been described before the earthquake as an active fault. The later fault appeared just beneath the Shihkang Dam and the dam was destroyed by the fault. This study revealed that the E

  12. Assessment of faulting and seismic hazards at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.L.; Frazier, G.A.; Grant, T.A.


    Yucca Mountain is being evaluated for the nation's first high-level nuclear-waste repository. Local faults appear to be capable of moderate earthquakes at recurrence intervals of tens of thousands of years. The major issues identified for the preclosure phase (<100 yrs) are the location and seismic design of surface facilities for handling incoming waste. It is planned to address surface fault rupture by locating facilities where no discernible recent (<100,000 yrs) faulting has occurred and to base the ground motion design on hypothetical earthquakes, postulated on nearby faults, that represent 10,000 yrs of average cumulative displacement. The major tectonic issues identified for the postclosure phase (10,000 yrs) are volcanism (not addressed here) and potential changes to the hydrologic system resulting from a local faulting event which could trigger potential thermal, mechanical, and chemical interactions with the ground water. Extensive studies are planned for resolving these issues. 33 refs., 3 figs

  13. Active Fault Geometry and Crustal Deformation Along the San Andreas Fault System Through San Gorgonio Pass, California: The View in 3D From Seismicity (United States)

    Nicholson, C.; Hauksson, E.; Plesch, A.


    Understanding the 3D geometry and deformation style of the San Andreas fault (SAF) is critical to accurate dynamic rupture and ground motion prediction models. We use 3D alignments of hypocenter and focal mechanism nodal planes within a relocated earthquake catalog (1981-2011) [Hauksson et al., 2012] to develop improved 3D fault models for active strands of the SAF and adjacent secondary structures. Through San Gorgonio Pass (SGP), earthquakes define a mechanically layered crust with predominantly high-angle strike-slip faults in the upper ~10 km, while at greater depth, intersecting sets of strike-slip, oblique slip and low-angle thrust faults define a wedge-shaped volume deformation of the lower crust. In some places, this interface between upper and lower crustal deformation may be an active detachment fault, and may have controlled the down-dip extent of recent fault rupture. Alignments of hypocenters and nodal planes define multiple principal slip surfaces through SGP, including a through-going steeply-dipping predominantly strike-slip Banning fault strand at depth that upward truncates a more moderately dipping (40°-50°) blind, oblique North Palm Springs fault. The North Palm Springs fault may be the active down-dip extension of the San Gorgonio Pass thrust offset at depth by the principal, through-going Banning strand. In the northern Coachella Valley, seismicity indicates that the Garnet Hill and Banning fault strands are most likely sub-parallel and steeply dipping (~70°NE) to depths of 8-10 km, where they intersect and merge with a stack of moderately dipping to low-angle oblique thrust faults. Gravity and water well data confirm that these faults are sub-parallel and near vertical in the upper 2-3 km. Although the dense wedge of deep seismicity below SGP and largely south of the SAF contains multiple secondary fault sets of different orientations, the predominant fault set appears to be a series of en echelon NW-striking oblique strike-slip faults

  14. Shallow megathrust earthquake ruptures betrayed by their outer-trench aftershocks signature (United States)

    Sladen, Anthony; Trevisan, Jenny


    For some megathrust earthquakes, the rupture extends to the solid Earth's surface, at the ocean floor. This unexpected behaviour holds strong implications for the tsunami potential of subduction zones and for the physical conditions governing earthquakes, but such ruptures occur in underwater areas which are hard to observe, even with current instrumentation and imaging techniques. Here, we evidence that aftershocks occurring ocean-ward from the trench are conditioned by near-surface rupture of the megathrust fault. Comparison to well constrained earthquake slip models further reveals that for each event the number of aftershocks is proportional to the amount of shallow slip, a link likely related to static stress transfer. Hence, the spatial distribution of these specific aftershock sequences could provide independent constrains on the coseismic shallow slip of future events. It also offers the prospect to be able to reassess the rupture of many large subduction earthquakes back to the beginning of the instrumental era.

  15. Fault failure with moderate earthquakes (United States)

    Johnston, M.J.S.; Linde, A.T.; Gladwin, M.T.; Borcherdt, R.D.


    High resolution strain and tilt recordings were made in the near-field of, and prior to, the May 1983 Coalinga earthquake (ML = 6.7, ?? = 51 km), the August 4, 1985, Kettleman Hills earthquake (ML = 5.5, ?? = 34 km), the April 1984 Morgan Hill earthquake (ML = 6.1, ?? = 55 km), the November 1984 Round Valley earthquake (ML = 5.8, ?? = 54 km), the January 14, 1978, Izu, Japan earthquake (ML = 7.0, ?? = 28 km), and several other smaller magnitude earthquakes. These recordings were made with near-surface instruments (resolution 10-8), with borehole dilatometers (resolution 10-10) and a 3-component borehole strainmeter (resolution 10-9). While observed coseismic offsets are generally in good agreement with expectations from elastic dislocation theory, and while post-seismic deformation continued, in some cases, with a moment comparable to that of the main shock, preseismic strain or tilt perturbations from hours to seconds (or less) before the main shock are not apparent above the present resolution. Precursory slip for these events, if any occurred, must have had a moment less than a few percent of that of the main event. To the extent that these records reflect general fault behavior, the strong constraint on the size and amount of slip triggering major rupture makes prediction of the onset times and final magnitudes of the rupture zones a difficult task unless the instruments are fortuitously installed near the rupture initiation point. These data are best explained by an inhomogeneous failure model for which various areas of the fault plane have either different stress-slip constitutive laws or spatially varying constitutive parameters. Other work on seismic waveform analysis and synthetic waveforms indicates that the rupturing process is inhomogeneous and controlled by points of higher strength. These models indicate that rupture initiation occurs at smaller regions of higher strength which, when broken, allow runaway catastrophic failure. ?? 1987.

  16. Fault failure with moderate earthquakes (United States)

    Johnston, M. J. S.; Linde, A. T.; Gladwin, M. T.; Borcherdt, R. D.


    High resolution strain and tilt recordings were made in the near-field of, and prior to, the May 1983 Coalinga earthquake ( ML = 6.7, Δ = 51 km), the August 4, 1985, Kettleman Hills earthquake ( ML = 5.5, Δ = 34 km), the April 1984 Morgan Hill earthquake ( ML = 6.1, Δ = 55 km), the November 1984 Round Valley earthquake ( ML = 5.8, Δ = 54 km), the January 14, 1978, Izu, Japan earthquake ( ML = 7.0, Δ = 28 km), and several other smaller magnitude earthquakes. These recordings were made with near-surface instruments (resolution 10 -8), with borehole dilatometers (resolution 10 -10) and a 3-component borehole strainmeter (resolution 10 -9). While observed coseismic offsets are generally in good agreement with expectations from elastic dislocation theory, and while post-seismic deformation continued, in some cases, with a moment comparable to that of the main shock, preseismic strain or tilt perturbations from hours to seconds (or less) before the main shock are not apparent above the present resolution. Precursory slip for these events, if any occurred, must have had a moment less than a few percent of that of the main event. To the extent that these records reflect general fault behavior, the strong constraint on the size and amount of slip triggering major rupture makes prediction of the onset times and final magnitudes of the rupture zones a difficult task unless the instruments are fortuitously installed near the rupture initiation point. These data are best explained by an inhomogeneous failure model for which various areas of the fault plane have either different stress-slip constitutive laws or spatially varying constitutive parameters. Other work on seismic waveform analysis and synthetic waveforms indicates that the rupturing process is inhomogeneous and controlled by points of higher strength. These models indicate that rupture initiation occurs at smaller regions of higher strength which, when broken, allow runaway catastrophic failure.

  17. Role of Rock Mass Fabric and Faulting in the Development of Block Caving Induced Surface Subsidence (United States)

    Vyazmensky, Alexander; Elmo, Davide; Stead, Douglas


    Extraction of a large volume of ore during block caving can lead to the formation of significant surface subsidence. Current knowledge of the mechanisms that control subsidence development is limited as are our subsidence prediction capabilities. Mining experience suggests that, among other contributing factors, geological structures play a particularly important role in subsidence development. A conceptual modeling study has been undertaken to evaluate the significance of geological structure on surface subsidence. A hybrid finite/discrete element technique incorporating a coupled elasto-plastic fracture mechanics constitutive criterion is adopted; this allows physically realistic modeling of block caving through simulation of the transition from a continuum to a discontinuum. Numerical experiments presented emphasize the importance of joint orientation and fault location on mechanisms of subsidence development and the governing role of geological structure in defining the degree of surface subsidence asymmetry.

  18. Determination of paleoseismic activity over a large time-scale: Fault scarp dating with 36Cl (United States)

    Mozafari Amiri, Nasim; Tikhomirov, Dmitry; Sümer, Ökmen; Özkaymak, Çaǧlar; Uzel, Bora; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof; Sözbilir, Hasan; Akçar, Naki


    Bedrock fault scarps are the most direct evidence of past earthquakes to reconstruct seismic activity in a large time-scale using cosmogenic 36Cl dating if built in carbonates. For this method, a surface along the fault scarp with a minimum amount of erosion is required to be chosen as an ideal target point. The section of the fault selected for sampling should cover at least two meters of the fault surface from the lower part of the scarp, where intersects with colluvium wedge. Ideally, sampling should be performed on a continuous strip along the direction of the fault slip direction. First, samples of 10 cm high and 15 cm wide are marked on the fault surface. Then, they are collected using cutters, hammer and chisel in a thickness of 3 cm. The main geometrical factors of scarp dip, scarp height, top surface dip and colluvium dip are also measured. Topographic shielding in the sampling spot is important to be estimated as well. Moreover, density of the fault scarp and colluvium are calculated. The physical and chemical preparations are carried in laboratory for AMS and chemical analysis of the samples. A Matlab® code is used for modelling of seismically active periods based on increasing production rate of 36Cl following each rupture, when a buried section of a fault is exposed. Therefore, by measuring the amount of cosmogenic 36Cl versus height, the timing of major ruptures and their offsets are determined. In our study, Manastır, Mugırtepe and Rahmiye faults in Gediz graben, Priene-Sazlı, Kalafat and Yavansu faults in Büyük Menderes graben and Ören fault in Gökava half-graben have been examined in the seismically active region of Western Turkey. Our results reconstruct at least five periods of high seismic activity during the Holocene time, three of which reveal seismic ruptures beyond the historical pre-existing data.

  19. Crustal deformation around the Kamishiro fault, northern Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line and its relation to the 2014 Northern Nagano earthquake (Mw6.3) (United States)

    Sagiya, T.; Teratani, N.; Matsuhiro, K.; Okuda, T.; Horikawa, S.; Matsuta, N.; Nishimura, T.; Yarai, H.; Suito, H.


    The Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL) is a major geologic boundary intersecting the Japanese mainland into the northeastern and the southwestern parts. It is also an active fault system that is supposed to have a high seismic potential. We have conducted dense GPS observation and identified a highly localized E-W contraction around the Kamishiro fault at the northern ISTL. Kinematic modeling of this deformation pattern suggests that the fault is shallowly dipping to the east and accommodating the E-W contraction by aseismic faulting below the depth of 2-4 km. This aseismic fault is consistent with the base of the Neogene basin fill, which has accommodated E-W shortening over 10km. On November 22, 2014, a Mw 6.3 earthquake occurred at the Kamishiro fault. The hypocenter is located at the 5km depth and a 9km long surface rupture appeared along the fault trace. GPS observation and InSAR analysis with ALOS-2 data revealed northwestward displacement and uplift (max. 90cm) on the east, and southeastward displacement with subsidence (max. 30cm) on the west, indicating a rupture of the Kamishiro fault. The coseismic crustal deformation pattern is modeled by a faulting on a high-angle reverse fault from the surface to 7km depth, extending ~20km along the fault trace. A large fault slip is estimated at the shallowest (depthcycle at a thrust fault system.

  20. Activity of the Mill Creek and Mission Creek fault strands of the San Andreas fault through the San Gorgonio Pass (United States)

    Morelan, A. E., III; Oskin, M. E.; Valentine, M.


    We present new observations that constrain the recent slip history of the Mill Creek and Mission Creek strands of the San Andreas fault. These faults are the northern strands of a complex series of strike-slip and thrust faults through the San Gorgonio Pass stepover, an important structural barrier that affects seismic hazard in southern California. Understanding the activity on each of the faults in this complex region will reveal the potential for large, throughgoing San Andreas fault ruptures. The Mill Creek fault strand cuts the base of the upper Raywood Flat fill, a 50 m thick package of debris-flow deposits. However, the upper section of these deposits overlap, and are not cut by the fault. On the surface of this deposit, a 15 m-wide channel, flanked by bouldery debris-flow levees, crosses the projection of the Mill Creek fault without evidence of offset. We collected boulder-top samples for cosmogenic exposure age-dating of these levees and present preliminary results. Additionally, we mapped inset terraces along the incised channel of the East Fork Whitewater River drainage that also do not show evidence of fault offset, and we collected a depth profile through the uppermost Raywood Flat fill in order to further assess its age. Along the Mission Creek strand, newly devegetated B4 airborne lidar data reveals fault scarps cutting across hillslopes and alluvial fans between the San Bernardino strand and lower Raywood Flat for a distance of 4 km. We identify a lateral offset of 4-6 m in an alluvial fan deposit within a tributary of Banning canyon, and sampled a suite of boulders to estimate the age of this deposit. This site shows that the Mission Creek fault is active and could rupture through the San Gorgonio Pass, bypassing the structural complexity of the San Gorgonio Pass thrust to the south. Conversely, the Mill Creek fault appears to be inactive through the pass since the latest Pleistocene.

  1. Fault-Related Sanctuaries (United States)

    Piccardi, L.


    Beyond the study of historical surface faulting events, this work investigates the possibility, in specific cases, of identifying pre-historical events whose memory survives in myths and legends. The myths of many famous sacred places of the ancient world contain relevant telluric references: "sacred" earthquakes, openings to the Underworld and/or chthonic dragons. Given the strong correspondence with local geological evidence, these myths may be considered as describing natural phenomena. It has been possible in this way to shed light on the geologic origin of famous myths (Piccardi, 1999, 2000 and 2001). Interdisciplinary researches reveal that the origin of several ancient sanctuaries may be linked in particular to peculiar geological phenomena observed on local active faults (like ground shaking and coseismic surface ruptures, gas and flames emissions, strong underground rumours). In many of these sanctuaries the sacred area is laid directly above the active fault. In a few cases, faulting has affected also the archaeological relics, right through the main temple (e.g. Delphi, Cnidus, Hierapolis of Phrygia). As such, the arrangement of the cult site and content of relative myths suggest that specific points along the trace of active faults have been noticed in the past and worshiped as special `sacred' places, most likely interpreted as Hades' Doors. The mythological stratification of most of these sanctuaries dates back to prehistory, and points to a common derivation from the cult of the Mother Goddess (the Lady of the Doors), which was largely widespread since at least 25000 BC. The cult itself was later reconverted into various different divinities, while the `sacred doors' of the Great Goddess and/or the dragons (offspring of Mother Earth and generally regarded as Keepers of the Doors) persisted in more recent mythologies. Piccardi L., 1999: The "Footprints" of the Archangel: Evidence of Early-Medieval Surface Faulting at Monte Sant'Angelo (Gargano, Italy

  2. Joint inversion of GNSS and teleseismic data for the rupture process of the 2017 M w6.5 Jiuzhaigou, China, earthquake (United States)

    Li, Qi; Tan, Kai; Wang, Dong Zhen; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yu; Qi, Yu Jie


    The spatio-temporal slip distribution of the earthquake that occurred on 8 August 2017 in Jiuzhaigou, China, was estimated from the teleseismic body wave and near-field Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data (coseismic displacements and high-rate GPS data) based on a finite fault model. Compared with the inversion results from the teleseismic body waves, the near-field GNSS data can better restrain the rupture area, the maximum slip, the source time function, and the surface rupture. The results show that the maximum slip of the earthquake approaches 1.4 m, the scalar seismic moment is 8.0 × 1018 N·m (M w ≈ 6.5), and the centroid depth is 15 km. The slip is mainly driven by the left-lateral strike-slip and it is initially inferred that the seismogenic fault occurs in the south branch of the Tazang fault or an undetectable fault, a NW-trending left-lateral strike-slip fault, and belongs to one of the tail structures at the easternmost end of the eastern Kunlun fault zone. The earthquake rupture is mainly concentrated at depths of 5-15 km, which results in the complete rupture of the seismic gap left by the previous four earthquakes with magnitudes > 6.0 in 1973 and 1976. Therefore, the possibility of a strong aftershock on the Huya fault is low. The source duration is 30 s and there are two major ruptures. The main rupture occurs in the first 10 s, 4 s after the earthquake; the second rupture peak arrives in 17 s. In addition, the Coulomb stress study shows that the epicenter of the earthquake is located in the area where the static Coulomb stress change increased because of the 12 May 2017 M w7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake. Therefore, the Wenchuan earthquake promoted the occurrence of the 8 August 2017 Jiuzhaigou earthquake.

  3. Modeling of fault reactivation and induced seismicity during hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rinaldi, Antonio P.; Cappa, Frédéric; Moridis, George J.


    We have conducted numerical simulation studies to assess the potential for injection-induced fault reactivation and notable seismic events associated with shale-gas hydraulic fracturing operations. The modeling is generally tuned towards conditions usually encountered in the Marcellus shale play in the Northeastern US at an approximate depth of 1500 m (~;;4,500 feet). Our modeling simulations indicate that when faults are present, micro-seismic events are possible, the magnitude of which is somewhat larger than the one associated with micro-seismic events originating from regular hydraulic fracturing because of the larger surface area that is available for rupture. The results of our simulations indicated fault rupture lengths of about 10 to 20 m, which, in rare cases can extend to over 100 m, depending on the fault permeability, the in situ stress field, and the fault strength properties. In addition to a single event rupture length of 10 to 20 m, repeated events and aseismic slip amounted to a total rupture length of 50 m, along with a shear offset displacement of less than 0.01 m. This indicates that the possibility of hydraulically induced fractures at great depth (thousands of meters) causing activation of faults and creation of a new flow path that can reach shallow groundwater resources (or even the surface) is remote. The expected low permeability of faults in producible shale is clearly a limiting factor for the possible rupture length and seismic magnitude. In fact, for a fault that is initially nearly-impermeable, the only possibility of larger fault slip event would be opening by hydraulic fracturing; this would allow pressure to penetrate the matrix along the fault and to reduce the frictional strength over a sufficiently large fault surface patch. However, our simulation results show that if the fault is initially impermeable, hydraulic fracturing along the fault results in numerous small micro-seismic events along with the propagation, effectively

  4. Detailed Mapping of Historical and Preinstrumental Earthquake Ruptures in Central Asia Using Multi-Scale, Multi-Platform Photogrammetry (United States)

    Elliott, A. J.; Walker, R. T.; Parsons, B.; Ren, Z.; Ainscoe, E. A.; Abdrakhmatov, K.; Mackenzie, D.; Arrowsmith, R.; Gruetzner, C.


    In regions of the planet with long historical records, known past seismic events can be attributed to specific fault sources through the identification and measurement of single-event scarps in high-resolution imagery and topography. The level of detail captured by modern remote sensing is now sufficient to map and measure complete earthquake ruptures that were originally only sparsely mapped or overlooked entirely. We can thus extend the record of mapped earthquake surface ruptures into the preinstrumental period and capture the wealth of information preserved in the numerous historical earthquake ruptures throughout regions like Central Asia. We investigate two major late 19th and early 20th century earthquakes that are well located macroseismically but whose fault sources had proved enigmatic in the absence of detailed imagery and topography. We use high-resolution topographic models derived from photogrammetry of satellite, low-altitude, and ground-based optical imagery to map and measure the coseismic scarps of the 1889 M8.3 Chilik, Kazakhstan and 1932 M7.6 Changma, China earthquakes. Measurement of the scarps on the combined imagery and topography reveals the extent and slip distribution of coseismic rupture in each of these events, showing both earthquakes involved multiple faults with variable kinematics. We use a 1-m elevation model of the Changma fault derived from Pleiades satellite imagery to map the changing kinematics of the 1932 rupture along strike. For the 1889 Chilik earthquake we use 1.5-m SPOT-6 satellite imagery to produce a regional elevation model of the fault ruptures, from which we identify three distinct, intersecting fault systems that each have >20 km of fresh, single-event scarps. Along sections of each of these faults we construct high resolution (330 points per sq m) elevation models using quadcopter- and helikite-mounted cameras. From the detailed topography we measure single-event oblique offsets of 6-10 m, consistent with the large

  5. Dynamic Source Rupture Process of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake (United States)

    Yu, Xiangwei; Zhang, Wenbo


    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes are a series of earthquakes occurred in the Kumamoto Prefecture in Kyushu Region of Japan, including a magnitude 7.0 mainshock which struck at 01:25 JST on April 16, 2016 beneath Kumamoto City, at a depth of about 10 km, and a foreshock earthquake with a magnitude 6.2 at 21:26 JST on April 14, 2016, at a depth of about 11 km. This series earthquake killed at least 50 people and injured about 3,000 others in total. Severe damage occurred in Kumamoto and Oita Prefectures, with numerous structures collapsing and catching fire. More than 44,000 people were evacuated from their homes due to the disaster. Kumamoto Prefecture lies at the southern end of the Japan Median Tectonic Line, Japan's longest, where a system of active faults forks in two directions at the Beppu-Haneyama Fault Zone. Specifically, the series of quakes ruptured the 81-km-long Hinagu Fault and 64-km-long Futagawa Fault to its north, as well as lesser but discernable interaction with the farther flung Beppu-Haneyama Fault Zone. A 27-km section of the Futagawa Fault Zone slid 3.5 meters. The earthquakes are occurring along the Beppu-Shimabara graben, with epicenters moving from west to east over time. In this study, we analyze the dynamic rupture process of this earthquake. Our analyzing procedure is as follows, 1) Obtain the spatial-temporal stress distribution on the fault surface from the kinematic source model inverted from strong motion data (Zhang & Zhen, the abstract of this meeting, No. EGU2017ASC20162770). Estimate the strength excess (yielding stress) and the frictional stress level for each subfault; 2) Estimate the critical slip-weakening distance Dc for each subfault assuming a simple slip-weakening law and according to the method of Mikumo et al. (2003); 3) Reconstruct the dynamic source rupture process using those dynamic source parameters with the slip-weakening friction law; and 4) Simultaneously, simulate the near source ground motions based on the

  6. Erosion influences the seismicity of active thrust faults. (United States)

    Steer, Philippe; Simoes, Martine; Cattin, Rodolphe; Shyu, J Bruce H


    Assessing seismic hazards remains one of the most challenging scientific issues in Earth sciences. Deep tectonic processes are classically considered as the only persistent mechanism driving the stress loading of active faults over a seismic cycle. Here we show via a mechanical model that erosion also significantly influences the stress loading of thrust faults at the timescale of a seismic cycle. Indeed, erosion rates of about ~0.1-20 mm yr(-1), as documented in Taiwan and in other active compressional orogens, can raise the Coulomb stress by ~0.1-10 bar on the nearby thrust faults over the inter-seismic phase. Mass transfers induced by surface processes in general, during continuous or short-lived and intense events, represent a prominent mechanism for inter-seismic stress loading of faults near the surface. Such stresses are probably sufficient to trigger shallow seismicity or promote the rupture of deep continental earthquakes up to the surface.

  7. Fracture zones constrained by neutral surfaces in a fault-related fold: Insights from the Kelasu tectonic zone, Kuqa Depression (United States)

    Sun, Shuai; Hou, Guiting; Zheng, Chunfang


    Stress variation associated with folding is one of the controlling factors in the development of tectonic fractures, however, little attention has been paid to the influence of neutral surfaces during folding on fracture distribution in a fault-related fold. In this study, we take the Cretaceous Bashijiqike Formation in the Kuqa Depression as an example and analyze the distribution of tectonic fractures in fault-related folds by core observation and logging data analysis. Three fracture zones are identified in a fault-related fold: a tensile zone, a transition zone and a compressive zone, which may be constrained by two neutral surfaces of fold. Well correlation reveals that the tensile zone and the transition zone reach the maximum thickness at the fold hinge and get thinner in the fold limbs. A 2D viscoelastic stress field model of a fault-related fold was constructed to further investigate the mechanism of fracturing. Statistical and numerical analysis reveal that the tensile zone and the transition zone become thicker with decreasing interlimb angle. Stress variation associated with folding is the first level of control over the general pattern of fracture distribution while faulting is a secondary control over the development of local fractures in a fault-related fold.

  8. Near-surface versus fault zone damage following the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake: Observation and simulation of repeating earthquakes (United States)

    Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Furumura, Takashi; Rubinstein, Justin L.


    We observe crustal damage and its subsequent recovery caused by the 1999 M7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in central Taiwan. Analysis of repeating earthquakes in Hualien region, ~70 km east of the Chi-Chi earthquake, shows a remarkable change in wave propagation beginning in the year 2000, revealing damage within the fault zone and distributed across the near surface. We use moving window cross correlation to identify a dramatic decrease in the waveform similarity and delays in the S wave coda. The maximum delay is up to 59 ms, corresponding to a 7.6% velocity decrease averaged over the wave propagation path. The waveform changes on either side of the fault are distinct. They occur in different parts of the waveforms, affect different frequencies, and the size of the velocity reductions is different. Using a finite difference method, we simulate the effect of postseismic changes in the wavefield by introducing S wave velocity anomaly in the fault zone and near the surface. The models that best fit the observations point to pervasive damage in the near surface and deep, along-fault damage at the time of the Chi-Chi earthquake. The footwall stations show the combined effect of near-surface and the fault zone damage, where the velocity reduction (2–7%) is twofold to threefold greater than the fault zone damage observed in the hanging wall stations. The physical models obtained here allow us to monitor the temporal evolution and recovering process of the Chi-Chi fault zone damage.

  9. Rupture disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, R.G.


    The intermediate heat transport system for a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor includes a device for rapidly draining the sodium therefrom should a sodium-water reaction occur within the system. This device includes a rupturable member in a drain line in the system and means for cutting a large opening therein and for positively removing the sheared-out portion from the opening cut in the rupturable member. According to the preferred embodiment of the invention the rupturable member includes a solid head seated in the end of the drain line having a rim extending peripherally therearound, the rim being clamped against the end of the drain line by a clamp ring having an interior shearing edge, the bottom of the rupturable member being convex and extending into the drain line. Means are provided to draw the rupturable member away from the drain line against the shearing edge to clear the drain line for outflow of sodium therethrough

  10. Influence of fault trend, fault bends, and fault convergence on shallow structure, geomorphology, and hazards, Hosgri strike-slip fault, offshore central California (United States)

    Johnson, S. Y.; Watt, J. T.; Hartwell, S. R.


    dies out northward where we propose that its slip transfers to active structures in the Piedras Blancas fold belt. Given the continuity of the Hosgri Fault Zone through our study area, earthquake hazard assessments should incorporate a minimum rupture length of 110 km. Our data do not constrain lateral slip rates on the Hosgri, which probably vary along the fault (both to the north and south) as different structures converge and diverge but are likely in the geodetically estimated range of 2 to 4 mm/yr. More focused mapping of lowstand geomorphic features (e.g., channels, paleoshorelines) has the potential to provide better constraints. The post-Last-Glacial Maximum unconformity is an important surface for constraining vertical deformation, yielding local fault offset rates that may be as high as 1.4 mm/yr and off-fault deformation rates as high as 0.5 mm/yr. These vertical rates are short-term and not sustainable over longer geologic time, emphasizing the complex evolution and dynamics of strike-slip zones.

  11. Active transpressional tectonics in the Andean forearc of southern Peru quantified by 10Be surface exposure dating of an active fault scarp (United States)

    Benavente, Carlos; Zerathe, Swann; Audin, Laurence; Hall, Sarah R.; Robert, Xavier; Delgado, Fabrizio; Carcaillet, Julien; Team, Aster


    Our understanding of the style and rate of Quaternary tectonic deformation in the forearc of the Central Andes is hampered by a lack of field observations and constraints on neotectonic structures. Here we present a detailed analysis of the Purgatorio fault, a recently recognized active fault located in the forearc of southern Peru. Based on field and remote sensing analysis (Pléiades DEM), we define the Purgatorio fault as a subvertical structure trending NW-SE to W-E along its 60 km length, connecting, on its eastern end, to the crustal Incapuquio Fault System. The Purgatorio fault accommodates right-lateral transpressional deformation, as shown by the numerous lateral and vertical plurimetric offsets recorded along strike. In particular, scarp with a 5 m cumulative throw is preserved and displays cobbles that are cut and covered by slickensides. Cosmogenic radionuclide exposure dating (10Be) of quartzite cobbles along the vertical fault scarp yields young exposure ages that can be bracketed between 0 to 6 ka, depending on the inheritance model that is applied. Our preferred scenario, which takes in account our geomorphic observations, implies at least two distinct rupture events, each associated with 3 and 2 m of vertical offset. These two events plausibly occurred during the last thousand years. Nevertheless, an interpretation invoking more tectonic events along the fault cannot be ruled out. This work affirms crustal deformation along active faults in the Andean forearc of southern Peru during the last thousand years.

  12. Fault Length Vs Fault Displacement Evaluation In The Case Of Cerro Prieto Pull-Apart Basin (Baja California, Mexico) Subsidence (United States)

    Glowacka, E.; Sarychikhina, O.; Nava Pichardo, F. A.; Farfan, F.; Garcia Arthur, M. A.; Orozco, L.; Brassea, J.


    The Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin is located in the southern part of San Andreas Fault system, and is characterized by high seismicity, recent volcanism, tectonic deformation and hydrothermal activity (Lomnitz et al, 1970; Elders et al., 1984; Suárez-Vidal et al., 2008). Since the Cerro Prieto geothermal field production started, in 1973, significant subsidence increase was observed (Glowacka and Nava, 1996, Glowacka et al., 1999), and a relation between fluid extraction rate and subsidence rate has been suggested (op. cit.). Analysis of existing deformation data (Glowacka et al., 1999, 2005, Sarychikhina 2011) points to the fact that, although the extraction changes influence the subsidence rate, the tectonic faults control the spatial extent of the observed subsidence. Tectonic faults act as water barriers in the direction perpendicular to the fault, and/or separate regions with different compaction, and as effect the significant part of the subsidence is released as vertical displacement on the ground surface along fault rupture. These faults ruptures cause damages to roads and irrigation canals and water leakage. Since 1996, a network of geotechnical instruments has operated in the Mexicali Valley, for continuous recording of deformation phenomena. To date, the network (REDECVAM: Mexicali Valley Crustal Strain Measurement Array) includes two crackmeters and eight tiltmeters installed on, or very close to, the main faults; all instruments have sampling intervals in the 1 to 20 minutes range. Additionally, there are benchmarks for measuring vertical fault displacements for which readings are recorded every 3 months. Since the crackmeter measures vertical displacement on the fault at one place only, the question appears: can we use the crackmeter data to evaluate how long is the lenth of the fractured fault, and how quickly it grows, so we can know where we can expect fractures in the canals or roads? We used the Wells and Coppersmith (1994) relations between

  13. Understanding the Hydromechanical Behavior of a Fault Zone From Transient Surface Tilt and Fluid Pressure Observations at Hourly Time Scales (United States)

    Schuite, Jonathan; Longuevergne, Laurent; Bour, Olivier; Burbey, Thomas J.; Boudin, Frédérick; Lavenant, Nicolas; Davy, Philippe


    Flow through reservoirs such as fractured media is powered by head gradients which also generate measurable poroelastic deformation of the rock body. The combined analysis of surface deformation and subsurface pressure provides valuable insights of a reservoir's structure and hydromechanical properties, which are of interest for deep-seated CO2 or nuclear waste storage for instance. Among all surveying tools, surface tiltmeters offer the possibility to grasp hydraulically induced deformations over a broad range of time scales with a remarkable precision. Here we investigate the information content of transient surface tilt generated by the pressurization a kilometer scale subvertical fault zone. Our approach involves the combination of field data and results of a fully coupled poromechanical model. The signature of pressure changes in the fault zone due to pumping cycles is clearly recognizable in field tilt data and we aim to explain the peculiar features that appear in (1) tilt time series alone from a set of four instruments and 2) the ratio of tilt over pressure. We evidence that the shape of tilt measurements on both sides of a fault zone is sensitive to its diffusivity and its elastic modulus. The ratio of tilt over pressure predominantly encompasses information about the system's dynamic behavior and extent of the fault zone and allows separating contributions of flow in the different compartments. Hence, tiltmeters are well suited to characterize hydromechanical processes associated with fault zone hydrogeology at short time scales, where spaceborne surveying methods fail to recognize any deformation signal.

  14. Globe Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Honda


    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 46-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED with severe left eye pain and decreased vision after tripping and striking the left side of his head on the corner of his wooden nightstand. The patient arrived as an inter-facility transfer for a suspected globe rupture with a protective eye covering in place; thus, further physical examination of the eye was not performed by the emergency physician in order to avoid further leakage of aqueous humor. Significant findings: The patient’s computed tomography (CT head demonstrated a deformed left globe, concerning for ruptured globe. The patient had hyperdense material in the posterior segment (see green arrow, consistent with vitreous hemorrhage. CT findings that are consistent with globe rupture may include a collapsed globe, intraocular air, or foreign bodies. Discussion: A globe rupture is a full-thickness defect in the cornea, sclera, or both.1 It is an ophthalmologic emergency. Globe ruptures are almost always secondary to direct perforation via a penetrating mechanism; however, it can occur due to blunt injury if the force generated creates sufficient intraocular pressure to tear the sclera.2 Globes most commonly rupture at the insertions of the intraocular muscles or at the limbus. They are associated with a high rate of concomitant orbital floor fractures.2,3 Possible physical examination findings include a shallow anterior chamber on slit-lamp exam, hyphema, and an irregular “teardrop” pupil. Additionally, a positive Seidel sign, which is performed by instilling fluorescein in the eye and then examining for a dark stream of aqueous humor, is indicative of a globe rupture.4 CT is often used to assess for globe rupture; finds of a foreign body, intraocular air, abnormal contour or volume of the globe, or disruption of the sclera suggest globe rupture.2 The sensitivity of CT scan for diagnosis of globe rupture is only 75%; thus, high clinical

  15. Experimental Modeling of Dynamic Shallow Dip-Slip Faulting (United States)

    Uenishi, K.


    In our earlier study (AGU 2005, SSJ 2005, JPGU 2006), using a finite difference technique, we have conducted some numerical simulations related to the source dynamics of shallow dip-slip earthquakes, and suggested the possibility of the existence of corner waves, i.e., shear waves that carry concentrated kinematic energy and generate extremely strong particle motions on the hanging wall of a nonvertical fault. In the numerical models, a dip-slip fault is located in a two-dimensional, monolithic linear elastic half space, and the fault plane dips either vertically or 45 degrees. We have investigated the seismic wave field radiated by crack-like rupture of this straight fault. If the fault rupture, initiated at depth, arrests just below or reaches the free surface, four Rayleigh-type pulses are generated: two propagating along the free surface into the opposite directions to the far field, the other two moving back along the ruptured fault surface (interface) downwards into depth. These downward interface pulses may largely control the stopping phase of the dynamic rupture, and in the case the fault plane is inclined, on the hanging wall the interface pulse and the outward-moving Rayleigh surface pulse interact with each other and the corner wave is induced. On the footwall, the ground motion is dominated simply by the weaker Rayleigh pulse propagating along the free surface because of much smaller interaction between this Rayleigh and the interface pulse. The generation of the downward interface pulses and corner wave may play a crucial role in understanding the effects of the geometrical asymmetry on the strong motion induced by shallow dip-slip faulting, but it has not been well recognized so far, partly because those waves are not expected for a fault that is located and ruptures only at depth. However, the seismological recordings of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, the 2004 Niigata-ken Chuetsu, Japan, earthquakes as well as a more recent one in Iwate-Miyagi Inland

  16. Earthquake geology of the Bulnay Fault (Mongolia) (United States)

    Rizza, Magali; Ritz, Jean-Franciois; Prentice, Carol S.; Vassallo, Ricardo; Braucher, Regis; Larroque, Christophe; Arzhannikova, A.; Arzhanikov, S.; Mahan, Shannon; Massault, M.; Michelot, J-L.; Todbileg, M.


    The Bulnay earthquake of July 23, 1905 (Mw 8.3-8.5), in north-central Mongolia, is one of the world's largest recorded intracontinental earthquakes and one of four great earthquakes that occurred in the region during the 20th century. The 375-km-long surface rupture of the left-lateral, strike-slip, N095°E trending Bulnay Fault associated with this earthquake is remarkable for its pronounced expression across the landscape and for the size of features produced by previous earthquakes. Our field observations suggest that in many areas the width and geometry of the rupture zone is the result of repeated earthquakes; however, in those areas where it is possible to determine that the geomorphic features are the result of the 1905 surface rupture alone, the size of the features produced by this single earthquake are singular in comparison to most other historical strike-slip surface ruptures worldwide. Along the 80 km stretch, between 97.18°E and 98.33°E, the fault zone is characterized by several meters width and the mean left-lateral 1905 offset is 8.9 ± 0.6 m with two measured cumulative offsets that are twice the 1905 slip. These observations suggest that the displacement produced during the penultimate event was similar to the 1905 slip. Morphotectonic analyses carried out at three sites along the eastern part of the Bulnay fault, allow us to estimate a mean horizontal slip rate of 3.1 ± 1.7 mm/yr over the Late Pleistocene-Holocene period. In parallel, paleoseismological investigations show evidence for two earthquakes prior to the 1905 event with recurrence intervals of ~2700-4000 years.

  17. Fault slip and earthquake recurrence along strike-slip faults — Contributions of high-resolution geomorphic data

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf


    Understanding earthquake (EQ) recurrence relies on information about the timing and size of past EQ ruptures along a given fault. Knowledge of a fault\\'s rupture history provides valuable information on its potential future behavior, enabling seismic hazard estimates and loss mitigation. Stratigraphic and geomorphic evidence of faulting is used to constrain the recurrence of surface rupturing EQs. Analysis of the latter data sets culminated during the mid-1980s in the formulation of now classical EQ recurrence models, now routinely used to assess seismic hazard. Within the last decade, Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) surveying technology and other high-resolution data sets became increasingly available to tectono-geomorphic studies, promising to contribute to better-informed models of EQ recurrence and slip-accumulation patterns. After reviewing motivation and background, we outline requirements to successfully reconstruct a fault\\'s offset accumulation pattern from geomorphic evidence. We address sources of uncertainty affecting offset measurement and advocate approaches to minimize them. A number of recent studies focus on single-EQ slip distributions and along-fault slip accumulation patterns. We put them in context with paleoseismic studies along the respective faults by comparing coefficients of variation CV for EQ inter-event time and slip-per-event and find that a) single-event offsets vary over a wide range of length-scales and the sources for offset variability differ with length-scale, b) at fault-segment length-scales, single-event offsets are essentially constant, c) along-fault offset accumulation as resolved in the geomorphic record is dominated by essentially same-size, large offset increments, and d) there is generally no one-to-one correlation between the offset accumulation pattern constrained in the geomorphic record and EQ occurrence as identified in the stratigraphic record, revealing the higher resolution and preservation potential of

  18. 3-D dynamic rupture simulations of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake (United States)

    Urata, Yumi; Yoshida, Keisuke; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Kubo, Hisahiko


    Using 3-D dynamic rupture simulations, we investigated the 2016 Mw7.1 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake to elucidate why and how the rupture of the main shock propagated successfully, assuming a complicated fault geometry estimated on the basis of the distributions of the aftershocks. The Mw7.1 main shock occurred along the Futagawa and Hinagu faults. Within 28 h before the main shock, three M6-class foreshocks occurred. Their hypocenters were located along the Hinagu and Futagawa faults, and their focal mechanisms were similar to that of the main shock. Therefore, an extensive stress shadow should have been generated on the fault plane of the main shock. First, we estimated the geometry of the fault planes of the three foreshocks as well as that of the main shock based on the temporal evolution of the relocated aftershock hypocenters. We then evaluated the static stress changes on the main shock fault plane that were due to the occurrence of the three foreshocks, assuming elliptical cracks with constant stress drops on the estimated fault planes. The obtained static stress change distribution indicated that Coulomb failure stress change (ΔCFS) was positive just below the hypocenter of the main shock, while the ΔCFS in the shallow region above the hypocenter was negative. Therefore, these foreshocks could encourage the initiation of the main shock rupture and could hinder the propagation of the rupture toward the shallow region. Finally, we conducted 3-D dynamic rupture simulations of the main shock using the initial stress distribution, which was the sum of the static stress changes caused by these foreshocks and the regional stress field. Assuming a slip-weakening law with uniform friction parameters, we computed 3-D dynamic rupture by varying the friction parameters and the values of the principal stresses. We obtained feasible parameter ranges that could reproduce the characteristic features of the main shock rupture revealed by seismic waveform analyses. We also

  19. Multiple faulting events revealed by trench analysis of the seismogenic structure of the 1976 Ms7.1 Luanxian earthquake, Tangshan Region, China (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Jiang, Wali; Xie, Xinsheng


    The Ms7.8 Tangshan earthquake occurred on 28 July 1976 at 03:42 CST. Approximately 15 h later, the Ms7.1 Luanxian earthquake occurred approximately 40 km northeast of the main shock. The two earthquakes formed different surface rupture zones. The surface rupture of the Tangshan earthquake was NNE-trending and more than 47 km long. The surface rupture of the Luanxian earthquake was more than 6 km long and consisted of two sections, forming a protruding arc to the west. The north and south sections were NE- and NW-trending and 2 km and 4 km long, respectively. A trench was excavated in Sanshanyuan Village across the NE-trending rupture of the Luanxian earthquake, at the macroscopic epicenter of the Luanxian earthquake. Analysis of this trench revealed that the surface rupture is connected to the underground active fault. The following major conclusions regarding Late Quaternary fault activity have been reached. (1) The Sanshanyuan trench indicated that its fault planes trend NE30° and dip SE or NW at angles of approximately 69-82°. (2) The fault experienced four faulting events prior to the Luanxian earthquake at 27.98 ka with an average recurrence interval of approximately 7.5 ka. (3) The Ms7.1 Luanxian earthquake resulted from the activity of the Luanxian Western fault and was triggered by the Ms7.8 Tangshan earthquake. The seismogenic faults of the 1976 Ms7.1 Luanxian earthquake and the 1976 Ms7.8 Tangshan earthquake are not the same fault. This example of an M7 earthquake triggered by a nearly M8 earthquake after more than 10 h on a nearby fault is a worthy topic of research for the future prediction of strong earthquakes.

  20. Rupture history of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake: Evaluation of separate and joint inversions of geodetic, teleseismic, and strong-motion data (United States)

    Hartzell, Stephen; Mendoza, Carlos; Ramírez-Guzmán, Leonardo; Zeng, Yuesha; Mooney, Walter


    An extensive data set of teleseismic and strong-motion waveforms and geodetic offsets is used to study the rupture history of the 2008 Wenchuan, China, earthquake. A linear multiple-time-window approach is used to parameterize the rupture. Because of the complexity of the Wenchuan faulting, three separate planes are used to represent the rupturing surfaces. This earthquake clearly demonstrates the strengths and limitations of geodetic, teleseismic, and strong-motion data sets. Geodetic data (static offsets) are valuable for determining the distribution of shallower slip but are insensitive to deeper faulting and reveal nothing about the timing of slip. Teleseismic data in the distance range 30°–90° generally involve no modeling difficulties because of simple ray paths and can distinguish shallow from deep slip. Teleseismic data, however, cannot distinguish between different slip scenarios when multiple fault planes are involved because steep takeoff angles lead to ambiguity in timing. Local strong-motion data, on the other hand, are ideal for determining the direction of rupture from directivity but can easily be over modeled with inaccurate Green’s functions, leading to misinterpretation of the slip distribution. We show that all three data sets are required to give an accurate description of the Wenchuan rupture. The moment is estimated to be approximately 1.0 × 1021 N · m with the slip characterized by multiple large patches with slips up to 10 m. Rupture initiates on the southern end of the Pengguan fault and proceeds unilaterally to the northeast. Upon reaching the cross-cutting Xiaoyudong fault, rupture of the adjacent Beichuan fault starts at this juncture and proceeds bilaterally to the northeast and southwest.

  1. Buried shallow fault slip from the South Napa earthquake revealed by near-field geodesy. (United States)

    Brooks, Benjamin A; Minson, Sarah E; Glennie, Craig L; Nevitt, Johanna M; Dawson, Tim; Rubin, Ron; Ericksen, Todd L; Lockner, David; Hudnut, Kenneth; Langenheim, Victoria; Lutz, Andrew; Mareschal, Maxime; Murray, Jessica; Schwartz, David; Zaccone, Dana


    Earthquake-related fault slip in the upper hundreds of meters of Earth's surface has remained largely unstudied because of challenges measuring deformation in the near field of a fault rupture. We analyze centimeter-scale accuracy mobile laser scanning (MLS) data of deformed vine rows within ±300 m of the principal surface expression of the M (magnitude) 6.0 2014 South Napa earthquake. Rather than assuming surface displacement equivalence to fault slip, we invert the near-field data with a model that allows for, but does not require, the fault to be buried below the surface. The inversion maps the position on a preexisting fault plane of a slip front that terminates ~3 to 25 m below the surface coseismically and within a few hours postseismically. The lack of surface-breaching fault slip is verified by two trenches. We estimate near-surface slip ranging from ~0.5 to 1.25 m. Surface displacement can underestimate fault slip by as much as 30%. This implies that similar biases could be present in short-term geologic slip rates used in seismic hazard analyses. Along strike and downdip, we find deficits in slip: The along-strike deficit is erased after ~1 month by afterslip. We find no evidence of off-fault deformation and conclude that the downdip shallow slip deficit for this event is likely an artifact. As near-field geodetic data rapidly proliferate and will become commonplace, we suggest that analyses of near-surface fault rupture should also use more sophisticated mechanical models and subsurface geomechanical tests.

  2. Analysis of Rupture Directivity for the 2004 Sumatra Earthquake from the Rayleigh-Wave Phase Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo-Pan Chang


    Full Text Available The rupture directivity for the 2004 Sumatra earthquake is analyzed by examining differences between the phase-de lay times of Rayleigh-waves (in the 140 - 160 sec period range arising from the main shock and reference earth quakes. A long source-process time (~463.0 sec and large rupture length (~1164.0 km are de rived from this analysis of rupture directivity. The source-process time for this earth quake is larger than for either the 1960 Chile or 1964 Alaska earth quakes. This might be due to the length of the rupture that occurred during earth quake faulting. The estimated rise time for the 2004 Sumatra earthquake, 92.0 sec, is approximately 20% of the whole source duration and also larger than those for the 1960 Chile and 1964 Alaska earth quakes. This likely reflects a fundamental difference between the frictional properties of these earth quakes. When the rise time is taken into ac count, an estimated rupture velocity of approximately 3.1 km sec-1 is obtained. This value is higher than that found in previous studies carried out on the basis of hydro acoustic data and regional seismic net works. In this study, we obtain additional evidence from analysis of the surface-wave phase-de lay time which con firms the basic features of the rupturing of the 2004 Sumatra earth quake. The results can also provide some constraints for the study of source rupturing for this earthquake.

  3. Fault healing promotes high-frequency earthquakes in laboratory experiments and on natural faults (United States)

    McLaskey, Gregory C.; Thomas, Amanda M.; Glaser, Steven D.; Nadeau, Robert M.


    Faults strengthen or heal with time in stationary contact and this healing may be an essential ingredient for the generation of earthquakes. In the laboratory, healing is thought to be the result of thermally activated mechanisms that weld together micrometre-sized asperity contacts on the fault surface, but the relationship between laboratory measures of fault healing and the seismically observable properties of earthquakes is at present not well defined. Here we report on laboratory experiments and seismological observations that show how the spectral properties of earthquakes vary as a function of fault healing time. In the laboratory, we find that increased healing causes a disproportionately large amount of high-frequency seismic radiation to be produced during fault rupture. We observe a similar connection between earthquake spectra and recurrence time for repeating earthquake sequences on natural faults. Healing rates depend on pressure, temperature and mineralogy, so the connection between seismicity and healing may help to explain recent observations of large megathrust earthquakes which indicate that energetic, high-frequency seismic radiation originates from locations that are distinct from the geodetically inferred locations of large-amplitude fault slip

  4. Slip in the 1857 and earlier large earthquakes along the Carrizo Plain, San Andreas Fault. (United States)

    Zielke, Olaf; Arrowsmith, J Ramón; Grant Ludwig, Lisa; Akçiz, Sinan O


    The moment magnitude (Mw) 7.9 Fort Tejon earthquake of 1857, with a approximately 350-kilometer-long surface rupture, was the most recent major earthquake along the south-central San Andreas Fault, California. Based on previous measurements of its surface slip distribution, rupture along the approximately 60-kilometer-long Carrizo segment was thought to control the recurrence of 1857-like earthquakes. New high-resolution topographic data show that the average slip along the Carrizo segment during the 1857 event was 5.3 +/- 1.4 meters, eliminating the core assumption for a linkage between Carrizo segment rupture and recurrence of major earthquakes along the south-central San Andreas Fault. Earthquake slip along the Carrizo segment may recur in earthquake clusters with cumulative slip of approximately 5 meters.

  5. The Geomorphological Developments Along the East Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey (United States)

    Saber, R.; Caglayan, A.; Isik, V.; Seyitoglu, G.


    The collision of Eurasia with Arabia has given rise to intracontinental shortening in SE Turkey and development of large scale fault zones. The East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ), a major active fault zone over 700 km in length with NE-striking, defines the boundary zone between Eurasia plate and Anatolian micro-plate. Although the northeastern continuation of the zone merges into the North Anatolian Fault Zone at Karliova region, the southwestern continuation has been the subject of some debate. The zone is characterized by numerous, complex faults and segmented surface ruptures. It cuts and offsets several distinctive units in east and southeast Turkey. The portion of the EAFZ examined in this study extends from Celikhan to Turkoglu. Active fault strands in this portion of the EAFZ is termed the Erkenek and Golbasi segments. The zone is made of several NE-SW closely spaced strands cut across Mesozoic-to-Tertiary variable rock units and structures, indicating inception of strike-slip motion in Quaternary and characterized by a series of basins. Fault-related several morphological features have been mapped are within the study area, suggesting the left-lateral motion of fault strands along this part of the EAFZ. Offset streams, beheaded channels, pressure and shutter ridges, linear valleys and ridges and sag ponds are prominent morpho-tectonic features. Offset streams have been measured as few meters to hundreds of meters and show sinistral displacement along the fault zone. Fault scarps, several tens of metres high, are developed in fan deposits along the length of the fault strands. Forming the set of linear sag ponds in Golbasi reveals extentional activity of the EAFZ in this area. Motion of fault strands formed linear valleys and ridges parallel to the faults which is most remarkable features. Our geomorphic studies demonstrated the ongoing activity of the the EAFZ between Celikhan to Turkoglu regions.

  6. Active fault and other geological studies for seismic assessment: present state and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakimi, Toshihiro [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Evaluation system of earthquakes from an active fault is, in Japan, based on the characteristic earthquake model of a wide sense that postulates essentially the same (nearly the maximum) magnitude and recurrence interval during the recent geological times. Earthquake magnitude M is estimated by empirical relations among M, surface rupture length L, and surface fault displacement D per event of the earthquake faults on land in Japan. Recurrence interval R of faulting/earthquake is calculated from D and the long-term slip rate S of a fault as R=D/S. Grouping or segmentation of complicatedly distributed faults is an important, but difficult problem in order to distinguish a seismogenic fault unit corresponding to an individual characteristic earthquake. If the time t of the latest event is obtained, the `cautiousness` of a fault can be judged from R-t or t/R. According to this idea, several faults whose t/R exceed 0.5 have been designated as the `precaution faults` having higher probability of earthquake occurrence than the others. A part of above evaluation has been introduced at first into the seismic-safety examination system of NPPs in 1978. According to the progress of research on active faults, the weight of interest in respect to the seismic hazard assessment shifted gradually from the historic data to the fault data. Most of recent seismic hazard maps have been prepared in consideration with active faults on land in Japan. Since the occurrence of the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, social attention has been concentrated upon the seismic hazard due to active faults, because this event was generated from a well-known active fault zone that had been warned as a `precaution fault`. In this paper, a few recent topics on other geological and geotechnical researches aiming at improving the seismic safety of NPPs in Japan were also introduced. (J.P.N.)

  7. Fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency in presence of sub-patch geometric complexity

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf


    It is well known that faults are not planar surfaces. Instead they exhibit self-similar or self-affine properties that span a wide range of spatial (sub-micrometer to tens-of-kilometer). This geometric fault roughness has a distinct impact on amount and distribution of stresses/strains induced in the medium and on other portions of the fault. However, when numerically simulated (for example in multi-cycle EQ rupture simulations or Coulomb failure stress calculations) this roughness is largely ignored: individual fault patches --the incremental elements that build the fault surface in the respective computer models-- are planar and fault roughness at this and lower spatial scales is not considered. As a result, the fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency may be systematically too large in those numerical simulations with respect to the "actual" efficiency level. Here, we investigate the effect of sub-patch geometric complexity on fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency. For that, we sub-divide a fault patch (e.g., 1x1km) into a large number of sub-patches (e.g., 20x20m) and determine amount of induced stresses at selected positions around that patch for different levels and realizations of fault roughness. For each fault roughness level, we compute mean and standard deviation of the induced stresses, enabling us to compute the coefficient of variation. We normalize those values with stresses from the corresponding single (planar) fault patch, providing scaling factors and their variability for stress transfer efficiency. Given a certain fault roughness that is assumed for a fault, this work provides the means to implement the sub-patch fault roughness into investigations based on fault-patch interaction schemes.

  8. Geotechnical reconnaissance of the 2002 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake (United States)

    Kayen, R.; Thompson, E.; Minasian, D.; Moss, R.E.S.; Collins, B.D.; Sitar, N.; Dreger, D.; Carver, G.


    The 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake resulted in 340 km of ruptures along three separate faults, causing widespread liquefaction in the fluvial deposits of the alpine valleys of the Alaska Range and eastern lowlands of the Tanana River. Areas affected by liquefaction are largely confined to Holocene alluvial deposits, man-made embankments, and backfills. Liquefaction damage, sparse surrounding the fault rupture in the western region, was abundant and severe on the eastern rivers: the Robertson, Slana, Tok, Chisana, Nabesna and Tanana Rivers. Synthetic seismograms from a kinematic source model suggest that the eastern region of the rupture zone had elevated strong-motion levels due to rupture directivity, supporting observations of elevated geotechnical damage. We use augered soil samples and shear-wave velocity profiles made with a portable apparatus for the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) to characterize soil properties and stiffness at liquefaction sites and three trans-Alaska pipeline pump station accelerometer locations. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  9. Neotectonic history and geometric segmentation of the Campo Grande fault: A major structure bounding in the Hueco basin, trans-Pecos Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.W.; Raney, J.A.


    The northwest-striking Campo Grande fault of trans-Pecos Texas has a surface trace of about 45 km. It divides the downthrown, central part of the Hueco basin, which contains as much as 2,850 m of Cenozoic fill, from the shallower northeastern flank that has 150-300 m of fill. This normal fault is composed of three main en echelon segments, which are composed of numerous en echelon fault strands that are 1.5-10 km long at the surface. These strands strike N25 degree-75 degree W and dip 60 degree-90 degree southwestward. Erosion-resistant calcrete (stage 4-5) at the surface aids in preserving scarp heights of between 1.5 and 11.5 m and scarp slopes of between 4 degree and 17 degree. Surface analysis of faulted upper Tertiary and Quaternary units along the southeastern Campo Grande fault segment indicates that successively younger units have less displacement. The last surface rupture was late Pleistocene. On the hanging wall of one fault strand, faulted calcic soil horizons (stage 3) as much as 1 m thick with vertical separations of 1-2 m indicate at least five episodes of fault movement, sediment deposition, and surface stabilization since middle Pleistocene time. The maximum vertical offset during the latest surface rupture was about 1-1.5 m

  10. Neotectonic history and geometric segmentation of the Campo Grande fault: A major structure bounding the Hueco basin, trans-Pecos Texas (United States)

    Collins, Edward W.; Raney, Jay A.


    The northwest-striking Campo Grande fault of trans-Pecos Texas has a surface trace of about 45km. It divides the downthrown, central part of the Hueco basin, which contains as much as 2850m of Cenozoic fill, from the shallower northeastern flank that has 150-300m of fill. This normal fault is composed of three main en echelon segments, which are composed of numerous en echelon fault strands that are 1.5-10 km long at the surface. These strands strike N25°-75°W and dip 60°-90° southwestward. Erosion-resistant calcrete (stage IV-V) at the surface aids in preserving scarp heights of between 1.5 and 11.5m and scarp slopes of between 4° and 17°. Surface analysis of faulted upper Tertiary and Quaternary units along the southeastern Campo Grande fault segment indicates that successively younger units have less displacement. The last surface rupture was late Pleistocene. On the hanging wall of one fault strand, faulted calcic soil horizons (stage III) as much as 1m thick with vertical separations of 1-2 m indicate at least five episodes of fault movement, sediment deposition, and surface stabilization since middle Pleistocene time. The maximum vertical offset during the latest surface rupture was about 1-1.5m.

  11. High resolution electrical resistivity and aeromagnetic imaging reveal the causative fault of the 2009 Mw 6.0 Karonga, Malawi Earthquake (United States)

    Kolawole, F.; Atekwana, E. A.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Chindandali, P. R.; Salima, J.; Kalindekafe, L.


    Seismic events of varying magnitudes have been associated with ruptures along unknown or incompletely-mapped buried faults. The 2009 Mw 6.0 Karonga, Malawi earthquake caused a surface rupture length of 14-18 km along a single W-dipping fault (St. Mary Fault) on the hanging wall of the North Basin of the Malawi Rift. Prior to this earthquake, there was no known surface expression or knowledge of the presence of this fault. Although the earthquake damage zone is characterized by surface ruptures and coseismic liquefaction-induced sand blows, the origin of the causative fault and the near-surface structure of the rupture zone are not known. We used high-resolution aeromagnetic and electrical resistivity data to elucidate the relationship between surface rupture locations and buried basement structures. We also acquired electrical resistivity (ERT) profiles along and across the surface rupture zone to image the near-surface structure of the damaged zone. We applied mathematical derivative filters to the aeromagnetic data to enhance basement structures underlying the rupture zone and surrounding areas. Although several magnetic lineaments are visible in the basement, mapped surface ruptures align with a single 37 km-long, 148°-162°—striking magnetic lineament, and is interpreted as the ruptured normal fault. Inverted ERT profiles reveal three regional geoelectric layers which consist of 15 m-thick layer of discontinuous zones of high and low resistivity values, underlain by a 27 m-thick zone of high electrical resistivity (up to 100 Ωm) and a basal layer of lower resistivity (1.0 - 6.0 Ωm) extending from 42 m depth downwards (the maximum achieved depth of investigation). The geoelectric layers are truncated by a zone of electrical disturbance (electrical mélange) coinciding with areas of coseismic surface rupturing and sediment liquefaction along the ruptured St. Mary Fault (SMF). Our study shows that the 2009 Karonga earthquake was associated with the partial

  12. Earthquake fault superhighways (United States)

    Robinson, D. P.; Das, S.; Searle, M. P.


    Motivated by the observation that the rare earthquakes which propagated for significant distances at supershear speeds occurred on very long straight segments of faults, we examine every known major active strike-slip fault system on land worldwide and identify those with long (> 100 km) straight portions capable not only of sustained supershear rupture speeds but having the potential to reach compressional wave speeds over significant distances, and call them "fault superhighways". The criteria used for identifying these are discussed. These superhighways include portions of the 1000 km long Red River fault in China and Vietnam passing through Hanoi, the 1050 km long San Andreas fault in California passing close to Los Angeles, Santa Barbara and San Francisco, the 1100 km long Chaman fault system in Pakistan north of Karachi, the 700 km long Sagaing fault connecting the first and second cities of Burma, Rangoon and Mandalay, the 1600 km Great Sumatra fault, and the 1000 km Dead Sea fault. Of the 11 faults so classified, nine are in Asia and two in North America, with seven located near areas of very dense populations. Based on the current population distribution within 50 km of each fault superhighway, we find that more than 60 million people today have increased seismic hazards due to them.

  13. Continuity of the San Andreas Fault at San Gorgonio Pass (United States)

    Carena, S.; Suppe, J.


    The San Andreas fault at San Gorgonio Pass does not have a clear surface trace and is considered aseismic. Our findings suggest in fact that the existence of a through-going vertical or near-vertical San Andreas fault between Yucaipa and North Palm Springs is highly unlikely. We mapped over 70 faults in the San Gorgonio Pass-San Bernardino Mountains region using the catalog of 43,500 relocated 1975-1998 earthquakes of Richards-Dinger and Shearer (2000). A clustering algorithm was applied to the relocated earthquakes in order to obtain tighter earthquake clouds and thus better-defined fault surfaces. The earthquakes were then imported into Gocad, a 3D modeling software that allowed us to separate earthquakes into coplanar clusters associated with different faults and fault strands and to fit optimized surfaces to them. We also used the catalog of 13,000 focal mechanisms of Hauksson (2000) to confirm the nature of the mapped faults. We were able to constrain the 3D geometry of the San Andreas fault near San Gorgonio Pass from the 3D geometry of the fault network surrounding it. None of these faults show any displacement due to an hypothetical sub-vertical San Andreas. The San Andreas fault must therefore rotate to much shallower dips, or lose its continuity at depths between 3 and 15 km The most likely configuration is the one where the San Andreas fault merges into the shallow-dipping San Gorgonio Pass thrust W of North Palm Springs. Strike-slip motion is taken up by both the thrust (the slip vector on the N. Palm Springs segment is reverse/right-lateral strike-slip) and by a series of NW striking faults in the footwall of the thrust. The W termination of the most active part of the San Gorgonio Pass thrust coincides with one of these footwall faults at depth, and with the south bend in the San Andreas fault strand N of Banning. This boundary also marks a change in the stress field, with a dominant strike-slip regime to the E (and localized thrusting between San

  14. A penalty-based nodal discontinuous Galerkin method for spontaneous rupture dynamics (United States)

    Ye, R.; De Hoop, M. V.; Kumar, K.


    Numerical simulation of the dynamic rupture processes with slip is critical to understand the earthquake source process and the generation of ground motions. However, it can be challenging due to the nonlinear friction laws interacting with seismicity, coupled with the discontinuous boundary conditions across the rupture plane. In practice, the inhomogeneities in topography, fault geometry, elastic parameters and permiability add extra complexity. We develop a nodal discontinuous Galerkin method to simulate seismic wave phenomenon with slipping boundary conditions, including the fluid-solid boundaries and ruptures. By introducing a novel penalty flux, we avoid solving Riemann problems on interfaces, which makes our method capable for general anisotropic and poro-elastic materials. Based on unstructured tetrahedral meshes in 3D, the code can capture various geometries in geological model, and use polynomial expansion to achieve high-order accuracy. We consider the rate and state friction law, in the spontaneous rupture dynamics, as part of a nonlinear transmitting boundary condition, which is weakly enforced across the fault surface as numerical flux. An iterative coupling scheme is developed based on implicit time stepping, containing a constrained optimization process that accounts for the nonlinear part. To validate the method, we proof the convergence of the coupled system with error estimates. We test our algorithm on a well-established numerical example (TPV102) of the SCEC/USGS Spontaneous Rupture Code Verification Project, and benchmark with the simulation of PyLith and SPECFEM3D with agreeable results.

  15. Fault geometry and earthquake mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Andrews


    volume increment for a given slip increment becomes larger. A juction with past accumulated slip ??0 is a strong barrier to earthquakes with maximum slip um < 2 (P/µ u0 = u0/50. As slip continues to occur elsewhere in the fault system, a stress concentration will grow at the old junction. A fresh fracture may occur in the stress concentration, establishing a new triple junction, and allowing continuity of slip in the fault system. The fresh fracture could provide the instability needed to explain earthquakes. Perhaps a small fraction (on the order of P/µ of the surface that slips in any earthquake is fresh fracture. Stress drop occurs only on this small fraction of the rupture surface, the asperities. Strain change in the asperities is on the order of P/µ. Therefore this model predicts average strais change in an earthquake to be on the order of (P/µ2 = 0.0001, as is observed.

  16. Earthquake geology and paleoseismology of major strands of the San Andreas fault system: Chapter 38 (United States)

    Rockwell, Thomas; Scharer, Katherine M.; Dawson, Timothy E.


    The San Andreas fault system in California is one of the best-studied faults in the world, both in terms of the long-term geologic history and paleoseismic study of past surface ruptures. In this paper, we focus on the Quaternary to historic data that have been collected from the major strands of the San Andreas fault system, both on the San Andreas Fault itself, and the major subparallel strands that comprise the plate boundary, including the Calaveras-Hayward- Rogers Creek-Maacama fault zone and the Concord-Green Valley-Bartlett Springs fault zone in northern California, and the San Jacinto and Elsinore faults in southern California. The majority of the relative motion between the Pacific and North American lithospheric plates is accommodated by these faults, with the San Andreas slipping at about 34 mm/yr in central California, decreasing to about 20 mm/yr in northern California north of its juncture with the Calaveras and Concord faults. The Calaveras-Hayward-Rogers Creek-Maacama fault zone exhibits a slip rate of 10-15 mm/yr, whereas the rate along the Concord-Green Valley-Bartlett Springs fault zone is lower at about 5 mm/yr. In southern California, the San Andreas exhibits a slip rate of about 35 mm/yr along the Mojave section, decreasing to as low as 10-15 mm/yr along its juncture with the San Jacinto fault, and about 20 mm/yr in the Coachella Valley. The San Jacinto and Elsinore fault zones exhibit rates of about 15 and 5 mm/yr, respectively. The average recurrence interval for surface-rupturing earthquakes along individual elements of the San Andreas fault system range from 100-500 years and is consistent with slip rate at those sites: higher slip rates produce more frequent or larger earthquakes. There is also evidence of short-term variations in strain release (slip rate) along various fault sections, as expressed as “flurries” or clusters of earthquakes as well as periods of relatively fewer surface ruptures in these relatively short records. This

  17. The Van Fault, Eastern Turkey: A Preliminary Geological Slip Rate (United States)

    Mackenzie, D.; Elliott, J. R.; Altunel, E.; Kurban, Y.; Walker, R. T.; Parsons, B.


    We present a preliminary quaternary slip-rate study on the Van fault, the source of the 2011 Mw7.1 reverse-slip earthquake which caused heavy damage to the cities of Van and Ercis, eastern Turkey. From the InSAR solution, we see a strong depth cut-off at 10km depth, above which there was no slip on the fault. We have carried out an investigation of the geomorphological expression of the fault in quaternary material, to determine whether the fault reaches the surface and, if so, whether this upper section could fail in an earthquake. On the western segment of the Van fault, we observe quaternary scarps coincident with the surface projection of the fault segment identified by InSAR, which displace quaternary alluvial fan and lake-bed deposits. These are coincident with the observation of fault gouge in quaternary deposits at a road cutting, providing evidence for a fault reaching the surface and suggesting that the upper section is capable of rupturing seismically. We use structure-from-motion photogrammetry, differential GPS and terrestrial LiDAR to determine offsets on two generations of fault scarps, and the creep offsets from the period following the earthquake. Preliminary radiocarbon and OSL dates from two uplifted terrace surfaces allow us to estimate a late quaternary geological slip-rate for the fault. Following the GPS and InSAR solution of Dogan et al. 2014 (GRL v41,i7), we also present field evidence and satellite image observations confirming the presence of a splay fault within the northern suburbs of Van city, which experienced creep following the 2011 earthquake. This fault is observed to be particularly evident in the early high resolution satellite imagery from the declassified CORONA missions, highlighting the potential for these datasets in identifying faults in areas now covered by urban sprawl. It remains unclear whether this fault could fail seismically. The fault which failed in 2011 is a north dipping reverse fault, unmapped prior to the

  18. How seismicity impacts the evolution and branching of strike-slip faults (United States)

    Preuss, S.; van Dinther, Y.; Ampuero, J. P.; Herrendoerfer, R.; Gerya, T.


    Strike-slip fault systems are capable of producing large earthquakes on both their main fault and on secondary and potentially unknown faults. A recent example is the 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikōura earthquake that resulted in surface ruptures along at least 12 major crustal faults. Strike-slip faults are surrounded by inelastic off-fault deformation zones whose displacement accounts for up to 60% of the total displacement. Secondary faults in California accommodate up to 43% of the total fault slip rate of mapped faults taken from the SCEC catalog, while unknown faults arguably accommodate up to 30% of the long-term strain. To better understand these complexities and the long-term evolution of branching fault structures, we quantify the parameters influencing branching structure with a particular focus on the role of seismicity. We incorporate the relevant dynamics of both long-term fault evolution and short-term seismogenesis using the continuum visco-elasto-plastic tools of Seismo-Thermo-Mechanical (STM) modeling approach (van Dinther et al., 2013, Herrendörfer et al., in prep). Long-term fault evolution is governed by Drucker-Prager plasticity and plastic strain weakening of cohesion, while frictional weakening and rapid slip is governed by either strongly rate-dependent (RDF) or rate-and-state friction (RSF). We use a 2D, plane view, natural scale model setup (1200 km x 1000 km), which contains the end of a dextral mature strike-slip fault on one side. Episodic slip events on this pre-existing fault patch propagate into the undamaged host rock. As faults grow they develop a fan-like plastic strain envelope, whose width keeps growing with fault length and accumulated on-fault slip. We interpret this zone as a splay-fault network, which is typically seen ahead of propagating fault tips. We analyze the evolving faults in terms of dissipated strain energy GC, accumulated slip D and fault length L. Results show that a single event is capable of producing a several hundreds

  19. Simulation of Co-Seismic Off-Fault Stress Effects: Influence of Fault Roughness and Pore Pressure Coupling (United States)

    Fälth, B.; Lund, B.; Hökmark, H.


    Aiming at improved safety assessment of geological nuclear waste repositories, we use dynamic 3D earthquake simulations to estimate the potential for co-seismic off-fault distributed fracture slip. Our model comprises a 12.5 x 8.5 km strike-slip fault embedded in a full space continuum where we apply a homogeneous initial stress field. In the reference case (Case 1) the fault is planar and oriented optimally for slip, given the assumed stress field. To examine the potential impact of fault roughness, we also study cases where the fault surface has undulations with self-similar fractal properties. In both the planar and the undulated cases the fault has homogeneous frictional properties. In a set of ten rough fault models (Case 2), the fault friction is equal to that of Case 1, meaning that these models generate lower seismic moments than Case 1. In another set of ten rough fault models (Case 3), the fault dynamic friction is adjusted such that seismic moments on par with that of Case 1 are generated. For the propagation of the earthquake rupture we adopt the linear slip-weakening law and obtain Mw 6.4 in Case 1 and Case 3, and Mw 6.3 in Case 2 (35 % lower moment than Case 1). During rupture we monitor the off-fault stress evolution along the fault plane at 250 m distance and calculate the corresponding evolution of the Coulomb Failure Stress (CFS) on optimally oriented hypothetical fracture planes. For the stress-pore pressure coupling, we assume Skempton's coefficient B = 0.5 as a base case value, but also examine the sensitivity to variations of B. We observe the following: (I) The CFS values, and thus the potential for fracture slip, tend to increase with the distance from the hypocenter. This is in accordance with results by other authors. (II) The highest CFS values are generated by quasi-static stress concentrations around fault edges and around large scale fault bends, where we obtain values of the order of 10 MPa. (III) Locally, fault roughness may have a

  20. Fault-tolerance thresholds for the surface code with fabrication errors (United States)

    Auger, James M.; Anwar, Hussain; Gimeno-Segovia, Mercedes; Stace, Thomas M.; Browne, Dan E.


    The construction of topological error correction codes requires the ability to fabricate a lattice of physical qubits embedded on a manifold with a nontrivial topology such that the quantum information is encoded in the global degrees of freedom (i.e., the topology) of the manifold. However, the manufacturing of large-scale topological devices will undoubtedly suffer from fabrication errors—permanent faulty components such as missing physical qubits or failed entangling gates—introducing permanent defects into the topology of the lattice and hence significantly reducing the distance of the code and the quality of the encoded logical qubits. In this work we investigate how fabrication errors affect the performance of topological codes, using the surface code as the test bed. A known approach to mitigate defective lattices involves the use of primitive swap gates in a long sequence of syndrome extraction circuits. Instead, we show that in the presence of fabrication errors the syndrome can be determined using the supercheck operator approach and the outcome of the defective gauge stabilizer generators without any additional computational overhead or use of swap gates. We report numerical fault-tolerance thresholds in the presence of both qubit fabrication and gate fabrication errors using a circuit-based noise model and the minimum-weight perfect-matching decoder. Our numerical analysis is most applicable to two-dimensional chip-based technologies, but the techniques presented here can be readily extended to other topological architectures. We find that in the presence of 8 % qubit fabrication errors, the surface code can still tolerate a computational error rate of up to 0.1 % .

  1. Fault plane orientations of deep earthquakes in the Izu-Bonin-Marianas subduction zone system (United States)

    Myhill, R.; Warren, L. M.


    We present the results of directivity analysis on 45 deep earthquakes within the Izu-Bonin-Marianas subduction zone between 1993 and 2011. The age of the subducting Pacific plate increases from north to south along the trench, from 120 Ma offshore Tokyo to over 150 Ma east of the Mariana Islands. The dip of the deep slab generally increases from north to south, and is steep to overturned beneath the southern Bonin Islands and Marianas. Between 34 and 26 degrees north, a peak in seismicity at 350-450 km depth marks a decrease in dip as the slab approaches the base of the upper mantle. We observe directivity for around 60 percent of the analysed earthquakes, and use the propagation characteristics to find the best fitting rupture vector. In 60-70 percent of cases with well constrained rupture directivity, the best fitting rupture vector allows discrimination of the fault plane and the auxiliary plane of the focal mechanism. The identified fault planes between 100 km and 500 km are predominantly near-horizontal or south-southwest dipping. Rotated into the plane of the slab, the fault plane poles form a single cluster, since the more steeply dipping fault planes are found within more steeply dipping sections of slab. The dominance of near-horizontal fault planes at intermediate depth agrees with results from previous studies of the Tonga and Middle-America subduction zones. However, the presence of a single preferred fault plane orientation for large deep-focus earthquakes has not been previously reported, and contrasts with the situation for deep-focus earthquakes in the Tonga-Kermadec subduction system. Ruptures tend to propagate away from the top surface of the slab. We discuss potential causes of preferred fault plane orientations within subducting slabs in the light of existing available data, and the implications for mechanisms of faulting at great depths within the Earth.

  2. Quaternay faulting along the southern Lemhi fault near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Southeastern Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemphill-Haley, M.A.; Sawyer, T.L.; Wong, I.G.; Kneupfer, P.L.K.; Forman, S.L.; Smith, R.P.


    Four exploratory trenches excavated across the Howe and Fallen Springs segments of the southern Lemhi fault in southeastern Idaho provide data to characterize these potential seismic sources. Evidence for up to three surface faulting events is exposed in each trench. Thermoluminescence (TL) and radiocarbon analyses were performed to provide estimates of the timing of each faulting event. The most recent event (MRE) occurred at: (1) about 15,000 to 19,000 years B.P. at the East Canyon trench (southern Howe segment); (2) approximately 17,000 to 24,000 years. B.P. at the Black Canyon site (northern Howe segment); and (3) about 19,000 to 24,000 years B.P. at the Camp Creek trench (southern Fallen Springs segment). A Holocene event is estimated for the Coyote Springs trench (central Fallert Springs segment) based on degree of soil development and correlation of faulted and unfaulted deposits. The oldest Black Canyon event is constrained by a buried soil (Av) horizons with a TL age of 24,700 +/- 3,100 years B.P. Possibly three events occurred at this site between about 17,000 and 24,000 years ago followed by quiescence. Stratigraphic and soil relationships, and TL and 14 C dates are consistent with the following preliminary interpretations: (1) the MRE's for the southern segments are older than those for the central Lemhi fault; (2) the Black Canyon site may share rupture events with sites to the north and south as a result of a open-quotes leakyclose quotes segment boundary; (3) temporal clustering of seismic events separated by a long period of quiescence may be evident along the southern Lemhi fault; and (4) Holocene surface rupture is evident along the central part of the Fallert Springs segment but not at its southern end; and (5) the present segmentation model may need to be revised

  3. Striation and slickenline development on quartz fault surfaces at crustal conditions : Origin and effect on friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toy, Virginia G.; Niemeijer, André; Renard, Francois; Morales, Luiz; Wirth, Richard

    Fragments of optically flat silica discs embedded in synthetic gouge were deformed to examine the relationship between the development of striations and slickenlines, and deformation mechanisms, conditions, and fault rheology. Experiments were performed under hydrothermal conditions in a rotary

  4. Seismic hazard of the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault in Haiti inferred from palaeoseismology (United States)

    Prentice, C.S.; Mann, P.; Crone, A.J.; Gold, R.D.; Hudnut, K.W.; Briggs, R.W.; Koehler, R.D.; Jean, P.


    The Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone is recognized as one of the primary plate-bounding fault systems in Haiti. The strike-slip fault runs adjacent to the city of Port-au-Prince and was initially thought to be the source of the 12 January 2010, M w 7.0 earthquake. Haiti experienced significant earthquakes in 1751 and 1770 (refsA, 3, 4, 5), but the role of the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone in these earthquakes is poorly known. We use satellite imagery, aerial photography, light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and field investigations to document Quaternary activity on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault. We report late Quaternary, left-lateral offsets of up to 160m, and a set of small offsets ranging from 1.3 to 3.3m that we associate with one of the eighteenth century earthquakes. The size of the small offsets implies that the historical earthquake was larger than M w 7.0, but probably smaller than M w 7.6. We found no significant surface rupture associated with the 2010 earthquake. The lack of surface rupture, coupled with other seismologic, geologic and geodetic observations, suggests that little, if any, accumulated strain was released on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault in the 2010 earthquake. These results confirm that the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault remains a significant seismic hazard. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ruzhich


    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out using TRIBO, a specially designed testing stand including a concrete plate that can be moved at different rates. In our experiment, the plate served as an artificial allochtonous wing placed at the uneven surface of the segment of the Angarsky fault in Pribaikalie. Tribological effects of contact interaction of the uneven surfaces in the zone of sliding movements of the plate were recorded by strain gauges, linear displacement gauges and four Baikal-7HR seismic stations; such stations are commonly used for earthquake recording. The effect of shocks in initiation of seismic oscillation sources was studied with changes of the regimes of destruction of the uneven surfaces (underneath the base of the plate which differ in size and strength. The study was focused on stages in the process of friction at preparation to transition from quasi-regular decelerated sliding movement of the plate to its breakaway and occurrence of a high-energy seismic impulse.The applied method of large-scale modelling at natural objects in field provides new data that may prove useful for stu­dies of mechanisms causing seismicity, identification of stages in occurrence of earthquakes in fault zones and interpretation of seismic monitoring data. Results of such physical tests can contribute to the development of methods aimed at forecasting of rock shocks and earthquakes and also for the development of new physical models showing formation of earthquake foci of various scales in tectonic faults.

  6. Near-field fault slip of the 2016 Vettore Mw6.6 earthquake (Central Italy) measured using low-cost GNSS. (United States)

    Wilkinson, Maxwell W; McCaffrey, Ken J W; Jones, Richard R; Roberts, Gerald P; Holdsworth, Robert E; Gregory, Laura C; Walters, Richard J; Wedmore, Luke; Goodall, Huw; Iezzi, Francesco


    The temporal evolution of slip on surface ruptures during an earthquake is important for assessing fault displacement, defining seismic hazard and for predicting ground motion. However, measurements of near-field surface displacement at high temporal resolution are elusive. We present a novel record of near-field co-seismic displacement, measured with 1-second temporal resolution during the 30 th October 2016 M w 6.6 Vettore earthquake (Central Italy), using low-cost Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers located in the footwall and hangingwall of the Mt. Vettore - Mt. Bove fault system, close to new surface ruptures. We observe a clear temporal and spatial link between our near-field record and InSAR, far-field GPS data, regional measurements from the Italian Strong Motion and National Seismic networks, and field measurements of surface ruptures. Comparison of these datasets illustrates that the observed surface ruptures are the propagation of slip from depth on a surface rupturing (i.e. capable) fault array, as a direct and immediate response to the 30 th October earthquake. Large near-field displacement ceased within 6-8 seconds of the origin time, implying that shaking induced gravitational processes were not the primary driving mechanism. We demonstrate that low-cost GNSS is an accurate monitoring tool when installed as custom-made, short-baseline networks.

  7. Imaging Active Faults From Earthquakes in the San Gorgonio Pass - San Bernardino Mountains-San Jacinto Region, California and the Deep Continuity of the San Jacinto and San Andreas Faults (United States)

    Yue, L.; Carena, S.; Suppe, J.; Kao, H.


    We imaged and mapped in 3-D over 50 active faults and fault segments using earthquake locations and focal mechanisms. The majority of these faults are previously unknown or unnamed. The 3-D fault maps better define the active structure of this complex region marked by profound uncertainties over the fundamental structural framework, including the subsurface continuity and geometry of the first-order San Andreas and San Jacinto faults, as well as the existence and role of major blind faults. We used the catalog of 43,500 relocated 1975-1998 earthquakes of Richards-Dinger and Shearer (2000), separating them into coplanar clusters associated with different faults and fault strands and fitting optimized surfaces to them. A clustering algorithm was applied to the relocated earthquakes in order to obtain tighter earthquake clouds and thus better-defined fault surfaces. We used the catalog of 13,000 focal mechanisms of Hauksson (2000) to confirm the nature of the mapped faults. Examples of our results are as follows: [1] The major San Jacinto strike-slip fault is offset by an east-dipping thrust fault near Anza at a depth of 11-15 km, and a similar fault geometry may exist near San Bernardino. [2] We do not see any seismic illumination of an active through-going San Andreas fault at depth in the San Gorgonio Pass area, but we can place several constraints on its possible location and geometry on the basis of the 3-D geometry and distribution of other faults. Between 5 and 20 km depth, this area is dominated by closely spaced faults trending SE-NW, which in map view occupy a triangle delimited by the Mission Creek fault to the N, the San Jacinto fault zone to the E, and the San Jacinto Mountains to the S. To the E, some of these faults terminate against an E-W trending fault. These faults do not show any sign of having been displaced by an intersecting fault. Some of the faults we imaged have a surface area comparable to the size of the rupture on the Northridge thrust

  8. Broadband Ground Motion Simulations for the Puente Hills Fault System (United States)

    Graves, R. W.


    Recent geologic studies have identified the seismic potential of the Puente Hills fault system. This system is comprised of multiple blind thrust segments, a portion of which ruptured in the Mw 5.9 Whittier-Narrows earthquake. Rupture of the entire system could generate a Mw 7.2 (or larger) earthquake. To assess the potential hazard posed by the fault system, we have simulated the response for several earthquake scenarios. These simulations are unprecedented in scope and scale. Broadband (0-10 Hz) ground motions are computed at 66,000 sites, covering most of the LA metropolitan region. Low frequency (f 1 Hz) motions are calculated using a stochastic approach. We consider scenarios ranging from Mw 6.7 to Mw 7.2, including both high and low stress drop events. Finite-fault rupture models for these scenarios are generated following a wavenumber filtering technique (K-2 model) that has been calibrated against recent earthquakes. In all scenarios, strong rupture directivity channels large amplitude pulses of motion directly into the Los Angeles basin, which then propagate southward as basin surface waves. Typically, the waveforms near downtown Los Angeles are dominated by a strong, concentrated pulse of motion. At Long Beach (across the LA basin from the rupture) the waveforms are dominated by late arriving longer period surface waves. The great density of sites used in the calculation allows the construction of detailed maps of various ground motion parameters (PGA, PGV, SA), as well as full animations of the propagating broadband wave field. Additionally, the broadband time histories are available for use in non-linear response analyses of built structures.

  9. Surface growth mechanisms and structural faulting in the growth of large single and spherulitic titanosilicate ETS-4 crystals (United States)

    Miraglia, Peter Q.; Yilmaz, Bilge; Warzywoda, Juliusz; Sacco, Albert


    Morphological, surface and crystallographic analyses of titanosilicate ETS-4 products, with diverse habits ranging from spherulitic particles composed of submicron crystallites to large single crystals, are presented. Pole figures revealed that crystal surfaces with a-, b- and c- axes corresponded to , and directions, respectively. Thus, technologically important 8-membered ring pores and titania chains in ETS-4 run along the b-axis of single crystals and terminate at the smallest crystal face. Height of the spiral growth steps observed on {1 0 0} and {0 0 1} surfaces corresponded to the interplanar spacings associated with their crystallographic orientation, and is equivalent to the thickness of building units that form the ETS-4 framework. Data suggest that the more viscous synthesis mixtures, with a large driving force for growth, increased the two- and three-dimensional nucleation, while limiting the transport of nutrients to the growth surface. These conditions increase the tendency for stacking fault formation on {1 0 0} surfaces and small angle branching, which eventually results in spherulitic growth. The growth of high quality ETS-4 single crystals (from less viscous synthesis mixtures) occurred at lower surface nucleation rates. Data suggest that these high quality, large crystals grew due to one-dimensional nucleation at spiral hillocks, and indicate that under these conditions un-faulted growth is preferred.

  10. High-resolution electrical resistivity and aeromagnetic imaging reveal the causative fault of the 2009 Mw 6.0 Karonga, Malawi earthquake (United States)

    Kolawole, F.; Atekwana, E. A.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Chindandali, P. R.; Salima, J.; Kalindekafe, L.


    Seismic events of varying magnitudes have been associated with ruptures along unknown or incompletely mapped buried faults. The 2009 Mw 6.0 Karonga, Malawi earthquake caused a surface rupture length of 14-18 km along a single W-dipping fault [St. Mary Fault (SMF)] on the hanging wall of the North Basin of the Malawi Rift. Prior to this earthquake, there was no known surface expression or knowledge of the presence of this fault. Although the earthquake damage zone is characterized by surface ruptures and coseismic liquefaction-induced sand blows, the origin of the causative fault and the near-surface structure of the rupture zone are not known. We used high-resolution aeromagnetic and electrical resistivity data to elucidate the relationship between surface rupture locations and buried basement structures. We also acquired electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) profiles along and across the surface rupture zone to image the near-surface structure of the damaged zone. We applied mathematical derivative filters to the aeromagnetic data to enhance basement structures underlying the rupture zone and surrounding areas. Although several magnetic lineaments are visible in the basement, mapped surface ruptures align with a single 37 km long, 148°-162°—striking magnetic lineament, and is interpreted as the ruptured normal fault. Inverted ERT profiles reveal three regional geoelectric layers which consist of 15 m thick layer of discontinuous zones of high and low resistivity values, underlain by a 27 m thick zone of high electrical resistivity (up to 100 Ω m) and a basal layer of lower resistivity (1.0-6.0 Ω m) extending from 42 m depth downwards (the maximum achieved depth of investigation). The geoelectric layers are truncated by a zone of electrical disturbance (electrical mélange) coinciding with areas of coseismic surface rupturing and sediment liquefaction along the ruptured. Our study shows that the 2009 Karonga earthquake was associated with the partial

  11. Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault (United States)

    Sutherland, Rupert; Townend, John; Toy, Virginia; Upton, Phaedra; Coussens, Jamie; Allen, Michael; Baratin, Laura-May; Barth, Nicolas; Becroft, Leeza; Boese, Carolin; Boles, Austin; Boulton, Carolyn; Broderick, Neil G. R.; Janku-Capova, Lucie; Carpenter, Brett M.; Célérier, Bernard; Chamberlain, Calum; Cooper, Alan; Coutts, Ashley; Cox, Simon; Craw, Lisa; Doan, Mai-Linh; Eccles, Jennifer; Faulkner, Dan; Grieve, Jason; Grochowski, Julia; Gulley, Anton; Hartog, Arthur; Howarth, Jamie; Jacobs, Katrina; Jeppson, Tamara; Kato, Naoki; Keys, Steven; Kirilova, Martina; Kometani, Yusuke; Langridge, Rob; Lin, Weiren; Little, Timothy; Lukacs, Adrienn; Mallyon, Deirdre; Mariani, Elisabetta; Massiot, Cécile; Mathewson, Loren; Melosh, Ben; Menzies, Catriona; Moore, Jo; Morales, Luiz; Morgan, Chance; Mori, Hiroshi; Niemeijer, Andre; Nishikawa, Osamu; Prior, David; Sauer, Katrina; Savage, Martha; Schleicher, Anja; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Shigematsu, Norio; Taylor-Offord, Sam; Teagle, Damon; Tobin, Harold; Valdez, Robert; Weaver, Konrad; Wiersberg, Thomas; Williams, Jack; Woodman, Nick; Zimmer, Martin


    Temperature and fluid pressure conditions control rock deformation and mineralization on geological faults, and hence the distribution of earthquakes. Typical intraplate continental crust has hydrostatic fluid pressure and a near-surface thermal gradient of 31 ± 15 degrees Celsius per kilometre. At temperatures above 300-450 degrees Celsius, usually found at depths greater than 10-15 kilometres, the intra-crystalline plasticity of quartz and feldspar relieves stress by aseismic creep and earthquakes are infrequent. Hydrothermal conditions control the stability of mineral phases and hence frictional-mechanical processes associated with earthquake rupture cycles, but there are few temperature and fluid pressure data from active plate-bounding faults. Here we report results from a borehole drilled into the upper part of the Alpine Fault, which is late in its cycle of stress accumulation and expected to rupture in a magnitude 8 earthquake in the coming decades. The borehole (depth 893 metres) revealed a pore fluid pressure gradient exceeding 9 ± 1 per cent above hydrostatic levels and an average geothermal gradient of 125 ± 55 degrees Celsius per kilometre within the hanging wall of the fault. These extreme hydrothermal conditions result from rapid fault movement, which transports rock and heat from depth, and topographically driven fluid movement that concentrates heat into valleys. Shear heating may occur within the fault but is not required to explain our observations. Our data and models show that highly anomalous fluid pressure and temperature gradients in the upper part of the seismogenic zone can be created by positive feedbacks between processes of fault slip, rock fracturing and alteration, and landscape development at plate-bounding faults.

  12. Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault. (United States)

    Sutherland, Rupert; Townend, John; Toy, Virginia; Upton, Phaedra; Coussens, Jamie; Allen, Michael; Baratin, Laura-May; Barth, Nicolas; Becroft, Leeza; Boese, Carolin; Boles, Austin; Boulton, Carolyn; Broderick, Neil G R; Janku-Capova, Lucie; Carpenter, Brett M; Célérier, Bernard; Chamberlain, Calum; Cooper, Alan; Coutts, Ashley; Cox, Simon; Craw, Lisa; Doan, Mai-Linh; Eccles, Jennifer; Faulkner, Dan; Grieve, Jason; Grochowski, Julia; Gulley, Anton; Hartog, Arthur; Howarth, Jamie; Jacobs, Katrina; Jeppson, Tamara; Kato, Naoki; Keys, Steven; Kirilova, Martina; Kometani, Yusuke; Langridge, Rob; Lin, Weiren; Little, Timothy; Lukacs, Adrienn; Mallyon, Deirdre; Mariani, Elisabetta; Massiot, Cécile; Mathewson, Loren; Melosh, Ben; Menzies, Catriona; Moore, Jo; Morales, Luiz; Morgan, Chance; Mori, Hiroshi; Niemeijer, Andre; Nishikawa, Osamu; Prior, David; Sauer, Katrina; Savage, Martha; Schleicher, Anja; Schmitt, Douglas R; Shigematsu, Norio; Taylor-Offord, Sam; Teagle, Damon; Tobin, Harold; Valdez, Robert; Weaver, Konrad; Wiersberg, Thomas; Williams, Jack; Woodman, Nick; Zimmer, Martin


    Temperature and fluid pressure conditions control rock deformation and mineralization on geological faults, and hence the distribution of earthquakes. Typical intraplate continental crust has hydrostatic fluid pressure and a near-surface thermal gradient of 31 ± 15 degrees Celsius per kilometre. At temperatures above 300-450 degrees Celsius, usually found at depths greater than 10-15 kilometres, the intra-crystalline plasticity of quartz and feldspar relieves stress by aseismic creep and earthquakes are infrequent. Hydrothermal conditions control the stability of mineral phases and hence frictional-mechanical processes associated with earthquake rupture cycles, but there are few temperature and fluid pressure data from active plate-bounding faults. Here we report results from a borehole drilled into the upper part of the Alpine Fault, which is late in its cycle of stress accumulation and expected to rupture in a magnitude 8 earthquake in the coming decades. The borehole (depth 893 metres) revealed a pore fluid pressure gradient exceeding 9 ± 1 per cent above hydrostatic levels and an average geothermal gradient of 125 ± 55 degrees Celsius per kilometre within the hanging wall of the fault. These extreme hydrothermal conditions result from rapid fault movement, which transports rock and heat from depth, and topographically driven fluid movement that concentrates heat into valleys. Shear heating may occur within the fault but is not required to explain our observations. Our data and models show that highly anomalous fluid pressure and temperature gradients in the upper part of the seismogenic zone can be created by positive feedbacks between processes of fault slip, rock fracturing and alteration, and landscape development at plate-bounding faults.

  13. Using surface creep rate to infer fraction locked for sections of the San Andreas fault system in northern California from alignment array and GPS data (United States)

    Lienkaemper, James J.; McFarland, Forrest S.; Simpson, Robert W.; Caskey, S. John


    Surface creep rate, observed along five branches of the dextral San Andreas fault system in northern California, varies considerably from one section to the next, indicating that so too may the depth at which the faults are locked. We model locking on 29 fault sections using each section’s mean long‐term creep rate and the consensus values of fault width and geologic slip rate. Surface creep rate observations from 111 short‐range alignment and trilateration arrays and 48 near‐fault, Global Positioning System station pairs are used to estimate depth of creep, assuming an elastic half‐space model and adjusting depth of creep iteratively by trial and error to match the creep observations along fault sections. Fault sections are delineated either by geometric discontinuities between them or by distinctly different creeping behaviors. We remove transient rate changes associated with five large (M≥5.5) regional earthquakes. Estimates of fraction locked, the ratio of moment accumulation rate to loading rate, on each section of the fault system provide a uniform means to inform source parameters relevant to seismic‐hazard assessment. From its mean creep rates, we infer the main branch (the San Andreas fault) ranges from only 20%±10% locked on its central creeping section to 99%–100% on the north coast. From mean accumulation rates, we infer that four urban faults appear to have accumulated enough seismic moment to produce major earthquakes: the northern Calaveras (M 6.8), Hayward (M 6.8), Rodgers Creek (M 7.1), and Green Valley (M 7.1). The latter three faults are nearing or past their mean recurrence interval.

  14. Characterization of the San Andreas Fault near Parkfield, California by fault-zone trapped waves (United States)

    Li, Y.; Vidale, J.; Cochran, E.


    by M6 earthquake episode at Parkfield although it probably represents the accumulated wear from many previous great earthquakes and other kinematical processes. The width of low-velocity waveguide likely represents the damage extent in dynamic rupture, consistent with the scale of process zone size to rupture length as existing model predicted. The variation in velocity reduction along the fault zone indicates an inference of changes in on-fault stress, fine-scale fault geometry, and fluid content at depths. On the other hand, a less developed and narrower low-velocity waveguide is on the north strand that experienced minor breaks at surface in the 1966 M6 event probably due to energy partitioning, strong shaking and dynamic strain by the earthquake on the main fault.

  15. Role of geometric barriers in irregular-rupture evolution during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (United States)

    Okuwaki, R.; Yagi, Y.


    Geometric discontinuities within fault systems known as geometric barriers contribute to irregular rupture evolutions during earthquakes. We applied a hybrid backprojection method to high-frequency teleseismic P-waveforms to investigate the role of geometric barriers in the rupture propagation during the MW 7.9 2008 Wenchuan, China, earthquake. We found that sources of high-frequency waves were concentrated near the intersections of a northwest-trending cross-cutting fault with the dominant northeast-trending fault system and in areas around steps between fault segments of the dominant fault system. We recognized these areas as geometric barriers to rupture propagation. Our analysis of the high-frequency waves associated with the geometric discontinuities within the fault system showed that geometric barriers can decelerate or stop rupture propagation, but can also accelerate rupture when the rupture front crosses a geometric barrier and instigates rupture in an adjacent fault segment. Our result suggests that geometric discontinuities within fault systems can cause earthquake rupture propagation that is more complex than that of faults of simpler geometry associated with subduction zone megathrust earthquakes.

  16. A New Perspective on Fault Geometry and Slip Distribution of the 2009 Dachaidan Mw 6.3 Earthquake from InSAR Observations. (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Xu, Caijun; Wen, Yangmao; Fok, Hok Sum


    On 28 August 2009, the northern margin of the Qaidam basin in the Tibet Plateau was ruptured by an Mw 6.3 earthquake. This study utilizes the Envisat ASAR images from descending Track 319 and ascending Track 455 for capturing the coseismic deformation resulting from this event, indicating that the earthquake fault rupture does not reach to the earth's surface. We then propose a four-segmented fault model to investigate the coseismic deformation by determining the fault parameters, followed by inverting slip distribution. The preferred fault model shows that the rupture depths for all four fault planes mainly range from 2.0 km to 7.5 km, comparatively shallower than previous results up to ~13 km, and that the slip distribution on the fault plane is complex, exhibiting three slip peaks with a maximum of 2.44 m at a depth between 4.1 km and 4.9 km. The inverted geodetic moment is 3.85 × 10(18) Nm (Mw 6.36). The 2009 event may rupture from the northwest to the southeast unilaterally, reaching the maximum at the central segment.

  17. Fault healing and earthquake spectra from stick slip sequences in the laboratory and on active faults (United States)

    McLaskey, G. C.; Glaser, S. D.; Thomas, A.; Burgmann, R.


    Repeating earthquake sequences (RES) are thought to occur on isolated patches of a fault that fail in repeated stick-slip fashion. RES enable researchers to study the effect of variations in earthquake recurrence time and the relationship between fault healing and earthquake generation. Fault healing is thought to be the physical process responsible for the 'state' variable in widely used rate- and state-dependent friction equations. We analyze RES created in laboratory stick slip experiments on a direct shear apparatus instrumented with an array of very high frequency (1KHz - 1MHz) displacement sensors. Tests are conducted on the model material polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). While frictional properties of this glassy polymer can be characterized with the rate- and state- dependent friction laws, the rate of healing in PMMA is higher than room temperature rock. Our experiments show that in addition to a modest increase in fault strength and stress drop with increasing healing time, there are distinct spectral changes in the recorded laboratory earthquakes. Using the impact of a tiny sphere on the surface of the test specimen as a known source calibration function, we are able to remove the instrument and apparatus response from recorded signals so that the source spectrum of the laboratory earthquakes can be accurately estimated. The rupture of a fault that was allowed to heal produces a laboratory earthquake with increased high frequency content compared to one produced by a fault which has had less time to heal. These laboratory results are supported by observations of RES on the Calaveras and San Andreas faults, which show similar spectral changes when recurrence time is perturbed by a nearby large earthquake. Healing is typically attributed to a creep-like relaxation of the material which causes the true area of contact of interacting asperity populations to increase with time in a quasi-logarithmic way. The increase in high frequency seismicity shown here

  18. Morphology, tectonic significance, and relationship to the Wenchuan earthquake of the Xiaoyudong Fault in Western China based on gravity and magnetic data (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Zhang, Jingfa; Liu, Tianyou; Jiang, Wenliang; Zhao, Yabo


    The appearance of the surface rupture of the NW-striking Xiaoyudong Fault during the Wenchuan earthquake has attracted attentions of scholars and subsequently aroused debates about it. The size and tectonic significance of this fault is the key of the debates. Based on maps of gravity and magnetic in the scale of 1:500,000, the wavelet multi-scale method and the power spectrum method were used to obtain the wavelet fault analysis maps at different scales with average field source depths. Furthermore, the Euler deconvolution solutions of magnetic were determined and a simple model of the crust was built through the joint inversion of gravity and aeromagnetic data to analyze the penetration depth of the Xiaoyudong Fault. Combining these data with aftershock relocation data of Wenchuan earthquake provides better understanding of the Xiaoyudong Fault. We found that the Xiaoyudong Fault strikes NW cutting through the Pengguan and Xuelongbao complexes, and extending to the Yibasan area of Dazhou in Sichuan Province. The total length of the Xiaoyudong Fault is estimated to be 100 km, and its depth of penetration is less than 20 km, indicative of the Xiaoyudong Fault as a part of the decollement structural system. The parallel Miyaluo Fault is on the west of the Xiaoyudong Fault, cuts to a depth of less than 20 km, and is also a part of the same decollement structural system. The Xiaoyudong and Miyaluo faults are both part of the NW-striking tectonic system in the Songpan-Ganzi Fold Belt. The Xiaoyudong Fault was active during the Mesozoic and was reactivated during the earthquake with the Longmenshan Fault Belt under the present tectonic stress regime. However, only the southern most part of the Xiaoyudong Fault ruptured at the ground surface in the Wenchuan earthquake.

  19. 3D dynamic rupture simulation and local tomography studies following the 2010 Haiti earthquake (United States)

    Douilly, Roby

    The 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquake was the first major earthquake in southern Haiti in 250 years. As this event could represent the beginning of a new period of active seismicity in the region, and in consideration of how vulnerable the population is to earthquake damage, it is important to understand the nature of this event and how it has influenced seismic hazards in the region. Most significantly, the 2010 earthquake occurred on the secondary Leogâne thrust fault (two fault segments), not the Enriquillo Fault, the major strike-slip fault in the region, despite it being only a few kilometers away. We first use a finite element model to simulate rupture along the Leogâne fault. We varied friction and background stress to investigate the conditions that best explain observed surface deformations and why the rupture did not to jump to the nearby Enriquillo fault. Our model successfully replicated rupture propagation along the two segments of the Leogâne fault, and indicated that a significant stress increase occurred on the top and to the west of the Enriquillo fault. We also investigated the potential ground shaking level in this region if a rupture similar to the Mw 7.0 2010 Haiti earthquake were to occur on the Enriquillo fault. We used a finite element method and assumptions on regional stress to simulate low frequency dynamic rupture propagation for the segment of the Enriquillo fault closer to the capital. The high-frequency ground motion components were calculated using the specific barrier model, and the hybrid synthetics were obtained by combining the low-frequencies ( 1Hz) from the stochastic simulation using matched filtering at a crossover frequency of 1 Hz. The average horizontal peak ground acceleration, computed at several sites of interest through Port-au-Prince (the capital), has a value of 0.35g. Finally, we investigated the 3D local tomography of this region. We considered 897 high-quality records from the earthquake catalog as recorded by

  20. Optimum Sea Surface Displacement and Fault Slip Distribution of the 2017 Tehuantepec Earthquake (Mw 8.2) in Mexico Estimated From Tsunami Waveforms (United States)

    Gusman, Aditya Riadi; Mulia, Iyan E.; Satake, Kenji


    The 2017 Tehuantepec earthquake (Mw 8.2) was the first great normal fault event ever instrumentally recorded to occur in the Middle America Trench. The earthquake generated a tsunami with an amplitude of 1.8 m (height = 3.5 m) in Puerto Chiapas, Mexico. Tsunami waveforms recorded at coastal tide gauges and offshore buoy stations were used to estimate the optimum sea surface displacement without assuming any fault. Our optimum sea surface displacement model indicated that the maximum uplift of 0.5 m is located near the trench and the maximum subsidence of 0.8 m on the coastal side near the epicenter. We then estimated the fault slip distribution that can best explain the optimum sea surface displacement assuming 10 different fault geometries. The best model suggests that a compact region of large slip (3-6 m) extends from a depth of 30 km to 90 km, centered at a depth of 60 km.

  1. Preliminary U-series disequilibrium and thermoluminescence ages of surficial deposits and paleosols associated with Quaternary fault, Eastern Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paces, J.B.; Menges, C.M.; Bush, C.A.; Futa, K.; Millard, H.T.; Maat, P.B.; Whitney, J.W.; Widmann, B.; Wesling, J.R.


    Geochronological control is an essential component of paleoseismic evaluation of faults in the Yucca Mountain region. New U-series disequilibrium and thermoluminescence age estimates for pedogenic deposits that bracket surface-rupture events are presented from four sites exposing the Paintbrush Canyon, Bow Ridge and Stagecoach Road faults. Ages show an internal consistency with stratigraphic relationships as well as an overall concordancy between the two independent geochronometers. Age estimates are therefore interpreted to date depositional events or episodes of pedogenic carbonate mobility that can be used to establish a paleoseismic fault chronology. Ultimately, this type of chronological information will be used to evaluate seismic hazards at Yucca Mountain

  2. Preliminary U-series disequilibrium and thermoluminescence ages of surficial deposits and paleosols associated with Quaternary fault, Eastern Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paces, J.B.; Menges, C.M.; Bush, C.A.; Futa, K.; Millard, H.T.; Maat, P.B.; Whitney, J.W. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Widmann, B. [Science Applications International Corp., Golden, CO (United States); Wesling, J.R. [Geomatrix Consultants, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)


    Geochronological control is an essential component of paleoseismic evaluation of faults in the Yucca Mountain region. New U-series disequilibrium and thermoluminescence age estimates for pedogenic deposits that bracket surface-rupture events are presented from four sites exposing the Paintbrush Canyon, Bow Ridge and Stagecoach Road faults. Ages show an internal consistency with stratigraphic relationships as well as an overall concordancy between the two independent geochronometers. Age estimates are therefore interpreted to date depositional events or episodes of pedogenic carbonate mobility that can be used to establish a paleoseismic fault chronology. Ultimately, this type of chronological information will be used to evaluate seismic hazards at Yucca Mountain.

  3. Paleoseismology of the Chelungpu Fault During the Past 1900 Years (United States)

    Chen, W.; Lee, K.; Lee, L.; Yang, C. B.; Chen, Y.; Chang, H.


    The 1999 earthquake brought about 80-km-long surface ruptures along the Shihkang, Chelungpu, and Tajienshan Faults, central Taiwan. Several trenches have been excavated across the Chelungpu Fault of the middle segment. The surface ruptures display clear scarps ranging from 0.2 m to 4 m high, showing a complex geomorphic pattern due to coseismic faulting and folding. In the study, measurement of the vertical offset or structural relief was taken with reference to the hanging wall beyond the trishear deformation zone. Therefore we suggest that, for the measurement of offset, we should leave out the trishear zone, and that structural relief on the hanging wall should be represented as a real vertical offset. The net slip is then calculated from the structural relief and dip angle of the thrust on a vertical plane along the slip direction. By the excavation of the pineapple field across the Chelungpu Fault, we are able to first provide evidence of at least four earthquake events for the past about 1900 years, including the 1999 earthquake. Furthermore, based on the radiocarbon dates and historical record, the timing of the penultimate event is bracketed to be between 430 and 150 years ago, and the average recurrence interval smaller than 700 years. These data indicate that the average slip rate is about 8.7 mm/yr for the past 1900 years.

  4. Soil-gas helium and surface-waves detection of fault zones in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soil-gas helium emanometry has been utilized in Wailapally watershed, near Hyderabad in southern India, for the detection of fracture and fault zones in a granite basement terrain having a thin regolith. Based on satellite imagery and geologic mapping, three sites were selected for detailed investigation. High spatial ...

  5. Soil-gas helium and surface-waves detection of fault zones in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in southern India, for the detection of fracture and fault zones in a granite basement terrain having ... groundwater resource zone in hard rock terrains. A significant ..... 51 121–129. Xu C and Butt S D 2006 Evaluation of MASW techniques to image steeply dipping cavities in laterally inhomogeneous terrain; J. Appl. Geophys.

  6. Thermodynamic method for generating random stress distributions on an earthquake fault (United States)

    Barall, Michael; Harris, Ruth A.


    This report presents a new method for generating random stress distributions on an earthquake fault, suitable for use as initial conditions in a dynamic rupture simulation. The method employs concepts from thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. A pattern of fault slip is considered to be analogous to a micro-state of a thermodynamic system. The energy of the micro-state is taken to be the elastic energy stored in the surrounding medium. Then, the Boltzmann distribution gives the probability of a given pattern of fault slip and stress. We show how to decompose the system into independent degrees of freedom, which makes it computationally feasible to select a random state. However, due to the equipartition theorem, straightforward application of the Boltzmann distribution leads to a divergence which predicts infinite stress. To avoid equipartition, we show that the finite strength of the fault acts to restrict the possible states of the system. By analyzing a set of earthquake scaling relations, we derive a new formula for the expected power spectral density of the stress distribution, which allows us to construct a computer algorithm free of infinities. We then present a new technique for controlling the extent of the rupture by generating a random stress distribution thousands of times larger than the fault surface, and selecting a portion which, by chance, has a positive stress perturbation of the desired size. Finally, we present a new two-stage nucleation method that combines a small zone of forced rupture with a larger zone of reduced fracture energy.

  7. Paleoseismic evidence for late Holocene tectonic deformation along the Saddle mountain fault zone, Southeastern Olympic Peninsula, Washington (United States)

    Barnett, Elizabeth; Sherrod, Brian; Hughes, Jonathan F.; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Czajkowski, Jessica L.; Walsh, Timothy J.; Contreras, Trevor A.; Schermer, Elizabeth R.; Carson, Robert J.


    Trench and wetland coring studies show that northeast‐striking strands of the Saddle Mountain fault zone ruptured the ground about 1000 years ago, generating prominent scarps. Three conspicuous subparallel fault scarps can be traced for 15 km on Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) imagery, traversing the foothills of the southeast Olympic Mountains: the Saddle Mountain east fault, the Saddle Mountain west fault, and the newly identified Sund Creek fault. Uplift of the Saddle Mountain east fault scarp impounded stream flow, forming Price Lake and submerging an existing forest, thereby leaving drowned stumps still rooted in place. Stratigraphy mapped in two trenches, one across the Saddle Mountain east fault and the other across the Sund Creek fault, records one and two earthquakes, respectively, as faulting juxtaposed Miocene‐age bedrock against glacial and postglacial deposits. Although the stratigraphy demonstrates that reverse motion generated the scarps, slip indicators measured on fault surfaces suggest a component of left‐lateral slip. From trench exposures, we estimate the postglacial slip rate to be 0.2  mm/yr and between 0.7 and 3.2  mm/yr during the past 3000 years. Integrating radiocarbon data from this study with earlier Saddle Mountain fault studies into an OxCal Bayesian statistical chronology model constrains the most recent paleoearthquake age of rupture across all three Saddle Mountain faults to 1170–970 calibrated years (cal B.P.), which overlaps with the nearby Mw 7.5 1050–1020 cal B.P. Seattle fault earthquake. An earlier earthquake recorded in the Sund Creek trench exposure, dates to around 3500 cal B.P. The geometry of the Saddle Mountain faults and their near‐synchronous rupture to nearby faults 1000 years ago suggest that the Saddle Mountain fault zone forms a western boundary fault along which the fore‐arc blocks migrate northward in response to margin‐parallel shortening across the Puget Lowland.

  8. Quantifying the effects of an active blind fault on a shallow aquifer properties and drainage, case study of the Chihshang Aquifer in the eastern Taiwan (United States)

    Mu, Chung-Hsiang; Guglielmi, Yves; Cappa, Frederic; Angelier, Jacques; Lee, Jian-Cheng; Dong, Jia-Jyun


    The Chihshang Fault aquifer is nested in the Longitudinal Valley active Fault (LVF) situated along a plate suture between the Philippine Sea plate and the Eurasian plate in eastern Taiwan. The LVF is undergoing rapid creep and co-seismic rupturing. Surface creeping on the fault were simultaneously measured utilizing creepmeters in surface as creeping rate of 2 cm/yr. Combining surface fracture investigation and geodetic results, we show that three branches of the Chihshang Fault developed at shallow depth with average dip angles of 35°. In order to better understand the effects of variations of pore-fluid pressure in the aquifer significantly influence the near-surface behavior of the fault by this blind fault system, 9 observation wells were drilled at depths of 30 to 100 m through the zone of the aquifer affected by fault deformations. Pore pressure variations in hydraulic observation wells induced by artificial single well disturbance (slug test) and pumping/injection experiments were monitored, together with the surface electrical resistivity measurement. It is possible to identify an aquifer zone of specific hydraulic properties that corresponds to the zone deformed by the active fault. Repeated hydraulic tests revealed that the two different phenomenon: the permeability of the footwall had the same trend with the variations of annual groundwater level; the permeability of the fault zone increased following the fault creep movement in 2008.

  9. Investigation of topographical effects on rupture dynamics and resultant ground motions (United States)

    Huang, Hanqing; Zhang, Zhenguo; Chen, Xiaofei


    In this work, we investigate the effect of irregular topography on the dynamic rupture and resultant ground motions using the curved grid finite-difference method. The research is based on spontaneous dynamic rupture on vertical strike-slip faults by varying the shapes and relative locations of irregular topography to the critical supershear transition distance. The results show that seismic energy of a supershear earthquake can be transmitted farther with large amplitudes. However, its ground motion near the fault is weaker than that caused by a subshear (namely the sub-Rayleigh) rupture. Whether the irregular topography exhibits stronger ground motion overall depends on the irregular topography's ability to prevent the subshear-to-supershear transition. Finally, we also discuss the effects of the strength parameter S and a larger size of the irregular topography on the resultant ground motion. The modellings of San Andreas Fault with real and inverted topographical surfaces show the implications of the topographical effects from the real earthquake.

  10. A Benchmarking setup for Coupled Earthquake Cycle - Dynamic Rupture - Tsunami Simulations (United States)

    Behrens, Joern; Bader, Michael; van Dinther, Ylona; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Madden, Elizabeth H.; Ulrich, Thomas; Uphoff, Carsten; Vater, Stefan; Wollherr, Stephanie; van Zelst, Iris


    We developed a simulation framework for coupled physics-based earthquake rupture generation with tsunami propagation and inundation on a simplified subduction zone system for the project "Advanced Simulation of Coupled Earthquake and Tsunami Events" (ASCETE, funded by the Volkswagen Foundation). Here, we present a benchmarking setup that can be used for complex rupture models. The workflow begins with a 2D seismo-thermo-mechanical earthquake cycle model representing long term deformation along a planar, shallowly dipping subduction zone interface. Slip instabilities that approximate earthquakes arise spontaneously along the subduction zone interface in this model. The absolute stress field and material properties for a single slip event are used as initial conditions for a dynamic earthquake rupture model.The rupture simulation is performed with SeisSol, which uses an ADER discontinuous Galerkin discretization scheme with an unstructured tetrahedral mesh. The seafloor displacements resulting from this rupture are transferred to the tsunami model with a simple coastal run-up profile. An adaptive mesh discretizing the shallow water equations with a Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) scheme subsequently allows for an accurate and efficient representation of the tsunami evolution and inundation at the coast. This workflow allows for evaluation of how the rupture behavior affects the hydrodynamic wave propagation and coastal inundation. We present coupled results for differing earthquake scenarios. Examples include megathrust only ruptures versus ruptures with splay fault branching off the megathrust near the surface. Coupling to the tsunami simulation component is performed either dynamically (time dependent) or statically, resulting in differing tsunami wave and inundation behavior. The simplified topographical setup allows for systematic parameter studies and reproducible physical studies.

  11. Joint inversion of ambient noise surface wave and gravity data to image the upper crustal structure of the Tanlu fault zone to the southeast of Hefei, China (United States)

    Wang, K.; Gu, N.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, G.


    The Tanlu fault is a major fault located in the eastern China, which stretches 2400 km long from Tancheng in the north to Lujiang in the south. It is generally believed that the Tanlu fault zone was formed in Proterozoic era and underwent a series of complicated processes since then. To understand the upper crustal structure around the southern segment of the Tanlu fault zone, in 2017 we deployed 53 short period seismic stations around the fault zone to the southeast of Hefei, capital city of Anhui province. The temporary array continuously recorded the data for about one month from 17 March to 26 April 2017. The seismic array spans an area of about 30km x 30Km with an average station spacing of about 5-6km. The vertical component data were used for extracting Rayleigh wave phase and group velocity dispersion data for the period of 0.2 to 5 seconds. To improve imaging the upper crustal structure of the fault zone, we jointly inverted the surface wave dispersion data and the gravity data because they have complementary strengths. To combine surface wave dispersion data and gravity observations into a single inversion framework, we used an empirical relationship between seismic velocity and density of Maceira and Ammon (2009). By finding the optimal relative weighting between two data types, we are able to find a shear wave velocity (Vs) model that fits both data types. The joint inversion can resolve the upper crustal fault zone structure down to about 7 km in depth. The Vs model shows that in this region the Tanlu fault is associated with high velocity anomalies, corresponding well to the Feidong complex seen on the surface. This indicates that the Tanlu fault zone may provide a channel for the intrusion of hot materials.

  12. Current Microearthquake Activity on the Large Pärvie Endglacial Fault System, Northern Sweden (United States)

    Lindblom, E.; Lund, B.; Tryggvason, A.; Uski, M.; Juhlin, C.; Bodvarsson, R.; Kvaerna, T.


    The Pärvie fault is one of the largest known endglacial faults in the world. It is situated in northernmost Sweden and extends for over 160 km in a northeastward direction. The fault exhibits reverse faulting throw of more than 10 m and based on studies of Quaternary deposits, landslides and liquefaction structures it is inferred to have ruptured as a one-step event at the time of deglaciation in the area, approximately 10,000 years ago. An earthquake of this size would have had a magnitude of approximately 8. The mechanisms driving the endglacial faults are still not well understood. However, knowledge of the fault geometry at depth would significantly contribute to the understanding. In a seismological study of the Pärvie fault we have acquired both a 23 km long seismic reflection profile across the center of the fault, and deployed eight temporary seismic stations in the vicinity of the fault. The results of the reflection seismic processing images the fault system from the near surface down to about 2-3 km depth. The profile crosses three surface mapped faults where the westernmost, main fault strand, is dipping about 50 degrees to the east, the middle fault dipping 75 degrees east and the easternmost fault dipping 60 degrees to the west. The eight temporary seismic stations have recorded microearthquakes together with the six northernmost permanent stations of the Swedish National Seismic Network and a collaborating Finnish station. The seismic stations have recorded numerous small events, most of which are mining induced microearthquakes from the nearby Kiruna and Malmberget iron ore mines. About 800 microearthquakes are detected from the vicinity of the Pärvie fault system. Based on velocity structures estimated using 3D local earthquake tomography we will present locations, magnitudes and focal mechanisms of the events. The events are concentrated to the east side of the surface trace of the main Pärvie fault and spread along its whole north

  13. Premonitory acoustic emissions and stick-slip in natural and smooth-faulted Westerly granite (United States)

    Thompson, B.D.; Young, R.P.; Lockner, David A.


    A stick-slip event was induced in a cylindrical sample of Westerly granite containing a preexisting natural fault by loading at constant confining pressure of 150 MPa. Continuously recorded acoustic emission (AE) data and computer tomography (CT)-generated images of the fault plane were combined to provide a detailed examination of microscale processes operating on the fault. The dynamic stick-slip event, considered to be a laboratory analog of an earthquake, generated an ultrasonic signal that was recorded as a large-amplitude AE event. First arrivals of this event were inverted to determine the nucleation site of slip, which is associated with a geometric asperity on the fault surface. CT images and AE locations suggest that a variety of asperities existed in the sample because of the intersection of branch or splay faults with the main fault. This experiment is compared with a stick-slip experiment on a sample prepared with a smooth, artificial saw-cut fault surface. Nearly a thousand times more AE were observed for the natural fault, which has a higher friction coefficient (0.78 compared to 0.53) and larger shear stress drop (140 compared to 68 MPa). However at the measured resolution, the ultrasonic signal emitted during slip initiation does not vary significantly between the two experiments, suggesting a similar dynamic rupture process. We propose that the natural faulted sample under triaxial compression provides a good laboratory analogue for a field-scale fault system in terms of the presence of asperities, fault surface heterogeneity, and interaction of branching faults. ?? 2009.

  14. Spatial radon anomalies on active faults in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.-Y.; King, B.-S.; Evans, W.C.; Wei Zhang


    Radon emanation has been observed to be anomalously high along active faults in many parts of the world. We tested this relationship by conducting and repeating soil-air radon surveys with a portable radon meter across several faults in California. The results confirm the existence of fault-associated radon anomalies, which show characteristic features that may be related to fault structures but vary in time due to other environmental changes, such as rainfall. Across two creeping faults in San Juan Bautista and Hollister, the radon anomalies showed prominent double peaks straddling the fault-gouge zone during dry summers, but the peak-to-background ratios diminished after significant rain fall during winter. Across a locked segment of the San Andreas fault near Olema, the anomaly has a single peak located several meters southwest of the slip zone associated with the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Across two fault segments that ruptured during the magnitude 7.5 Landers earthquake in 1992, anomalously high radon concentration was found in the fractures three weeks after the earthquake. We attribute the fault-related anomalies to a slow vertical gas flow in or near the fault zones. Radon generated locally in subsurface soil has a concentration profile that increases three orders of magnitude from the surface to a depth of several meters; thus an upward flow that brings up deeper and radon-richer soil air to the detection level can cause a significantly higher concentration reading. This explanation is consistent with concentrations of carbon dioxide and oxygen, measured in soil-air samples collected during one of the surveys. (Author)

  15. Paleoseismic and Geomorphic Evidence for Quaternary Fault Slip on the Central Range Fault, South American-Caribbean Plate Boundary, Trinidad (United States)

    Prentice, C. S.; Weber, J.; Crosby, C. J.


    The island of Trinidad is located along the transform plate boundary between the South American and Caribbean plates. GPS measurements show that relative motion along this boundary is nearly E-W right-lateral shear (Weber et al., 2001). Analysis and comparison of historic triangulation and GPS data suggest that a significant fraction (14+/-3 mm/yr) of the total plate-boundary motion (about 20 mm/yr) is being accommodated across the Central Range Fault in central Trinidad. Our new paleoseismic studies demonstrate that Quaternary surface rupture has occurred on this previously unrecognized, historically aseismic, active fault. Geomorphic evidence of Quaternary faulting along the Central Range Fault includes linear drainages, aligned topographic saddles and troughs, offset ridges, right-laterally deflected streams, and linear scarps. We mapped these features using 1:20,000 scale aerial photographs and field reconnaissance along a 25-km-long section between Pointe-a-Pierre on the west coast and Navet Dam. Geomorphic features near Manzanilla Bay on the east coast suggest that the Central Range Fault continues across the island as a Quaternary feature for another 25 km to the northeast. Marine geophysical surveys suggest this fault continues offshore to the west (Warm Springs fault), and steps to the north across the Gulf of Paria pull-apart basin to the El Pilar Fault. The extent of the fault offshore to the east is unknown. We exposed a 6-m-wide shear zone within Pliocene(?) material in a trench cut into a fluvial terrace, south of Samlalsingh Road near Bonne Aventure. The overlying Quaternary fluvial gravel is faulted and folded across the shear zone, and Quaternary fluvial deposits are faulted against the shear zone on the north side. A second excavation across a prominent scarp near Tabaquite, 12 km northeast of Samlalsingh Road, exposed a colluvial wedge and overlying unfaulted sediments. We interpret the colluvial wedge to represent deposits shed off the scarp in

  16. InSAR velocity field across the North Anatolian Fault (eastern Turkey): Implications for the loading and release of interseismic strain accumulation

    KAUST Repository

    Cakir, Ziyadin


    We use the Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PS-InSAR) technique with the European Space Agency\\'s Envisat and ERS SAR data acquired on three neighboring descending tracks (T350, T078, and T307) to map the interseismic strain accumulation along a ~225 km long, NW-SE trending section of the North Anatolian Fault that ruptured during the 1939, 1942, and 1943 earthquakes in eastern Turkey. We derive a line-of-sight velocity map of the region with a high spatial resolution and accuracy which, together with the maps of earthquake surface ruptures, shed light on the style of continental deformation and the relationships between the loading and release of interseismic strain along segmented continental strike-slip faults. In contrast with the geometric complexities at the ground surface that appear to control rupture propagation of the 1939 event, modeling of the high-resolution PS-InSAR velocity field reveals a fairly linear and narrow throughgoing shear zone with an overall 20 ± 3 mm/yr slip rate above an unexpectedly shallow 7 ± 2 km locking depth. Such a shallow locking depth may result from the postseismic effects following recent earthquakes or from a simplified model that assumes a uniform degree of locking with depth on the fault. A narrow throughgoing shear zone supports the thick lithosphere model in which continental strike-slip faults are thought to extend as discrete shear zones through the entire crust. Fault segmentation previously reported from coseismic surface ruptures is thus likely inherited from heterogeneities in the upper crust that either preexist and/or develop during coseismic rupture propagation. The geometrical complexities that apparently persist for long periods may guide the dynamic rupture propagation surviving thousands of earthquake cycles.

  17. Numerical comparisons of ground motion predictions with kinematic rupture modeling (United States)

    Yuan, Y. O.; Zurek, B.; Liu, F.; deMartin, B.; Lacasse, M. D.


    Recent advances in large-scale wave simulators allow for the computation of seismograms at unprecedented levels of detail and for areas sufficiently large to be relevant to small regional studies. In some instances, detailed information of the mechanical properties of the subsurface has been obtained from seismic exploration surveys, well data, and core analysis. Using kinematic rupture modeling, this information can be used with a wave propagation simulator to predict the ground motion that would result from an assumed fault rupture. The purpose of this work is to explore the limits of wave propagation simulators for modeling ground motion in different settings, and in particular, to explore the numerical accuracy of different methods in the presence of features that are challenging to simulate such as topography, low-velocity surface layers, and shallow sources. In the main part of this work, we use a variety of synthetic three-dimensional models and compare the relative costs and benefits of different numerical discretization methods in computing the seismograms of realistic-size models. The finite-difference method, the discontinuous-Galerkin method, and the spectral-element method are compared for a range of synthetic models having different levels of complexity such as topography, large subsurface features, low-velocity surface layers, and the location and characteristics of fault ruptures represented as an array of seismic sources. While some previous studies have already demonstrated that unstructured-mesh methods can sometimes tackle complex problems (Moczo et al.), we investigate the trade-off between unstructured-mesh methods and regular-grid methods for a broad range of models and source configurations. Finally, for comparison, our direct simulation results are briefly contrasted with those predicted by a few phenomenological ground-motion prediction equations, and a workflow for accurately predicting ground motion is proposed.

  18. Lectin interactions on surface-grafted glycostructures: influence of the spatial distribution of carbohydrates on the binding kinetics and rupture forces. (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Creagh, A Louise; Haynes, Charles A; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N


    We performed quantitative analysis of the binding kinetics and affinity of carbohydrate-lectin binding and correlated them directly with the molecular and structural features of ligands presented at the nanoscale within the glycocalyx mimicking layers on surfaces. The surface plasmon resonance analysis identified that the mode of binding changed from multivalent to monovalent, which resulted in a near 1000-fold change in the equilibrium association constant, by varying the spatial distribution of carbohydrate ligands within the surface-grafted polymer layer. We identified, for the first time, that the manner in which the ligands presented on the surface has great influence on the binding at the first stage of bivalent chelating, not on the binding at the second stage. The rupture forces measured by atomic force microscope force spectroscopy also indicated that the mode of binding between lectin and ligands changed from multiple to single with variation in the ligand presentation. The dependence of lectin binding on the glycopolymer composition and grafting density is directly correlated with the nanoscale presentation of ligands on a surface, which is a determining factor in controlling the clustering and statistical effects contributing to the enhanced binding.

  19. Three-dimensional dynamic rupture simulation with a high-order discontinuous Galerkin method on unstructured tetrahedral meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Pelties, Christian


    Accurate and efficient numerical methods to simulate dynamic earthquake rupture and wave propagation in complex media and complex fault geometries are needed to address fundamental questions in earthquake dynamics, to integrate seismic and geodetic data into emerging approaches for dynamic source inversion, and to generate realistic physics-based earthquake scenarios for hazard assessment. Modeling of spontaneous earthquake rupture and seismic wave propagation by a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method combined with an arbitrarily high-order derivatives (ADER) time integration method was introduced in two dimensions by de la Puente et al. (2009). The ADER-DG method enables high accuracy in space and time and discretization by unstructured meshes. Here we extend this method to three-dimensional dynamic rupture problems. The high geometrical flexibility provided by the usage of tetrahedral elements and the lack of spurious mesh reflections in the ADER-DG method allows the refinement of the mesh close to the fault to model the rupture dynamics adequately while concentrating computational resources only where needed. Moreover, ADER-DG does not generate spurious high-frequency perturbations on the fault and hence does not require artificial Kelvin-Voigt damping. We verify our three-dimensional implementation by comparing results of the SCEC TPV3 test problem with two well-established numerical methods, finite differences, and spectral boundary integral. Furthermore, a convergence study is presented to demonstrate the systematic consistency of the method. To illustrate the capabilities of the high-order accurate ADER-DG scheme on unstructured meshes, we simulate an earthquake scenario, inspired by the 1992 Landers earthquake, that includes curved faults, fault branches, and surface topography. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. The morphology of strike-slip faults - Examples from the San Andreas Fault, California (United States)

    Bilham, Roger; King, Geoffrey


    The dilatational strains associated with vertical faults embedded in a horizontal plate are examined in the framework of fault kinematics and simple displacement boundary conditions. Using boundary element methods, a sequence of examples of dilatational strain fields associated with commonly occurring strike-slip fault zone features (bends, offsets, finite rupture lengths, and nonuniform slip distributions) is derived. The combinations of these strain fields are then used to examine the Parkfield region of the San Andreas fault system in central California.

  1. Role of seismogenic processes in fault-rock development: An example from Death Valley, California (United States)

    Pavlis, Terry L.; Serpa, Laura F.; Keener, Charles


    Fault rocks developed along the Mormon Point turtleback of southern Death Valley suggest that a jog in the oblique-slip Death Valley fault zone served as an ancient seismic barrier, where dominantly strike-slip ruptures were terminated at a dilatant jog. Dramatic spatial variations in fault-rock thickness and type within the bend are interpreted as the products of: (1) fault "overshoot," in which planar ruptures bypass the intersection of the two faults composing the bend and slice into the underlying footwall; and (2) implosion brecciation, in which coseismic ruptures arrested at a releasing bend in the fault lead to catastrophic collapse brecciation, fluid influx, and mineralization.

  2. Multiphase Deformational History, Kinematics, and Segmentation of the Palos Verdes Fault, Offshore Southern California (United States)

    Brankman, C. M.; Shaw, J. H.


    The Palos Verdes Fault (PVF) forms the western boundary of the Los Angeles basin, California, and has one of the highest slip rates in the region, indicating that it may be a source of future large earthquakes. Using a dense grid of petroleum industry seismic reflection data and exploration well logs, we have mapped a series of stratigraphic horizons in San Pedro Bay south of the peninsula that we use to invert for permissible underlying fault geometries and displacements. The PVF is composed of several discrete but related segments which together reflect a complex and multiphase evolution of the fault system. Directly south of the Palos Verdes Peninsula, imaged hanging wall and footwall fault cut-offs indicate that at depths below about 5km the fault dips moderately to the southwest. Furthermore, a thick sequence of eastward-thickening Miocene strata west of the fault suggests that the PVF originally formed as a normal fault during Miocene extension/transtension. Contractional folding of younger strata, as well as structural duplication of the crystalline basement surface, indicates that the normal fault was subsequently inverted during Plio-Pleistocene transpression. In the upper 3-4 km, the fault is nearly vertical, presumably accommodating right-lateral strike-slip displacement. Approximately 20 km southeast of the Peninsula, the PVF changes character across a major geometric segment boundary as a second fault segment emerges and continues trending southeast. The second segment dips northeast and shows increasing reverse displacement along strike to the southeast. Growth strata in the hanging wall and emergent sea-floor folds indicate that contractional deformation began in Pliocene time and continues to the present. The varying geometry and structural character of the PVF along strike reflect the earlier structural elements which have been reactivated to form the present fault geometry. Furthermore, the segmentation of the PVF may impact hazard estimates in

  3. Correlation of geothermal springs with sub-surface fault terminations revealed by high-resolution, UAV-acquired magnetic data (United States)

    Glen, Jonathan; A.E. Egger,; C. Ippolito,; N.Athens,


    There is widespread agreement that geothermal springs in extensional geothermal systems are concentrated at fault tips and in fault interaction zones where porosity and permeability are dynamically maintained (Curewitz and Karson, 1997; Faulds et al., 2010). Making these spatial correlations typically involves geological and geophysical studies in order to map structures and their relationship to springs at the surface. Geophysical studies include gravity and magnetic surveys, which are useful for identifying buried, intra-basin structures, especially in areas where highly magnetic, dense mafic volcanic rocks are interbedded with, and faulted against less magnetic, less dense sedimentary rock. High-resolution magnetic data can also be collected from the air in order to provide continuous coverage. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are well-suited for conducting these surveys as they can provide uniform, low-altitude, high-resolution coverage of an area without endangering crew. In addition, they are more easily adaptable to changes in flight plans as data are collected, and improve efficiency. We have developed and tested a new system to collect magnetic data using small-platform UAS. We deployed this new system in Surprise Valley, CA, in September, 2012, on NASA's SIERRA UAS to perform a reconnaissance survey of the entire valley as well as detailed surveys in key transition zones. This survey has enabled us to trace magnetic anomalies seen in ground-based profiles along their length. Most prominent of these is an intra-basin magnetic high that we interpret as a buried, faulted mafic dike that runs a significant length of the valley. Though this feature lacks surface expression, it appears to control the location of geothermal springs. All of the major hot springs on the east side of the valley lie along the edge of the high, and more specifically, at structural transitions where the high undergoes steps, bends, or breaks. The close relationship between the springs

  4. Landslides and megathrust splay faults captured by the late Holocene sediment record of eastern Prince William Sound, Alaska (United States)

    Finn, S.P.; Liberty, Lee M.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Pratt, Thomas L.


    We present new marine seismic‐reflection profiles and bathymetric maps to characterize Holocene depositional patterns, submarine landslides, and active faults beneath eastern and central Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, which is the eastern rupture patch of the 1964 Mw 9.2 earthquake. We show evidence that submarine landslides, many of which are likely earthquake triggered, repeatedly released along the southern margin of Orca Bay in eastern PWS. We document motion on reverse faults during the 1964 Great Alaska earthquake and estimate late Holocene slip rates for these growth faults, which splay from the subduction zone megathrust. Regional bathymetric lineations help define the faults that extend 40–70 km in length, some of which show slip rates as great as 3.75  mm/yr. We infer that faults mapped below eastern PWS connect to faults mapped beneath central PWS and possibly onto the Alaska mainland via an en echelon style of faulting. Moderate (Mw>4) upper‐plate earthquakes since 1964 give rise to the possibility that these faults may rupture independently to potentially generate Mw 7–8 earthquakes, and that these earthquakes could damage local infrastructure from ground shaking. Submarine landslides, regardless of the source of initiation, could generate local tsunamis to produce large run‐ups along nearby shorelines. In a more general sense, the PWS area shows that faults that splay from the underlying plate boundary present proximal, perhaps independent seismic sources within the accretionary prism, creating a broad zone of potential surface rupture that can extend inland 150 km or more from subduction zone trenches.

  5. Active fault research in India: achievements and future perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithila Verma


    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief overview of the progress made towards active fault research in India. An 8 m high scarp running for more than 80 km in the Rann of Kachchh is the classical example of the surface deformation caused by the great earthquake (1819 Kachchh earthquake. Integration of geological/geomorphic and seismological data has led to the identification of 67 active faults of regional scale, 15 in the Himalaya, 17 in the adjoining foredeep with as many as 30 neotectonic faults in the stable Peninsular India. Large-scale trenching programmes coupled with radiometric dates have begun to constraint the recurrence period of earthquakes; of the order of 500–1000 years for great earthquakes in the Himalaya and 10,000 years for earthquakes of >M6 in the Peninsular India. The global positioning system (GPS data in the stand alone manner have provided the fault parameters and length of rupture for the 2004 Andaman Sumatra earthquakes. Ground penetration radar (GPR and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR techniques have enabled detection of large numbers of new active faults and their geometries. Utilization of modern technologies form the central feature of the major programme launched by the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India to prepare geographic information system (GIS based active fault maps for the country.

  6. Fault kinematics and active tectonics of the Sabah margin: Insights from the 2015, Mw 6.0, Mt. Kinabalu earthquake (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Wei, S.; Tapponnier, P.; WANG, X.; Lindsey, E.; Sieh, K.


    A gravity-driven "Mega-Landslide" model has been evoked to explain the shortening seen offshore Sabah and Brunei in oil-company seismic data. Although this model is considered to account simultaneously for recent folding at the edge of the submarine NW Sabah trough and normal faulting on the Sabah shelf, such a gravity-driven model is not consistent with geodetic data or critical examination of extant structural restorations. The rupture that produced the 2015 Mw6.0 Mt. Kinabalu earthquake is also inconsistent with the gravity-driven model. Our teleseismic analysis shows that the centroid depth of that earthquake's mainshock was 13 to 14 km, and its favored fault-plane solution is a 60° NW-dipping normal fault. Our finite-rupture model exhibits major fault slip between 5 and 15 km depth, in keeping with our InSAR analysis, which shows no appreciable surface deformation. Both the hypocentral depth and the depth of principal slip are far too deep to be explained by gravity-driven failure, as such a model would predict a listric normal fault connecting at a much shallower depth with a very gentle detachment. Our regional mapping of tectonic landforms also suggests the recent rupture is part of a 200-km long system of narrowly distributed active extension in northern Sabah. Taken together, the nature of the 2015 rupture, the belt of active normal faults, and structural consideration indicate that active tectonic shortening plays the leading role in controlling the overall deformation of northern Sabah and that deep-seated, onland normal faulting likely results from an abrupt change in the dip-angle of the collision interface beneath the Sabah accretionary prism.

  7. Discovery of amorphous carbon veins in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake fault zone: implications for the fault weakening mechanism (United States)

    Liu, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, B.; Li, H.


    The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake generated 270- and 80-km-long surface ruptures along Yingxiu-Beichuan fault and Guanxian-Anxian fault, respectively. At the outcrop near Hongkou village, southwest segment of Yingxiu-Beichuan rupture, network black amorphous carbon veins were discovered near fault planes in the 190-m-wide earthquake fault zone. These veins are mainly composed of ultrafine- and fine-grained amorphous carbon, usually narrower than 5mm and injected into faults and cracks as far as several meter. Flowage structures like asymmetrical structures around few stiff rock fragments indicate materials flew when the veins formed. Fluidization of cataclastic amorphous carbon and the powerful driving force in the veins imply high pore pressure built up during earthquakes. High pore pressure solution and graphite reported in the fault gouge (Togo et al., 2011) can lead very low dynamic friction during the Wenchuan earthquake. This deduction hypothesis is in accordance with the very low thermal abnormal measured on the principle fault zone following the Wenchuan earthquake (Mori et al., 2010). Furthermore, network amorphous carbon veins of different generations suggest similar weakening mechanism also worked on historical earthquakes in Longmenshan fault zone. Reference: Brodsky, E. E., Li, H., Mori, J. J., Kano, Y., and Xue, L., 2012, Frictional Stress Measured Through Temperature Profiles in the Wenchuan Scientific Fault Zone Drilling Project. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting. San Francisco, T44B-07 Li, H., Xu, Z., Si, J., Pei, J., Song, S., Sun, Z., and Chevalier, M., 2012, Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling program (WFSD): Overview and Results. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting. San Francisco, T44B-01 Mori, J. J., Li, H., Wang, H., Kano, Y., Pei, J., Xu, Z., and Brodsky, E. E., 2010, Temperature measurements in the WFSD-1 borehole following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (MW7.9). American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting. San Francisco, T53E

  8. Correlation of clayey gouge in a surface exposure of the San Andreas fault with gouge at depth from SAFOD: Implications for the role of serpentinite in fault mechanics (United States)

    Moore, Diane E.; Rymer, Michael J.


    Magnesium-rich clayey gouge similar to that comprising the two actively creeping strands of the San Andreas Fault in drill core from the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) has been identified in a nearby outcrop of serpentinite within the fault zone at Nelson Creek. Each occurrence of the gouge consists of porphyroclasts of serpentinite and sedimentary rocks dispersed in a fine-grained, foliated matrix of Mg-rich smectitic clays. The clay minerals in all three gouges are interpreted to be the product of fluid-assisted, shear-enhanced reactions between quartzofeldspathic wall rocks and serpentinite that was tectonically entrained in the fault from a source in the Coast Range Ophiolite. We infer that the gouge at Nelson Creek connects to one or both of the gouge zones in the SAFOD core, and that similar gouge may occur at depths in between. The special significance of the outcrop is that it preserves the early stages of mineral reactions that are greatly advanced at depth, and it confirms the involvement of serpentinite and the Mg-rich phyllosilicate minerals that replace it in promoting creep along the central San Andreas Fault.

  9. Sedimentary evidence of historical and prehistorical earthquakes along the Venta de Bravo Fault System, Acambay Graben (Central Mexico) (United States)

    Lacan, Pierre; Ortuño, María; Audin, Laurence; Perea, Hector; Baize, Stephane; Aguirre-Díaz, Gerardo; Zúñiga, F. Ramón


    The Venta de Bravo normal fault is one of the longest structures in the intra-arc fault system of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. It defines, together with the Pastores Fault, the 80 km long southern margin of the Acambay Graben. We focus on the westernmost segment of the Venta de Bravo Fault and provide new paleoseismological information, evaluate its earthquake history, and assess the related seismic hazard. We analyzed five trenches, distributed at three different sites, in which Holocene surface faulting offsets interbedded volcanoclastic, fluvio-lacustrine and colluvial deposits. Despite the lack of known historical destructive earthquakes along this fault, we found evidence of at least eight earthquakes during the late Quaternary. Our results indicate that this is one of the major seismic sources of the Acambay Graben, capable of producing by itself earthquakes with magnitudes (MW) up to 6.9, with a slip rate of 0.22-0.24 mm yr- 1 and a recurrence interval between 1940 and 2390 years. In addition, a possible multi-fault rupture of the Venta de Bravo Fault together with other faults of the Acambay Graben could result in a MW > 7 earthquake. These new slip rates, earthquake recurrence rates, and estimation of slips per event help advance our understanding of the seismic hazard posed by the Venta de Bravo Fault and provide new parameters for further hazard assessment.

  10. Sub-Patch Roughness in Earthquake Rupture Investigations

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf


    Fault geometric complexities exhibit fractal characteristics over a wide range of spatial scales (<µm to >km) and strongly affect the rupture process at corresponding scales. Numerical rupture simulations provide a framework to quantitatively investigate the relationship between a fault\\'s roughness and its seismic characteristics. Fault discretization however introduces an artificial lower limit to roughness. Individual fault patches are planar and sub-patch roughness –roughness at spatial scales below fault-patch size– is not incorporated. Does negligence of sub-patch roughness measurably affect the outcome of earthquake rupture simulations? We approach this question with a numerical parameter space investigation and demonstrate that sub-patch roughness significantly modifies the slip-strain relationship –a fundamental aspect of dislocation theory. Faults with sub-patch roughness induce less strain than their planar-fault equivalents at distances beyond the length of a slipping fault. We further provide regression functions that characterize the stochastic effect sub-patch roughness.

  11. Imaging the concealed section of the Whakatane fault below Whakatane city, New Zealand, with a shear wave land streamer system (United States)

    Polom, Ulrich; Mueller, Christof; Krawczyk, CharLotte M.


    The Mw 7.1 Darfield Earthquake in September 2010 ruptured the surface along the Greendale Fault that was not known prior to the earthquake. The subsequent Mw 6.3 Christchurch earthquake in February 2011 demonstrated that concealed active faults have a significant risk potential for urban infrastructure and human life in New Zealand if they are located beneath or close to such areas. Mapping exposures and analysis of active faults incorporated into the National Seismic Hazard Model (NSHM) suggests that several thousands of these active structures are yet to be identified and have the potential to generate moderate to large magnitude earthquakes (i.e. magnitudes >5). Geological mapping suggests that active faults pass beneath, or within many urban areas in New Zealand, including Auckland, Blenheim, Christchurch, Hastings/Napier, Nelson, Rotorua, Taupo, Wellington, and Whakatane. Since no established methodology for routinely locating and assessing the earthquake hazard posed by concealed active faults is available, the principal objective of the presented study was to evaluate the usefulness of high-resolution shear wave seismic reflection profiling using a land streamer to locate buried faults in urban areas of New Zealand. During the survey carried out in the city of Whakatane in February 2015, the method was first tested over a well known surface outcrop of the Edgecumbe Fault 30 km south-west of Whakatane city. This allowed further to investigate the principle shear wave propagation characteristics in the unknown sediments, consisting mainly of effusive rock material of the Taupo volcanic zone mixed with marine transgression units. Subsequently the survey was continued within Whakatane city using night operation time slots to reduce the urban noise. In total, 11 profiles of 5.7 km length in high data quality were acquired, which clearly show concealed rupture structures of obviously different age in the shallow sediments down to 100 m depth. Subject to depth

  12. Reflection seismic studies over the end-glacial Burträsk fault, Skellefteå, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Juhlin


    Full Text Available Reflection seismic data were acquired along a ca. 22 km long profile over the end-glacial Burträsk fault with a nominal receiver and source spacing of 20 m. A steeply dipping reflection can be correlated to the Burträsk fault, indicating that the fault dips at about 55° to the southeast near the surface. The reflection from the fault is rather poorly imaged, probably due to a lateral offset in the fault of about 1 km at this location and the crookedness of the seismic profile in the vicinity of the fault. A more pronounced steeply dipping reflection is observed about 4 km southeast of the Burträsk fault. Based on its correlation with a topographic low at the surface this reflection is interpreted to originate from a fracture zone. There are no signs of large displacements along this zone as the glacial ice receded, but earthquakes could be associated with it today. Other reflections on the processed seismic section may originate from changes in lithological variations in the supra-crustal rocks or from intrusions of more mafic rock. Constraints on the fault geometry provided by the reflection seismic data will help determine what stresses were required to activate the fault when the major rupture along it occurred ca. 9500 years ago.

  13. Modeling crustal deformation and rupture processes related to upwelling of deep CO2-rich fluids during the 1965-1967 Matsushiro Earthquake Swarm in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappa, F.; Rutqvist, J.; Yamamoto, K.


    In Matsushiro, central Japan, a series of more than 700,000 earthquakes occurred over a 2-year period (1965-1967) associated with a strike-slip faulting sequence. This swarm of earthquakes resulted in ground surface deformations, cracking of the topsoil, and enhanced spring-outflows with changes in chemical compositions as well as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) degassing. Previous investigations of the Matsushiro earthquake swarm have suggested that migration of underground water and/or magma may have had a strong influence on the swarm activity. In this study, employing coupled multiphase flow and geomechanical modelling, we show that observed crustal deformations and seismicity can have been driven by upwelling of deep CO{sub 2}-rich fluids around the intersection of two fault zones - the regional East Nagano earthquake fault and the conjugate Matsushiro fault. We show that the observed spatial evolution of seismicity along the two faults and magnitudes surface uplift, are convincingly explained by a few MPa of pressurization from the upwelling fluid within the critically stressed crust - a crust under a strike-slip stress regime near the frictional strength limit. Our analysis indicates that the most important cause for triggering of seismicity during the Matsushiro swarm was the fluid pressurization with the associated reduction in effective stress and strength in fault segments that were initially near critically stressed for shear failure. Moreover, our analysis indicates that a two order of magnitude permeability enhancement in ruptured fault segments may be necessary to match the observed time evolution of surface uplift. We conclude that our hydromechanical modelling study of the Matsushiro earthquake swarm shows a clear connection between earthquake rupture, deformation, stress, and permeability changes, as well as large-scale fluid flow related to degassing of CO{sub 2} in the shallow seismogenic crust. Thus, our study provides further evidence of the

  14. Rupture geometry and slip distribution of the 2016 January 21st Ms6.4 Menyuan, China earthquake (United States)

    Zhou, Y.


    On 21 January 2016, an Ms6.4 earthquake stroke Menyuan country, Qinghai Province, China. The epicenter of the main shock and locations of its aftershocks indicate that the Menyuan earthquake occurred near the left-lateral Lenglongling fault. However, the focal mechanism suggests that the earthquake should take place on a thrust fault. In addition, field investigation indicates that the earthquake did not rupture the ground surface. Therefore, the rupture geometry is unclear as well as coseismic slip distribution. We processed two pairs of InSAR images acquired by the ESA Sentinel-1A satellite with the ISCE software, and both ascending and descending orbits were included. After subsampling the coseismic InSAR images into about 800 pixels, coseismic displacement data along LOS direction are inverted for earthquake source parameters. We employ an improved mixed linear-nonlinear Bayesian inversion method to infer fault geometric parameters, slip distribution, and the Laplacian smoothing factor simultaneously. This method incorporates a hybrid differential evolution algorithm, which is an efficient global optimization algorithm. The inversion results show that the Menyuan earthquake ruptured a blind thrust fault with a strike of 124°and a dip angle of 41°. This blind fault was never investigated before and intersects with the left-lateral Lenglongling fault, but the strikes of them are nearly parallel. The slip sense is almost pure thrusting, and there is no significant slip within 4km depth. The max slip value is up to 0.3m, and the estimated moment magnitude is Mw5.93, in agreement with the seismic inversion result. The standard error of residuals between InSAR data and model prediction is as small as 0.5cm, verifying the correctness of the inversion results.

  15. Exploration of fault-zone trapped waves at Pingtong Town, in Wenchuan earthquake region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Lai


    Full Text Available Pingtong Town is located on the fractured zone of the Wenchuan 8.0 earthquake, and is seriously damaged by the earthquake. Our observation line is centered at an earthquake exploration trench across the fractured zone in the NW-SE direction, and is about 400 m long. The results reveal trapped waves in the ruptured fault zone of the earthquake, and indicate a great difference in physical property between the media inside and outside the fault zone. The predominant frequency of the fault-zone trapped waves is about 3 – 4 Hz. The wave amplitudes are larger near the exploration trench. The width of the fault zone in the crust at this location is estimated to be 200 m. In some records, the waveforms and the arrival times of S waves are quite different between the two sides of the trench. The place of change coincides with the boundary of uplift at the surface.

  16. Fault Slip Distribution and Optimum Sea Surface Displacement of the 2017 Tehuantepec Earthquake in Mexico (Mw 8.2) Estimated from Tsunami Waveforms (United States)

    Gusman, A. R.; Satake, K.; Mulia, I. E.


    An intraplate normal fault earthquake (Mw 8.2) occurred on 8 September 2017 in the Tehuantepec seismic gap of the Middle America Trench. The submarine earthquake generated a tsunami which was recorded by coastal tide gauges and offshore DART buoys. We used the tsunami waveforms recorded at 16 stations to estimate the fault slip distribution and an optimum sea surface displacement of the earthquake. A steep fault dipping to the northeast with strike of 315°, dip of 73°and rake of -96° based on the USGS W-phase moment tensor solution was assumed for the slip inversion. To independently estimate the sea surface displacement without assuming earthquake fault parameters, we used the B-spline function for the unit sources. The distribution of the unit sources was optimized by a Genetic Algorithm - Pattern Search (GA-PS) method. Tsunami waveform inversion resolves a spatially compact region of large slip (4-10 m) with a dimension of 100 km along the strike and 80 km along the dip in the depth range between 40 km and 110 km. The seismic moment calculated from the fault slip distribution with assumed rigidity of 6 × 1010 Nm-2 is 2.46 × 1021 Nm (Mw 8.2). The optimum displacement model suggests that the sea surface was uplifted up to 0.5 m and subsided down to -0.8 m. The deep location of large fault slip may be the cause of such small sea surface displacements. The simulated tsunami waveforms from the optimum sea surface displacement can reproduce the observations better than those from fault slip distribution; the normalized root mean square misfit for the sea surface displacement is 0.89, while that for the fault slip distribution is 1.04. We simulated the tsunami propagation using the optimum sea surface displacement model. Large tsunami amplitudes up to 2.5 m were predicted to occur inside and around a lagoon located between Salina Cruz and Puerto Chiapas. Figure 1. a) Sea surface displacement for the 2017 Tehuantepec earthquake estimated by tsunami waveforms. b

  17. Postglacial seismic activity along the Isovaara-Riikonkumpu fault complex (United States)

    Ojala, Antti E. K.; Mattila, Jussi; Ruskeeniemi, Timo; Palmu, Jukka-Pekka; Lindberg, Antero; Hänninen, Pekka; Sutinen, Raimo


    Analysis of airborne LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEMs), trenching of Quaternary deposits, and diamond drilling through faulted bedrock was conducted to characterize the geological structure and full slip profiles of the Isovaara-Riikonkumpu postglacial fault (PGF) complex in northern Finland. The PGF systems are recognized from LiDAR DEMs as a complex of surface ruptures striking SW-NE, cutting through late-Weichselian till, and associated with several postglacial landslides within 10 km. Evidence from the terrain rupture characteristics, the deformed and folded structure of late-Weichselian till, and the 14C age of 11,300 cal BP from buried organic matter underneath the Sotka landslide indicates a postglacial origin of the Riikonkumpu fault (PGF). The fracture frequency and lithology of drill cores and fault geometry in the trench log indicate that the Riikonkumpu PGF dips to WNW with a dip angle of 40-45° at the Riikonkumpu site and close to 60° at the Riikonvaara site. A fault length of 19 km and the mean and maximum cumulative vertical displacement of 1.3 m and 4.1 m, respectively, of the Riikonkumpu PGF system indicate that the fault potentially hosted an earthquake with a moment magnitude MW ≈ 6.7-7.3 assuming that slip was accumulated in one seismic event. Our interpretation further suggests that the Riikonkumpu PGF system is linked to the Isovaara PGF system and that, together, they form a larger Isovaara-Riikonkumpu fault complex. Relationships between the 38-km-long rupture of the Isovaara-Riikonkumpu complex and the fault offset parameters, with cumulative displacement of 1.5 and 8.3 m, respectively, indicate that the earthquake(s) contributing to the PGF complex potentially had a moment magnitude of MW ≈ 6.9-7.5. In order to adequately sample the uncertainty space, the moment magnitude was also estimated for each major segment within the Isovaara-Riikonkumpu PGF complex. These estimates vary roughly between MW ≈ 5-8 for the individual

  18. The 2012 Mw 8.6 Wharton Basin sequence: A cascade of great earthquakes generated by near-orthogonal, young, oceanic mantle faults (United States)

    Hill, Emma M.; Yue, Han; Barbot, Sylvain; Lay, Thorne; Tapponnier, Paul; Hermawan, Iwan; Hubbard, Judith; Banerjee, Paramesh; Feng, Lujia; Natawidjaja, Danny; Sieh, Kerry


    We improve constraints on the slip distribution and geometry of faults involved in the complex, multisegment, Mw 8.6 April 2012 Wharton Basin earthquake sequence by joint inversion of high-rate GPS data from the Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr), teleseismic observations, source time functions from broadband surface waves, and far-field static GPS displacements. This sequence occurred under the Indian Ocean, ˜400 km offshore Sumatra. The events are extraordinary for their unprecedented rupture of multiple cross faults, deep slip, large strike-slip magnitude, and potential role in the formation of a discrete plate boundary between the Indian and Australian plates. The SuGAr recorded static displacements of up to ˜22 cm, along with time-varying arrivals from the complex faulting, which indicate that the majority of moment release was on young, WNW trending, right-lateral faults, counter to initial expectations that an old, lithospheric, NNE trending fracture zone played the primary role. The new faults are optimally oriented to accommodate the present-day stress field. Not only was the greatest moment released on the younger faults, but it was these that sustained very deep slip and high stress drop (>20 MPa). The rupture may have extended to depths of up to 60 km, suggesting that the oceanic lithosphere in the northern Wharton Basin may be cold and strong enough to sustain brittle failure at such depths. Alternatively, the rupture may have occurred with an alternative weakening mechanism, such as thermal runaway.

  19. Induced seismicity provides insight into why earthquake ruptures stop

    KAUST Repository

    Galis, Martin


    Injection-induced earthquakes pose a serious seismic hazard but also offer an opportunity to gain insight into earthquake physics. Currently used models relating the maximum magnitude of injection-induced earthquakes to injection parameters do not incorporate rupture physics. We develop theoretical estimates, validated by simulations, of the size of ruptures induced by localized pore-pressure perturbations and propagating on prestressed faults. Our model accounts for ruptures growing beyond the perturbed area and distinguishes self-arrested from runaway ruptures. We develop a theoretical scaling relation between the largest magnitude of self-arrested earthquakes and the injected volume and find it consistent with observed maximum magnitudes of injection-induced earthquakes over a broad range of injected volumes, suggesting that, although runaway ruptures are possible, most injection-induced events so far have been self-arrested ruptures.

  20. A finite difference method for off-fault plasticity throughout the earthquake cycle (United States)

    Erickson, Brittany A.; Dunham, Eric M.; Khosravifar, Arash


    We have developed an efficient computational framework for simulating multiple earthquake cycles with off-fault plasticity. The method is developed for the classical antiplane problem of a vertical strike-slip fault governed by rate-and-state friction, with inertial effects captured through the radiation-damping approximation. Both rate-independent plasticity and viscoplasticity are considered, where stresses are constrained by a Drucker-Prager yield condition. The off-fault volume is discretized using finite differences and tectonic loading is imposed by displacing the remote side boundaries at a constant rate. Time-stepping combines an adaptive Runge-Kutta method with an incremental solution process which makes use of an elastoplastic tangent stiffness tensor and the return-mapping algorithm. Solutions are verified by convergence tests and comparison to a finite element solution. We quantify how viscosity, isotropic hardening, and cohesion affect the magnitude and off-fault extent of plastic strain that develops over many ruptures. If hardening is included, plastic strain saturates after the first event and the response during subsequent ruptures is effectively elastic. For viscoplasticity without hardening, however, successive ruptures continue to generate additional plastic strain. In all cases, coseismic slip in the shallow sub-surface is diminished compared to slip accumulated at depth during interseismic loading. The evolution of this slip deficit with each subsequent event, however, is dictated by the plasticity model. Integration of the off-fault plastic strain from the viscoplastic model reveals that a significant amount of tectonic offset is accommodated by inelastic deformation ( ∼ 0.1 m per rupture, or ∼ 10% of the tectonic deformation budget).

  1. Release fault: A variety of cross fault in linked extensional fault systems, in the Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, NE Brazil (United States)

    Destro, Nivaldo


    Two types of cross faults are herein recognized: transfer faults and the newly termed release faults. Transfer faults form where cross faults connect distinct normal faults and horizontal displacements predominate over vertical ones. In contrast, release faults form where cross faults associated with individual normal faults die out within the hangingwall before connecting to other normal faults, and have predominantly vertical displacements. Release faults are geometrically required to accommodate variable displacements along the strike of a normal fault. Thus, they form to release the bending stresses in the hangingwall, and do not cut normal fault planes nor detachment surfaces at depth. Release faults have maximum throws adjacent to normal faults, and may be nearly perpendicular or obliquely oriented to the strike of the latter. Such geometry appears not to depend upon pre-existing weaknesses, but such variable orientation to normal faults is an inherent property of release faults. Release faults commonly appear as simple normal faults in seismic sections, without implying extension along the strike of rift and basins. Three-dimensional strain deformation occurs in the hangingwall only between the terminations of an individual normal fault, but regionally, release faulting is associated with plane strain deformation in linked extensional fault systems.

  2. Effects of phosphorus on the δ-Ni3Nb phase precipitation and the stress rupture properties in alloy 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, W.R.; Guo, S.R.; Hu, Z.Q.; Park, N.K.; Yoo, Y.S.; Choe, S.J.


    The effects of phosphorus on the phase transformation and stress rupture properties of alloy 718 were investigated. The nucleation of δ-phase, which does not contain phosphorus, was suppressed by the enrichment of phosphorus at grain boundaries. A low level of phosphorus resulted in the formation of faults-containing film-like δ-phase along the grain boundaries, while a higher level of phosphorus favored the long lath-like δ-phase precipitation. Phosphorus greatly prolonged the stress rupture life of the alloy in the range of 0.0008-0.013 wt.%, while it reduced the stress rupture life in the range of 0.013-0.049 wt.%. The effect of phosphorus on the stress rupture properties was closely related to its interaction with oxygen. Phosphorus atoms, in the range of 0.0008-0.013 wt.%, enhanced the resistance to oxygen intrusion along the grain boundaries, protected the grain boundaries from decohesion by oxygen atoms and oxidation, and subsequently prolonged the rupture life of the alloy. The protection effect of P is clearly demonstrated by the phenomenon that the crack initiation site was shifted from the surface to the center in the stress-ruptured samples with increasing addition of P. Over 0.013 wt.%, the protection effect of phosphorus is excessive and phosphorus began to display its inherent effect of damaging the grain boundary strength: the stress rupture life of the alloy was reduced accordingly. Maximum stress rupture life was thus obtained at ∼0.013 wt.% P. (orig.)

  3. Wide-band analysis of the 3 March 1985 central Chile earthquake: Overall source process and rupture history (United States)


    We apply a linear, finite-fault waveform inversion scheme to the near-source strong-motion records, the teleseismic body waves, and the long-period Rayleigh waves recorded for the 3 March 1985 Chile earthquake to recover the mainshock rupture history. The data contain periods between about 2 and 350 sec and are inverted by allowing a variable dislocation rise time at each point on the fault. The results indicate that the mainshock had a seismic moment of 1.5 × 1028 dyne-cm (Mw 8.0) and ruptured mainly updip and to the south of the hypocenter for a distance of about 150 km along the Nazca-South America plate boundary. A smaller northward component of propagation is also evident, giving a total rupture length of about 200 km. The total source duration of the mainshock is 70 sec, with the majority of the slip occurring within the first 40 sec in a broad 100-km-wide zone in the northern half of the rupture area. Slip in this region extends from a depth of 55 km to within about 10 km of the surface and contains two areas of maximum slip (2.3 and 2.9 m) with rise times of approximately 14 sec. Slip in the southern portion of the fault reaches lower peak values (1.8 m) and extends downdip to depths no greater than 30 km. An independent variable rise-time inversion of the teleseismic body waves alone yields similar results, indicating that a significant component of slow fault motion is not required for this earthquake. The mainshock was preceded by several smaller precursors, the largest of which is an Mw ∼ 6.6 thrust earthquake occurring at a depth of 22 km in the shallow 15° dipping portion of the plate interface.

  4. Evidence for and implications of self-healing pulses of slip in earthquake rupture (United States)

    Heaton, T.H.


    Dislocation time histories of models derived from waveforms of seven earthquakes are discussed. In each model, dislocation rise times (the duration of slip for a given point on the fault) are found to be short compared to the overall duration of the earthquake (??? 10%). However, in many crack-like numerical models of dynamic rupture, the slip duration at a given point is comparable to the overall duration of the rupture; i.e. slip at a given point continues until information is received that the rupture has stopped propagating. Alternative explanations for the discrepancy between the short slip durations used to model waveforms and the long slip durations inferred from dynamic crack models are: (1) the dislocation models are unable to resolve the relatively slow parts of earthquake slip and have seriously underestimated the dislocations for these earthquakes; (2) earthquakes are composed of a sequence of small-dimension (short duration) events that are separated by locked regions (barriers); (3) rupture occurs in a narrow self-healing pulse of slip that travels along the fault surface. Evidence is discussed that suggests that slip durations are indeed short and that the self-healing slip-pulse model is the most appropriate explanation. A qualitative model is presented that produces self-healing slip pulses. The key feature of the model is the assumption that friction on the fault surface is inversely related to the local slip velocity. The model has the following features: high static strength of materials (kilobar range), low static stress drops (in the range of tens of bars), and relatively low frictional stress during slip (less than several hundreds of bars). It is suggested that the reason that the average dislocation scales with fault length is because large-amplitude slip pulses are difficult to stop and hence tend to propagate large distances. This model may explain why seismicity and ambient stress are low along fault segments that have experienced large

  5. The SCEC/USGS dynamic earthquake rupture code verification exercise (United States)

    Harris, R.A.; Barall, M.; Archuleta, R.; Dunham, E.; Aagaard, Brad T.; Ampuero, J.-P.; Bhat, H.; Cruz-Atienza, Victor M.; Dalguer, L.; Dawson, P.; Day, S.; Duan, B.; Ely, G.; Kaneko, Y.; Kase, Y.; Lapusta, N.; Liu, Yajing; Ma, S.; Oglesby, D.; Olsen, K.; Pitarka, A.; Song, S.; Templeton, E.


    Numerical simulations of earthquake rupture dynamics are now common, yet it has been difficult to test the validity of these simulations because there have been few field observations and no analytic solutions with which to compare the results. This paper describes the Southern California Earthquake Center/U.S. Geological Survey (SCEC/USGS) Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise, where codes that simulate spontaneous rupture dynamics in three dimensions are evaluated and the results produced by these codes are compared using Web-based tools. This is the first time that a broad and rigorous examination of numerous spontaneous rupture codes has been performed—a significant advance in this science. The automated process developed to attain this achievement provides for a future where testing of codes is easily accomplished.Scientists who use computer simulations to understand earthquakes utilize a range of techniques. Most of these assume that earthquakes are caused by slip at depth on faults in the Earth, but hereafter the strategies vary. Among the methods used in earthquake mechanics studies are kinematic approaches and dynamic approaches.The kinematic approach uses a computer code that prescribes the spatial and temporal evolution of slip on the causative fault (or faults). These types of simulations are very helpful, especially since they can be used in seismic data inversions to relate the ground motions recorded in the field to slip on the fault(s) at depth. However, these kinematic solutions generally provide no insight into the physics driving the fault slip or information about why the involved fault(s) slipped that much (or that little). In other words, these kinematic solutions may lack information about the physical dynamics of earthquake rupture that will be most helpful in forecasting future events.To help address this issue, some researchers use computer codes to numerically simulate earthquakes and construct dynamic, spontaneous

  6. It's Our Fault: better defining earthquake risk in Wellington, New Zealand (United States)

    Van Dissen, R.; Brackley, H. L.; Francois-Holden, C.


    The Wellington region, home of New Zealand's capital city, is cut by a number of major right-lateral strike slip faults, and is underlain by the currently locked west-dipping subduction interface between the down going Pacific Plate, and the over-riding Australian Plate. In its short historic period (ca. 160 years), the region has been impacted by large earthquakes on the strike-slip faults, but has yet to bear the brunt of a subduction interface rupture directly beneath the capital city. It's Our Fault is a comprehensive study of Wellington's earthquake risk. Its objective is to position the capital city of New Zealand to become more resilient through an encompassing study of the likelihood of large earthquakes, and the effects and impacts of these earthquakes on humans and the built environment. It's Our Fault is jointly funded by New Zealand's Earthquake Commission, Accident Compensation Corporation, Wellington City Council, Wellington Region Emergency Management Group, Greater Wellington Regional Council, and Natural Hazards Research Platform. The programme has been running for six years, and key results to date include better definition and constraints on: 1) location, size, timing, and likelihood of large earthquakes on the active faults closest to Wellington; 2) earthquake size and ground shaking characterization of a representative suite of subduction interface rupture scenarios under Wellington; 3) stress interactions between these faults; 4) geological, geotechnical, and geophysical parameterisation of the near-surface sediments and basin geometry in Wellington City and the Hutt Valley; and 5) characterisation of earthquake ground shaking behaviour in these two urban areas in terms of subsoil classes specified in the NZ Structural Design Standard. The above investigations are already supporting measures aimed at risk reduction, and collectively they will facilitate identification of additional actions that will have the greatest benefit towards further

  7. Influence of fault heterogeneity on the frequency-magnitude statistics of earthquake cycle simulations (United States)

    Norbeck, Jack; Horne, Roland


    Numerical models are useful tools for investigating natural geologic conditions can affect seismicity, but it can often be difficult to generate realistic earthquake sequences using physics-based earthquake rupture models. Rate-and-state earthquake cycle simulations on planar faults with homogeneous frictional properties and stress conditions typically yield single event sequences with a single earthquake magnitude characteristic of the size of the fault. In reality, earthquake sequences have been observed to follow a Gutenberg-Richter-type frequency-magnitude distribution that can be characterized by a power law scaling relationship. The purpose of this study was to determine how fault heterogeneity can affect the frequency-magnitude distribution of simulated earthquake events. We considered the effects fault heterogeneity at two different length-scales by performing numerical earthquake rupture simulations within a rate-and-state friction framework. In our first study, we investigated how heterogeneous, fractal distributions of shear and normal stress resolved along a two-dimensional fault surface influenced the earthquake nucleation, rupture, and arrest processes. We generated a catalog of earthquake events by performing earthquake cycle simulations for 90 random realizations of fractal stress distributions. Typical realizations produced between 4 to 6 individual earthquakes ranging in event magnitudes between those characteristic of the minimum patch size for nucleation and the size of the model fault. The resulting aggregate frequency-magnitude distributions were characterized well by a power-law scaling behavior. In our second study, we performed simulations of injection-induced seismicity using a coupled fluid flow and rate-and-state earthquake model. Fluid flow in a two-dimensional reservoir was modeled, and the fault mechanics was modeled under a plane strain assumption (i.e., one-dimensional faults). We generated a set of faults with an average strike of

  8. Rupture Characteristics of the 25 November 2016 Aketao Earthquake ( M w 6.6) in Eastern Pamir Revealed by GPS and Teleseismic Data (United States)

    Li, Jie; Liu, Gang; Qiao, Xuejun; Xiong, Wei; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Daiqin; Sun, Jianing; Yushan, Ailixiati; Yusan, Sulitan; Fang, Wei; Wang, Qi


    The 25 November 2016 Aketao, Xinjiang earthquake occurred on the northeastern margin of the Pamir plateau, rupturing the Muji fault on the northern segment of the Kongur Extensional System. We collected coseismic offsets at 7 GPS sites, which show that the fault experienced significate dextral slip with a near-field geodetic displacement of up to 12 cm along the strike. The joint inversion of GPS data and teleseismic P waveforms suggests a complex rupture pattern characterized by the unilateral propagation slip from the epicenter to the southeast for 60 km with a total seismic moment of 1.3 × 1019 Nm, corresponding to a magnitude of M w 6.7 earthquake. Our model of slip distribution shows two major slip patches with a slip amplitude up to 0.6 m, one located at shallow depths of 0-8 km close to the hypocenter with apparent surface breaks and the other, 40 km to the southeast, buried at a greater depth of 12 km. The rupture is dominated by a right-lateral strike slip with significant normal-slip components. The near-field GPS data enhances the spatial resolution of source model. Based on the preferred slip model, the static Coulomb Failure Stress change caused by 2016 Aketao earthquake suggests that the unzipped western and eastern ends of Muji fault and the northern segment of Kungai Fault are significantly promoted.

  9. On fault evidence for a large earthquake in the late fifteenth century, Eastern Kunlun fault, China (United States)

    Junlong, Zhang


    The EW-trending Kunlun Fault System (KFS) is one of the major left-lateral strike-slip faults on the Tibetan Plateau. It forms the northern boundary of the Bayan Har block. Heretofore, no evidence has been provided for the most recent event (MRE) of the 70-km-long eastern section of the KFS. The studied area is located in the north of the Zoige Basin (northwest Sichuan province) and was recognized by field mapping. Several trenches were excavated and revealed evidence of repeated events in late Holocene. The fault zone is characterized by a distinct 30-60-cm-thick clay fault gouge layer juxtaposing the hanging wall bedrock over unconsolidated late Holocene footwall colluvium and alluvium. The fault zone, hanging wall, and footwall were conformably overlain by undeformed post-MRE deposits. Samples of charred organic material were obtained from the top of the faulted sediments and the base of the unfaulted sediments. Modeling of the age of samples, earthquake yielded a calibrated 2σ radiocarbon age of A.D. 1489 ± 82. Combined with the historical earthquake record, the MRE is dated at A.D. 1488. Based on the over 50 km-long surface rupture, the magnitude of this event is nearly M w 7.0. Our data suggests that a 200-km-long seismic gap could be further divided into the Luocha and Maqu sections. For the last 1000 years, the Maqu section has been inactive, and hence, it is likely that the end of its seismic cycle is approaching, and that there is a potentially significant seismic hazard in eastern Tibet.

  10. The 2015 M7.2 Sarez, Central Pamir, Earthquake And The Importance Of Strike-Slip Faulting In The Pamir Interior: Insights From Geodesy And Field Observations (United States)

    Metzger, Sabrina; Schurr, Bernd; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Schöne, Tilo; Kufner, Sofia-Katerina; Zhang, Yong; Sudhaus, Henriette


    The Pamir mountain range, located in the Northwest of the India-Asia collision zone, accommodates approximately one third of the northward advance of the Indian continent at this longitude (i. e. ˜34 mm/yr) mostly by shortening at its northern thrust system. Geodetic and seismic data sets reveal here a narrow zone of high deformation and M7+ earthquakes of mostly thrust type with some dextral strike-slip faulting observed, too. The Pamir interior shows sinistral strike-slip and normal faulting indicating north-south compression and east-west extension. In this tectonic setting the two largest instrumentally recorded earthquakes, the M7+ 1911 and 2015 earthquake events in the central Pamir occurred with left-lateral shear along a NE-SW rupture plane. We present the co-seismic deformation field of the 2015 earthquake observed by radar satellite interferometry (InSAR), SAR amplitude pixel offsets and high-rate Global Positioning System (GPS). The InSAR and pixel offset results suggest a 50+ km long rupture with sinistral fault offsets at the surface of more than 2 m on a yet unmapped fault trace of the Sarez Karakul Fault System (SKFS). A distributed slip model with a data-driven slip patch resolution yields a sub-vertical fault plane with a strike of N39.5 degrees and a rupture area of ˜80 x 40 km with a maximum slip of 2 m in the upper 10 km of the crust near the surface rupture. Field observations collected some nine months after the earthquake confirm the rupture mechanism, surface trace location and fault offset measurements as constrained by geodetic data. Diffuse deformation was observed across a 1-2 km wide zone, hosting primary fractures sub-parallel to the rupture strike with offsets of 2 m and secondary, en echelon fractures including Riedel shears and hybrid fractures often related to gravitational mass movements. The 1911 and 2015 earthquakes demonstrate the importance of sinistral strike-slip faulting on the SKFS, contributing both to shear between the

  11. Lateral-torsional response of base-isolated buildings with curved surface sliding system subjected to near-fault earthquakes (United States)

    Mazza, Fabio


    The curved surface sliding (CSS) system is one of the most in-demand techniques for the seismic isolation of buildings; yet there are still important aspects of its behaviour that need further attention. The CSS system presents variation of friction coefficient, depending on the sliding velocity of the CSS bearings, while friction force and lateral stiffness during the sliding phase are proportional to the axial load. Lateral-torsional response needs to be better understood for base-isolated structures located in near-fault areas, where fling-step and forward-directivity effects can produce long-period (horizontal) velocity pulses. To analyse these aspects, a six-storey reinforced concrete (r.c.) office framed building, with an L-shaped plan and setbacks in elevation, is designed assuming three values of the radius of curvature for the CSS system. Seven in-plan distributions of dynamic-fast friction coefficient for the CSS bearings, ranging from a constant value for all isolators to a different value for each, are considered in the case of low- and medium-type friction properties. The seismic analysis of the test structures is carried out considering an elastic-linear behaviour of the superstructure, while a nonlinear force-displacement law of the CSS bearings is considered in the horizontal direction, depending on sliding velocity and axial load. Given the lack of knowledge of the horizontal direction at which near-fault ground motions occur, the maximum torsional effects and residual displacements are evaluated with reference to different incidence angles, while the orientation of the strongest observed pulses is considered to obtain average values.

  12. Spontaneous uterine rupture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Rupture of a gravid uterus is a surgical emergency. Predisposing factors include a scarred uterus. Spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. We hereby present the case of a spontaneous complete uterine rupture at a gestational age of 34 weeks in a 35 year old patient ...

  13. Composition, Alteration, and Texture of Fault-Related Rocks from Safod Core and Surface Outcrop Analogs: Evidence for Deformation Processes and Fluid-Rock Interactions (United States)

    Bradbury, Kelly K.; Davis, Colter R.; Shervais, John W.; Janecke, Susanne U.; Evans, James P.


    We examine the fine-scale variations in mineralogical composition, geochemical alteration, and texture of the fault-related rocks from the Phase 3 whole-rock core sampled between 3,187.4 and 3,301.4 m measured depth within the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) borehole near Parkfield, California. This work provides insight into the physical and chemical properties, structural architecture, and fluid-rock interactions associated with the actively deforming traces of the San Andreas Fault zone at depth. Exhumed outcrops within the SAF system comprised of serpentinite-bearing protolith are examined for comparison at San Simeon, Goat Rock State Park, and Nelson Creek, California. In the Phase 3 SAFOD drillcore samples, the fault-related rocks consist of multiple juxtaposed lenses of sheared, foliated siltstone and shale with block-in-matrix fabric, black cataclasite to ultracataclasite, and sheared serpentinite-bearing, finely foliated fault gouge. Meters-wide zones of sheared rock and fault gouge correlate to the sites of active borehole casing deformation and are characterized by scaly clay fabric with multiple discrete slip surfaces or anastomosing shear zones that surround conglobulated or rounded clasts of compacted clay and/or serpentinite. The fine gouge matrix is composed of Mg-rich clays and serpentine minerals (saponite ± palygorskite, and lizardite ± chrysotile). Whole-rock geochemistry data show increases in Fe-, Mg-, Ni-, and Cr-oxides and hydroxides, Fe-sulfides, and C-rich material, with a total organic content of >1 % locally in the fault-related rocks. The faults sampled in the field are composed of meters-thick zones of cohesive to non-cohesive, serpentinite-bearing foliated clay gouge and black fine-grained fault rock derived from sheared Franciscan Formation or serpentinized Coast Range Ophiolite. X-ray diffraction of outcrop samples shows that the foliated clay gouge is composed primarily of saponite and serpentinite, with localized

  14. Structure and seismic hazard of the Ventura Avenue anticline and Ventura fault, California (United States)

    Hubbard, J.; Shaw, J. H.; Dolan, J. F.; Pratt, T. L.; McAuliffe, L. J.


    seismic dataset across the Dos Cuadras field, which lies along the trend, shows that it is a fault-propagation fold, structurally similar to the Ventura Avenue anticline. Dos Cuadras is also underlain by a north-dipping thrust fault, known as the Pitas Point thrust. Based on our and others' mapping, the Ventura and Pitas Point faults form an en echelon system that extends at least 40 km offshore. Other regional faults, including the San Cayetano, Lion, and Red Mountain faults, link with the Ventura/Pitas Point system at depth; we suggest that at 15 km depth, these faults may all link into a single, continuous fault surface. One of the greatest hazards in fold-and-thrust belts is the risk of large, multi-segment ruptures. Linkage of the Ventura/Pitas Point fault could generate a M7.3 earthquake, while rupture in association with other regional faults could produce even larger events. We provide 3D models of these faults and estimate the magnitudes of potential multi-segment earthquakes. Finally, we show that GPS data are consistent with a very high shortening rate (> 6 mm/yr) across the anticline, reinforcing the hazardous nature of the system.

  15. Slip partitioning on the Enriquillo and Lamentin faults during the 2010 Haiti earthquake (United States)

    Saint Fleur, Newdeskarl; Feuillet, Nathalie; Grandin, Raphaël; Jacques, Éric; Weil-Accardo, Jennifer; Klinger, Yann


    A general consensus has emerged from the study of the 12 January 2010, Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake: the coseismic rupture was complex, portraying both reverse and strike-slip motion, but lacking unambiguous surface break. Based on seismological, geodetic and geologic data, numerous slip models have been proposed for that event. However, using an incomplete fault map, the latter models were preliminary, proposing a rupture on unmapped buried faults. Here, using bathymetric data offshore Port-au-Prince along with a digital elevation model derived from LiDAR on-land, we identified the south-dipping Lamentin thrust in the Bay of Port-au-Prince. The fault prolongs on-land where it deforms active alluvial fans in the city of Carrefour. The geometry and distribution of the aftershocks of the 2010 earthquake and the analysis of the regional geology allow us to place constraints on the connection at depth between the Lamentin thrust and the sinistral strike-slip Enriquillo -Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF). Inversion of geodetic data suggests that both faults may have broken in 2010, consistently with the regional geodynamical setting. The rupture initiated along the Lamentin thrust and further propagated along the EPGF due to instantaneous unclamping at depth. The corals uplifted around the Léogâne Delta Fan, contributing to the build-up of long-term topography between the Lamentin thrust and the EPGF. The 2010 earthquake increased the stress toward failure on unruptured EPGF segments as well as on the thrust fault sitting in the middle of the city of Carrefour, in the direct vicinity of Port-au-Prince, thereby increasing the seismic hazard in these areas.

  16. Shallow dynamic overshoot and energetic deep rupture in the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. (United States)

    Ide, Satoshi; Baltay, Annemarie; Beroza, Gregory C


    Strong spatial variation of rupture characteristics in the moment magnitude (M(w)) 9.0 Tohoku-Oki megathrust earthquake controlled both the strength of shaking and the size of the tsunami that followed. Finite-source imaging reveals that the rupture consisted of a small initial phase, deep rupture for up to 40 seconds, extensive shallow rupture at 60 to 70 seconds, and continuing deep rupture lasting more than 100 seconds. A combination of a shallow dipping fault and a compliant hanging wall may have enabled large shallow slip near the trench. Normal faulting aftershocks in the area of high slip suggest dynamic overshoot on the fault. Despite prodigious total slip, shallower parts of the rupture weakly radiated at high frequencies, whereas deeper parts of the rupture radiated strongly at high frequencies.

  17. Seismic Imaging of the West Napa Fault in Napa, California (United States)

    Goldman, M.; Catchings, R.; Chan, J. H.; Sickler, R. R.; Nevitt, J. M.; Criley, C.


    In October 2016, we acquired high-resolution P- and S-wave seismic data along a 120-m-long, SW-NE-trending profile in Napa, California. Our seismic survey was designed to image a strand of the West Napa Fault Zone (WNFZ), which ruptured during the 24 August 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa Earthquake. We separately acquired P- and S-wave data at every station using multiple hammer hits, which were edited and stacked into individual shot gathers in the lab. Each shot was co-located with and recorded by 118 P-wave (40-Hz) geophones, spaced at 1 m, and by 180 S-wave (4.5-Hz) geophones, spaced at 1 m. We developed both P- and S-wave tomographic velocity models, as well as Poisson's ratio and a Vp/Vs ratio models. We observed a well-defined zone of elevated Vp/Vs ratios below about 10 m depth, centered beneath the observed surface rupture. P-wave reflection images show that the fault forms a flower-structure in the upper few tens of meters. This method has been shown to delineate fault structures even in areas of rough terrain.

  18. Earthquake mechanism and predictability shown by a laboratory fault (United States)

    King, C.-Y.


    Slip events generated in a laboratory fault model consisting of a circulinear chain of eight spring-connected blocks of approximately equal weight elastically driven to slide on a frictional surface are studied. It is found that most of the input strain energy is released by a relatively few large events, which are approximately time predictable. A large event tends to roughen stress distribution along the fault, whereas the subsequent smaller events tend to smooth the stress distribution and prepare a condition of simultaneous criticality for the occurrence of the next large event. The frequency-size distribution resembles the Gutenberg-Richter relation for earthquakes, except for a falloff for the largest events due to the finite energy-storage capacity of the fault system. Slip distributions, in different events are commonly dissimilar. Stress drop, slip velocity, and rupture velocity all tend to increase with event size. Rupture-initiation locations are usually not close to the maximum-slip locations. ?? 1994 Birkha??user Verlag.

  19. Seismological Studies for Tensile Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwo-Bin Ou


    Full Text Available A shear slip fault, an equivalence of a double couple source, has often been assumed to be a kinematic source model in ground motion simulation. Estimation of seismic moment based on the shear slip model indicates the size of an earthquake. However, if the dislocation of the hanging wall relative to the footwall includes not only a shear slip tangent to the fault plane but also expansion and compression normal to the fault plane, the radiating seismic waves will feature differences from those out of the shear slip fault. Taking account of the effects resulting from expansion and compression to a fault plane, we can resolve the tension and pressure axes as well as the fault plane solution more exactly from ground motions than previously, and can evaluate how far a fault zone opens or contracts during a developing rupture. In addition to a tensile angle and Poisson¡¦s ratio for the medium, a tensile fault with five degrees of freedom has been extended from the shear slip fault with only three degrees of freedom, strike, dip, and slip.

  20. Co-seismic ruptures of the 12 May 2008, Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan: East-west crustal shortening on oblique, parallel thrusts along the eastern edge of Tibet (United States)

    Liu-Zeng, J.; Zhang, Z.; Wen, L.; Tapponnier, P.; Sun, Jielun; Xing, X.; Hu, G.; Xu, Q.; Zeng, L.; Ding, L.; Ji, C.; Hudnut, K.W.; van der Woerd, J.


    The Ms 8.0, Wenchuan earthquake, which devastated the mountainous western rim of the Sichuan basin in central China, produced a surface rupture over 200??km-long with oblique thrust/dextral slip and maximum scarp heights of ~ 10??m. It thus ranks as one of the world's largest continental mega-thrust events in the last 150??yrs. Field investigation shows clear surface breaks along two of the main branches of the NE-trending Longmen Shan thrust fault system. The principal rupture, on the NW-dipping Beichuan fault, displays nearly equal amounts of thrust and right-lateral slip. Basin-ward of this rupture, another continuous surface break is observed for over 70??km on the parallel, more shallowly NW-dipping Pengguan fault. Slip on this latter fault was pure thrusting, with a maximum scarp height of ~ 3.5??m. This is one of the very few reported instances of crustal-scale co-seismic slip partitioning on parallel thrusts. This out-of-sequence event, with distributed surface breaks on crustal mega-thrusts, highlights regional, ~ EW-directed, present day crustal shortening oblique to the Longmen Shan margin of Tibet. The long rupture and large offsets with strong horizontal shortening that characterize the Wenchuan earthquake herald a re-evaluation of tectonic models anticipating little or no active shortening of the upper crust along this edge of the plateau, and require a re-assessment of seismic hazard along potentially under-rated active faults across the densely populated western Sichuan basin and mountains. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Searching for evidence of a preferred rupture direction in small earthquakes at Parkfield (United States)

    Kane, D. L.; Shearer, P. M.; Allmann, B.; Vernon, F. L.


    Theoretical modeling of strike-slip ruptures along a bimaterial interface suggests that the interface will have a preferred rupture direction and will produce asymmetric ground motion (Shi and Ben-Zion, 2006). This could have widespread implications for earthquake source physics and for hazard analysis on mature faults because larger ground motions would be expected in the direction of rupture propagation. Studies have shown that many large global earthquakes exhibit unilateral rupture, but a consistently preferred rupture direction along faults has not been observed. Some researchers have argued that the bimaterial interface model does not apply to natural faults, noting that the rupture of the M 6 2004 Parkfield earthquake propagated in the opposite direction from previous M 6 earthquakes along that section of the San Andreas Fault (Harris and Day, 2005). We analyze earthquake spectra from the Parkfield area to look for evidence of consistent rupture directivity along the San Andreas Fault. We separate the earthquakes into spatially defined clusters and quantify the differences in high-frequency energy among earthquakes recorded at each station. Propagation path effects are minimized in this analysis because we compare earthquakes located within a small volume and recorded by the same stations. By considering a number of potential end-member models, we seek to determine if a preferred rupture direction is present among small earthquakes at Parkfield.

  2. Rupture process of the 2011 Lorca earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buforn Peiro, E.; Pro Munoz, C.; Cesca, S.; Sanz de Galdeano, C.; Udias Vallina, A.


    The focal mechanism of the Lorca 2011 earthquake has been estimated from the inversion of the seismic moment tensor at regional and P and SH waveforms at tele seismic distances. Results shown a reverse fault with planes oriented in E-W direction and shallow focus (4km). The rupture process may be explained using a extended fault (circular fracture of 2 km radius) and rupture velocity of 2.2 km/s. From this model we have generated velocity and acceleration synthetic records for a range of distances from 20 to 200 km. From joint inversion of these synthetic and observed data we have identify the WSW E NE plane as the rupture plane, with the rupture propagating to the WSW. The 2011 Lorca earthquake is an evidence of the complexity of the region, where we have normal (Lorca, 1977), reverse (Mula, 1999 and Lorca 2011) and strike-slip (Bullas (2002, 2005) motions, while the regional stress pattern corresponds to horizontal N-S compression, with the exception of Lorca 1977 shock. (Author) 9 refs.

  3. Quaternary Slip History for the Agua Blanca Fault, northern Baja California, Mexico (United States)

    Gold, P. O.; Behr, W. M.; Rockwell, T. K.; Fletcher, J. M.


    The Agua Blanca Fault (ABF) is the primary structure accommodating San Andreas-related right-lateral slip across the Peninsular Ranges of northern Baja California. Activity on this fault influences offshore faults that parallel the Pacific coast from Ensenada to Los Angeles and is a potential threat to communities in northern Mexico and southern California. We present a detailed Quaternary slip history for the ABF, including new quantitative constraints on geologic slip rates, slip-per-event, the timing of most recent earthquake, and the earthquake recurrence interval. Cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating of clasts from offset fluvial geomorphic surfaces at 2 sites located along the western, and most active, section of the ABF yield preliminary slip rate estimates of 2-4 mm/yr and 3 mm/yr since 20 ka and 2 ka, respectively. Fault zone geomorphology preserved at the younger site provides evidence for right-lateral surface displacements measuring 2.5 m in the past two ruptures. Luminescence dating of an offset alluvial fan at a third site is in progress, but is expected to yield a slip rate relevant to the past 10 kyr. Adjacent to this third site, we excavated 2 paleoseismic trenches across a sag pond formed by a right step in the fault. Preliminary radiocarbon dates indicate that the 4 surface ruptures identified in the trenches occurred in the past 6 kyr, although additional dating should clarify earthquake timing and the mid-Holocene to present earthquake recurrence interval, as well as the likely date of the most recent earthquake. Our new slip rate estimates are somewhat lower than, but comparable within error to, previous geologic estimates based on soil morphology and geodetic estimates from GPS, but the new record of surface ruptures exposed in the trenches is the most complete and comprehensively dated earthquake history yet determined for this fault. Together with new and existing mapping of tectonically generated geomorphology along the ABF, our constraints

  4. Insights into the internal structure and formation of striated fault surfaces of oceanic detachments from in situ observations (13°20'N and 13°30'N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge) (United States)

    Escartin, J.; Bonnemains, D.; Mevel, C.; Cannat, M.; Petersen, S.; Augustin, N.; Bezos, A.; Chavagnac, V.; Choi, Y.; Godard, M.; Haaga, K.; Hamelin, C.; Ildefonse, B.; Jamieson, J. W.; John, B. E.; Leleu, T.; MacLeod, C. J.; Massot-Campos, M.; Nomikou, P.; Olive, J. A. L.; Paquet, M.; Rommevaux, C.; Rothenbeck, M.; Steinführer, A.; Tominaga, M.; Triebe, L.; Andreani, M.; Garcia, R.; Campos, R.


    Oceanic detachment faults (ODs) are known to play a significant role in oceanic crustal accretion along slow-spreading ridges, and many display a poorly understood corrugated fault surface. The ODEMAR cruise (Nov-Dec'14) studied the 13°20'N and 13°30'N ODs along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge via extensive microbathymetric surveys with AUV ABYSS (GEOMAR), combined with geological observations and sampling using ROV VICTOR (IFREMER). The 13°20'N OD is largely intact, with an undisrupted corrugated surface. An abrupt, continuous moat where the OD emerges from the seafloor sloping at ~12-18° continuously sheds rubble onto the OD fault plane, blanketing it. An apron surrounds the detachment dipping ~10-14° towards volcanic rift valley floor thus forming a thin wedge above the active OD fault, which uplifts hangingwall material. In contrast, the 13°30'N OD is cut by recent high-angle faults, and is likely inactive. The OD fault is well exposed along these recent high angle fault scarps, and along mass wasting scarps. The OD fault displays individual microbathymetric lineations throughout the >150 m of fault zone thickness, that are traced up to ~2 km in the spreading direction. Flanks of individual lineations display fault planes extending ~20-100 m laterally with well-developed, extension-parallel striae. At 13°20'N. These fault surfaces are primarily basalt fault breccias and minor serpentinite. At 13°30'N the scarps cutting the detachment system reveal highly heterogeneous deformation, with phacoidal blocks of undeformed peridotite, gabbro, and basalt enclosed in anastomosing shear zones. Basalt often shows greenschist grade alteration, and is only present in the upper 50 m of the OD fault zone. In detail, OD faults are characterized by anastomosing zones of localized, strongly anisotropic deformation at different scales (m to km), bounding bodies of largely undeformed rock (basalt, gabbro, peridotite) elongated in the extension direction. Hangingwall material

  5. Thoughts Regarding the Dimensions of Faults at Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas, Nye County, Nevada, Based on Surface and Underground Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drellack, S.L.; Prothro, L.B.; Townsend, M.J.; Townsend, D.R.


    The geologic setting and history, along with observations through 50 years of detailed geologic field work, show that large-displacement (i.e., greater than 30 meters of displacement) syn- to post-volcanic faults are rare in the Rainier Mesa area. Faults observed in tunnels and drill holes are mostly tight, with small displacements (most less than 1.5 meters) and small associated damage zones. Faults are much more abundant in the zeolitized tuffs than in the overlying vitric tuffs, and there is little evidence that faults extend downward from the tuff section through the argillic paleocolluvium into pre-Tertiary rocks. The differences in geomechanical characteristics of the various tuff lithologies at Rainier Mesa suggest that most faults on Rainer Mesa are limited to the zeolitic units sandwiched between the overlying vitric bedded tuffs and the underlying pre-Tertiary units (lower carbonate aquifer–3, lower clastic confining unit–1, and Mesozoic granite confining unit).

  6. FOP 2012 stop, Honey Lake fault, Doyle, CA (United States)

    Gold, Ryan; Briggs, Richard W.; Crone, Anthony; Angster, Steve; Seitz, Gordon G.


    The Honey Lake fault system (HLFS) strikes north-northwestward across Long Valley near Doyle, CA and is part of a network of active, dextral strike-slip faults in the northern Walker Lane (Figure 1). Geologic investigations of a right-laterally offset terrace riser along the north bank of Long Valley Creek, which we refer to as site 1 (Figure 2), indicate a latest Quaternary slip rate of 1.1-2. 6 mm/yr [Wills and Borchardt, 1993] and 1.7 ± 0.6 mm/yr [Turner and others, 2008] (Table 1). These studies also document evidence of at least four post-6.8 ka surface-rupturing earthquakes at this site.

  7. Characteristics of the active Luoshan Fault since Late Pleistocene, North Central China

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    M. Fengying


    Full Text Available The Luoshan Fault located at the northeastern margin of Tibet plateau strikes roughly N-S, and is composed of six left-stepping sections with a total length of 60 km. Much evidence suggests that the Luoshan Fault is a reverse right-lateral strike-slip fault. The largest right-lateral strike-slip displacement and the most abundant dextral offset phenomena are located along the central section. Based on the right-lateral strike-slip offsets of the oldest alluvial fan, and of a gully and on the average displacement of the same order of gullies, the minimum slip-rate has been 2.15 ± 0.2 mm/yr since Late Pleistocene. Many surface rupture phenomena, such as fault scarps with fresh free-face, ground fissures, displacements of very young gullies, imply that a recent earthquake occurred along this fault. Combining the historical catalogue and our results, we believe that the 1561 A.D. earthquake was produced by the Luoshan Fault. Three paleoearthquakes were determined by means of paleoseismic studies along the Luoshan Fault: they occurred after 8200 ± 600 years BP, between 3130 ± 240 years BP and 4150 ± ± 120 years C.BP, and before 2230 ± 170 years BP, respectively.

  8. Fault mechanics and post-seismic deformation at Bam, SE Iran (United States)

    Wimpenny, Sam; Copley, Alex; Ingleby, Tom


    The extent to which aseismic deformation relaxes co-seismic stress changes on a fault zone is fundamental to assessing the future seismic hazard following any earthquake, and in understanding the mechanical behaviour of faults. Here we use models of stress-driven afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation, in conjunction with post-seismic InSAR measurements, to show that there has been minimal release of co-seismic stress changes through post-seismic deformation following the 2003 Mw 6.6 Bam earthquake. Our analysis indicates the faults at Bam remain predominantly locked, suggesting that the co- plus interseismically accumulated elastic strain stored downdip of the 2003 rupture patch may be released in a future Mw 6 earthquake. Our observations and models also provide an opportunity to probe the growth of topography at Bam. We find that, for our modelled afterslip distribution to be consistent with forming the sharp step in the local topography over repeated earthquake cycles, and also to be consistent with the geodetic observations, requires either (1) far-field tectonic loading equivalent to a 2-10 MPa deviatoric stress acting across the fault system, which suggests it supports stresses 60-100 times less than classical views of static fault strength, or (2) that the fault surface has some form of mechanical anisotropy, potentially related to corrugations on the fault plane, that controls the sense of slip.

  9. Seismic hazard in low slip rate crustal faults, estimating the characteristic event and the most hazardous zone: study case San Ramón Fault, in southern Andes (United States)

    Estay, Nicolás P.; Yáñez, Gonzalo; Carretier, Sebastien; Lira, Elias; Maringue, José


    Crustal faults located close to cities may induce catastrophic damages. When recurrence times are in the range of 1000-10 000 or higher, actions to mitigate the effects of the associated earthquake are hampered by the lack of a full seismic record, and in many cases, also of geological evidences. In order to characterize the fault behavior and its effects, we propose three different already-developed time-integration methodologies to define the most likely scenarios of rupture, and then to quantify the hazard with an empirical equation of peak ground acceleration (PGA). We consider the following methodologies: (1) stream gradient and (2) sinuosity indexes to estimate fault-related topographic effects, and (3) gravity profiles across the fault to identify the fault scarp in the basement. We chose the San Ramón Fault on which to apply these methodologies. It is a ˜ 30 km N-S trending fault with a low slip rate (0.1-0.5 mm yr-1) and an approximated recurrence of 9000 years. It is located in the foothills of the Andes near the large city of Santiago, the capital of Chile (> 6 000 000 inhabitants). Along the fault trace we define four segments, with a mean length of ˜ 10 km, which probably become active independently. We tested the present-day seismic activity by deploying a local seismological network for 1 year, finding five events that are spatially related to the fault. In addition, fault geometry along the most evident scarp was imaged in terms of its electrical resistivity response by a high resolution TEM (transient electromagnetic) profile. Seismic event distribution and TEM imaging allowed the constraint of the fault dip angle (˜ 65°) and its capacity to break into the surface. Using the empirical equation of Chiou and Youngs (2014) for crustal faults and considering the characteristic seismic event (thrust high-angle fault, ˜ 10 km, Mw = 6.2-6.7), we estimate the acceleration distribution in Santiago and the hazardous zones. City domains that are under

  10. Rupture of primigravid uterus and recurrent rupture

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    Nahreen Akhtar


    Full Text Available Uterine rupture is a deadly obstetrical emergency endangering the life of both mother and fetus. In Bangladesh, majority of deliveries arc attended by unskilled traditional birth attendant and maternal mortality is still quite high. It is rare Ln developed country but unfortunately it is common in a developing country like Bangladesh. We report a case history of a patient age 32yrs from Daudkandi, Comilla admitted with H/0 previous two rupture uterus and repair with no living issue. We did caesarean section at her 31+ weeks of pregnancy when she developed Jabour pain. A baby of 1.4 kg was delivered. During cesarean section, focal rupture was noted in previous scar of rupture. Unfortunately the baby expired in neonatal ICU after 36 hours.

  11. Reconstructing the paleoseismic history of the Priene-Sazli Fault using 36Cl cosmogenic nuclide dating method, Western Anatolia, Turkey (United States)

    Mozafari Amiri, Nasim; Sümer, Ökmen; Tikhomirov, Dmitry; Özkaymak, Çaǧlar; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Uzel, Bora; Vockenhuber, Christof; Sözbilir, Hasan; Akçar, Naki


    The 300-km wide West Anatolian Extensional Province is one of the regions of intense seismic activity in the world within the Alpine-Himalayan belt. Deformation pattern in the area is controlled by three major E-W trending graben systems of Gediz, Küçük Menderes and Büyük Menderes which have been formed as a result of roughly N-S extensional tectonic regime since the early Miocene. These graben systems show evidences of surface faulting during the Pleistocene-Holocene and are geomorphologically characterized by well-exposed limestone normal fault scarps with a relief of tens of meters and well-preserved slickenlines. Since limestones are resistant to weathering, the limestone scarps can efficiently record several past earthquakes. Cosmogenic 36Cl is the only element to identify and date the rupture events. Each rupture causes exposure of previously buried section of the scarp to the surface. Accordingly, due to being well enough exposed to cosmic rays, accumulation of 36Cl accelerates during period of quiescence. Thus, distribution of measured 36Cl concentrations can be applied to investigate periods of seismic activity and inactivity and also to calculate the vertical displacement along the fault plane in association with each rupture. In this study, we focus on the Priene-Sazli Fault, located on the most western part of Büyük Menderes graben. Along the active fault zone, well exposed archaeological sites (e.g. Priene) have been discovered, where destructive historical earthquakes have left evidence of ancient damages in the historical period and during the 20th century. The Priene-Sazli Fault caused the July 16, 1955 Söke-Balat earthquake (M=6.8) with fault-plane solution indicating of normal southeast downthrow along with subsidiary dextral motion. We collected 117 samples from four continuous strips on the Priene-Sazli Fault to measure 36Cl concentrations. We used a new Matlab code to identify the significant ruptures and their timing. Our preliminary

  12. Velocity Structure of the Alpine Fault Zone, New Zealand: Laboratory and Log-Based Fault Rock Acoustic Properties at Elevated Pressures (United States)

    Jeppson, T.; Graham, J. L., II; Tobin, H. J.; Paris Cavailhes, J.; Celerier, B. P.; Doan, M. L.; Nitsch, O.; Massiot, C.


    The elastic properties of fault zone rocks at seismogenic depth play a key role in rupture nucleation, propagation, and damage associated with fault slip. In order to understand the seismic hazard posed by a fault we need to both measure these properties and understand how they govern that particular fault's behavior. The Alpine Fault is the principal component of the active transpressional plate boundary through the South Island of New Zealand. Rapid exhumation along the fault provides an opportunity to study near-surface rocks that have experienced similar histories to those currently deforming at mid-crustal depths. In this study, we examine the acoustic properties of the Alpine Fault in Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP)-1 drill core samples and borehole logs from the shallow fault zone, DFDP-2 borehole logs from the hanging wall, and outcrop samples from a number of field localities along the central Alpine Fault. P- and S-wave velocities were measured at ultrasonic frequencies on saturated 2.5 cm-diameter core plugs taken from DFDP-1 core and outcrops. Sampling focused on mylonites, cataclasites, and fault gouge from both the hanging and foot walls of the fault in order to provide a 1-D seismic velocity transect across the entire fault zone. Velocities were measured over a range of effective pressures between 1 and 68 MPa to determine the variation in acoustic properties with depth and pore pressure. When possible, samples were cut in three orthogonal directions and S-waves were measured in two polarization directions on all samples to constrain velocity anisotropy. XRD and petrographic characterization were used to examine how fault-related alteration and deformation change the composition and texture of the rock, and to elucidate how these changes affect the measured velocities. The ultrasonic velocities were compared to sonic logs from DFDP to examine the potential effects of frequency dispersion, brittle deformation, and temperature on the measured

  13. Holocene slip rates along the San Andreas Fault System in the San Gorgonio Pass and implications for large earthquakes in southern California (United States)

    Heermance, Richard V.; Yule, Doug


    The San Gorgonio Pass (SGP) in southern California contains a 40 km long region of structural complexity where the San Andreas Fault (SAF) bifurcates into a series of oblique-slip faults with unknown slip history. We combine new 10Be exposure ages (Qt4: 8600 (+2100, -2200) and Qt3: 5700 (+1400, -1900) years B.P.) and a radiocarbon age (1260 ± 60 years B.P.) from late Holocene terraces with scarp displacement of these surfaces to document a Holocene slip rate of 5.7 (+2.7, -1.5) mm/yr combined across two faults. Our preferred slip rate is 37-49% of the average slip rates along the SAF outside the SGP (i.e., Coachella Valley and San Bernardino sections) and implies that strain is transferred off the SAF in this area. Earthquakes here most likely occur in very large, throughgoing SAF events at a lower recurrence than elsewhere on the SAF, so that only approximately one third of SAF ruptures penetrate or originate in the pass.Plain Language SummaryHow large are earthquakes on the southern San Andreas Fault? The answer to this question depends on whether or not the earthquake is contained only along individual fault sections, such as the Coachella Valley section north of Palm Springs, or the rupture crosses multiple sections including the area through the San Gorgonio Pass. We have determined the age and offset of faulted stream deposits within the San Gorgonio Pass to document slip rates of these faults over the last 10,000 years. Our results indicate a long-term slip rate of 6 mm/yr, which is almost 1/2 of the rates east and west of this area. These new rates, combined with faulted geomorphic surfaces, imply that large magnitude earthquakes must occasionally rupture a 300 km length of the San Andreas Fault from the Salton Sea to the Mojave Desert. Although many ( 65%) earthquakes along the southern San Andreas Fault likely do not rupture through the pass, our new results suggest that large >Mw 7.5 earthquakes are possible on the southern San Andreas Fault and likely

  14. Subsurface structures of the active reverse fault zones in Japan inferred from gravity anomalies. (United States)

    Matsumoto, N.; Sawada, A.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Okada, S.; Tanaka, T.; Honda, R.


    The object of our study is to examine subsurface features such as continuity, segmentation and faulting type, of the active reverse fault zones. We use the gravity data published by the Gravity Research Group in Southwest Japan (2001), the Geographical Survey Institute (2006), Yamamoto et al. (2011), Honda et al. (2012), and the Geological Survey of Japan, AIST (2013) in this study. We obtained the Bouguer anomalies through terrain corrections with 10 m DEM (Sawada et al. 2015) under the assumed density of 2670 kg/m3, a band-pass filtering, and removal of linear trend. Several derivatives and structural parameters calculated from a gravity gradient tensor are applied to highlight the features, such as a first horizontal derivatives (HD), a first vertical derivatives (VD), a normalized total horizontal derivative (TDX), a dip angle (β), and a dimensionality index (Di). We analyzed 43 reverse fault zones in northeast Japan and the northern part of southwest Japan among major active fault zones selected by Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion. As the results, the subsurface structural boundaries clearly appear along the faults at 21 faults zones. The weak correlations appear at 13 fault zones, and no correlations are recognized at 9 fault zones. For example, in the Itoigawa-Shizuoka tectonic line, the subsurface structure boundary seems to extend further north than the surface trace. Also, a left stepping structure of the fault around Hakuba is more clearly observed with HD. The subsurface structures, which detected as the higher values of HD, are distributed on the east side of the surface rupture in the north segments and on the west side in the south segments, indicating a change of the dip direction, the east dipping to the west dipping, from north to south. In the Yokote basin fault zone, the subsurface structural boundary are clearly detected with HD, VD and TDX along the fault zone in the north segment, but less clearly in the south segment. Also, Di

  15. Seismic rupture process of the 2010 Haiti Earthquake (Mw7.0) inferred from seismic and SAR data (United States)

    Santos, Rúben; Caldeira, Bento; Borges, José; Bezzeghoud, Mourad


    On January 12th 2010 at 21:53, the Port-au-Prince - Haiti region was struck by an Mw7 earthquake, the second most deadly of the history. The last seismic significant events in the region occurred in November 1751 and June 1770 [1]. Geodetic and geological studies, previous to the 2010 earthquake [2] have warned to the potential of the destructive seismic events in that region and this event has confirmed those warnings. Some aspects of the source of this earthquake are nonconsensual. There is no agreement in the mechanism of rupture or correlation with the fault that should have it generated [3]. In order to better understand the complexity of this rupture, we combined several techniques and data of different nature. We used teleseismic body-wave and Synthetic Aperture Radar data (SAR) based on the following methodology: 1) analysis of the rupture process directivity [4] to determine the velocity and direction of rupture; 2) teleseismic body-wave inversion to obtain the spatiotemporal fault slip distribution and a detailed rupture model; 3) near field surface deformation modeling using the calculated seismic rupture model and compared with the measured deformation field using SAR data of sensor Advanced Land Observing Satellite - Phased Array L-band SAR (ALOS-PALSAR). The combined application of seismic and geodetic data reveals a complex rupture that spread during approximately 12s mainly from WNW to ESE with average velocity of 2,5km/s, on a north-dipping fault plane. Two main asperities are obtained: the first (and largest) occurs within the first ~ 5sec and extends for approximately 6km around the hypocenter; the second one, that happens in the remaining 6s, covers a near surface rectangular strip with about 12km long by 3km wide. The first asperity is compatible with a left lateral strike-slip motion with a small reverse component; the mechanism of second asperity is predominantly reverse. The obtained rupture process allows modeling a coseismic deformation

  16. Late Pleistocene-Holocene paleoseismology of the Batang fault (central Tibet plateau, China) (United States)

    Huang, Xuemeng; Du, Yi; He, Zhongtai; Ma, Baoqi; Xie, Furen


    The Yushu segment of the Ganzi-Yushu fault system (central Tibet plateau) is mainly composed by the Yushu fault and the Batang fault. The 2010 Ms 7.1 Yushu earthquake occurred on the Yushu fault, causing huge loss of lives and widespread damages to the densely populated Yushu area. So far, much effort has been devoted to the surface rupture and paleoseismology of the Yushu fault, while the late Quaternary activity of the Batang fault has not received much attention. The Batang fault has a clear geomorphic expression with fault scarps, sag ponds, push-ups, systematic offset of fluvial terraces, and alluvial fans along its trace. Integrated methods of geomorphological mapping, outcrop analysis, trench excavation and logging, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), and radiocarbon (14C) dating are employed to study the latest Pleistocene and Holocene paleoseismology of the Batang fault. Several paleoearthquakes are identified from geomorphic and stratigraphic evidence between 22 ka and after 2.7 ka. The oldest event (E1) occurred after 22 ka BP, E2 prior to 14 ka BP, E3 within 14 and 9.5 ka BP, E4 within 8.0-7.8 ka BP, E5 prior to 6.7 ka BP, the penultimate event (E6) occurred within 4.3-4.0 ka BP, and the most recent event (E7) occurred after 2.7 ka BP. The average recurrence interval of paleoearthquakes for the Batang fault is about 2000 a in the last ~ 8 ka BP, and the relapse time of the latest paleoearthquake is Empirical equations between co-seismic displacement and earthquake magnitude reveal that the average magnitude of these events is about 7.3. This study contributes important information for the seismic hazard assessment of the densely populated Yushu area.

  17. Modelling of Earthquake History of the Knidos Fault Zone SW Turkey Using in-situ 36Cl Surface Exposure Dating by R (United States)

    Sahin, S.; Yıldırım, C.; Sarıkaya, M. A.; Tuysuz, O.; Genç, S. C.; Aksoy, M. E.; Doksanaltı, M. E.; Benedetti, L.


    Cosmogenic surface exposure dating is based on the production of rare nuclides in exposed rocks, which interact with cosmic rays. Through modelling of measured 36Cl concentrations, we might obtain information of the history of the earthquake activity. Yet, there are several factors which may impact production of rare nuclides such as geometry of fault, topography, geographic location of study area, temporal variations of the Earth's magnetic field, self-cover and denudation rate on the scarp. Our study area, the Knidos Fault Zone, is located on the Datça Peninsula in the Southwestern Anatolia and contains several normal fault scarps formed within the limestone, which are appropriate to apply cosmogenic chlorine-36 dating. Since it has a well-preserved scarp, we have focused on the Mezarlık Segment of the fault zone, which has an average length of 300 m and height 12-15 m. 128 continuous samples from top to bottom of the fault scarp were collected to carry out analysis of cosmic 36Cl isotopes concentrations. Recent research elucidated each step of the application of this method by the Matlab (e.g. Schlagenhauf et al., 2010). It is vitally helpful to generate models activity of normal faults. We, however, wanted to build a user-friendly program through an open source programing language R that might be able to help those without knowledge of complex math, programming, making calculations as easy as possible. We have set out to obtain accurate conclusions to compare and contrast our results with synthetic profiles and previous studies of limestone fault scarps. The preliminary results indicate at least three major or more earthquakes/earthquakes cluster events occurred on the Mezarlık fault within the past 20 kyr; over 10 meters of displacement took place between early Holocene and late Pleistocene. Estimated ages of those three large slip events are 18.7, 15.1 and 10.8 ka respectively. This study was conducted with the Decision of the Council of Ministers with No

  18. Missing link between the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults (United States)

    Watt, Janet; Ponce, David A.; Parsons, Thomas E.; Hart, Patrick E.


    The next major earthquake to strike the ~7 million residents of the San Francisco Bay Area will most likely result from rupture of the Hayward or Rodgers Creek faults. Until now, the relationship between these two faults beneath San Pablo Bay has been a mystery. Detailed subsurface imaging provides definitive evidence of active faulting along the Hayward fault as it traverses San Pablo Bay and bends ~10° to the right toward the Rodgers Creek fault. Integrated geophysical interpretation and kinematic modeling show that the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults are directly connected at the surface—a geometric relationship that has significant implications for earthquake dynamics and seismic hazard. A direct link enables simultaneous rupture of the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults, a scenario that could result in a major earthquake (M = 7.4) that would cause extensive damage and loss of life with global economic impact.

  19. Coseismic ruptures of the 14/11/2001, Mw=7.8 Kokoxili earthquake near Hongshui Gou (United States)

    Li, H.; Qi, X.; Zhu, Y.; Yang, J.; Klinger, Y.; Tapponnier, P.; van der Woerd, J.


    Field investigation of the Mw7.8, Kokoxili earthquake rupture near Hongshui Gou (92.2E), a site with prominent fluvial riser offsets long identified on SPOT images, reveals spectacular surface deformation. The earthquake surface break is mostly single-stranded, and characterized by a 10m wide zone of en échelon tension cracks that reflects nearly pure sinistral slip. Shallow north-dipping thrusts are observed in the interfluve and on the west-facing slope of the highest, oldest terrace riser. Incision by the river exposes the steep, geological fault contact in section, which juxtaposes Neogene red beds capped by terraces, to the south, with ancient Quaternary conglomerates to the north. The Neogene rocks are shistosed, and intensely sheared along the fault, together with the Quaternary beds. The gouge thus produced is being studied in thin sections and dated. Strong ground shaking caused parts of the steepest risers to collapse near the fault, creating parallel scarps, akin to normal faults, parallel to fluvial incision and perpendicular to the rupture. Such collapse makes it more difficult to measure the coseismic offset, but the fresh displacement of the youngest terrace risers across the Hongshui Gou confluence is between 3 and 5m. Young rill channels on the terrace surfaces east and west of Hongshui Gou show comparable offsets of 4 to 6.5 m. The highest riser on the left bank of the river is offset about 30m, while large stream channels incising the terrace surfaces farther east are offset by as much as 50 and 100m. Dating of the different terrace surfaces should constrain the local slip rate and average recurrence time of events comparable to that of November 2001.

  20. Late Quaternary paleoseismology of the Milin fault: Implications for active tectonics along the Yarlung Zangbo Suture, Southeastern Tibet Plateau (United States)

    Li, Kang; Xu, Xiwei; Kirby, Eric; Tang, Fangtou; Kang, Wenjun


    How the eastward motion of crust in the central Tibetan Plateau is accommodated in the remote regions of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis remains uncertain. Although the Yarlung Zangbo suture (YZS) forms a striking lineament in the topography of the region, evidence for recent faulting along this zone has been equivocal. To understand whether faults along the YZS are active, we performed a geological investigation along the eastern segments of the YZS. Geomorphic observations suggest the presence of active faulting along several segments of the YZS, which we collectively refer to as the "Milin fault". Paleoseismologic data from trenches reveal evidence for one faulting event, which is constrained to occur between 5620 and 1945 a BP. The latest faulting event displaced alluvial surface T2 by 7 m. The offset on this earthquake place the minimum value on the vertical slip rate of 0.3 mm/yr. Empirical relationships between surface rupture length, displacement and magnitude, suggest that magnitude of the latest event could have been Mw 7.3-7.7. On the basis of this slip rate and the elapsed time since the last event, it is estimated that a seismic moment equivalent to Mw 7.0 has been accumulated on the Milin fault. It is pose a threat to the surrounding region. Our results suggest that shortening occurs in the vicinity of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, and part of eastward motion of crust from the central Tibetan Plateau is absorbed by uplift of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis.

  1. Late Quaternary paleoearthquakes along the northern segment of the Nantinghe fault on the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Sun, Haoyue; He, Honglin; Wei, Zhanyu; Shi, Feng; Gao, Wei


    The strong earthquake behaviors of faults are significant for learning crustal deformation mechanisms and for assessing regional seismic risk. To date, faults that bound tectonic blocks have attracted considerable concern and many studies; however, scant attention has been paid to faults within blocks that can also host devastating earthquakes. The Nantinghe fault is a left-lateral strike-slip fault within the Southwestern Yunnan Block, and it slips at ∼4 mm/yr suggesting strong activity in the late Quaternary. Nevertheless, no earthquake greater than 6 has ever been recorded along it, except for the 1941 M ∼7 earthquake near the Myanmar-China border region. In contrast, many earthquakes have occurred in the near region, delineating a seismic gap near the Nantinghe fault. Although several studies have been conducted upon it, the activity of its northern segment is confusing, and whether this fault segment has loaded sufficient stress to fail remains debatable. Furthermore, previous work failed to conduct any paleoseismological studies bringing out great uncertainty in learning its activity and faulting behavior, as well as in assessing the regional seismic risk. To solve these problems, we mapped the fault traces utilizing high-resolution satellite images and aerial photographs, and conducted three paleoseismological trenches along the northern segment of the Nantinghe fault. The trench excavations revealed a ∼45,000-year incomplete paleoearthquake history and confirmed that this fault segment has been active since the late Pleistocene but was not ruptured during the 1941 earthquake. Additionally, at least five paleoearthquakes are identified with their respective age ranges of before 39,030 BCE; 38,500-37,220 BCE; 28,475-5445 BCE; 3535 BCE-800 CE; and 1320-1435 CE based on radiocarbon dating. Among the paleoearthquakes, the latest is suggested to have generated a surface rupture much longer than 14 km with a magnitude likely up to Ms 7.0. Furthermore, based

  2. Paleoseismology of the 1966 Varto Earthquake (Ms 6.8) and Structure of the Varto Fault Zone, Eastern Turkey (United States)

    Isik, V.; Caglayan, A.; Saber, R.; Yesilyurt, N.


    Turkey is a region of active faulting and contains several strike-slip fault zones, which have generated both historical and recent large earthquakes. Two active fault zones in Turkey, the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) and the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ), divide the area into the Anatolian micro-plate accommodating WSW-directed movement. The southeastern continuation of the NAFZ is often referred to the Varto Fault Zone (VFZ). The VFZ cuts mainly Pliocene volcano-sedimentary units and/or Quaternary deposits and is characterized by multiple fault strands and multiple, closely spaced, active seismogenic zones. Fault motions in the zone are primarily right-lateral, with a subordinate component of NNW-SSE shortening. Study area is Varto region in which indications of active faulting are very well preserved. We recognized three coseismic ruptures from five trench exposures. It is referred to these as events 1 (youngest) through 3 (oldest). The best evidence of event 3 comes from fault traces and its upward terminations. The major components of this fault are fault core and damage zone. The fault is not just one plane of discontinuity and bifurcates and creates additional slip surfaces, which propagate out of the plane of the original fault. Event 2 and event 1, referring to 1946 and 1966 earthquakes, are characterized primarily by discrete, regularly spaced normal faults with and 55-80 cm and 105-270 cm throws, respectively and geometry of growth strata. The VFZ in the study area include typical structures of strike-slip fault zone. It forms a number of parallel and slightly sub-parallel strands striking N50°-72°W including contractional and extensional brittle structures. Several meters to tens of meters wavelength active folds with ENE-WSW and WNW-ESE trending fold axis. These folds deform the Plio-Quaternary units and show classic asymmetry associated with both a south- and north-vergent fault propagation fold. Meso-scale normal faults are also well

  3. Slip deficit on the san andreas fault at parkfield, california, as revealed by inversion of geodetic data. (United States)

    Segall, P; Harris, R


    A network of geodetic lines spanning the San Andreas fault near the rupture zone of the 1966 Parkfield, California, earthquake (magnitude M = 6) has been repeatedly surveyed since 1959. In the study reported here the average rates of line-length change since 1966 were inverted to determine the distribution of interseismic slip rate on the fault. These results indicate that the Parkfield rupture surface has not slipped significantly since 1966. Comparison of the geodetically determined seismic moment of the 1966 earthquake with the interseismic slip-deficit rate suggests that the strain released by the latest shock will most likely be restored between 1984 and 1989, although this may not occur until 1995. These results lend independent support to the earlier forecast of an M = 6 earthquake near Parkfield within 5 years of 1988.

  4. Comparison between hydroacoustical and terrestrial evidence of glacially induced faulting, Lake Voxsjön, central Sweden (United States)

    Smith, Colby A.; Nyberg, Johan; Bergman, Björn


    The recent availability of a terrestrial high-resolution digital elevation model in Sweden has led to the discovery of previously unknown scarps believed to be associated with bedrock faults that ruptured to the surface during the Holocene. Field investigations, however, are required to confirm these findings and determine the timing of post-glacial seismicity. Here, we present results from a unique hybrid approach, where hydroacoustical data from the sediments of Lake Voxsjön are compared to stratigraphic and geomorphologic records from nearby terrestrial settings. The hydroacoustical data are largely consistent with the terrestrial data indicating a single fault rupture shortly after deglaciation, which occurred about 11,000-10,500 cal BP.

  5. Faults Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Through the study of faults and their effects, much can be learned about the size and recurrence intervals of earthquakes. Faults also teach us about crustal...

  6. Microstructures Indicate Large Influence of Temperature and Fluid Pressure on the Reactivation of the Alpine Fault, New Zealand (United States)

    Schuck, B.; Janssen, C.; Schleicher, A.; Toy, V.; Dresen, G.


    The transpressional Alpine Fault within New Zealand's South Island is the major structure that accommodates relative motion between the Pacific and the Australian Plates. It has been intensively studied, because it is late in its 291-year seismic cycle (Cochran et al., 2017; doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2017.02.026), is likely to generate large (i.e. MW > 8) earthquakes, thus presents the biggest seismic hazard in the region. However, because it is severely misoriented in the present-day stress field for reactivation (Boese et al., 2013; doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2013.06.030), supra-lithostatic fluid-pressures are required for rupture nucleation. We have analyzed microstructures (SEM and TEM), geochemistry (ICP-OES) and mineralogy (XRD) of outcrop samples of the fault core to investigate the influence of fluids on the geomechanical behavior of the fault. Fluid-related alteration is pervasive within 20 m of the principal slip zone (PSZ) (Sutherland et al., 2012; doi: 10.1130/G33614.1), which is an incohesive, cemented and repeatedly reworked fault gouge mostly consisting of a fine-grained matrix composed of comminuted detrital quartz and feldspar as well as authigenic chlorite and calcite. Authigenic phases seal the PSZ for interseismic cross-fault fluid flow and enable fluid pressure to build-up. Notable, smectite, previously considered to significantly influence propagation of Alpine Fault ruptures, is not present in these samples. Undeformed, euhedral chlorite grains suggest that the processes leading to fault sealing are not only active at greater depths but also close to the surface. The absence of smectite and the presence of undeformed chlorite at very shallow depths can be attributed to the fault's high geothermal gradient of > 120 °C km-1 (Sutherland et al., 2012; doi:10.1038/nature22355), which gives temperature conditions unfavorable for smectite to be stable and fostering chlorite growth. A pervasive network of anastomosing calcite veins in the fault core, depicting

  7. Map of the Rinconada and Reliz Fault Zones, Salinas River Valley, California (United States)

    Rosenberg, Lewis I.; Clark, Joseph C.


    The Rinconada Fault and its related faults constitute a major structural element of the Salinas River valley, which is known regionally, and referred to herein, as the 'Salinas Valley'. The Rinconada Fault extends 230 km from King City in the north to the Big Pine Fault in the south. At the south end of the map area near Santa Margarita, the Rinconada Fault separates granitic and metamorphic crystalline rocks of the Salinian Block to the northeast from the subduction-zone assemblage of the Franciscan Complex to the southwest. Northwestward, the Rinconada Fault lies entirely within the Salinian Block and generally divides this region into two physiographically and structurally distinct areas, the Santa Lucia Range to the west and the Salinas Valley to the east. The Reliz Fault, which continues as a right stepover from the Rinconada Fault, trends northwestward along the northeastern base of the Sierra de Salinas of the Santa Lucia Range and beyond for 60 km to the vicinity of Spreckels, where it is largely concealed. Aeromagnetic data suggest that the Reliz Fault continues northwestward another 25 km into Monterey Bay, where it aligns with a high-definition magnetic boundary. Geomorphic evidence of late Quaternary movement along the Rinconada and Reliz Fault Zones has been documented by Tinsley (1975), Dibblee (1976, 1979), Hart (1976, 1985), and Klaus (1999). Although definitive geologic evidence of Holocene surface rupture has not been found on these faults, they were regarded as an earthquake source for the California Geological Survey [formerly, California Division of Mines and Geology]/U.S. Geological Survey (CGS/USGS) Probabilistic Seismic Hazards Assessment because of their postulated slip rate of 1+-1 mm/yr and their calculated maximum magnitude of 7.3. Except for published reports by Durham (1965, 1974), Dibblee (1976), and Hart (1976), most information on these faults is unpublished or is contained in theses, field trip guides, and other types of reports

  8. Seismic Evidence for Conjugate Slip and Block Rotation Within the San Andreas Fault System, Southern California (United States)

    Nicholson, Craig; Seeber, Leonardo; Williams, Patrick; Sykes, Lynn R.


    The pattern of seismicity in southern California indicates that much of the activity is presently occurring on secondary structures, several of which are oriented nearly orthogonal to the strikes of the major through-going faults. Slip along these secondary transverse features is predominantly left-lateral and is consistent with the reactivation of conjugate faults by the current regional stress field. Near the intersection of the San Jacinto and San Andreas faults, however, these active left-lateral faults appear to define a set of small crustal blocks, which in conjunction with both normal and reverse faulting earthquakes, suggests contemporary clockwise rotation as a result of regional right-lateral shear. Other left-lateral faults representing additional rotating block systems are identified in adjacent areas from geologic and seismologic data. Many of these structures predate the modern San Andreas system and may control the pattern of strain accumulation in southern California. Geodetic and paleomagnetic evidence confirm that block rotation by strike-slip faulting is nearly ubiquitous, particularly in areas where shear is distributed, and that it accommodates both short-term elastic and long-term nonelastic strain. A rotating block model accounts for a number of structural styles characteristic of strike-slip deformation in California, including: variable slip rates and alternating transtensional and transpressional features observed along strike of major wrench faults; domains of evenly-spaced antithetic faults that terminate against major fault boundaries; continued development of bends in faults with large lateral displacements; anomalous focal mechanisms; and differential uplift in areas otherwise expected to experience extension and subsidence. Since block rotation requires a detachment surface at depth to permit rotational movement, low-angle structures like detachments, of either local or regional extent, may be involved in the contemporary strike

  9. A missing-link in the tectonic configuration of the Almacık Block along the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NW Turkey): Active faulting in the Bolu plain based on seismic reflection studies (United States)

    Seyitoğlu, Gürol; Ecevitoğlu, Berkan; Kaypak, Bülent; Esat, Korhan; Çağlayan, Ayşe; Gündoğdu, Oğuz; Güney, Yücel; Işık, Veysel; Pekkan, Emrah; Tün, Muammer; Avdan, Uğur


    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) starts to branch off in the western Bolu plain. The branches of the NAFZ in this location create the Almacık block which is surrounded by the latest surface ruptures of significant earthquakes that occurred between 1944 and 1999, but its northeastern part remains unruptured. The most recently formed rupture, that was a result of the 1999 November 12 Düzce earthquake, ended to the northwest of the Bakacak Fault. The connection between the Bakacak Fault and the main branch of the NAFZ via the Bolu plain has until now remained unknown. This paper establishes that the route of the missing link runs through the Dağkent, Kasaplar and Bürnük faults, a finding achieved with the help of seismic reflection studies. The paper also argues that the cross cutting nature of these newly determined faults and a stress analysis based on focal mechanism solutions of recent earthquakes demonstrate the termination of the suggested pull-apart nature of the Bolu plain.

  10. Slip-weakening distance and energy budget inferred from near-fault ground deformation during the 2016 Mw7.8 Kaikōura earthquake (United States)

    Kaneko, Yoshihiro; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Hamling, Ian James


    The 2016 M7.8 Kaikōura (New Zealand) earthquake struck the east coast of the northern South Island, resulting in strong ground shaking and large surface fault slip. Since the earthquake was well recorded by a local strong-motion seismic network, near-fault data may provide direct measurements of dynamic parameters associated with the fault-weakening process. Here we estimate a proxy for slip-weakening distance Dc '', defined as double the fault-parallel displacement at the time of peak ground velocity, from accelerograms recorded at a near-fault station. Three-component ground displacements were recovered from the double numerical integration of accelerograms, and the corresponding final displacements are validated against coseismic displacement from geodetic data. The estimated Dc '' is 4.9 m at seismic station KEKS located ˜2.7 km from a segment of the Kekerengu fault where large surface fault slip (˜12 m) has been observed. The inferred Dc '' is the largest value ever estimated from near-fault strong motion data, yet it appears to follow the scaling of Dc '' with final slip for several large strike-slip earthquakes. The energy budget of the M7.8 Kaikōura earthquake inferred from the scaling of Dc '' with final slip indicates that a large amount of energy was dissipated by on- and off-fault inelastic deformation during the propagation of the earthquake rupture, resulting in a slower average rupture speed (≲2.0 km/s).

  11. High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Imaging of the Reelfoot Fault, New Madrid, Missouri (United States)

    Rosandich, B.; Harris, J. B.; Woolery, E. W.


    Earthquakes in the Lower Mississippi Valley are mainly concentrated in the New Madrid Seismic Zone and are associated with reactivated faults of the Reelfoot Rift. Determining the relationship between the seismogenic faults (in crystalline basement rocks) and deformation at the Earth's surface and in the shallow subsurface has remained an active research topic for decades. An integrated seismic data set, including compressional (P-) wave and shear (S-) wave seismic reflection profiles, was collected in New Madrid, Missouri, across the "New Madrid" segment of the Reelfoot Fault, whose most significant rupture produced the M 7.5, February 7, 1812, New Madrid earthquake. The seismic reflection profiles (215 m long) were centered on the updip projection of the fault, which is associated with a surface drainage feature (Des Cyprie Slough) located at the base of a prominent east-facing escarpment. The seismic reflection profiles were collected using 48-channel (P-wave) and 24-channel (S-wave) towable landsteamer acquisition equipment. Seismic energy was generated by five vertical impacts of a 1.8-kg sledgehammer on a small aluminum plate for the P-wave data and five horizontal impacts of the sledgehammer on a 10-kg steel I-beam for the S-wave data. Interpretation of the profiles shows a west-dipping reverse fault (Reelfoot Fault) that propagates upward from Paleozoic sedimentary rocks (>500 m deep) to near-surface Quaternary sediments (<10 m deep). The hanging wall of the fault is anticlinally folded, a structural setting almost identical to that imaged on the Kentucky Bend and Reelfoot Lake segments (of the Reelfoot Fault) to the south.

  12. Imaging Shear Strength Along Subduction Faults (United States)

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.


    Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.

  13. Imaging shear strength along subduction faults (United States)

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.


    Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.

  14. New constraints on the rupture process of the 1999 August 17 Izmit earthquake deduced from estimates of stress glut rate moments (United States)

    Clévédé, E.; Bouin, M.-P.; Bukchin, B.; Mostinskiy, A.; Patau, G.


    This paper illustrates the use of integral estimates given by the stress glut rate moments of total degree 2 for constraining the rupture scenario of a large earthquake in the particular case of the 1999 Izmit mainshock. We determine the integral estimates of the geometry, source duration and rupture propagation given by the stress glut rate moments of total degree 2 by inverting long-period surface wave (LPSW) amplitude spectra. Kinematic and static models of the Izmit earthquake published in the literature are quite different from one another. In order to extract the characteristic features of this event, we calculate the same integral estimates directly from those models and compare them with those deduced from our inversion. While the equivalent rupture zone and the eastward directivity are consistent among all models, the LPSW solution displays a strong unilateral character of the rupture associated with a short rupture duration that is not compatible with the solutions deduced from the published models. With the aim of understand this discrepancy, we use simple equivalent kinematic models to reproduce the integral estimates of the considered rupture processes (including ours) by adjusting a few free parameters controlling the western and eastern parts of the rupture. We show that the joint analysis of the LPSW solution and source tomographies allows us to elucidate the scattering of source processes published for this earthquake and to discriminate between the models. Our results strongly suggest that (1) there was significant moment released on the eastern segment of the activated fault system during the Izmit earthquake; (2) the apparent rupture velocity decreases on this segment.

  15. Rupture parameters of the 2003 Zemmouri (Mw 6.8), Algeria, earthquake from joint inversion of interferometric synthetic aperture radar, coastal uplift, and GPS (United States)

    Belabbes, S.; Wicks, Charles; Cakir, Z.; Meghraoui, M.


    We study the surface deformation associated with the 21 May 2003 (M w = 6.8) Zemmouri (Algeria) earthquake, the strongest seismic event felt in the Algiers region since 1716. The thrust earthquake mechanism and related surface deformation revealed an average 0.50 m coastal uplift along ??55-km-long coastline. We obtain coseismic interferograms using Envisat advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR) (IS2) and RADARSAT standard beam (ST4) data from both the ascending and descending orbits of Envisat satellite, whereas the RADARSAT data proved useful only in the descending mode. While the two RADARSAT interferograms cover the earthquake area, Envisat data cover only the western half of the rupture zone. Although the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) coherence in the epicenter area is poor, deformation fringes are observed along the coast in different patches. In the Boumerdes area, the maximum coseismic deformation is indicated by the high gradient of fringes visible in all interferograms in agreement with field measurements (tape, differential GPS, leveling, and GPS). To constrain the earthquake rupture parameters, we model the interferograms and uplift measurements using elastic dislocations on triangular fault patches in an elastic and homogeneous half-space. We invert the coseismic slip using first, a planar surface and second, a curved fault, both constructed from triangular elements using Poly3Dinv program that uses a damped least square minimization. The best fit of InSAR, coastal uplift, and GPS data corresponds to a 65-km-long fault rupture dipping 40?? to 50?? SE, located at 8 to 13 km offshore with a change in strike west of Boumerdes from N60??-65?? to N95??-105??. The inferred rupture geometry at depth correlates well with the seismological results and may have critical implications for the seismic hazard assessment of the Algiers region. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Fault finder (United States)

    Bunch, Richard H.


    A fault finder for locating faults along a high voltage electrical transmission line. Real time monitoring of background noise and improved filtering of input signals is used to identify the occurrence of a fault. A fault is detected at both a master and remote unit spaced along the line. A master clock synchronizes operation of a similar clock at the remote unit. Both units include modulator and demodulator circuits for transmission of clock signals and data. All data is received at the master unit for processing to determine an accurate fault distance calculation.

  17. Synthetic aperture radar interferometry observations of the M = 6.0 Orta earthquake of 6 June 2000 (NW Turkey): Reactivation of a listric fault (United States)

    Cakir, Ziyadin; Akoglu, Ahmet Murat


    We study the coseismic surface displacement field due to the Orta earthquake of 6 June 2000, a moderate-sized (Mw 6.0) oblique-slip event that took place on a previously unknown fault located about 70 km north of the capital, Ankara (Turkey), and about 35 km south of the North Anatolian Fault. We use European Space Agency ERS synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data to generate high-resolution maps of the surface displacements by a two-pass differential SAR interferometry method. The surface displacement field reaching up to 15 cm line of sight subsidence is captured in several coseismic interferograms from descending orbits and is inverted to determine the source parameters of the earthquake using elastic dislocations on rectangular fault surfaces with a nonlinear minimization procedure based on simulating annealing algorithm. Modeling of the coseismic interferograms indicates that the earthquake was associated with a shallow (<6 km) left-lateral oblique normal displacement that occurred on a north-south striking, eastward dipping, listric fault trending at a high angle to the plate boundary, right-lateral strike-slip North Anatolian fault. Careful analyses of multiple interferograms together with the field observations allow us to infer the rupture geometry in fine detail. Modeling shows that coseismic slip occurs nearly only on the lower portion of the listric fault at a centroid depth of about 5 km but partially reaches to the surface along the surface trace of the Dodurga fault, in agreement with the field observations. We show that in the absence of field observations, additional measurements, or multiple interferograms that capture the surface deformation from different look angles, SAR interferometry alone may not be sufficient to constrain earthquake rupture geometry if there is no clear surface faulting. The results suggest that the Dodurga fault developed most probably as a result of a restraining bend along the North Anatolian fault and its left

  18. The San Andreas Fault 'Supersite' (Invited) (United States)

    Hudnut, K. W.


    struck in 1992 (Landers), 1994 (Northridge) and 1999 (Hector Mine) as well as the 2010 El Mayor - Cucapah (EM-C) earthquake (just south of the US-Mexico border). Of these four notable events, all produced extensive surface faulting except for the 1994 Northridge event, which was close to the Los Angeles urban area on a buried thrust fault. Northridge caused by far the most destruction, topping $20B (US) and resulting in 57 fatalities due to its location under an urban area. The Landers, Hector Mine and EM-C events occurred in desert areas away from major urban centers, and each proved to be a new and unique test-bed for making rapid progress in earthquake science and creative use of geodetic imagery. InSAR studies were linked to GPS deformation and mapping of surface ruptures and seismicity in a series of important papers about these earthquakes. The hazard in California remains extremely high, with tens of millions of people living in close proximity to the San Andreas Fault system as it runs past both San Francisco and Los Angeles. Dense in-situ networks of seismic and geodetic instruments are continually used for research and earthquake monitoring, as well as development of an earthquake early warning capability. Principles of peer review from funding agencies and open data availability will be observed for all data. For all of these reasons, the San Andreas Fault system is highly appropriate for consideration as a world-class permanent Supersite in the GEO framework.

  19. Seismic Evidence for Splays of the Eureka Peak Fault beneath Yucca Valley, California (United States)

    Goldman, M.; Catchings, R.; Chan, J. H.; Sickler, R. R.; Criley, C.; O'leary, D. R.; Christensen, A.


    In April 2015, we acquired high-resolution P- and S-wave seismic data along a 3.1-km-long, E-W-trending profile in Yucca Valley, California. Our seismic survey was designed to locate possible sub-parallel faults of the Eureka Peak Fault, which trends NW-SE near the western end of our profile. The Eureka Peak Fault is a potential hazard to the Yucca Valley region, as it appears to have experienced surface ruptures associated with both the 23 April 1992 M 6.1 Joshua Tree earthquake and the 28 June 1992 M 7.3 Landers earthquake. We simultaneously acquired P- and S-wave data using explosive sources spaced every 100 m, along with higher resolution P-wave data from seisgun sources spaced every 5 m. Each shot was co-located with and recorded by 634 P-wave geophones (40-Hz) spaced 5 m apart and 250 S-wave geophones (4.5-Hz) spaced 10 meters apart. We developed P-wave tomographic velocity models and reflection images that show at least one significant fault about 2.3 km NE of the Eureka Peak Fault. This fault may potentially pose a hazard and affect groundwater flow in the area.

  20. Coseismic conjugate faulting structures produced by the 2016 Mw 7.1 Kumamoto earthquake, Japan (United States)

    Lin, Aiming; Chiba, Tatsuro


    Field investigations and analyses of airborne LiDAR data reveal that the 2016 Mw7.1 Kumamoto earthquake produced a ∼40-km-long surface rupture zone with a typical conjugate Riedel shearing fault structure along the pre-existing right-lateral strike-slip Hinagu-Futagawa Fault Zone (HFFZ). The conjugate Riedel shearing structure comprises two sets of coseismic shear fault zones that are oriented to NE-SW to ENE-WSW and WNW-ESE to E-W. The NE-SW to ENE-WSW-trending shear fault zone is characterized by R Riedel shear structures with right-lateral strike-slip displacement of up to 2.5 m, including left-stepping en echelon cracks (T-shear) and mole tracks (P-shear). In contrast, the WNW-ESE to E-W-trending shear fault zone is dominated by R‧ Riedel shear structures with left-lateral displacement of up to 1.3 m, including right-stepping en echelon tension cracks (T) and mole tracks (P), which are concentrated in a zone of strike-slip faults of HFFZ under the present E-W compressive stress in the study area, associated with the ongoing penetration of the Philippine Sea Plate into the Eurasian Plate.

  1. Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault zone in Jamaica: paleoseismology and seismic hazard (United States)

    Koehler, R.D.; Mann, P.; Prentice, Carol S.; Brown, L.; Benford, B.; Grandison-Wiggins, M.


    The countries of Jamaica, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic all straddle the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault zone ( EPGFZ), a major left-lateral, strike-slip fault system bounding the Caribbean and North American plates. Past large earthquakes that destroyed the capital cities of Kingston, Jamaica (1692, 1907), and Port-au-Prince, Haiti (1751, 1770), as well as the 2010 Haiti earthquake that killed more than 50,000 people, have heightened awareness of seismic hazards in the northern Caribbean. We present here new geomorphic and paleoseismic information bearing on the location and relative activity of the EPGFZ, which marks the plate boundary in Jamaica. Documentation of a river bank exposure and several trenches indicate that this fault is active and has the potential to cause major destructive earthquakes in Jamaica. The results suggest that the fault has not ruptured the surface in at least 500 yr and possibly as long as 28 ka. The long period of quiescence and subdued geomorphic expression of the EPGFZ indicates that it may only accommodate part of the ∼7–9 mm=yr plate deformation rate measured geodetically and that slip may be partitioned on other undocumented faults. Large uncertainties related to the neotectonic framework of Jamaica remain and more detailed fault characterization studies are necessary to accurately assess seismic hazards.

  2. The August 24th 2016 Accumoli earthquake: surface faulting and Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD in the Monte Vettore area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Aringoli


    Full Text Available On August 24th 2016 a Mw=6.0 earthquake hit central Italy, with the epicenter located at the boundaries between Lazio, Marche, Abruzzi and Umbria regions, near the village of Accumoli (Rieti, Lazio. Immediately after the mainshock, this geological survey has been focused on the earthquake environmental effects related to the tectonic reactivation of the previously mapped active fault (i.e. primary, as well as secondary effects mostly related to the seismic shaking (e.g. landslides and fracturing in soil and rock.This paper brings data on superficial effects and some preliminary considerations about the interaction and possible relationship b